WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooperative medical scheme

  1. Regional inequity in financing New Cooperative Medical Scheme in Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Baozhen; Zhou, Lulin; Mei, Y John; Zhan, Changchun

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the regional inequity in the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) financing in Jiangsu, China. Counties were classified into three categories according to socio-economic development level: South Jiangsu, Middle Jiangsu and North Jiangsu. Five counties (Changshu, Danyang, Gaoyou, Jiangyan and Ganyu) were selected on the basis of the following criteria: (i) NCMS had been implemented before 2005; (ii) county governments were willing and able to collaborate with the research team; and (iii) counties had different socio-economic development status representing the low, medium and high level of socio-economic development in Jiangsu. As shown in this study, local governments in Jiangsu took the major NCMS financing responsibilities (75.2% in 2009), and local governments (county and lower) subsidies ranged from 220 RMB per capita in South Jiangsu to 18 RMB per capita in North Jiangsu in 2009, with a larger contribution (73.3%) in South than that in Middle (40.0%) and North Jiangsu (18.0%). For achieving more equity in NCMS financing and carrying NCMS forward, we propose that provincial and municipal governments should increase their contribution to NCMS for balancing the regional inequity in subsidies from county and lower-level governments, and the risk pool of NCMS should be promoted to a higher level (e.g., provincial).

  2. Evidence for capitation reform in a New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme in Pudong New Area, Shanghai: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanmei; Shu, Zhiqun; Gu, Jianjun; Sun, Xiaoming; Jing, Limei; Bai, Jie; Huang, Xuan; Lou, Jiquan; Zhang, Qunfang; Li, Ming

    2017-07-01

    Currently, China has been experiencing rapid growth of medical costs, serious waste of medical resources, increasing disease burden for residents, and a medical insurance fund deficit. Therefore, an urgent problem that needs to be solved is to choose a rational payment for the insurance system. To empirically evaluate the long-term effects of capitation reform in a New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme in Pudong New Area, we collected and analysed data regarding financing, fund operation, medical service cost, and medical care-seeking behaviour from 2011 to 2015, a duration that includes data before and after reform. The data for financing and behaviours were compared year by year, and the monthly data for inpatient and outpatient costs were evaluated in a retrospective time series study. The capitation reform in Pudong New Area showed strong evidence of the power of medical cost control in the long run, while it was weak in reversing the number of patients flowing into secondary and tertiary hospitals. To make the payment of capitation play a bigger role in cost control in China, a tighter alignment of capitation with the general practitioner system and achieving dual referral is critical for future studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Under regional characteristics of rural China: a clearer view on the performance of the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Tsegai, Daniel; Litaker, David; von Braun, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) was implemented in 2003 in response to the poor state of health care in rural China. Considering the substantial differences in regional socioeconomics, preferences for health care needs, and concurrent implementation of other health-related policies, the extent to which the impact of the NCMS differs in rural communities across China is unclear. The objective of this paper, therefore, was to explore the variation in the determinants of household enrolment and the impact of enrolment on health care utilization and medical expenditures in three large geographic regions in China. A quasi-experiment study was designed based on the panel data of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. The bounding approach was used to conduct a robust check of impact estimation under the assumption of unobserved bias. A major finding is that household income plays no significant role for enrolment, which indicates the equity of program coverage in income terms. However, regional circumstances matter. In the generally poorer western regions, households with a high ratio of migrant workers are less attracted to the NCMS program, and adoption of the program is related to the regional infrastructure environment variables in the eastern and western regions. The NCMS has improved medical care utilization for poor income groups and regions (western regions). The NCMS's impact on reducing the incidence of catastrophic expenditures is not shown for all regions.

  4. Effects of New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme on Medical Service Utilization and Medical Expense Control of Inpatients: A 3-year Empirical Study of Hainan Province in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Dai; Hong-Pu Hu; Xu Na; Ya-Zi Li; Yan-Li Wan; Li-Qin Xie

    2016-01-01

    Background:The New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) has been further adjusted and optimized to reduce the financial burden of rural residents and to achieve universal coverage for them.In this study,we aimed to explore the impact of NCMS on medical service utilization and medical expense of inpatients in recent years.Methods:The research data of Hainan Province were extracted from the Chinese NCMS platform from 2012 to 2014.Detailed information included total expenditure,average inpatients costs,average out-of-pocket payments,actual reimbursement rate,and average annual growth rate of the above indicators.Descriptive analysis was used to gauge the effects of NCMS.Results:In the utilization of medical services,NCMS inpatients in tertiary hospital decreased from 25.49% in 2012 to 20.39% in 2014,inpatients in county hospitals increased from 39.49% to 55.92%,simultaneously.The total expenditure in county hospitals rose steadily from 28.46% to 46.66%,meanwhile,the total expenditure in tertiary hospitals fell from 60.44% to 44.51%.The average out-of-pocket costs of rural inpatients remained stable over the years.Furthermore,the compensation fund ofNCMS inpatients grew significantly.The actual inpatient reimbursement rate at township health centers increased from 76.93% to 84.04%.Meanwhile,the rate at county hospitals and tertiary hospitals increased slightly from 59.37% and 46.10% to 61.25% and 47.71%,respectively.Conclusions:With the improvement of the reimbursement ability,especially after the new health care reform in 2009,the NCMS have been playing a prominent role in alleviating the economic burden of farmers' medical treatment.Meanwhile,more patients go to primary hospitals than tertiary hospitals,and the capability of primary hospitals has been greatly improved.

  5. How does the New Cooperative Medical Scheme influence health service utilization? A study in two provinces in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Shenglan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries are developing health financing mechanisms to pursue the goal of universal coverage. In China, a rural health insurance system entitled New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS is being developed since 2003. Although there is concern about whether the NCMS will influence the serious situation of inequity in health service utilization in rural China, there is only limited evidence available. This paper aims to assess the utilisation of outpatient and inpatient services among different income groups and provinces under NCMS in rural China. Methods Using multistage sampling processes, a cross-sectional household survey including 6,147 rural households and 22,636 individuals, was conducted in six counties in Shandong and Ningxia Provinces, China. Chi-square test, Poisson regression and log-linear regression were applied to analyze the association between NCMS and the utilization of outpatient and inpatient services and the length of stay for inpatients. Qualitative methods including individual interview and focus group discussion were applied to explain and complement the findings from the household survey. Results NCMS coverage was 95.9% in Shandong and 88.0% in Ningxia in 2006. NCMS membership had no significant association with outpatient service utilization regardless of income level and location. Inpatient service utilization has increased for the high income group under NCMS, but for the middle and low income, the change was not significant. Compared with non-members, NCMS members from Ningxia used inpatient services more frequently, while members from Shandong had a longer stay in hospital. High medical expenditure, low reimbursement rate and difference in NCMS policy design between regions were identified as the main reasons for the differences in health service utilization. Conclusions Outpatient service utilization has not significantly changed under NCMS. Although utilization of inpatient service in general

  6. How does the New Cooperative Medical Scheme influence health service utilization? A study in two provinces in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Baorong; Meng, Qingyue; Collins, Charles; Tolhurst, Rachel; Tang, Shenglan; Yan, Fei; Bogg, Lennart; Liu, Xiaoyun

    2010-05-10

    Many countries are developing health financing mechanisms to pursue the goal of universal coverage. In China, a rural health insurance system entitled New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) is being developed since 2003. Although there is concern about whether the NCMS will influence the serious situation of inequity in health service utilization in rural China, there is only limited evidence available. This paper aims to assess the utilisation of outpatient and inpatient services among different income groups and provinces under NCMS in rural China. Using multistage sampling processes, a cross-sectional household survey including 6,147 rural households and 22,636 individuals, was conducted in six counties in Shandong and Ningxia Provinces, China. Chi-square test, Poisson regression and log-linear regression were applied to analyze the association between NCMS and the utilization of outpatient and inpatient services and the length of stay for inpatients. Qualitative methods including individual interview and focus group discussion were applied to explain and complement the findings from the household survey. NCMS coverage was 95.9% in Shandong and 88.0% in Ningxia in 2006. NCMS membership had no significant association with outpatient service utilization regardless of income level and location.Inpatient service utilization has increased for the high income group under NCMS, but for the middle and low income, the change was not significant. Compared with non-members, NCMS members from Ningxia used inpatient services more frequently, while members from Shandong had a longer stay in hospital.High medical expenditure, low reimbursement rate and difference in NCMS policy design between regions were identified as the main reasons for the differences in health service utilization. Outpatient service utilization has not significantly changed under NCMS. Although utilization of inpatient service in general has increased under NCMS, people with high income tend to benefit

  7. The effect of new cooperative medical scheme on health outcomes and alleviating catastrophic health expenditure in China: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2002, the Chinese government launched a new rural health financing policy to provide health insurance (New Cooperative Medical Scheme, NCMS for its rural population. NCMS, jointly financed by governments and individual households, aims to protect households from impoverishment due to catastrophic health expenditure. In 2011, NCMS covered more than 96% of the rural population. We have systematically searched and reviewed available evidence to estimate the effects of NCMS on health outcomes and on alleviating catastrophic health expenditure. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings, ProQuest Digital Dissertations, CMCI, CNKI, and VIP were searched. We also obtained literature from colleague communications. Quasi-experimental studies regarding the effect of NCMS on health outcomes and catastrophic health expenditure were included. Two independent reviewers screened the literature, extracted the data, and assessed the study quality. RESULTS: Fifteen studies out of the 6123 studies in the literature fulfilled criteria and were included in this review. Twelve studies identified the relationship between NCMS and health outcomes, among which six studies measured sickness or injury in the past four weeks, four measured sickness or injury in the past two weeks, and five measured self-reported health status. Four studies focused on the relationship between NCMS and alleviating catastrophic health expenditure. However, the results from these studies were in conflict: individual studies indicated that NCMS had positive, negative, or no effect on health outcomes and/or the incidence of catastrophic health payments, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We still have no clear evidence that NCMS improves the health outcomes and decreases the alleviating catastrophic health expenditure of the China's rural population. In addition, the heterogeneity among individual studies reminds us that provider payment method reforms, benefit package

  8. The impact of the new cooperative medical scheme on financial burden of tuberculosis patients: evidence from six counties in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiang; Yao Pan; Shuangyi Hou; Hongwei Zhang; Kaori D.Sato; Qiang Li; Jing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Tuberculosis (TB) patients in China encounter heavy financial burdens throughout the course of their treatment and it is unclear how China's health insurance systems affect the alleviation of this burden under the integrated approach.This study aimed to measure reimbursement for TB services under the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in rural China and to evaluate changes in catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) caused by the reimbursement policies.Methods:Reimbursement data were obtained from routine data systems for the NCMS in Yichang (YC) and Hanzhong (HZ).1884 TB inpatients reimbursed by NCMS from 2010 to 2012 were included.Household surveys were conducted.A total of 494 TB patients under the NCMS were selected in this paper.12 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were held.We measured the impact of the NCMS by counteffactual analysis,which analyzed the financial burden alleviation.Equity was assessed by Concentration Index (Cl),and disaggregated by project sites.Results:TB inpatients were reimbursed with an effective reimbursement rate of 57.3 %.Average out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for outpatient and inpatient services after diagnosis were 1413 yuan and 430 yuan,and 3572 yuan and 3013 yuan in YC and HZ,respectively.The reimbursement level for TB outpatient care after diagnosis was very low due to a limited outpatient quota.TB patients in HZ incurred higher effective reimbursement rates,but the incidence of CHE remained higher.The reduction of CHE incidence after the NCMS showed no difference statistically (P > 0.05).The severity of CHE was alleviated slightly.Cls after reimbursement were all below zero and their absolute values were higher than those before reimbursement.Conclusions:Low reimbursement for TB patients could lead to heavy financial burden.Poor TB patients incurred high rates of CHE.The NCMS was found to be a protective factor for CHE,but the impact was modest and the equity of CHE did not improve.The NCMS reimbursement policies

  9. Rural-to-urban migration and its implication for new cooperative medical scheme coverage and utilization in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Juying

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China has been experiencing the largest rural to urban migration in history. Rural-to-urban migrants are those who leave their hometown for another place in order to work or live without changing their hukou status, which is a household registration system in China, categorizing people as either rural residents or urban residents. Rural-to-urban migrants typically find better job opportunities in destination cities, and these pay higher salaries than available in their home regions. This has served to improve the enrollment rates in the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS of rural families, protecting households from falling into poverty due to diseases. However, current regulations stipulate that people who are registered in China's rural hukou can only participate in their local NCMS, which in turn poses barriers when migrants seek medical services in the health facilities of their destination cities. To examine this issue in greater depth, this study examined the associations between migration, economic status of rural households, and NCMS enrollment rate, as well as NCMS utilization of rural-to-urban migrants. Methods A multistage cluster sampling procedure was adopted. Our sample included 9,097 households and 36,720 individuals. Chi-square test and T-test were used to examine differences between the two populations of migrants and non-migrants based on age, gender, marriage status, and highest level of education. Ordinal logistic regression was used to examine the association between migration and household economic status. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the associations between household economic status, migration and enrollment in the NCMS. Results Migration was positively associated with improved household economic status. In households with no migrants, only 11.3% of the population was in the richest quintile, whereas the percentage was more than doubled in households with family members who migrated

  10. Balancing the funds in the New Cooperative Medical Scheme in rural China: determinants and influencing factors in two provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luying; Cheng, Xiaoming; Liu, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Kun; Tang, Shenglan; Bogg, Lennart; Dobberschuetz, Karin; Tolhurst, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the central government in China has been leading the re-establishment of its rural health insurance system, but local government institutions have considerable flexibility in the specific design and management of schemes. Maintaining a reasonable balance of funds is critical to ensure that the schemes are sustainable and effective in offering financial protection to members. This paper explores the financial management of the NCMS in China through a case study of the balance of funds and the factors influencing this, in six counties in two Chinese provinces. The main data source is NCMS management data from each county from 2003 to 2005, supplemented by: a household questionnaire survey, qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with all local stakeholders and policy document analysis. The study found that five out of six counties held a large fund surplus, whilst enrolees obtained only partial financial protection. However, in one county greater risk pooling for enrolees was accompanied by relatively high utilisation levels, resulting in a fund deficit. The opportunities to sustainably increase the financial protection offered to NCMS enrolees are limited by the financial pressures on local government, specific political incentives and low technical capacities at the county level and below. Our analysis suggests that in the short term, efforts should be made to improve the management of the current NCMS design, which should be supported through capacity building for NCMS offices. However, further medium-term initiatives may be required including changes to the design of the schemes. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Assessing the Effects of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme on Alleviating the Health Payment-Induced Poverty in Shaanxi Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Yang

    Full Text Available Disease has become one of the key causes of falling into poverty in rural China. The poor households are even more likely to suffer. The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS has been implemented to provide rural residents financial protection against health risks. This study aims to assess the effect of the NCMS on alleviating health payment-induced poverty in the Shaanxi Province of China.The data was drawn from the 5th National Health Service Survey of Shaanxi Province, conducted in 2013. In total, 41,037 individuals covered by NCMS were selected. Poverty headcount ratio (HCR, poverty gap and mean positive poverty gap were used for measuring the incidence, depth and intensity of poverty, respectively. The differences on poverty measures pre- and post- insurance reimbursement indicate the effectiveness of alleviating health payment-induced poverty under NCMS.For the general insured, 5.81% of households fell below the national poverty line owing to the health payment; this HCR dropped to 4.84% after insurance reimbursement. The poverty HCRs for the insured that had hospitalization in the past year dropped from 7.50% to 2.09% after reimbursement. With the NCMS compensation, the poverty gap declined from 42.90 Yuan to 34.49 Yuan (19.60% decreased for the general insured and from 57.48 Yuan to 10.01 Yuan (82.59% decreased for the hospital admission insured. The mean positive poverty gap declined 3.56% and 37.40% for two samples, respectively.The NCMS could alleviate the health payment-induced poverty. The effectiveness of alleviating health payment-induced poverty is greater for hospital admission insured than for general insured, mainly because NCMS compensates for serious diseases. Our study suggests that a more comprehensive insurance benefit package design could further improve the effectiveness of poverty alleviation.

  12. Impact of alternative reimbursement strategies in the new cooperative medical scheme on caesarean delivery rates: a mixed-method study in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Kun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of caesarean delivery (CD in rural China has been rapidly increasing in recent decades. Due to the exorbitant costs associated with CD, paying for this expensive procedure is often a great challenge for the majority of rural families. Since 2003, the Chinese government has re-established the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS, aimed to improve the access of essential healthcare to rural residents and reduce financial burden owing to high out of pocket payments. This paper seeks to test the hypothesis that NCMS may provide service users and providers with financial incentives to select CD. It also assesses the effect of different health insurance reimbursement strategies of NCMS on CD rates in rural China. Methods Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted for data collection. Two cross-sectional household surveys were conducted with women having babies delivered in 2006 and 2009; 2326 and 1515 women, respectively, from the study sites were interviewed using structured questionnaires, to collect demographic and socio-economic data, maternal and child care characteristics and health-related expenditures. Focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth key informant interviews (KIIs were undertaken with policy makers, health managers, providers and mothers to understand their perceptions of the influence of NCMS on the choices of delivery mode. Results The CD rates in the two study counties were 46.0 percent and 64.7 percent in 2006, increasing to 63.6 percent and 82.1 percent, respectively, in 2009. The study found that decisions on the selection of CD largely came from the pregnant women. Logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for socio-economic, maternal and fetal characteristics, did not indicate a significant effect of either proportional reimbursement or fixed amount reimbursement on the choice of CD for both study years. Interviews with stakeholders reflected that different reimbursable rates for

  13. Impact of alternative reimbursement strategies in the new cooperative medical scheme on caesarean delivery rates: a mixed-method study in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Tao, Fangbiao; Bogg, Lennart; Tang, Shenglan

    2012-07-24

    The rate of caesarean delivery (CD) in rural China has been rapidly increasing in recent decades. Due to the exorbitant costs associated with CD, paying for this expensive procedure is often a great challenge for the majority of rural families. Since 2003, the Chinese government has re-established the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), aimed to improve the access of essential healthcare to rural residents and reduce financial burden owing to high out of pocket payments. This paper seeks to test the hypothesis that NCMS may provide service users and providers with financial incentives to select CD. It also assesses the effect of different health insurance reimbursement strategies of NCMS on CD rates in rural China. Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted for data collection. Two cross-sectional household surveys were conducted with women having babies delivered in 2006 and 2009; 2326 and 1515 women, respectively, from the study sites were interviewed using structured questionnaires, to collect demographic and socio-economic data, maternal and child care characteristics and health-related expenditures. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth key informant interviews (KIIs) were undertaken with policy makers, health managers, providers and mothers to understand their perceptions of the influence of NCMS on the choices of delivery mode. The CD rates in the two study counties were 46.0 percent and 64.7 percent in 2006, increasing to 63.6 percent and 82.1 percent, respectively, in 2009. The study found that decisions on the selection of CD largely came from the pregnant women. Logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for socio-economic, maternal and fetal characteristics, did not indicate a significant effect of either proportional reimbursement or fixed amount reimbursement on the choice of CD for both study years. Interviews with stakeholders reflected that different reimbursable rates for CD and vaginal deliveries did not have a

  14. Space-time cooperative diversity scheme using full feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN De-chun; YI Ke-chu; LI Xiao-hui

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a new space-time cooperative diversity scheme called full feedback-based cooperative diversity scheme (FFBCD). In contrast to the conventional adaptive space-time cooperative diversity schemes that utilize the feedback from only the destination node, the new scheme utilizes the feedback from both the destination node and the cooperation node. With the feedback from the destination node, the occasional successful reception of the destination node in the information distribution stage can be detected, thus avoiding unnecessary retransmissions in the information delivery stage. The feedback from the cooperation node indicates the receiving state of the cooperation node in the information distribution stage, and the source node and the cooperation node will not perform cooperative retransmission during the information delivery stage unless the cooperation node is received successfully in the information distribution stage. In this way the new scheme can reduce the number of transmission attempt and improve the channel utilization. The expressions of the average number of transmission attempt are given. Numerical approximations and simulation results both show that the new scheme performs better than the non-cooperative scheme and the conventional adaptive space-time cooperative diversity scheme.

  15. Optimal Cooperative Relaying Schemes for Improving Wireless Physical Layer Security

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiangyuan; Weber, Steven

    2010-01-01

    We consider a cooperative wireless network in the presence of one of more eavesdroppers, and exploit node cooperation for achieving physical (PHY) layer based security. Two different cooperation schemes are considered. In the first scheme, cooperating nodes retransmit a weighted version of the source signal in a decode-and-forward (DF) fashion. In the second scheme, while the source is transmitting, cooperating nodes transmit weighted noise to confound the eavesdropper (cooperative jamming (CJ)). We investigate two objectives, i.e., maximization of achievable secrecy rate subject to a total power constraint, and minimization of total power transmit power under a secrecy rate constraint. For the first design objective with a single eavesdropper we obtain expressions for optimal weights under the DF protocol in closed form, and give an algorithm that converges to the optimal solution for the CJ scheme; while for multiple eavesdroppers we give an algorithm for the solution using the DF protocol that is guarantee...

  16. Bandwidth-Efficient Cooperative Relaying Schemes with Multiantenna Relay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tho Le-Ngoc

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose coded cooperative relaying schemes in which all successfully decoded signals from multiple sources are forwarded simultaneously by a multiantenna relay to a common multiantenna destination to increase bandwidth efficiency. These schemes facilitate various retransmission strategies at relay and single-user and multiuser iterative decoding techniques at destination, suitable for trade-offs between performance, latency, and complexity. Simulation results show that the proposed schemes significantly outperform direct transmission under the same transmit power and bandwidth efficiency.

  17. Benefit packages for chronic disease outpatients in the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme in 32 Chinese counties [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/z2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuangzhou Xu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic disease has become a major problem affecting the health of the Chinese population. In response to this situation, the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS has begun to provide health cover for outpatients with chronic disease expenses, made possible by the increased risk pool of previous years. We compare the differences between Benefit Packages for Chronic Diseases Outpatients (BPCDO in order to produce a reference for policy makers. Methods: Information on the various BPCDO was located by searching the official NRCMS website in Chinese, using certain criteria to select the ideal BPCDO. Population coverage, service coverage and cost of coverage were chosen to form the analytical framework for this paper. The diseases were classified according to the World Health Organisation's (WHO International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. Results: To avoid “moral hazard”, complex processes have been created. This has resulted in chronic disease patients finding it very difficult to become beneficiaries. Forty-one types of chronic diseases were listed in 32 different BPCDO. We found that different counties have different co-payment rates, deductible lines, ceilings, coverage of drugs and tests, appointed hospitals and reimbursement frequencies. Conclusion: High mortality diseases and diseases with a heavier cost burden should be the priority on the list of reimbursement. The BPCDO scheme should be introduced urgently at the national level. It should include twenty-one types of disease and eight essential factors.

  18. Hypothesis and Testing on the Regulation Strategy of Certified Medical Institution of New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme%新型农村合作医疗定点医疗机构监管策略的假设与检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐; 徐凌忠

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the optimal regulation strategy of certified medical institution of New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme. Methods: Testing a hypothetical proposition based on the game analysis method. Results: In the condition of information asymmetry, increasing the punishment of regulatory bodies is the most optimal strategy, rewarding the regulatory behavior is the second best strategy, and increasing the violation cost of certified medical institutions is inferior strategy. Conclusion: The regulation strategy of certified medical institution of New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme has defects, and needs to be further optimized.%目的:探讨对新型农村合作医疗定点医疗机构监管的最优策略.方法:采用博弈分析的方法,对一个假设命题进行检验.结果:在信息不对称的情况下,加大对监管机构的惩罚是最优策略,对监管行为奖励是次优策略,而加大定点医疗机构的违规成本是劣等策略.结论:对定点医疗机构采取的监管策略存在缺陷,有待进一步优化.

  19. An efficient medical image compression scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Shen, Yi; Ma, Jiachen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a fast lossless compression scheme is presented for the medical image. This scheme consists of two stages. In the first stage, a Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) is used to decorrelate the raw image data, therefore increasing the compressibility of the medical image. In the second stage, an effective scheme based on the Huffman coding method is developed to encode the residual image. This newly proposed scheme could reduce the cost for the Huffman coding table while achieving high compression ratio. With this algorithm, a compression ratio higher than that of the lossless JPEG method for image can be obtained. At the same time, this method is quicker than the lossless JPEG2000. In other words, the newly proposed algorithm provides a good means for lossless medical image compression.

  20. Cooperative Medical Service Benefits Rural Tibetans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Bnrgeoning cooperative medical services in rural China has greatly eased the economic pressures of poverty-stricken Tibetan farmers, for whom a major headache is the thought of “going to the hospital”.

  1. Effect of the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme and Fiscal Subsidies on Township Health Centers' Development in China%新型农村合作医疗和财政补贴对我国乡镇卫生院发展的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪文新; 王忠; 余悦; 王玉倩

    2011-01-01

    According to the empirical research of the impact of the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme on Township Health Centers * development during 2004 -2010, from the number of beneficiaries from reimbursement and medical service condition, surplus of Township Health Centers and net asset, the effect of New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme and fiscal subsidies on Township Health Centers' development was discussed. It was concluded that although the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme have promoted Township Health Centers' development , the Township Health Centers still need subsidy income of financial or competent authorities, finally, some suggestions were put forward.%对我国乡镇卫生院2004~2010年实施新型农村合作医疗(简称新农合)后的发展状况进行实证分析,从新农合补偿受益人次与卫生院医疗服务情况、乡镇卫生院盈余及净资产方面探讨新农合和财政补贴对乡镇卫生院发展的影响.得出结论,新农合虽然促进了乡镇卫生院的发展,但乡镇卫生院的发展仍需要财政或上级的经费补偿,最后提出部分建议.

  2. Operation of Urban-Rural Residents Cooperative Medical Scheme in a District in West China%西部某县城乡居民合作医疗运行情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张培艺; 顾雪非; 毛正中; 张振忠

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过分析西部某县城乡居民合作医疗运行情况,发现运行过程中出现的问题,提出解决问题的建议.方法:对2008年和2009年该县城乡居民合作医疗运行数据做对比分析.结果:该县在城乡居民合作医疗运行过程中出现了住院人次、住院率和住院费用增长过快,参舍居民受益水平增长不明显,城镇居民占用农村居民卫生服务资源的问题.结论:建议该县实施支付方式改革,适当调整补偿方案,完成合管办从卫生部门到人力资源与社会保障部门的平稳过渡.%Objective: To find out problems and propose countermeasures by analyzing the state of Cooperative Medical Scheme (CMS) in a west county in China.Methods: Comparing the data of CMS in 2008 and 2009.Result: The hospitalization, hospitalization rate, and hospital cost increase too fast during the running of the CMS in this county; the growth of benefit level of the participating residents is not obvious; and urban residents impropriate the health service resources of rural residents.Conclusion: The county should do some payment reform and adjust the compensation programs to make a smooth transition of CMS Management Office from the health department to human resources and social security departments.

  3. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF COOPERATION SCHEMES IN EAVESDROPPER ASSISTED RELAY CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Kumar Gupta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The prominence of the wireless communication has been urging the monotonically increasing demand of security and privacy. In wireless systems, the notion of perfect secrecy of information with respect to illegitimate nodes can be ensured via physical layer security (PLS techniques. Unfortunately, they can be made less effective if source- eavesdropper wiretap channel is better than the main source-receiver channel. The various node cooperation schemes can be employed to combat this limitation where a relay node assists the communication to improve the performance significantly. In this paper, a four node wireless communication system consisting of a source, a destination, a relay and an eavesdropper as wire-tapper has been considered. The performance of the traditional cooperation schemes in terms of secrecy rate has been investigated with a different scenario where relay node helps the eavesdropper to deteriorate the secrecy rate. In addition, since legitimate receiver can overhear the transmission of relay, it favours the achievable secrecy rate. We formulate an analytical expression of conditional secrecy outage probability for the investigated system. From the obtained simulation results, it has been observed that secrecy rate is monotonically increases with path loss index. Furthermore, the proper selection of the system parameters leads to enhance the secrecy performance of the system even if relay pertains to degrade the performance. Amplify-and-forward, cooperation, decode-and-Forward, secrecy rate, relay.

  4. Energy-Efficient Transmission Schemes in Cooperative Cellular Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Wei; Wang, Ying; Sun, Wanlu

    2010-01-01

    Energy-efficient communication is an important requirement for mobile devices, as the battery technology has not kept up with the growing requirements stemming from ubiquitous multimedia applications. This paper considers energy-efficient transmission schemes in cooperative cellular systems with unbalanced traffic between uplink and downlink. Theoretically, we derive the optimal transmission data rate, which minimizes the total energy consumption of battery-powered terminals per information bit. The energy-efficient cooperation regions are then investigated to illustrate the effects of relay locations on the energy-efficiency of the systems, and the optimal relay location is found for maximum energy-efficiency. Finally, numerical results are provided to demonstrate the tradeoff between energy-efficiency and spectral efficiency.

  5. 安徽省新农合制度抗疾病风险能力探析%Study on the ability of New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme to reduce health risk factors in Anhui province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈骅璋; 储诚志; 徐恒秋; 孔运生

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the degree of poverty caused by diseases among farmers who have joined New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme( NRCMS) in Anhui province, and analyze the ability of NRCMS to reduce health risk factors in Anhui province, in order to provide suggestions for improving the NRCMS strategy. Methods: This paper randomly selects three counties to conduct comparative analysis on the NRCMS strategic changes from the aspects of registration rates, funding levels and compensation ratios between 2013 and 2014, in order to analyze the ability of NRCMS to reduce health risk factors from the aspects of the rate of poverty caused by diseases, the resolving degree of poverty caused by diseases, the alleviation degree of poverty caused by diseases, etc. Results: The ability of NRCMS to reduce health risk factors in Anhui province has improved between 2013 and 2014 , but the improve-ment is limited. Conclusions:In order to reduce the incidence of poverty caused by diseases among the farmers, gov-ernment should reform the payment methods, control the outflow of patients and improve the multi-level security sys-tem, in order to gradually reduce the poverty caused by diseases among farmers.%目的:描述安徽省参合农民因病致贫情况,分析安徽省新农合制度抗疾病风险能力的变化,为完善新农合制度提供建议. 方法:在安徽省随机抽取3个县,结合新农合制度在参合率、筹资水平和补偿比方面的变化,从因病致贫率、因病致贫解决程度、因病致贫缓解程度等方面入手,分析2013—2014年新农合制度的抗疾病风险能力. 结果:2013—2014年安徽省新农合制度抗疾病风险能力有所提高,但提升有限. 结论:应通过改革支付方式、控制病人外流、完善多层次保障体系等手段,逐渐减少农民因病致贫.

  6. Cooperative spectrum sensing schemes with the interference constraint in cognitive radio networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tri-Nhu; An, Beongku

    2014-05-05

    In this paper, we propose cooperative spectrum sensing schemes, called decode-and-forward cooperative spectrum sensing (DF-CSS) scheme and amplify-and-forward cooperative spectrum sensing (AF-CSS) scheme, in cognitive radio networks. The main goals and features of the proposed cooperative spectrum sensing schemes are as follows: first, we solve the problem of high demand for bandwidth in a soft decision scheme using in our proposed schemes. Furthermore, the impact of transmission power of relaying users which is determined by the interference constraint on sensing performance of cooperative spectrum sensing schemes is also investigated. Second, we analyze the sensing performance of our proposed cooperative spectrum sensing schemes in terms of detection probability and interference probability, respectively. We take into account the interference caused by secondary user (SU) to primary user (PU) in the case that the transmission power of the relaying users exceeds a predefined interference constraint assigned by the primary user. The simulation results show that in cooperative spectrum sensing schemes the total sensing performance depends not only on the interference tolerance level, but also on the relay protocols used. We also prove that high transmission power of relaying users increases the interference between the secondary networks and the primary network.

  7. An energy efficient cooperative hierarchical MIMO clustering scheme for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Mehwish; Qaisar, Saad; Lee, Sungyoung

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present an energy efficient hierarchical cooperative clustering scheme for wireless sensor networks. Communication cost is a crucial factor in depleting the energy of sensor nodes. In the proposed scheme, nodes cooperate to form clusters at each level of network hierarchy ensuring maximal coverage and minimal energy expenditure with relatively uniform distribution of load within the network. Performance is enhanced by cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication ensuring energy efficiency for WSN deployments over large geographical areas. We test our scheme using TOSSIM and compare the proposed scheme with cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO) clustering scheme and traditional multihop Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO) routing approach. Performance is evaluated on the basis of number of clusters, number of hops, energy consumption and network lifetime. Experimental results show significant energy conservation and increase in network lifetime as compared to existing schemes.

  8. The effect evaluation of catastrophic disease insurance of New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme: Based on inpatient medical records in Beijing and Hainan Province%新农合重大疾病保障政策实施效果评价——基于北京市和海南省新农合住院患者数据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛阿燕; 胡红濮; 周颖萍; 李亚子

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析北京市和海南省2012年新农合重大疾病保障政策实施效果,为完善相关政策提供依据.方法:以北京市和海南省为样本地区,选取白血病、先天性心脏病、乳腺癌、宫颈癌和重性精神病患者为研究对象,采用描述性统计和比较分析的方法,从政策覆盖范围和患者年度实际补偿比角度分析2012年新农合大病保障政策实施效果并进行地区间比较.结果:2012年两省市先心病和白血病的政策覆盖水平相对较高,其余三类大病政策覆盖率相对较低,区域间政策覆盖有差异;大病患者年度诊疗费用报销水平主要分布在50%左右,重性精神病和儿童两病的补偿比较高.结论:新农合大病保障政策在病种和区域间的覆盖存在差异;政策的实施明显减轻了患者的费用负担,但部分病种患者经济负担仍然较重,疾病单次诊疗费用高和补偿政策对诊疗次数的限制是其主要原因.建议:提高政策覆盖、缩小地区差异;进一步细化和完善补偿政策;提升疾病的规范化诊疗管理.%Objective:To evaluate the effect of catastrophic disease insurance in the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme based on Beijing and Hainan inpatient records and to provide evidence for improving policy.Methods:Select Beijing and Hainan as the target regions,and 5 catastrophic diseases (including leukemia,congenital heart disease,breast cancer,cervical cancer,and severe mental illness) as the target diseases,describe the policy coverage rates and the actual annual reimbursement rates for individuals.Compare these indicators between regions and diseases.Results:In 2012,both regions revealed a higher policy coverage rate for patients with leukemia,congenital heart disease but a lower rate on other three diseases,while Beijing's total coverage rate is higher than Hainan.The actual annual reimbursement rate is about 50% and patients with severe mental illness

  9. Performance analysis of decode and forward cooperative diversity networks with threshold scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoria, Shweta; Jain, Anjana; Vyavahare, Prakash D.

    2014-10-01

    Cooperative diversity technique is used for achieving high data rate and low BER with low transmit power. The paper proposes a new scheme for selection of first relay having SNR above a predefined threshold level in cooperative diversity network, based on geometric distribution. Closed form expression for outage probability is derived for independent and identically distributed channels with decode and forward protocol. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme not only minimizes resource requirements but also improves the overall outage probability over previously proposed schemes for cooperative diversity network.

  10. A privacy authentication scheme based on cloud for medical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Ling; Yang, Tsai-Tung; Chiang, Mao-Lun; Shih, Tzay-Farn

    2014-11-01

    With the rapid development of the information technology, the health care technologies already became matured. Such as electronic medical records that can be easily stored. However, how to get medical resources more convenient is currently concerning issue. In spite of many literatures discussed about medical systems, these literatures should face many security challenges. The most important issue is patients' privacy. Therefore, we propose a privacy authentication scheme based on cloud environment. In our scheme, we use mobile device's characteristics, allowing peoples to use medical resources on the cloud environment to find medical advice conveniently. The digital signature is used to ensure the security of the medical information that is certified by the medical department in our proposed scheme.

  11. A privacy enhanced authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi; Ma, Jianfeng; Ma, Zhuo; Li, Guangsong

    2013-02-01

    The telecare medical information system (TMIS) aims to establish telecare services and enable the public to access medical services or medical information at remote sites. Authentication and key agreement is essential to ensure data integrity, confidentiality, and availability for TMIS. Most recently, Chen et al. proposed an efficient and secure dynamic ID-based authentication scheme for TMIS, and claimed that their scheme achieves user anonymity. However, we observe that Chen et al.'s scheme achieves neither anonymity nor untraceability, and is subject to the identity guessing attack and tracking attack. In order to protect user privacy, we propose an enhanced authentication scheme which achieves user anonymity and untraceablity. It is a secure and efficient authentication scheme with user privacy preservation which is practical for TMIS.

  12. On a User-Centric Base Station Cooperation Scheme for Reliable Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Dong Min; Thomsen, Henning; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we describe CoMP2flex, a user-centric base station (BS) cooperation scheme that provides improvements in reliability of both uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) communications of wireless cellular networks. CoMP2flex supports not only cooperation of two BSs with same direction of traffic...

  13. Empirical Study on the Capitation Reform of New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme%新型农村合作医疗“按人头支付”改革的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆丽梅; 王峦; 孙晓明; 崔欣; 娄继权; 李明; 张群芳; 陆国荣; 浦良发; 陈政

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop a program of capitation payment reform for new rural cooperative medical System (NCMS) , and implement it in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, and then evaluate the effect of the reform. Methods: Literature analysis, expert consultation, institution investigation, and case studies were used to develop the reform program, and structure-process-outcome frameword were used to evaluate the effects. Results: The payment reform can keep the excessive growth of medical costs under control, ensure the NCMS fund running safer, and safeguard the interests of participating farmers. Conclusion: Primary health institutions play a pivotal role in capitation reform and their enthusiasm should be effectively motivated. Actuarial concepts should be introduced to strengthen the capitation reform’s risk assessment and dynamic analysis. Matching funds regulatory system should be established to ensure the safety and efficiency of all aspects of fund use. Cost consultation and real-time monitoring system should be set to implement agreement and dynamic management, relying information technology.%目的:设计新型农村合作医疗支付方式改革方案,并在上海市浦东新区全面推行改革试点的基础上,评价其改革效果及可推广性。方法:采用文献归纳分析、专家咨询论证、机构调查以及案例研究等方法进行改革方案的设计,并应用结构-过程-结果评价方法对改革效果进行评价分析。结果:新型农村合作医疗支付方式改革后,上海市浦东新区医疗费用的过快增长得到了控制,新型农村合作医疗住院基金运行更加安全,参合农民利益得到了保障。结论:基层医疗机构的地位举足轻重,须有效激励其改革的积极性;建议采取保险精算的理念,加强新农合“按人头支付”的风险评估和动态分析;需要建立健全配套的基金监管,确保基金使用的各个环节安全、高效;依托信

  14. A spectrally efficient detect-and-forward scheme with two-tier adaptive cooperation

    KAUST Repository

    Benjillali, Mustapha

    2011-09-01

    We propose a simple relay-based adaptive cooperation scheme to improve the spectral efficiency of "Detect-and-Forward" (DetF) half-duplex relaying in fading channels. In a new common framework, we show that the proposed scheme offers considerable gainsin terms of the achievable information ratescompared to conventional DetF relaying schemes for both orthogonal and non-orthogonal source/relay transmissions. The analysis leads on to a general adaptive cooperation strategy based on the maximization of information rates at the destination which needs to observe only the average signal-to-noise ratios of the links. © 2006 IEEE.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Cooperative Schemes on a Real-Time DSP-Based Testbed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Zetterberg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results on the well-known cooperating relaying schemes, amplify-and-forward (AF, detect-and-forward (DF, cooperative maximum ratio combining (CMRC, and distributed space-time coding (DSTC, are presented in this paper. A novel relaying scheme named “selection relaying” (SR, in which one of two relays are selected base on path-loss, is also tested. For all schemes except AF receive antenna diversity is as an option which can be switched on or off. For DF and DSTC a feature “selective” where the relay only forwards frames with a receive SNR above 6 dB is introduced. In our measurements, all cooperative relaying schemes above increase the coverage area as compared with direct transmission. The features “antenna diversity” and “selective” improve the performance. Good performance is obtained with CMRC, DSTC, and SR.

  16. Cooperation schemes for rate enhancement in detect-and-forward relay channels

    KAUST Repository

    Benjillali, Mustapha

    2010-05-01

    To improve the spectral efficiency of "Detect-and-Forward" (DetF) half-duplex relaying in fading channels, we propose a cooperation scheme where the relay uses a modulation whose order is higher than the one at the source. In a new common framework, we show that the proposed scheme offers considerable gains - in terms of achievable information rates - compared to the conventional DetF relaying schemes for both orthogonal and non-orthogonal source/relay cooperation. This allows us to propose an adaptive cooperation scheme based on the maximization of the information rate at the destination which needs to observe only the average signal-to-noise ratios of direct and relaying links. ©2010 IEEE.

  17. Efficient Relay Selection Scheme based on Fuzzy Logic for Cooperative Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Waqas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The performance of cooperative network can be increased by using relay selection technique. Therefore, interest in relay selection is sloping upward. We proposed two new relay selection schemes based on fuzzy logic for dual hop cooperative communication. These relay selection schemes require SNR (signal to noise ratio, cooperative gain and channel gain as input fuzzy parameters for selection of best relay. The performance of first proposed relay selection scheme is evaluated in term of BER (bit error rate in Nakagami, Rician and Rayleigh fading channels. In second proposed relay selection scheme, threshold is used with the objective to minimize the power consumption and channel estimation load. Its performance is analyzed in term of BER, number of active relays and load of number of channel estimations.

  18. A soft-hard combination-based cooperative spectrum sensing scheme for cognitive radio networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Nhu Tri; An, Beongku

    2015-02-13

    In this paper we propose a soft-hard combination scheme, called SHC scheme, for cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks. The SHC scheme deploys a cluster based network in which Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT)-based soft combination is applied at each cluster, and weighted decision fusion rule-based hard combination is utilized at the fusion center. The novelties of the SHC scheme are as follows: the structure of the SHC scheme reduces the complexity of cooperative detection which is an inherent limitation of soft combination schemes. By using the LRT, we can detect primary signals in a low signal-to-noise ratio regime (around an average of -15 dB). In addition, the computational complexity of the LRT is reduced since we derive the closed-form expression of the probability density function of LRT value. The SHC scheme also takes into account the different effects of large scale fading on different users in the wide area network. The simulation results show that the SHC scheme not only provides the better sensing performance compared to the conventional hard combination schemes, but also reduces sensing overhead in terms of reporting time compared to the conventional soft combination scheme using the LRT.

  19. A Hybrid Combination Scheme for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhua Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel hybrid combination scheme in cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS, which utilizes the diversity of reporting channels to achieve better throughput performance. Secondary users (SUs with good reporting channel quality transmit quantized local observation statistics to fusion center (FC, while others report their local decisions. FC makes the final decision by carrying out hybrid combination. We derive the closed-form expressions of throughput and detection performance as a function of the number of SUs which report local observation statistics. The simulation and numerical results show that the hybrid combination scheme can achieve better throughput performance than hard combination scheme and soft combination scheme.

  20. Performance Analysis of Cooperative ARQ Scheme with Co-channel Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Cheng, Yunpeng; Cai, Yueming; Yang, Weiwei; Chen, Hualiang

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the performance of cooperative decode-and-forward (DF) automatic-repeat-request (ARQ) scheme with co-channel interference is investigated in a long-term static Rayleigh fading environment. We assume that the relay node is impaired by M interferers and the destination node is impaired by N interferers. A closed-form expression for the outage probability of cooperative DF ARQ scheme with co-channel interference is derived. Then we analyze the average throughput of the scheme with co-channel interference and further derive that the average throughput is mainly influenced by the interferers at the destination node. The average total power consumption per information packet of cooperative DF ARQ scheme with co-channel interference is investigated and a closed-form expression is obtained for cooperative DF ARQ scheme with co-channel interference, in which the source and relay may use different transmission power level in different transmission time slots. The closed-form expression is valid for any maximum number of transmission time slots L allowed by the protocol and may play a key role in optimizing power allocation. Numerical and simulation results are presented to verify our analysis.

  1. The Use and Abuse of Reinsurance in Medical Schemes | Mcleod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Use and Abuse of Reinsurance in Medical Schemes. ... The specific areas of abuse are described and the conduct of trustees, brokers, administrators and insurance companies is discussed. ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/saaj.v1i1.24492.

  2. Development of the New Rural Cooperative Medical System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanzhong Wang

    2007-01-01

    Based on a survey conducted by our research team at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, the present paper reports on the development of China's new rural cooperative medical system set up in late 2002. The new rural cooperative medical system is different from the old system in that it is organized, guided and supported by the government but that rural residents voluntarily participate in its administration. It is financed by individuals,collectives and the government. The new cooperative medical system focuses on serious disease planning and mutual aid and fraternity between rural residents in health care. The results of our survey indicate that the new rural medical system has been successful up to now but that it also has some problems. China needs to pay more attention to overcoming the difficulties and challenges it faces in terms of future medical needs so that a mechanism for its sustainable development can be established.

  3. Collective agri-environment schemes: How can regionalenvironmental cooperatives enhance farmers’ intentions foragri-environment schemes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van W.F.A.; Lokhorst, A.M.; Berendse, F.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of agri-environment schemes (AES) in enhancing biodiversity on farmland and creating a long-lasting change in farmers’ motivation towards a more environmental-friendly practice is still strongly debated. Applying a regional approach has been advocated widely to make AES more ecolog

  4. Breeding programmes for smallholder sheep farming systems: II. Optimization of cooperative village breeding schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Valle-Zarate, A.; Haile, A.; Rischkowsky, B.; Dessie, T.; Mwai, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize a cooperative village-based sheep breeding scheme for Menz sheep of Ethiopia. Genetic gains and profits were estimated under nine levels of farmers' participation and three scenarios of controlled breeding achieved in the breeding programme, as well as un

  5. Persistent RCSMA: A MAC Protocol for a Distributed Cooperative ARQ Scheme in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alonso-Zárate

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The persistent relay carrier sensing multiple access (PRCSMA protocol is presented in this paper as a novel medium access control (MAC protocol that allows for the execution of a distributed cooperative automatic retransmission request (ARQ scheme in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. The underlying idea of the PRCSMA protocol is to modify the basic rules of the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol to execute a distributed cooperative ARQ scheme in wireless networks in order to enhance their performance and to extend coverage. A closed formulation of the distributed cooperative ARQ average packet transmission delay in a saturated network is derived in the paper. The analytical equations are then used to evaluate the performance of the protocol under different network configurations. Both the accuracy of the analysis and the performance evaluation of the protocol are supported and validated through computer simulations.

  6. THE THEORETICAL BER PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A COOPERATIVE DIVERSITY SCHEME IN FREQUENCY SELECTIVE FADING CHANNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel cooperative diversity scheme based on Distributed Space-Time Block Coding and Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (DSTBC-MC-CDMA) is proposed which works well in frequency selective fading channels with multiple single-antenna users. And an analytical error model is established to describe the symbol decoding errors between interusers, based on which a close form expression for theoretical Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of the scheme is derived to analyze the influence of the interuser decoding errors on the BER performance of the scheme. Then simulation is complimented to verify the analytic result above, which also shows that the BER performance of DSTBC-MC-CDMA outgoes that of non-cooperative MC-CDMA with considerable gains. Furthermore, the simulations coincide with the theoretical results well.

  7. Design and Performance Evaluation of Cooperative Retransmission Scheme for Reliable Multicast Services in Cellular Controlled P2P Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, F.H.P.; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2007-01-01

    communication architecture. It is referred to as cellular controlled peer-to- peer network, where the mobile devices communicate directly with each other to perform cooperative retransmissions using their short-range communication capabilities in addition to their cellular links. Based on the cooperative...... architecture a novel retransmission scheme is proposed exploiting the short-range retransmission in this paper. The state of the art, the non-cooperative error recovery schemes (e.g., ARQ, Layered FEC and Integrated FEC II) and the proposed scheme are compared with each other in terms of energy consumption...... to show the benefit of the newly introduced scheme....

  8. Cooperative epistemic work in medical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling Carl; Schmidt, Kjeld;

    2016-01-01

    ’ clinical notes form the core of the medical record. They serve both as a ‘tool for thinking’ for the individual physician, enabling him or her to make sense of the patient’s past history and current condition, and as a coordinative artifact used by physicians, nurses, and other health care professionals......We examine an important part of the medical record that has not been studied extensively: physicians’ clinical notes. These notes constitute an explanatory medical narrative that documents the patient’s illness trajectory by combining each physician’s notes into a common text. Although several...... prior CSCW studies have addressed the role of the medical record in patient care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of these notes. In this article, we present a detailed analysis of a set of physicians’ clinical notes recording the acute hospitalization...

