WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooperative learning strategies

  1. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Buckley; O'Farrell, Gail

    1990-01-01

    Presents essential characteristics and types of cooperative learning strategies for use in elementary social studies. Outlines exercises for forming teams and building team spirit. Points out such methods promote group interdependence and student responsibility for learning and teaching others. Highlights two cooperative group strategies, Jigsaw…

  2. Impact of Co-Operative Learning Strategies in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, G.

    2010-01-01

    The study illuminates the effectiveness of Co-operative Learning Strategies in learning English Grammar for the learners at secondary level. Cooperative Learning is particularly beneficial for any student learning as a second language. It promotes peer interaction, which helps the development of language and the learning of concepts with content.…

  3. Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the cooperative learning as a teaching method in a second language learning class. It mainly talks about the background, foundation, features, definitions, components, goals, advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning. And as the encounter of the disadvantages in cooperative learning, this paper also proposes some strategies.

  4. Evaluation of A Cooperative Learning Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Joel M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Jigsaw, a cooperative learning technique, was evaluated for its effects on fifth- and sixth-grade students' attitudes and behaviors with regard to themselves, peers and school. Few affective gains were found, although participants in Jigsaw rated their classes as less competitive. (Author/DWH)

  5. Effects of Conventional and Cooperative Learning Strategies on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Conventional and Cooperative Learning Strategies on the Academic Performance of Senior ... Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria ... Also in the conventional class, there was no significant differences in the academic ...

  6. Visual learning and graphic design : a cooperative strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Chmela-Jones, KA; Buys, C; Gaede, RJ

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. The article discusses an exploratory study implemented at three campuses of the Vaal University of Technology, Vanderbijlpark, in response to weak examination results in one of the subjects in the graphic design curriculum. The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of utilising a combination of visual learning and cooperative learning strategies in this setting. A comparative assessment methodologies framework was utilised to measure how graphic design first-year learn...

  7. Cooperative learning strategies to teach nutrition to geriatric nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Marta; Rocandio, Ana Ma; Ansotegui, Laura; Pascual, Estíbaliz; Martínez de la Pera, Concepción

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cooperative learning strategies will help to increase nutrition knowledge of nurses and nursing assistants caring for the elderly in different institutional communities of the Basque Country, Spain. The target population was a sample of volunteers, 16 nurses and 28 nursing assistants. Training consisted of 12 nutrition education sessions using cooperative strategies conducted over a period of 3 consecutive weeks. The assessment instruments included two pretest and two posttest questionnaires with questions selected in multiple-choice format. The first questionnaire was about general knowledge of applied nutrition (0-88 point scale) and the second one on geriatric nutrition knowledge (0-18 point scale). Data were analyzed using SPSS vs. 11.0. The outcomes indicated a significant increase in general nutrition knowledge (difference between the pre- and post-test mean score: 14.5+/-10.1; Plearning strategies could improve the nutrition knowledge of nursing staff. Additionally, the results of this study provide direction to continuing nutrition education program planners regarding appropriate content and methodology for programs.

  8. Effects of Cooperative and Individualistic Learning Strategies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-02

    Oct 2, 2016 ... and tertiary levels of the education system, painting a picture of gender sensitivity in ..... Table 2: Multiple classification analysis of the posttest MARIAT scores ..... Cooperative learning: Exploring its effectiveness in .the .physics.

  9. The Effects of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Skills of 4th Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilen, Didem; Tavil, Zekiye Müge

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of cooperative learning strategies on the vocabulary skills of 4th grade students. The study was also designed to ascertain the attitudes of the students in the experimental group towards cooperative learning. Out of 96 4th grade students enrolled in the private school where the study took…

  10. Effects of Computer-Assisted Jigsaw II Cooperative Learning Strategy on Physics Achievement and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambari, Isiaka Amosa; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted Jigsaw II cooperative strategy on physics achievement and retention. The study also determined how moderating variables of achievement levels as it affects students' performance in physics when Jigsaw II cooperative learning is used as an instructional strategy. Purposive sampling technique…

  11. Effects of a Cooperative Learning Strategy on the Effectiveness of Physical Fitness Teaching and Constraining Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui-Er Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cooperative learning and traditional learning on the effectiveness and constraining factors of physical fitness teaching under various teaching conditions were studied. Sixty female students in Grades 7–8 were sampled to evaluate their learning of health and physical education (PE according to the curriculum for Grades 1–9 in Taiwan. The data were quantitatively and qualitatively collected and analyzed. The overall physical fitness of the cooperative learning group exhibited substantial progress between the pretest and posttest, in which the differences in the sit-and-reach and bent-knee sit-up exercises achieved statistical significance. The performance of the cooperative learning group in the bent-knee sit-up and 800 m running exercises far exceeded that of the traditional learning group. Our qualitative data indicated that the number of people grouped before a cooperative learning session, effective administrative support, comprehensive teaching preparation, media reinforcement, constant feedback and introspection regarding cooperative learning strategies, and heterogeneous grouping are constraining factors for teaching PE by using cooperative learning strategies. Cooperative learning is considered an effective route for attaining physical fitness among students. PE teachers should consider providing extrinsic motivation for developing learning effectiveness.

  12. Diverse strategy-learning styles promote cooperation in evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Run-Ran; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Rong, Zhihai

    2015-11-01

    Observational learning and practice learning are two important learning styles and play important roles in our information acquisition. In this paper, we study a spacial evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game, where players can choose the observational learning rule or the practice learning rule when updating their strategies. In the proposed model, we use a parameter p controlling the preference of players choosing the observational learning rule, and found that there exists an optimal value of p leading to the highest cooperation level, which indicates that the cooperation can be promoted by these two learning rules collaboratively and one single learning rule is not favor the promotion of cooperation. By analysing the dynamical behavior of the system, we find that the observational learning rule can make the players residing on cooperative clusters more easily realize the bad sequence of mutual defection. However, a too high observational learning probability suppresses the players to form compact cooperative clusters. Our results highlight the importance of a strategy-updating rule, more importantly, the observational learning rule in the evolutionary cooperation.

  13. Learning and innovative elements of strategy adoption rules expand cooperative network topologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Wang

    Full Text Available Cooperation plays a key role in the evolution of complex systems. However, the level of cooperation extensively varies with the topology of agent networks in the widely used models of repeated games. Here we show that cooperation remains rather stable by applying the reinforcement learning strategy adoption rule, Q-learning on a variety of random, regular, small-word, scale-free and modular network models in repeated, multi-agent Prisoner's Dilemma and Hawk-Dove games. Furthermore, we found that using the above model systems other long-term learning strategy adoption rules also promote cooperation, while introducing a low level of noise (as a model of innovation to the strategy adoption rules makes the level of cooperation less dependent on the actual network topology. Our results demonstrate that long-term learning and random elements in the strategy adoption rules, when acting together, extend the range of network topologies enabling the development of cooperation at a wider range of costs and temptations. These results suggest that a balanced duo of learning and innovation may help to preserve cooperation during the re-organization of real-world networks, and may play a prominent role in the evolution of self-organizing, complex systems.

  14. Using Cooperative Learning Strategies to Cultural Background Teaching in College English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-hua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this innovation project is toconduct a pilot by employing cooperative learning strategies, peer assessment and self-assessment in the process of teaching cultural background in College English Integrated Course to change teachers ’role as a dominator as that to explore a feasible yet effective way which will help students to learn the cultural background and ob-tained some cognitive progress in performance and achievements. According to the findings obtained from the survey, we can see that by employing of the cooperative learning strategy, students’enthusiasm, participation and learning effectiveness have been greatly enhanced. What’s more, the application of cooperative learning strategy in teaching cultural background not only motivat-ed students, enhanced students’critical thinking but also reduced teachers’heavy workload. It is a win-win situation both for teacher and the students.

  15. Effects of Competitive and Cooperative Learning Strategies on Academic Performance of Nigerian Students in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, E. B.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the cooperative and competitive learning on academic performance of students in mathematics in order to find out which one of them is the more effective learning strategy. The sample of the study was 400 Senior Secondary Schools III, Mathematics students made up of 240 boys and 160 girls randomly selected…

  16. COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN LARGE CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoXiangju

    2004-01-01

    Teaching college English in large classes is a new challenge to teachers. To meet this challenge, the strategy of cooperative learning is practicable. This paper introduces cooperative learning and describes the experiment results, which prove the advantages of cooperative learning over competitive learning or individualistic learning.