  9. Cooperative epistemic work in medical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling Carl; Schmidt, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    prior CSCW studies have addressed the role of the medical record in patient care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of these notes. In this article, we present a detailed analysis of a set of physicians’ clinical notes recording the acute hospitalization......’ clinical notes form the core of the medical record. They serve both as a ‘tool for thinking’ for the individual physician, enabling him or her to make sense of the patient’s past history and current condition, and as a coordinative artifact used by physicians, nurses, and other health care professionals...

  10. An Energy-Efficient Scheme for Multirelay Cooperative Networks with Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingcheng Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates an energy-efficient scheme in multirelay cooperative networks with energy harvesting where multiple sessions need to communicate with each other via the relay node. A two-step optimal method is proposed which maximizes the system energy efficiency, while taking into account the receiver circuit energy consumption. Firstly, the optimal power allocation for relay nodes is determined to maximize the system throughput; this is based on directional water-filling algorithm. Secondly, using quantum particle swarm optimization (QPSO, a joint relay node selection and session grouping optimization is proposed. With this algorithm, sessions can be classified into multiple groups that are assisted by the specific relay node with the maximum energy efficiency. This approach leads to a better global optimization in searching ability and efficiency. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can improve the energy efficiency effectively compared with direct transmission and opportunistic relay-selected cooperative transmission.

  11. A DISTRIBUTED COOPERATIVE RELAYING OPTIMIZATION SCHEME FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSION IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Dan; Ji Hong

    2011-01-01

    In Cognitive Radio (CR) networks,cooperative communication has been recently regarded as a key technology for improving the spectral utilization efficiency and ensuring the Quality of Service (QoS) for Primary Users (PUs).In this paper,we propose a distributed joint relay selection and power allocation scheme for cooperative secondary transmission,taking both Instantaneous Channel State Information (I-CSI) and residual energy into consideration,where secondary source and destination may have different available spectrum.Specifically,we formulate the cognitive relay network as a restless bandit system,where the channel and energy state transition is characterized by the finite-state Markov chain.The proposed policy has indexability property that dramatically reduces the computation and implementation complexity.Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that our proposed scheme can efficiently enhance overall system reward,while guaranteeing a good tradeoff between achievable date rate and average network lifetime.

  12. Connectivity Maintenance Based on Multiple Relay UAVs Selection Scheme in Cooperative Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of remote command and situation awareness, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs cooperative surveillance with a ground station via multihop communications is presented in this paper. Considering limited communication capacities, a reliable UAV-to-UAV communication relay chain is dynamically established for connectivity maintenance and real-time surveillance information transmission. Firstly, a multiple UAVs cooperative surveillance framework is constructed with history detection information and surveillance payoff estimation. Secondly, four attributes are proposed to characterize differences among UAV alternatives in communication network containing a ground station, and a novel multiple relay UAVs selection scheme based on fuzzy optimum selection is developed to achieve tradeoff between surveillance mission and connectivity maintenance. Furthermore, satisfied with collision avoidance, limited communication and UAV kinematic constraints, the optimal UAV motion plan is obtained by decentralized receding horizon control, which is solved by particle swarm optimization with elite mechanism. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods in multi UAVs cooperative surveillance.

  13. Whether New Cooperative Mmedical Schemes reduce the economic burden of chronic disease in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Jing

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS provides health insurance coverage for rural populations in China. This study aimed to evaluate changes in household catastrophic health expenditure (CHE due to chronic disease before and after the reimbursement policies for services of chronic disease were implemented to provide additional financial support. METHODS: The study used data from the household surveys conducted in Shandong Province and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in 2006 and 2008. The study sample in village-level units was divided into two groups: 36 villages which implemented the NCMS reimbursement policies for chronic diseases as the intervention group, and 72 villages which did not as the control group. Health care expenditure of more than 40% of household's non-food expenditure was defined as a household with CHE (i.e., impoverishment. The conceptual framework was established based on the Andersen socio-behavioral model of health care utilization to explore how the NCMS reimbursement policies impacted health expenditures. A difference-in-difference model was employed to compare the change in the proportion of households incurring CHE due to chronic disease between the two groups over time. RESULTS: The households that participated in the NCMS were less likely to become impoverished (P<0.05. In addition, the households with both male household head and higher income level were protective factors to prevent CHE (P<0.05. Young households with preschool children suffered less from CHE (P<0.05. The effect of the NCMS reimbursement policies for chronic disease on the CHE was negative, yet not statistically significant (p = 0.814. CONCLUSIONS: The NCMS coverage showed financial protection for households with chronic disease. However, the NCMS reimbursement policies should be strengthened in the future.

  14. A Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Scheme Based on Trust and Fuzzy Logic for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a cooperative spectrum sensing scheme based on trust and fuzzy logic for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks (CRSN. The CRSN nodes use the T-S fuzzy logic to make local decisions on the presence or absence of the primary users (PU signal, and then use a censoring method to only allow the relatively reliable decisions sent to the fusion center. Utilizing a trust evaluation scheme based on the factors such as local sensing difference, sensing location factors, and sensing channel conditions for each node. Combing the majority rule and the trust values of the nodes, the fusion center makes the final decision. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme could improve the detect probability effectively.

  15. An adaptive nonlocal means scheme for medical image denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaipanich, Tanaphol; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2010-03-01

    Medical images often consist of low-contrast objects corrupted by random noise arising in the image acquisition process. Thus, image denoising is one of the fundamental tasks required by medical imaging analysis. In this work, we investigate an adaptive denoising scheme based on the nonlocal (NL)-means algorithm for medical imaging applications. In contrast with the traditional NL-means algorithm, the proposed adaptive NL-means (ANL-means) denoising scheme has three unique features. First, it employs the singular value decomposition (SVD) method and the K-means clustering (K-means) technique for robust classification of blocks in noisy images. Second, the local window is adaptively adjusted to match the local property of a block. Finally, a rotated block matching algorithm is adopted for better similarity matching. Experimental results from both additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and Rician noise are given to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed ANL denoising technique over various image denoising benchmarks in term of both PSNR and perceptual quality comparison.

  16. Modelling medical care usage under medical insurance scheme for urban non-working residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Linping; Tian, Wenhua; Tang, Weidong

    2013-06-01

    This research investigates and evaluates China's urban medical care usage for non-working residents using microsimulation techniques. It focuses on modelling medical services usage and simulating medical expenses on hospitalization treatments as well as clinic services for serious illness in an urban area for the period of 2008-2010. A static microsimulation model was created to project the impact of the medical insurance scheme. Four kinds of achievements have been made. For three different scenarios, the model predicted the hospitalization services costs and payments, as well as the balance of the social pool fund and the medical burden on families.

  17. HiCoDG: A Hierarchical Data-Gathering Scheme Using Cooperative Multiple Mobile Elements †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Le, Duc; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study mobile element (ME)-based data-gathering schemes in wireless sensor networks. Due to the physical speed limits of mobile elements, the existing data-gathering schemes that use mobile elements can suffer from high data-gathering latency. In order to address this problem, this paper proposes a new hierarchical and cooperative data-gathering (HiCoDG) scheme that enables multiple mobile elements to cooperate with each other to collect and relay data. In HiCoDG, two types of mobile elements are used: the mobile collector (MC) and the mobile relay (MR). MCs collect data from sensors and forward them to the MR, which will deliver them to the sink. In this work, we also formulated an integer linear programming (ILP) optimization problem to find the optimal trajectories for MCs and the MR, such that the traveling distance of MEs is minimized. Two variants of HiCoDG, intermediate station (IS)-based and cooperative movement scheduling (CMS)-based, are proposed to facilitate cooperative data forwarding from MCs to the MR. An analytical model for estimating the average data-gathering latency in HiCoDG was also designed. Simulations were performed to compare the performance of the IS and CMS variants, as well as a multiple traveling salesman problem (mTSP)-based approach. The simulation results show that HiCoDG outperforms mTSP in terms of latency. The results also show that CMS can achieve the lowest latency with low energy consumption. PMID:25526356

  18. HiCoDG: A Hierarchical Data-Gathering Scheme Using Cooperative Multiple Mobile Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Van Le

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study mobile element (ME-based data-gathering schemes in wireless sensor networks. Due to the physical speed limits of mobile elements, the existing data-gathering schemes that usemobile elements can suffer from high data-gathering latency. In order to address this problem, this paper proposes a new hierarchical and cooperative data-gathering (HiCoDG scheme that enables multiple mobile elements to cooperate with each other to collect and relay data. In HiCoDG, two types of mobile elements are used: the mobile collector (MC and the mobile relay (MR. MCs collect data from sensors and forward them to the MR, which will deliver them to the sink. In this work, we also formulated an integer linear programming (ILP optimization problem to find the optimal trajectories for MCs and the MR, such that the traveling distance of MEs is minimized. Two variants of HiCoDG, intermediate station (IS-based and cooperative movement scheduling (CMS-based, are proposed to facilitate cooperative data forwarding from MCs to theMR. An analytical model for estimating the average data-gathering latency in HiCoDG was also designed. Simulations were performed to compare the performance of the IS and CMS variants, as well as a multiple traveling salesman problem (mTSP-based approach. The simulation results show that HiCoDG outperformsmTSP in terms of latency. The results also show that CMS can achieve the lowest latency with low energy consumption.

  19. HiCoDG: a hierarchical data-gathering scheme using cooperative multiple mobile elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Le, Duc; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2014-12-17

    In this paper, we study mobile element (ME)-based data-gathering schemes in wireless sensor networks. Due to the physical speed limits of mobile elements, the existing data-gathering schemes that use mobile elements can suffer from high data-gathering latency. In order to address this problem, this paper proposes a new hierarchical and cooperative data-gathering (HiCoDG) scheme that enables multiple mobile elements to cooperate with each other to collect and relay data. In HiCoDG, two types of mobile elements are used: the mobile collector (MC) and the mobile relay (MR). MCs collect data from sensors and forward them to the MR, which will deliver them to the sink. In this work, we also formulated an integer linear programming (ILP) optimization problem to find the optimal trajectories for MCs and the MR, such that the traveling distance of MEs is minimized. Two variants of HiCoDG, intermediate station (IS)-based and cooperative movement scheduling (CMS)-based, are proposed to facilitate cooperative data forwarding from MCs to the MR. An analytical model for estimating the average data-gathering latency in HiCoDG was also designed. Simulations were performed to compare the performance of the IS and CMS variants, as well as a multiple traveling salesman problem (mTSP)-based approach. The simulation results show that HiCoDG outperforms mTSP in terms of latency. The results also show that CMS can achieve the lowest latency with low energy consumption.

  20. Catastrophic health expenditure for poor and low-income rural residents under New Rural Co-operative Medical Scheme%新农合贫困和低收入居民灾难性卫生支出研究--基于三省份的抽样调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈李娜; 魏伟; 王静; 张亮

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the catastrophic health expenditure for poor and lower-income rural residents and the ability of New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme( NRCMS) to alleviate poverty. Methods:We selected Zhe-jiang, Hubei, and Chongqing provinces as sample areas and obtained 1661 questionnaires through a field survey. We calculated the out-of-pocket expenditure per year, incidence, average gap, relative gap, and concentration index of catastrophic health expenditure for participating households. Results:Both before and after compensation, incidence, average gap, and relative gap of catastrophic health payment for poverty group were the highest, followed by low-in-come group. After compensation, the concentration index decreased. This means that catastrophic health expenditure tends to be focused more on families with financial difficulties. Conclusion:To protect poor and low-income rural res-idents from catastrophic health expenditure, we should promote critical illness insurance, improve the medical assis-tance system, implement payment reform, and improve the NRCMS.%目的:分析农村居民灾难性卫生支出情况以及新农合缓解灾难性卫生支出的能力。方法:2011年分别选取浙江、湖北、重庆作为样本地区,通过现场调查获取问卷1661份,计算参合家庭的年自付医疗卫生费用、灾难性卫生支出发生率、平均差距和相对差距和集中指数。结果:补偿前后,贫困家庭的灾难性卫生支出发生率、平均差距、相对差距均最高,低收入组次之。补偿后,集中指数降低,灾难性卫生支出进一步向经济困难家庭集中。结论:通过推进农村大病医疗保险、完善医疗救助制度、实施支付方式改革和完善新农合配套措施等方式,帮助农村贫困和低收入居民抵御灾难性卫生支出。

  1. Breeding programmes for smallholder sheep farming systems: II. Optimization of cooperative village breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; van Arendonk, J A M; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; Rischkowsky, B; Dessie, T; Mwai, A O

    2014-10-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize a cooperative village-based sheep breeding scheme for Menz sheep of Ethiopia. Genetic gains and profits were estimated under nine levels of farmers' participation and three scenarios of controlled breeding achieved in the breeding programme, as well as under three cooperative flock sizes, ewe to ram mating ratios and durations of ram use for breeding. Under fully controlled breeding, that is, when there is no gene flow between participating (P) and non-participating (NP) flocks, profits ranged from Birr 36.9 at 90% of participation to Birr 21.3 at 10% of participation. However, genetic progress was not affected adversely. When there was gene flow from the NP to P flocks, profits declined from Birr 28.6 to Birr -3.7 as participation declined from 90 to 10%. Under the two-way gene flow model (i.e. when P and NP flocks are herded mixed in communal grazing areas), NP flocks benefited from the genetic gain achieved in the P flocks, but the benefits declined sharply when participation declined beyond 60%. Our results indicate that a cooperative breeding group can be established with as low as 600 breeding ewes mated at a ratio of 45 ewes to one ram, and the rams being used for breeding for a period of two years. This study showed that farmer cooperation is crucial to effect genetic improvement under smallholder low-input sheep farming systems.

  2. A telemedicine system for remote cooperative medical imaging diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, E J; del Pozo, F; Quiles, J A; Arredondo, M T; Rahms, H; Sanz, M; Cano, P

    1996-01-01

    Telemedicine is changing the classical form of health care delivery, by providing efficient solutions to an increasing number of new situations: here we consider those which require some type of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) between health care professionals located in different clinical sites. This paper presents the design and development of a telemedicine system for remote computer-supported cooperative medical imaging diagnosis. The main and novel component of our system is a new CSCW distributed architecture, comprised by a collaborative toolkit to add audioconferencing, telepointing, window sharing, user's coordination and application synchronization facilities, either to existing or new medical imaging diagnosis applications. In comparison with existing CSCW products, mainly based on centralized architectures, our distributed toolkit is specially designed for telemedicine applications: to allow different levels of sharing between participants, to improve user feedback in highly interactive user interfaces, and to optimize the required communication bandwidth in order to implement a telemedicine CSCW application on almost any telecommunication network. This telemedicine CSCW system has been applied to build a cooperative medical imaging diagnosis application, in which two doctors, located in different hospitals, need to achieve a cooperative diagnosis on haemodynamic studies using cardiac angiography images. The design of the graphical user interface for this kind of telemedicine CSCW systems, a critical component which conforms any telemedicine application, is also addressed with a new methodological approach, to assure the system usability and final user acceptance. The telemedicine cardiac angiography pilot has been implemented, tested and evaluated within the Research Project 'FEST-Framework for European Services in Telemedicine' funded by EU AIM Programme.

  3. COOPERATIVE DIRECTIONAL INTER-CELL HANDOVER SCHEME IN HIGH ALTITUDE PLATFORM COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shufeng; Wang Lijie; David Grace; Ma Dongtang

    2011-01-01

    A novel Cooperative Directional inter-cell Handover Scheme (CDHS) for High Altitude Platform (HAP) communications systems is proposed,in which the handover target cell and the two cells adjacent to this handover target cell work cooperatively to exploit the traffic fluctuation to improve handover performance.Users in the overlap area of the overloaded handover target cell will be forced to handover directionally before their optimal handover boundary in order to free up resources for the handover calls which would otherwise be dropped due to the shortage of resources and queue time out.Simulation results show that the handover call dropping probability is greatly reduced (at least 60%) compared with the general queue handover scheme,with little performancereduction to the call blocking probability,and the Not in the Best Cell (NBC) average time is only increased moderately.Moreover,an optimal cell radius can be achieved for a specific platform speed by minimizing the unified system performance,which is the linear combination of the handover call dropping probability and the NBC average time.

  4. A Dynamic Cooperative Scheme with Multiple Antennas for Indoor Mobile Robot Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a spatial cooperative diversity and decision-making technique to enhance signal detection and indoor mobile robot positioning performance of a global positioning satellite system (GNSS receiver. Though the adaptive antenna array technique in early research could effectively promote antijamming freedom, overcome time-varying system, and mitigate narrowband and wideband interferences, factors such as the decrease of signal magnitude caused by obstacles (especially in the indoor environment, multipath, and blanking effect caused by the change in antenna direction with the motion of mobile robot can degrade the detection and interference mitigation performance of GNSS receivers. This paper aims to develop a dynamic cooperative scheme to proceed with the switch, selection, combination, and optimization among antennas. In addition, a signal processing experimental platform is also established to receive actually indoor GNSS signals for verification. The proposed scheme is capable of effectively promoting the postcorrelation signal-to-noise ratio (SNR capability of a GNSS receiver under the indoor environment.

  5. A cooperative online learning scheme for resource allocation in 5G systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2016-07-26

    The demand on mobile Internet related services has increased the need for higher bandwidth in cellular networks. The 5G technology is envisioned as a solution to satisfy this demand as it provides high data rates and scalable bandwidth. The multi-tier heterogeneous structure of 5G with dense base station deployment, relays, and device-to-device (D2D) communications intends to serve users with different QoS requirements. However, the multi-tier structure causes severe interference among the multi-tier users which further complicates the resource allocation problem. In this paper, we propose a cooperative scheme to tackle the interference problem, including both cross-tier interference that affects macro users from other tiers and co-tier interference, which is among users belong to the same tier. The scheme employs an online learning algorithm for efficient spectrum allocation with power and modulation adaptation capability. Our evaluation results show that our online scheme outperforms others and achieves significant improvements in throughput, spectral efficiency, fairness, and outage ratio. © 2016 IEEE.

  6. Cooperative learning in the first year of undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthan Rani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive research data indicating that cooperative learning promotes higher achievement, the creation of positive relationships, and greater psychological health for students at all levels in their education, cooperative learning as a teaching strategy is still underutilized in undergraduate medical education. Methods A cooperative learning task was introduced as part of the mandatory first Year undergraduate Pathology course. The task was to create an 8.5" × 11" poster summary of pre-assigned content in self-chosen groups of four or five students. On the designated "Poster Day," the posters were displayed and evaluated by the students using a group product evaluation. Students also completed an individual group process reflection survey. An objective evaluation of their understanding was gauged at the midterm examination by specific content-related questions. Results Majority (91–96% of students judged the group products to be relevant, effective, easy-to-understand, and clearly communicated. The majority of the students (90–100% agreed that their group process skills of time management, task collaboration, decision-making and task execution were effective in completing this exercise. This activity created a dynamic learning environment as was reflected in the students' positive, professional discussion, and evaluation of their posters. The content-related questions on the midterm examination were answered correctly by 70–92% of the students. This was a mutually enriching experience for the instructor and students. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that cooperative learning as a teaching strategy can be effectively incorporated to address both content and interpersonal skill development in the early years of undergraduate medical education.

  7. Outage Performance Analysis of Relay Selection Schemes in Wireless Energy Harvesting Cooperative Networks over Non-Identical Rayleigh Fading Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Nhu Tri; Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc; An, Beongku

    2016-02-26

    In this paper, we study relay selection in decode-and-forward wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the relays harvest energy from the source's radio-frequency radiation and then use that energy to forward the source information. Considering power splitting receiver architecture used at relays to harvest energy, we are concerned with the performance of two popular relay selection schemes, namely, partial relay selection (PRS) scheme and optimal relay selection (ORS) scheme. In particular, we analyze the system performance in terms of outage probability (OP) over independent and non-identical (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. We derive the closed-form approximations for the system outage probabilities of both schemes and validate the analysis by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The numerical results provide comprehensive performance comparison between the PRS and ORS schemes and reveal the effect of wireless energy harvesting on the outage performances of both schemes. Additionally, we also show the advantages and drawbacks of the wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks and compare to the conventional cooperative networks.

  8. Parents and medical professionals: conflict, cooperation, and best interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper seeks to engage with the ideas expressed by Professor Brazier in her commentary on the Charlotte Wyatt case and to develop contemporary analysis around parental rights, notions of best interests, and shared decision-making between parents and professionals. The article begins by setting the scene in relation to parental/professional conflict and frames the discussion in the context of medical decision-making. Parental rights are then explored before the analysis progresses to how the concept of best interests has recently developed. Finally, the article investigates the benefits of compromise, cooperation, and shared decision-making as the most effective method for resolving disputes concerning children.

  9. International medical cooperation project for State of Libya using international medical tourism system in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    奥寺, 敬; 坂本, 美重

    2013-01-01

    International medical cooperation project for State of Libya is reported. The concept of this project is to treat Libyan injured people using international medical tourism system in Thailand. Management of patient, including evaluation, domestic and international transportation arrangement of hospital, is supported by Normeca International Co., Ltd, (Pattaya, Thailand). Treatment of Libyan patient in two international hospitals (Bangpakok 9 Hospital and Navamin 9 Hopsital) in Bangkok was succ...

  10. 新型农村合作医疗的高血压患者门诊费用对住院费用的替代效应%Analysis of substitutional effect of outpatient expenditure on inpatient expenditure in hypertensive patients with rural new cooperative medical scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章湖洋; 简伟研; 方海

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究单纯性高血压的直接医疗费用和门诊费用对住院费用的替代影响,并据此对卫生政策制定者和高血压患者提出关于管理高血压的建议。方法:使用中国北方某市新型农村合作医疗(以下简称“新农合”)的高血压患者2008年至2013年的报销数据,运用描述性统计分析高血压患者的门诊费用以及根据就诊情况分成3组(单纯性高血压、高血压并发症、其他疾病)后单纯性高血压的直接医疗费用,进一步用 t 检验比较组间差异。运用固定效应两部模型分析门诊费用对住院费用的替代效应,进一步采用 Logistic 回归分析估算门诊次数和门诊报销费用对住院费用的具体替代影响。结果:高血压患者2008年门诊次均费用为283.49元,2013年上升至370.93元;分成3组后,单纯性高血压患者2008年门诊次均费用为449.79元,2013年上升至582.53元;门诊总费用中,单纯性高血压的比例占45.73%;住院总费用中,单纯性高血压的比例占9.29%。通过固定效应两部模型计算边际效应,门诊次数的增加或者门诊报销费用的增加都能显著引起住院费用的减少,如2013年门诊次数增加1%,则门诊总费用增加647.89万元,住院费用减少3986.51万元。门诊-住院费用替代比在2010年及以后稳定在5左右。结论:卫生决策者和高血压患者应该重视门诊服务对住院服务的替代作用,尤其是针对单纯性高血压的患者,其主要直接医疗费用在门诊而不是住院。%Objective:To study direct medical cost of hypertensive patients without complicated disea-ses,to analyze substitution impacts of outpatient expenditure on inpatient expenditure,and then to make recommendations to health policy makers and hypertensive patients for managing hypertension.Methods:The claims data of hypertensive patients insured by the rural new cooperative

  11. Regulation Effectiveness Evaluation Model for New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme Fund Supervision%新型农村合作医疗基金监管有效性评价指标体系构建与方法选定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新瑞; 薛兴利

    2012-01-01

    The thesis stated the concept of new rural cooperative medical fund supervision effectiveness and the evaluation principle. On the basis of establishment principle, the thesis constructed the evaluation index system for the new rural cooperative medical fund supervision effectiveness with 30 performance indicators, mainly from the 3 areas, namely the supervisory ability, the regulatory efficiency and the external supervision. Finally, according to the characteristics of new rural cooperative medical fund supervision, the thesis selected fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method as evaluation method, discussed the steps and emphasized the evaluation results of treatment, to provide references for regulation effectiveness evaluation.%文章在阐明新型农村合作医疗基金监管有效性基本内涵与评价原则的基础上,从监管能力、监管效率和外部监督等3个方面,选取30个指标构建了新型农村合作医疗基金监管有效性评价指标体系;从新型农村合作医疗基金监管的特点出发,通过比较,选取模糊综合评价法作为适宜方法,介绍了模糊综合评价法的操作步骤及其评价结果的分析和处理,以期为实现新型农村合作医疗基金的有效监管提供依据.

  12. How payment scheme affects patients’ adherence to medications? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hamiza; Hatah, Ernieda; Makmor Bakry, Mohd; Islahudin, Farida

    2016-01-01

    Background A previous systematic review reported that increase in patients’ medication cost-sharing reduced patients’ adherence to medication. However, a study among patients with medication subsidies who received medication at no cost found that medication nonadherence was also high. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the influence of different medication payment schemes on patients’ medication adherence. Objective This study aims to review research reporting the influence of payment schemes and their association with patients’ medication adherence behavior. Methods This study was conducted using systematic review of published articles. Relevant published articles were located through three electronic databases Medline, ProQuest Medical Library, and ScienceDirect since inception to February 2015. Included articles were then reviewed and summarized narratively. Results Of the total of 2,683 articles located, 21 were included in the final analysis. There were four types of medication payment schemes reported in the included studies: 1) out-of-pocket expenditure or copayments; 2) drug coverage or insurance benefit; 3) prescription cap; and 4) medication subsidies. Our review found that patients with “lower self-paying constraint” were more likely to adhere to their medication (adherence rate ranged between 28.5% and 94.3%). Surprisingly, the adherence rate among patients who received medication as fully subsidized was similar (rate between 34% and 84.6%) as that of other payment schemes. The studies that evaluated patients with fully subsidized payment scheme found that the medication adherence was poor among patients with nonsevere illness. Conclusion Although medication adherence was improved with the reduction of cost-sharing such as lower copayment, higher drug coverage, and prescription cap, patients with full-medication subsidies payment scheme (received medication at no cost) were also found to have poor adherence to their medication. Future

  13. An improved biometrics-based authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dianli; Wen, Qiaoyan; Li, Wenmin; Zhang, Hua; Jin, Zhengping

    2015-03-01

    Telecare medical information system (TMIS) offers healthcare delivery services and patients can acquire their desired medical services conveniently through public networks. The protection of patients' privacy and data confidentiality are significant. Very recently, Mishra et al. proposed a biometrics-based authentication scheme for telecare medical information system. Their scheme can protect user privacy and is believed to resist a range of network attacks. In this paper, we analyze Mishra et al.'s scheme and identify that their scheme is insecure to against known session key attack and impersonation attack. Thereby, we present a modified biometrics-based authentication scheme for TMIS to eliminate the aforementioned faults. Besides, we demonstrate the completeness of the proposed scheme through BAN-logic. Compared to the related schemes, our protocol can provide stronger security and it is more practical.

  14. Analysis of the Situation and Influence Facotr s of Actual Inpatient Reimbursement Rate on New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古新型农村合作医疗住院实际补偿比情况及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长乐; 康莉莉; 乔婷婷; 范艳存

    2015-01-01

    Objective:In order to provide the suggestions for health department,this study analyzed the situation and influence factors of actual inpatient reimbursement rate on New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme in Inner Mongolia.Method:This study used typical sampling to collect the data of NRCMS from 28 counties which belong to 3 cities in Inner Mongolia in 2009-2012, and employed the descriptive analysis and multiple regression analysis to assess the data.Result: The actual inpatient reimbursement rates of three cities were B city 49.96%, C city 47.71% and A City 44.52%, respectively.Multivariate regression analysis showed the total funds raised,the utilizing rate of NRCMS fund and the average hospitalization expense were influential factors of actual inpatient reimbursement rate.The total funds raised and the utilizing rate of NRCMS fund are positively associated with actual inpatient reimbursement rate, but the average hospitalization expense is negatively associated with actual inpa-tient reimbursement rate.Conclusion: For there was a gap actual inpatient reimbursement rate, there was a gap between the three cities of Inner Mongolia and the national level.The higher of total funds raised and utilizing rate of NRCMS fund lead to the increasing the actual inpatient reim-bursement rate, and the lower of average hospitalization expense increased the actual inpatient reimbursement rate.%目的:分析内蒙古自治区新型农村合作医疗住院实际补偿比的情况及其影响因素,为卫生部门决策提供依据。方法:采用典型抽样方法收集内蒙古3个市28个旗县区2009-2012年的新农合相关数据,数据分析使用描述分析和多元线性回归分析两种方法。结果:3个市的住院实际补偿比由高到低依次是B市49.46%、C市47.71%和A市44.52%。多元线性回归分析发现筹集资金总额、基金使用率和次均住院费用是影响住院实际补偿比的3个因素,其中筹集资金总额

  15. Constructing an Urban Population Model for Medical Insurance Scheme Using Microsimulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linping Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available China launched a pilot project of medical insurance reform in 79 cities in 2007 to cover urban nonworking residents. An urban population model was created in this paper for China’s medical insurance scheme using microsimulation model techniques. The model made it clear for the policy makers the population distributions of different groups of people, the potential urban residents entering the medical insurance scheme. The income trends of units of individuals and families were also obtained. These factors are essential in making the challenging policy decisions when considering to balance the long-term financial sustainability of the medical insurance scheme.

  16. Constructing an urban population model for medical insurance scheme using microsimulation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Linping; Zhang, Lulu; Tang, Weidong; Ma, Yuqin

    2012-01-01

    China launched a pilot project of medical insurance reform in 79 cities in 2007 to cover urban nonworking residents. An urban population model was created in this paper for China's medical insurance scheme using microsimulation model techniques. The model made it clear for the policy makers the population distributions of different groups of people, the potential urban residents entering the medical insurance scheme. The income trends of units of individuals and families were also obtained. These factors are essential in making the challenging policy decisions when considering to balance the long-term financial sustainability of the medical insurance scheme.

  17. Health-seeking behavior and hospital choice in China's New Cooperative Medical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip H; Theoharides, Caroline

    2009-07-01

    Since the dissolution of the Rural Cooperative Medical System at the end of the commune period, illness has emerged as a leading cause of poverty in rural China. To address the poor state of health care, the Chinese government unveiled the New Cooperative Medical System in 2002. Because local governments have been given significant control over program design, fundamental characteristics of the program vary from one county to the next. These differences may influence the decision to seek health care as well as the choice of hospital conditional on that initial decision. In this paper, we use a nested logit model to analyze household survey data from 25 counties to analyze the determinants of such health-seeking behavior. We find that age, the share of household expenditures allocated to food consumption (a measure of relative income), and the presence of other sick people in the household negatively affect the decision to seek health care while disability has a positive influence. Further, conditional on seeking treatment, the reimbursement scheme in place in each county and the average daily expenditure associated with hospitalization strongly influence hospital choice.

  18. A Cooperative QoS Management Scheme Based on DiffServ Network for Real-Time Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Dong-ping; ZHANG De-yun; ZHANG Jun; AN Zhi-ping

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an improved scheme based on DiffServ network is proposed to provide a decentralized cooperative QoS management for real-time services' admission control and resources' monitoring. The proposed scheme consists of a QoS Control Server (QoSCS), a Service Management Server (SMS), a Network Management Server (NMS) and routers in the concerned management domain. When an application asks for a service with specific QoS requirements, a series of cooperation are initiated among these components by means of a suit of signaling protocol. Once a service is admitted, it can provide required QoS services more effectively than original Di ffServ network. Monitoring per-flow states are moved from edge routers to the QoSCS server. The prototype implementation and experimental results show that this scheme can provide enhanced manageability and scalability for providing per-flow management in such a distributed way.

  19. A User-Centered Cooperative Information System for Medical Imaging Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Enrique J.; Quiles, Jose A.; Sanz, Marcos F.; del Pozo, Francisco

    1998-01-01

    Presents a cooperative information system for remote medical imaging diagnosis. General computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) problems addressed are definition of a procedure for the design of user-centered cooperative systems (conceptual level); and improvement of user feedback and optimization of the communication bandwidth in highly…

  20. Formation-based Control Scheme for Cooperative Transportation by Multiple Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Yufka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a motion-planning and control scheme for a cooperative transportation system comprising a single rigid object and multiple autonomous non-holonomic mobile robots. A leader-follower formation control strategy is used for the transportation system in which the object is assumed to be the virtual leader; the robots carrying the object are considered to be followers. A smooth trajectory between the current and desired locations of the object is generated considering the constraints of the virtual leader. In the leader follower approach, the origin of the coordinate system attached to the centre of gravity of the object, which is known as the virtual leader, moves along the generated trajectory while the real robots, which are known as followers, maintain a desired distance and orientation in relation to the leader. An asymptotically stable tracking controller is used for trajectory tracking. The proposed approach is verified by simulations and real applications using Pioneer P3-DX mobile robots.

  1. On the security of two remote user authentication schemes for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee-Won; Lee, Jae-Dong

    2014-05-01

    The telecare medical information systems (TMISs) support convenient and rapid health-care services. A secure and efficient authentication scheme for TMIS provides safeguarding patients' electronic patient records (EPRs) and helps health care workers and medical personnel to rapidly making correct clinical decisions. Recently, Kumari et al. proposed a password based user authentication scheme using smart cards for TMIS, and claimed that the proposed scheme could resist various malicious attacks. However, we point out that their scheme is still vulnerable to lost smart card and cannot provide forward secrecy. Subsequently, Das and Goswami proposed a secure and efficient uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. They simulated their scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted automated validation of Internet security protocols and applications (AVISPA) tool to ensure that their scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. However, we show that their scheme is still vulnerable to smart card loss attacks and cannot provide forward secrecy property. The proposed cryptanalysis discourages any use of the two schemes under investigation in practice and reveals some subtleties and challenges in designing this type of schemes.

  2. Automatic Scheme for Fused Medical Image Segmentation with Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Ch.Hima Bindu; Dr. K. Satya Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Medical image segmentation has become an essential technique in clinical and research- oriented applications. Because manual segmentation methods are tedious, and semi-automatic segmentation lacks the flexibility, fully-automatic methods have become the preferred type of medical image segmentation. This work proposes a robust fully automatic segmentation scheme based on the modified contouring technique. The entire scheme consists of three stages. In the first stage, the Nonsubsampled Contour...

  3. A New Cooperative MIMO Scheme Based on SM for Energy-Efficiency Improvement in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyang Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks (WSN has attracted considerable attention nowadays. The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO technique has been proved as a good candidate for improving the energy efficiency, but it may not be feasible in WSN which is due to the size limitation of the sensor node. As a solution, the cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO technique overcomes this constraint and shows a dramatically good performance. In this paper, a new CMIMO scheme based on the spatial modulation (SM technique named CMIMO-SM is proposed for energy-efficiency improvement. We first establish the system model of CMIMO-SM. Based on this model, the transmission approach is introduced graphically. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, a detailed analysis in terms of energy consumption per bit of the proposed scheme compared with the conventional CMIMO is presented. Later, under the guide of this new scheme we extend our proposed CMIMO-SM to a multihop clustered WSN for further achieving energy efficiency by finding an optimal hop-length. Equidistant hop as the traditional scheme will be compared in this paper. Results from the simulations and numerical experiments indicate that by the use of the proposed scheme, significant savings in terms of total energy consumption can be achieved. Combining the proposed scheme with monitoring sensor node will provide a good performance in arbitrary deployed WSN such as forest fire detection system.

  4. A new cooperative MIMO scheme based on SM for energy-efficiency improvement in wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuyang; Choi, Jaeho

    2014-01-01

    Improving the energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks (WSN) has attracted considerable attention nowadays. The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has been proved as a good candidate for improving the energy efficiency, but it may not be feasible in WSN which is due to the size limitation of the sensor node. As a solution, the cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO) technique overcomes this constraint and shows a dramatically good performance. In this paper, a new CMIMO scheme based on the spatial modulation (SM) technique named CMIMO-SM is proposed for energy-efficiency improvement. We first establish the system model of CMIMO-SM. Based on this model, the transmission approach is introduced graphically. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, a detailed analysis in terms of energy consumption per bit of the proposed scheme compared with the conventional CMIMO is presented. Later, under the guide of this new scheme we extend our proposed CMIMO-SM to a multihop clustered WSN for further achieving energy efficiency by finding an optimal hop-length. Equidistant hop as the traditional scheme will be compared in this paper. Results from the simulations and numerical experiments indicate that by the use of the proposed scheme, significant savings in terms of total energy consumption can be achieved. Combining the proposed scheme with monitoring sensor node will provide a good performance in arbitrary deployed WSN such as forest fire detection system.

  5. Lossy Compression Color Medical Image Using CDF Wavelet Lifting Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. beladghem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As the coming era is that of digitized medical information, an important challenge to deal with is the storage and transmission requirements of enormous data, including color medical images. Compression is one of the indispensable techniques to solve this problem. In this work, we propose an algorithm for color medical image compression based on a biorthogonal wavelet transform CDF 9/7 coupled with SPIHT coding algorithm, of which we applied the lifting structure to improve the drawbacks of wavelet transform. In order to enhance the compression by our algorithm, we have compared the results obtained with wavelet based filters bank. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to traditional methods in both lossy and lossless compression for all tested color images. Our algorithm provides very important PSNR and MSSIM values for color medical images.

  6. An efficient and secure dynamic ID-based authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Ming; Lo, Jung-Wen; Yeh, Chang-Kuo

    2012-12-01

    The rapidly increased availability of always-on broadband telecommunication environments and lower-cost vital signs monitoring devices bring the advantages of telemedicine directly into the patient's home. Hence, the control of access to remote medical servers' resources has become a crucial challenge. A secure authentication scheme between the medical server and remote users is therefore needed to safeguard data integrity, confidentiality and to ensure availability. Recently, many authentication schemes that use low-cost mobile devices have been proposed to meet these requirements. In contrast to previous schemes, Khan et al. proposed a dynamic ID-based remote user authentication scheme that reduces computational complexity and includes features such as a provision for the revocation of lost or stolen smart cards and a time expiry check for the authentication process. However, Khan et al.'s scheme has some security drawbacks. To remedy theses, this study proposes an enhanced authentication scheme that overcomes the weaknesses inherent in Khan et al.'s scheme and demonstrated this scheme is more secure and robust for use in a telecare medical information system.

  7. Performance analysis of best relay selection scheme for amplify-and-forward cooperative networks in identical Nakagami-m channels

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2010-06-01

    In cooperative communication networks, the use of multiple relays between the source and the destination was proposed to increase the diversity gain. Since the source and all the relays must transmit on orthogonal channels, multiple relay cooperation is considered inefficient in terms of channel resources and bandwidth utilization. To overcome this problem, the concept of best relay selection was recently proposed. In this paper, we analyze the performance of the best relay selection scheme for a cooperative network with multiple relays operating in amplify-and-forward (AF) mode over identical Nakagami-m channels using exact source-relay-destination signal to noise ratio (SNR) expression. We derive accurate closed form expressions for various system parameters including probability density function (pdf) of end-to-end SNR, average output SNR, average probability of bit error and average channel capacity. T he analytical results are verified through extensive simulations. It is shown that the best relay selection scheme performs better than the regular all relay cooperation.

  8. On the security of a dynamic ID-based authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han-Yu

    2013-04-01

    Telecare medical information systems (TMISs) are increasingly popular technologies for healthcare applications. Using TMISs, physicians and caregivers can monitor the vital signs of patients remotely. Since the database of TMISs stores patients' electronic medical records (EMRs), only authorized users should be granted the access to this information for the privacy concern. To keep the user anonymity, recently, Chen et al. proposed a dynamic ID-based authentication scheme for telecare medical information system. They claimed that their scheme is more secure and robust for use in a TMIS. However, we will demonstrate that their scheme fails to satisfy the user anonymity due to the dictionary attacks. It is also possible to derive a user password in case of smart card loss attacks. Additionally, an improved scheme eliminating these weaknesses is also presented.

  9. Security analysis and improvement of a privacy authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Xu, Lili

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays, patients can gain many kinds of medical service on line via Telecare Medical Information Systems(TMIS) due to the fast development of computer technology. So security of communication through network between the users and the server is very significant. Authentication plays an important part to protect information from being attacked by malicious attackers. Recently, Jiang et al. proposed a privacy enhanced scheme for TMIS using smart cards and claimed their scheme was better than Chen et al.'s. However, we have showed that Jiang et al.'s scheme has the weakness of ID uselessness and is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack and user impersonation attack if an attacker compromises the legal user's smart card. Also, it can't resist DoS attack in two cases: after a successful impersonation attack and wrong password input in Password change phase. Then we propose an improved mutual authentication scheme used for a telecare medical information system. Remote monitoring, checking patients' past medical history record and medical consultant can be applied in the system where information transmits via Internet. Finally, our analysis indicates that the suggested scheme overcomes the disadvantages of Jiang et al.'s scheme and is practical for TMIS.

  10. Interference-Limited Device-to-Device Multi-User Cooperation Scheme for Optimization of Edge Networking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Cheng Huang; Jie Zhang; Zu-Fan Zhang; Zhong-Yang Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Device-to-device (D2D) communication is an emerging technology for improving cellular networks, which plays an important role in realizing Internet of Things (IoT). The spectrum efficiency, energy efficiency and throughput of network can be enhanced by the cooperation among multiple D2D users in a self-organized method. In order to limit the interference of D2D users and load off the energy consumption of D2D users without decreasing communication quality, an interference-limited multi-user cooperation scheme is proposed for multiple D2D users to solve the energy problem and the interference problem in this paper. Multiple D2D users use non-orthogonal spectrums to form clusters by self-organized method. Multiple D2D users are divided into different cooperative units. There is no interference among different cooperative units so as to limit the interference of each D2D user in cooperative units. When the link capacity cannot meet the requirements of the user rate, it will produce an interrupt event. In order to evaluate the communication quality, the outrage probability of D2D link is derived by considering link delay threshold, data rate and interference. Besides the energy availability and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of each D2D user, the distance between D2D users is considered when selecting the relaying D2D users so as to enhance the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of D2D receiving users. Combining the derived outrage probability, the relationships among the average link delay threshold, the efficiency of energy and the efficiency of capacity are studied. The simulation results show that the interference-limited multiple D2D users cooperation scheme can not only help to offload energy consumption and limit the interference of D2D users, but also enhance the efficiency of energy and the efficiency of capacity.

  11. A novel decentralized hierarchical access control scheme for the medical scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskeland, Sigurd; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2006-01-01

    to be the property of the corresponding patient, it is justified that patients should have the opportunity to exert control over their own data. In this paper, we propose a cryptographic access control scheme allowing patients to grant medical teams authorizations to access their medical data. Moreover...

  12. A novel system for environmental monitoring through a cooperative/synergistic scheme between bioindicators and biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Frank; Siontorou, Christina G

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses environmental monitoring through a robust dynamic integration between biomonitor and biosensor systems, a strategy that has not been attempted before. The two systems are conceptually interrelated and methodologically correlated to a cooperative/synergistic scheme (CSS) with a view to minimise uncertainty and monitoring costs and increase reliability of pollution control and abatement. The structures and operations of the biosensor component (in terms of sensitivity, device and method versatility, nature-mimicking physicochemical mechanisms, prospects and technological input) are such that they reinforce or promote the structures and operations of the natural component (in terms of bio-surveillance, impact assessment, environmental quality indexing, stress responses, metabolic pathways, etc.) and vice versa. The bioindicator ontology presented herein, including concepts, relations and controlled vocabulary aiming at establishing an integrated methodology for mapping/assessing negative environmental externalities, provides a useful tool for the design/development/implementation of an environmental network for the monitoring of a variety of pollutants over time and space and the assessment of environmental quality; the collection of the available information and its classification into taxonomic and partonomic relations allows the construction of a database that links pollutants with organisms' response, at a phenomenological and in-depth level, considering ecological parameters, relations and geomorphologic characteristics. As a result, a computer program has been designed/developed as a decision support system and has been successfully tested on a representative population of species indigenous to southern Greece. Significantly, a novel system in the form of a rational framework at the conceptual design level has been developed, that actually contributes towards achieving a cost-effective long-term monitoring program, with the flexibility to

  13. Cooperative medical insurance and the cost of care in Shandong, PR China: perspectives of patients and community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal; Raulli, Alexandra; Yan, Wang; Dong, Han; Aiguo, Zhang; Ping, Dong

    2015-03-01

    This research was conducted to identify the cost of care associated with utilization of village clinics and membership of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in 2 counties of Shandong province, PR China. A total of 397 community members and 297 patients who used the village clinics were interviewed. The average cost for primary care treatment of 1 episode of illness was about 55 yuan (about US$8). Although more than 50% of people had NCMS membership, many consider the monetary reimbursements as insufficient. The low insurance reimbursement rates and inability to pay out-of-pocket expenses compromise access to care. Delays can cause more serious illnesses with potential to overburden the secondary care at the township and county hospitals. Those rural people who have not yet enjoyed the benefits of China's economic development may not benefit from recent health care reform and finance mechanisms unless schemes such as the NCMS provide more substantial subsidies.

  14. nter-Regional Medical Cooperation in the Caribbean: Lessons from the Ongoing Cooperation between Martinique, St Lucia, and Dominica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Resiere

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Martinique was accepted as an associate member by the Council of Ministers of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States. This membership constitutes a major asset in bringing Martiniquais closer to the other Caribbean populations and should play a key role as it relates to regional cooperation especially in the domain of healthcare. It is urgent for professionals in the Caribbean to discuss the possibilities of improving relationships between countries in training, development and continuous medical education. Cooperation between the French Caribbean departments and surrounding countries appears to be quite indispensable.

  15. COMMON LEVELS OF CO-OPERATION BETWEEN MEDICAL SPECIALISTS, BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERS, AND BIOCYBERNETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Mikołajewska; Dariusz Mikołajewski

    2013-01-01

    There is a dominant opinion that the cooperation of medical personnel and engineers is unappreciated and its significant positive influence on the results of therapy has not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this paper is an attempt to assess the state of cooperation between medical specialists and biomedical engineers and biocybernetics specialists on the basis of the opinions published up to this point in literature. A survey of the literature in reviewed articles indexed i...

  16. A Selective Group Authentication Scheme for IoT-Based Medical Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoHan; Park, YoungHo

    2017-04-01

    The technology of IoT combined with medical systems is expected to support advanced medical services. However, unsolved security problems, such as misuse of medical devices, illegal access to the medical server and so on, make IoT-based medical systems not be applied widely. In addition, users have a high burden of computation to access Things for the explosive growth of IoT devices. Because medical information is critical and important, but users have a restricted computing power, IoT-based medical systems are required to provide secure and efficient authentication for users. In this paper, we propose a selective group authentication scheme using Shamir's threshold technique. The property of selectivity gives the right of choice to users to form a group which consists of things users select and access. And users can get an access authority for those Things at a time. Thus, our scheme provides an efficient user authentication for multiple Things and conditional access authority for safe IoT-based medical information system. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first in which selectivity is combined with group authentication in IoT environments.

  17. Cooperation in Carrier Sense Based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks - Part I: Reactive Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative techniques have been shown to significantly improve the performance of wireless systems. Despite being a mature technology in single communication link scenarios, their implementation in wider, and practical, networks poses several challenges which have not been fully identified and understood so far. In this two-part paper, the implementation of cooperative communications in non-centralized ad hoc networks with sensing-based channel access is extensively discussed. Both analysis and simulation are employed to provide a clear understanding of the mutual influence between the link layer contention mechanism and collaborative protocols. Part I of this work focuses on reactive cooperation, in which relaying is triggered by packet delivery failure events, while Part II addresses proactive approaches, preemptively initiated by the source based on channel state information. Results show that sensing-based channel access significantly hampers the effectiveness of cooperation by biasing the spatial distri...

  18. Evaluation of field triage decision scheme educational resources: audience research with emergency medical service personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Kelly; Eckstein, Daniel; Zambon, Allison

    2013-03-01

    In an effort to encourage appropriate field triage procedures, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the American College of Surgeons-Committee on Trauma, convened the National Expert Panel on Field Triage to update the Field Triage Decision Scheme: The National Trauma Triage Protocol (Decision Scheme). In support of the Decision Scheme, CDC developed educational resources for emergency medical service (EMS) professionals, one of CDC's first efforts to develop and broadly disseminate educational information for the EMS community. CDC wanted to systematically collect information from the EMS community on what worked and what did not with respect to these educational materials and which materials were of most use. An evaluation was conducted to obtain feedback from EMS professionals about the Decision Scheme and use of Decision Scheme educational materials. The evaluation included a survey and a series of focus groups. Findings indicate that a segment of the Decision Scheme's intended audience is using the materials and learning from them, and they have had a positive influence on their triage practices. However, many of the individuals who participated in this research are not using the Decision Scheme and indicated that the materials have not affected their triage practices. Findings presented in this article can be used to inform development and distribution of additional Decision Scheme educational resources to ensure they reach a greater proportion of EMS professionals and to inform other education and dissemination efforts with the EMS community.

  19. A robust cooperative spectrum sensing scheme based on Dempster-Shafer theory and trustworthiness degree calculation in cognitive radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinlong; Feng, Shuo; Wu, Qihui; Zheng, Xueqiang; Xu, Yuhua; Ding, Guoru

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) is a promising technology that brings about remarkable improvement in spectrum utilization. To tackle the hidden terminal problem, cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) which benefits from the spatial diversity has been studied extensively. Since CSS is vulnerable to the attacks initiated by malicious secondary users (SUs), several secure CSS schemes based on Dempster-Shafer theory have been proposed. However, the existing works only utilize the current difference of SUs, such as the difference in SNR or similarity degree, to evaluate the trustworthiness of each SU. As the current difference is only one-sided and sometimes inaccurate, the statistical information contained in each SU's historical behavior should not be overlooked. In this article, we propose a robust CSS scheme based on Dempster-Shafer theory and trustworthiness degree calculation. It is carried out in four successive steps, which are basic probability assignment (BPA), trustworthiness degree calculation, selection and adjustment of BPA, and combination by Dempster-Shafer rule, respectively. Our proposed scheme evaluates the trustworthiness degree of SUs from both current difference aspect and historical behavior aspect and exploits Dempster-Shafer theory's potential to establish a `soft update' approach for the reputation value maintenance. It can not only differentiate malicious SUs from honest ones based on their historical behaviors but also reserve the current difference for each SU to achieve a better real-time performance. Abundant simulation results have validated that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing ones under the impact of different attack patterns and different number of malicious SUs.

  20. Cooperation in Carrier Sense Based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks - Part II: Proactive Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This work is the second of a two-part series of papers on the effectiveness of cooperative techniques in non-centralized carrier sense-based ad hoc wireless networks. While Part I extensively discussed reactive cooperation, characterized by relayed transmissions triggered by failure events at the intended receiver, Part II investigates in depth proactive solutions, in which the source of a packet exploits channel state information to preemptively coordinate with relays in order to achieve the optimal overall rate to the destination. In particular, this work shows by means of both analysis and simulation that the performance of reactive cooperation is reduced by the intrinsic nature of the considered medium access policy, which biases the distribution of the available relays, locating them in unfavorable positions for rate optimization. Moreover, the highly dynamic nature of interference that characterizes non-infrastructured ad hoc networks is proved to hamper the efficacy and the reliability of preemptively ...

  1. Progress and Research of Network System Survivability Scheme with Cooperative Information Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingliang Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research progress of network survivability during the last few years were briefly introduced, including definitions, methods, qualitative and quantitative survivability evaluation, etc. Technical measures of survivability were summarized. Cooperative survivability and further possible research problems were investigated. Based on the idea of machine learning, survivability information can be got from other systems, and were utilized by the local system to enhance local survivability in time. Some research aspects on cooperative network survivability were summarized. Peers in a system collaborate with each other, which can improve the survivability of the whole systems.

  2. Faculty development in medical education research: a cooperative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Wendy C; Love, Jeffrey N; Santen, Sally A; Hobgood, Cherri D; Mavis, Brian E; Maggio, Lauren A; Farrell, Susan E

    2010-05-01

    As the definition of scholarship is clarified, each specialty should develop a cadre of medical education researchers who can design, test, and optimize educational interventions. In 2004, the Association for American Medical Colleges' Group on Educational Affairs developed the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program to provide a curriculum to help medical educators acquire or enhance skills in medical education research, to promote effective collaboration with seasoned researchers, and to create better consumers of medical education scholarship. MERC courses are offered to individuals during educational meetings. Educational leaders in emergency medicine (EM) identified a disparity between the "scholarship of teaching" and medical education research skills, and they collaborated with the MERC steering committee to develop a mentored faculty development program in medical education research. A planning committee comprising experienced medical education researchers who are also board-certified, full-time EM faculty members designed a novel approach to the MERC curriculum: a mentored team approach to learning, grounded in collaborative medical education research projects. The planning committee identified areas of research interest among participants and formed working groups to collaborate on research projects during standard MERC workshops. Rather than focusing on individual questions during the course, each mentored group identified a single study hypothesis. After completing the first three workshops, group members worked under their mentors' guidance on their multiinstitutional research projects. The expected benefits of this approach to MERC include establishing a research community network, creating projects whose enrollments offer a multiinstitutional dimension, and developing a cadre of trained education researchers in EM.

  3. Automatic Scheme for Fused Medical Image Segmentation with Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch.Hima Bindu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical image segmentation has become an essential technique in clinical and research- oriented applications. Because manual segmentation methods are tedious, and semi-automatic segmentation lacks the flexibility, fully-automatic methods have become the preferred type of medical image segmentation. This work proposes a robust fully automatic segmentation scheme based on the modified contouring technique. The entire scheme consists of three stages. In the first stage, the Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT of image is computed. This is followed by the fusion of coefficients using fusion method. For that fused image local threshold is computed. This is followed by the second stage in which the initial points are determined by computation of global threshold. Finally, in the third stage, searching procedure is started from each initial point to obtain closed-loop contours. The whole process is fully automatic. This avoids the disadvantages of semi-automatic schemes such as manually selecting the initial contours and points.

  4. On the security flaws in ID-based password authentication schemes for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dheerendra

    2015-01-01

    Telecare medical information systems (TMIS) enable healthcare delivery services. However, access of these services via public channel raises security and privacy issues. In recent years, several smart card based authentication schemes have been introduced to ensure secure and authorized communication between remote entities over the public channel for the (TMIS). We analyze the security of some of the recently proposed authentication schemes of Lin, Xie et al., Cao and Zhai, and Wu and Xu's for TMIS. Unfortunately, we identify that these schemes failed to satisfy desirable security attributes. In this article we briefly discuss four dynamic ID-based authentication schemes and demonstrate their failure to satisfy desirable security attributes. The study is aimed to demonstrate how inefficient password change phase can lead to denial of server scenario for an authorized user, and how an inefficient login phase causes the communication and computational overhead and decrease the performance of the system. Moreover, we show the vulnerability of Cao and Zhai's scheme to known session specific temporary information attack, vulnerability of Wu and Xu's scheme to off-line password guessing attack, and vulnerability of Xie et al.'s scheme to untraceable on-line password guessing attack.

  5. Scheme major international and regional cooperative projects and double-bases projects for overseas scholars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ In 2005, 34 major international cooperative projects involved in multiple disciplines as Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Life Sciences, Engineering and Materials Sciences, Information Sciences, Earth Sciences,Chemical Sciences, and Management Sciences etc., were ratified with a total funding of 32.03 million RMB.

  6. A QR code based zero-watermarking scheme for authentication of medical images in teleradiology cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenivasagam, V; Velumani, R

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare institutions adapt cloud based archiving of medical images and patient records to share them efficiently. Controlled access to these records and authentication of images must be enforced to mitigate fraudulent activities and medical errors. This paper presents a zero-watermarking scheme implemented in the composite Contourlet Transform (CT)-Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) domain for unambiguous authentication of medical images. Further, a framework is proposed for accessing patient records based on the watermarking scheme. The patient identification details and a link to patient data encoded into a Quick Response (QR) code serves as the watermark. In the proposed scheme, the medical image is not subjected to degradations due to watermarking. Patient authentication and authorized access to patient data are realized on combining a Secret Share with the Master Share constructed from invariant features of the medical image. The Hu's invariant image moments are exploited in creating the Master Share. The proposed system is evaluated with Checkmark software and is found to be robust to both geometric and non geometric attacks.

  7. A QR Code Based Zero-Watermarking Scheme for Authentication of Medical Images in Teleradiology Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Seenivasagam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare institutions adapt cloud based archiving of medical images and patient records to share them efficiently. Controlled access to these records and authentication of images must be enforced to mitigate fraudulent activities and medical errors. This paper presents a zero-watermarking scheme implemented in the composite Contourlet Transform (CT—Singular Value Decomposition (SVD domain for unambiguous authentication of medical images. Further, a framework is proposed for accessing patient records based on the watermarking scheme. The patient identification details and a link to patient data encoded into a Quick Response (QR code serves as the watermark. In the proposed scheme, the medical image is not subjected to degradations due to watermarking. Patient authentication and authorized access to patient data are realized on combining a Secret Share with the Master Share constructed from invariant features of the medical image. The Hu’s invariant image moments are exploited in creating the Master Share. The proposed system is evaluated with Checkmark software and is found to be robust to both geometric and non geometric attacks.

  8. An efficient and secure medical image protection scheme based on chaotic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chong; Meng, Wei-hong; Zhan, Yong-feng; Zhu, Zhi-liang; Lau, Francis C M; Tse, Chi K; Ma, Hong-feng

    2013-09-01

    Recently, the increasing demand for telemedicine services has raised interest in the use of medical image protection technology. Conventional block ciphers are poorly suited to image protection due to the size of image data and increasing demand for real-time teleradiology and other online telehealth applications. To meet this challenge, this paper presents a novel chaos-based medical image encryption scheme. To address the efficiency problem encountered by many existing permutation-substitution type image ciphers, the proposed scheme introduces a substitution mechanism in the permutation process through a bit-level shuffling algorithm. As the pixel value mixing effect is contributed by both the improved permutation process and the original substitution process, the same level of security can be achieved in a fewer number of overall rounds. The results indicate that the proposed approach provides an efficient method for real-time secure medical image transmission over public networks.

  9. Energy Efficient Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks Using Distributed Dynamic Load Balanced Clustering Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukkumar R.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR is a promising and potential technique to enable secondary users (SUs or unlicenced users to exploit the unused spectrum resources effectively possessed by primary users (PUs or licenced users. The proven clustering approach is used to organize nodes in the network into the logical groups to attain energy efficiency, network scalability, and stability for improving the sensing accuracy in CR through cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS. In this paper, a distributed dynamic load balanced clustering (DDLBC algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, each member in the cluster is to calculate the cooperative gain, residual energy, distance, and sensing cost from the neighboring clusters to perform the optimal decision. Each member in a cluster participates in selecting a cluster head (CH through cooperative gain, and residual energy that minimises network energy consumption and enhances the channel sensing. First, we form the number of clusters using the Markov decision process (MDP model to reduce the energy consumption in a network. In this algorithm, CR users effectively utilize the PUs reporting time slots of unavailability. The simulation results reveal that the clusters convergence, energy efficiency, and accuracy of channel sensing increased considerably by using the proposed algorithm.

  10. Initial experience in setting up a medical student first responder scheme in South Central England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, William H; Ganatra, Sameer; England, David; Black, John J M

    2016-02-01

    Prehospital emergency medicine (PHEM) is a recently recognised subspecialty of emergency medicine, and anaesthetics, intensive care and acute medicine, in the UK, and yet it receives little to no mention in many undergraduate medical curricula. However, there is growing interest in PHEM among medical students and junior doctors. Several programmes are in existence across the UK that serve to provide teaching and exposure of prehospital care to medical students and junior doctors. However, relatively few students are able to gain significant first-hand experience of treating patients in the prehospital phase. In this short report, we discuss our experience of launching the student first responder (SFR) scheme across three counties in the Thames Valley. Medical students are trained by the regional ambulance service and respond to life-threatening medical emergencies in an ambulance response vehicle. The scheme is likely to benefit the ambulance service by providing a wider pool of trained volunteer first responders able to attend to emergency calls, to benefit patients by providing a quick response at their time of need, and to benefit medical students by providing first-hand experience of medical emergencies in the community. In its first 15 months of operation, SFRs were dispatched to 343 incidents. This scheme can serve as a training model for other ambulance services and medical schools across the UK. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Outage Performance Analysis of Relay Selection Schemes in Wireless Energy Harvesting Cooperative Networks over Non-Identical Rayleigh Fading Channels †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Nhu Tri; Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc; An, Beongku

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study relay selection in decode-and-forward wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the relays harvest energy from the source’s radio-frequency radiation and then use that energy to forward the source information. Considering power splitting receiver architecture used at relays to harvest energy, we are concerned with the performance of two popular relay selection schemes, namely, partial relay selection (PRS) scheme and optimal relay selection (ORS) scheme. In particular, we analyze the system performance in terms of outage probability (OP) over independent and non-identical (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. We derive the closed-form approximations for the system outage probabilities of both schemes and validate the analysis by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The numerical results provide comprehensive performance comparison between the PRS and ORS schemes and reveal the effect of wireless energy harvesting on the outage performances of both schemes. Additionally, we also show the advantages and drawbacks of the wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks and compare to the conventional cooperative networks. PMID:26927119

  12. A novel decentralized hierarchical access control scheme for the medical scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskeland, Sigurd; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2006-01-01

    Electronic patient records contains highly personal and confidential information that it is essential to keep private. Thus, only the medical professionals providing care to a patient should access the patient record of the concerning patient. As personal medical data can be considered...... to be the property of the corresponding patient, it is justified that patients should have the opportunity to exert control over their own data. In this paper, we propose a cryptographic access control scheme allowing patients to grant medical teams authorizations to access their medical data. Moreover......, the hierarchical aspects of teams are taken into account so that the modules of the patient record are to be accessed according to the individual privileges of the medical professionals of the team. Thus, more privileged users obtain larger portions of the data than less privileged users....

  13. COMMON LEVELS OF CO-OPERATION BETWEEN MEDICAL SPECIALISTS, BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERS, AND BIOCYBERNETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Mikołajewska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a dominant opinion that the cooperation of medical personnel and engineers is unappreciated and its significant positive influence on the results of therapy has not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this paper is an attempt to assess the state of cooperation between medical specialists and biomedical engineers and biocybernetics specialists on the basis of the opinions published up to this point in literature. A survey of the literature in reviewed articles indexed in the main literature databases was carried out using specific keywords and unambiguous criteria for inclusion and omission. Further study is necessary which will determine the state of cooperation between medical specialists and biomedical engineers and biocybernetics specialists, the factors which determine it and any guidelines for clinical practice.

  14. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Improving English Pronunciation and Comprehension of Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Sanaee Moghadam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acquisition of intelligible English pronunciation and comprehension of medical texts has been considered as an important need for medical students. This can be improved by employing different methods and taking into consideration various learning styles of students. This study is an attempt to reveal the effect of cooperative learning on enhancing pronunciation and reading comprehension in students of medicine in Yasuj University of Medical Sciences. Methods: All 60 students of medicine in Yasuj University of Medical Sciences who enrolled in English for specific purposes 1st Feb 2013 took part in this quasi experimental study and were divided into two groups of thirties, according to the enrollment list. Cooperative learning was implemented with the experimental group dividing them into groups of five randomly, while the control group was taught with traditional method. Phonetic transcriptions were used along with passages taken from their book for the two groups. The data collected from three reading aloud tasks, scores of pretest, and midterm and final written examinations were analyzed using SPSS software, version19. Results: The results of the study showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group significantly (P<0.05 in all areas of reading aloud tests, pronunciation, and comprehension. Conclusion: It is concluded that cooperative learning significantly improves medical students’ pronunciation and comprehension. Teaching pronunciation and comprehension through cooperative learning yields better learning results for university students.

  15. The cost-effectiveness of managed care regarding chronic medicine prescriptions in a selected medical scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Day

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of managed care interventions with respect to prescriptions for chronic illness sufferers enrolled with a specific medical scheme. The illnesses included, were epilepsy, hypertension, diabetes and asthma. The managed care interventions applied were a primary discount; the use of preferred provider pharmacies, and drug utilization review. It was concluded that the managed care interventions resulted in some real cost savings.

  16. A cavity-Cooper pair transistor scheme for investigating quantum optomechanics in the ultra-strong coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimberg, A. J.; Blencowe, M. P.; Armour, A. D.; Nation, P. D.

    2014-05-01

    We propose a scheme involving a Cooper pair transistor (CPT) embedded in a superconducting microwave cavity, where the CPT serves as a charge tunable quantum inductor to facilitate ultra-strong coupling between photons in the cavity and a nano- to meso-scale mechanical resonator. The mechanical resonator is capacitively coupled to the CPT, such that mechanical displacements of the resonator cause a shift in the CPT inductance and hence the cavity's resonant frequency. The amplification provided by the CPT is sufficient for the zero point motion of the mechanical resonator alone to cause a significant change in the cavity resonance. Conversely, a single photon in the cavity causes a shift in the mechanical resonator position on the order of its zero point motion. As a result, the cavity-Cooper pair transistor coupled to a mechanical resonator will be able to access a regime in which single photons can affect single phonons and vice versa. Realizing this ultra-strong coupling regime will facilitate the creation of non-classical states of the mechanical resonator, as well as the means to accurately characterize such states by measuring the cavity photon field.

  17. Secure Cooperative Spectrum Sensing via a Novel User-Classification Scheme in Cognitive Radios for Future Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Future communication networks would be required to deliver data on a far greater scale than is known to us today, thus mandating the maximal utilization of the available radio spectrum using cognitive radios. In this paper, we have proposed a novel cooperative spectrum sensing approach for cognitive radios. In cooperative spectrum sensing, the fusion center relies on reports of the cognitive users to make a global decision. The global decision is obtained by assigning weights to the reports received from cognitive users. Computation of such weights requires prior information of the probability of detection and the probability of false alarms, which are not readily available in real scenarios. Further, the cognitive users are divided into reliable and unreliable categories based on their weighted energy by using some empirical threshold. In this paper, we propose a method to classify the cognitive users into reliable, neutral and unreliable categories without using any pre-defined or empirically-obtained threshold. Moreover, the computation of weights does not require the detection, or false alarm probabilities, or an estimate of these probabilities. Reliable cognitive users are assigned the highest weights; neutral cognitive users are assigned medium weights (less than the reliable and higher than the unreliable cognitive users’ weights; and unreliable users are assigned the least weights. We show the performance improvement of our proposed method through simulations by comparing it with the conventional cooperative spectrum sensing scheme through different metrics, like receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and mean square error. For clarity, we also show the effect of malicious users on detection probability and false alarm probability individually through simulations.

  18. Distributed Joint Cluster Formation and Resource Allocation Scheme for Cooperative Data Collection in Virtual MIMO-Based M2M Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Luan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient data collection scheme plays an important role for the real-time intelligent monitoring in many machine-to-machine (M2M networks. In this paper, a distributed joint cluster formation and resource allocation scheme for data collection in cluster-based M2M networks is proposed. Specifically, in order to utilize the advantages of cooperation, we first propose a hierarchical transmission model which contains two communication phases. In the first phase, the intracluster information sharing is carried out by all the nodes within the same cluster. Then these nodes transmit the total information to the BS cooperatively with virtual-MIMO (VMIMO protocol in the second phase. To grasp the properties and advantages of this cooperative transmission strategy, the theoretical analysis results are provided. The key issue in this system is to form the clusters and allocate resources efficiently. Since the optimization problem on this issue is an NP-hard problem, a feasible joint scheme for the cluster formation and resource allocation is proposed in this paper, which is carried out via coalition formation game with a distributed algorithm. This scheme can reduce the complexity while keeping an attractive performance. Simulation results show the properties of the proposed scheme and its advantages when comparing with the noncooperative scheme for the data collection in a practical scenario.

  19. 一种新的多链路轮询方案%A new multi-link cooperative polling scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛玉泉; 李思佳; 李波; 郑秋荣

    2011-01-01

    为了改善无人机数据链(unmanned aerial vehicle data link,UAV-DL)的吞吐量和平均时延,结合UAV的Markov飞行状态、Gilbert-Elliot信道模型和不同分组网络的优先级,提出了一种基于Gilbert-Elliot信道的UAV数据链多链路轮询策略.该策略以链路信道状态和不同分组网络的优先级为轮询的最优目标,首先,依据轮询的最优目标完成信息的传输,然后,依据排队过程的概率母函数和基本的排队原理分析了UAV数据链多链路轮询机制的性能.最后通过Opnet仿真了该策略组网条件下的平均时延和吞吐量,结果表明:与其典型的两种轮询方式相比,该方案的平均时延削减了至少30%,组网的吞吐量增加了1.3倍.%In order to improve the throughput and reduce the average delay for UAV-DL ( unmanned aerial vehicle data link ),a new multi-link cooperative polling scheme is proposed based on the Markov chain of flight condition for UAV-DL,Gilbert-Elliot channel model and different priorities for multi-link network.The channel state and different priorities are op timal for the multi-link cooperative polling scheme.The data is transmitted according to its channel state and priority.And then the average delay and throughput of multi-link cooperative polling model for UAV-DL are analyzed and simulated based on the probability generating function and the queuing theory.Simulation results show that the average delay is shortened by 30% and the throughput is increased 1.3 times than other ways in simulation.

  20. Government Responsibility in New Rural Cooperative Medical Care System from the Perspective of Equity and Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liuni; GUAN

    2015-01-01

    Equity and efficiency,as two essential parts of social security,always influence construction of China’s new rural cooperative medical care system.The new rural cooperative medical care system is a rural social security system particularly intended to make it more affordable for the rural poor.It is a multi-channel fundraising system with fund of comprehensive arrangement for serious disease composed by the government,collectives and individuals.Since its implementation,it has made considerable achievements,but there are still many apparent and hidden problems.Through analyzing existing problems in the implementation of new rural cooperative medical care system,from the perspective of equity and efficiency,it reached the conclusion that government should take corresponding responsibilities.At the same time of constantly increasing efficiency,it is recommended to attach importance to the equity,so as to realize the objective of improving the security level of new rural cooperative medical care system.

  1. Anonymous three-party password-authenticated key exchange scheme for Telecare Medical Information Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xie

    Full Text Available Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMIS provide an effective way to enhance the medical process between doctors, nurses and patients. For enhancing the security and privacy of TMIS, it is important while challenging to enhance the TMIS so that a patient and a doctor can perform mutual authentication and session key establishment using a third-party medical server while the privacy of the patient can be ensured. In this paper, we propose an anonymous three-party password-authenticated key exchange (3PAKE protocol for TMIS. The protocol is based on the efficient elliptic curve cryptosystem. For security, we apply the pi calculus based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our 3PAKE protocol for TMIS can provide anonymity for patient and doctor while at the same time achieves mutual authentication and session key security. The proposed scheme is secure and efficient, and can be used in TMIS.

  2. Anonymous three-party password-authenticated key exchange scheme for Telecare Medical Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Hu, Bin; Dong, Na; Wong, Duncan S

    2014-01-01

    Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMIS) provide an effective way to enhance the medical process between doctors, nurses and patients. For enhancing the security and privacy of TMIS, it is important while challenging to enhance the TMIS so that a patient and a doctor can perform mutual authentication and session key establishment using a third-party medical server while the privacy of the patient can be ensured. In this paper, we propose an anonymous three-party password-authenticated key exchange (3PAKE) protocol for TMIS. The protocol is based on the efficient elliptic curve cryptosystem. For security, we apply the pi calculus based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our 3PAKE protocol for TMIS can provide anonymity for patient and doctor while at the same time achieves mutual authentication and session key security. The proposed scheme is secure and efficient, and can be used in TMIS.

  3. [A multicenter trial of regional medical cooperation for cancer chemotherapy after the great East Japan earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Shoko; Seya, Yukiko; Murayama, Motoko; Ogasawara, Kimiyo; Kisara, Shigeki; Ishii, Tadashi; Sugawara, Michie; Chida, Yasunori; Kanbe, Mariko; Kakudo, Yuichi; Mano, Nariyasu; Ishioka, Chikashi

    2013-03-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake was the first disaster we experienced after the administration of oncology care had mostly shifted from hospitals to outpatient departments in Japan. Disaster medical assistance teams(DMATs)were deployed immediately after the disaster, and actively assisted during the acute phase of the catastrophe. After experiencing the earthquake, we realized the necessity of medical support teams, even for chronic disease. Here we report a multicenter trial of regional medical cooperation for cancer chemotherapy. First, soon after the earthquake, representatives from the regional hospitals discussed the proper roles for each institution. As agreed to in the discussion, cancer patients were redistributed from a disaster base hospital to a local general hospital, and oncologists supported the other regional hospitals on a regular basis. This broad regional network functioned well and patients resumed their treatment as soon as the situation allowed. Second, we performed a survey of the patients and found that the most important problem was patients' lack of understanding of their own illnesses. Third, we conducted an opinion survey of medical professionals on regional medical cooperation. Based on the trial, we found it important in disasters to establish regional cooperation and solid communication systems, and to promote patient education.

  4. Sustainable Load-Balancing Scheme for Inter-Sensor Convergence Processing of Routing Cooperation Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Woo Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in Information Technology (IT have sparked the creation of numerous and diverse types of devices and services. Manual data collection measurement methods have been automated through the use of various wireless or wired sensors. Single sensor devices are included in smart devices such as smartphones. Data transmission is critical for big data collected from sensor nodes, such as Mobile Sensor Nodes (MSNs, where sensors move dynamically according to sensor mobility, or Fixed Sensor Nodes (FSNs, where sensor locations are decided by the users. False data transfer processing of big data results in topology lifespan reduction and data transfer delays. Hence, a variety of simulators and diverse load-balancing algorithms have been developed as protocol verification tools for topology lifespan maximization and effective data transfer processing. However, those previously developed simulators have limited functions, such as an event function for a specific sensor or a battery consumption rate test for sensor deployment. Moreover, since the previous load-balancing algorithms consider only the general traffic distribution and the number of connected nodes without considering the current topology condition, the sustainable load-balancing technique that takes into account the battery consumption rate of the dispersed sensor nodes is required. Therefore, this paper proposes the Sustainable Load-balancing Scheme (SLS, which maximizes the overall topology lifespan through effective and sustainable load-balancing of data transfer among the sensors. SLS is capable of maintaining an effective topology as it considers both the battery consumption rate of the sensors and the data transfer delay.

  5. [The regional cooperation of medical services and a nutritional support team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Michio

    2006-12-01

    "Community NST" is a new concept, which means a cooperation system with the hospital NST and a regional medical service. "Community NST" provides home nutritional care for the patients with nutritional problems. The function of the hospital NST for inpatients has been established in recent years. Now the patients need a continuous nutritional care not only in the hospital but at home. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) has been performed on the base of cooperation with the hospital and home care. This PEG system is one of the functions of "Community NST". The author showed several measures of "Community NST", which have been tried in the hospital.

  6. Smartphone-Based Patients' Activity Recognition by Using a Self-Learning Scheme for Medical Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junqi; Zhou, Xi; Sun, Yunchuan; Ping, Gong; Zhao, Guoxing; Li, Zhuorong

    2016-06-01

    Smartphone based activity recognition has recently received remarkable attention in various applications of mobile health such as safety monitoring, fitness tracking, and disease prediction. To achieve more accurate and simplified medical monitoring, this paper proposes a self-learning scheme for patients' activity recognition, in which a patient only needs to carry an ordinary smartphone that contains common motion sensors. After the real-time data collection though this smartphone, we preprocess the data using coordinate system transformation to eliminate phone orientation influence. A set of robust and effective features are then extracted from the preprocessed data. Because a patient may inevitably perform various unpredictable activities that have no apriori knowledge in the training dataset, we propose a self-learning activity recognition scheme. The scheme determines whether there are apriori training samples and labeled categories in training pools that well match with unpredictable activity data. If not, it automatically assembles these unpredictable samples into different clusters and gives them new category labels. These clustered samples combined with the acquired new category labels are then merged into the training dataset to reinforce recognition ability of the self-learning model. In experiments, we evaluate our scheme using the data collected from two postoperative patient volunteers, including six labeled daily activities as the initial apriori categories in the training pool. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed self-learning scheme for activity recognition works very well for most cases. When there exist several types of unseen activities without any apriori information, the accuracy reaches above 80 % after the self-learning process converges.

  7. The Function Analysis of Informationization in New Rural Cooperatives Medical Service Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuefeng; Liu, Min

    The establishment of new rural cooperative medical system is an important action for comprehensive affluent society. It is an important measure for Central Party Committee and State Council to solve "three rural" issue effectively and to overall urban and rural, regional, coordinated economic and social development, building a well-off society in the new situation. It has important role to alleviate farmers to see a doctor expensively, see a doctor difficultly, reduce the burden on farmers and improve their level of health protection and quality of life, solve the problem of poor because of illness and the problem of returning poor due to illness, promote the production and rural economic development and stability in the rural areas. This article will analyze the function of informationization in new rural cooperative medical service management selectively.

  8. An Efficient User Authentication and User Anonymity Scheme with Provably Security for IoT-Based Medical Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Wu, Tsu-Yang; Chen, Chin-Ling; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Chien-Ming

    2017-06-23

    In recent years, with the increase in degenerative diseases and the aging population in advanced countries, demands for medical care of older or solitary people have increased continually in hospitals and healthcare institutions. Applying wireless sensor networks for the IoT-based telemedicine system enables doctors, caregivers or families to monitor patients' physiological conditions at anytime and anyplace according to the acquired information. However, transmitting physiological data through the Internet concerns the personal privacy of patients. Therefore, before users can access medical care services in IoT-based medical care system, they must be authenticated. Typically, user authentication and data encryption are most critical for securing network communications over a public channel between two or more participants. In 2016, Liu and Chung proposed a bilinear pairing-based password authentication scheme for wireless healthcare sensor networks. They claimed their authentication scheme cannot only secure sensor data transmission, but also resist various well-known security attacks. In this paper, we demonstrate that Liu-Chung's scheme has some security weaknesses, and we further present an improved secure authentication and data encryption scheme for the IoT-based medical care system, which can provide user anonymity and prevent the security threats of replay and password/sensed data disclosure attacks. Moreover, we modify the authentication process to reduce redundancy in protocol design, and the proposed scheme is more efficient in performance compared with previous related schemes. Finally, the proposed scheme is provably secure in the random oracle model under ECDHP.

  9. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No. 6.1: Recommended Guidelines on National Registration Schemes for Medical Physicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Stelios; Isidoro, Jorge; Pesznyak, Csilla; Bumbure, Lada; Cremers, Florian; Schmidt, Werner F O

    2016-01-01

    This EFOMP Policy Statement is an update of Policy Statement No. 6 first published in 1994. The present version takes into account the European Union Parliament and Council Directive 2013/55/EU that amends Directive 2005/36/EU on the recognition of professional qualifications and the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM laying down the basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation. The European Commission Radiation Protection Report No. 174, Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert and the EFOMP Policy Statement No. 12.1, Recommendations on Medical Physics Education and Training in Europe 2014, are also taken into consideration. The EFOMP National Member Organisations are encouraged to update their Medical Physics registration schemes where these exist or to develop registration schemes taking into account the present version of this EFOMP Policy Statement (Policy Statement No. 6.1"Recommended Guidelines on National Registration Schemes for Medical Physicists").

  10. SecureMed: Secure Medical Computation using GPU-Accelerated Homomorphic Encryption Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, Alhassan; Gulak, Glenn

    2017-01-23

    Sharing the medical records of individuals among healthcare providers and researchers around the world can accelerate advances in medical research. While the idea seems increasingly practical due to cloud data services, maintaining patient privacy is of paramount importance. Standard encryption algorithms help protect sensitive data from outside attackers but they cannot be used to compute on this sensitive data while being encrypted. Homomorphic Encryption (HE) presents a very useful tool that can compute on encrypted data without the need to decrypt it. In this work, we describe an optimized NTRUbased implementation of the GSW homomorphic encryption scheme. Our results show a factor of 58 × improvement in CPU performance compared to other recent work on encrypted medical data under the same security settings. Our system is built to be easily portable to GPUs resulting in an additional speedup of up to a factor of 104 × (and 410 × ) to offer an overall speedup of 6085 × (and 24011 × ) using a single GPU (or four GPUs), respectively.

  11. Medical devices and the Middle East: market, regulation, and reimbursement in Gulf Cooperation Council states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard JJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jason J Howard Division of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Department of Surgery, Sidra Medical and Research Center, Doha, Qatar Abstract: With some of the richest economies in the world, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC is undergoing rapid growth not only in its population but also in health care expenditure. Despite the GCC's abundance of hydrocarbon-based wealth, the drivers of the medical device industry in the GCC are still in flux, with gains yet to be made in areas of infrastructure, regulation, and reimbursement. However, the regional disease burden, expanding health insurance penetration, increasing privatization, and a desire to attract skilled expatriate health care providers have led to favorable conditions for the medical device market in the GCC. The purpose of this article is to investigate the current state of the GCC medical device industry, with respect to market, regulation, and reimbursement, paying special attention to the three largest medical device markets: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. The GCC would seem to represent fertile ground for the development of medical technologies, especially those in line with the regional health priorities of the respective member states. Keywords: medical devices, regulation, reimbursement, Middle East 

  12. Profit Allocation Scheme Among Players in Supply-Chain Based on Shapley Value of Fuzzy Bi-cooperative Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-hui; ZHANG Qiang

    2009-01-01

    The Shapley value of fuzzy bi-cooperative game is developed based on the conventional Shapley value of bi-cooperative game.From the viewpoint that the players can participate in the coalitions to a certain extent and there are at least two independent cooperative projects for every player to choose,Shapley value which is introduced by Grabisch is extended to the case of fuzzy bi-cooperative game by Choquet integral.Moveover,the explicit fuzzy Shapley value is given.The explicit fuzzy Shapley function can be used to allocate the profits among players in supply-chain under the competitive and uncertain environment.

  13. The REEME project: a cooperative model for sharing international medical education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2008-07-01

    Although the Internet has become an excellent source of medical education materials, in many specialties, including Emergency Medicine (EM), most of the information is in English. Few international EM practitioners can attend costly specialty conferences, importing foreign experts to teach at these conferences is costly and, even then, these experts are available for a limited time to relatively few people. Countries with minimal health care or medical education budgets find providing even basic materials for professional medical education difficult. An exciting international project now freely distributes Spanish language educational programs to health care professionals on topics relating to EM. The Recursos Educacionales en Español para Medicina de Emergencia (REEME; Educational Resources in Spanish for EM) Project (www.reeme.arizona.edu) was developed to overcome some of these problems by providing language-specific specialty information and widespread international availability, and by promoting international cooperation among professional health care educators. It also provides a ready source of Spanish medical vocabulary for those trying to learn the language. With computer support from the University of Arizona's Learning and Technology Center, REEME first went "live" on November 1, 2004. Three years later, as of November 1, 2007, the site had 575 programs from 411 donors representing 19 countries and the United Nations. There are currently about 645 downloads per month to users in 73 countries. The REEME Project demonstrates the power of the Internet as a means to achieve international cooperation in medical education, and can serve as a model for similar projects in other specialties and languages.

  14. Medical devices and the Middle East: market, regulation, and reimbursement in Gulf Cooperation Council states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jason J

    2014-01-01

    With some of the richest economies in the world, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is undergoing rapid growth not only in its population but also in health care expenditure. Despite the GCC’s abundance of hydrocarbon-based wealth, the drivers of the medical device industry in the GCC are still in flux, with gains yet to be made in areas of infrastructure, regulation, and reimbursement. However, the regional disease burden, expanding health insurance penetration, increasing privatization, and a desire to attract skilled expatriate health care providers have led to favorable conditions for the medical device market in the GCC. The purpose of this article is to investigate the current state of the GCC medical device industry, with respect to market, regulation, and reimbursement, paying special attention to the three largest medical device markets: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. The GCC would seem to represent fertile ground for the development of medical technologies, especially those in line with the regional health priorities of the respective member states. PMID:25429243

  15. [The historical experience of medical service in cooperation with state healthcare facilities during the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budko, A A; Gribovskaia, G A; Zhuravlev, D A

    2014-05-01

    Cooperation issues between military-medical service and civil healthcare in the field of delivery of medical aid to patients in the rear of country are considered in the artic. The rear is a final stage of the care by echelon and the main medical reserve force for front and army areas. Wide hospital network in the rear consisted mainly of evacuation hospitals of the People's Commissariat of the USSR healthcare. Cooperation between military-medical service and civil healthcare facilities was required. Sometimes necessary cooperation failed and made mutual helming of evacuation hospitals difficult. But despite the problems the main problem - return of maximum wounded soldiers to active duty was solved during the Great Patriotic War.

  16. Accessing health care in a rural area: an evaluation of a voluntary medical transport scheme in the English Midlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, K B; Lewis, G J

    2000-12-01

    In recent years notions of self-help and voluntarism have emerged as key elements in the delivery of services in rural England. This paper explores these themes by reference to 'Rural Wheels', a voluntary medical transport scheme in rural Northamptonshire, introduced to overcome the closure of branch surgeries and to provide access to a new medical centre. By focusing upon the organisation and operations of the scheme, the paper highlights the important role it plays in the welfare of rural residents, particularly elderly women. Yet, because effectively it is run by a small core group, the paper raises questions not just about the viability of this scheme but also about the increasing commitment of central government to the voluntary sector as a means of delivering health care to rural people.

  17. Region of Interest-Based Tamper Detection and Lossless Recovery Watermarking Scheme (ROI-DR) on Ultrasound Medical Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Hui Liang; Liew, Siau-Chuin; Zain, Jasni Mohd

    2017-06-01

    Tampering on medical image will lead to wrong diagnosis and treatment, which is life-threatening; therefore, digital watermarking on medical image was introduced to protect medical image from tampering. Medical images are divided into region of interest (ROI) and region of non-interest (RONI). ROI is an area that has a significant impact on diagnosis, whereas RONI has less or no significance in diagnosis. This paper has proposed ROI-based tamper detection and recovery watermarking scheme (ROI-DR) that embeds ROI bit information into RONI least significant bits, which will be extracted later for authentication and recovery process. The experiment result has shown that the ROI-DR has achieved a good result in imperceptibility with peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) values approximately 48 dB, it is robust against various kinds of tampering, and the tampered ROI was able to recover to its original form. Lastly, a comparative table with the previous research (TALLOR and TALLOR-RS watermarking schemes) has been derived, where these three watermarking schemes were tested under the same testing conditions and environment. The experiment result has shown that ROI-DR has achieved speed-up factors of 22.55 and 26.65 in relative to TALLOR and TALLOR-RS watermarking schemes, respectively.

  18. A Secure and Robust User Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme for Hierarchical Multi-medical Server Environment in TMIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Goswami, Adrijit

    2015-09-01

    The telecare medicine information system (TMIS) helps the patients to gain the health monitoring facility at home and access medical services over the Internet of mobile networks. Recently, Amin and Biswas presented a smart card based user authentication and key agreement security protocol usable for TMIS system using the cryptographic one-way hash function and biohashing function, and claimed that their scheme is secure against all possible attacks. Though their scheme is efficient due to usage of one-way hash function, we show that their scheme has several security pitfalls and design flaws, such as (1) it fails to protect privileged-insider attack, (2) it fails to protect strong replay attack, (3) it fails to protect strong man-in-the-middle attack, (4) it has design flaw in user registration phase, (5) it has design flaw in login phase, (6) it has design flaw in password change phase, (7) it lacks of supporting biometric update phase, and (8) it has flaws in formal security analysis. In order to withstand these security pitfalls and design flaws, we aim to propose a secure and robust user authenticated key agreement scheme for the hierarchical multi-server environment suitable in TMIS using the cryptographic one-way hash function and fuzzy extractor. Through the rigorous security analysis including the formal security analysis using the widely-accepted Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic, the formal security analysis under the random oracle model and the informal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. Furthermore, we simulate our scheme using the most-widely accepted and used Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool. The simulation results show that our scheme is also secure. Our scheme is more efficient in computation and communication as compared to Amin-Biswas's scheme and other related schemes. In addition, our scheme supports extra functionality features as compared to

  19. A Novel Two-stage Entropy-based Robust Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Scheme with Two-bit Decision in Cognitive Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is a key problem in cognitive radio. However, traditional detectors become ineffective when noise uncertainty is severe. It is shown that the entropy of Gauss white noise is constant in the frequency domain, and a robust detector based on the entropy of spectrum amplitude was proposed. In this paper a novel detector is proposed based on the entropy of spectrum power density, and its performance is better than the previous scheme with less computational complexity. Furthermore, to improve the reliability of the detection, a two-stage entropy-based cooperative spectrum sensing scheme using two-bit decision is proposed, and simulation results show its superior performance with relatively low computational complexity.

  20. Visit to general practitioners as a proxy for accessing chronic benefits by members of medical schemes, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mncedisi M. Willie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prescribed Minimum Benefits is a list of conditions that all medical schemes need to cover in full, and includes a select of chronic conditions. Chronic conditions affect people’s lifestyles and require ongoing management over a period of years for long-term survival. Objectives: This study examined the association between prevalence of selected chronic diseases and health service use, in particular visits to general practitioners (GPs by medical scheme members.Method: This was a retrospective study on medical schemes data. The median imputation method was employed to deal with missing and unreported chronic diseases prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to assess effects of chronic disease prevalence, age stratum and scheme size on GP visits per annum.Results: The study showed that prevalence of asthma was significantly associated with more than three GP visits (OR = 1.081; 95% CI = 1.008–1.159, as was prevalence of type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.087; 95% CI = 1.027–1.152, whilst prevalence of hyperlipidaemia (OR = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.875–0.97 was more likely to be associated with less than three GP visits. Prevalence of hypertension was associated with more than three GP visits per year (OR = 1.132; 95% CI = 1.017–1.26.Conclusion: This study shows that scheme size, prevalence of chronic diseases such as asthma, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension are related to GP visits. GPs and managed care programmes employed by schemes should give special attention to certain disease states with high prevalence rates in an effort to better manage them.

  1. Visit to general practitioners as a proxy for accessing chronic benefits by members of medical schemes, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mncedisi M. Willie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prescribed Minimum Benefits is a list of conditions that all medical schemes need to cover in full, and includes a select of chronic conditions. Chronic conditions affect people’s lifestyles and require ongoing management over a period of years for long-term survival.Objectives: This study examined the association between prevalence of selected chronic diseases and health service use, in particular visits to general practitioners (GPs by medical scheme members.Method: This was a retrospective study on medical schemes data. The median imputation method was employed to deal with missing and unreported chronic diseases prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to assess effects of chronic diseaseprevalence, age stratum and scheme size on GP visits per annum.Results: The study showed that prevalence of asthma was significantly associated with more than three GP visits (OR = 1.081; 95% CI = 1.008–1.159, as was prevalence of type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.087; 95% CI = 1.027–1.152, whilst prevalence of hyperlipidaemia (OR = 0.92; 95%CI = 0.875–0.97 was more likely to be associated with less than three GP visits. Prevalence of hypertension was associated with more than three GP visits per year (OR = 1.132; 95% CI = 1.017–1.26.Conclusion: This study shows that scheme size, prevalence of chronic diseases such as asthma, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension are related to GP visits. GPs and managed care programmes employed by schemes should give special attention to certain disease states with high prevalence rates in an effort to better manage them.

  2. 无线网络终端协作多播技术研究%Cooperative Multicast Scheme Research in Wireless Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢飞

    2014-01-01

    终端协作多播技术,因其能有效改善广播多播吞吐量的瓶颈问题而成为新的研究方向。针对当前多媒体广播多播业务的流行,对传统广播多播的缺点做了简要分析,介绍了协作通信与协作多播的基本原理,重点分析了当前国内外协作多播技术的研究现状,从中继节点的协作方式、协作策略与协作中继选择、多阶段协作多播三方面展开阐述,概括出当前的研究主要集中于提高吞吐量与降低系统功耗两方面。最后,对协作多播提出了展望,说明了协作多播走向商用还需解决的问题。%Multicast communication is an efficient mechanism for one-to-many transmissions over a broadcast wireless channel,but the group member with the worst channel condition becomes the bottleneck and results in conservative resource utilization. Cooperative multicast has gotten much attention because it can achieve high throughput than existing multicast scheme.A detailed introduction of the research status of cooperative multicast is given in this article,from which we find that most researches focus on the relay selection and the energy efficient cooperative multicast scheme.

  3. A lossless multichannel bio-signal compression based on low-complexity joint coding scheme for portable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sun; Kwon, Jin-San

    2014-09-18

    Research on real-time health systems have received great attention during recent years and the needs of high-quality personal multichannel medical signal compression for personal medical product applications are increasing. The international MPEG-4 audio lossless coding (ALS) standard supports a joint channel-coding scheme for improving compression performance of multichannel signals and it is very efficient compression method for multi-channel biosignals. However, the computational complexity of such a multichannel coding scheme is significantly greater than that of other lossless audio encoders. In this paper, we present a multichannel hardware encoder based on a low-complexity joint-coding technique and shared multiplier scheme for portable devices. A joint-coding decision method and a reference channel selection scheme are modified for a low-complexity joint coder. The proposed joint coding decision method determines the optimized joint-coding operation based on the relationship between the cross correlation of residual signals and the compression ratio. The reference channel selection is designed to select a channel for the entropy coding of the joint coding. The hardware encoder operates at a 40 MHz clock frequency and supports two-channel parallel encoding for the multichannel monitoring system. Experimental results show that the compression ratio increases by 0.06%, whereas the computational complexity decreases by 20.72% compared to the MPEG-4 ALS reference software encoder. In addition, the compression ratio increases by about 11.92%, compared to the single channel based bio-signal lossless data compressor.

  4. The State of Human Anatomy Teaching in the Medical Schools of Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: Present and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Habbal, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Available literature on medical education charts an emerging trend in the field of anatomy. In the past decade, assisted by innovations in informatics and the paradigm shift in medical education, the hands-on experience of cadaver dissection has progressively become a relic of the past. Within the context of the situation in Gulf Cooperation Council countries, this paper compares the traditional teaching approach with the modern one that tends to emphasise technical gadgetry, virtual reality ...

  5. What are key determinants of hospital admissions, readmission rate and day case rate within the South African medical schemes population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nondumiso Gugu Khumalo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  BACKGROUND: In South Africa, private hospitals absorb a high proportion of the total health expenditure on private health care. Between 2008-2010 private hospital expenditure which includes ward fees, theatre fees, consumables, medicines and per diem arrangements consumed between 40.5% and 40.9% of the total benefits paid by medical schemes from the risk pool, whilst in-hospital managed care fees ranged between 1.8% and 2.8% for the equivalent years.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to highlight key factors contributing to utilisation of hospital services within the medical schemes population and to recommend “appropriate” and cost effective strategies on hospital utilisation management.METHODS: A cross sectional survey informed by retrospective analysis of quantitative data was used. Researchers also triangulated quantitative data with systematic review of literature.RESULTS: The results show that demographic indicators such as age profile, dependency ratio, pensioner ratio and prevalence of chronic conditions are not the only key factors influencing hospital admissions, but rather the effectiveness of each medical scheme in containing hospital admissions is also influenced by available technical capacity on utilisation review and audit as well as the managed care methodology including the philosophy underpinning benefit option design.CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of “value based” managed care programs linked to benefit option design in health care utilisation management. The choice of one managed care program over the other often leads to tradeoffs whereby unintended consequences emanate. Medical schemes are therefore encouraged to continuously review their managed care programs to ensure value for money as well as better access and health outcomes.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v13i2.207

  6. Privacy-Preserving Self-Helped Medical Diagnosis Scheme Based on Secure Two-Party Computation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the continuing growth of wireless sensor networks in pervasive medical care, people pay more and more attention to privacy in medical monitoring, diagnosis, treatment, and patient care. On one hand, we expect the public health institutions to provide us with better service. On the other hand, we would not like to leak our personal health information to them. In order to balance this contradiction, in this paper we design a privacy-preserving self-helped medical diagnosis scheme based on secure two-party computation in wireless sensor networks so that patients can privately diagnose themselves by inputting a health card into a self-helped medical diagnosis ATM to obtain a diagnostic report just like drawing money from a bank ATM without revealing patients’ health information and doctors’ diagnostic skill. It makes secure self-helped disease diagnosis feasible and greatly benefits patients as well as relieving the heavy pressure of public health institutions.

  7. 新型农村合作医疗保险信息系统的设计与实现%DESIGNING AND REALISING NEW RURAL COOPERATIVES MEDICAL INSURANCE INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明; 宋顺林

    2011-01-01

    介绍新型农村合作医疗信息系统的业务流程,总体结构,模块功能及体系结构,并给出了相应的实现技术和部分程序代码.基本实现了新型农村合作医疗的程序化、科学化、规范化的管理.具有较好的应用价值.%This thesis introduces the operation flow,general structure, modules function and the architecture of new rural cooperatives medical service information system, and gives corresponding technologies and part of the program code. The programmed, scientific and standardised management of the new rural cooperatives medical service scheme have been realised basically. The system has preferable good applied value.