  17. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  18. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  19. Cooperative Learning and Social Stories: Effective Social Skills Strategies for Reading Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Dianne M.; Safran, Stephen P.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that few teachers understand the debilitating effect that social skill deficits have on a child's daily life. Notes that instructional strategies such as cooperative learning groups and social stories can help children improve their social behavior. Encourages all educators not only to emphasize academics, but also to seize any…

  20. Realistic Mathematics Learning Using Cooperative Strategy Model in Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyana

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop a realistic mathematics learning model using cooperative strategy. This study applies research and development approach conducted at Junior High School "Laboratorium," State University of Malang. The implementation of this model is conducted through five stages: 1) previous study phase; 2) model planning phase;…

  1. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted STAD Cooperative Learning Strategy on Physics Problem Solving, Achievement and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-assisted Students' Team Achievement Division (STAD) cooperative learning strategy on physics problem solving, students' achievement and retention. It also examined if the student performance would vary with gender. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two senior secondary schools…

  2. Investigating the Effect of Cooperative Learning and Competitive Learning Strategies on the English Vocabulary Development of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekri, Neda

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of cooperative and competitive learning strategies on the acquisition of English vocabulary development by Iranian EFL intermediate learners. In addition, it explored what type of theses strategies was more effective. In such doing, utilizing an Oxford Placement Test (OPT), 45 out of 77 Iranian EFL…

  3. The Influence of Cooperation Learning Strategies on Teacher Practices, Student Perceptions of the Learning Environment, and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmage, Harriet; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This study describes the results of a three-year evaluative investigation of a project designed to enhance teacher use of cooperative goal structuring strategies with resultant changes in the classroom learning environment and achievement gains in reading and language arts. (Authur/BW)

  4. Study and application of reinforcement learning based on DAI in cooperative strategy of robot soccer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qi; ZHANG Da-zhi; YANG Yong-tian

    2009-01-01

    A dynamic cooperation model of multi-agent is established by combining reinforcement learning with distributed artificial intelligence (DAI), in which the concept of individual optimization loses its meaning be-cause of the dependence of repayment on each agent itself and the choice of other agents. Utilizing the idea of DAI, the intellectual unit of each robot and the change of task and environment, each agent can make decisions independently and finish various complicated tasks by communication and reciprocation between each other. The method is superior to other reinforcement learning methods commonly used in the multi-agent system. It can im-prove the convergence velocity of reinforcement learning, decrease requirements of computer memory, and en-hance the capability of computing and logical ratiocinating for agent. The result of a simulated robot soccer match proves that the proposed cooperative strategy is valid.

  5. Cooperative Learning Strategy The Round Table in Teaching English Vocabulary to Secondary School Pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Bambale, Ieva

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary development is an important element in every human’s life in order to be able to communicate not only in the native language but also in any other language. Wordage influences communication possibilities. To enrich vocabulary to secondary school students the author of the Diploma Paper offers to use Cooperative Learning strategy the Round Table because it offers students a possibility to interact and they are allowed to have equal roles when participating. That is the reason why th...

  6. The Application of Cooperative Learning Strategy in English Teaching in Secondary School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严苏淮

    2014-01-01

    At the beginning of this essay, it introduces the disadvantages of Chinese education system.Next, this essay first describes some basic concepts of Cooperative Learning. Then, it describes the present situation of cooperative Learning in Secondary School. There are many advantages for Secondary School students to learn English with Cooperative Learning. Firstly, it can make the class active; Secondly, it can help students to get self-confidence; If we, English teachers, are able to take full advantage of such a Cooperative Learning mechanism in English teaching, then both our English teaching and students’ English learning will be more exciting.

  7. The Application of Cooperative Learning Strategy in English Teaching in Secondary School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严苏淮

    2014-01-01

    At the beginning of this essay, it introduces the disadvantages of Chinese education system .Next, this essay first describes some basic concepts of Cooperative Learning. Then, it describes the present situation of cooperative Learning in Secondary School. There are many advantages for Secondary School students to learn English with Cooperative Learning. Firstly, it can make the class active;Secondly, it can help students to get self-confidence;If we, English teachers, are able to take full advantage of such a Cooperative Learning mechanism in English teaching, then both our English teaching and students’ English learning will be more exciting.

  8. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  9. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  10. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  11. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  12. Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategy on Students' Acquisition and Practice of Scientific Skills in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatila, Hanadi; Al Husseiny, Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Recent research findings have shown that cooperative learning improves students' thinking skills as it allows them to communicate actively with each other (Johnson, Johnson and Smith, 2014). Therefore, cooperative learning has been proposed by many educators to be implemented in classrooms to produce lifelong learners and critical thinkers…

  13. Implementing Strategies of Cooperation for Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation towards English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Julian Esteban

    2007-01-01

    This action research paper dealt with how to increase motivation towards English language learning through cooperative work in a public school in Medellín, Colombia. It was necessary to explore the concepts of teachers' beliefs, social teaching, collaborative and cooperative learning, to understand the conditions and activities that favored…

  14. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Stad Cooperative Learning Strategy on Physics Problem Solving, Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amosa Isiaka Gambari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-assisted Students’ Team Achievement Division (STAD cooperative learning strategy on physics problem solving on students’ achievement and retention. It also examined if the performance of the students would vary with gender. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two senior secondary schools year two physics students (SS II. The schools were assigned into computer-assisted STAD and Individualized Computer Instruction (ICI groups. 84 students from two intact classes participated in the study. Computer-Assisted Learning Package (CALP on physics and Physics Achievement Test (PAT were used as treatment and test instruments respectively. Analysis of Covariance and Scheffe test were used for data analysis. Findings indicated that students taught physics with computer-supported STAD performed and better than their counterparts in ICI group. In addition, they had better retention than those in ICI group. However, gender has no influence on students’ performance. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that physics teacher should be encouraged to use computer-assisted cooperative instructional to enhance students’ performance.

  15. Cooperative Learning Strategies for Teaching Small Group Communication: Research and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Kay; Gimple, Debbie

    Research has shown that cooperative learning rather than competitive behavior enhances students' achievement, self-esteem, and satisfaction while reducing performance anxiety. Although cooperation within a small group results in greater productivity and member satisfaction, it should be considered only as a means to an end, not an end in itself. A…

  16. Enhancing Students' Attitude towards Nigerian Senior Secondary School Physics through the Use of Cooperative, Competitive and Individualistic Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbobola, Akinyemi Olufunminiyi

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the attitude of students towards the use of cooperative, competitive and individualistic learning strategies in Nigerian senior secondary school physics. The design selected for this study was quasi-experimental. A total of 140 students took part in the study and they were selected by a random sampling…

  17. A Strategy of Applying Cooperation Learning in the English Listening Class for Rural Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾敏

    2015-01-01

    In the traditional English class,the listening part is often ignored and the way to teach listening is monotonous especial y for rural students.Students have much dif iculty in participating in the listening class.In order to build a harmonious and ef icacious class,teachers can use cooperation learning to aid listening teaching.The paper is written,basing on many actual data and findings in a rural school.The paper briefly introduces the definition of cooperation learning and theoretical bases of cooperation learning in the English listening class and mainly il ustrates how to carry out it scientifical y and of ers some useful suggestions to overcome its shortages in detail.

  18. Cooperative strategies in innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratner Svetlana Valerevna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge economy one of the conventional ways to obtain economic agents access to new knowledge and technology is the creation and implementation of specific cooperative strategies, such as the formation of alliances with other economic agents. Combining competencies partners in joint research and development has a positive impact on innovation, but it is a partial convergence of competences partners that in the long term can lead to the unification of competences agents economic system and reduce their innovative activity. In this paper, we propose an effective method of information management in the implementation of a cooperative strategy of innovation.

  19. When Creative Problem Solving Strategy Meets Web-Based Cooperative Learning Environment in Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai Wen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Facing highly competitive and changing environment, cultivating citizens with problem-solving attitudes is one critical vision of education. In brief, the importance of education is to cultivate students with practical abilities. Realizing the advantages of web-based cooperative learning (web-based CL) and creative problem solving…

  20. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Elementary Students' Science Achievement and Social Skills in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the effects of two methods of teaching--teacher-centered and cooperative learning--on students' science achievement and use of social skills. The sample consists of 163 female elementary science students in 8 intact grade 5 classes who were assigned to 2 instructional methods and were taught an identical science unit by 4…

  1. EFL Learners' Use of Direct Strategies in Competitive and Cooperative Learning Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Layeq, Hamide

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of competitive and cooperative teaching techniques on Iranian adult EFL learners' use of direct strategies. To this end, a sample of 88 non-English major university students at Sohrevardi Nonprofit College in Qazvin were assigned to two groups, and each group received instruction under one of the treatment…

  2. An analysis of educators' views on their effectiveness to use group work as a co-operative learning strategy / Mary M. Seshabela

    OpenAIRE

    Seshabela, Mary M

    2004-01-01

    The study was undertaken to analyse educator's views on their effectiveness in using group work as a co-operative learning strategy. Specifically the study aims to: To determine through literature the nature of group work as a co-operative learning strategy. To find out views of educators in their effectiveness of using group work as a teaching strategy. The investigation involved 208 educators from middle and secondary schools in Themba District. Close and open ended que...

  3. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation.

  4. Effects of a Cooperative Learning Strategy on Teaching and Learning Phases of Matter and One-Component Phase Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymus, Kemal

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of cooperative learning (using the jigsaw method) on students' achievement in a general chemistry course. The Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) and Phase Achievement Test (PAT) were used. The questions on the CAT relate to solids, liquids, gases, bonding, matter, and matter states. This test was given to…

  5. Study and Application of Reinforcement Learning in Cooperative Strategy of the Robot Soccer Based on BDI Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Bo-ying

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic cooperation model of multi-Agent is formed by combining reinforcement learning with BDI model. In this model, the concept of the individual optimization loses its meaning, because the repayment of each Agent dose not only depend on itsself but also on the choice of other Agents. All Agents can pursue a common optimum solution and try to realize the united intention as a whole to a maximum limit. The robot moves to its goal, depending on the present positions of the other robots that cooperate with it and the present position of the ball. One of these robots cooperating with it is controlled to move by man with a joystick. In this way, Agent can be ensured to search for each state-action as frequently as possible when it carries on choosing movements, so as to shorten the time of searching for the movement space so that the convergence speed of reinforcement learning can be improved. The validity of the proposed cooperative strategy for the robot soccer has been proved by combining theoretical analysis with simulation robot soccer match (11vs11 .

  6. Effect of cooperative learning strategies on student verbal interactions and achievement during conceptual change instruction in 10th grade general science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonning, Robert A.

    This study evaluated the effects of cooperative learning on students' verbal interaction patterns and achievement in a conceptual change instructional model in secondary science. Current conceptual change instructional models recognize the importance of student-student verbal interactions, but lack specific strategies to encourage these interactions. Cooperative learning may provide the necessary strategies. Two sections of low-ability 10th-grade students were designated the experimental and control groups. Students in both sections received identical content instruction on the particle model of matter using conceptual change teaching strategies. Students worked in teacher-assigned small groups on in-class assignments. The experimental section used cooperative learning strategies involving instruction in collaborative skills and group evaluation of assignments. The control section received no collaborative skills training and students were evaluated individually on group work. Gains on achievement were assessed using pre- and posttreatment administrations of an investigator-designed short-answer essay test. The assessment strategies used in this study represent an attempt to measure conceptual change. Achievement was related to students' ability to correctly use appropriate scientific explanations of events and phenomena and to discard use of naive conceptions. Verbal interaction patterns of students working in groups were recorded on videotape and analyzed using an investigator-designed verbal interaction scheme. The targeted verbalizations used in the interaction scheme were derived from the social learning theories of Piaget and Vygotsky. It was found that students using cooperative learning strategies showed greater achievement gains as defined above and made greater use of specific verbal patterns believed to be related to increased learning. The results of the study demonstrated that cooperative learning strategies enhance conceptual change instruction. More

  7. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  8. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  9. Effects of Computer-Assisted STAD, LTM and ICI Cooperative Learning Strategies on Nigerian Secondary School Students' Achievement, Gender and Motivation in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Thomas, David Akpa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction on Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) and Learning Together (LT) cooperative learning strategies on Nigerian secondary students' achievement and motivation in physics. The effectiveness of computer assisted instructional package (CAI) for teaching physics concepts in…

  10. Cooperative Dyads: Impact on Text Learning and Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Barbara A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    In two experiments, college student pairs who were given a systematic strategy for learning cooperatively from a text were compared with pairs who created their own strategies and with individuals who used the systematic or their own strategy. The cooperative learning strategy facilitated both initial learning and transfer. (Author/GDC)

  11. Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling har evalueret undervisningsmetoden Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen og dokumenteret positive effekter på oplevelsen af samarbejde og på lærere og kursisters engagement - men har ikke kunnet påvise systematiske positive effekter af metoden på...... kursisters frafald, fravær og karakterer. Projektet har afprøvet og videreudviklet den pædagogiske metode Cooperative Learning (CL) i en dansk virkelighed og mere specifikt i forhold til VUC'ernes nye kursistgrupper med det overordnede mål at øge gennemførslen markant og målbart ved at anvende og udvikle en...

  12. Comparative Effects of Concept Mapping and Cooperative Learning Strategies on Senior Secondary School Students' Achievement in Mathematics-Trigonometry in Kano State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Thomas D.; Eze, John E.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings from an experimental study on the effectiveness of concept mapping and cooperative learning strategies on SSII students' achievement in trigonometry in mathematics. The research design used in conducting the study was quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test non-equivalent control group. The sample consisted of…

  13. Implementation Strategy Cooperative Learning Type of Student Achievement Division Team (STAD) to Improve Social Skills Students on Learning Morals in Man 2 Pontianak Learning the Year 2016/2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianawati

    2017-01-01

    Background doing the research is Social skills is an individual's ability to communicate effectively with others, both verbally and nonverbally. Facts social attitudes such selfishness, individualism, indifferent, no responsible attitude, miss communication and interaction with others. One Cooperative-learning strategy to develop cooperation…

  14. An Investigative, Cooperative Learning Approach to the General Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kyle; Fenster, Amy; Dilts, Judith A.; Temple, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Investigative- and cooperative-based learning strategies have been used effectively in a variety of classrooms to enhance student learning and engagement. In the General Microbiology laboratory for juniors and seniors at James Madison University, these strategies were combined to make a semester-long, investigative, cooperative learning experience…

  15. An Investigative, Cooperative Learning Approach to the General Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kyle; Fenster, Amy; Dilts, Judith A.; Temple, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Investigative- and cooperative-based learning strategies have been used effectively in a variety of classrooms to enhance student learning and engagement. In the General Microbiology laboratory for juniors and seniors at James Madison University, these strategies were combined to make a semester-long, investigative, cooperative learning experience…

  16. A Comparison of Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Iranian EFL University Students: Repeating versus Cooperating with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning and assessment are considered as the key basis for the training of English as a foreign language. However, it is time-consuming, uncertain and repetitious for the teachers to assess the proficiency of the students' vocabulary storage. This paper reports the results of a study which aimed to investigate the effect of Repeating…

  17. COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN DISTANCE LEARNING: A MIXED METHODS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Kupczynski

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Distance learning has facilitated innovative means to include Cooperative Learning (CL in virtual settings. This study, conducted at a Hispanic-Serving Institution, compared the effectiveness of online CL strategies in discussion forums with traditional online forums. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 56 graduate student participants. Quantitative results revealed no significant difference on student success between CL and Traditional formats. The qualitative data revealed that students in the cooperative learning groups found more learning benefits than the Traditional group. The study will benefit instructors and students in distance learning to improve teaching and learning practices in a virtual classroom.