  8. 基于多元LDPC码的多用户协作方案%Multiuser Cooperative Scheme Based on Nonbinary LDPC Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施玉晨; 白宝明

    2013-01-01

    Compared with Turbo codes, nonbinary low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have the better waterfall and error floor performance. The nonbinary LDPC codes are applied to decode-and-forward (DF) cooperative communications in this paper, and a multiuser cooperative scheme based on outage probability is proposed. Each user decides its relay by judging whether its channel to the source node is in outage or not. In case the channel is not in outage, the user decodes the received signal from the source node, and encodes it using nonbinary LDPC codes before forwarding to the destination. The parity-check matrix of nonbinary LDPC codes consists of information part and parity-check part. The information part is quasi-cyclic, and the parity-check part is the dual-diagonal structure. Simulation results show that, compared with the random cooperative scheme, the proposed scheme can achieve about 0.3 dB and 0.4 dB performance gains at the bit error rate (BER) of 10−4 on Gaussian channel and Rayleigh fading channel, respectively.%  与Turbo码相比,多元LDPC码有更好的waterfall和error floor性能.该文将多元LDPC码应用于译码转发协作系统中,提出基于中断概率的多用户协作方案.各用户通过判断自己与信源节点间的信道是否发生中断,决定是否作为中继.若没有发生中断,用户先对接收到的信息进行译码,再采用多元LDPC码重新编码后发送至目的节点.仿真结果表明,当误比特率(BER)为10−4时,相比于随机协作方案,该方案在高斯信道下可获得0.3 dB的性能改善,在瑞利衰落信道下可获得0.4 dB的性能改善.

  9. A subcarrier-pair based resource allocation scheme using proportional fairness for cooperative OFDM-based cognitive radio networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongtao; Zhou, Liuji; Liu, Kaihua

    2013-08-09

    The paper presents a joint subcarrier-pair based resource allocation algorithm in order to improve the efficiency and fairness of cooperative multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MU-OFDM) cognitive radio (CR) systems. A communication model where one source node communicates with one destination node assisted by one half-duplex decode-and-forward (DF) relay is considered in the paper. An interference-limited environment is considered, with the constraint of transmitted sum-power over all channels and aggregate average interference towards multiple primary users (PUs). The proposed resource allocation algorithm is capable of maximizing both the system transmission efficiency and fairness among secondary users (SUs). Besides, the proposed algorithm can also keep the interference introduced to the PU bands below a threshold. A proportional fairness constraint is used to assure that each SU can achieve a required data rate, with quality of service guarantees. Moreover, we extend the analysis to the scenario where each cooperative SU has no channel state information (CSI) about non-adjacent links. We analyzed the throughput and fairness tradeoff in CR system. A detailed analysis of the performance of the proposed algorithm is presented with the simulation results.

  10. 面向协作通信的忙音信道接入机制%A channel accessing scheme based on busy tone for cooperative communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢鲲; 谢可欣; 吉刚; 何施茗

    2014-01-01

    Compared with traditional wireless communication , although relay nodes in cooperative communication can help to increase the performance of a wireless network,relay nodes may cause the serious competition for wire-less channel accessing ,which makes the channel access problem in cooperative communication challenging .To solve the problem,a novel MAC ( media access control) scheme by concurrently considering RTS/CTS ( Request To Send/Clear To Send) and busy tone is proposed in the paper.In the scheme,three busy tones are proposed to iden-tify the state of channel occupation and solve the hidden terminal and exposed terminal problems in cooperative communication.Based on the busy tone,this paper also proposes a bandwidth efficient relay selection algorithm.The source can choose the best relay in a distributed way by sensing the busy tone .The theory and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can efficiently improve the channel utilization and solve the hidden terminal and exposed terminal problems in cooperative communication .The blocking time ratio of the proposed MAC scheme is less than 10% when the data packet size surpasses 3500B.%与传统无线传输相比,虽然协作中继节点的参与可以大大提高无线网络性能,然而协作中继会带来严重的信道竞争问题,这给协作通信环境中的信道访问控制带来挑战。为了解决这个问题,提出一种RTS/CTS(Request To Send/Clear To Send)与忙音结合的MAC(media access control)信道接入方案。该方案使用3个忙音来标识信道的使用状态,并解决协作通信中的隐藏终端和暴露终端问题。基于忙音信号,还提出了一种带宽节俭的协作节点选择算法。通过侦听忙音信号,源节点可分布式地选择最优的协作节点。理论分析和仿真实验表明所提方案能有效地提高协作通信中的信道利用率,很好地解决了协作通信中的隐藏终端暴露终端问

  11. Will China's Cooperative Medical System fail again? Insight from farmer satisfaction survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Tang, Kam Ki; Zhao, Lifeng; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-06-01

    This paper studied the sustainability of China's New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NCMS) by evaluating the satisfaction rate of its participants-the farmers. The study related the overall satisfaction of the farmers to their satisfaction with the four different aspects of the program. It also identified which personal and program attributes affect the farmers' satisfaction rate. Survey data of 1278 households from 66 counties in Shandong Province of China were collected in 2011 using a multi-stage stratified cluster-sampling method. To overcome the nepotistic barriers in rural China, field surveys in each township were conducted by university students from the same place. Data were analyzed using multiple regressions and structural equation modeling method. The results showed that 86% of the farmers were either satisfied or very satisfied with the NCMS and 82% indicated their intention to continue participating in the program. Aside from its financial benefits, both the publicity and reimbursement procedure of the program were found to be significant factors in influencing the satisfaction of the farmers. Majority of the participants held positive opinions toward the NCMS, contradicting the negative assessments made by many previous studies. Given the high proportion of farmers willing to continue with the program, it is likely to be sustainable in the near future. Greater publicity and education efforts should be made to make the farmers better informed about the program, and measures should be taken to improve its reimbursement procedure and the setting of the premium level.

  12. Development and evaluation of an interactive electronic laboratory manual for cooperative learning of medical histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Kirkley, Debbie L; Kibble, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of an interactive computer-based laboratory manual, created to facilitate the teaching and learning of medical histology. The overarching goal of developing the manual is to facilitate self-directed group interactivities that actively engage students during laboratory sessions. The design of the manual includes guided instruction for students to navigate virtual slides, exercises for students to monitor learning, and cases to provide clinical relevance. At the end of the laboratory activities, student groups can generate a laboratory report that may be used to provide formative feedback. The instructional value of the manual was evaluated by a questionnaire containing both closed-ended and open-ended items. Closed-ended items using a five-point Likert-scale assessed the format and navigation, instructional contents, group process, and learning process. Open-ended items assessed student's perception on the effectiveness of the manual in facilitating their learning. After implementation for two consecutive years, student evaluation of the manual was highly positive and indicated that it facilitated their learning by reinforcing and clarifying classroom sessions, improved their understanding, facilitated active and cooperative learning, and supported self-monitoring of their learning. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Evaluation of the new rural cooperative medical system in China: is it working or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hong

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To prove the possibility of implementing the New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS at different levels with a premium funding according to their economic level in developed and less developed areas in Guangdong province, and study the insurable inpatients in different types of regions, taking into account limitations of indemnities and loss ratios. Method All data samples were randomly collected from the NRCMS Department, Guangdong Province. Gross domestic product (GDP at 10000 Yuan per capita was employed to divide Guangdong into two economic levels: (1 economically developed & (2 less economically developed regions. A descriptive analysis about tendency of raising premium and reimbursement ratios of common fund was performed with independent samples and t-test as well as implementing a model to evaluate the differences in premium contribution differences in co-payments, thresholds, and rebates. Also, a qualitative study measured several economic factors to evaluate farmers' financial and social potency in contributing to the NRCMS. Result A higher GDP per capita were found within economically developed regions (p 0.05; nevertheless, economically developed regions showed higher threshold and rebates with less co-payments in the economically developed than less developed. Conclusion Despite some loop holes in the NRCMS, the system is workable, but needs more strengthening by encouraging farmers' participation into NRCMS with a necessity to implement a new reimbursement payment system by health care providers. In addition it is proposed that for maximum benefits another premium funding should be secured.

  14. Comparison of two methods of teaching hypertension in under graduate medical students: "planned lecture" versus "cooperative learning".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Zahra; Ahmadi, Farokhlagha; Jalili, Mohammad; Nadia Hatmi, Zinat; Olang, Orkideh; Eslami, Khadijeh; Gatmiri, Seyed Mansoor

    2012-01-01

    The direct and indirect negative impacts of hypertension on mortality and morbidity and the deficiencies in physicians' knowledge on its management prompted us to search for new methods of training this item. In this study, 2 methods of teaching-planned lecture and cooperation-were compared in instructing hypertension to medical students. This study was designed to be a prospective analysis of the efficacy of 2 models of cooperation and planned lecture teaching of hypertension. The medical students, in the second term of the 2010 academic year who were introduced to the nephrology ward for their internal medicine course, were randomly assigned to 2 groups to be taught hypertension by 2 models of cooperation and planned lecture to compare their advantages and disadvantages. In their final exam 2 questions concerning the management of hypertension were asked with regard to evaluating the long-term impact of the models on learning. Data were analyzed by paired t-test to compare pre- and post-test in each group, and independent t-test was used to compare the average and standard deviation scores between groups. Fifty-one students participated in the study. The total number of students in the lecture (group 1) and cooperation (group 2) methods was 28 and 23, respectively. By independent t-test, differences in test scores indicated a similar achievement of the 2 methods for the endpoint of basic knowledge (P = 0.253). But, the cooperation method was more successful in transferring abilities, primarily in the areas of workup and treatment (P < 0.05). The study findings show that both methods can set in the optimal training for hypertension to students but that the cooperative method is more effective for deduction analysis.

  15. Effect of the new maternity insurance scheme on medical expenditures for caesarean delivery in Wuxi, China: a retrospective pre/post-reform case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Cheng, Zhihong; Jiang, Ping; Sun, Mei; Zhang, Qi; Lv, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Aiming to control rising medical expenditures and help improve China's healthcare systems, this study examined whether a cap-based medical insurance scheme with shared financial interest between the insurance and healthcare providers is effective in containing hospitals' C-section medical expenditures. We used 6547 caesarean delivery case records from a teaching tertiary-level general public hospital located in Wuxi, China (2004-2013), and used the Chow test to investigate the possibility of significant variation in mean medical expenditures for caesarean deliveries pre- and post-reform. We also used paired sample t-tests and linear regression models to compare the mean medical expenditures between insured and uninsured women undergoing caesarean delivery during the post-reform period. After the scheme's implementation, medical expenditures for caesarean deliveries declined and the medical expenditures of women covered by the scheme were significantly lower than those of uninsured patients. These findings indicated the scheme's effectiveness in minimizing caesarean delivery expenditures. The cap-based medical insurance scheme with shared financial interest between insurance and healthcare providers would likely steer healthcare providers' behaviors in a more cost-effective direction.

  16. The impact of an automated dose-dispensing scheme on user compliance, medication understanding, and medication stockpiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Bira; Haugbølle, Lotte Stig

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been assumed that a new health technology, automated dose-dispensing (ADD), would result in benefits for medication users, including increased compliance, enhanced medication understanding, and improved safety. However, it was legislators and health professionals who pinpointed...... the assumed user benefits. Neither Danish nor international studies dealt with users' perspective on ADD in general or with respect to the pinpointed benefits, and thus exploration was needed. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article is to respond to the following research question: How does ADD affect users......' handling and consumption of medication in terms of compliance behavior, and how does the assumption of user benefits made by health professionals and legislators measure up to users' experiences with ADD? METHODS: The results built on a secondary analysis of 9 qualitative interviews with a varied selection...

  17. A Novel Feature Extraction Scheme for Medical X-Ray Images

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi.G.Bhende; Dr.A.N.Cheeran

    2016-01-01

    X-ray images are gray scale images with almost the same textural characteristic. Conventional texture or color features cannot be used for appropriate categorization in medical x-ray image archives. This paper presents a novel combination of methods like GLCM, LBP and HOG for extracting distinctive invariant features from Xray images belonging to IRMA (Image Retrieval in Medical applications) database that can be used to perform reliable matching between different views of an obje...

  18. New Watermarking Scheme for Security and Transmission of Medical Images for PocketNeuro Project

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Bouhlel; J. C. Lapayre; C. Chemak

    2007-01-01

    We describe a new Watermarking system of medical information security and terminal mobile phone adaptation for PocketNeuro project. The later term refers to a Project created for the service of neurological diseases. It consists of transmitting information about patients \\"Desk of Patients\\" to a doctor\\'s mobile phone when he is visiting or examining his patient. This system is capable of embedding medical information inside diagnostic images for security purposes. Our system applies JPEG Co...

  19. Medical Image De-Noising Schemes using Wavelet Transform with Fixed form Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Mustafa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical Imaging is currently a hot area of bio-medical engineers, researchers and medical doctors as it is extensively used in diagnosing of human health and by health care institutes. The imaging equipment is the device, which is used for better image processing and highlighting the important features. These images are affected by random noise during acquisition, analyzing and transmission process. This condition results in the blurry image visible in low contrast. The Image De-noising System (IDs is used as a tool for removing image noise and preserving important data. Image de-noising is one of the most interesting research areas among researchers of technology-giants and academic institutions. For Criminal Identification Systems (CIS & Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, IDs is more beneficial in the field of medical imaging. This paper proposes an algorithm for de-noising medical images using different types of wavelet transform, such as Haar, Daubechies, Symlets and Bi-orthogonal. In this paper noise image quality has been evaluated using filter assessment parameters like Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, Mean Square Error (MSE and Variance, It has been observed to form the numerical results that, the presentation of proposed algorithm reduced the mean square error and achieved best value of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR. In this paper, the wavelet based de-noising algorithm has been investigated on medical images along with threshold.

  20. Restraining Factors and Improving Paths for the Operation Mechanism of New Rural Cooperative Medical System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The new rural cooperative medical system has achieved periodical achievements since its establishment.Nevertheless,there are many factors hampering the development of the new system,such as the high cost,the difficulties in fund procurement,the lack of management,the narrow coverage of benefit,the ineffective constraint to the designated medical institutions,the high fund balance rate,and the poor medical facilities and services in rural areas.Countermeasures are put forward to solve these problems,including improving the system design,expanding the coverage of the system,expanding the fund sources,reducing the financing costs,strengthening the fund supervision,enhancing the supervision of designated medical institutions,and improving the capacity of health services in rural areas.

  1. Special funding schemes for innovative medical devices in French hospitals: the pros and cons of two different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Nicolas; van den Brink, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    Financing innovative medical devices is an important challenge for national health policy makers, and a crucial issue for hospitals. However, when innovative medical devices are launched on the European market there is generally little clinical evidence regarding both efficacy and safety, both because of the flaws in the European system for regulating such devices, and because they are at an early stage of development. To manage the uncertainty surrounding the reimbursement of innovation, several European countries have set up temporary funding schemes to generate evidence about the effectiveness of devices. This article explores two different French approaches to funding innovative in-hospital devices and collecting supplementary data: the coverage with evidence development (CED) scheme introduced under Article L. 165-1-1 of the French Social Security Code; and national programs for hospital-based research. We discuss pros and cons of both approaches in the light of CED policies in Germany and the UK. The CED policies for devices share common limitations. Thus, transparency of CED processes should be enhanced and decisions need to be made in a timely way. Finally, we think that closer collaboration between manufacturers, health authorities and hospitals is essential to make CED policies more operational.

  2. An On-Time Power-Aware Scheduling Scheme for Medical Sensor SoC-Based WBAN Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Guk Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of many leading technologies in the field of medical sensor systems is on low power consumption and robust data transmission. For example, the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD, which is used to maintain the heart in a healthy state, requires a reliable wireless communication scheme with an extremely low duty-cycle, high bit rate, and energy-efficient media access protocols. Because such devices must be sustained for over 5 years without access to battery replacement, they must be designed to have extremely low power consumption in sleep mode. Here, an on-time, energy-efficient scheduling scheme is proposed that performs power adjustments to minimize the sleep-mode current. The novelty of this scheduler is that it increases the determinacy of power adjustment and the predictability of scheduling by employing non-pre-emptible dual priority scheduling. This predictable scheduling also guarantees the punctuality of important periodic tasks based on their serialization, by using their worst case execution time and the power consumption optimization. The scheduler was embedded into a system on chip (SoC developed to support the wireless body area network—a wakeup-radio and wakeup-timer for implantable medical devices. This scheduling system is validated by the experimental results of its performance when used with life-time extensions of ICD devices.

  3. Similarities and differences of doctor-patient co-operated evidence-based medical record of treating digestive system diseases with integrative medicine compared with traditional medical records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Li; Wen-Hong Shao; Yan-Da Li; Ying-Pan Zhao; Qing-Na Li; Zhao Yang; Hong-Cai Shang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To establish the model of doctor-patient cooperated record, based on the concepts of narrative evidence-based medicine and related theories on Doctor-Patient Co-operated Evidence-Based Medical Record. Methods: We conducted a literature search from Pubmed, following the principles of narrative evidence-based medicine, and refer to the advice of experts of digestive system and EBM in both traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Result: This research is a useful attempt to discuss the establishment of doctor-patient co-operated evidence-based medical record guided by narrative evidence-based medicine. Conclusion:Doctor-patient co-operated medical record can become a key factor of the curative effect evaluation methodology system of integrated therapy of tradition Chinese medicine and Western medicine on spleen and stomach diseases.%遵循叙事循证医学理念,咨询中西医消化内科及循证医学专家,凝练医患共建式病历的理论,建立医患共建式病历的范本,对比医患共建式病历与传统病历记录的不同,分析医患共建式病历的优缺点。思考与展望:医患共建式病历有可能成为中西医合作治疗脾胃病疗效评价方法学体系的一个要素。

  4. A Novel Feature Extraction Scheme for Medical X-Ray Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi.G.Bhende

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available X-ray images are gray scale images with almost the same textural characteristic. Conventional texture or color features cannot be used for appropriate categorization in medical x-ray image archives. This paper presents a novel combination of methods like GLCM, LBP and HOG for extracting distinctive invariant features from Xray images belonging to IRMA (Image Retrieval in Medical applications database that can be used to perform reliable matching between different views of an object or scene. GLCM represents the distributions of the intensities and the information about relative positions of neighboring pixels of an image. The LBP features are invariant to image scale and rotation, change in 3D viewpoint, addition of noise, and change in illumination A HOG feature vector represents local shape of an object, having edge information at plural cells. These features have been exploited in different algorithms for automatic classification of medical X-ray images. Excellent experimental results obtained in true problems of rotation invariance, particular rotation angle, demonstrate that good discrimination can be achieved with the occurrence statistics of simple rotation invariant local binary patterns.

  5. A Novel Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff Scheme in Cooperative MIMO Based on Distributed Space-Time Coding%一种基于分布式空时码的协作MIMO分集复用折衷新方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓荣; 章坚武; 郑宝玉

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative MIMO which is composed of multiple single antenna nodes by cooperative communication could construct multipte virtual transmit antennas. Spatial diversity gain could be obtained from this virtual MIMO multiple antenna arrays. Considered the specific features of cooperative MIMO, code cooperation strategy with distributed space-time coding is implemented in the network. An enhanced divemity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) scheme based on distributed space-time ceding (DSTC) in cooperative MIMO is studied. The expression of outage probability and diversity gain of two DSTC strategies are derived in detail. Based on the two DMT schemes of DSTC, the optimal DMT and outage performance of the enhanced DMT strategy could be obtained through altering the threshold of multiplexing gain adaptively. Numerical results indicate that, the proposed DMT scheme could be asymptotical to DMT upper bound in cooperative MIMO, and the corresponding outage performance is also inferior to that of upper bound. Hence, cooperative diversity gain and optimum outage behavior could be achieved simultaneously by the proposed DMT scheme for DSTC code cooperation in multi-node cooperative MIMO scenario.%协作MIMO通过多个单天线节点的相互协作构造多发射天线,以此形成一种虚拟MIMO多天线阵列获得空间分集增益.考虑到协作MIMO特点,天线间采用分布式空时编码进行编码协作.文章研究了协作MIMO中基于分布式空时码(DSTC)的分集复用折衷(DMT)新方案,该方案通过推导两种DSTC的中断概率与分集增益表达式,结合两类DSYC的DMT策略,根据改变复用增益阈值自适应获得最佳DMT与中断性能.数值仿真表明,所提的DMT策略可以逼近协作MIMO的DMT上限,协作节点采用该策略的中断性能仅次于上限的中断性能.在多节点构成协作MIMO网络分布式空时编码协作中,提出的DMT新方案可使系统高效地获得协作分集增益与中断性能.

  6. A Bandwidth-Efficient Cooperative Authentication and an En-route Filtering Scheme for Filtering Injected False Data in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Yashavanth,

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Injecting false data attack is awell-knownseriousthreat to wireless sensor network, for which anadversary reports bogus information to sink causingerror decision at upper level and energy waste in en-route nodes. In this paper, we propose a novelbandwidth-efficient cooperative authenticationscheme for filtering injected false data. Theproposed method of BECAN can save energy byconsidering the random graph characteristics ofdeployment of sensor node and a technique forcooperative bit-compressed authentication and thismethod is done by early detection and filtering mostof injected false data at the en-route nodes withminor extra overheads. Further, it is necessary tocheck at the sink, a very small amount of injectedfalse data which largely helps to reduce burden onthe sink. For the proposed method, theoretical andsimulation results are given which shows theeffectiveness regarding high filtering and energysaving.We propose an EFSP (En-route FilteringScheme based on Priority to control the number ofvotes. The EFSP determines priorities through thefuzzy rule-based system. Base station sends priorityto the cluster head and then according to thepriority a specified number of votes are attached tothe report by the cluster head.

  7. Generalized Group Signature Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The concept of generalized group signature scheme will bepresent. Based on the generalized secret sharing scheme proposed by Lin and Ha rn, a non-interactive approach is designed for realizing such generalized group signature scheme. Using the new scheme, the authorized subsets of the group in w hich the group member can cooperate to produce the valid signature for any messa ge can be randomly specified

  8. Conceptual Knowledge Foundations for Naval Medical Training: A Scheme for Directed Curricular Planning and Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-14

    PROBLEM ORTOPIC : CHEST PAIN NOT VERY COMMON COMMON 2. How common (relativa to the standards of the boat) is this type of problem? ID (] (3] [) NOT VERY...1.235 18 GASTROINTESTINAL ULCER 1.229 1 9 TORSION TESTICLE 1.183 20 ORTOPEDIC FRACTURES 1.172 21 HEMAFECIA / HEMATOCHEZIA (BLOOD 1.140 22 MENINGITIS... Journal of Medical Education, 62,805-809. Baroody, A.J., and Ginsburg, H.P. (1986). The relationship between initial meaningful and mechanical knowledge

  9. The role of mentoring in academic career progression: a cross-sectional survey of the Academy of Medical Sciences mentoring scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, Amy C; Eady, Nigel AJ; Wessely, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To describe a successful mentoring scheme designed for mid-career clinician scientists and to examine factors associated with mentee report of positive career impact. Design Mixed methods study including in-depth interviews and cross-sectional data collection via an online survey. Setting Academy of Medical Sciences mentoring scheme set up in 2002 and evaluated in 2010. Participants One hundred and forty-seven of 227 mentees took part in the study (response rate of 65%). Te...

  10. 多径信道下基于OFDM的DSTBC异步协同系统传输结构设计%OFDM based DSTBC Transmission Scheme for Asynchronous Cooperative Systems over Multipath Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成文婧; 裴敏艳; 马东堂; 魏急波

    2011-01-01

    The basic idea of cooperative communication is to obtain cooperative diversity by proper cooperation among different nodes to enhance the reliability of the communication. Employing Distributed Space Time Coding ( DSTBC) at relay nodes, cooperative networks can achieve high bandwidth efficiency along with the full cooperative diversity. However, the time offsets among the relay nodes and multipath fading between nodes will destroy the structure of DSTBC , which may drastically undermine the diversity of cooperative networks. To mitigate the effects of symbol asynchronism in cooperative systems, OFDM technique can be used in DSTBC based asynchronous cooperative systems, which can obtain full space diversity with the existence of timing errors. But the existing schemes are based on the assumption of flat fading channels between nodes and they could not extend to multipath channels straightforwardly. In addition, the DSTBC required in these schemes should satisfy some constraints. In this paper, a novel OFDM based transmission scheme for asynchronous cooperative systems is proposed, which can achieve full space diversity over multipath channels. Moreover, all DSTBCa for synchronoua cooperative systems can be applied to the proposed scheme. The analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme over multipath channels has same BER performance with the existing OFDM based scheme over flat fading channels. Furthermore, for the systems with two relays, we employ subcarrier grouping and precoding at the source node in the proposed scheme to achieve full space diversity along with full multipath diversity.%协同的基本思想是通过无线网络中多个节点的互相协作来获得协同分集,从而提高系统的可靠性.将分布式空时块码(DSTBC)应用到协同中继系统中,可有效提高系统效率并获得协同分集.但是各中继节点的异步传输会破坏DsTBC码字的结构,严重影响系统性能.现有文献应用OFDM技

  11. Social health assistance schemes: the case of Medical Financial Assistance for the rural poor in four counties of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic transition which took place in China over the last three decades, has led to a rapid marketization of the health care sector. Today inequity in health and poverty resulting from major illness has become a serious problem in rural areas of China. Medical Financial Assistance (MFA is a health assistance scheme that helps rural poor people cope with major illness and alleviate their financial burden from major illness, which will definitely play a significant role in the process of rebuilding Chinese new rural health system. It mainly provides assistance to cover medical expenditure for inpatient services or the treatment of major illnesses, with joint funding from the central and local government. The purpose of this paper is to review the design, funding, implementation and to explore the preliminary effects of four counties' MFA in Hubei and Sichuan province of China. Methods We used an analytical framework built around the main objective of any social assistance scheme. The framework contains six 'targeting' procedural 'steps' which may explain why a specific group does not receive the assistance it ought to receive. More specifically, we explored to what extent the targeting, a key component of social assistance programs, is successful, based on the qualitative and quantitative data collected from four representative counties in central and western China. Results In the study sites, the budget of MFA ranged from 0.8 million Yuan to 1.646 million Yuan in each county and the budget per eligible person ranged from 32.67 Yuan to 149.09 Yuan. The preliminary effects of MFA were quite modest because of the scarcity of funds dedicated to the scheme. The coverage rate of MFA ranged from 17.8% to 24.1% among the four counties. MFA in the four counties used several ways to ration a restricted budget and provided only limited assistance. Substantial problems remained in terms of eligibility and identification of the

  12. Issues concerning Migrant Workers’ Participation in the New Rural Cooperative Medical System and Countermeasures——Based on the Survey in Wenjiang District and Jintang County, Chengdu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We conduct questionnaire survey of migrant workers in Wenjiang District and Jintang County of Chengdu City,respectively,using the method of key-point investigation and the sampling survey. We describe the status quo of the sample migrant workers’ participation in the New Rural Cooperative Medical System,analyze the issues concerning migrant workers’ participation in the New Rural Cooperative Medical System,and put forward the countermeasures and recommendations as follows: using many types of medical insurance; establishing universal reimbursement points in strange land and premium-paying system for migrant workers; making the proportion of reimbursement open and transparent; establishing and improving medicare security system for migrant workers.

  13. Metabolic evaluation and medical management of upper urinary tract stone disease. Guidelines from the Scandinavian Cooperative Group for Urinary Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Grenabo, L; Haraldsson, G

    1999-01-01

    A set of simple guidelines for metabolic evaluation and medical/dietary management of patients with urolithiasis is presented. The evaluation scheme is based on the documented risk factors in the Nordic area and the results of controlled clinical trials, and takes its basis in the severity...... of the stone disease in the individual stone patient. The initial evaluation in all patients aims at diagnosing conditions with a definitive metabolic, infectious or anatomical/functional cause of stone formation (MIAF urolithiasis). Patients with MIAF urolithiasis are treated according to the nature...

  14. Property analysis of a HAPS communication scheme based on MIMO for signal' s cooperative reception%HAPS通信中基于MIMO的信号协作接收方案性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍辰杰; 陈树新; 张衡阳

    2012-01-01

    分析了在HAPS中应用协作通信的需求。研究了HAPS通信信道在不同仰角区域的特性,在此基础上提出一种HAPS通信中基于MIMO的信号协作接收方案,并在不同仰角区域中对该协作接收方案进行性能仿真.仿真结果表明,在中、低仰角区域内使用该协作接收方案能够获得较大的组合分集增益,但是。对于高仰角区域此协作通信方案的性能改善不明显.最后,就上述2种现象产生的原因进行了分析。%First the demand of applying cooperative communication via HAPS is analyzed. Then the character of HAPS communication channel in different elevation angles is studied. This paper presents a HAPS communication scheme based on MIMO for signal's cooperative reception on the basis of two works mentioned above. And a property simulation towards the cooperative reception scheme in different elevation angles is made. The simulation results shows the following:The cooperative reception scheme can obtain a relatively large combining diversity gain in middle& low-elevation angle area. However, there is little property improvement in high-elevation angle by using this scheme. Finally, the reason why different results occur in different elevation angles is analyzed.

  15. Shadow Bowl 2003: a collaborative exercise in community readiness, agency cooperation, and medical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, David; Taylor, Carl; Rosenthal, David; Bausch, Chris; Warner, Dave; Morris, Ray

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a model for homeland security, community readiness, and medical response that was applied during an operational exercise around Super Bowl XXXVII. In addition, it describes the products provided by private companies involved in the exercise and how they would have contributed to a medical disaster had one occurred. The purpose of Shadow Bowl was to demonstrate community readiness and medical response to a mass casualty event. The goals of the project were to: (1) provide enhanced public safety using an advanced communication network and sensor grid; (2) develop mass casualty surge capabilities through medical reach-back; and (3) build a collaboration model between civilian, military, public, and private partners. The results of the Shadow Bowl Exercise accentuated the value of new telehealth and disaster medicine tools in treating large numbers of patients when infrastructure overload occurs.

  16. An Analysis of the Poverty Alleviation Effect of the New Rural Cooperative Medical System in Tibetan Areas of Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shufang

    2016-01-01

    The New Rural Cooperative Medi-cal System ( hereafter NRCMS) in Tibetan areas of Sichuan was started in Wenchuan in 2005 , and by 2008 covered all of the province’s Tibetan areas. This paper studies the effects of the NRCMS on im-proving the health of and alleviating poverty for farmers and herdsmen in Tibetan area of Sichuan. Most parts of the Tibetan areas of Sichuan are located in high altitude districts. Thirty two coun-ties of these areas are classified as “National Pov-erty Counties”. Poverty and disease go hand in hand in these regions. Kashin-Beck disease and hydatid disease are the major endemics in the pas-toral and agro-pastoral areas of Sichuan. Endemic, infectious and chronic diseases are widespread in Sichuan’s Tibetan areas. More than 70% of pa-tients are workers from 20 to 60 years old. Disea-ses are more prevalent in women than in men. Kashin-Beck disease and hydatid disease are cur-rently incurable. Patients suffer from health prob-lems, which leads to a decrease in their income and the heavy burden of medical expenses. The new rural cooperative medical system alleviates the negative effects of farmers’ falling into, or back in-to poverty due to disease. However, the existing medical compensation mechanism is not sufficient to solve the problem. The greatest impact of NRCMS on the farmers and herdsmen in Sichuan’s Tibetan areas is that the system has gradually changed local people’s medi-cal behavior, as well as their underlying ideas a-bout medicine: they begin to believe in hospitals. In particular, more pregnant women are choosing to give birth in hospitals, which reduces the rate of infant mortality and postpartum diseases, and im-proves the health of women. Since the full coverage of the NRCMS in 2008 , the number of people participating in the system has reached the overall average level of Si-chuan province. By analyzing the data before and after the implementation of this system, and meas-uring the impact of the system on

  17. Effective optimization of medical exposure: co-operation between radiation users and authorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkkinen, R.; Jarvinen, H. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    For the optimization of medical exposure in special radiological practices like in paediatric radiology, orthopaedics and cardiology, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (S.T.U.K.) in Finland has used a six step model to achieve the aims of the Medical Exposure Directive (97/43/EURATOM). The basis is to introduce the regulation and to meet the needs of the users for education and training. The aim is to educate some specialists to distribute information and good practices among their own professional groups. S.T.U.K. makes continuous verification on site visits and improves the process. (authors)

  18. 42 CFR 433.147 - Cooperation in establishing paternity and in obtaining medical support and payments and in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Third Party Liability Assignment of Rights to Benefits § 433.147 Cooperation in... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperation in establishing paternity and in...) Essentials of cooperation. As part of a cooperation, the agency may require an individual to— (1) Appear at...

  19. Development and Evaluation of an Interactive Electronic Laboratory Manual for Cooperative Learning of Medical Histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Kirkley, Debbie L.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of an interactive computer-based laboratory manual, created to facilitate the teaching and learning of medical histology. The overarching goal of developing the manual is to facilitate self-directed group interactivities that actively engage students during laboratory sessions. The design of the manual…

  20. Comparing Two Cooperative Small Group Formats Used with Physical Therapy and Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eon, Marcel; Proctor, Peggy; Reeder, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study compared "Structured Controversy" (a semi-formal debate like small group activity) with a traditional open discussion format for medical and physical therapy students. We found that those students who had participated in Structured Controversy changed their personal opinion on the topic more than those who were in the Open Discussion…

  1. Development and Evaluation of an Interactive Electronic Laboratory Manual for Cooperative Learning of Medical Histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Kirkley, Debbie L.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of an interactive computer-based laboratory manual, created to facilitate the teaching and learning of medical histology. The overarching goal of developing the manual is to facilitate self-directed group interactivities that actively engage students during laboratory sessions. The design of the manual…

  2. A Cooperative Transmission Scheme of Secondary User in Cognitive Radio Networks%认知无线网络中次用户的一种协作传输策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建白; 郑宝玉; 褚御芝; 池新生

    2012-01-01

    Primary users and secondary users coexist in Cognitive Networks at the same time,so the transmission of Secondary Users must not interfere with the transmission of Primary user. The cooperative transmission of Secondary Users can improve the transmission performance of the Secondary Users, so that Cognitive Wireless Network can acquire space and time diversity gain. Before the researcher have proposed a single-relay cooperative transmission strategy. In order to further enhance the system performance of Cognitive Wireless Network. Two-relay collaborative transmission scheme based on amplify and forward is proposed. In this paper, Primary and Secondary Users coexist and Primary Users alternately transfer channel state between busy and leisure. When Primary Users exist, Secondary Users use the relay node to forward data by the chance,and we do the theoretical analysis of conflict-free transmission time and bit error rate of the scheme we propose. The analytical expression of Conflict-free transmission time and bit error rate in the single-relay cooperative transmission and dual-relay cooperative transmission mode are given. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that, the dual-relay cooperative transmission strategy can further increase conflict-free transmission time and reduce the bit error rate than the single-relay cooperative transmission. Dual-relay cooperative transmission bring considerable performance gain for Cognitive Radio Networks.%在认知无线网络中同时存在着主用户和次用户,次用户的通信行为必须在不影响主用户数据传输的前提下进行.为了保证次用户的传输连续性并改善次用户Qos,研究人员提出了次用户间相互协作传输的策略,基于此该文提出了一种基于放大转发的双中继协作传输方案并对所提方案次用户的无冲突传输时间及误比特率进行了详细的理论分析.蒙特卡洛仿真结果表明,双中继协作传输策略能在单中继协作

  3. [Cooperation of medical and pharmaceutical sciences between private and national universities to educate professionals in the fields of drug development and rational pharmacotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakawa, Seigo

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation in education and research in medical and pharmaceutical sciences between Kobe Pharmaceutical University and Kobe University was started in 2008 for training professionals in drug development and rational pharmacotherapy. Initially, we started a two-year pharmacy residency program. Our pharmacy residents can attend lectures at our universities, and they also help pharmacist preceptors educate undergraduate pharmacy students in practical training. As curricula for cooperative education of pharmacy, nursing and medical students, we developed two new elective subjects (early exposure to clinical training for first year students and IPW (inter-professional work) seminar for fifth year pharmacy students) to learn about the roles of health care professionals in a medical team. Cooperative research between faculty members and graduate students is also in progress. For faculty and staff developments, invited lectures by clinical pharmacy and medical professors from the United States on the clinical education system in pharmacy and medicine in the United States have been held. This systematic cooperation will contribute to the promotion of a new curriculum for inter-professional education in the health-science fields.

  4. Information Update Research Fellowship for International Young Scientists NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Danish National Research Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects with DFG News in Brief: NSFC set up Department of Medical Sciences NSFC Announced Approved Cooperative Projects With France and Germany NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Academy of Finland NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects with K. T. Li Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research projects With Japan Science and Technology Agency NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects With Royal Society of Edinburgh for 2010 NSFC Announced a List of proved Cooperative Projects With Three International Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Research Fellowship for International Young Scientists NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Danish National Research Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects with DFG News in Brief: NSFC set up Department of Medical Sciences NSFC Announced Approved Cooperative Projects With France and Germany NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Academy of Finland NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects with K. T. Li Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research projects With Japan Science and Technology Agency NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects With Royal Society of Edinburgh for 2010 NSFC Announced a List of proved Cooperative Projects With Three International Organizations

  5. Unawareness of a Prolonged Retained Capsule Endoscopy: The Importance of Careful Follow-Up and Cooperation between Medical Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Saigusa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old man with anemia was referred to our hospital to undergo capsule endoscopy (CE, which revealed small intestinal ulcers. After 5 months of CE, he returned because of recurrent anemia without abdominal symptoms. Abdominal X-ray and computed tomography showed capsule retention in the small intestine at the pelvic cavity. The capsule remained at the same place for 7 days. We performed capsule retrieval by laparoscopy-assisted surgery with resection of the involved small intestine, including an ileal stricture. Resected specimen showed double ulcers with different morphologies, an ulcer scar with stricture, and a wide ulcer at the proximal side of the others. Each ulcer had different histopathological findings such as the degree of fibrosis and monocyte infiltration. These differences led us to consider that the proximal ulcer may have been secondarily induced by capsule retention. Our experience indicated that careful follow-up and the cooperation between medical institutions after CE examination should be undertaken for patients with incomplete examination, unknown excretion of the capsule, and/or ulcerative lesions despite the lack of abdominal symptoms. Additionally, a retained CE remaining over long periods and at the same place in the small intestine may lead to secondary ulceration.

  6. [Impact of primary care oriented outpatient benefit package design in new rural cooperative medical system on hypertension outpatient services utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shu-nv; Jian, Wei-yan; Yip, Winnie C-M; Guo, Yan

    2014-06-18

    To study the impact of primary care oriented outpatient benefits package design of outpatient services coverage and ladder reimbursement of county, town and village levels in the new rural cooperative medical system (NRCMs) on hypertension outpatient services utilization. The panel data of treatment and control groups in 2009 and 2011 before and after the policy reform were drawn from the household survey data of the innovative payment system project. The difference in difference (DID) method was used for data analysis. The outcome indicators included the utilization of outpatient services of patients with self-reported hypertension and their main treatment locations. The primary care oriented outpatient benefit package design in the NRCMs reduced the probability of no treatment in the latest three months of hypertension by 10.2 percent points. Meanwhile, it increased the probability of choosing village clinic as the preferred location by 15.7 percent points. Primary care oriented outpatient benefits package design lead patients with hypertension to use the nearest outpatient services at low risk of disease.

  7. Individual medication management system (IMMS) as a proposition of obeying the doctor's recommendation with pharmacist cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszyk-Nowaczyk, Magdalena; Simon, Marek; Matwij, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    The pharmacist is an expert with the knowledge of drugs, who has a possibility to follow the patient's individual pharmacotherapy, which is the basis of the pharmaceutical care programme. The implementation of the Individual Medication Management System (IMMS) may be one of the proposals which will enable an analysis of the course of pharmacotherapy and elimination of drug problems, which are the chief goals of pharmaceutical care. In order to determine community pharmacy patients' degree of interest in the IMMS and to evaluate the degree of patients' discipline concerning the application of doctors' recommendations they were given an anonymous questionnaire. The research was done from August 2009 to May 2010 on a sample of 179 people selected at random. They were patients of community pharmacies in Poznań, where 70% were women and 30% were men, all of them aged between 20 and 85 years. The individual age groups were: 20-40 years--27.0%, 41-50 years--10.8%, 51-64 years--43.6%, 65 years or more--18.6%. The patients' education was as follows: primary--4.7%, vocational--8.0%, secondary--31.0%, incomplete university--12.0% and university--44.3%. The chi2 and Fisher-Freeman-Halton tests were used for statistical analysis of the results. Each time the level of statistical significance was assumed at p < 0.05. The collected results confirmed the fact that there is a higher number of specialists involved in patients' treatment with their age (p = 0.001), which indirectly leads to a higher number of prescribed drugs (p = 0.00000002). It was proved that more than 90% of the patients aged over 50 years take the prescribed drugs for more than a year (p = 0.00000002). The analysis confirmed the fact that there are mostly men which do not abide the indications concerning the dosage regimen (p = 0.049). The answers to the questions evaluating the patients' attitude to the IMMS revealed that 47.2% of the respondents indicate the advantages of the system. However, it was mostly

  8. The role of mentoring in academic career progression: a cross-sectional survey of the Academy of Medical Sciences mentoring scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Amy C; Eady, Nigel Aj; Wessely, Simon C

    2014-08-01

    Summary OBJECTIVES: To describe a successful mentoring scheme designed for mid-career clinician scientists and to examine factors associated with mentee report of positive career impact. Mixed methods study including in-depth interviews and cross-sectional data collection via an online survey. Academy of Medical Sciences mentoring scheme set up in 2002 and evaluated in 2010. One hundred and forty-seven of 227 mentees took part in the study (response rate of 65%). Ten mentees, three mentors and eight stakeholders/scheme staff were selected to participate in in-depth interviews. Qualitative data: Interviews were transcribed, and free text was analysed to identify themes and subthemes in the narrative. Quantitative data: We examined the associations of reported positive career impact of mentoring by performing simple and multiple logistic regression analysis. Mentoring success was determined by a variety of factors including reasons for selection (e.g. presence of a personal recommendation), mentee characteristics (e.g. younger age), experience and skills of the mentor (e.g. 'mentor helped me to find my own solutions') and the quality of the relationship (e.g. 'my mentor and I set out clear expectations early on'). Our evaluation demonstrates that both mentor and mentee value mentoring and that careful planning of a scheme including preparation, training and ongoing support of both mentor and mentee addressing expectations, building rapport and logistics are likely to be helpful in ensuring success and benefit from the intervention. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  9. 医疗信息系统私有云建设方案探讨%Discussion of Construction Scheme of Medical Information System Private Cloud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 管新; 袁飞; 杨继奎

    2012-01-01

    本文对医疗信息系统私有云的建设方案进行了较为深入的讨论.云计算的核心在于海量数据存储和极高的数据处理能力.本文根据当前医院信息系统(HIS)的实际情况并参照了某超大型电子商务网站数据存储方案,提出了一个可以横向扩展节点,并具有高性能大数据处理和海量存储能力的数据库集群建设方案,并深入探讨了该方案的实现细节.%This paper deeply discusses the construction scheme of medical information system private cloud. The keys of cloud computing are massive data storage and high-performance data process capacity. Based on current situation of HIS, and according to data storage scheme in a very large ecommerce web site, this paper puts forward a database cluster construction scheme, which has a panel point scaling out, and owns capacities of dealing with high performance large data and mass storage. Finally, this paper also introduces the implementation details of this scheme.

  10. Cooperative caching scheme based on the minimization of total cost for P2P caches%P2P缓存系统中总开销最小的协作缓存策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘银龙; 汪敏; 马伟; 周旭; 胡亚辉

    2015-01-01

    为降低P2P缓存系统中的全局开销,提出一种基于总开销最小的协作缓存策略。该策略综合考虑P2P缓存系统中的传输开销和存储开销,使用跨ISP域间链路开销、流行度、文件大小、存储开销来衡量文件的缓存增益。需要替换时,首先替换掉缓存增益最小的内容。实验结果表明,所提策略能够有效降低系统的总开销。%To reduce the total cost of P2P cache system, a cooperative cache scheme based on the minimization of total cost is proposed. In the scheme, delivery cost and storage cost are taken into account, and inter-ISP cost, popularity, file size, storage cost are used to evaluate each object’s caching gain value, which is a new concept defined to estimate the benefits of storing or replacing an object. When a replacement is needed, the objects with the minimum caching gain value will be evicted. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can effectively reduce the total cost of P2P cache system.

  11. Comparative effectiveness of three national healthcare schemes in Thailand: in-hospital medical expenses for diabetes and hypertension in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsanavivat, Pyatat; Thavornpitak, Yupa; Pongchaiyakul, Chatlert

    2012-07-01

    To compare the health insurance schemes regarding treatment of diabetes (DM) and hypertension (HT). In-patient expense data for all ICD-10 DM and HT for 2010 were accessed from the National Health Security Office (UC), the Social Security office (SS) and the Civil Servants Benefit System (CSMBS). Mean hospital stay charges and mortality rates were calculated and compared across schemes and types of hospital. Thais > or = 19 years accounted for 4,863,939 admissions (12.6% DM-All; 17.9% HT-All). Average admission per case was higher for DM-All (1.66) than HT-All (1.46). CSMBS patients trended to be older than UC and SS. Most under UC were admitted to primary care (51.9% DM-All; 50.0% HT-All) vs. tertiary under CSMBS (45.5% DM-All; 48.4% HT-All). Median of stay under CSMBS was longer (1.3-2.0x) and charges higher (1.3-1.6x) than UC for all levels for both DM and HT Mortality rate under CSMBS was higher than UC in primary care for both DM and HT while respective rates were higher under UC than CSMBS for secondary (DM-All: 9.9 vs. 8.1; HT-All: 8.2 vs. 6.6) and tertiary care (DM-All:11.7 vs.8.6; HT-All: 9.8 vs. 6.8). Inequalities among three health insurance schemes for DM and HT including hospital charge, hospital stay and mortality rate according to health care settings for DM and HT were shown, effectiveness improvement is needed.

  12. [20th anniversary of Association Doctors of Hope. Experience resulting from the cooperation with Polish medical communities in the Polish Borderlands (Kresy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chłap, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    20th Anniversary of Association Doctors of Hope (ADH) is an opportunity for presentation of the conclusions resulting from the realization of our tasks, especially those related to the Polish medical communities in the Borderlands. Maintaining the contacts with the Polish minorities in Lithuania, Latria, Byelorussia, Ukraine, Romania, Moldavia and Georgia are the priority tasks of ADH. Those communities differ in the extent of their needs and the relations with the local authorities in the context of the aid provided by our Association and the cooperation with us. The programme of our medical missions in the Borderlands included: a) rendering immediate aid by supplying medicines, medical materials; b) physical examination of groups of Poles (including the youths); c) organizing joint medical and pedagogical conferences concerning heath problems and healthy lifestyle. The article refers to the need for coordination of the cooperation among Polish organizations, the organizations in the Borderlands and consulates, in order to facilitate studying of the Poles in Poland, as well as to arrange for specialization residencies in Poland for doctor of Polish descent. Perfecting of the professional qualifications is a vital factor in strengthening the respect for the Polish communities, which, as minorities, are continuously expose to breaking the law by the local authorities.