  18. [An experience applying the teaching strategies of cooperative learning and creative thinking in a mental-health nursing practicum for undergraduates at a technical college].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hsien; Lin, Mei-Feng; Ho, Hsueh-Jen; Chang, Lu-Na; Chen, Shiue

    2015-04-01

    Lack of knowledge and experience is prevalent in undergraduate students who are taking their clinical practicum for mental-health nursing. This issue negatively affects the learning process. This article shares an experience of implementing a practicum-teaching program. This program was developed by the authors to facilitate the cooperative learning and clinical care competence of students. A series of multidimensional teaching activities was designed by integrating the strategies of peer cooperation and creative thinking to promote group and individual learning. Results indicate that the program successfully encouraged the students to participate more actively in the learning process. Additionally, the students demonstrated increased competence in empathetic caring toward patients, stronger friendship relationships with peers, and improved self-growth. The authors hope this teaching program provides a framework to increase the benefits for students of participating in clinical practicums and provides a teaching reference for clinical instructors.

  19. Creating conditions for cooperative learning: Basic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić-Mandić Slavica G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a large number of research evidence speak out in favor of cooperative learning, its effectiveness in teaching does not depend only on teacher’s and students’ enthusiasm and willingness to work in such a manner. Creating cooperative situations in learning demands a serious preparation and engagement on the part of teacher who is structuring various aspects of work in the classroom. Although there exist a large number of models and techniques of cooperative learning, which vary in the way in which students work together, in the structure of learning tasks as well as in the degree to which cooperative efforts of students are coupled with competition among groups, some elements should be present in the structure of conditions irrespective of the type of group work in question. Potential effects of cooperation are not likely to emerge unless teachers apply five basic elements of cooperative structure: 1. structuring of the learning task and students’ positive interdependence, 2. individual responsibility, 3. upgrading of "face to face" interaction, 4. training of students’ social skills, and 5. evaluation of group processes. The paper discusses various strategies for establishing the mentioned elements and concrete examples for teaching practice are provided, which should be of assistance to teachers for as much successful cooperative learning application as possible in work with children.

  20. The Effects of Explicit Reading Strategy Instruction and Cooperative Learning on Reading Comprehension in Fourth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencioni, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of explicit direct instruction and cooperative learning on reading comprehension in fourth grade students. A quasi-experimental design was used. There were six cognitive and three affective measures used to collect quantitative data. Cognitive measures included California State Test scores,…

  1. Does Cooperative Learning Improve Student Learning Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamarik, Steven

    2007-01-01

    What is the effect of small-group learning on student learning outcomes in economic instruction? In spring 2002 and fall 2004, the author applied cooperative learning to one section of intermediate macroeconomics and taught another section using a traditional lecture format. He identified and then tracked measures of student learning outcomes.…

  2. Developments in cooperative learning: review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn M. Gillies

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning, where students work in small groups to accomplish shared goals, is widely recognized as a teaching strategy that promotes learning and socialization among students from kindergarten through college and across different subject domains. It has been used successfully to promote reading and writing achievements, understanding and conceptual development in science classes, problem-solving in mathematics, and higher-order thinking and learning to name just a few. It has been shown to enhance students' willingness to work cooperatively and productively with others with diverse learning and adjustment needs and to enhance intergroup relations with those from culturally and ethnically different backgrounds. It has also been used as a teaching strategy to assist students to manage conflict and to help students identified as bullies learn appropriate interpersonal skills. In fact, it has been argued that cooperative learning experiences are crucial to preventing and alleviating many of the social problems related to children, adolescents, and young adults. There is no doubt that the benefits attributed to cooperative learning are widespread and numerous and it is the apparent success of this approach to learning that has led to it being acclaimed as one of the greatest educational innovations of recent times. The purpose of this paper is not only to review developments in research on cooperative learning but also to examine the factors that mediate and moderate its success. In particular, the review focuses on the types of student and teacher interactions generated and the key role talk plays in developing student thinking and learning, albeit through the expression of contrasting opinions or constructed shared meaning. The intention is to provide additional insights on how teachers can effectively utilize this pedagogical approach to teaching and learning in their classrooms.

  3. Cooperative Learning in Distance Learning: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczynski, Lori; Mundy, Marie Anne; Goswami, Jaya; Meling, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Distance learning has facilitated innovative means to include Cooperative Learning (CL) in virtual settings. This study, conducted at a Hispanic-Serving Institution, compared the effectiveness of online CL strategies in discussion forums with traditional online forums. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 56 graduate student…

  4. Cooperating to learn teaching to cooperate: adviser processes for program implement CA/AC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón LAGO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is present some results of advise strategy to introduce cooperative learning from the «Cooperating to Learn/ Learning to Cooperate» CL/LC Programme. The first part situates the research project and the research objective focused on how introduction of CL/LC program through a process of advice facilitates permanent improvements to the inclusion of students. In the second we analyzed the phases and tasks of an adviser process for the introduction of cooperative learning and three stages to build on cooperative learning in school: the introduction, generalization and consolidation. The third part is the central part. We describe five process of adviser to implement cooperative learning which we can observe different degrees and modalities of collaboration between teachers and counselors and between teachers. Is possible the first step of a network centers to work cooperatively.

  5. Cooperative Learning in the Teacher Preparation Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbster, Douglas; Hannula, Joyce Jarosz

    This study was conducted to introduce preservice teachers to cooperative learning through direct experience with the strategy. Participants (N=85) consisted of freshmen and sophomores enrolled in a course required for teacher certification. During the first 6 weeks, instruction occurred through traditional lecture methods and at midterm, a jigsaw…

  6. 大学英语口语交际策略培训中的有效合作学习设计%Communication Strategies Training and Design of Effective Cooperative Learning in College English Oral Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盘群

    2012-01-01

    This paper,based on the analysis of the implementation of Cooperative Learning in English oral Communication Strategy training,explores the main problems of Cooperative Learning in the current teaching,then proposes the design of effective Cooperative Learning strategy.%本文从分析在合作学习中实施英语口语交际策略培训的必要性出发,探究合作学习在当前教学中存在的主要问题,进而提出有效合作学习策略设计。

  7. Evolution of cooperation driven by incremental learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Duan, Haibin

    2015-02-01

    It has been shown that the details of microscopic rules in structured populations can have a crucial impact on the ultimate outcome in evolutionary games. So alternative formulations of strategies and their revision processes exploring how strategies are actually adopted and spread within the interaction network need to be studied. In the present work, we formulate the strategy update rule as an incremental learning process, wherein knowledge is refreshed according to one's own experience learned from the past (self-learning) and that gained from social interaction (social-learning). More precisely, we propose a continuous version of strategy update rules, by introducing the willingness to cooperate W, to better capture the flexibility of decision making behavior. Importantly, the newly gained knowledge including self-learning and social learning is weighted by the parameter ω, establishing a strategy update rule involving innovative element. Moreover, we quantify the macroscopic features of the emerging patterns to inspect the underlying mechanisms of the evolutionary process using six cluster characteristics. In order to further support our results, we examine the time evolution course for these characteristics. Our results might provide insights for understanding cooperative behaviors and have several important implications for understanding how individuals adjust their strategies under real-life conditions.

  8. Web-based Cooperative Learning in College Chemistry Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the coming of information era, information process depend on internet and multi-media technology in education becomes the new approach of present teaching model reform. Web-based cooperative learning is becoming a popular learning approach with the rapid development of web technology. The paper aims to how to carry out the teaching strategy of web-based cooperative learning and applied in the foundation chemistry teaching.It was shown that with the support of modern web-based teaching environment, students' cooperative learning capacity and overall competence can be better improved and the problems of interaction in large foundation chemistry classes can be solved. Web-based cooperative learning can improve learning performance of students, what's more Web-based cooperative learning provides students with cooperative skills, communication skills, creativity, critical thinking skills and skills in information technology application.

  9. The Importance of Strategies of Social Language Learning and Cooperative Learning in the Process of Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varisoglu, Mehmet Celal

    2016-01-01

    In order to implement the teaching of a foreign language at a desired level and quality, and to offer some practical arrangements, which stand for to the best use of time, efforts, and cost, there is a need for a road map. The road map in teaching is a learning strategy. This article shows how strategies of social language learning and cooperative…

  10. The Practices of Student Network as Cooperative Learning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Weldemariam Nigusse; Hagos, Girmay Tsegay

    2015-01-01

    Student network is a teaching strategy introduced as cooperative learning to all educational levels above the upper primary schools (grade 5 and above) in Ethiopia. The study was, therefore, aimed at investigating to what extent the student network in Ethiopia is actually practiced in line with the principles of cooperative learning. Consequently,…

  11. The Cooperative Learning in Senior English classroom Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪明语

    2014-01-01

    According to the requirements of the new curriculum standard of Senior English, students should be the core of the English classroom. This essay explores the use of cooperative learning in Senior English classroom. It highlights the essential role that cooperative learning should play in the English teaching process and it also discusses some practical methods of applying this useful strategy.

  12. Using Cooperative Structures to Promote Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The author explores concrete ways to help students learn more and have fun doing it while they support each other's learning. The article specifically shows the relationships between cooperative learning and deep learning. Readers will become familiar with the tenets of cooperative learning and its power to enhance learning--even more so when…

  13. Using Cooperative Structures to Promote Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The author explores concrete ways to help students learn more and have fun doing it while they support each other's learning. The article specifically shows the relationships between cooperative learning and deep learning. Readers will become familiar with the tenets of cooperative learning and its power to enhance learning--even more so when…

  14. Effects of Cooperative E-Learning on Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shang-Pao; Fu, Hsin-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the effects of E-Learning and cooperative learning on learning outcomes. E-Learning covers the dimensions of Interpersonal communication, abundant resources, Dynamic instruction, and Learning community; and, cooperative learning contains three dimensions of Cooperative motive, Social interaction, and Cognition…

  15. 大学英语教学中的合作学习策略%On the Cooperative Learning Strategy in College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应慧; 于红岩

    2013-01-01

    目前我国大学英语教学的一个典型现状是大班教学,如何解决外语课堂的大班教学问题,如何变劣势为优势?合作学习作为一种教学方式,被应用到了教学实践中。本文探索了大学英语课堂上合作学习的策略,希望能有效地运用这种方式解决教学中存在的问题,提高学生的英语语言能力。%A typical situation of China's college English teaching is large-class teaching, but how to solve the situation and trans-form its disadvantages to advantages is a problems. Cooperative learning, as a teaching method, has been applied to teaching practice. This paper explores the strategies of cooperative learn-ing in college English class, hoping to effectively solve the prob-lems existing in teaching and improve students' English language proficiency.

  16. Cooperative Learning and Elementary Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    1991-01-01

    Argues that cooperative learning is useful in elementary social studies instruction. Identifies positive interdependence, student interaction, individual accountability for mastering material, and appropriate interpersonal and small group skills as essential elements of cooperative learning. Suggests that cooperative learning can help teach social…

  17. Cooperative Learning and Elementary Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    1991-01-01

    Argues that cooperative learning is useful in elementary social studies instruction. Identifies positive interdependence, student interaction, individual accountability for mastering material, and appropriate interpersonal and small group skills as essential elements of cooperative learning. Suggests that cooperative learning can help teach social…

  18. Cooperative Learning in China’s College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅怡

    2013-01-01

    With the elaboration on the theoretical bases and significance of the cooperative learning and the practical situation of college English teaching as well,this article probes into potentially applicable strategies in college English teaching in light of existing research.

  19. Benefits of Cooperative Learning in Weblog Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jenny; Fang, Yuehchiu

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the benefits of cooperative learning in weblog networks, focusing particularly on learning outcomes in college writing curriculum integrated with computer-mediated learning tool-weblog. The first section addressed the advantages of using weblogs in cooperative learning structure on teaching and learning.…

  20. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  1. Development of cooperative learning process scale (CLPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Bay

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important components of social constructivist learning environment is that learners are in co-operation. Effectiveness of cooperative learning process also depends on implementing the requirements of cooperative learning by the learners. The key components of cooperative learning are those positive dependence, personal responsibility, face-to-face supportive interaction, group process, interpersonal social skills. The purpose of this study has taken place to determine the psychometric properties of the measurement tool that was developed to examine effectiveness of cooperative learning process. The study was carried out on 177 students at the Gaziantep University, Faculty of Education. Learning environment was instructed under the social constructivist approach and the students have done their assigned tasks in cooperation with. 48-item test was applied to students. Factor analysis was implemented to the obtained data. Results of the study indicated that measurement tool should be used to measure process of cooperative learning.

  2. The Strategies of Carrying out Cooperative Learning Based on Chemical Case Study%基于化学学案开展互助合作学习的策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆茜; 沈理明

    2011-01-01

    论文阐述在化学教学中采用在学案基础上进行互助合作学习的策略。包括通过学案搭建引导学生互助合作学习的"脚手架",让学生通过学案明确教学目标、进行课前预习、开展课堂互助合作学习、检测学生学习效果等。%The paper described the strategies used in teaching chemistry which of carrying out cooperative learning based on case study. Including through case study building "scaffolding" which could guide students to carry out cooperative learning, the preview, mutual assistance and cooperation of classroom learning, testing students' learning effects.

  3. Cooperative and networking strategies in small business

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, João

    2017-01-01

    The book aims to collect the most recent research and best practices in the cooperative and networking small business field identifying new theoretical models and describing the relationship between cooperation and networks in the small business strategy context. It examines different concepts and analytical techniques better understand the links between cooperative strategies and networks in small business. It also studies the existing economic conditions of network and strategic implications to small business from the point of view of their internal and external consistency. Cooperation and networks is a fashionable topic. It is receiving increasing attention in popular management publications, as well as specialized academic journals. Cooperation between firms and industries is a means of leveraging and aggregating knowledge also generating direct benefits in terms of innovation, productivity and competitiveness. Various options and decisions made within the framework of strategic alliances may be identifi...

  4. 不同合作竞争类型的组织学习策略研究%Research on Organizational Learning Strategies of Different Cooperatives-competition Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余晓钟; 杨洋; 刘维

    2015-01-01

    Based on the comment of domestic and foreign literature, this paper subdivides the cooperative competition types that may be confronted by organization. Applying the knowledge management and organizational learning theory, it explores full cooperation, full competition, balanced cooperative competition, high cooperation and low competition, high cooperation and high competition, low cooperation and low competition, low cooperation and high competition, cooperation and benefi-cial competition, cooperation and harmful competition and organizational learning strategies in and between network relation-ships. And then, it illustrates the application of different types of cooperative competition and organizational learning strate-gies by taking the automobile industrial organization as an example.%在对国内外文献梳理基础上,对组织可能面临的合作竞争类型进行了细分. 基于知识管理及组织学习理论,探讨了完全合作、完全竞争、合作竞争平衡、高合作低竞争、高合作高竞争、低合作低竞争、低合作高竞争、合作-有益竞争、合作-有害竞争、网络内合作竞争、网络间合作竞争的组织学习策略,以汽车产业组织为例,说明了不同合作竞争类型及组织学习策略的应用.

  5. Problems and Solutions in Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易彦池

    2007-01-01

    Heterogeneous cooperative learning,as the best kind of cooperative learning,is quite often adopted to make utmost use of the human power in second language learning. On the other hand ,some problems existing in it make it far from satisfactory. In this thesis ,the writer will analyse the problems and put forward some solutions to perfect HCL.

  6. Using Cooperative Learning Structures in Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Ben; Grineski, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Research has determined that cooperative learning has positive effects in physical education. This article presents five important components of cooperative learning to help physical educators maximize learning (team formation, positive interdependence, individual accountability, positive social interaction, and group processing), describing five…

  7. Experience of Cooperative Learning in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceiras, Rocio; Cancela, Angeles; Urrejola, Santiago; Sanchez, Angel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to share the authors' experience towards a different mode of teaching/learning method. Cooperative learning (Jigsaw) was employed on the University of Vigo's fourth-year engineering students. The results of the experience show that cooperative learning is quite a viable alternative to the classical way of lecturing at…

  8. Reactive Strategies: The Establishment of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Júnior, Elton J S; da Silva, Jafferson K L

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is usually represented as a Prisoner's Dilemma game. Although individual self-interest may not favour cooperation, cooperation can evolve if, for example, players interact multiple times adjusting their behaviour accordingly to opponent's previous action. To analyze population dynamics, replicator equation has been widely used under several versions. Although it is usually stated that a strategy called Generous-tit-for-tat is the winner within the reactive strategies set, here we show that this result depends on replicator's version and on the number of available strategies, stemming from the fact that a dynamics system is also defined by the number of available strategies and not only by the model version. Using computer simulations and analytical arguments, we show that Generous-tit-for-tat victory is found only if the number of strategies available is not too large, with defection winning otherwise.