  13. 医事法学教育合作办学模式研究%On Cooperative School Running Mode in Medical Law Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏; 鞠磊; 李璨睿

    2015-01-01

    Medical law has been set up 16 years in our country, mainly in medical colleges and universities, and the running mode is relatively single and remains to be improved. This paper analyzed the inadequacy for medical colleges and universities to set up medical law major to cultivate compound talents, put forward the ne-cessity and feasibility of cooperation in running schools, and discussed two kinds of cooperative school running modes.%医事法学专业在我国已开设了16年,其开设院校主要是医学院校,办学模式较为单一,有待改进。本文分析了医学院校开设医事法学专业对于培养复合型医事法律人才的不足之处,提出了合作办学的必要性和可行性,并论述了两种合作办学模式。

  14. Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008: The need of Asian pharmaceutical researchers' cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, M; Tang, W

    2008-10-01

    The Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008 (JCMWDDT 2008) was held from September 29 to October 1, 2008 at The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. JCMWDDT is an international workshop that is mainly organized by Asian editorial members of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics (http://www.ddtjournal.com/home) for the purpose of promoting research exchanges in the field of drug discovery and therapeutic. This year's JCMWDDT is the second workshop and focused particularly on novel development and technological innovation of anti-influenza agents. The workshop began with an announcement by the Japanese Co-chairperson, Dr. Sekimizu (Department of Microbiology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan; Editorin- Chief of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics, DDT) followed by a speech by the Chinese Co-chairperson, Dr. Wenfang Xu (School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Shandong, China; Editor in China Office of DDT), with additional speeches by Dr. Norio Matsuki (The University of Tokyo, Japan; Editor of DDT) and Dr. Guanhua Du (Chinese Academy of Medical Science, China; Editor of DDT). Fifty-nine titles were presented in 6 specialized sessions (Research Advances in Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics, Drug Synthesis/Clinical Therapeutics, Medicinal Chemistry/Natural Products, Anti-influenza Drugs, Anti-infection/antiviral Drugs, Biochemistry/Molecular Biology /Pharmacology) and a poster session (Drug Discov Ther 2008; 2, Suppl; available at http://www.ddtjournal.com/Announce/index.htm). An annual outbreak of avian influenza in Asian countries including China and Japan has sparked fears that the virus will mutate and then cause an epidemic in humans. Therefore, Asian researchers need to work together to control this infection. This year's JCMWDDT helped provide an opportunity to reiterate the crucial role of medicinal chemistry in conquering influenza and created an environment for cooperative

  15. Improving quality of medical image compression using biorthogonal CDF wavelet based on lifting scheme and SPIHT coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beladgham Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the coming era is that of digitized medical information, an important challenge to deal with is the storage and transmission requirements of enormous data, including medical images. Compression is one of the indispensable techniques to solve this problem. In this work, we propose an algorithm for medical image compression based on a biorthogonal wavelet transform CDF 9/7 coupled with SPIHT coding algorithm, of which we applied the lifting structure to improve the drawbacks of wavelet transform. In order to enhance the compression by our algorithm, we have compared the results obtained with wavelet based filters bank. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to traditional methods in both lossy and lossless compression for all tested images. Our algorithm provides very important PSNR and MSSIM values for MRI images.

  16. Study on Payment System in the New Rural Cooperative Medical System%新型农村合作医疗支付制度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝英奇; 巫翠芳

    2012-01-01

    The new rural cooperative medical system has a problem that the medical expenses grow too fast and its fund consumes excessively, so it cannot run in a healthy way. Payment system is the key of controlling medical expenses to growth. So the payment system deficiency threats the new rural cooperative medical system' s healthy operation. Different payment systems have new problems that cannot reach its goal when using in the new rural cooperative medical care. The paper analyzes reasons from the payment system itself and legal, medical policy environment with reference to successful experience of America, German and Brazil, etc, and chooses the mixed payment systems. The people-time prospective payment with coma classification, DRGs and patient management group uses in outpatient service, while fee-for service with the lowest and highest line and fixed ratio payment system in hospitalization though taking measures to perfect legal, medical policy environment to ensure its implementation.%新农村合作医疗制度在运行中因医疗费用过快增长和基金被过度消耗而影响其健康运行,而支付制度是控制医疗费用增长的关键,支付制度的缺陷直接影响"新农合"健康运行.在国外行之有效的付费制度,在中国农村的实践中遭遇了严峻的挑战.文章在支付制度本身和政策、法律环境等实施环境方面分析缺陷产生的原因,借鉴美、德、日及巴西、泰国的农村医疗保险实施的成功经验,提出选择引入昏迷分级、DRGs、病人管理分组等辅助度量工具的按人/次门诊支付和按服务项目支付、有起付线和封顶线、固定自负比例相结合住院支付的混合型支付制度的建议,并在法律和政策上相应完善.

  17. The role of medical physics in the scheme of diagnostic and therapeutic processes by keeping safety and hygienic regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukurova, E; Kralova, E; Bergendi, L; Traubner, P

    2006-01-01

    According to Standards of European Union the pregradual education should tend toward preparation of multidisciplinary working teams that can manage the health service using principles of evidence-based medicine, nowadays. The primary aims of teaching process is to direct the students to acquire, identify, analyze, process and select the reproducible results of physical measurements, to that the medical interpretation will be assigned. Our scientific research was directed at the existing conditions for professional use of different types of medical technique in the surgical and internal disciplines in health service institutions in all the regions of Slovakia. It also looked at the possibilities of eliminating the various unwanted effects of certain physical factors (Fig. 3, Ref. 9).

  18. Normalizing medical waste regulation by multi-department cooperation%多科室合作规范医疗废物管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪学勇; 袁晓宁

    2011-01-01

    Medical waste management is a systematic management process which involves hospital logistic department, hospital infection management department, medical affair department, nursing department, clinical departments and medical technology departments. Based on the situations of Peking University Third Hospital, medical waste management committee was founded. By establishing organization, designing management mechanism and increasing facility, functions for medical waste management in corrective department was cleared. Coordination and cooperation in corrective departments were strengthened and PDCA management mode was used to assure medical waste total management.%医疗废物管理是一个系统的管理工程,涉及到医院后勤、医院感染管理科、医务处、护理部和临床、医技科室等众多部门.北京大学第三医院结合医院实际,成立了医疗废物管理委员会,通过建立健全组织机构、完善管理机制及设施建设,明确各部门职责,加强协调与合作,运用PDCA循环管理模式,实现医疗废物的全程管理.

  19. Compressed Sensing-Based Multiuser Cooperative Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓梅; 崔阳然

    2016-01-01

    To avoid interference, compressed sensing is introduced into multiuser cooperative network. A coopera-tive compressed sensing and amplify-and-forward(CCS-AF)scheme is proposed, and it is proved that the channel capacity increases compared with the traditional cooperative scheme by considering the CCS-AF transmission ma-trix as the measurement matrix. Moreover, a new power allocation algorithm among the relays is proposed to im-prove the channel capacity. Numerical results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  20. Reducing medical claims cost to Ghana's National Health Insurance scheme: a cross-sectional comparative assessment of the paper- and electronic-based claims reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsiah-Boateng, Eric; Asenso-Boadi, Francis; Dsane-Selby, Lydia; Andoh-Adjei, Francis-Xavier; Otoo, Nathaniel; Akweongo, Patricia; Aikins, Moses

    2017-02-06

    A robust medical claims review system is crucial for addressing fraud and abuse and ensuring financial viability of health insurance organisations. This paper assesses claims adjustment rate of the paper- and electronic-based claims reviews of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana. The study was a cross-sectional comparative assessment of paper- and electronic-based claims reviews of the NHIS. Medical claims of subscribers for the year, 2014 were requested from the claims directorate and analysed. Proportions of claims adjusted by the paper- and electronic-based claims reviews were determined for each type of healthcare facility. Bivariate analyses were also conducted to test for differences in claims adjustments between healthcare facility types, and between the two claims reviews. The electronic-based review made overall adjustment of 17.0% from GHS10.09 million (USD2.64 m) claims cost whilst the paper-based review adjusted 4.9% from a total of GHS57.50 million (USD15.09 m) claims cost received, and the difference was significant (p < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in claims cost adjustment rate between healthcare facility types by the electronic-based (p = 0.0656) and by the paper-based reviews (p = 0.6484). The electronic-based review adjusted significantly higher claims cost than the paper-based claims review. Scaling up the electronic-based review to cover claims from all accredited care providers could reduce spurious claims cost to the scheme and ensure long term financial sustainability.

  1. [Cooperation with the electronic medical record and accounting system of an actual dose of drug given by a radiology information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideo; Yoneda, Tarou; Satou, Shuji; Ishikawa, Toru; Hara, Misako

    2009-12-20

    By input of the actual dose of a drug given into a radiology information system, the system converting with an accounting system into a cost of the drug from the actual dose in the electronic medical record was built. In the drug master, the first unit was set as the cost of the drug, and we set the second unit as the actual dose. The second unit in the radiology information system was received by the accounting system through electronic medical record. In the accounting system, the actual dose was changed into the cost of the drug using the dose of conversion to the first unit. The actual dose was recorded on a radiology information system and electronic medical record. The actual dose was indicated on the accounting system, and the cost for the drug was calculated. About the actual dose of drug, cooperation of the information in a radiology information system and electronic medical record were completed. It was possible to decide the volume of drug from the correct dose of drug at the previous inspection. If it is necessary for the patient to have another treatment of medicine, it is important to know the actual dose of drug given. Moreover, authenticity of electronic medical record based on a statute has also improved.

  2. 基于多维资源自适应分配的协作认知传输机制%Cooperative Cognitive Transmission Scheme Based on Adaptive Multi-dimensional Resource Allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钊; 李意文

    2016-01-01

    A transmission mechanism based on the joint management of time, frequency and space domain resources is proposed in the Cooperative Cognitive Radio Network (CCRN), with which the cooperative cognitive users can obtain proper reward under the premise of improving the primary user’s transmission. The proposed scheme employs multi-antenna cognitive user as a relay. Via adaptive time-slot and bandwidth allocation, bottleneck in the two-hop transmission can be eliminated. Furthermore, a relay selection algorithm taking fairness into account is given for the situation where multiple cooperative cognitive users exist. On one hand, the relay selection utilizes proportional fair to achieve inter-cognitive-user fairness. On the other hand, proper reward is determined by adjusting the incentive factor. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanism can improve the data rate of both primary and cognitive systems, and afford fair reward to the cognitive relays.%该文针对协作认知无线电网络提出一种时域、频域和空域资源联合分配的传输机制,在改善授权用户传输性能的前提下使参与协作的认知用户获得合理的回报。所提机制利用多天线认知节点担任中继,通过自适应的时隙划分与带宽分配,对两跳传输链路中的瓶颈予以消除;并在包含多个协作认知用户的场景中,给出一种考虑公平性的中继选择算法。该方法一方面采用比例公平的思想实现认知用户间的公平性,另一方面通过调整奖励因子,使中继获得合理的回报。仿真结果表明,所提算法能够改善授权与认知系统的数据速率,同时给予认知中继公平的回报。

  3. [Approaches for suicide prevention in Osaka Psychiatric Medical Center: the importance of multi-disciplinary cooperation and partnerships with other organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a very common problem in psychiatric practice today. Therefore, almost all staff of psychiatric hospitals have encountered the suicide of one or more of their patients. Our hospital, Osaka Psychiatric Medical Center, is a public psychiatric hospital in Japan. We provide treatment and support for patients from the acute to chronic phases of psychiatric disorders, and patients range from children to the elderly. Because we accept many patients with severe mental illness from other hospitals, many of our staff are routinely confronted with patients' violence or suicidal attempts. If a patient commits suicide, the relevant staff immediately have a conference to implement measures for preventing a recurrence. At the same time, information about the incident is conveyed to the medical safety management office and made known to all staff in our hospital. This office was established in 2007. Currently, all information about incidents and accidents in our hospital (e.g., suicide, problems between patients, problems with hospital facilities) is aggregated in the office and distributed to all staff members through the hospital intranet. This system makes it possible for staff to consider countermeasures against similar incidents and accidents, even if not involved in the incident. Additionally, we make an effort to develop cooperative relationships with organizations including the police, public health centers, and the fire department. The social welfare council in Hirakata City, where our hospital is located, provides some services to prevent suicide (e.g., telephone counseling, meetings with bereaved family members). Our hospital cooperates with these services by providing lecturers. The partnerships with these organizations help regarding the mental crises of patients in our hospital and fulfill a role to prevent suicide. Multi-disciplinary cooperation and partnerships with community organizations are not special approaches to suicide prevention, but ordinary

  4. Cooperating the Hospital Financial Management with the Medical Insurance System%医院财务管理如何与医保结算方式合拍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵密

    2013-01-01

      医院对医保病人应收未收医疗账款不断增加,医保结算方式和考核办法的多样化,给医院的医保收入确认和账务处理增加了难度,单病种包干政策与医疗服务收费政策存在矛盾。面对这些问题,医院财务管理如何与医保结算方式合拍?笔者认为应加强对医保应收账款的管理,及时做好参保患者出院信息与材料的上报工作,并确保准确性;提升财务管理人员素质,创新医院医保财务管理办法;制定单病种诊疗管理流程等。%There are serious problems in the hospital of paying the medical expense for its patient who with medical insurance in advance and the verifying of billing and checking the medical insurance accounts, all of these had brought lots of trouble to the hospital in checking its account and income. Actually there are conflicts between the Single Disease Contract Policy and the running of the medic service. How to cooperate the hospital financial management with the medic insurance system? The writer believe that the key points exist in enhancing the management in the medic arrears, reporting the hospital discharge schedule of those patient who with medic insurance timely and accurately, improving the proficiency of the financial stuffs, innovating new financial management system and programming procedure for the Single Disease Contract Policy.

  5. Medical schools can cooperate: a new joint venture to provide medical education in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Sue L; Birden, Hudson H; Hudson, J Nicky; Thistlethwaite, Jill E; Roberts, Chris; Wilson, Ian; Bushnell, John; Hogg, John; Freedman, S Ben; Yeomans, Neville

    2008-02-04

    The medical schools at the University of Western Sydney, University of Wollongong and University of Sydney have developed a joint program for training medical students through placements of up to 40 weeks on the New South Wales North Coast. The new partnership agency - the North Coast Medical Education Collaboration - builds on the experience of regional doctors and their academic partners. A steering committee has identified the availability and support requirements of local practitioners to provide training, and has undertaken a comparative mapping of learning objectives and assessments from the courses of the three universities. The goals of the program include preparing doctors who can perform effectively in rural settings and multidisciplinary health care teams, and to advance research in medical education.

  6. The South African traditional health practitioner as a beneficiary of and provider to medical funds and schemes through the traditional health practitioners Act (Act No 22, 2007: A present-day perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Louw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Payments to traditional health practitioners for services rendered from medical funds and schemes, as envisaged by the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (Act No 22, 2007, is controversial and a point of contention. Such policy was followed before in South Africa in the 1990s when some funds and schemes offered limited alternative healthcare benefits for members consulting traditional healers. Aims The study aimed to offer a contemporary view of the South African traditional health practitioner as a provider to and beneficiary of the medical funds and schemes through the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (No 22, 2007. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study that makes use of an historical approach by means of investigation and a literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers as primary sources to reflect on the South African traditional health practitioner as a provider to and beneficiary of the medical schemes and funds through the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (No 22, 2007. The findings are offered in narrative form. Results It seems as if the South African authorities completely misunderstand the future implications of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (No 22, 2007 on healthcare. This is specifically true when it comes to the right to claim from medical funds and schemes for services rendered by traditional health practitioners and the possible extra costs for these medical schemes and funds. Conclusion The implications of Section 42(2 of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (No 22, 2007 which aims to set up a claiming process for traditional health practitioners, seems to be very problematic. The fact that Act No 22 (2007 has not been enacted properly nine years after its promulgation has put a halt on the professionalization of traditional healers until 2015. This also affected their status as a beneficiary of and service provider to the

  7. Secrecy in Cooperative Relay Broadcast Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Ekrem, E

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of user cooperation on the secrecy of broadcast channels by considering a cooperative relay broadcast channel. We show that user cooperation can increase the achievable secrecy region. We propose an achievable scheme that combines Marton's coding scheme for broadcast channels and Cover and El Gamal's compress-and-forward scheme for relay channels. We derive outer bounds for the rate-equivocation region using auxiliary random variables for single-letterization. Finally, we consider a Gaussian channel and show that both users can have positive secrecy rates, which is not possible for scalar Gaussian broadcast channels without cooperation.

  8. Enhancing Cooperative Loan Scheme Through Automated Loan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... system operation is summarized in DFDs level 0 and level 1 thus: ... Fig.2: Data Flow Diagram Level 1. Membership ... reflect the various stages of the contract process. (prospective ... key features of Microsoft windows - Multiple. Document ... new products launches or sales and marketing promotions, will ...

  9. Offering Clinical Pharmacy Clerkship in Hospital for Pharmacy Student: A Successful Cooperation between Medical and Pharmacy Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Eslami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pharmacy education has been changed in recent years. Pharmacy students need more practical and clinical skills which come from direct interaction with patients and other health care providers. To achieve this, students need more effective courses and clerkships. In this paper we describe our method to design and evaluate clinical pharmacy clerkship for the first time in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (AJUMS.Methods: To  determine  the  most  beneficial way  of  education  we  designed  a  pilot  study  in educational hospital of AJUMS. After analyzing the conclusions from pilot study, 40 fifth year pharmacy student divided in ten groups and each group had a six week rotation in three different wards under supervision of medical residents. Each student was asked to provide evaluations during six total weeks of three different rotation sites.Results and Discussion: Clinical pharmacy clerkship led to successfully improved clinical skills for students such as being familiar with different practice environments, direct communication whit patients and medical team and participation in direct patient care activities. All the students participate in the course could pass the final exam and 85% of students believed this would be a necessary education course in their clerkship programs. Although there were some problems but pharmacy students benefited from this course and it gives them advantages in clinical knowledge and professional communication skills.

  10. Coalitions in Cooperative Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Suhas; Mandayam, Narayan B

    2008-01-01

    Cooperation between rational users in wireless networks is studied using coalitional game theory. Using the rate achieved by a user as its utility, it is shown that the stable coalition structure, i.e., set of coalitions from which users have no incentives to defect, depends on the manner in which the rate gains are apportioned among the cooperating users. Specifically, the stability of the grand coalition (GC), i.e., the coalition of all users, is studied. Transmitter and receiver cooperation in an interference channel (IC) are studied as illustrative cooperative models to determine the stable coalitions for both flexible (transferable) and fixed (non-transferable) apportioning schemes. It is shown that the stable sum-rate optimal coalition when only receivers cooperate by jointly decoding (transferable) is the GC. The stability of the GC depends on the detector when receivers cooperate using linear multiuser detectors (non-transferable). Transmitter cooperation is studied assuming that all receivers coopera...

  11. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  12. Determinants on Rural-Urban Labor Migration in China: Empirical Analysis on the Effect of Rural Cooperate Medical Insurance based on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data%Determinants on Rural-Urban Labor Migration in China: Empirical Analysis on the Effect of Rural Cooperate Medical Insurance based on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yong; Hart Xiangyang; Wang Shumei; Jiang Huayun; Wang Shanshan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies factors influencing rural-urban la- bor migration in China, particularly the implementation of rural cooperative medical insurance (RCMI) in the year 2003. With the support of data analysis from the year 2000, 2004 and 2006, clear linear correlations are found between gender, income, health con- dition and rural-urban labor flow, whereas the impact of education and employment status are more complicated. More importantly, results from regression show that the establishment of RCMI in countryside of China not only inhibits rural residents from seeking employment outside the village, but also pulls back rural people who have already worked in cities. When regional dimension is concerned, the pure composite effect of RCMI on rural labor flow is less significant in coastal areas with better economic perfor- mance and medical service.

  13. Management Enviroment in the Designated Medical Institution of the New Rural Cooperative Medical%新农合定点医疗机构管理环境分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊光辉; 王方; 雷坤; 王琳

    2011-01-01

    With the deepening development of medical system reform, Chinas new rural cooperative medi-cal system security role is shown with each passing day. In the implementation process, there are some drawbacks in management controls. The author analyzed the internal and external environment of designated medical institu-tions and put forward some improving measures, which included establishing the contactor system, strengthening business triage, perfecting feedback mechanism, executing couplet, etc.%随着我国医疗体制改革的进一步深化,新型农村合作医疗保障制度的作用日渐显现.新型农村合作医疗制度在执行过程中,出现一些管理控制不到位的现象,分析定点医疗机构的内部和外部环境因素,通过制度监管、建立联系人制度、加强业务分流完善反馈机制、实行联网工作等措施加强新农合定点医疗机构的管理.

  14. Discussion of Qualification,Rights and Obligations of Participants of New Rural Cooperative Medical System%新型农村合作医疗参加者的资格、权利和义务探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金运; 隋学强; 刘军; 周建裕

    2016-01-01

    国家通过立法规定新农合参加者的资格、权利和义务,对于维护广大农村居民的利益、维护社会公平和推进法治中国建设具有重要的意义。确定新农合参加者的资格应遵循普遍性和排他性原则,具有农村户籍是新农合参加者的基本资格。新农合参加者还应享有费用补偿权,知情权,自由选择权,监督批评权,救济权等法律权利。新农合参加者也应承担按时足额缴纳个人费用,如实提供个人信息材料,遵守法律制度等法律义务。%It is vitally important for rural area and rural residents to regulate the qualifications, rights and duties of the participants of new rural cooperative medical system through law. To determine the qualification of participants in new rural cooperative medical system should follow the principles of universality and exclusiveness. Rural residence registration is a basic qualification for participants of new rural cooperative medical system. The main legal rights of participants in new rural cooperative medical system are the right of compensation,the right to know,the right to freedom of choice,the right of supervision and criticism,the right of remedy. The legal duties of participants in new rural cooperative medical sys ̄tem are as follows:contribute personal fee on time and in full amount,provide personal information faithfully and abide by legal system.

  15. Cooperative Detection for Primary User in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose two novel cooperative detection schemes based on the AF (Amplify and Forward and DF (Decode and Forward protocols to achieve spatial diversity gains for cognitive radio networks, which are referred to as the AF-CDS, (AF-based Cooperative Detection Scheme and DF-CDS (DF-based Cooperative Detection Scheme, respectively. Closed-form expressions of detection probabilities for the noncooperation scheme, AND-CDS (AND-based Cooperative Detection Scheme, AF-CDS and DF-CDS, are derived over Rayleigh fading channels. Also, we analyze the overall agility for the proposed cooperative detection schemes and show that our schemes can further reduce the detection time. In addition, we compare the DF-CDS with the AF-CDS in terms of detection probability and agility gain, depicting the advantage of DF-CDS at low SNR region and high false alarm probability region.

  16. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  17. Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the cooperative learning as a teaching method in a second language learning class. It mainly talks about the background, foundation, features, definitions, components, goals, advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning. And as the encounter of the disadvantages in cooperative learning, this paper also proposes some strategies.

  18. The Association Between the New Rural Cooperative Medical System and Health Care Seeking Behavior Among Middle-Aged and Older Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Cuntong

    2017-01-01

    The new rural cooperative medical system (NCMS) is the primary form of social insurance in rural China. This study aims to explore how the NCMS influences the health care seeking behaviors of middle-aged and older Chinese, considering the family and community contexts. A series of multi-level (three-level) models using data from the first wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) are used. We find that the presence of NCMS coverage has a statistically significant association with seeking inpatient and outpatient care but not physical checkups among middle-aged and older rural Chinese: Rural residents insured by NCMS were more likely to seek inpatient and outpatient care than people who were not insured. Other factors at the individual level (such as self-perceived health and number of doctor-diagnosed chronic diseases), the family level (such as living arrangements and household expenditures), and the community level (such as the presence of township hospitals within the community) are also significant predictors of health care seeking behaviors.

  19. Cooperative Guidance for Multimissile Salvo Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Shiyu; Zhou Rui

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative guidance problems of multiple missiles are considered in this article. A cooperative guidance scheme, where coordi-nation algorithms and local guidance laws are combined together, is proposed. This scheme actually builds up a hierarchical cooperative guidance architecture, which may provide a general solution to the multimissile cooperative guidance problems. In the case of salvo attacks which require missiles to hit the target simultaneously, both centralized and distributed coordination algorithms are derived based on the impact-time-control guidance (ITCG) law. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  20. Chinese New Rural Cooperative Medical System under the Justice Principle%正义原则视域下我国的新型农村合作医疗制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡滨; 张莹; 柏雪; 王俊华

    2011-01-01

    This article regards Rawls theory of justice as the theoretical foundation. Through the analysis of two principles of justice, government should link new rural cooperative medical system with two principles. It is available by enlarge the coverage, increasing government spending, and the union between the medical aid system and the new rural cooperative medical system to achieve the convergence point of view to improve the new rural cooperative medical system and promote the construction of fairly and justly harmonious society.%以罗尔斯的正义论为理论基础,通过对正义论自由平等原则、差异性原则的分析,指出新型农村合作医疗制度运行时必须贯彻两大原则.并从扩大覆盖面、加大政府投入、实现与医疗救助制度的衔接等角度提出了进一步完善新型农村合作医疗制度的路径,以推动公平正义的和谐社会构建.

  1. M-PSK Cooperative Trellis Codes for Coordinate Interleaved Coded Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Oruç

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available M-PSK cooperative trellis codes are proposed for two-user coordinate interleaved coded cooperation operating over quasistatic Rayleigh fading channels. The coding approach properly combines cooperative and modulation diversity techniques to take their full advantage. Two selective cooperation schemes are considered related to whether users know the cooperation status or not. Upper bounds on the pairwise error probability of the considered schemes are derived for each cooperation case which lead to new code design criteria. Based on these criteria, 4-, 8-, 16-state QPSK and 8-, 16-state 8PSK cooperative trellis codes are obtained by means of exhaustive computer search. The error performance evaluation of the new codes by computer simulations shows that they outperform the corresponding best space-time codes used in cooperation with coordinate interleaving.

  2. M-PSK Cooperative Trellis Codes for Coordinate Interleaved Coded Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oruç Özgür

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract M-PSK cooperative trellis codes are proposed for two-user coordinate interleaved coded cooperation operating over quasistatic Rayleigh fading channels. The coding approach properly combines cooperative and modulation diversity techniques to take their full advantage. Two selective cooperation schemes are considered related to whether users know the cooperation status or not. Upper bounds on the pairwise error probability of the considered schemes are derived for each cooperation case which lead to new code design criteria. Based on these criteria, 4-, 8-, 16-state QPSK and 8-, 16-state 8PSK cooperative trellis codes are obtained by means of exhaustive computer search. The error performance evaluation of the new codes by computer simulations shows that they outperform the corresponding best space-time codes used in cooperation with coordinate interleaving.

  3. Interference Cancellation in Cooperative CDMA Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rajeswari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The wireless communication networks are subjected to multi access interference and multipath fading. To minimize the interference cancellation in CDMA networks, multiple user detection schemes and cooperative communication networks are used. consider the uplink of a cooperative CDMA network, where users cooperate by relaying each other’s messages to the base station. When spreading waveforms are not orthogonal, multiple access interference (MAI exists at the relays and the destination, causing cooperative diversity gains to diminish. To overcome this problem, we integrate various multiuser detection (MUD schemes to mitigate MAI in achieving the full advantages of cooperation. Specifically, the relay-assisted decorrelating multiuser detector (RADMUD is proposed to separate interfering signals at the destination with the help of precoding at the relays along with pre-whitening at the destination. In this paper we examined the BER performance of various MUD schemes are analyzed and compared with cooperative system. The advantages of RAD-MUD with co-operative communication shows better BER performance compared with non co-operative wireless communication system and other existing cooperative MUD schemes are also shown through MATLAB Simulations.

  4. 中医病案数据库元数据方案的设计%Design of meta-data scheme for medical records database of traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田瑞; 马路

    2014-01-01

    目的:设计一套适用于中医病案数据库的元数据方案,以满足中医病案数据库保存和分析的需要。方法:经过资源分析、文献及网络调研、用户调查后,采用 MARC 元数据设计了中医病案数据库元数据方案。结果:中医病案数据库元数据方案由17个字段组成,分为9个部分。结论:使用 MARC 作为中医病案数据库的元数据标准,初步达到了组织和描述中医病案资源的目的,但在元数据标准的选择、著录的标准化方面仍需讨论。%Objective To design the meta-data scheme for medical records database of traditional Chinese medi-cine.Methods The meta-data scheme for medical records database of traditional Chinese medicine was designed u-sing the MARC meta-data according to the analysis of resources, investigation of literature, networks and users. Results The meta-data scheme for medical records database of traditional Chinese medicine is consisted of 17 fields and 9 parts.Conclusion MARC, as the mata-data criteria, can organize and describe the medical records of tradi-tional Chinese medicine.However, the standards for selection and description of meta-data criteria need to be fur-ther studied.

  5. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    . While coordination mechanisms focus on how classification schemes enable cooperation among people pursuing a common goal, boundary objects embrace the implicit consequences of classification schemes in situations involving conflicting goals. Moreover, the requirements specification focused on functional...... requirements and provided little information about why these requirements were considered relevant. This stands in contrast to the discussions at the project meetings where the software engineers made frequent use of both abstract goal descriptions and concrete examples to make sense of the requirements....... This difference between the written requirements specification and the oral discussions at the meetings may help explain software engineers’ general preference for people, rather than documents, as their information sources....

  6. 新型农村合作医疗保险信息管理系统的分析与设计%Analysis and design of the information management system of the new rural cooperative medical insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明; 许学军; 黄力明

    2011-01-01

    This thesis introduces the operation flow of the information management system of the new rural cooperative medical insurance,the general structure,the module function and the architecture,and gives some corresponding technology.Application of the information system can realize procedural,scientific and standard management of the information management system of the new rural cooperative medical insurance.%介绍新型农村合作医疗信息管理系统的业务流程、总体结构、模块功能及体系结构,给出相应的实现技术。该系统的开发应用可以实现新型农村合作医疗的程序化、科学化、规范化管理。

  7. Integration of current identity-based district-varied health insurance schemes in China: implications and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Zhang, Yong-Zhao; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2012-03-01

    With China's great efforts to improve public health insurance, clear progress has been achieved toward the ambitious full health insurance coverage strategy for all. The current health insurance schemes in China fall into three categories: urban employee basic health insurance scheme, urban resident scheme, and new rural cooperative medical system. Despite their phasic success, these substantially identity-based, district-varied health insurance schemes have separate operation mechanisms, various administrative institutions, and consequently poor connections. On the other hand, the establishment and implementation of various health insurance schemes provide the preconditioning of more sophisticated social health insurance schemes, the increase in the income of urban and rural people, and the great importance attached by the government. Moreover, the reform of the "Hukou" (household register) system provides economical, official, and institutional bases. Therefore, the establishment of an urban-rural integrated, citizen-based, and nationwide-universal health insurance scheme by the government is critically important to attain equality and national connection. Accordingly, the differences between urban and rural areas should be minimized. In addition, the current schemes, administrative institutions, and networks should be integrated and interconnected. Moreover, more expenditure on health insurance might be essential for the integration despite the settings of global financial crisis. Regardless of the possible challenges in implementation, the proposed new scheme is promising and may be applied in the near future for the benefit of the Chinese people and global health.

  8. Hybrid Transmission Scheme for MIMO Relay Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Xu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To improve the achievable rate for the MIMO channels, we propose a hybrid transmission (HT scheme that mixes half-duplex decode-and-forward cooperative relaying transmission (DFRH)with direct transmission (DT. In the HT scheme, the source message is divided into two parts: one is transmitted by DFRH scheme and another is transmitted by DT scheme. Precoding and decoding are considered to convert the original MIMO relay channel into several parallel subchannels so that resource allocation can be easily performed. We focus on the spatial subchannel and power allocation problem. The objective of this problem is to maximize the total achievable rate under the constraints of joint total transmission power. Simulation results show that significant capacity gain can be achieved by the HT scheme compared to the DT scheme and the pure DFRH scheme.

  9. Study on the Puzzledom and Countermeasures of Sustainable Development of New Rural Cooperative Medical System%新型农村合作医疗可持续发展的困境和对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章合运

    2011-01-01

    在分析其可持续发展中存在着理论争议、制度困境、资金筹集困难、农民信心受挫等问题的基础上,提出了加强宣传、明确主体、强化监督、创新机制等对策,以期保护农民的合法权利和促进新型农村合作医疗的可持续发展.%New rural cooperative medical system is faced with many problems, such as theoretical disputing, system obstruction, straits of fund collection and peasantry confidence harming with its sustainable development. The article proposed some countermeasures for new rural cooperative medical system,such as strengthening its publicity,ascertaining its body,intensifying its superintendence and innovating its system,so as to protect the attendee's rights and promote sustainable development of new rural cooperative medical system.

  10. 新型农村合作医疗缓解因病致贫的效果分析%An Analysis of the Effect of the New Rural Cooperative Medical System in Alleviating Illness--related Poverty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺晓娟; 陈在余; 马爱霞

    2012-01-01

    Using China health and nutrition survey data, the paper analyzes the effect of the new rural cooperative medical system in alleviating illness-related poverty through comparing the rates of illness-related poverty before and after the implementation of the new rural cooperative medical system in the years of 2004, 2006 and 2009. It is argued that the new rural cooperative medical system plays a certain role in alleviating illness-related poverty, but it has not achieved the desired effect theoretically. It is believed, however, that its ability in alleviating illness-related poverty will be improved by more capital investment from the government.%利用中国营养与健康调查数据(CHNS),比较2004年、2006年及2009年新型农村合作医疗补偿前后的因病致贫率(PI),分析我国新农合实施以后缓解因病致贫的效果。研究认为:新农合对缓解因病致贫起到了一定作用,但并没有达到理论上预期的效果;并且新农合缓解因病致贫的能力随着我国新农合资金投入,补偿比例逐年的增加而逐渐增强。

  11. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2014-01-01

    scheme fosters cooperation. Competition is popular, but the electoral outcome depends strongly on specific voting rules of institutional choice. If the majority decides, competition is almost always adopted. If likely losers from competition have veto power, it is often not, and substantial gains...

  12. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    scheme fosters cooperation. Competition is popular but the electoral outcome depends strongly on specific voting rules of institutional choice. If the majority decides, competition is almost always adopted. If likely losers from competition have veto power, it is often not, and substantial gains...

  13. Strengthening Medical Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Mainland and Taiwan negotiators settle on health care cooperation chinese mainland and Taiwan negotiators signed a medical and health care I cooperation agreement in Taipei on December 21 in a move to jointly

  14. Cooperative communications hardware, channel and PHY

    CERN Document Server

    Dohler, Mischa

    2010-01-01

    Facilitating Cooperation for Wireless Systems Cooperative Communications: Hardware, Channel & PHY focuses on issues pertaining to the PHY layer of wireless communication networks, offering a rigorous taxonomy of this dispersed field, along with a range of application scenarios for cooperative and distributed schemes, demonstrating how these techniques can be employed. The authors discuss hardware, complexity and power consumption issues, which are vital for understanding what can be realized at the PHY layer, showing how wireless channel models differ from more traditional

  15. 甲亢患者的内科治疗配合舆护理%Medical Therapy's Cooperation and Nursing of Hyperthyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李柳芳; 陈彦茹; 戈兰; 陈琳玲

    2002-01-01

    To retrospect 46 cases of treating and nursing hyperthyroidism to sum up key point of therapy' s cooperation and nursing.The results suggests that strengthen the attention to antithyrotropic drugs. Psychological nursing and health education contribute to convalesce.

  16. 药师参与临床会诊及制订用药方案的实践与体会%Practice and Experience of Pharmacist Participating in Clinical Consultation and Medication Scheme Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙为民; 李明; 郑志昌; 杨继红

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the experience of clinical pharmacist participating in clinical consultation and medication scheme design. METHODS: The cases of clinical pharmacists participating in clinical consultation and assisting clinical physicians to make individualized medication scheme were analyzed. RESULTS&CONCLUSION: Clinical pharmacists use their pharmaceutical professional skill, put forward suggestions for treatment, reduce the occurrence of ADR and improve drug therapy by participating in clinical consultation.%目的:探讨药师深入临床参与临床会诊、制订用药方案的经验与体会.方法:对药师参与临床会诊及协助医师进行个体化给药的案例进行分析.结果与结论:药师通过参与临床会诊,发挥药学专长,提出合理的药物治疗建议,减少了药品不良反应的发生,提高了药物治疗水平.

  17. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  18. Cooperative Handover Management in Dense Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Arshad, Rabe

    2017-02-07

    Network densification has always been an important factor to cope with the ever increasing capacity demand. Deploying more base stations (BSs) improves the spatial frequency utilization, which increases the network capacity. However, such improvement comes at the expense of shrinking the BSs\\' footprints, which increases the handover (HO) rate and may diminish the foreseen capacity gains. In this paper, we propose a cooperative HO management scheme to mitigate the HO effect on throughput gains achieved via cellular network densification. The proposed HO scheme relies on skipping HO to the nearest BS at some instances along the user\\'s trajectory while enabling cooperative BS service during HO execution at other instances. To this end, we develop a mathematical model, via stochastic geometry, to quantify the performance of the proposed HO scheme in terms of coverage probability and user throughput. The results show that the proposed cooperative HO scheme outperforms the always best connected based association at high mobility. Also, the value of BS cooperation along with handover skipping is quantified with respect to the HO skipping only that has recently appeared in the literature. Particularly, the proposed cooperative HO scheme shows throughput gains of 12% to 27% and 17% on average, when compared to the always best connected and HO skipping only schemes at user velocity ranging from 80 km/h to 160 Km/h, respectively.

  19. Metric-Based Cooperative Routing in Multihop Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative communication fully leverages the broadcast nature of wireless channels and exploits time/spatial diversity in a distributed manner, thereby achieving significant improvements in system capacity and transmission reliability. Cooperative diversity has been well studied from the physical layer perspective. Thereafter, cooperative MAC design has also drawn much attention recently. However, very little work has addressed cooperation at the routing layer. In this paper, we propose a simple yet efficient scheme for cooperative routing by using cooperative metrics including packet delivery ratio, throughput, and energy consumption efficiency. To make a routing decision based on our scheme, a node needs to first determine whether cooperation on each link is necessary or not, and if necessary, select the optimal cooperative scheme as well as the optimal relay. To do so, we calculate and compare cooperative routing metric values for each potential relay for each different cooperative MAC scheme (C-ARQ and CoopMAC in this study, and further choose the best value and compare it with the noncooperative link metric. Using the final optimal metric value instead of the traditional metric value at the routing layer, new optimal paths are set up in multihop ad hoc networks, by taking into account the cooperative benefits from the MAC layer. The network performance of the cooperative routing solution is demonstrated using a simple network topology.

  20. On Hybrid Cooperation in Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Øien, Geir E.

    2013-01-01

    of opportunistic wireless systems such as cognitive radio networks. In order to balance the performance gains from cooperative communication against the possible over-utilization of resources, we propose and analyze an adaptive-cooperation technique for underlay cognitive radio networks, termed as hybrid......-cooperation. Under the proposed cooperation scheme, secondary users in a cognitive radio network cooperate adaptively to enhance the spectral efficiency and the error performance of the network. The bit error rate, the spectral efficiency and the outage performance of the network under the proposed hybrid...... cooperation scheme with amplify-and-forward relaying are analyzed in this paper, and compared against conventional cooperation technique. Findings of the analytical performance analyses are further validated numerically through selected computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. The proposed scheme is found...

  1. Study on the Effect of Medical Cooperation for Nursing in Department of General Surgery%医护合作健康应用于医院普外科护理效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽琼; 龙文华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the medical health cooperative mode in general surgery nursing clinical ef ect.Methods Department of general surgery in our hospital,300 cases of patients were randomly divided into the number of the two groups,respectively adopt the health care cooperation mode and regular periodic health education model.Compare two groups of patients before discharge to disease the master degree of knowledge and compliance of medical staf charged after discharge.Results Two groups of patients after health education on knowledge situation,the degree of satisfaction with education,dif erences in the two groups have statistical significance.Conclusion The medical cooperation mode is worth popularizing more widely in clinical.%目的探究医护合作健康模式在普外科护理中的临床效果。方法选择收治我院普外科的300例患者,随机分为数目对的两组,分别采用医护合作健康模式和常规阶段性健康教育模式。比较两组患者出院前对疾病知识的掌握程度和出院后对医护人员嘱咐的依从性。结果在健康教育后两组患者对知识的了解情况、对教育的满意程度等方面两组的差异具有统计学意义。结论医护合作的模式值得更广的推广于临床。

  2. Medical Insurance and Commercial Insurance Cooperation Development of Beneficial Exploration%医疗保险与商业保险合作发展的有益探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯志强

    2014-01-01

    湛江市通过医疗保险和商业保险的深度合作与共同发展,促进了政府职能转变,降低了行政成本,提高了医保服务的运行效率,提供了可资借鉴的经验。%Through deep cooperation and co-development of medical insurance and commercial insurance, it has promoted the change of government function, reduced administrative costs, improved the efficiency of health care services, and provided models for reference.

  3. [Vitalink: a digital platform to share patient health records in primary care. Report of the pilot projects for sharing medication schemes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaenepoel, L; Hulshagen, L

    2014-03-01

    Vitalink is a digital platform to share health patient data among health care professionals in primary care. The Flemish community started the development of this platform in collaboration with representatives of professional associations primary care. Sharing medication charts online was the first Vitalink project. In December 2012 four pilot regions in Flanders (Turnhout, Limburg, Aalst and Halle) tested medication chart sharing through Vitalink. Due to difficulties with software development effective sharing started only in April 2013. The test phase was ended in October 2013. Each pilot region made an evaluation report. Conclusions were similar: the realization business cases were limited. Integration in end user software was insufficiently performant. Moreover, interpretation of downloaded medication charts was found out to differ among participating software applications. Because of these problems exchange of patient records among primary care actors was limited. Therefore research questions could not be conclusively answered. Nevertheless the Vitalink pilot project can be considered successful in some ways. Collaboration and communication among health care professionals and their associations was ameliorated. The awareness of digital data sharing in primary care is growing. Pilot projects created buy in among patients, physicians, pharmacists and nurses. Uniform lay-out guidelines were established in deliberation with all participating actors. Since November 2013 Vitalink is in production. Medication charts, summarized electronic health records and vaccination data can be uploaded to the platform and health care professionals that are registered can consult them. End user software must still be developed to make broad use of the platform feasible. Meanwhile further deliberation with software vendors and professional associations can be organized in order to achieve the implementation and integration of user friendly Vitalink modules.

  4. Participation equity of new rural Cooperative Medical System in Jiangxi province%江西省新型农村合作医疗参合公平性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方丽霖; 袁兆康; 韩冰; 肖云昌; 洪鹰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation effeciency of the new rural Cooperative Medical System (CMS) from the respect of participation equity for perfecting the scheme of CMS. Methods We made a complete survey to investigate the participation data of new rural CMS in 40 pilot counties of Jiangxi province. The concentration index(CI),slope index of inequity (SII) were adopted to evaluate the equity. Results From 2006 - 2008, the new rural CMS participation rate of the farmers increased from 84.95% to 92.89% ;the participation rate of the five welfare guarantees increased from 96.25% to 99.80% ;the participation rate of impoverished farmers increased from 86.63% to 98.71%. All the CI were close to 0. The participation rate of farmers with higher income was slightly higher than those of farmers with positive CI and SII. The absolute values of SII for the participation rate of the five welfare guarantees and the impoverished were decreased. Conclusion The participation equity of the new rural CMS is good but special attention should be paid to the participation rate of farmers with low income.%目的 从参合公平性角度,评价江西省新农合制度的实施效果,为进一步完善新农合实施方案提供科学依据.方法 收集江西省3批共40个新农合试点县2006-2008年参合资料,以集中指数(CI)、不平等斜率指数(SII)作为评价分析指标.结果 2006-2008年,江西省一般农民、五保户和贫困户农民总参合率均呈上升趋势;一般农民参合率由84.95%提高至92.89%,五保户参合率由96.25%提高至99.80%,贫困户参合率由86.63%提高至98.71%,各项指标的集中指数绝对值均接近于0,一般农民参合率总体表现为中偏下收入农民参合率略低,高收入农民参合率略高的现状,且CI及SII均为正值;五保户及贫困户参合率的SII绝对值均有所下降.结论 江西省农民参合公平性总体较好,应关注低收入组农民的参合率.

  5. Analysis of Implementation Scheme of Medical Insurance Interface for Hospital Information System%浅析医院信息系统中医保接口的实现方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德林

    2013-01-01

      本文介绍了医院信息系统与医保系统接口的实现方案,重点研究了文件导出导入、嵌入式DLL和WEB服务接口三种接入模式,详细描述了我院门诊和住院的医保业务流程。%This article introduced the implementation scheme of the hospital information system and medical insurance system interface, focused on three access mode, the file’s export and import, embedded DLL and WEB service interface,a detailed description of the outpatient and inpatient health care business process.

  6. Security-aware cooperation in cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    This brief investigates spectrum efficient and energy efficient strategies, known as cognitive radio networks (CRNs), to ensure secure cooperation between licensed and unlicensed users. The authors address issues of spectrum scarcity, spectrum sensing, transmission performance, trust-aware cooperation, and secure communications. Two security-aware cooperation based spectrum access schemes are presented. The first is a trust-aware cooperative framework for CRNs to improve the throughput or energy efficiency of licensed users and offer transmission opportunities to unlicensed users, taking into

  7. ENHANCING COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China and Japan can cooperate on a wide scope of issues, such as the organization of the Beijing Olympic Games next year and aid to Africa,said Ide Keiji, Minister of Public Relations, Press, Culture, Education and Sports and Spokesperson of the Embassy

  8. 中德合作举办医学研究生暑期学校的实践与思考%Practice and Reflection of Holding Summer School in Sino-german Cooperation Medical Graduate Student

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查远莉; 汪宏晶

    2012-01-01

    Chinese-foreign cooperation in running schools are the effective ways to improve the educational strength. It is also the one of the graduate student educational innovation. Sino-german medical graduate student cooperation in running schools is a way of exploration in HUST. Through, the introduction of the excellent foreign education resources, learning and accumulation teaching experience was to explore training international way and the method in medical graduate student, which way won the most approved by students. Cooperation in running schools in imparting knowledge, promoting international front of cultural exchange, stimulate greatly the learning interest of the students and power and cultivate the students' innovation ability, and provide the precious experience for graduate education.%中外合作办学是提升高校办学实力的有效途径之一,也是实施研究生教育创新计划的重大举措.中德医学研究生合作办学是华中科技大学在研究生教育领域的探索,通过引入国外优秀的教育资源,学习和积累教学经验,积极有效地探索医学研究生培养国际化的途径和方法,获得了大多数学生的认可.合作办学在传授国际前沿知识、促进文化交流的同时,也极大地激发了学生的学习兴趣和动力,培养了学生的创新能力,并为我国研究生教育提供了宝贵经验.

  9. Cooperation of doctor and nurse solving faculty electronic medical order in-put question%医护合作解决专科电子医嘱输入问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莉; 孙书春

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how to regulate the method and technique of input of faculty electronic medical order through cooperation of doctor and nurse, to reduce the errors of rotating resident physician's medical order input and doctor-nurse coupling nursing mistakes and improve the efficiency of dealing with the medical order in nurse. Methods: The rotating resident physicians were divided into two groups, training group and no-training group. The training group was re -ceived training about how to input electronic medical order, the other group was not, then counted the errors of medical or -der input in each group. Results: The errors of medical order input of the no-training group accounted for 29.12% of total medical orders, and that of training group accounted for 0.58% after training, the errors of medical order input were decreased (P<0.001). Conclusion: Through the training, the errors of medical order input were decreased obviously. The efficiency of nurse handling and executing medical order is improved, and the occurrence of medical treatment and nurse errors is reduced.%目的:医护合作规范专科电子医嘱输入方法与技巧,减少轮转住院医生医嘱输入的错误,提高护士处理医嘱的工作效率,减少耦合性护理差错.方法:给新轮转进科的部分住院医生进行专科电子医嘱输入培训,与未培训组医生进行对比.结果:未培训医生发生医嘱错误占医嘱总数的29.12%.培训医生输入医嘱错误占医嘱总数的0.58%.培训后医嘱错误明显减少(χ2=1 449.07,P<0.001).结论:培训后医嘱错误明显减少,护士处理和执行医嘱的工作效率提高,避免了医疗护理差错的发生.