  9. The Effect of Using a Program Based on Cooperative Learning Strategy on Developing some Oral Communication Skills of Students, at English Department, Faculty of Education, Sana'a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuheer, Khaled Mohsen Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of study is to investigate the effective of using a cooperative learning strategy STAD-based program on developing some oral communication skills of second level students, English Department, Faculty of Education, Sana'a University. Based on literature review, related studies and a panel of jury members' point of view, a list of 5 oral…

  10. Forskningsoversigt - Effekterne af Cooperative Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    Kan Cooperative Learning - en undervisningsform hvor lærerens tid ved tavlen mindskes og hvor de lærende samarbejder om stoffet - maksimere de lærendes indlæring og medvirke til en forbedring af deres interpersonelle og kommunikative kompetencer, samt øge deres motivation for læring? Den megen...... Learning, som didaktisk metode være medvirkende til at imødekomme de komplekse krav, der stilles for at udvikle de lærendes faglige, sociale og kommunikative sider på tværs af forskellighederne. Når denne viden bringes over i en voksenuddannelsessammenhæng er det interessant at se på, om der er evidens for...

  11. Cooperative Learning and Interpersonal Synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Roy; Wijnants, Maarten L; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Bosman, Anna M T

    2017-04-01

    Cooperative learning has been shown to result in better task performance, compared to individual and competitive learning, and can lead to positive social effects. However, potential working mechanisms at a micro level remain unexplored. One potential working mechanism might be the level of interpersonal synchrony between cooperating individuals. It has been shown that increased levels of interpersonal synchrony are related to better cognitive performance (e.g., increased memory). Social factors also appear to be affected by the level of interpersonal synchrony, with more interpersonal synchrony leading to increased likeability. In the present study, interpersonal synchrony of postural sway and its relation to task performance and social factors (i.e., popularity, social acceptance, and likeability) was examined. To test this, 183 dyads performed a tangram task while each child stood on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board that recorded their postural sway. The results showed that lower levels of interpersonal synchrony were related to better task performance and those dyads who were on average more popular synchronized more. These results contradict previous findings. It is suggested that for task performance, a more loosely coupled system is better than a synchronized system. In terms of social competence, dyad popularity was associated with more interpersonal synchrony.

  12. Effects of Cooperative Learning on the Academic Achievement of Students with Learning Disabilities: An Update of Tateyama-Sniezek's Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Kristen Nyman; Fuchs, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews 15 research studies published from 1990 to 2000 examining effects of cooperative learning strategies on the academic achievement of students with learning disabilities. Despite design problems, the review finds that cooperative learning strategies that incorporate individual accountability and group rewards are likely to…

  13. Reinforcement Learning Explains Conditional Cooperation and Its Moody Cousin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ezaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct reciprocity, or repeated interaction, is a main mechanism to sustain cooperation under social dilemmas involving two individuals. For larger groups and networks, which are probably more relevant to understanding and engineering our society, experiments employing repeated multiplayer social dilemma games have suggested that humans often show conditional cooperation behavior and its moody variant. Mechanisms underlying these behaviors largely remain unclear. Here we provide a proximate account for this behavior by showing that individuals adopting a type of reinforcement learning, called aspiration learning, phenomenologically behave as conditional cooperator. By definition, individuals are satisfied if and only if the obtained payoff is larger than a fixed aspiration level. They reinforce actions that have resulted in satisfactory outcomes and anti-reinforce those yielding unsatisfactory outcomes. The results obtained in the present study are general in that they explain extant experimental results obtained for both so-called moody and non-moody conditional cooperation, prisoner's dilemma and public goods games, and well-mixed groups and networks. Different from the previous theory, individuals are assumed to have no access to information about what other individuals are doing such that they cannot explicitly use conditional cooperation rules. In this sense, myopic aspiration learning in which the unconditional propensity of cooperation is modulated in every discrete time step explains conditional behavior of humans. Aspiration learners showing (moody conditional cooperation obeyed a noisy GRIM-like strategy. This is different from the Pavlov, a reinforcement learning strategy promoting mutual cooperation in two-player situations.

  14. Reinforcement Learning Explains Conditional Cooperation and Its Moody Cousin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Horita, Yutaka; Takezawa, Masanori; Masuda, Naoki

    2016-07-01

    Direct reciprocity, or repeated interaction, is a main mechanism to sustain cooperation under social dilemmas involving two individuals. For larger groups and networks, which are probably more relevant to understanding and engineering our society, experiments employing repeated multiplayer social dilemma games have suggested that humans often show conditional cooperation behavior and its moody variant. Mechanisms underlying these behaviors largely remain unclear. Here we provide a proximate account for this behavior by showing that individuals adopting a type of reinforcement learning, called aspiration learning, phenomenologically behave as conditional cooperator. By definition, individuals are satisfied if and only if the obtained payoff is larger than a fixed aspiration level. They reinforce actions that have resulted in satisfactory outcomes and anti-reinforce those yielding unsatisfactory outcomes. The results obtained in the present study are general in that they explain extant experimental results obtained for both so-called moody and non-moody conditional cooperation, prisoner's dilemma and public goods games, and well-mixed groups and networks. Different from the previous theory, individuals are assumed to have no access to information about what other individuals are doing such that they cannot explicitly use conditional cooperation rules. In this sense, myopic aspiration learning in which the unconditional propensity of cooperation is modulated in every discrete time step explains conditional behavior of humans. Aspiration learners showing (moody) conditional cooperation obeyed a noisy GRIM-like strategy. This is different from the Pavlov, a reinforcement learning strategy promoting mutual cooperation in two-player situations.

  15. Cooperative Learning: Exploring Its Effectiveness in the Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Fui Fong; Boo, Hong Kwen

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of an action research to explore the effectiveness of using cooperative learning strategies on students' academic achievement, their understanding of physics concepts and their motivation to learn in the physics classroom. The study involved a secondary four express physics class of 41 students in a neighbourhood…

  16. Developing an Inclusive Democratic Classroom "in Action" through Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Patrick, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how Cooperative learning (CL) and democracy can be examined in relation to one another. CL supports a social constructivist view of students learning together to form knowledge through direct interaction. The overriding benefits of CL are that that it is an effective strategy for maximising both social and academic learning…

  17. Cooperative Learning and the Appropriation of Procedural Knowledge by Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Drummond, Sylvia; Hernandez, Gerardo; Velez, Maricela; Villagran, Gabina

    1998-01-01

    The development and promotion of self-regulatory strategies for comprehending and learning from text were studied in 19 9-year olds using cooperative learning. The experimental group exposed to repeated reading experiences within the cooperative learning teams showed marked development of strategies for dealing with texts in comparison with the…

  18. Cooperative learning skaber trivsel i faget videnskabsteori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reggelsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The research question is: How important is the learning method Cooperative learning on nursing students´experience of flow and well-being in connection with the traditional porductio by the internet students?......The research question is: How important is the learning method Cooperative learning on nursing students´experience of flow and well-being in connection with the traditional porductio by the internet students?...