  10. 论新型农村合作医疗基金会计与政府会计改革%Discussion on the Fund Accounting and Government Accounting Reform under the New Rural Cooperative Medical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李靠队; 张华; 薛天杨; 刘丹丹; 陆莉斌; 许苗苗; 沈潇婷

    2014-01-01

    The government accounting reform paves the way for medical care reform;the new medical accounting reform has become the touchstone of the government accounting reform. As the model of the government accounting, fund accounting needs further establishment and implementation, while the “New Rural Cooperative Medical System” ( NCMS) fund accounting fully reflects the characteristics of the government fund accounting. Establishing the concept of the large-scale medical accounting system to establish practical references from the “NCMS” fund accounting to the government accounting system reform will contribute to a synergistic mechanism for government accounting and public health reform.%政府会计改革为医改铺路,新《医院会计制度》是政府会计改革的试金石。基金会计作为政府会计的主要模式尚需进一步建立和完善,“新农合”基金会计则充分体现出了政府“基金会计”的特点。树立大医疗会计制度观念,将“新农合”基金会计的实践借鉴至政府会计改革将有利于政府会计与公益性医疗改革的协同机制的建立。

  11. Cooperative relay-based multicasting for energy and delay minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-08-01

    Relay-based multicasting for the purpose of cooperative content distribution is studied. Optimized relay selection is performed with the objective of minimizing the energy consumption or the content distribution delay within a cluster of cooperating mobiles. Two schemes are investigated. The first consists of the BS sending the data only to the relay, and the second scheme considers the scenario of threshold-based multicasting by the BS, where a relay is selected to transmit the data to the mobiles that were not able to receive the multicast data. Both schemes show significant superiority compared to the non-cooperative scenarios, in terms of energy consumption and delay reduction. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. [Pilot scheme to gain young professionals in orthopedics and trauma surgery. A new optional subject for students at the medical school in Göttingen (Germany)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttrumpf, Jan Philipp; Münzberg, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    The Young Forum of the German Society of Orthopedics and Traumatology is an interest group of young orthopedics and trauma surgeons in Germany. Besides dealing with topics of political interest, the group tries to arouse enthusiasm and interest for musculoskeletal surgery by means of new lectures and teaching methods.An example is the newly invented optional subject for students at the Medical School in Göttingen (Germany). The idea for such a new teaching offer was built by the Young Forum itself. The optional subject was on the syllabus for the first time this year and the organization was done by the university Department of Trauma Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. The course is divided in two main parts: a theoretical (16 hours) and a practical (10 hours) one. A good ratio of lectures, skills stations and workshops was on choice. This article explains the course in detail and shows a first evaluation result. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Number-Phase Quantization Scheme for L-C Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    For a mesoscopic L-C circuit, besides the Louisell's quantization scheme in which electric charge q and electric current Ⅰ are respectively quantized as the coordinate operator Q and momentum operator P, in this paper we propose a new quantization scheme in the context of number-phase quantization through the standard Lagrangian formalism. The comparison between this number-phase quantization with the Josephson junction's Cooper pair numberphase-difference quantization scheme is made.

  14. 新型农村合作医疗对农民健康自评的影响%Effects of new rural cooperative medical health policy on self-perceived health of rural residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范涛; 曹乾; 蒋露露; 许珍子

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyse the effects of new rural cooperative medical policy on the health of rural residents, and quantitatively evaluate the implementation of the policy. Methods Data on rural residents participating in new rural cooperative medical policy in 2000 and 2006 were evaluated with 2×2 square analysis and Probit model based on difference in differences method, and the implementation of policy was analysed. Results The number of females participating in new rural cooperative medical policy was larger than that of males, and the mean age of residents participating in the policy (45. 79 years old) was lower than that of residents without participation (46. 84 years old). The overall self-perceived health value in 2006 was lower than that in 2000. The policy had positive effect on self-perceived health value, with difference in differences of 0.040 3. Gender, age, drinking and medical insurance participation had influence on self-perceived health value (P<0.05). Conclusion The new rural cooperative medical policy has a positive effect on self-perceived health, but the effect may be hindered by potential moral risk and self-ignorance. Health education should be enhanced during the implementation of the policy.%目的 分析新型农村合作医疗(新农合)政策对农民健康的影响,定量评估新农合政策实施效果.方法 基于倍差法运用2×2方格分析法和Probit模型对中国新农合2000年和2006年参合数据进行评估,分析政策实施的效果.结果 新农合参合组女性比例高于男性,参合组平均年龄(45.79岁)低于未参合组(46.84岁).2006年健康自评状况总体低于2000年;新农合参合对健康自评有积极影响,净影响为0.040 3;性别、年龄、是否饮酒和是否拥有医疗保险对健康自评有影响(P<0.05).结论 新农合对农民健康自评有积极影响,但可能存在的道德风险、自我忽视等因素影响健康自评值的提高幅度,新农合实施还应加强健康教育的宣传.

  15. ADAPTIVE COUNTING RULE FOR COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING UNDER CORRELATED ENVIRONMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2010-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is the Cognitive Radio mechanism that enables spectrum awareness. Spectrum sensing detection performance can be greatly improved, through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. This paper considers and proposes a cooperative spectrum sensing scheme, which implements an adaptive...... counting rule to perform the data fusion. The proposed scheme is evaluated against other common counting rules (e.g. 1-out-of-n and n-out-of-n) and the optimum counting rule, under different correlation conditions. The impact of correlation on the performance of the data fusion schemes, based on counting...

  16. 新型农村合作医疗制度对农民就医决策的影响——基于“中国健康与营养调查”数据的双重差分估计%Effect of New Rural Cooperative Medical System on Medical Decision-making of Farmers Based on double difference estimation of "China Health and Nutrition Survey" data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚楠; 陈在余; 马爱霞

    2012-01-01

    基于“中国健康与营养调查”数据中2000、2004、2006及2009年共4期的县级面板数据,从农民医疗服务利用中就医决策角度,对新型农村合作医疗制度的政策效果进行实证分析。利用新型农村合作医疗制度逐步覆盖的特征,借鉴双重差分模型,分析了新型农村合作医疗制度对农民到正规医疗机构就诊的影响。结果表明,新型农村合作医疗制度提高了农民患者到正规医疗机构就诊的比例,使得农民患者到正规医疗机构就诊占比提高了2.4%左右。时间趋势研究表明,新型农村合作医疗制度对农民就医决策的影响具有持续性的正效应,且对2009年农民就医决策的影响具有显著的统计学意义,达到11.9%。%Using county-level panel data during 2000, 2004, 2006 and 2009 in "China Health and Nutrition Survey" data, the policy effect of the new rural cooperative medical system was conducted rigorous empirical analysis from the aspect of medical decision-making in farmers' medical service utilization. Using the gradual covering features of new rural cooperative medical system, referred to double difference model, the influence of the new rura] cooperative medical system on farmers going to regular medical institutions was analyzed. The results showed that the new rural cooperative medical system improved the proportion of farmers going to regular medical institution, and the proportion was increased by about 2.4%.Time trend research showed that the new rural cooperative medical system had continuous positive effect on medical decision-making of farmers, and the effect of the new rural cooperative medical system in 2009 had obvious statistic significance, reaching 11.9%.

  17. Efficacy and tolerance of an injectable medical device containing stable hybrid cooperative complexes of high- and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid: a monocentric 16 weeks open-label evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparavigna A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adele Sparavigna, Beatrice Tenconi DermIng srl, Clinical Research and Bioengineering Institute, Monza, MB, Italy Background: An injectable medical device containing stable hybrid cooperative complexes of high- and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA has been developed with characteristics suited for a global improvement of facial esthetics. Objective: To evaluate the HA product performance in improving some key facial esthetic features. The study employed clinical scales, subjective evaluations, and facial skin objective measurements. Methods: A single Italian site treated 64 female subjects aged 38–60 years, with injections at five predetermined points, on each side of the face, with a 4-week time lapse between the first and the second product administration. Subjects were evaluated after 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, using validated clinical scales, subjective evaluation, and objective quantitative outcome measures. Assessment of esthetic results included photographic documentation. Results: Both the clinical and subjective assessments, and the majority of objective instrumental parameters indicated an improvement throughout the study and were already significant at week 4 or 8 and were still significant at week 16 (3 months after the second treatment. Minor and temporary local skin reactions were observed in 23% of subjects at the site of the injections, and the global judgment on tolerability was good or excellent, both in the investigators’ opinion and volunteers’ self-evaluation. Conclusion: Both subjective and objective improvement of the facial parameters was consistent with the bio-remodeling purpose, and persistent and still statistically significant at the end of the study. The tolerability and safety profile of the product were judged good or excellent both by investigators and volunteers. This study supports the claim for bio-remodeling of these stable hybrid cooperative complexes of low- and high-molecular-weight HA. Keywords

  18. 军队医院开展新农合促进军地融合式发展%Implementing New Rural Cooperative Medical System, to Promote the Civil -military Integration Development of Military Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建国; 焦峰; 江海洋; 周爱萍

    2012-01-01

    Military hospitals have the dual responsibilities of serving both the army and the civilians. The new rural cooperative medical system (NCMS) is an important project concerning peoples livelihood established by the government in the new era to solve the problems of villagers, countryside and agriculture, and to promote the e-qualization of health and medical service in urban - rural areas. Military hospitals are the frontier and key sites in implementing NCMS in the military medical organization. The implementation of NCMS plays an important role in promoting the civil - military integration development of military hospitals.%军队医院兼具社会公益性和军事保障性的双重性质.新型农村合作医疗是新时期政府为了解决“三农”问题,促进城乡医疗公平所实施的一项重大民生工程.军队医院是军队卫生机构开展新农合的前沿和重点,开展新农合对促进军队医院军地融合式发展起到了重要的作用.

  19. On hybrid cooperation in underlay cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2013-09-01

    Cooperative communication is a promising strategy to enhance the performance of a communication network as it helps to improve the coverage area and the outage performance. However, such enhancement comes at the expense of increased resource utilization, which is undesirable; more so in the case of opportunistic wireless systems such as cognitive radio networks. In order to balance the performance gains from cooperative communication against the possible over-utilization of resources, we propose and analyze an adaptive-cooperation technique for underlay cognitive radio networks, termed as hybrid-cooperation. Under the proposed cooperation scheme, secondary users in a cognitive radio network cooperate adaptively to enhance the spectral efficiency and the error performance of the network. The bit error rate, the spectral efficiency and the outage performance of the network under the proposed hybrid cooperation scheme with amplify-and-forward relaying are analyzed in this paper, and compared against conventional cooperation technique. Findings of the analytical performance analyses are further validated numerically through selected computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. The proposed scheme is found to achieve significantly better performance in terms of the spectral efficiency and the bit error rate, compared to the conventional amplify-and-forward cooperation scheme. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. A Trust-Based Model for Security Cooperating in Vehicular Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available VCC is a computing paradigm which consists of vehicles cooperating with each other to realize a lot of practical applications, such as delivering packages. Security cooperation is a fundamental research topic in Vehicular Cloud Computing (VCC. Because of the existence of malicious vehicles, the security cooperation has become a challenging issue in VCC. In this paper, a trust-based model for security cooperating, named DBTEC, is proposed to promote vehicles’ security cooperation in VCC. DBTEC combines the indirect trust estimation in Public board and the direct trust estimation in Private board to compute the trust value of vehicles when choosing cooperative partners; a trustworthy cooperation path generating scheme is proposed to ensure the safety of cooperation and increase the cooperation completion rates in VCC. Extensive experiments show that our scheme improves the overall cooperation completion rates by 6~7%.

  1. UNIMED: história e características da cooperativa de trabalho médico no Brasil UNIMED: history and characteristics of a Brazilian medical cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Rabelais Duarte

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho busca descrever as características organizacionais da cooperativa de trabalho médico UNIMED no Brasil. Após uma breve perspectiva sobre a participação da UNIMED no mercado atual, aborda-se sua estrutura organizacional, evolução histórica e o regime contratual dos cooperados, incluindo a fórmula utilizada para o cálculo do valor a ser pago como remuneração do trabalho médico. Atualmente, são 367 cooperativas locais no país, que operam em mais de 80% dos municípios, contando com 41% dos médicos existentes para atender a 7% da população. A história da organização evidencia o surgimento, primeiro, das cooperativas locais e, posteriormente, daquelas das federações, da confederação e das demais empresas do complexo. O desenho e a dinâmica organizacional favorecem o alto grau de descentralização e autonomia; a subordinação de todos os componentes do complexo ao comando da cooperativa de trabalho médico e a ocorrência de disputas internas e conflitos entre os interesses individuais e os da organização.This article describes the organizational characteristics of the UNIMED medical cooperative in Brazil. After an overview of UNIMED's share in the current health plan market, the author analyzes its organizational structure, historical evolution, and contractual regimen with member physicians, including the formula used to calculate the payment schedule for physician services. The plan currently includes 367 local member cooperatives, operating in over 80% of Brazil's counties, with 41% of existing physicians to serve 7% of the population. The organization's history began with local cooperatives and subsequently federations, the confederation, and other companies in the group. The organizational design and dynamics favor a high degree of decentralization and autonomy, subordination of all components in the system to the physician cooperative command, and the occurrence of internal disputes and conflicts

  2. Multi-point cooperative communication systems theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Multi-point Cooperative Communication Systems: Theory and Applications mainly discusses multi-point cooperative communication technologies which are used to overcome the long-standing problem of limited transmission rate caused by the inter-point interference. Instead of combating the interference, recent progress in both academia and industrial standardizations has evolved to adopt the philosophy of “exploiting” the interference to improve the transmission rate by cooperating among multiple points. This book addresses the multi-point cooperative communication system systematically giving  the readers a clear picture of the technology map and where the discussed schemes may fit. This book includes not only the theories of the paradigm-shifting multi-point cooperative communication, but also the designs of sub-optimal cooperative communication schemes for practical systems. Ming Ding is a senior researcher at Sharp Laboratories of China; Hanwen Luo is a professor at Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

  3. Finite Boltzmann schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the special case of relaxation parameter = 1 lattice Boltzmann schemes for (convection) diffusion and fluid flow are equivalent to finite difference/volume (FD) schemes, and are thus coined finite Boltzmann (FB) schemes. We show that the equivalence is inherent to the homology of the

  4. MIDI Programming in Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    A Scheme representation of Standard MIDI Files is proposed. The Scheme expressions are defined and constrained by an XML-language, which in the starting point is inspired by a MIDI XML event language made by the MIDI Manufactures Association. The representation of Standard MIDI Files in Scheme ma...

  5. MIDI Programming in Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    A Scheme representation of Standard MIDI Files is proposed. The Scheme expressions are defined and constrained by an XML-language, which in the starting point is inspired by a MIDI XML event language made by the MIDI Manufactures Association. The representation of Standard MIDI Files in Scheme ma...

  6. Distributed Cooperative Transmission with Unreliable and Untrustworthy Relay Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Han

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative transmission is an emerging wireless communication technique that improves wireless channel capacity through multiuser cooperation in the physical layer. It is expected to have a profound impact on network performance and design. However, cooperative transmission can be vulnerable to selfish behaviors and malicious attacks, especially in its current design. In this paper, we investigate two fundamental questions Does cooperative transmission provide new opportunities to malicious parties to undermine the network performance? Are there new ways to defend wireless networks through physical layer cooperation? Particularly, we study the security vulnerabilities of the traditional cooperative transmission schemes and show the performance degradation resulting from the misbehaviors of relay nodes. Then, we design a trust-assisted cooperative scheme that can detect attacks and has self-healing capability. The proposed scheme performs much better than the traditional schemes when there are malicious/selfish nodes or severe channel estimation errors. Finally, we investigate the advantage of cooperative transmission in terms of defending against jamming attacks. A reduction in link outage probability is achieved.

  7. Disparity in reimbursement for tuberculosis care among different health insurance schemes: evidence from three counties in central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Pan; Shanquan Chen; Manli Chen; Pei Zhang; Qian Long; Li Xiang; Henry Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Background:Health inequity is an important issue all around the world.The Chinese basic medical security system comprises three major insurance schemes,namely the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI),the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI),and the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS).Little research has been conducted to look into the disparity in payments among the health insurance schemes in China.In this study,we aimed to evaluate the disparity in reimbursements for tuberculosis (TB) care among the abovementioned health insurance schemes.Methods:This study uses a World Health Organization (WHO) framework to analyze the disparities and equity relating to the three dimensions of health insurance:population coverage,the range of services covered,and the extent to which costs are covered.Each of the health insurance scheme's policies were categorized and analyzed.An analysis of the claims database of all hospitalizations reimbursed from 2010 to 2012 in three counties of Yichang city (YC),which included 1506 discharges,was conducted to identify the differences in reimbursement rates and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses among the health insurance schemes.Results:Tuberculosis patients had various inpatient expenses depending on which scheme they were covered by (TB patients covered by the NCMS have less inpatient expenses than those who were covered by the URBMI,who have less inpatient expenses than those covered by the UEBMI).We found a significant horizontal inequity of healthcare utilization among the lower socioeconomic groups.In terms of financial inequity,TB patients who earned less paid more.The NCMS provides modest financial protection,based on income.Overall,TB patients from lower socioeconomic groups were the most vulnerable.Conclusion:There are large disparities in reimbursement for TB care among the three health insurance schemes and this,in turn,hampers TB control.Reducing the gap in health outcomes between the three health insurance

  8. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses two different Scheme documentation tools. The first is SchemeDoc, which is intended for documentation of the interfaces of Scheme libraries (APIs). The second is the Scheme Elucidator, which is for internal documentation of Scheme programs. Although the tools...... are separate and intended for different documentation purposes they are related to each other in several ways. Both tools are based on XML languages for tool setup and for documentation authoring. In addition, both tools rely on the LAML framework which---in a systematic way---makes an XML language available...

  9. A Study on the Appraisal about the Medical Practitioners of the Cooperative Medical System during the Period of Collectivization%关于集体化时代农村合作医疗中医务人员的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美美

    2012-01-01

    关于农村医务人员的评价问题是集体化时代农村合作医疗研究的一项重要内容。对医务人员的评价应从其选拔、培养、业务素质及医务人员退出三级医疗保健网等角度进行。在集体化时代农村合作医疗中,医务人员的选拔普遍强调政治品质和出身,旧的医疗资源没有得到利用,医务人员的政治学习远重于专业学习。从全国来看,农村医务人员的知识和业务水平是比较差的,但农村医务人员后来经过不断的复训和轮训,大部分人的医术得到很大的提高。%The appraisal about the medical practitioners in the Chinese villages is the important content of the research about Co- operative Medical System during the Period of Collectivization. We can appraise the medical staff from these selections, training, and professional quality and exiting from three grade health care network. In this system , the selection of medical staff emphasize on quali- ty and origin of political, political learning is far more important than professional learning , knowledge and professional standards of the medical staff is relatively poor from nationwide . But later by continuous refresher and rotational training, most of the medical staffr s professional standard has been greatly improved in rural areas.

  10. System Capacity Limits Introduced by Data Fusion on Cooperative Spectrum Sensing under Correlated Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2010-01-01

    Spectrum sensing, the cornerstone of the Cognitive Radio paradigm, has been the focus of intensive research, from which the main conclusion was that its performance can be greatly enhanced through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. Nevertheless, if a proper design of the cooperative scheme i...

  11. Interorganizational Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    curation of artifacts and remains). (6) Regional Biosecurity Plan for Micronesia and Hawaii (Invasive): The University of Guam and the Secretariat of...following ESF: (1) ESF#3, Public Works and Engineering—VA maintains a deployable damage assessment team that primarily focuses on hospital and medical...overwhelms the DOD hospital system. 2. Interaction a. In 1982, the VA-DOD MOU Regarding the Furnishing of Health Care Services to Members of the

  12. Comparison of medicines management strategies in insurance schemes in middle-income countries: four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Warren A; Ashigbie, Paul G; Brooks, Mohamad I; Wirtz, Veronika J

    2017-01-01

    Many middle-income countries are scaling up health insurance schemes to provide financial protection and access to affordable medicines to poor and uninsured populations. Although there is a wealth of evidence on how high income countries with mature insurance schemes manage cost-effective use of medicines, there is limited evidence on the strategies used in middle-income countries. This paper compares the medicines management strategies that four insurance schemes in middle-income countries use to improve access and cost-effective use of medicines among beneficiaries. We compare key strategies promoting cost-effective medicines use in the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in China, National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana, Jamkesmas in Indonesia and Seguro Popular in Mexico. Through the peer-reviewed and grey literature as of late 2013, we identified strategies that met our inclusion criteria as well as any evidence showing if, and/or how, these strategies affected medicines management. Stakeholders involved and affected by medicines coverage policies in these insurance schemes were asked to provide relevant documents describing the medicines related aspects of these insurance programs. We also asked them specifically to identify publications discussing the unintended consequences of the strategies implemented. Use of formularies, bulk procurement, standard treatment guidelines and separation of prescribing and dispensing were present in all four schemes. Also, increased transparency through publication of tender agreements and procurement prices was introduced in all four. Common strategies shared by three out of four schemes were medicine price negotiation or rebates, generic reference pricing, fixed salaries for prescribers, accredited preferred provider network, disease management programs, and monitoring of medicines purchases. Cost-sharing and payment for performance was rarely used. There was a lack of performance monitoring strategies in all

  13. Efficacy and tolerance of an injectable medical device containing stable hybrid cooperative complexes of high- and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid: a monocentric 16 weeks open-label evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparavigna, Adele; Tenconi, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Background An injectable medical device containing stable hybrid cooperative complexes of high- and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA) has been developed with characteristics suited for a global improvement of facial esthetics. Objective To evaluate the HA product performance in improving some key facial esthetic features. The study employed clinical scales, subjective evaluations, and facial skin objective measurements. Methods A single Italian site treated 64 female subjects aged 38–60 years, with injections at five predetermined points, on each side of the face, with a 4-week time lapse between the first and the second product administration. Subjects were evaluated after 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, using validated clinical scales, subjective evaluation, and objective quantitative outcome measures. Assessment of esthetic results included photographic documentation. Results Both the clinical and subjective assessments, and the majority of objective instrumental parameters indicated an improvement throughout the study and were already significant at week 4 or 8 and were still significant at week 16 (3 months after the second treatment). Minor and temporary local skin reactions were observed in 23% of subjects at the site of the injections, and the global judgment on tolerability was good or excellent, both in the investigators’ opinion and volunteers’ self-evaluation. Conclusion Both subjective and objective improvement of the facial parameters was consistent with the bio-remodeling purpose, and persistent and still statistically significant at the end of the study. The tolerability and safety profile of the product were judged good or excellent both by investigators and volunteers. This study supports the claim for bio-remodeling of these stable hybrid cooperative complexes of low- and high-molecular-weight HA. PMID:27713647

  14. Subgame consistent cooperation a comprehensive treatise

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, David W K

    2016-01-01

    Strategic behavior in the human and social world has been increasingly recognized in theory and practice. It is well known that non-cooperative behavior could lead to suboptimal or even highly undesirable outcomes. Cooperation suggests the possibility of obtaining socially optimal solutions and the calls for cooperation are prevalent in real-life problems. Dynamic cooperation cannot be sustainable if there is no guarantee that the agreed upon optimality principle at the beginning is maintained throughout the cooperation duration. It is due to the lack of this kind of guarantees that cooperative schemes fail to last till its end or even fail to get started. The property of subgame consistency in cooperative dynamic games and the corresponding solution mechanism resolve this “classic” problem in game theory. This book is a comprehensive treatise on subgame consistent dynamic cooperation covering the up-to-date state of the art analyses in this important topic. It sets out to provide the theory, solution tec...

  15. Distributed Amplify and Forward Cooperation While Maintaining Transmission Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study proposes a novel Distributed Amplify and-Forward (DAF cooperative scheme, achieving higher diver¬sity order and yet maintaining the same transmission freedom as the conventional Amplify-and-Forward (AF scheme. In the DAF scheme, a user’s transmitted symbols are partitioned into several sequences in order to be relayed by different users. Approach: In the cooperative network, each user still uses half of their transmission for relaying others’ signals. But instead of relaying one user’s entire transmitted sequence, it helps different users for the relaying. Theoretical analysis of the DAF scheme is carried out in order to justify its advantages over the existing schemes. The outage behavior and Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff (DMT analyses of the DAF scheme are presented. Results: Through outage behavior analysis, it is shown the DAF scheme achieves substantial diversity gains over the AF scheme. Furthermore, the DMT analysis justices both the scheme’s achievable diversity gains and its ability to maintain the same multiplexing gain as the AF scheme. The theoretical analyses are then extended to a general cooperative network consisting of N (N≥2 relays, showing the diversity order can be increased with respect to the number of relays but not at the expense of each user’s multiplexing gain. Conclusion: Finally, a practical coded cooperative system that integrates the DAF scheme with the concatenated Reed-Solomon Convolution Codes (RSCC is proposed, validating the achievable performance gain offered by the DAF scheme.

  16. Convertible Proxy Signcryption Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继国; 李建中; 曹珍富; 张亦辰

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, Mambo et al introduced the concept of proxy signature. However, proxy signature can only provide the delegated authenticity and cannot provide confidentiality. Recently, Gamage et al and Chan and Wei proposed different proxy signcryption schemes respectively, which extended the concept of proxy signature.However, only the specified receiver can decrypt and verify the validity of proxy signcryption in their schemes.To protect the receiver' s benefit in case of a later dispute, Wu and Hsu proposed a convertible authenticated encryption scheme, which carn enable the receiver to convert signature into an ordinary one that can be verified by anyone. Based on Wu and Hsu' s scheme and improved Kim' s scheme, we propose a convertible proxy signcryption scheme. The security of the proposed scheme is based on the intractability of reversing the one-way hash function and solving the discrete logarithm problem. The proposed scheme can satisfy all properties of strong proxy signature and withstand the public key substitution attack and does not use secure channel. In addition, the proposed scheme can be extended to convertible threshold proxy signcryption scheme.

  17. Adaptive Counting Rule for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Under Correlated Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is the cognitive radio mechanism that enables spectrum awareness. It has been shown in the literature that spectrum sensing performance can be greatly improved through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. This paper considers and proposes a data fusion based cooperative spectrum...... sensing scheme based on data fusion, where an adaptive counting rule is used to implement the data fusion. The proposed scheme is evaluated against other common counting rules (e.g. 1-out-of-c and c-out-of-c) found in the literature and the optimum counting rule, while under different correlation...

  18. Non-cooperative planning theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogetoft, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Planning in a general sense is concerned with the design of communication and decision making mechanisms in organizations where information and choice are decentralized. Non-cooperative planning theory as it is developed in this book treats the incentive aspects hereof. It stresses how strategic behavior and opportunism may impede planning, and how this can be coped with via the organization of communication and decision making, the design of information and control systems, and the development of incentive schemes. In particular, the book contains a thorough investigation of incentive provision in information production.

  19. 混合logit模型及其在合作医疗保险模式选择中的应用%Mixed logit model and its application in insurance choices of the new rural cooperative medical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾伟娜; 王金金; 沈其君; 陈明; 张彦超; 朱胜军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To apply mixed logit model for analyzing the data of new rural cooperative medical with suitability and identify the factors affecting the residents' choices of insurance mode. Methods Hypothesis test of IIA was performed using the mogtest module of StatalO.O to test the eligibility of the condition. The mixed logit model was established to allow the parameters to vary in the population using SAS9.1 MDC module. Results The data in this study did not satisfy the HA assumption (P<0.01), so that the multinomial logit model was not applicable. The adjusted Estrella of the mixed logit model was 0.6658. Conclusion The mixed logit approach does not rely on the restrictive IIA assumption and allows for correlation patterns between choices and individual variation. This approach can help in the determination of the choices in new rural cooperative medical system.%目的 针对独立不相关(ILA)假设的限制,探讨混合logit模型在新型农村合作医疗中的适用性,并分析居民新型农村合作医疗保险模式选择的影响因素.方法 从选择项服从IIA假设人手,分析多项logit模型是否符合IIA假设条件.调用stata10.0软件的mlogtest模块进行IIA假设检验.再调用SAS9.1软件的MDC模块,建立了随机参数的混合logit模型.结果 在本次研究中,资料不能满足IIA假设(P<0.01),不能应用多项logit模型进行分析;建立的混合logit模型的调整Estrella值为0.6658.结论 混合logit方法完全摆脱了ILA假设的限制,允许选项之间存在相关性,同时可以体现不同居民保险模式选择的异质性,该方法在新型农村合作医疗中具有一定的适用性.

  20. Sharing Regional Cooperative Gains From Reusing Effluent for Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinar, Ariel; Yaron, Dan; Kannai, Yakar

    1986-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the allocation of cost and benefits from regional cooperation, with respect to reuse of municipal effluent for irrigation at the Ramla region of Israel. An efficient regional solution provides the maximal regional income which has to be redistributed among the town and several farms. Different allocations based on marginal cost pricing and schemes from cooperative game theory like the core, Shapley value, generalized Shapley value, and nucleolus are applied. The town and farm A have the main additional gains according to all allocation schemes presented. Advantages and disadvantages of these allocation schemes are examined in order to suggest a fair and acceptable allocation of the regional cooperative gains. Although no method has been preferred, the marginal cost pricing was found to be unacceptable by the participants. The conclusion is that the theory of cooperative games may provide guidelines while comparing the different solutions.

  1. 醫學圖書館網路資源合作館藏發展 Internet Resources Cooperative Collection Development in Medical Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwu-jiun Wang

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available 無Internet has been well-developed and utilized, collection developments for both periodicals and databases and how to share the resources among libraries should be handled and organized by a national institution, such as National Central Library or Science& Technology Information Center. Then other libraries can take the advantages of Internet to collect and organize the valuable information by topics and subjects. It will not only utilize the virtual resources, save time for reference librarians but also help users to locate the information much easier and faster. As a side benefit, the traffic of Internet will also be decreased. Therefore under the present situation of shortage of manpower, high price of periodicals and databases, how to utilize and organize the resources from the Internet has become a possible way to achieve the purposes of collection developments and sharing resources. This article will present few models of medical libraries in the U.S. and European countries as our reference.

  2. Entropic estimate of cooperative binding of substrate on a single oligomeric enzyme: An index of cooperativity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Kinshuk; Gangopadhyay, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Here we have systematically studied the cooperative binding of substrate molecules on the active sites of a single oligomeric enzyme in a chemiostatic condition. The average number of bound substrate and the net velocity of the enzyme catalyzed reaction are studied by the formulation of stochastic master equation for the cooperative binding classified here as spatial and temporal. We have estimated the entropy production for the cooperative binding schemes based on single trajectory analysis using a kinetic Monte Carlo technique. It is found that the total as well as the medium entropy production show the same generic diagnostic signature for detecting the cooperativity, usually characterized in terms of the net velocity of the reaction. This feature is also found to be valid for the total entropy production rate at the nonequilibrium steady state. We have introduced an index of cooperativity, C, defined in terms of the ratio of the surprisals or equivalently, the stochastic system entropy associated with the...

  3. Difference Schemes and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-06

    of the shallow water equations that is well suited for complex geometries and moving boundaries. Another (similar) regularization of...the solid wall extrapolation followed by the interpolation in the phase space (by solving the Riemann problem between the internal cell averages and...scheme. This Godunov-type scheme enjoys all major advantages of Riemann -problem-solver-free, non-oscillatory central schemes and, at the same time, have

  4. Efficient Threshold Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattar J Aboud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a new threshold signature RSA-typed scheme. The proposed scheme has the characteristics of un-forgeable and robustness in random oracle model. Also, signature generation and verification is entirely non-interactive. In addition, the length of the entity signature participate is restricted by a steady times of the length of the RSA signature modulus. Also, the signing process of the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of time complexity and interaction.

  5. Stateless Transitive Signature Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chun-guang; CAI Man-chun; YANG Yi-xian

    2004-01-01

    A new practical method is introduced to transform the stateful transitive signature scheme to stateless one without the loss of security. According to the approach, two concrete stateless transitive signature schemes based on Factoring and RSA are presented respectively. Under the assumption of the hardness of factoring and one-more- RSA-inversion problem, both two schemes are secure under the adaptive chosen-message attacks in random oracle model.

  6. A Novel Cooperative Opportunistic Routing Scheme for Underwater Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreyshi, Seyed Mohammad; Shahrabi, Alireza; Boutaleb, Tuleen

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attention has recently been devoted to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) because of their capabilities in the ocean monitoring and resource discovery. UWSNs are faced with different challenges, the most notable of which is perhaps how to efficiently deliver packets taking into account all of the constraints of the available acoustic communication channel. The opportunistic routing provides a reliable solution with the aid of intermediate nodes' collaboration to relay a packet toward the destination. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol, called opportunistic void avoidance routing (OVAR), to address the void problem and also the energy-reliability trade-off in the forwarding set selection. OVAR takes advantage of distributed beaconing, constructs the adjacency graph at each hop and selects a forwarding set that holds the best trade-off between reliability and energy efficiency. The unique features of OVAR in selecting the candidate nodes in the vicinity of each other leads to the resolution of the hidden node problem. OVAR is also able to select the forwarding set in any direction from the sender, which increases its flexibility to bypass any kind of void area with the minimum deviation from the optimal path. The results of our extensive simulation study show that OVAR outperforms other protocols in terms of the packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, end-to-end delay, hop count and traversed distance.

  7. Selection of Cooperation in Spatially Structured Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyunmo; Ghim, Cheol-Min

    The social dilemma games give rise to an emergence of cooperation in which altruistic individuals survive the natural selection at higher rate than random chance. We try to extend our understanding of this spatial reciprocity by including the impact of degree-degree correlation on the propensity toward prosocial behaviour in an otherwise well-mixed population. In a stochastic death-birth process with weak selection, we find that the disassortative degree mixing, or negative correlation between the degrees of neighbouring nodes significantly promotes the fixation of cooperators whereas the assortative mixing acts to suppress it. This is consistent with the fact that the spatial heterogeneity weakens the average tendency of a population to cooperate, which we describe in a unified scheme of the effective isothermality in coarse-grained networks. We also discuss the individual-level incentives that indirectly foster restructuring the social networks toward the more cooperative topologies.

  8. Cognitive Medical Multiagent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Iantovics

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of efficient and flexible agent-based medical diagnosis systems represents a recent research direction. Medical multiagent systems may improve the efficiency of traditionally developed medical computational systems, like the medical expert systems. In our previous researches, a novel cooperative medical diagnosis multiagent system called CMDS (Contract Net Based Medical Diagnosis System was proposed. CMDS system can solve flexibly a large variety of medical diagnosis problems. This paper analyses the increased intelligence of the CMDS system, which motivates its use for different medical problem’s solving.

  9. 江西省新型农村合作医疗门诊补偿公平性研究%A study of the out-patient compensation equity of New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme in Jiangxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁兆康; 韩冰; 方丽霖; 廖小兵; 肖云昌; 洪鹰

    2011-01-01

    目的:从门诊补偿公平性的角度,评价新农合制度的实施效果,为进一步完善新农合实施方案提供科学依据.方法:采用全面调查的方法调查了江西省第一、二、三批共40个新农合试点县2006-2008年的门诊补偿资料,以集中指数(CI)、不平等斜率指数(SII)作为评价指标.结果:2006-2008年,全省门诊补偿总受益率、乡村两级医疗机构门诊总受益率均略有下降,但主要表现在高收入农民门诊受益率下降,低收入农民门诊受益率却有较明显上升,且门诊补偿总受益率的CI接近于0,CI和SII指数也由正转负;全省及各级医疗机构的总次均门诊补偿费用均逐年上升,CI均接近于0,但CI和SII指数基本都由负转正.结论:全省农民门诊补偿公平性总体较好,但门诊补偿受益率仍处于较低水平,经济状况较差试点县的门诊补偿强度需进一步加强.

  10. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  11. A secure biometrics-based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaopeng; Li, Weiheng; Li, Ping; Wang, Jiantao; Hao, Xinhong; Gong, Peng

    2013-10-01

    The telecare medicine information system (TMIS) allows patients and doctors to access medical services or medical information at remote sites. Therefore, it could bring us very big convenient. To safeguard patients' privacy, authentication schemes for the TMIS attracted wide attention. Recently, Tan proposed an efficient biometrics-based authentication scheme for the TMIS and claimed their scheme could withstand various attacks. However, in this paper, we point out that Tan's scheme is vulnerable to the Denial-of-Service attack. To enhance security, we also propose an improved scheme based on Tan's work. Security and performance analysis shows our scheme not only could overcome weakness in Tan's scheme but also has better performance.

  12. Teleworking through cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Minervini

    2006-07-01

    scheme is strictly connected to new technologies and cooperation is an important dimension of teleworking. In our study, cooperation is found performed both in social relations between employers and employees and in institutionalized relations between managers and unions. Although the two forms of cooperation, here called “social trustee cooperation” and “institutional cooperation”, are often thought as prerequisites of “best practices” of new working arrangements, our case studies demonstrate that cooperation has not always arisen that make possible to implement practices of teleworking. By focusing on cooperative relations, the results of different case studies in industry and in the service sector are discussed, thus intending to contribute to the development of sociological debate on telework.

  13. 新型农村合作医疗的减贫、增收和再分配效果研究%A Study on the Anti- poverty, Income Increasing and Redistributional Effects of New Cooperative Medical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐良书

    2011-01-01

    Using micro panel data covering 30 provinces from 2003 to 2006, this paper assesses the effects of New Cooperative Medical System (NCMS) on rural poverty, farmers' incomes and income inequality. The main results are: NCMS can significantly reduce rural po%本文使用2003-2006年覆盖全国30个省区的微观面板数据,对新型农村合作医疗的减贫、增收和再分配效果进行了评估。结果表明:新农合的减贫效果明显,不仅能在农户层面上显著降低贫困发生概率,而且能在省区层面上显著降低贫困率;新农合能显著促进低收入和中等收入农民增收,但需要有利的外部经济环境作为支持条件;新农合能显著降低村庄内部的收入分配不均等程度,但对省区范围内的农民收入分配状况没有产生显著影响。

  14. Supply and Marketing Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Supply and Marketing Cooperatives Council of CCPIT was established in March 1996. It is an institution under direct leadership of China Supply and Market-ing Cooperatives and at the same time a branch of China Council for Promotion of International Trade, with its major task to promoting and facilitating export-oriented economic trade and technological cooper-ation of the national supply and marketing cooperative system.

  15. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Goutsias (John); H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis

  16. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goutsias, J.; Heijmans, H.J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    [PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis and synthes

  17. Gredos San Diego Cooperative. Cooperate to undertake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de la Higuera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the cooperative experience through Gredos San Diego model, its institutional approaches and its history from the point of view of management, focusing on the variables that enable the success of a collective ownership institution. First, the author makes a brief analysis of the principles that guide the cooperative, its origins and its current situation, including the development of GSD Cooperative Group. It continues exploring the evolution of management, dividing it into four distinct stages, and concludes with a summary with the findings of the previous president of the cooperative.Received: 23.07.2012Accepted: 10.09.2012

  18. Medical emplotment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Troels Sune

    ’. Theoretically the project departs from Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Participatory Design and is informed by Medical Informatics, Design Research and Science and Technology Studies. Methodically the project is founded on collaborative prototyping, ethnographic studies, and design interventions...... philosophy and building on theory on narrative reasoning, the dissertation offers the notions of emplotment and re-emplotment to describe how physicians marshal information from various sources, including the medical record, the patient and coSummary to form a narrative, when making sense of patients...

  19. Medical emplotment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Troels Sune

    ’. Theoretically the project departs from Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Participatory Design and is informed by Medical Informatics, Design Research and Science and Technology Studies. Methodically the project is founded on collaborative prototyping, ethnographic studies, and design interventions...... philosophy and building on theory on narrative reasoning, the dissertation offers the notions of emplotment and re-emplotment to describe how physicians marshal information from various sources, including the medical record, the patient and coSummary to form a narrative, when making sense of patients...

  20. Durch Kooperation und Vernetzung zu neuen Aufgabenfeldern – Serviceentwicklung in der Bibliothek der Medizinischen Fakultät Mannheim [Opening up new tasks through cooperation and networking – service development in the Library for the Medical Faculty of Mannheim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semmler-Schmetz, Martina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] The Library for the Medical Faculty of Mannheim of the University of Heidelberg supplies literature and information for research, teaching and further education purposes at the “Universitätsmedizin Mannheim”. Cooperation and networking with the central facilities, departments, working groups, and information multipliers result in new, future-oriented areas of work that go beyond traditional library tasks. New services for students focus primarily on academic research and writing skills, while information and consulting services which are flexible in terms of time and location are being developed for staff members of the clinical departments and institutes. The recent cooperation with actors in the field of evidence-based medicine has yielded the innovative service “systematic literature search” which is designed to support doctors and scientists in the preparation of grant proposals for clinical trials, systematic reviews, and guidelines. Currently, the library is widening access to its new services to include doctors, scientists, and other health practitioners in the region, and evaluating chargeable services for these user groups.[german] Die Bibliothek der Medizinischen Fakultät Mannheim der Universität Heidelberg dient der Literatur- und Informationsversorgung für Forschung, Lehre, Fort- und Weiterbildung an der Universitätsmedizin Mannheim. Neue, zukunftsorientierte Aufgabenfelder, die über die klassischen bibliothekarischen Arbeitsschwerpunkte hinausgehen, erschließt sich die Bibliothek durch enge Kooperation und Vernetzung mit den zentralen Einrichtungen und Abteilungen, Arbeitskreisen und Multiplikatoren innerhalb der Universitätsmedizin Mannheim. Neue Services für die Zielgruppe der Studierenden richten sich vor allem auf den Bereich des wissenschaftlichen Arbeitens, während für Mitarbeiter in den Einrichtungen, Kliniken und Instituten der Universitätsmedizin zeitlich und räumlich flexible Informations

  1. Information Infrastructure for Cooperative Research in Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Durka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a framework for efficient sharing of knowledge between research groups, which have been working for several years without flaws. The obstacles in cooperation are connected primarily with the lack of platforms for effective exchange of experimental data, models, and algorithms. The solution to these problems is proposed by construction of the platform (EEG.pl with the semantic aware search scheme between portals. The above approach implanted in the international cooperative projects like NEUROMATH may bring the significant progress in designing efficient methods for neuroscience research.

  2. A Research on the Sustainable Development of New Rural Cooperative Medical System:Constraining Bottleneck and Path Selection%新型农村合作医疗可持续发展研究:制约瓶颈与路径选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小芡

    2014-01-01

    China has launched the pilot work of new rural cooperative medical system since 2003. Basic medical services and alleviating farmers’ poverty due to illness become important institutional arrangements of building new socialist rural areas and coordinating urban and rural development. But design flaws of the new rural cooperative medical system, legisla-tive lags, imperfect financing mechanisms and not uniform operation modes have become the constraining bottleneck on the sustainable development of new rural cooperative medical system. The paper attaches great importance to system design, perfecting the targets of new rural cooperative medical system,accelerating legislative process,building scientific financing mechanisms, etc. The paper also proposes that the direction of the sustainable development of new rural cooperative medical system is to build urban and rural integration medical security system.%我国自2003年开始推行新农合试点工作,制度实施9年来,在保障农民获得基本医疗服务、缓解农民因病致贫、因病返贫中发挥着重要作用,成为建设社会主义新农村和统筹城乡发展的重要制度安排。但是新农合存在的制度设计缺陷、立法滞后、筹资机制不完善、运行模式不统一等问题已经成为制约新农合可持续的现实瓶颈,文章提出重视制度设计、完善新农合制度目标、加快立法进程、建立科学的筹资机制等措施,并认为最终实现建立城乡一体化的医疗保障制度是新农合可持续发展的方向。

  3. An optimized quantum information splitting scheme with multiple controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min

    2016-12-01

    We propose an efficient scheme for splitting multi-qudit information with cooperative control of multiple agents. Each controller is assigned one controlling qudit, and he can monitor the state sharing of all multi-qudit information. Compared with the existing schemes, our scheme requires less resource consumption and approaches higher communication efficiency. In addition, our proposal involves only generalized Bell-state measurement, single-qudit measurement, one-qudit gates and a unitary-reduction operation, which makes it flexible and achievable for physical implementation.

  4. Public vs private administration of rural health insurance schemes: a comparative study in Zhejiang of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Mao, Zhengzhong; Rechel, Bernd; Liu, Chaojie; Jiang, Jialin; Zhang, Yinying

    2013-07-01

    Since 2003, China has experimented in some of the country's counties with the private administration of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), a publicly subsidized health insurance scheme for rural populations. Our study compared the effectiveness and efficiency of private vs public administration in four counties in one of China's most affluent provinces in the initial stage of the NCMS's implementation. The study was undertaken in Ningbo city of Zhejiang province. Out of 10 counties in Ningbo, two counties with private administration for the NCMS (Beilun and Ninghai) were compared with two others counties with public administration (Zhenhai and Fenghua), using the following indicators: (1) proportion of enrollees who were compensated for inpatient care; (2) average reimbursement-expense ratio per episode of inpatient care; (3) overall administration cost; (4) enrollee satisfaction. Data from 2004 to 2006 were collected from the local health authorities, hospitals and the contracted insurance companies, supplemented by a randomized household questionnaire survey covering 176 households and 479 household members. In our sample counties, private administration of the NCMS neither reduced transaction costs, nor improved the benefits of enrollees. Enrollees covered by the publicly administered NCMS were more likely to be satisfied with the insurance scheme than those covered by the privately administered NCMS. Experience in the selected counties suggests that private administration of the NCMS did not deliver the hoped-for results. We conclude that caution needs to be exercised in extending private administration of the NCMS.

  5. A Fuzzy Commitment Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Al-saggaf, Alawi A

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempt has been made to explain a fuzzy commitment scheme. In the conventional Commitment schemes, both committed string m and valid opening key are required to enable the sender to prove the commitment. However there could be many instances where the transmission involves noise or minor errors arising purely because of the factors over which neither the sender nor the receiver have any control. The fuzzy commitment scheme presented in this paper is to accept the opening key that is close to the original one in suitable distance metric, but not necessarily identical. The concept itself is illustrated with the help of simple situation.

  6. Cooperative Online Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Flate Paulsen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. The pedagogical and administrative challenges with regard to accommodating both individual freedom and cooperation are explained in the Theory of Cooperative Freedom. This article shows that cooperative learning can be implemented successfully through a set of instruments or means. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article also discusses how issues such as web 2.0, transparency, learning partners and individual progression plans relate to cooperative online education.

  7. Cooperative Signaling with Soft Information Combining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a Decode-and-Forward (DF scheme using distributed Turbo code (DTC for a three-node (source, relay, and destination wireless cooperative communication system. The relay decodes, then interleaves, and reencodes the decoded data. It then forwards the reencoded packet and its instantaneous receive SNR to the destination. The performances using both ideal and quantized SNR are studied. The destination uses a modified metric within a Turbo decoding algorithm to scale the soft information calculated for the relay code. The proposed scheme is simple to implement and performs well.

  8. FRR: fair remote retrieval of outsourced private medical records in electronic health networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaqun; Wu, Qianhong; Qin, Bo; Domingo-Ferrer, Josep

    2014-08-01

    Cloud computing is emerging as the next-generation IT architecture. However, cloud computing also raises security and privacy concerns since the users have no physical control over the outsourced data. This paper focuses on fairly retrieving encrypted private medical records outsourced to remote untrusted cloud servers in the case of medical accidents and disputes. Our goal is to enable an independent committee to fairly recover the original private medical records so that medical investigation can be carried out in a convincing way. We achieve this goal with a fair remote retrieval (FRR) model in which either t investigation committee members cooperatively retrieve the original medical data or none of them can get any information on the medical records. We realize the first FRR scheme by exploiting fair multi-member key exchange and homomorphic privately verifiable tags. Based on the standard computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH) assumption, our scheme is provably secure in the random oracle model (ROM). A detailed performance analysis and experimental results show that our scheme is efficient in terms of communication and computation.

  9. Breeding programs for smallholder sheep farming systems: I. Evaluation of alternative designs of breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; Rischkowsky, B; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Mwai, A O; Dessie, T

    2014-10-01

    Village- and central nucleus-based schemes were simulated and evaluated for their relative bio-economic efficiencies, using Ethiopia's Menz sheep as example. The schemes were: village-based 2-tier (Scheme-1) and 1-tier (Scheme-2) cooperative village breeding schemes, dispersed village-based nuclei scheme (Scheme-3), conventional 2-tier central nucleus-based scheme (Scheme-4), and schemes linking a central nucleus and village multiplier nuclei with selection in central nucleus (Scheme-5) or in both central and village nuclei (Scheme-6). Among village-based schemes, Scheme-1 gave the highest genetic progress, while Scheme-2 was economically the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 5.6 and a profit of Birr 37.2/ewe/year. The central nucleus schemes were more efficient than the village schemes. Scheme-4 was the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 13.5 and a profit of Birr 71.2, but is operationally more difficult as it requires a very large central nucleus. The choice between village and central nucleus-based schemes would depend on local conditions (availability of infrastructure, logistics and technical knowhow and support). Linking central nucleus with village-based nuclei (Scheme-6) would be a feasible option to overcome the operational difficulties of the conventional central nucleus scheme. If a village-based breeding program is envisaged as should be the 1st step in most low-input systems, then Scheme-2 is the most efficient. To scale out to an entire Menz breed level, Scheme-3 would be recommended.

  10. CSR schemes in agribusiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Haas, Rainer; Balzarova, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The rise of CSR followed a demand for CSR standards and guidelines. In a sector already characterized by a large number of standards, the authors seek to ask what CSR schemes apply to agribusiness, and how they can be systematically compared and analysed. Design....../methodology/approach – Following a deductive-inductive approach the authors develop a model to compare and analyse CSR schemes based on existing studies and on coding qualitative data on 216 CSR schemes. Findings – The authors confirm that CSR standards and guidelines have entered agribusiness and identify a complex landscape...... of schemes that can be categorized on focus areas, scales, mechanisms, origins, types and commitment levels. Research limitations/implications – The findings contribute to conceptual and empirical research on existing models to compare and analyse CSR standards. Sampling technique and depth of analysis limit...

  11. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  12. Alternative vision or utopian fantasy? Cooperation, empowerment and women's cooperative development in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoux, L

    1995-01-01

    The discussion addresses the costs and benefits of working in cooperatives in India, imposed participation, methods for increasing incomes, preconceived models, the importance of meeting the actual needs of women, and participatory options. This author evaluated 10 producer cooperatives in West Bengal, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu during 1984-92. It is argued that more discussion is needed on how ideals of cooperation and empowerment of women can occur simultaneous with the context in which cooperatives must operate. The ten study cooperatives were all officially registered cooperatives. Cooperatives varied in size, organizational structure, and forms of support. Four were determined to be successful in economic and participatory terms. Three were successful because of the efforts of the women themselves. All three cases were based on earning goals that were higher than the women could have achieved on their own. Six failed in terms of participatory decision making and cooperative operations. Lack of sufficient support and/or excessive bureaucratic red tape were involved in the six failures, but to varying degrees. Type of support and means of implementation were important in the six failures. All women used cooperatives as a means of increasing income. Participation rules were imposed by outside agencies. Women were given "cooperative" training. Disputes occurred because women selected to power positions were powerful leaders outside the cooperative. Consensus was difficult to reach. There were conflicts of interest between different departments. Quality control was made difficult by women's inability to provide discipline. Personal conflicts from outside were carried on within the cooperative. Incomes could be improved by training women in local marketing and networking, insuring adequate resources and capital, and providing savings schemes. Gender inequalities were a key factor limiting income for women, but cooperatives did not address this issue. Gains for women

  13. Construction and Application of Telemedicine in Xinjiang Regional Medical Cooperation System%远程医学在新疆区域医疗协作体系中的构建与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 姜小明; 张玺; 孙亮; 韩月珍

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the value and role of telemedicine in health Huimin system of regional medical collaboration. To build a cultural brand of regional healthcare cooperation community. Methods: We start from the practical application to analyze the role of telemedicine in health Huimin system of regional healthcare collaboration. Results: Telemedicine has highlighted the effectiveness in Xinjiang regional healthcare collaborative development, and has formed a unique regional healthcare collaborative culture brand. Conclusion:To development of telemedicine, to promote career of Borderland Health Huimin.%目的:构建基于远程医学的区域医疗合作共同体,探索远程医学在区域医疗协作网络体系中的价值和作用。方法:从医院远程医学在学科帮扶、基层人才培养、新技术、新业务的传播、医疗适宜技术的推广应用等方面的实践应用入手,分析远程医学在区域医疗协作卫生惠民体系中的作用。结果:远程医学在新疆区域医疗协同发展方面已凸显成效,并已形成独具特色的区域医疗协作文化品牌。结论:发展远程医学,促进边疆卫生惠民事业。

  14. Phase transitions and hysteresis of cooperative contagion processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Li; Brockmann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effects of cooperation between two interacting infectious diseases that spread and stabilize in a host population. We propose a model in which individuals that are infected with one disease are more likely to acquire the second disease, both diseases following the susceptible-infected-susceptible reaction scheme. We analyze cooperative coinfection in stochastic network models as well as the idealized, well-mixed mean field system and show that cooperative mechanisms dramatically change the nature of phase transitions compared to single disease dynamics. We show that, generically, cooperative coinfection exhibits discontinuous transitions from the disease free to high prevalence state when a critical transmission rate is crossed. Furthermore, cooperative coinfection exhibits two distinct critical points, one for outbreaks the second one for eradication that can be substantially lower. This implies that cooperative coinfection exhibits hysteresis in its response to changing effective transmis...

  15. On Hybrid Cooperation in Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Øien, Geir E.;

    2013-01-01

    of opportunistic wireless systems such as cognitive radio networks. In order to balance the performance gains from cooperative communication against the possible over-utilization of resources, we propose and analyze an adaptive-cooperation technique for underlay cognitive radio networks, termed as hybrid......-cooperation. Under the proposed cooperation scheme, secondary users in a cognitive radio network cooperate adaptively to enhance the spectral efficiency and the error performance of the network. The bit error rate, the spectral efficiency and the outage performance of the network under the proposed hybrid......Cooperative communication is a promising strategy to enhance the performance of a communication network as it helps to improve the coverage area and the outage performance. However, such enhancement comes at the expense of increased resource utilization, which is undesirable; more so in the case...

  16. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  17. Cooperative Spatial Retreat for Resilient Drone Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin-Hyeok; Kwon, Young-Min; Park, Kyung-Joon

    2017-05-03

    Drones are broadening their scope to various applications such as networking, package delivery, agriculture, rescue, and many more. For proper operation of drones, reliable communication should be guaranteed because drones are remotely controlled. When drones experience communication failure due to bad channel condition, interference, or jamming in a certain area, one existing solution is to exploit mobility or so-called spatial retreat to evacuate them from the communication failure area. However, the conventional spatial retreat scheme moves drones in random directions, which results in inefficient movement with significant evacuation time and waste of battery lifetime. In this paper, we propose a novel spatial retreat technique that takes advantage of cooperation between drones for resilient networking, which is called cooperative spatial retreat (CSR). Our performance evaluation shows that the proposed CSR significantly outperforms existing schemes.

  18. 新型城市医疗卫生服务体系下流行病学研究中的偏倚控制%CONTROL OF THE BIAS OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RESEARCHES UNDER THE SYSTEM OF IMPROVED CITY MEDICAL SERVICE CO-OPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左群; 何蓓; 胡高潮; 张宗光; 刘辉

    2011-01-01

    本文分析了当前流行病学研究中偏倚问题的存在现状,从完善新型城市医疗卫生服务协作体系的角度,论述了在新的医疗卫生服务模式下,服务对象个人健康信息的完善对流行病学人群研究中控制失访偏倚、无应答偏倚、回忆偏倚、说谎偏倚、现患病例-新病例偏倚和混杂偏倚等的助益作用.%The current problems on the epidemiological research quality were reviewed. From the view of improving the city medical service co-operation system, it was discussed how the well-being of city medical service co-operation system benefited to control non-respondent bias, objective-losing bias, recall bias, lying bias, prevalence-incidence bias, and confounding bias, in order to explore the function of new city medical service co-operation system.

  19. Extensive Dialogues and Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chinese Taipei On March 23,Chairman Wan Jifei of the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) and Board Chairman Wang Zhigang of the Taipei World Trade Center (TWTC) signed a cooperation agreement at the Taipei World Trade Tower,marking the new page of the development of cooperation and relations between the two organizations and the establishment of their cooperation mechanism.

  20. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperato...

  1. Distributed Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Cognitive Radios

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, F Richard; Huang, Minyi; Mason, Peter; Li, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    In cognitive radio mobile ad hoc networks (CR-MANETs), secondary users can cooperatively sense the spectrum to detect the presence of primary users. In this chapter, we propose a fully distributed and scalable cooperative spectrum sensing scheme based on recent advances in consensus algorithms. In the proposed scheme, the secondary users can maintain coordination based on only local information exchange without a centralized common receiver. We use the consensus of secondary users to make the final decision. The proposed scheme is essentially based on recent advances in consensus algorithms that have taken inspiration from complex natural phenomena including flocking of birds, schooling of fish, swarming of ants and honeybees. Unlike the existing cooperative spectrum sensing schemes, there is no need for a centralized receiver in the proposed schemes, which make them suitable in distributed CR-MANETs. Simulation results show that the proposed consensus schemes can have significant lower missing detection prob...

  2. Cooperative Communications. Link Reliability and Power Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahsin, Tafzeel ur Rehman

    2012-07-01

    Demand for high data rates is increasing rapidly for the future wireless generations, due to the requirement of ubiquitous coverage for wireless broadband services. More base stations are needed to deliver these services, in order to cope with the increased capacity demand and inherent unreliable nature of wireless medium. However, this would directly correspond to high infrastructure cost and energy consumption in cellular networks. Nowadays, high power consumption in the network is becoming a matter of concern for the operators,both from environmental and economic point of view. Cooperative communications, which is regarded as a virtual multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) channel, can be very efficient in combating fading multi-path channels and improve coverage with low complexity and cost. With its distributed structure, cooperative communications can also contribute to the energy efficiency of wireless systems and green radio communications of the future. Using network coding at the top of cooperative communication, utilizes the network resources more efficiently. Here we look at the case of large scale use of low cost relays as a way of making the links reliable, that directly corresponds to reduction in transmission power at the nodes. A lot of research work has focused on highlighting the gains achieved by using network coding in cooperative transmissions. However, there are certain areas that are not fully explored yet. For instance, the kind of detection scheme used at the receiver and its impact on the link performance has not been addressed.The thesis looks at the performance comparison of different detection schemes and also proposes how to group users at the relay to ensure mutual benefit for the cooperating users.Using constellation selection at the nodes, the augmented space formed at the receiver is exploited for making the links more reliable. The network and the channel coding schemes are represented as a single product code, that allows us to

  3. XTR-Kurosawa-Desmedt Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING XIU-HUAN; FU ZHI-GUO; ZHANG SHU-GONG

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an XTR version of the Kurosawa-Desmedt scheme. Our scheme is secure against adaptive choeen-ciphertext attack under the XTR version of the Decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption in the standard model. Comparing efficiency between the Kurosawa-Desmedt scheme and the proposed XTR-Kurosawa-Desmedt scheme, we find that the proposed scheme is more efficient than the Kurosawa-Desmedt scheme both in communication and computation without compromising security.

  4. Cooperative Jamming for Secure Communications in MIMO Relay Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Secure communications can be impeded by eavesdroppers in conventional relay systems. This paper proposes cooperative jamming strategies for two-hop relay networks where the eavesdropper can wiretap the relay channels in both hops. In these approaches, the normally inactive nodes in the relay network can be used as cooperative jamming sources to confuse the eavesdropper. Linear precoding schemes are investigated for two scenarios where single or multiple data streams are transmitted via a decode-and-forward (DF) relay, under the assumption that global channel state information (CSI) is available. For the case of single data stream transmission, we derive closed-form jamming beamformers and the corresponding optimal power allocation. Generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD)-based secure relaying schemes are proposed for the transmission of multiple data streams. The optimal power allocation is found for the GSVD relaying scheme via geometric programming. Based on this result, a GSVD-based cooperative jam...

  5. Cooperative Proxy Caching for Wireless Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Z. Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a mobile cache model to facilitate the cooperative proxy caching in wireless base stations. This mobile cache model uses a network cache line to record the caching state information about a web document for effective data search and cache space management. Based on the proposed mobile cache model, a P2P cooperative proxy caching scheme is proposed to use a self-configured and self-managed virtual proxy graph (VPG, independent of the underlying wireless network structure and adaptive to the network and geographic environment changes, to achieve efficient data search, data cache and date replication. Based on demand, the aggregate effect of data caching, searching and replicating actions by individual proxy servers automatically migrates the cached web documents closer to the interested clients. In addition, a cache line migration (CLM strategy is proposed to flow and replicate the heads of network cache lines of web documents associated with a moving mobile host to the new base station during the mobile host handoff. These replicated cache line heads provide direct links to the cached web documents accessed by the moving mobile hosts in the previous base station, thus improving the mobile web caching performance. Performance studies have shown that the proposed P2P cooperative proxy caching schemes significantly outperform existing caching schemes.

  6. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  7. An Open Environment for Cooperative Equational Solving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We describe a system called CFLP which aims at the integration ofthe best featu res of functional logic programming (FLP), cooperative constraint solving (CCS), and distributed computing. FLP provides support for defining one's own abstract ions over a constraint domain in an easy and comfortable way, whereas CCS is emp loyed to solve systems of mixed constraints by iterating specialized constraint solving methods in accordance with a well defined strategy. The system is a di s tributed implementation of a cooperative constraint functional logic programming scheme that combines higher-order lazy narrowing with cooperative constraint s o lving. The model takes advantage of the existence of several constraint solving resources located in a distributed environment (e.g., a network of computers), w hich communicate asynchronously via message passing. To increase the openness of the system, we are redesigning CFLP based on CORBA. We discuss some design and implementation issues of the system.

  8. 新型农村合作医疗制度对农户高科技医疗服务利用的影响--基于供给者需求角度%The impact of new rural cooperative medical system on farmer’s decision of high-tech medical utilization:Evidence from supplier-induced demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑旭辉; 刘进; 宁满秀

    2015-01-01

    Based on farmers’ field survey in Fujian province, this study, by applying Probit model from the perspective of supplier-induced demand, examines the effects of the new rural cooperative medical system on farmers’ utilization decisions of high-tech diagnosis medical services (such as CT and MRI). The findings show that, after the control of some factors related to NRCMS’ reimbursement program, the density of beds or physicians could bring about the behavior of supplier-induced demand of physician services and hence an significant increase in the probability of medical high-technology services utilization, and that the NRCMS’ payment approach, such as global budgeting or case payment, would cut down significantly the probability of high-tech medical services utilization to some extent. So, this suggests that the key of the next step is to reasonably guide and control the utilization of medical high-tech services in order to keep NRCMS’ sustainable development which is eventually beneficial to farmers.%以福建地区农户为研究对象,基于供给者诱导需求角度,采用Probit型实证分析方法,分析新型农村合作医疗制度对农户高科技医疗(如CT、MRI)服务利用行为的影响。结果表明:控制新型农村合作医疗制度给付结构因素之后,病床密度与医生密度会引发医疗服务供给者的诱导需求行为,使患病农户高科技医疗服务利用的概率显著增加;按病种付费或总额预算制的医疗支付方式改革则显著降低患病农户的高科技医疗利用概率。因此,新农合制度的下一步工作重点必须是合理引导和有效控制高科技医疗服务利用,从而使新农合制度真正发挥其应有的政策功能。

  9. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  10. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    It is usual practice to evaluate the success of a labelling scheme by looking at the awareness percentage, but in many cases this is not sufficient. The awareness percentage gives no indication of which of the consumer segments that are aware of and use labelling schemes and which do not. In the ......It is usual practice to evaluate the success of a labelling scheme by looking at the awareness percentage, but in many cases this is not sufficient. The awareness percentage gives no indication of which of the consumer segments that are aware of and use labelling schemes and which do not....... In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...

  11. Car fleet renewal schemes: environmental and safety impacts. France, Germany and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraga, F.S.; et al.

    2011-01-01

    TNO carried out an in-depth look at the impacts of car scrappage schemes for the International Transport Forum of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) and the FIA Foundation. The study comes to some interesting conclusions: Car fleet renewal schemes can reduce CO2 emissi

  12. Dilemmas of partial cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Related to the often applied cooperation models of social dilemmas, we deal with scenarios in which defection dominates cooperation, but an intermediate fraction of cooperators, that is, "partial cooperation," would maximize the overall performance of a group of individuals. Of course, such a solution comes at the expense of cooperators that do not profit from the overall maximum. However, because there are mechanisms accounting for mutual benefits after repeated interactions or through evolutionary mechanisms, such situations can constitute "dilemmas" of partial cooperation. Among the 12 ordinally distinct, symmetrical 2 x 2 games, three (barely considered) variants are correspondents of such dilemmas. Whereas some previous studies investigated particular instances of such games, we here provide the unifying framework and concisely relate it to the broad literature on cooperation in social dilemmas. Complementing our argumentation, we study the evolution of partial cooperation by deriving the respective conditions under which coexistence of cooperators and defectors, that is, partial cooperation, can be a stable outcome of evolutionary dynamics in these scenarios. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such models for research on the large biodiversity and variation in cooperative efforts both in biological and social systems.

  13. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  14. Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.; Zenner, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic encryption, in the style of Dolev-Yao models, is ubiquitous in formal security models. In its common use, encryption on a whole message is specified as a single monolithic block. From a cryptographic perspective, however, this may require a resource-intensive cryptographic algorithm......, namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well......-known Needham-Schroeder and Denning-Sacco protocols. To avoid such problems, we advocate the use of refined notions of symbolic encryption that have natural correspondence to standard cryptographic encryption schemes....

  15. Researches on the Sustainable Development of New Rural Cooperative Medical System from the Perspective of Rule of Law%法治视阈下新型农村合作医疗制度可持续发展探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家宇

    2014-01-01

    研究旨在坚持和完善新型农村合作医疗制度,保障新型农村合作医疗制度可持续发展。在理论分析与调查研究的基础上,认为制度的科学性与公平性、制度的效果、制度的保障,是影响新型农村合作医疗制度可持续发展的主要因素。当前新型农村合作医疗制度存在的主要问题是,筹资、补偿、自愿参与、医疗基金与医疗机构监管等。保障新型农村合作医疗制度可持续发展,应走法治之路,以法律之治代替政策之治。制定《新农合条例》,应坚持科学民主的立法理念、人权保障和权力制约的理念,坚持强制性、保险基金征用法定等社会保险法的基本原则,处理好医疗机构监管、农民工医疗保险、与医疗救助制度的衔接、与其他医疗保险制度的衔接四个突出问题。%The purpose of the study is to adhere to and perfect the new rural cooperative medical system ,and ensure sustainable development of the system .Based on the theoretical analysis and investigation , it concludes that the factors affecting sustainable development of the system include scientificity , fairness, effect and guarantee of the system .There are problems in the new rural cooperative medical system in such aspects as financing ,compensation , voluntary participation ,medical funds and supervision of medical institutions .To ensure the sustainable development of the system ,the road of rule of law should be taken , which means to replace the governance of policy with the governance of law .In the regulations of new rural cooperative medical system , the supervision of medical institutions,the medical insurance of migrant workers , the connection with medical assistance system and other medical insurance system should be appropriately handled .

  16. Cooperative Sequential Spectrum Sensing Based on Level-triggered Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Yilmaz, Yasin; Wang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new framework for cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks, that is based on a novel class of non-uniform samplers, called the event-triggered samplers, and sequential detection. In the proposed scheme, each secondary user computes its local sensing decision statistic based on its own channel output; and whenever such decision statistic crosses certain predefined threshold values, the secondary user will send one (or several) bit of information to the fusion center. The fusion center asynchronously receives the bits from different secondary users and updates the global sensing decision statistic to perform a sequential probability ratio test (SPRT), to reach a sensing decision. We provide an asymptotic analysis for the above scheme, and under different conditions, we compare it against the cooperative sensing scheme that is based on traditional uniform sampling and sequential detection. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme, using even 1 bit, can outperform its uniform ...

  17. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed their li......To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...... of this research project. The main objective of this research is to better understand the proces of collective maintenance of these ancient water tunnels. The study evaluates the social, cultural, political and environmental factors that have driven abandonment and decay of qanats in Syria. It tries to reconcile...

  18. Labeling Schemes with Queries

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We study the question of ``how robust are the known lower bounds of labeling schemes when one increases the number of consulted labels''. Let $f$ be a function on pairs of vertices. An $f$-labeling scheme for a family of graphs $\\cF$ labels the vertices of all graphs in $\\cF$ such that for every graph $G\\in\\cF$ and every two vertices $u,v\\in G$, the value $f(u,v)$ can be inferred by merely inspecting the labels of $u$ and $v$. This paper introduces a natural generalization: the notion of $f$-...

  19. An Identity Based Strong Bi-Designated Verifier (t, n) Threshold Proxy Signature Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    lal, Sunder; Verma, Vandani

    2008-01-01

    Proxy signature schemes have been invented to delegate signing rights. The paper proposes a new concept of Identify Based Strong Bi-Designated Verifier threshold proxy signature (ID-SBDVTPS) schemes. Such scheme enables an original signer to delegate the signature authority to a group of 'n' proxy signers with the condition that 't' or more proxy signers can cooperatively sign messages on behalf of the original signer and the signatures can only be verified by any two designated verifiers and...

  20. [Study on willingness to participate and willingness to pay for hypothetical industrial injury insurance scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan; Dong, Hengjin; Duan, Shengnan; Liu, Xiaofang; Ye, Chiyu; You, Hua; Hu, Huimei; Wang, Linhao; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Jing

    2014-10-01

    To investigate workers' willingness to participate and wiliness to pay for a hypothetical industrial injury insurance scheme, to analyze the influential factors, and to provide information for policy making of the government. Multistage cluster sampling was used to select subjects: In the first stage, 9 small, medium, orlarge enterprises were selected fromthree cities (counties) in Zhejiang province, China, according to the level of economic development, transportation convenience, and cooperation of government agencies; in the second stage, several workshops were randomly selected from each of the 9 enterprises. Face-to-face interviews among all workers in the workshops were conducted by trained interviewers using a pre-designed questionnaire. It was found that 73.87% (2095) of all workers were willing to participate in the hypothetical work injury insurance scheme and to pay 2.21% of monthly wage (51.77 yuan) on average, and more than half of the workers were willing to pay less than 1%of monthly wage (35 yuan). Of the 741 workers who were not willing to participate, 327 thought that the premium should be borne by the state or enterprises, instead of individuals, and others were not willing to participate because of low income, unstable job, or poor understanding of the hypothetical industrial injury insurance scheme. Logistic regression analysis showed that workers with higher education levels, longer length of services, longer weekly working time, or more knowledge of occupational diseases showed higher willingness to participate in the scheme; workers who were exposed to physical hazards, had health records, or had participated in the existing medical insurance or industrial injury insurance were more willing to participate. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that with increasing average monthly wage, weekly working time, and self?health evaluation, the proportion of workers with willingness to pay increased; however, with increasing work intensity and

  1. Cooperative OFDM underwater acoustic communications

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Xilin; Cheng, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Following underwater acoustic channel modeling, this book investigates the relationship between coherence time and transmission distances. It considers the power allocation issues of two typical transmission scenarios, namely short-range transmission and medium-long range transmission. For the former scenario, an adaptive system is developed based on instantaneous channel state information. The primary focus is on cooperative dual-hop orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). This book includes the decomposed fountain codes designed to enable reliable communications with higher energy efficiency. It covers the Doppler Effect, which improves packet transmission reliability for effective low-complexity mirror-mapping-based intercarrier interference cancellation schemes capable of suppressing the intercarrier interference power level. Designed for professionals and researchers in the field of underwater acoustic communications, this book is also suitable for advanced-level students in electrical enginee...

  2. Identity-based threshold signature and mediated proxy signature schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong; YANG Bo; SUN Ying

    2007-01-01

    Proxy signature schemes allow an original signer to delegate his signing rights to a proxy signer. However, many proxy signature schemes have the defect which is the inability to solve the proxy revocation problem. In this article, we firstly propose an identity-based threshold signature scheme and show that it has the properties of unforgeability and robustness. In our threshold signature scheme, we adopt such a method that the private key associated with an identity rather than the master key is shared. Then, based on the threshold signature scheme, an identity-based mediated proxy signature scheme is proposed where a security mediator (SEM) is introduced to help a proxy signer to generate valid proxy signatures, examine whether a proxy signer signs according to the warrant, and check the revocation of a proxy signer. It is shown that the proposed scheme satisfies all the security requirements of a secure proxy signature. Moreover, a proxy signer must cooperate with the SEM to generate a valid proxy signature, which makes the new scheme have an effective and fast proxy revocation.

  3. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  4. 青海藏区新型农村合作医疗制度运行效果研究--以玉树藏族自治州杂多县为例%Research on Tibetan Area of Qinghai New Rural Cooperative Medical System Running Effect:Taking Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Zaduo County as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向华

    2015-01-01

    在藏区推行新型农村合作医疗制度,不仅能有效缓解农牧民看病难看病贵,因病致、因病返贫问题,而且能有效促进农牧区县、乡、村基层医疗机构快速发展,维护藏区的安定结。本文以玉树藏族自治州杂多县为例,对新型农村合作医疗制度在青海藏区的运行情况行调研,评估运行效果,发现突出问题,提出建设性的意见和建议,为推动新型农村合作医疗度在青海藏区的可持续发展提供决策参考。%To implement of the new rural cooperative medical system in the Tibetan anea not only can ffectively alleviate the farmers and herdsmen’ s problems of seeing a doctor.Seeing a doctor is expen-ive and avoid returning of the poverty is due to illness and mang other seasons In the Tibetan anea”in order to promote and increase the pase of the development of the grass-roots’ s medical institutions, safeguard the stability and unity of the tibetan,the eather suggests that,the rural cooperative medical ystem in the Yushu Zaduo County Should be improved,put forward the constructive opinions and sug-estions,and provide decision-making reference for promotion of the sustainable development of new ru-al cooperative medical system in Qinghai Tibetan area in general .

  5. Cooperative wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative devices and mechanisms are increasingly important to enhance the performance of wireless communications and networks, with their ability to decrease power consumption and packet loss rate and increase system capacity, computation, and network resilience. Considering the wide range of applications, strategies, and benefits associated with cooperative wireless communications, researchers and product developers need a succinct understanding of relevant theory, fundamentals, and techniques to navigate this challenging field. ""Cooperative Wireless Communications"" provides just that. I

  6. Special secret sharing scheme with the function of assignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A concept of secret sharing scheme with the function of assignment is proposed. It provides great capabilities for many practical applications. In this scheme, the dealer can randomly assign one or more than one participant to get the secret at any time, but these participants can get nothing about the secret before that moment. At the same time, the other participants cannot get any-thing about the secret by stealing the secret value when it is transferred. However, if the dealer is lost, a certain number or more participants of them can reconstruct the secret by cooperating. In order to clear this concept, an illustrating scheme with geometry method and a practical scheme with algebra method is given.

  7. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  8. Futures for energy cooperatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A listing of Federal agencies and programs with potential funding for community-scale cooperatives using conservation measures and solar technologies is presented in Section 1. Section 2 presents profiles of existing community energy cooperatives describing their location, history, membership, services, sources of finance and technical assistance. A condensed summary from a recent conference on Energy Cooperatives featuring notes on co-op members' experiences, problems, and opportunities is presented in Section 3. Section 4 lists contacts for additional information. A National Consumer Cooperative Bank Load Application is shown in the appendix.

  9. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    a gravitational pull which goes beyond economic problems. Furthermore, the EU has gradually built up a coherent policy on many fields. The EU has become the “reform anchor” and most important cooperation partner for Egypt. The progress towards increasing Egypt’s “Stake in the Internal Market” places cooperation...... on an increasingly institutionalized basis. In terms of military cooperation the US is still the partner for Egypt. But outside the military sphere institutionalized cooperation is comparatively week. In particular the failure of the US to conclude a free-trade agreement has been crucial. But it would be wrong...

  10. An Efficient and Practical Smart Card Based Anonymity Preserving User Authentication Scheme for TMIS using Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Islam, S K Hafizul; Biswas, G P; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumar, Neeraj

    2015-11-01

    In the last few years, numerous remote user authentication and session key agreement schemes have been put forwarded for Telecare Medical Information System, where the patient and medical server exchange medical information using Internet. We have found that most of the schemes are not usable for practical applications due to known security weaknesses. It is also worth to note that unrestricted number of patients login to the single medical server across the globe. Therefore, the computation and maintenance overhead would be high and the server may fail to provide services. In this article, we have designed a medical system architecture and a standard mutual authentication scheme for single medical server, where the patient can securely exchange medical data with the doctor(s) via trusted central medical server over any insecure network. We then explored the security of the scheme with its resilience to attacks. Moreover, we formally validated the proposed scheme through the simulation using Automated Validation of Internet Security Schemes and Applications software whose outcomes confirm that the scheme is protected against active and passive attacks. The performance comparison demonstrated that the proposed scheme has lower communication cost than the existing schemes in literature. In addition, the computation cost of the proposed scheme is nearly equal to the exiting schemes. The proposed scheme not only efficient in terms of different security attacks, but it also provides an efficient login, mutual authentication, session key agreement and verification and password update phases along with password recovery.

  11. Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Sidrah; Javaid, Nadeem; Qasim, Umar; Alrajeh, Nabil; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs) with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE) and the packet error rate (PER) are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat). Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat) and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption.

  12. A novel QoS supported cooperative diversity algorithm for IEEE 802.11 WLAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yi; Ji Hong

    2008-01-01

    A new cooperative diversity algorithm with quality of service (QoS) awareness for wireless local area network (WLAN) is proposed. According to this protocol, cooperation is invoked only if a direct transmission cannot meet user-specific QoS requirements. If cooperation is implemented, partner choice depends on who can achieve the minimum data rate required to have a successful transmission. The closed-form expressions for the system throughput and the power consumption are provided. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the QoS-aware cooperative scheme can significantly improve the system performance in terms of throughput and energy efficiency by avoiding negative effect of unconditional cooperation.

  13. Integration of rural and urban healthcare insurance schemes in China: an empirical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zheng, Ang; He, Xin; Jiang, Hanghang

    2014-03-29

    Despite the broad coverage of the healthcare insurance system in China, the imbalances in fairness, accessibility and affordability of healthcare services have hindered the universal healthcare progress. To provide better financial protection for the Chinese population, China's new medical reform was proposed to link up urban employee basic medical insurance scheme (UEBMI), urban resident basic medical insurance scheme (URBMI), new rural cooperative medical system (NRCMS) and urban and rural medical assistance programs. In this paper, we focused on people's expected healthcare insurance model and their willingness towards healthcare insurance integration, and we made a couple of relative policy suggestions. A questionnaire survey was conducted in four cities in China. A total of 1178 effective questionnaires were retrieved. Statistical analysis was conducted with SPSS and Excel. Chi-square test and logistic regression model were applied. The payment intention and reimbursement expectation of the three groups varied with NRCMS participants the lowest and UEBMI participants the highest. In economic developed areas, rural residents had equal or even stronger payment ability than urban residents, and the overall payment intention showed a scattered trend; while in less developed areas, urban residents had a stronger payment ability than rural residents and a more concentrated payment intention was observed. The majority of participants favored the integration, with NRCMS enrollees up to 80.5%. In the logistic regression model, we found that participants from less developed areas were more likely to oppose the integration, which we conceived was mainly due to their dissatisfaction with their local healthcare insurance schemes. Also the participants with better education background tended to oppose the integration, which might be due to their fear of benefit impairment and their concern about the challenges ahead. Even though there are many challenges for healthcare

  14. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  15. Cellular cooperation: insights from microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiker, Hasan; Gore, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation between cells is a widespread phenomenon in nature, found across diverse systems ranging from microbial populations to multicellular organisms. For cooperation to evolve and be maintained within a population of cells, costs due to competition have to be outweighed by the benefits gained through cooperative actions. Because cooperation generally confers a cost to the cooperating cells, defector cells that do not cooperate but reap the benefits of cooperation can thrive and eventually drive the cooperating phenotypes to extinction. Here we summarize recent advances made in understanding how cooperation and multicellularity can evolve in microbial populations in the face of such conflicts and discuss parallels with cell populations within multicellular organisms.

  16. Energy Efficiency Analysis of a Two Dimensional Cooperative Wireless Sensor Network with Relay Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kakitani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency of non-cooperative and cooperative transmissions are investigated in a two-dimensional wireless sensor network, considering a target outage probability and the same end-to-end throughput for all transmission schemes. The impact of the relay selection method in the cooperative schemes is also analyzed. We show that under non line-of-sight conditions the relay selection method has a greater impact in the energy efficiency than the availability of a return channel. By its turn, under line-of-sight conditions a return channel is more valuable to the energy efficiency of cooperative transmission than the specific relay selection method. Finally, we demonstrate that the energy efficiency advantage of the cooperative over the non-cooperative transmission increases with the distance among nodes and with the nodes density.

  17. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    on an increasingly institutionalized basis. In terms of military cooperation the US is still the partner for Egypt. But outside the military sphere institutionalized cooperation is comparatively week. In particular the failure of the US to conclude a free-trade agreement has been crucial. But it would be wrong...

  18. Readings in Cooperative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Jerome I.

    Twenty-three journal articles on cooperative education were selected in a review of the literature by two Temple University graduate classes in the fall of 1975 and the spring of 1976 for those interested in the role of coordinating cooperative education programs. The journal readings consist of articles on theory/planning (6), implementation…

  19. Coordination and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can be rationalized on individualistic grounds. Finally, psychological game theory should consider how players perceive their gaming situation. ---------------------------------------------------------...

  20. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own di

  1. Cooperative Science Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperative Learning, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Offers several elementary level cooperative science lesson plans. The article includes a recipe for cooperative class learning, instructions for making a compost pile, directions for finding evidence of energy, experiments in math and science using oranges to test density, and discussions of buoyancy using eggs. (SM)

  2. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Buckley; O'Farrell, Gail

    1990-01-01

    Presents essential characteristics and types of cooperative learning strategies for use in elementary social studies. Outlines exercises for forming teams and building team spirit. Points out such methods promote group interdependence and student responsibility for learning and teaching others. Highlights two cooperative group strategies, Jigsaw…

  3. Coordination and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can

  4. International Cooperation Advances Internationalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Mingyi

    2004-01-01

    @@ Intemational scientific cooperation continues to successfully promote the development of research and the quality of researchers in China, and also the internationalization of China's research system and research organizations. An outstanding example of this is the 30 years of fruitful cooperation between the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Max Planck Society.

  5. Coordination and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can

  6. Indian Kisan Credit Card Scheme: An Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra Mehta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kisan Credit Card (KCC has now been regarded as the only medium of short-term credit for agriculture. The Kisan Credit Card (KCC scheme was introduced by the Finance Minister in his budget speech in the year 1998-99. From the year 1998-99, the scheme was implemented by public sector commercial banks, RRBs (Regional Rural Banks and cooperative banks in the country. It has emerged as an innovative credit distribution system to meet the production credit requirements of the farmers in a timely and easy manner. The present paper is aimed to study role of Kisan Credit Card in the rural credit facilitation in India.

  7. Indian Kisan Credit Card Scheme: An Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra Mehta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kisan Credit Card (KCC has now been regarded as the only medium of short-term credit for agriculture. The Kisan Credit Card (KCC scheme was introduced by the Finance Minister in his budget speech in the year 1998-99. From the year 1998-99, the scheme was implemented by public sector commercial banks, RRBs (Regional Rural Banks and cooperative banks in the country. It has emerged as an innovative credit distribution system to meet the production credit requirements of the farmers in a timely and easy manner. The present paper is aimed to study role of Kisan Credit Card in the rural credit facilitation in India.

  8. Aid Distribution and Co-operation in Unequal Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exelle, D' B.; Berg, van den M.M.

    2012-01-01

    We study the influence of economic inequality on co-operation and aid distribution in community-based development schemes. For this, we organized a field experiment in which community members contributed to a collective effort to attract aid. We find that devolving aid distribution to community repr

  9. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  10. Culture and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-09-12

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities.

  11. Secure Metering Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundo, Carlo; Cimato, Stelvio; Masucci, Barbara

    The current trend on the Internet suggests that the majority of revenues of web sites come from the advertising potential of the World Wide Web. Advertising is arguably the type of commercial information exchange of the greatest economic importance in the real world. Indeed, advertising is what funds most other forms of information exchange, including radio stations, television stations, cable networks, magazines, and newspapers. According to the figures provided by the Internet Advertising Bureau [24] and Price Waterhouse Coopers [43], advertising revenue results for the first 9 months of 2004 totaled slightly over 7.0 billion dollars.

  12. FY 2000 Report on the results of international cooperative research scheme (power generation - No.3). Developmental research on high-performance plasma-assisted fine coal powder combustion mechanism for coal-fired power generation boilers to realize oilless ignition; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo seika hokokusho (hatsuden No.3). Oilless chakka wo jitsugensuru sekitan karyoku hatsuden bifuntan nenshoroyo koseino plasma jonen kiko no kaihatsu kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the developmental research on the high-performance plasma-assisted fine coal powder combustion mechanism for coal-fired power generation boilers, a theme adopted by the international cooperative research scheme. The program for design/manufacture of the plasma torch manufactures laminar type torches for 100kW high power class and 10kW middle class. The high-performance plasma-assisted combustion mechanism is designed and manufactured using the torch. It has a structure which supplies secondary air and secondary coal flow to the primary coal flow. It is tested for starting up a commercial boiler firing finely pulverized coal, to confirm its functions. The tests for optimizing the oilless ignition and operation are conducted in Tashtagonal Iron Plant and Berdsk Chemical Plant. It is found that the cold start can be realized in the boiler, when the muffle burners are preheated for 30 to 40 minutes before the finely pulverized coal is supplied and the steady-state coal combustion is attained 3 to 5 minutes after the coal is supplied. The program for the combustion basics for the plasma-assisted mechanism collects the data related to its dependence on coal type. (NEDO)

  13. Wine quality, reputation, denominations: How cooperatives and private wineries compete?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how cooperatives in Northern Italy (Alto Adige and Trentino compete with private wineries regarding product quality and reputation, i.e. if firm organization affects wine quality and winery reputation. Moreover, we examine if cooperatives with deep roots in their local economy specialize in specific regional denomination rules (i.e. DOC, IGT. Compared to private wineries, cooperatives face additional challenges in order to raise wine quality, among them appropriate incentives that induce individual growers to supply high quality grapes (e.g. vineyard management and grape pricing schemes to lower yields. The quality reputation of a winery with consumers depends crucially on its winemaking skills. Wine regions differ with respect to climatic conditions and quality denomination rules. Assuming similar climatic conditions within wine regions as well as winemaking skills between firms, incentive schemes to induce individual growers to supply high quality grapes and quality denomination rules remain crucial determinants of wine quality and winery reputation when comparing different regions and firm organizational forms. The data set analyzed allows differentiating local cooperatives vs. private wineries and denotes retail prices, wine quality evaluations, indicators for winery reputation, and distinct denomination rules. We employ a hedonic pricing model in order to test the following hypothesis: First, wines produced by cooperatives suffer a significant reputation and/or wine quality discount relative to wines from private producers. Second, cooperatives and/or private wineries specialize in specific wine denominations for which they receive a price premium relative the competing organizational form. Our results are mixed. However, we reject the hypothesis that cooperatives suffer a reputation/wine quality discount relative to private producers for the Alto Adige wine region. Moreover, we find that regional cooperatives and private

  14. Development of cooperative system bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; WAN Qi-bai; SHI Lei

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative system bridges comprise several basic structures that act jointly to improve structural characteristics. We delved into the historical development of cooperative system bridges. Cooperative systems are classified as different-load cooperative systems and same-load cooperative systems by distinguishing the modes of load distribution. For different-load cooperation, individual basic structures are at different positions in the direction along bridge axis and carry the loads separately. While for same-load cooperation, all basic structures overlap in geometrical locations and support the entire loads conjointly. The choosing of span ratios between basic structures, the design of connections of different-load cooperative systems were discussed as well as optimizations of relative rigidity for same-load cooperative systems which greatly influence structural characteristics. The general situation and several structural measurements of several cooperative bridges were demonstrated. This information can assist engineers in developing their concepts in cooperative systems and can lead to more efficient and economical cooperative bridges.

  15. Slepian-Wolf Coding Over Cooperative Relay Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yassaee, Mohammad Hossein

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of multicasting a set of discrete memoryless correlated sources (DMCS) over a cooperative relay network. Necessary conditions with cut-set interpretation are presented. A \\emph{Joint source-Wyner-Ziv encoding/sliding window decoding} scheme is proposed, in which decoding at each receiver is done with respect to an ordered partition of other nodes. For each ordered partition a set of feasibility constraints are derived. Then, utilizing sub-modular property of entropy function and a novel geometrical approach, the results of different ordered partitions are consolidated, which lead sufficient conditions for our problem. The proposed scheme achieves operational separation between source coding and channel coding. It is shown that sufficient conditions are indeed necessary conditions in two special cooperative networks, namely, Aref network and finite-field deterministic network. Also, in Gaussian cooperative networks, it is shown that reliable transmission of all DMCS whose Slep...

  16. A New Deferred Sentencing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Chakravarti

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available A new deferred sentencing scheme resembling double sampling scheme has been suggested from viewpoint of operational and administrative. It is recommended particularly when the inspection is destructive. The O.C. curves of the scheme for two sample sizes of 5 and 10 have been given.

  17. Bonus schemes and trading activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders' propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders' performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold bonus schemes on traders' behavior. Traders buy and sell shares in an experimental stock market on the basis of

  18. Bonus Schemes and Trading Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders’ propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders’ performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold (convex) bonus schemes on traders’ behavior. Traders purchase and sell shares in an experimental stock

  19. Bonus schemes and trading activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders' propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders' performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold bonus schemes on traders' behavior. Traders buy and sell shares in an experimental stock market on the basis of

  20. Two Improved Digital Signature Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, two improved digital signature schemes are presented based on the design of directed signaturescheme [3]. The peculiarity of the system is that only if the scheme is specific recipient, the signature is authenticated.Since the scheme adds the screen of some information parameters, the difficulty of deciphered keys and the security ofdigital signature system are increased.

  1. Understanding security failures of two authentication and key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dheerendra

    2015-03-01

    Smart card based authentication and key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) enable doctors, nurses, patients and health visitors to use smart cards for secure login to medical information systems. In recent years, several authentication and key agreement schemes have been proposed to present secure and efficient solution for TMIS. Most of the existing authentication schemes for TMIS have either higher computation overhead or are vulnerable to attacks. To reduce the computational overhead and enhance the security, Lee recently proposed an authentication and key agreement scheme using chaotic maps for TMIS. Xu et al. also proposed a password based authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS using elliptic curve cryptography. Both the schemes provide better efficiency from the conventional public key cryptography based schemes. These schemes are important as they present an efficient solution for TMIS. We analyze the security of both Lee's scheme and Xu et al.'s schemes. Unfortunately, we identify that both the schemes are vulnerable to denial of service attack. To understand the security failures of these cryptographic schemes which are the key of patching existing schemes and designing future schemes, we demonstrate the security loopholes of Lee's scheme and Xu et al.'s scheme in this paper.

  2. CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING GUARANTEE SCHEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIA CLIPICI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available When a large withdrawal from banks occurs, customers withdraw their deposits, so banks are likely to go bankrupt because of liquidity problems. There are several mechanisms that allow the banking system to avoid the phenomenon of massive withdrawals from banks. The most effective one is the deposit insurance. The deposit insurance is seen primarily as a means of protecting depositors of credit institutions, and secondly as a means of ensuring the stability of the banking system. This article described deposit guarantee scheme in Romania and other country.

  3. Modeling and Simulation of Handover Scheme in Integrated EPON-WiMAX Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    by enhancing the traditional MPCP signaling protocol, which cooperatively collects mobility information from the front-end wireless network and makes centralized bandwidth allocation decisions in the backhaul optical network. The integrated network architecture and the joint handover scheme are simulated using......In this paper, we tackle the seamless handover problem in integrated optical wireless networks. Our model applies for the convergence network of EPON and WiMAX and a mobilityaware signaling protocol is proposed. The proposed handover scheme, Integrated Mobility Management Scheme (IMMS), is assisted...... OPNET modeler. Results show validation of the protocol, i.e., integrated handover scheme gains better network performances....

  4. Network modularity promotes cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-05-01

    Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported.

  5. Globalization and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  6. Secure Dynamic access control scheme of PHR in cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Liu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chen, Chin-Sheng; Bau, Jian-Guo; Lin, Tzu-Ching

    2012-12-01

    With the development of information technology and medical technology, medical information has been developed from traditional paper records into electronic medical records, which have now been widely applied. The new-style medical information exchange system "personal health records (PHR)" is gradually developed. PHR is a kind of health records maintained and recorded by individuals. An ideal personal health record could integrate personal medical information from different sources and provide complete and correct personal health and medical summary through the Internet or portable media under the requirements of security and privacy. A lot of personal health records are being utilized. The patient-centered PHR information exchange system allows the public autonomously maintain and manage personal health records. Such management is convenient for storing, accessing, and sharing personal medical records. With the emergence of Cloud computing, PHR service has been transferred to storing data into Cloud servers that the resources could be flexibly utilized and the operation cost can be reduced. Nevertheless, patients would face privacy problem when storing PHR data into Cloud. Besides, it requires a secure protection scheme to encrypt the medical records of each patient for storing PHR into Cloud server. In the encryption process, it would be a challenge to achieve accurately accessing to medical records and corresponding to flexibility and efficiency. A new PHR access control scheme under Cloud computing environments is proposed in this study. With Lagrange interpolation polynomial to establish a secure and effective PHR information access scheme, it allows to accurately access to PHR with security and is suitable for enormous multi-users. Moreover, this scheme also dynamically supports multi-users in Cloud computing environments with personal privacy and offers legal authorities to access to PHR. From security and effectiveness analyses, the proposed PHR access

  7. Energy Efficiency of D2D Multi-User Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zufan; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jie

    2017-03-28

    The Device-to-Device (D2D) communication system is an important part of heterogeneous networks. It has great potential to improve spectrum efficiency, throughput and energy efficiency cooperation of multiple D2D users with the advantage of direct communication. When cooperating, D2D users expend extraordinary energy to relay data to other D2D users. Hence, the remaining energy of D2D users determines the life of the system. This paper proposes a cooperation scheme for multiple D2D users who reuse the orthogonal spectrum and are interested in the same data by aiming to solve the energy problem of D2D users. Considering both energy availability and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of each D2D user, the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm is introduced in the cooperation scheme to solve relay selection problems. Thus, the cooperation issue is transformed into a maximum weighted matching (MWM) problem. In order to enhance energy efficiency without the deterioration of Quality of Service (QoS), the link outage probability is derived according to the Shannon Equation by considering the data rate and delay. The simulation studies the relationships among the number of cooperative users, the length of shared data, the number of data packets and energy efficiency.

  8. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....... of relationships to these historical contributions. Thus, we propose that Scandinavia offers a particularly promising context from which to draw inspiration regarding effective company-stakeholder cooperation and where ample of examples of what is more recently referred to as “creating shared value” can be found...

  9. Outage analysis of blind cooperative diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-06-06

    Mobile users with single antennas can still take advantage of spatial diversity through cooperative space-time-encoded transmission. In this paper, we considered a scheme in which a relay chooses to cooperate only if its source-relay channel is of an acceptable quality, and we evaluate the usefulness of relaying when the source acts blindly and ignores the decision of the relays whether they may cooperate or not. In our study, we consider the regenerative relays in which the decisions to cooperate are based on a targeted end-to-end data rate R. We derived the end-to-end outage probability for a transmission rate R and a code rate ρ and look at a power allocation strategy between the source and the relays in order to minimize the end-to-end outage probability at the destination for high signal-to-noise ratio, by using the golden section search method. Performance results show that the computer simulations-based results coincide with our analytical results. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Secure mediated certificateless signature scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chen; MA Wen-ping; WANG Xin-mei

    2007-01-01

    Ju et al proposed a certificateless signature scheme with instantaneous revocation by introducing security mediator (SEM) mechanism. This article presents a detailed cryptoanalysis of this scheme and shows that, in their proposed scheme, once a valid signature has been produced, the signer can recover his private key information and the instantaneous revocation property will be damaged. Furthermore, an improved mediated signature scheme, which can eliminate these disadvantages, is proposed, and security proof of the improved scheme under elliptic curve factorization problem (ECFP) assumption and bilinear computational diffie-hellman problem (BCDH) assumption is also proposed.

  11. 破解“因病致贫、因病返贫”与合作医疗可持续发展研究--以重庆市某贫困县为例%A Study on Solving and Sustainable Development of Cooperative Medical System---Take a poverty county in Chongqing for example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜毅

    2015-01-01

    The poverty and return to poverty due to disease is important factor to restrict the development of economic-society in poverty areas.Constructing a perfect rural medical security system has important significance to alleviate poverty and promote the social stability in poverty areas.At present,farmer’s satisfaction degree of cooperative medical system in poverty areas is low,farmer’s participating willingness is not strong,the sustainable development of cooperative medical system lack solid foundation.Therefore,it is necessary to analyze the influencing factors and put forward the countermeasures to promote healthy development of medical and health undertakings in poverty areas.%因病致贫、因病返贫是制约贫困地区经济社会发展的重要因素。构建完善的农村医疗保障体系,对于缓解贫困、促进贫困地区社会稳定具有重要意义。目前,贫困地区的农村合作医疗社会满意度较低,农村居民的参保意愿不强,其可持续发展缺乏坚实的基础。因此,有必要深入分析其影响因素,提出应对之策,促进贫困地区医疗卫生事业的健康发展。

  12. Bandwidth-Efficient Mutually Cooperative Relaying with Spatially Coordinate-Interleaved Orthogonal Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyun-Seok; Park, Kyung-Mi; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kang, Chung-Gu

    This letter proposes a type of mutually cooperative relaying (MCR) scheme based on a spatially coordinate-interleaved orthogonal design (SCID), in which two cooperative users are spatially multiplexed without bandwidth expansion. It provides not only diversity gain (with order of two) as in the existing MCR scheme, but also additional coding gain. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SCID scheme is useful for improving the uplink performance as long as one user can find another active user as a close neighbor that is simultaneously communicating with the same destination, e.g., a base station in the cellular network.