  19. Grouping and Achievement in Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, John

    2003-01-01

    Colleges typically group students homogeneously in classes by means of both admission requirements and course prerequisites, but when professors form cooperative learning groups within classes they generally use heterogeneous grouping. Authors compared heterogeneously and homogeneously grouped cooperative learning groups in six paired classes,…

  20. Early Identification of Ineffective Cooperative Learning Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, C .M.; Luo, L. F.; Chung, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning has many pedagogical benefits. However, if the cooperative learning teams become ineffective, these benefits are lost. Accordingly, this study developed a computer-aided assessment method for identifying ineffective teams at their early stage of dysfunction by using the Mahalanobis distance metric to examine the difference…

  1. Jigsaw Cooperative Learning: Acid-Base Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhan, Leman; Sesen, Burcin Acar

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the effectiveness of jigsaw cooperative learning instruction on first-year undergraduates' understanding of acid-base theories. Undergraduates' opinions about jigsaw cooperative learning instruction were also investigated. The participants of this study were 38 first-year undergraduates in chemistry education…

  2. Jigsaw Cooperative Learning: Acid-Base Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhan, Leman; Sesen, Burcin Acar

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the effectiveness of jigsaw cooperative learning instruction on first-year undergraduates' understanding of acid-base theories. Undergraduates' opinions about jigsaw cooperative learning instruction were also investigated. The participants of this study were 38 first-year undergraduates in chemistry education…

  3. Group Cooperative Learning-Making Learning a Deeper Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jin; LI Hong-mei; WANG Ya-lei; ZHANG Min

    2014-01-01

    The paper is to explore whether or not group cooperative learning in author’s university can make students learning deeply. In 2004, the Chinese Ministry of Education constituted“College English Teaching Syllabus”( College English Teaching Syllabus,2004, showed in appendix), in which it makes it clear that the properties and objectives of College English teaching are:College English teaching is a teaching system which has the content of English language knowledge, English applied skills, learn-ing strategies, intercultural communication. According to the syllabus, lots of Chinese universities will aim to explore new and ef-fective teaching modes, which will stimulate college English teachers to reflect their traditional teaching methods and make the corresponding improvement inevitably.

  4. A Brief Introduction to Cooperative Language Learning and Some Reflections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵炳

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative language learning is part of collaborative learning approach. Different from the traditional language teach⁃ing methods, cooperative language learning focuses on cooperation and communication between students, and attains the aim of study with the teacher’s guide.

  5. ARQ strategies for relay cooperative systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We propose two novel automatic repeat request (ARQ) strategies for relay cooperative systems over Rayleigh fading channel: one uses relay ARQ and the other destination ARQ. The BER performance of these two strategies is derived in fast block fading. Numerical analysis and simulation show the systems can get more performance gain when the inter-channel (the source to the relay) quality is bad in the relay ARQ strategy. In the destination ARQ strategy, when the uplink qualities of the source and relay to the destination are poor, the average received SNR of the destination is much low, the systems performance can be improved efficiently.

  6. Cooperative learning in 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century brings four important challenges in which cooperation plays a central role: (1 a rapidly increasing global interdependence that will result in increasing local diversity as well as more frequent and intense conflicts, (2 the increasing number of democracies throughout the world, (3 the need for creative entrepreneurs, and (4 the growing importance of interpersonal relationships that affect the development of personal identity. The tools for meeting these challenges include cooperative learning. In this article the nature of cooperative learning will be reviewed, the underlying theory of social interdependence will be discussed, and the results of the research on cooperative learning will be briefly reviewed. The way in which cooperative learning contributes to meeting the four challenges will then be discussed.

  7. Multiagent cooperation and competition with deep reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodelja, Dorian; Kuzovkin, Ilya; Korjus, Kristjan; Aru, Juhan; Aru, Jaan; Vicente, Raul

    2017-01-01

    Evolution of cooperation and competition can appear when multiple adaptive agents share a biological, social, or technological niche. In the present work we study how cooperation and competition emerge between autonomous agents that learn by reinforcement while using only their raw visual input as the state representation. In particular, we extend the Deep Q-Learning framework to multiagent environments to investigate the interaction between two learning agents in the well-known video game Pong. By manipulating the classical rewarding scheme of Pong we show how competitive and collaborative behaviors emerge. We also describe the progression from competitive to collaborative behavior when the incentive to cooperate is increased. Finally we show how learning by playing against another adaptive agent, instead of against a hard-wired algorithm, results in more robust strategies. The present work shows that Deep Q-Networks can become a useful tool for studying decentralized learning of multiagent systems coping with high-dimensional environments. PMID:28380078

  8. Multiagent cooperation and competition with deep reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampuu, Ardi; Matiisen, Tambet; Kodelja, Dorian; Kuzovkin, Ilya; Korjus, Kristjan; Aru, Juhan; Aru, Jaan; Vicente, Raul

    2017-01-01

    Evolution of cooperation and competition can appear when multiple adaptive agents share a biological, social, or technological niche. In the present work we study how cooperation and competition emerge between autonomous agents that learn by reinforcement while using only their raw visual input as the state representation. In particular, we extend the Deep Q-Learning framework to multiagent environments to investigate the interaction between two learning agents in the well-known video game Pong. By manipulating the classical rewarding scheme of Pong we show how competitive and collaborative behaviors emerge. We also describe the progression from competitive to collaborative behavior when the incentive to cooperate is increased. Finally we show how learning by playing against another adaptive agent, instead of against a hard-wired algorithm, results in more robust strategies. The present work shows that Deep Q-Networks can become a useful tool for studying decentralized learning of multiagent systems coping with high-dimensional environments.

  9. Effects of Cooperative Learning on Second Graders' Learning from Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yin-kum

    2008-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cooperative learning on second-graders' motivation and learning from text. In Study 1, students (n = 160) in cooperative learning groups were compared with their counterparts (n = 107) in traditional instruction groups. The results revealed a statistically significant difference between the…

  10. 中学体育与健康课程教学中的合作学习策略探讨%Research on cooperative learning strategy in course of PE & Health Education in Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静刚

    2011-01-01

    合作学习是国家基础课程改革强调和提倡的新型学习方式之一。中学体育与健康课程教学为适应新的形势,充分学习和借鉴其他学科中合作学习的经验。在分析中学体育与健康课程教学中合作学习存在问题的基础上,提出合作学习的策略,期望对提高中学体育与健康课程教学质量具有一定的参考意义。%Cooperative learning strategy is one of the late-model learning methods emphasized and recommended by the National Foundation Course Reformation Project. To adapt itself to the new situation, PE may as well learn from other subjects in cooperative learning. Based on the analysis of the problems in the teaching of the course, I'll put forward the cooperative learning strategy here. I think it can be of help to improve the quality of PE.

  11. Teaching learning strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chugunova, N.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes instructional approaches focused on teaching. The paper discusses four learning strategies: rehearsal, elaboration, organization, and monitoring. Because it makes learning a collective experience, the reciprocal teaching method encourages students to become a community of learners

  12. Structuring Cooperative Learning in Teaching English Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Goswami, Jaya S.

    2011-01-01

    Classrooms incorporating Cooperative Learning (CL) structures facilitate a supportive learning environment for English Language Learners (ELLs). Accurate pronunciation by ELLs is important for communication, and also benefits academic achievement. The known benefits of CL for ELLs make it a desirable learning environment to teach pronunciation…

  13. Group Cooperative Learning in English Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范姜

    2012-01-01

    Facing to various examinations, teachers and schools empha- size competition between students in their teaching. So the students have strong sense of competition but lack of the cooperative sense. They will not care about each other; neither helps each other nor works together. Thanks for the promotion of quality education in schools, cooperative learning is advocated to wider teaching areas.

  14. Statistical Analysis of Cooperative Strategy Compared with Individualistic Strategy: An Application Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Tawfik A.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates the effect of cooperative and individualistic learning strategies on the academic performance of students in the general chemistry laboratory. The samples of the study were divided into experimental and control groups. The hypotheses were first generated and, after collecting data, analyzed by an analysis of t-test at an a =…

  15. Cooperative Learning in China’s College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅怡

    2013-01-01

    With the elaboration on the theoretical bases and significance of the cooperative learning and the practical situation of college Eng-lish teaching as well,this article probes into potentially applicable strategies in college English teaching in light of existing research.

  16. Cooperative Learning as One Approach to Teaching Family Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tammy L.; Martin, Kasey J.