  13. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  14. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  15. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  16. Solar cooperatives; Genosse Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Dierk

    2010-06-15

    Not a boom but a trend: Increasingly, solar power plants and other renewables-based systems are financed by cooperatives. This organizational structure requires long-term strategies and some idealism. (orig.)

  17. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  18. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  19. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are public-private partnerships composed of states, tribes, federal agencies, non-governmental organizations,...

  20. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  1. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  2. Cooperative Purchasing Reduces Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Edwin J.

    1981-01-01

    Several suburban Chicago (Illinois) school districts are members of the South Suburban School Purchasing Cooperative, which serves as a conduit for volume purchases of educational supplies. (Author/MLF)

  3. Cooperating and Prospering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO MINGWEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since its establish-ment in 2001, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)-a re-gional organization grouping China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan-has grown at a notable pace.

  4. Cooperative Fire Protection Agreement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Agreement is to provide for cooperation in the prevention, detection and suppression of wildland fires within the protection areas designated in...

  5. Cooperation Beats Conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China and the Philippines agree to strengthen economic and trade cooperation while minimizing disputes Philippine President Benigno Aquino III recently completed a five-day visit to China, his first state visit to China since he took office last year.

  6. Cooperating mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  7. Extending Eurasia Security Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    After 14 years of development, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) , has set its sights on goals for the next de-cade at the 15th meeting of the Council of SCO Heads of State that was held in Ufa, the capital of Russia's Bashkortostan Republic, on July 9-10. The SCO, established in Shanghai in 2001, is committed to building fdendly neighbor rela- tions and maintaining security and stability in the Central Asian region through multilateral cooperation.

  8. Cooperation Without Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In January, China announced its desire to increase cooperation with African countries by issuing China's African Policy, a paper intended to guide relations with the continent by continuing a non-interventionist and non-ideological strategy. Christopher Mutsvangwa, Zimbabwean Ambassador to China, shared his views of the policy with Beijing Review reporter Ni Yanshuo and answered criticisms of the China-Africa relationship by Western countries that tie cooperation to democracy and human rights.

  9. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed....... The management logic of the main contractor is interpreted as based on a sociology-inspired understanding focusing on norms and social values rather than on contractual (law) and functional (engineering) logic, which had hitherto been prevalent in Danish construction management....

  10. Global Reserve Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t GLOBAL RESERVE COOPERATION BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL PAMELA L. MCGAHA United States Army National Guard...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Reserve Cooperation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...decade, the United States, its allies, and partner nations have greatly increased their reliance on Reserve Component forces. This global

  11. Cooperation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan Clark, C; Thorne, Christopher B; Hardy, Sonya; Cropsey, Karen L

    2013-09-25

    Deficits in pro-social cooperation are common in many individuals with mental illnesses such as depression. For decades, researchers have used economic game paradigms to compare cross-cultural cooperative behavior. However, research using economic games to assess cooperative behavior in clinical populations is in the early stages. We hypothesized that individuals with greater depressive symptoms would struggle to maintain reciprocity in iterative games, but not in single-iteration games measuring personal values. Participants (n=41) played four computer-based economic games (prisoner's dilemma, the public goods game, the ultimatum game, and the trust game) measuring different aspects of cooperation. Participants completed the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and other measures of personality and demographics. Analyses assessed the relationships between game performance and psychological distress as measured by the DASS. Significant correlations were found between game performance and depressive symptoms, but not symptoms of anxiety or stress. Performance in the prisoner's dilemma and public goods game was significantly related to depression in a linear regression even when known associations with depressive affect such as age, gender, race, education, marital status, and neuroticism were controlled for. Depressive symptoms were associated with an inability to sustain reciprocal cooperation. Participants showed the predicted deficits in cooperation in these economic games. Economic games show the potential for assessing the social deficits associated with depressive symptoms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exclusion from the Health Insurance Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A CERN pensioner, member of the Organization's Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), recently provided fake documents in support of claims for medical expenses, in order to receive unjustified reimbursement from the CHIS. The Administrator of the CHIS, UNIQA, suspected a case of fraud: Accordingly, an investigation and interview of the person concerned was carried out and brought the Organization to the conclusion that fraud had actually taken place. Consequently and in accordance with Article VIII 3.12 of the CHIS Rules, it was decided to exclude this member permanently from the CHIS. The Organization takes the opportunity to remind Scheme members that any fraud or attempt to fraud established within the framework of the CHIS exposes them to: - disciplinary action, according to the Staff Rules and Regulations, for CERN members of the personnel; - definitive exclusion from the CHIS for members affiliated on a voluntary basis. Human Resources Division Tel. 73635

  13. Pretzel scheme for CEPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Huiping

    2016-11-01

    CEPC was proposed as an electron and positron collider ring with a circumference of 50-100 km to study the Higgs boson. Since the proposal was made, the lattice design for CEPC has been carried out and a preliminary conceptual design report has been written at the end of 2014. In this paper, we will describe the principles of pretzel scheme design, which is one of most important issues in CEPC lattice design. Then, we will show the modification of the lattice based on the lattice design shown in the Pre-CDR. The latest pretzel orbit design result will also be shown. The issues remained to be solved in the present design will be discussed and a brief summary will be given at the end.

  14. Robust Cooperative Spectrum Sensing for Disaster Relief Networks in Correlated Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Pratas, Nuno; Prasad, Neeli Rashmi; Rodrigues, Antonio; Prasad, Ramjee

    2009-01-01

    Disaster relief networks are designed to be adaptable and resilient so to encompass the demands of the emergency service. Cognitive Radio enhanced ad-hoc architecture has been put forward as a candidate to enable such networks. Spectrum sensing, the cornerstone of the Cognitive Radio paradigm, has been the focus of intensive research, from which the main conclusion was that its performance can be greatly enhanced through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. To apply the Cognitive Radio paradigm to Ad-hoc disaster relief networks, the design of effective cooperative spectrum sensing schemes is essential. In this paper we propose a cluster based orchestration cooperative sensing scheme, which adapts to the cluster nodes surrounding radio environment state as well as to the degree of correlation observed between those nodes. The proposed scheme is given both in a centralized as well as in a decentralized approach. In the centralized approach, the cluster head controls and adapts the distribution of the cluste...

  15. Cooperative Position Aware Mobility Pattern of AUVs for Avoiding Void Zones in Underwater WSNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Nadeem; Ejaz, Mudassir; Abdul, Wadood; Alamri, Atif; Almogren, Ahmad; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim; Guizani, Nadra

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two schemes; position-aware mobility pattern (PAMP) and cooperative PAMP (Co PAMP). The first one is an optimization scheme that avoids void hole occurrence and minimizes the uncertainty in the position estimation of glider’s. The second one is a cooperative routing scheme that reduces the packet drop ratio by using the relay cooperation. Both techniques use gliders that stay at sojourn positions for a predefined time, at sojourn position self-confidence (s-confidence) and neighbor-confidence (n-confidence) regions that are estimated for balanced energy consumption. The transmission power of a glider is adjusted according to those confidence regions. Simulation results show that our proposed schemes outperform the compared existing one in terms of packet delivery ratio, void zones and energy consumption. PMID:28335377

  16. A Distributed MAC Protocol for Cooperation in Random Access Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Böcherer, Georg

    2008-01-01

    WLAN is one of the most successful applications of wireless communications in daily life because of low cost and ease of deployment. The enabling technique for this success is the use of random access schemes for the wireless channel. Random access requires minimal coordination between the nodes, which considerably reduces the cost of the infrastructure. Recently, cooperative communication in wireless networks has been of increasing interest because it promises higher rates and reliability. An additional MAC overhead is necessary to coordinate the nodes to allow cooperation and this overhead can possibly cancel out the cooperative benefits. In this work, a completely distributed protocol is proposed that allows nodes in the network to cooperate via Two-Hop and Decode-and-Forward for transmitting their data to a common gateway node. It is shown that high throughput gains are obtained in terms of the individual throughput that can be guaranteed to any node in the network. These results are validated by Monte Ca...

  17. Cooperative expression of atomic chirality in inorganic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-Peng; Yu, Shang-Jie; Govorov, Alexander O.; Ouyang, Min

    2017-02-01

    Cooperative chirality phenomena extensively exist in biomolecular and organic systems via intra- and inter-molecular interactions, but study of inorganic materials has been lacking. Here we report, experimentally and theoretically, cooperative chirality in colloidal cinnabar mercury sulfide nanocrystals that originates from chirality interplay between the crystallographic lattice and geometric morphology at different length scales. A two-step synthetic scheme is developed to allow control of critical parameters of these two types of handedness, resulting in different chiral interplays expressed as observables through materials engineering. Furthermore, we adopt an electromagnetic model with the finite element method to elucidate cooperative chirality in inorganic systems, showing excellent agreement with experimental results. Our study enables an emerging class of nanostructures with tailored cooperative chirality that is vital for fundamental understanding of nanoscale chirality as well as technology applications based on new chiroptical building blocks.

  18. A Secure Distributed Spectrum Sensing Scheme in Cognitive Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhan, Nguyen-Thanh; Koo, Insoo

    Distributed spectrum sensing provides an improvement for primary user detection but leads a new security threat into CR system. The spectrum sensing data falsification malicious users can decrease the cooperative sensing performance. In this paper, we propose a distributed scheme in which the presence and absence hypotheses distribution of primary signal is estimated based on past sensing received power data by robust statistics, and the data fusion are performed according to estimated parameters by Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. Our scheme can achive a powerful capability of malicious user elimination due to the abnormality of the distribution of malicious users compared with that of other legitimate users. In addition, the performance of our data fusion scheme is enhanced by supplemented nodes’ reliability weight.

  19. 从苏北某村看新农合制度下乡村医生的角色变迁%Change of the Role of Village Doctor under the New Rural Cooperative Medical System from the W Village in North Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泗通

    2015-01-01

    After the implementation of the new rural cooperative medical system, village doctor's role in rights, obligations and norms, re⁃quired a lot of changes gradually from "country doctor" to "full-time doctors" changing role. Case study findings, based on w village, in the process of gradual promotion of new rural cooperative medical system, country doctor because of its role as a result of the changes, a series of in⁃dustry dilemma:brain drain, work motivation, social function degradation and so on. As the village doctor in its transition, the social basis of ru⁃ral medical and health services has also undergone tremendous changes, the original social network gradually lost its role, increase the cost of medical and health services in rural areas, to a certain extent, and weaken the effectiveness of the new rural cooperative system in the original.%新农合制度实施后,乡村医生在权利、义务和规范等方面的角色要求发生了较大的变化,逐步由“乡村医生”向“专职医生”的角色转变。基于苏北某村个案的实证调查发现,在新农合制度逐渐推广的过程中,乡村医生由于角色的变迁而导致了一系列的行业困境,如人才流失、工作积极性降低、社会功能退化等。随着乡村医生自身角色的转变,农村医疗卫生事业的社会基础也发生了巨大变化,原有的社会关系网络逐渐丧失作用,增加了农村医疗卫生服务的成本,在一定程度上削弱了新农合制度原有的功效。

  20. HTML5 microdata as a semantic container for medical information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Eizen; Kobayashi, Shinji; Ishihara, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Achieving interoperability between clinical electronic medical records (EMR) systems and cloud computing systems is challenging because of the lack of a universal reference method as a standard for information exchange with a secure connection. Here we describe an information exchange scheme using HTML5 microdata, where the standard semantic container is an HTML document. We embed HL7 messages describing laboratory test results in the microdata. We also annotate items in the clinical research report with the microdata. We mapped the laboratory test result data into the clinical research report using an HL7 selector specified in the microdata. This scheme can provide secure cooperation between the cloud-based service and the EMR system.

  1. The Impact of the Clinical Medical Librarian on Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Jeanne; Hamburger, Stephen

    1981-01-01

    A University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine team approach is described that combines the knowledge and skills of the physician, nurse, clinical pharmacist, clinical medical librarian, etc., into a cooperative unit to provide health education and health care delivery. The impact of the clinical medical librarian is discussed. (MLW)

  2. 新农合的福利效果与改革方向--基于供给者诱导需求的分析框架%Study on New Rural Cooperative Medical System’s Welfare effects in China and Reform Direction--An analytic framework based on supplier induced demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁满秀; 杨志武; 刘进

    2013-01-01

    In the present stage, the new rural cooperative medical care system (NCMS) tries to control medical expenses by focusing on co-payment mechanism which imposes restrictions on health care utilization of the demander and hence reduces the farm household's welfare. Under the conditions of the supplier-induced demand, the excessive treatments caused by suppliers’ moral hazard must bring about drastic increase for medical expenses, and moreover, eventually lead to serious waste and low efficiency of medical resources allocation. This paper theoretically analyzes the welfare effects of New Cooperative Medical System from the perspective of supplier-induced demand, and concludes that reforming orientation for NCMS should be directed to control the medical supplier's moral hazard so that really to improve farmer’s welfare from the NCMS.%现阶段新农合政策对医疗费用的控制主要着眼于共付机制的需求方约束,这必然以降低农户福利水平为代价。在医疗服务供给者诱导需求的条件下,供给方的道德风险引致的过度诊疗必然带来医疗费用急剧膨胀,最终造成医疗资源配置严重浪费和低效率。基于以供给者诱导需求为分析框架,从理论上对我国现阶段新农合政策的福利效果进行了阐述,认为影响新农合政策中医疗服务供给者行为的主要因素有:市场竞争形态、信息不对称以及医疗保险支付方式。并据此认为,新农合的改革方向应以控制医疗供给方的道德风险为核心,真正提高农户从新农合制度中享受到的福利和收益。

  3. Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects) By Barbara Cone, Patricia Dorn, Dawn Konrad- ... Audiology Information Series [PDF]. What Is Ototoxicity? Certain medications can damage the ear, resulting in hearing loss, ...

  4. A Novel Relay-Aided Transmission Scheme in Cognitive Radio Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jaafar, Wael; Haccoun, David

    2011-01-01

    In underlay cognitive radio networks, unlicensed secondary users are allowed to share the spectrum with licensed primary users when the interference induced on the primary transmission is limited. In this paper, we propose a new cooperative transmission scheme for cognitive radio networks where a relay node is able to help both the primary and secondary transmissions. We derive exact closed-form and upper bound expressions of the conditional primary and secondary outage probabilities over Rayleigh fading channels. Furthermore, we proposed a simple power allocation algorithm. Finally, using numerical evaluation and simulation results we show the potential of our cooperative transmission scheme in improving the secondary outage probability without harming the primary one.

  5. Study the One-bit Hard Combination Scheme on Cognitive Radio Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shamim Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the performance of one-bit hard combination scheme of cooperative spectrum sensing for different number of cognitive radio users. We evaluate cooperative spectrum sensing by simulating OR rule as a hard combination data fusion rule. Energy detector is used to observe the presence of primary user (PU signal. It improves the probability of detection by collaborating to detect PUs signal in cognitive radio (CR system. Simulation result shows that the probability of missed detection is decreasing for both conventional hard combination and 1-bit hard combination scheme with OR rule correspondingly with increasing the probability of false alarm. It is shown that 1-bit scheme has much better performance than the conventional hard combination scheme. This is also shown that the probability of missed detection is decreased even though CR user is increased. Here missed detection probability is decreased when the number of user increases.

  6. Improved Ternary Subdivision Interpolation Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huawei; QIN Kaihuai

    2005-01-01

    An improved ternary subdivision interpolation scheme was developed for computer graphics applications that can manipulate open control polygons unlike the previous ternary scheme, with the resulting curve proved to be still C2-continuous. Parameterizations of the limit curve near the two endpoints are given with expressions for the boundary derivatives. The split joint problem is handled with the interpolating ternary subdivision scheme. The improved scheme can be used for modeling interpolation curves in computer aided geometric design systems, and provides a method for joining two limit curves of interpolating ternary subdivisions.

  7. Formal Verification of NTRUEncrypt Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Moghissi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore a mechanized verification of the NTRUEncrypt scheme, with the formal proof system Isabelle/HOL. More precisely, the functional correctness of this algorithm, in its reduced form, is formally verified with computer support. We show that this scheme is correct what is a necessary condition for the usefulness of any cryptographic encryption scheme. Besides, we present a convenient and application specific formalization of the NTRUEncrypt scheme in the Isabelle/HOL system that can be used in further study around the functional and security analysis of NTRUEncrypt family.

  8. History of scientific cooperation between Department of Clinical Toxicology and the Chair of Forensic Medicine Jagielionian University Medical College in the period of last four decades as a document of clinical and forensic toxicology integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłys, Małgorzata

    2005-01-01

    An integration of clinical and forensic toxicologist society enjoys its 40-year tradition. A practice in this field proves that the cooperation can be fruitful in both the scientific and preventative and organizational areas provided the concentration of the participants' efforts is focused. The article shows the examples of such collaboration, the illustration of which are the presented works. The articles constitute the original papers and casuistic works as well concerning problems of contemporary toxicology such as: epidemiology of poisoning, complex evaluation of ethanol, carbon monoxide, pesticides, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and other poisonings.

  9. Cooperative Spatial Reuse with Transmit Beamforming in Multi-rate Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Chenguang; Fitzek, Frank; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2009-01-01

    operation modes. One is TDMA mode while the other is spatial reuse mode in which links transmit simultaneously. Links contribute their own time slots to form a cooperative group to do spatial reuse. Each link joins the group only if it can benefit in capacity or energy efficiency. Otherwise, the link......We present a cooperative spatial reuse (CSR) scheme as a cooperative extension of the current TDMA-based MAC to enable spatial reuse in multi-rate wireless networks. We model spatial reuse as a cooperation problem on utilizing the time slots obtained from the TDMA-based MAC. In CSR, there are two...

  10. Fundamental Limits of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, Angel; Andrews, Jeffrey G

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation is viewed as a key ingredient for interference management in wireless systems. This paper shows that cooperation has fundamental limitations. The main result is that even full cooperation between transmitters cannot in general change an interference-limited network to a noise-limited network. The key idea is that there exists a spectral efficiency upper bound that is independent of the transmit power. First, a spectral efficiency upper bound is established for systems that rely on pilot-assisted channel estimation; in this framework, cooperation is shown to be possible only within clusters of limited size, which are subject to out-of-cluster interference whose power scales with that of the in-cluster signals. Second, an upper bound is also shown to exist when cooperation is through noncoherent communication; thus, the spectral efficiency limitation is not a by-product of the reliance on pilot-assisted channel estimation. Consequently, existing literature that routinely assumes the high-power spect...

  11. AUTISTIC CHILDREN PROTECTION SCHEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan LUKIC

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article sets forth the theoretical grounds which make the basis for the organizational scheme of the autistic persons social protection. This protection consists of the below listed forms of work:· Health service with the role of an early detection and participation in the creation of rehabilitation programs;· Social protection with its programs of work from the diagnostics where the defectologist makes a team together with the physician and the psychologists to the systems of rehabilitation institutions where the defectologist’s is the main responsibility.The present article underlines two facts, namely:· that an autistic person requires to be followed and every spare moment used to promote and advance the activities the doer commenced himself instead of having him carry out the programs which are beyond his internal motivations and which he finds emotionally inaccessible;· that and form of work organization with autistic persons must subordinate its administrative part to the basic professional requirements this kind of disorder (handicap sets in front of each professional.

  12. Collaboration for cooperative work experience programs in biomedical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shankar

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating cooperative education modules as a segment of the undergraduate educational program is aimed to assist students in gaining real-life experience in the field of their choice. The cooperative work modules facilitate the students in exploring different realistic aspects of work processes in the field. The track records for cooperative learning modules are very positive. However, it is indeed a challenge for the faculty developing Biomedical Engineering (BME) curriculum to include cooperative work experience or internship requirements coupled with a heavy course load through the entire program. The objective of the present work is to develop a scheme for collaborative co-op work experience for the undergraduate training in the fast-growing BME programs. A few co-op/internship models are developed for the students pursuing undergraduate BME degree. The salient features of one co-op model are described. The results obtained support the proposed scheme. In conclusion, the cooperative work experience will be an invaluable segment in biomedical engineering education and an appropriate model has to be selected to blend with the overall training program.

  13. A Multiserver Biometric Authentication Scheme for TMIS using Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Shehzad Ashraf; Khan, Muhammad Tawab; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Shon, Taeshik

    2016-11-01

    Recently several authentication schemes are proposed for telecare medicine information system (TMIS). Many of such schemes are proved to have weaknesses against known attacks. Furthermore, numerous such schemes cannot be used in real time scenarios. Because they assume a single server for authentication across the globe. Very recently, Amin et al. (J. Med. Syst. 39(11):180, 2015) designed an authentication scheme for secure communication between a patient and a medical practitioner using a trusted central medical server. They claimed their scheme to extend all security requirements and emphasized the efficiency of their scheme. However, the analysis in this article proves that the scheme designed by Amin et al. is vulnerable to stolen smart card and stolen verifier attacks. Furthermore, their scheme is having scalability issues along with inefficient password change and password recovery phases. Then we propose an improved scheme. The proposed scheme is more practical, secure and lightweight than Amin et al.'s scheme. The security of proposed scheme is proved using the popular automated tool ProVerif.

  14. Multi-proxy quantum group signature scheme with threshold shared verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yu-Guang

    2008-01-01

    A multi-proxy quantum group signature scheme with threshold shared verification is proposed.An original signer may authorize a proxy group as his proxy agent.Then only the cooperation of all the signers in the proxy group can generate the proxy signature on behalf of the original signer.In the scheme,any t or more of n receivers can verify the message and any t-1 or fewer receivers cannot verify the validity of the proxy signature.

  15. Delay efficient cooperation in public safety vehicular networks using LTE and IEEE 802.11p

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative schemes for critical content distribution over vehicular networks are presented and analyzed. The first scheme is based on unicasting from the base station, whereas the second is based on threshold based multicasting. Long Term Evolution (LTE) is used for long range communications with the base station (BS) and 802.11p is considered for inter-vehicle collaboration on the short range. A high mobility environment with correlated shadowing is adopted. Both schemes are shown to outperform non-cooperative unicasting and multicasting, respectively, when the appropriate 802.11p power class is used. The first scheme achieves the best performance among the compared methods, and a practical approximation of that scheme is shown to be close to optimal performance. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  17. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... these experiences we discuss problems in the process, requirements for design tools, and issues involved in getting going with cooperative prototyping with active user involvement....

  18. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  19. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  20. Research on applying the interests distribution method of enterprise-university-research institute cooperation based on hash model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-dong

    2007-01-01

    In order to get an acceptable interests-distribution scheme for each partner of enterprise-university-research institute cooperation in advance, based on Nash model, the paper designs the interest distribution method of enterprise-university-research institute cooperation and provides the basis for determining the weight of each partner in accordance with the interest distribution principles and subjected relations between major factors in enterprise-university-research institute cooperation. Also, in combination with one example, an applicable method is provided to distribute interest in enterprise-university-research institute cooperation. The study gives some references for interests-distribution of enterprise-university-research institute cooperation.

  1. Study of the doctor - nurse - medical social worker cooperation work model to deal with emergent complicated issues%医、护、医务社会工作者三方介入急诊复杂事件服务模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎小群; 卓美容; 尹杰英; 庄新耘; 刘晨

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨医、护、医务社会工作者三方协同服务于急诊患者的新型服务模式.方法 急诊科设立急诊医务社工,制订医、护、医务社会工作者三方介入处理相关事件的服务流程,依据不同的个案采取相应的服务措施,满足不同患者的需求.结果 三方介入服务模式运行两年来共为165例患者提供了服务;为85例患者提供了经济援助与心理辅导,为45例患者提供了心理支持,申请救助基金46.60万元.结论 医、护、医务社会工作者三方协同服务的新型服务模式,可以弥补医护服务的不足,能为患者及家属提供切实可行的帮助,全面提升医院的服务质量.%Objective To explore a new service model of the doctor - nurse - medical socical worker cooperation in emergency patients. Methods Social workers were employed in emergency departments, and the service flow charts for doctors, nurses and medical social workers to cooperate and deal with related issues were developed. And different services were provided for different patients,so as to meet specific individual needs. Results Two years after implementing the model,165 patients received services,85 patients received economic assistance as well as psychological consultation,and 45 patients received psychological supports. We successfully applied for assistance fund of 466 thousands RMB. Conclusion The new service model of doctor - nurse - medical social worker cooperation can not only compensate for the insufficiency of the doctor - nurse service model, but also provide patients and their family members with practical help, thus lead to a comprehensive escalation in the quality of hospital services.

  2. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  3. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  4. Cooperative internal conversion process

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, called cooperative internal conversion process, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron exchange if it is allowed by energy conservation, is discussed theoretically. General expression of the cross section of the process is reported in one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. The case of $Ne$ is investigated numerically. The process may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production.

  5. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    the borders long before the politicians supported and pushed for further cooperation. Energy efficiency was addressed by a portfolio of activities ranging from knowledge-sharing, public campaigns, labelling and standardisation of products. The need to address environmental degradation was inspired by the UN...... officials. With the consolidation of Nordic Energy Research in 1999, the cooperation benefitted from having an institution that exclusively could focus on Nordic energy policy issues and deliver research-based decision support to decision makers in the Nordic energy sector....

  6. Cooperative strategies in innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratner Svetlana Valerevna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge economy one of the conventional ways to obtain economic agents access to new knowledge and technology is the creation and implementation of specific cooperative strategies, such as the formation of alliances with other economic agents. Combining competencies partners in joint research and development has a positive impact on innovation, but it is a partial convergence of competences partners that in the long term can lead to the unification of competences agents economic system and reduce their innovative activity. In this paper, we propose an effective method of information management in the implementation of a cooperative strategy of innovation.

  7. Proto-cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Read, James E; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Stefan;

    2016-01-01

    beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre...... in an increase of injured fish in the school with the number of attacks. How quickly prey are captured is positively correlated with the level of injury of the school, suggesting that hunters can benefit from other conspecifics' attacks on the prey. To explore this, we built a mathematical model capturing...

  8. Cooperatives between truth and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Krueger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current declaration of the International Cooperative Alliance on cooperative identity since its 1995 Centennial Conference (which was held in Manchester makes no distinction between cooperation and cooperative. The lack of distinction between cooperation and cooperative has caused the Decennial Cooperative Action Plan to define cooperatives as a form, while their materiality is regarded as managerial: a business (activity under a cooperative form. An identity that is close to us cannot be reduced to form, without this being a problem. Therefore, the value underlying this identity —cooperation— must have a substantial basis, even if it is idealised, if it is to affect us.Received: 27.03.2014Accepted: 12.05.2014

  9. Chaotic communication scheme with multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobreshov, A. M.; Karavaev, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    A new scheme of data transmission with nonlinear admixing is described, in which the two mutually inverse operations (multiplication and division) ensure multiplicative mixing of the informative and chaotic signals that provides a potentially higher degree of security. A special feature of the proposed scheme is the absence of limitations (related to the division by zero) imposed on the types of informative signals.

  10. Homographic scheme for Riccati equation

    CERN Document Server

    Dubois, François

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a numerical scheme for the resolution of matrix Riccati equation, usualy used in control problems. The scheme is unconditionnaly stable and the solution is definite positive at each time step of the resolution. We prove the convergence in the scalar case and present several numerical experiments for classical test cases.

  11. Differential operators and automorphism schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The ring of global differential operators of a variety is in closed and deep relation with its automorphism scheme.This relation can be applied to the study of homogeneous schemes,giving some criteria of homogeneity,a generalization of Serre-Lang theorem,and some consequences about abelian varieties.

  12. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  13. A chaotic map-based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xinhong; Wang, Jiantao; Yang, Qinghai; Yan, Xiaopeng; Li, Ping

    2013-04-01

    With the development of Internet, patients could enjoy health-care delivery services through telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) in their home. To control the access to remote medical servers' resources, many authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed. However, the performance of these schemes is not satisfactory since modular exponential operations are used in these schemes. In the paper, we propose a chaotic map-based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems. The security and performance analysis shows our scheme is more suitable for TMIS.

  14. 高血压患者个体化治疗方案和抗高血压药物应用分析研究%Study on Individual Comprehensive Therapy Scheme and Medication in Cases of Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周波

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the individual comprehensive therapy and analysis of medication of reasonable application. Methods:Selected 300 hypertension patients in our hospital between January 2008 and December 2010 as our objects.Analysis and gather statistics of medicine application. Results :Medicine type contains the highest application rate were calcium channel blocker and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, Amlodipine Mesylate Tablets was No.1 in 2008,2009 and 2010.Phentolamine, Benazepril Hydrochloride Tablets, Perindopril Tablets were decreasing.Extended Release Nifedipine Tablets, Enalapril Maleate Tablets were increasing. Conclusion:Medicine application is reasonable in our hospital, almost all hypertension patients could be applicated reasonable.%目的:探讨高血压患者个体化治疗和分析药物的合理临床应用.方法:将2008 年1月至2010 年12 月于我院就诊的300 例高血压患者作为研究对象.对用药情况和药物利用进行分析、统计.结果:在用药品种上,钙拮抗药(CCB) 和血管紧张素转化酶抑制剂(ACEI) 应用频率最高.氨氯地平片2008 年、2009 年、2010 年均位于第1位.酚妥拉明、贝那普利片、培哚普利片处于逐年下降趋势.硝苯地平缓释片、马来酸依那普利片处于上升趋势.结论:本院抗高血压用药基本合理,对高血压患者基本能实现个体化治疗.

  15. To Cooperate, or Not to Cooperate in Imperfectly-Known Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Junwei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, communication over imperfectly-known fading channels with different degrees of cooperation is studied. The three-node relay channel is considered. It is assumed that communication starts with the network training phase in which the receivers estimate the fading coefficients of their respective channels. In the data transmission phase, amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward relaying schemes are employed. For different cooperation protocols, achievable rate expressions are obtained. These achievable rate expressions are then used to find the optimal resource allocation strategies. In particular, the fraction of total time or bandwidth that needs to be allocated to the relay for best performance is identified. Under a total power constraint, optimal allocation of power between the source and relay is investigated. Finally, bit energy requirements in the low-power regime are studied.

  16. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  17. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  18. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  19. Communication, Coordination, Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nancy Oft; Wiper, Kathie Tippens

    Speech communication teachers at both secondary and postsecondary school levels must cooperate to improve oral communication education. Despite the importance of oral communication skills, speech courses are rarely required in high school. Teachers must tell school boards, higher education boards, and faculties of the importance of speaking and…

  20. Cooperative social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Acera Manero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Social capital consists of the contributions of members and associates, both mandatory and voluntary. From an accounting point of view, it is a liability figure that expresses the value of a portion of the equity of the cooperative. Its inclusion in the liability is not the fact that it is a debt but by its nature unenforceable.

  1. Family Sequencing and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundel, S.; Ciftci, B.B.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the allocation problem of the maximal cost savings of the whole group of jobs, we define and analyze a so-called corresponding cooperative family sequencing game which explicitly takes into account the maximal cost savings for any coalition of jobs. Using nonstandard techniques we prove t

  2. Cooperation Or Conflict?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Iran’s recent actions have created confusion and heightened doubt about the future of the nuclear issue Recent events involving Iran have produced high drama. First, the country said it would cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the

  3. Physicality and Cooperative Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Popescu-Belis, Andrei; Stiefelhagen, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    CSCW researchers have increasingly come to realize that material work setting and its population of artefacts play a crucial part in coordination of distributed or co-located work. This paper uses the notion of physicality as a basis to understand cooperative work. Using examples from an ongoing

  4. Communication, Coordination, Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nancy Oft; Wiper, Kathie Tippens

    Speech communication teachers at both secondary and postsecondary school levels must cooperate to improve oral communication education. Despite the importance of oral communication skills, speech courses are rarely required in high school. Teachers must tell school boards, higher education boards, and faculties of the importance of speaking and…

  5. Educating for World Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Louise M.; Miel, Alice

    This booklet presents a variety of perspectives on educating for world cooperation. Section 1 discusses major world problems and calls for the reorientation of education as a potential solution. Section 2 deals with the design of such a reorientation and offers three approaches to teaching and curriculum development--knowing, being, and doing. In…

  6. Cooper pairs and bipolarons

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhno, Victor D.

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that Cooper pairs are a solution of the bipolaron problem for model Fr\\"{o}hlich Hamiltonian. The total energy of a pair for the initial Fr\\"{o}hlich Hamiltonian is found. Differences between the solutions for the model and initial two-particle problems are discussed.

  7. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  8. Cooperation Across the Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China and Mexico, two significant developing countries in the world, have been strengthening cooperation in all fields in recent years. And the two countries are confident about improving their ties in the future. Mexican Foreign Minister Luis Ernesto Derbez Bautista shares his views on bilateral relations in a written response to questions from Beijing Review reporter Ding Ying.

  9. Cooperation Beats Conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING YING

    2011-01-01

    Philippine President Benigno Aquino Ⅲ recently completed a five-day visit to China,his first state visit to China since he took office last year.The two countries reached consensus on promoting all-round cooperation,especially in trade and the economy,and downplayed disputes in the South China Sea.

  10. Cooper pairs and bipolarons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, Victor

    2016-11-01

    It is shown that Cooper pairs are a solution of the bipolaron problem for model Fröhlich Hamiltonian. The total energy of a pair for the initial Fröhlich Hamiltonian is found. Differences between the solutions for the model and initial two-particle problems are discussed.

  11. Cooperative Mobile Sensing Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R S; Kent, C A; Jones, E D; Cunningham, C T; Armstrong, G W

    2003-02-10

    A cooperative control architecture is presented that allows a fleet of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) to collect data in a parallel, coordinated and optimal manner. The architecture is designed to react to a set of unpredictable events thereby allowing data collection to continue in an optimal manner.

  12. Composition of Disease of Respiratory System of Inpatients in New Rural Cooperative Medical System in Dongtai from 2011 to 2013%东台市2011-2013年新农合住院患者呼吸系统疾病构成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁芸; 唐春燕; 殷海华; 罗建平

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze and know the inpatient disease data in the new rural cooperative respiratory system in Dongtai in Jiangsu province and explore the characteristics of rural respiratory system diseases thus providing the decision-making support for improving the new rural cooperative medical system. Methods The respiratory system disease data in the new rural cooperative medical data were selected as the research objects according to the national disease classification standards (ICD-10), and the data were given frequency count, classifying sum and cross-reference table handling by Excel and SPSS17.0. Results The numbers of hospitalization cases with respiratory system disease from 2011 to 2013 were re-spectively 5513, 9338 and 11144, respectively ranking 5, 3 and 2, showing an obvious increasing trend, and the morbidity rate of male was higher than that of female, and the young and old belonged to high incidence groups, and bronchitis, em-physema and other chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases composed the high-incidence sub-variety of respiratory system disease types. Conclusion The inpatients with respiratory system diseases increases year by year, controlling the popularity of respiratory system diseases also needs to enhance the environmental governance, reduce air pollution, also needs to en-hance medical service and hospital management work, improve the hospital medical diagnosis and treatment level and pro-mote the effective implementation of the new rural cooperative policy.%目的:分析和了解江苏省东台市新农合呼吸系统住院疾病数据,探索农村呼吸系统疾病的特点,从而为完善新农合提供决策支持。方法根据国际疾病分类标准(ICD-10﹚,从新农合数据库中提取呼吸系统疾病数据作为研究对象,使用Excel和SPSS 17.0对数据进行频率统计、分类汇总、交叉表处理等。结果2011―2013年呼吸系统疾病住院人次分别为5513、9338、11144,分别排名第5、第3、第2

  13. The GP retainer scheme: report of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyer, Lesley; Young, Pat; Main, Paul Gn; Morison, Jim

    2014-11-01

    The current context of organisational change and new working patterns, together with the high cost of medical training, mean it is of vital importance that the NHS retains its trained workforce. The GP retainer scheme supports doctors who for reasons of personal circumstance are restricted in their ability to compete for employment in medicine, and aims to facilitate the retention of their skills and confidence. This national study evaluates the experiences and views of current and past GP retainers and provides a rigorous assessment of the retainer scheme. It is a mixed method study: an online questionnaire was completed by 318 current and ex-retainers across the UK; follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with 30 respondents. The study finds that the GP retainer scheme is effective in retaining GPs through times of transition and provides evidence to support the continuing funding of the scheme across the UK. The scheme is beneficial for doctors who also have a role in caring for young children and is also highly valued by a minority of GP retainers who are using it to return to work after illness, or to practice in a more limited role, due to chronic illness or disability. This study found variations in the implementation of the educational entitlement which is fundamental to the scheme. A minority of retainers experienced problems with the implementation of the scheme and recommendations are made for improvements.

  14. Irradiation Scheme Design of 14C Production on CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Zheng; LIU; Xing-min; XU; Zhi-long; DING; Li

    2012-01-01

    <正>14C is a radioisotope of carbon. It is widely used in pharmacy, medical treatment, agriculture, reconnoiter and archaeology. China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) is a research reactor of high capability, the applications of which includes the radio nuclides production. Therefore, the technical scheme on 14C irradiation in CARR should be prepared elaborately.

  15. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  16. The Occupational Pension Schemes Survey 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Levy; David Miller

    2008-01-01

    Presents findings on the number of schemes, their membership and contributions to schemes by employers and employeesThis article presents findings on the number of occupational pension schemes in 2006, their membership and contributions to schemes by employers and employees. It is based on the Occupational Pension Schemes Annual Report (2006 edition). The findings distinguish between public and private sector schemes and include breakdowns by scheme status (open, closed, frozen or winding up)...

  17. Joint Uplink and Downlink Relay Selection in Cooperative Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Wei; Wu, Gang; Wang, Haifeng; Wang, Ying

    2010-01-01

    We consider relay selection technique in a cooperative cellular network where user terminals act as mobile relays to help the communications between base station (BS) and mobile station (MS). A novel relay selection scheme, called Joint Uplink and Downlink Relay Selection (JUDRS), is proposed in this paper. Specifically, we generalize JUDRS in two key aspects: (i) relay is selected jointly for uplink and downlink, so that the relay selection overhead can be reduced, and (ii) we consider to minimize the weighted total energy consumption of MS, relay and BS by taking into account channel quality and traffic load condition of uplink and downlink. Information theoretic analysis of the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff demonstrates that the proposed scheme achieves full spatial diversity in the quantity of cooperating terminals in this network. And numerical results are provided to further confirm a significant energy efficiency gain of the proposed algorithm comparing to the previous best worse channel selection an...

  18. Cooperative Spatial Retreat for Resilient Drone Networks †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin-Hyeok; Kwon, Young-Min; Park, Kyung-Joon

    2017-01-01

    Drones are broadening their scope to various applications such as networking, package delivery, agriculture, rescue, and many more. For proper operation of drones, reliable communication should be guaranteed because drones are remotely controlled. When drones experience communication failure due to bad channel condition, interference, or jamming in a certain area, one existing solution is to exploit mobility or so-called spatial retreat to evacuate them from the communication failure area. However, the conventional spatial retreat scheme moves drones in random directions, which results in inefficient movement with significant evacuation time and waste of battery lifetime. In this paper, we propose a novel spatial retreat technique that takes advantage of cooperation between drones for resilient networking, which is called cooperative spatial retreat (CSR). Our performance evaluation shows that the proposed CSR significantly outperforms existing schemes. PMID:28467390

  19. Achieving fairness by aggregate power allocation in opportunistic cooperation networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Jianfei; Zhong Zhangdui; Ai Bo

    2009-01-01

    Within a wireless opportunistic network, one of the lucky users gets an opportunity to utilize the whole radio resource. However some of the unlucky users keep silent during an unexpected period resulting from severe wireless environment and imperfect scheduling algorithms. An opportunistic cooperation protocol is proposed that can achieve equivalent performance measured in terms of outage probability, in which scheme the opportunistic user helps to relay what need retransmitting indicated by the destination and selects the appropriate power allocation to pursue fairness. The proposed scheme deploys superposition coding and successive interference cancellation at relay and destination, respectively. To improve the spectral efficiency, the modified cooperation architecture involves two opportunistic users which work in turn. The simulation results demonstrate that the protocol obtains better performance compared with the conventional methods.

  20. Schemes for Deterministic Polynomial Factoring

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanyos, Gábor; Saxena, Nitin

    2008-01-01

    In this work we relate the deterministic complexity of factoring polynomials (over finite fields) to certain combinatorial objects we call m-schemes. We extend the known conditional deterministic subexponential time polynomial factoring algorithm for finite fields to get an underlying m-scheme. We demonstrate how the properties of m-schemes relate to improvements in the deterministic complexity of factoring polynomials over finite fields assuming the generalized Riemann Hypothesis (GRH). In particular, we give the first deterministic polynomial time algorithm (assuming GRH) to find a nontrivial factor of a polynomial of prime degree n where (n-1) is a smooth number.

  1. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the effect that can be observed when support schemes for renewable energy are regionalised. Two theoretical examples are used to explain interactive effects on, e.g., the price of power, conditions for conventional power producers, and changes in import and export of power...... RES-E support schemes already has a common liberalised power market. In this case the introduction of a common support scheme for renewable technologies will lead to more efficient sitings of renewable plants, improving economic and environmental performance of the total power system...

  2. Prospects of ASEAN Legal Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Riyanto

    2016-01-01

    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional organization in the countries of Southeast Asia established in Bangkok, Thailand, on August 8, 1967 (the Bangkok Declaration) by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. One form of cooperation that could further encourage the establishment of ASEAN's goal was legal cooperation. This was because, this cooperation could further strengthen cooperation in politics, economy, social and culture in Southeast Asia. ...

  3. Provable Secure Identity Based Generalized Signcryption Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Gang; Shen, Yong; Han, Wenbao

    2010-01-01

    According to actual needs, generalized signcryption scheme can flexibly work as an encryption scheme, a signature scheme or a signcryption scheme. In this paper, firstly, we give a security model for identity based generalized signcryption which is more complete than existing model. Secondly, we propose an identity based generalized signcryption scheme. Thirdly, we give the security proof of the new scheme in this complete model. Comparing with existing identity based generalized signcryption, the new scheme has less implementation complexity. Moreover, the new scheme has comparable computation complexity with the existing normal signcryption schemes.

  4. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  5. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  6. Seeking Cooperation in Green Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Jifei

    2010-01-01

    @@ On May28,the 2 n d China-South Korea Green Economic Cooperation Forum,sponsored by CCPIT and KCCI,was held in Seoul,South Korea. The subjects tallked about at the forum were "New Recycle Energy Cooperation Plan and Strategy"and Cooperation Plan and Strategy in Green Industries"etc

  7. COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN LARGE CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoXiangju

    2004-01-01

    Teaching college English in large classes is a new challenge to teachers. To meet this challenge, the strategy of cooperative learning is practicable. This paper introduces cooperative learning and describes the experiment results, which prove the advantages of cooperative learning over competitive learning or individualistic learning.

  8. The governance of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.

  9. Cooperation in Networks and Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, S.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with various models of cooperation in networks and scheduling. The main focus is how the benefits of this cooperation should be divided among the participating individuals. A major part of this analysis is concerned with stability of the cooperation. In addition, allocation rules a

  10. Gender and Cooperation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von;

    2014-01-01

    between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average....

  11. Underground hydro scheme for Ullapool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Scoltish and Southern Energy has awarded a contract for a new hydropower plant Scotland, the company's first hydro project since the 1960s. The S6 million scheme will be built by Miller Civil Engineering Services Ltd.

  12. New Ideas on Labeling Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbart, Noy Galil

    evaluation of fully dynamic labeling schemes. Due to a connection between adjacency labeling schemes and the graph theoretical study of induced universal graphs, we study these in depth and show novel results for bounded degree graphs and power-law graphs. We also survey and make progress on the related......With ever increasing size of graphs, many distributed graph systems emerged to store, preprocess and analyze them. While such systems ease up congestion on servers, they incur certain penalties compared to centralized data structure. First, the total storage required to store a graph...... in a distributed fashion increases. Second, attempting to answer queries on vertices of a graph stored in a distributed fashion can be significantly more complicated. In order to lay theoretical foundations to the first penalty mentioned a large body of work concentrated on labeling schemes. A labeling scheme...

  13. Capacity-achieving CPM schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Perotti, Alberto; Benedetto, Sergio; Montorsi, Guido

    2008-01-01

    The pragmatic approach to coded continuous-phase modulation (CPM) is proposed as a capacity-achieving low-complexity alternative to the serially-concatenated CPM (SC-CPM) coding scheme. In this paper, we first perform a selection of the best spectrally-efficient CPM modulations to be embedded into SC-CPM schemes. Then, we consider the pragmatic capacity (a.k.a. BICM capacity) of CPM modulations and optimize it through a careful design of the mapping between input bits and CPM waveforms. The so obtained schemes are cascaded with an outer serially-concatenated convolutional code to form a pragmatic coded-modulation system. The resulting schemes exhibit performance very close to the CPM capacity without requiring iterations between the outer decoder and the CPM demodulator. As a result, the receiver exhibits reduced complexity and increased flexibility due to the separation of the demodulation and decoding functions.

  14. Good governance for pension schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory and market developments have transformed the way in which UK private sector pension schemes operate. This has increased demands on trustees and advisors and the trusteeship governance model must evolve in order to remain fit for purpose. This volume brings together leading practitioners to provide an overview of what today constitutes good governance for pension schemes, from both a legal and a practical perspective. It provides the reader with an appreciation of the distinctive characteristics of UK occupational pension schemes, how they sit within the capital markets and their social and fiduciary responsibilities. Providing a holistic analysis of pension risk, both from the trustee and the corporate perspective, the essays cover the crucial role of the employer covenant, financing and investment risk, developments in longevity risk hedging and insurance de-risking, and best practice scheme administration.

  15. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  16. Experiences, attitudes and possibilities for improvement concerning the cooperation between occupational physicians, rehabilitation physicians and general practitioners in Germany from the perspectives of the medical groups and rehabilitation patients - a protocol for a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelter-Mahlknecht, Susanne; Stratil, Jan M; Kaluscha, Rainer; Krischak, Gert; Rieger, Monika A

    2017-04-26

    Rehabilitation measures for patients in the working age primarily aim at maintaining employability, restoring fitness for work or timely return to work (RTW). To facilitate RTW after long sick leave in Germany, both rehabilitation physicians' knowledge about the patients' workplace and communication between the rehabilitation physician and the occupational physician need to be improved. This research will record the experiences and attitudes of occupational physicians, rehabilitation physicians and general practitioners, as well as of rehabilitation patients, to indicate barriers and possibilities for improvement concerning the intersection between workplace and rehabilitation institution. As a previous literature review has shown, insufficient data on the experiences and attitudes of the stakeholders are available. Therefore, an exploratory qualitative approach was chosen. 8 focus group discussions will be conducted with occupational physicians, rehabilitation physicians, general practitioners and rehabilitation patients (2 focus groups with 6-8 interviewees per category). Qualitative content analysis will be used to evaluate the data, thus describing positive and negative experiences and attitudes, barriers and possibilities for improvement at the intersection of general and occupational medicine and rehabilitation with regard to the workplace. The data from the focus groups will be used to develop a standardised quantitative questionnaire for a survey of the medical groups and rehabilitation patients in a follow-up project. The research will be undertaken with the approval of the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty and University Hospital of Tuebingen. The study participants' consent will be documented in written form. The names of all study participants and all other confidential information data fall under medical confidentiality. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed medical journal independent of the nature of the results. Published by the BMJ

  17. An arbitrated quantum signature scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, G; Zeng, Guihua; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2002-01-01

    The general principle for a quantum signature scheme is proposed and investigated based on ideas from classical signature schemes and quantum cryptography. The suggested algorithm is implemented by a symmetrical quantum key cryptosystem and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) triplet states and relies on the availability of an arbitrator. We can guarantee the unconditional security of the algorithm, mostly due to the correlation of the GHZ triplet states and the use of quantum one-time pads.

  18. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  19. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette;

    2008-01-01

    research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development......The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...

  20. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu., E-mail: konstantin.yu.arutyunov@jyu.fi [National Research University Higher School of Economics , Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems RAS , Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Lehtinen, J.S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Centre for Metrology MIKES, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Junctionless Cooper pair box. • Quantum phase slips. • Coulomb blockade and gate modulation of the Coulomb gap. - Abstract: Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current–voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.