    2002-01-01

    Identifies appropriate family law content and a pedagogical vehicle to support instructors interested in teaching family law to students of family studies and human development programs. Provides instructors with an overview of a family law course, a detailed model syllabus, strategies, and model assignments for using cooperative learning as the…

  17. Cooperative Language Learning: Increasing Opportunities for Learning in Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichadee, Saovapa; Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2012-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes cooperative language learning, group instruction which is under the learner-centered approach where the groups are formed in such a way that each member performs his or her task to achieve the goal. Previous research indicates that cooperative language learning doesn't only improve learners' language skills, but also…

  18. Some Issues for Cooperative Learning and Intercultural Education: Reflections on Aspects of the Recent Work of Jagdish Gundara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    This paper connects the two fields of cooperative learning and intercultural education, focusing on the argument that cooperative learning strategies need to be equipped with intercultural understandings. There is a consideration of assumptions that effective cooperative pedagogical strategies require an engagement with challenging issues related…

  19. Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The prominent role of vocabulary knowledge in second or foreign language learning has been recently recognized by theorists and researchers in the field. This article aims to provide a digest of recent research on vocabulary learning strategies specifically in the English as a foreign language context in Japan. In Japan where there is minimal exposure to English in daily life and where word knowledge is often tested, teachers should be informing learners about vocabulary learning strategies a...

  20. Language Learning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rebecca L. Oxford

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction This chapter reviews theory and research in the realm of language learning strategies and provides implications for teaching and future research. Learning strategies are ‘operations employed by the learner to aid the acquisition, storage, retrieval and use of information, specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective and more transferable to new situations’.

  1. Infusing Cooperative Learning into an EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Luu Trong

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to investigate student diversities in terms of learning styles and linguistic competence, and the extent to which students change as regards participation, interaction and achievement through Cooperative Learning activities embracing their diversities. 77 first-year EFL students from from the two reading classes, one treated as…

  2. Review of Language Learning Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林毅媛

    2015-01-01

    In the process of foreign language learning, students should learn more effectively by using more proper learning strategies. In this passage, some relevant theories will be reviewed, including definition, classification and importance of learning strategy based on different researchers' theories.

  3. Unresolved Issues of Cooperative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stuart W.

    Proposals to use interracial/cross-ethnic learning teams in desegregated classrooms raise issues from research that demonstrate the complicated nature of the relationship between learning teams and classroom interracial relations. According to the research, relationships are affected by the characteristics of learning teams, namely…

  4. Win-stay-lose-learn promotes cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game with voluntary participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chen; Liu, Jinzhuo; Shen, Chen; Jin, Jiahua; Shi, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Voluntary participation, demonstrated to be a simple yet effective mechanism to promote persistent cooperative behavior, has been extensively studied. It has also been verified that the aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule promotes the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by this well-known fact, we combine the Win-Stay-Lose-Learn updating rule with voluntary participation: Players maintain their strategies when they are satisfied, or players attempt to imitate the strategy of one randomly chosen neighbor. We find that this mechanism maintains persistent cooperative behavior, even further promotes the evolution of cooperation under certain conditions.

  5. Collaborative action research: implementation of cooperative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Molle, Mary E

    2010-06-01

    Nurse educators must continually improve their teaching skills through innovation. However, research about the process used by faculty members to transform their teaching methods is limited. This collaborative study uses classroom action research to describe, analyze, and address problems encountered in implementing cooperative learning in two undergraduate nursing courses. After four rounds of action and reflection, the following themes emerged: students did not understand the need for structured cooperative learning; classroom structure and seating arrangement influenced the effectiveness of activities; highly structured activities engaged the students; and short, targeted activities that involved novel content were most effective. These findings indicate that designing specific activities to prepare students for class is critical to cooperative learning.

  6. Cooperative m-learning with nurse practitioner students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tami H; Krauskopf, Patricia B; Gaylord, Nan M; Ward, Andrew; Huffstutler-Hawkins, Shelley; Goodwin, Linda

    2010-01-01

    New technologies give nurse academicians the opportunity to incorporate innovative teaching-learning strategies into the nursing curricula. Mobile technology for learning, or m-learning, has considerable potential for the nursing classroom but lacks sufficient empirical evidence to support its use. Based on Mayer's multimedia learning theory, the effect of using cooperative and interactive m-learning techniques in enhancing classroom and clinical learning was explored. The relationship between m-learning and students' learning styles was determined through a multimethod educational research study involving nurse practitioner students at two mid-Atlantic universities. During the 16-month period, nurse practitioner students and their faculty used personal digital assistants (PDAs) to participate in various m-learning activities. Findings from focus group and survey responses concluded that PDAs, specifically the Pocket PC, are useful reference tools in the clinical setting and that all students, regardless of learning style, benefited from using PDAs. It was also demonstrated that connecting students with classmates and other nurse practitioner students at distant universities created a cooperative learning community providing additional support and knowledge acquisition. The authors concluded that in order to successfully prepare nurse practitioner graduates with the skills necessary to function in the present and future health care system, nurse practitioner faculty must be creative and innovative, incorporating various revolutionary technologies into their nurse practitioner curricula.

  7. Towards effective learning strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, Anouk Simone

    2015-01-01

    To become self-regulative in learning, students should be able to deploy various learning strategies in a flexible way. For this, they require specific knowledge and skills, referred to as metacognition. Metacognition is a complex concept that is difficult for teachers to teach to their students.

  8. Towards effective learning strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, Anouk Simone

    2015-01-01

    To become self-regulative in learning, students should be able to deploy various learning strategies in a flexible way. For this, they require specific knowledge and skills, referred to as metacognition. Metacognition is a complex concept that is difficult for teachers to teach to their students. Th

  9. Technical Training: An Application of a Strategy for Learning Structural and Functional Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Celia O.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The present experiment tested a strategy, developed from principles on general text processing, for learning technical material. The effectiveness of cooperative learning was examined as a technique for learning technical information. Results showed that cooperative learning and technical learning strategies were effective for acquiring structural…

  10. Applying Cooperative Learning Theory in Junior Middle Schools English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong; Yan

    2014-01-01

    Since 2001, a new curriculum reform has been carried out throughout China.The develpoment of society calls for constant advance in EFL teaching in our country. The focus of language instruction has been shifted from teaher-centeredness to learner-centeredness. Cooperative learning(CL) is regarded as one of the most popular learning strategies.The author believes that the application and implementation of this teaching strategy can play an active part in improving the social and psychological atmosphere in the classroom.

  11. Learn to Say Yes! When You Want to Say No! to Create Cooperation Instead of Resistance: Positive Behavior Strategies in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Katharine C.; Masterson, Marie L.

    2011-01-01

    It is human nature to be resistant when someone tells a person no. Children are no exception. Nevertheless, when teachers are frustrated with children's behavior, they may resort to saying no. Often the child responds, "Why?" or resists. What teachers really seek are strategies to help children in preschool and the early primary grades learn how…

  12. A Study on the Application of Cooperative Learning in English Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁雪玲

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning,as a new organizational form of teaching,has been more and more widely used in English language teaching.It has broken the traditional teacher-centered teaching mode.Nowadays,it has been regarded as a creative and effective teaching theory and strategy.In order to get more insights into cooperative learning,which is not only a way of learning but also a teaching strategy,a study on the application of cooperative learning has been made from several aspects:theoretical basis,applica-tion and evaluation.

  13. On the Study of Cooperative Learning in English Reading Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚凤

    2015-01-01

    In this era of information explosion, reading has become one of the most important basic skills to obtain the informa-tion. With the globalization of information and business, people pay more and more attention to English reading. English read-ing, as one of the four skills of language learning, plays an important role in the English learning. In a sense, English reading, to-gether with listening comprehension, speaking, and writing, is an important skill and holds a crucial status in learning the Eng-lish language. Cooperative learning is a kind of teaching theory and strategy system based on group. The theory of cooperative learning which is applied in English reading class in senior high school and change the traditional teacher-centered teaching type. Cooperative learning as a breakthrough and complement against traditional classroom instruction is an efficient teaching approach, which can promote learner’s cognitive ability and improve their competence to use language. This paper discusses how to apply the above mentioned theory to the learning practices in order to achieve better English reading and improve the reading achievement in college schools.

  14. 对大学英语大班读写课程中合作学习策略的实证研究%Empirical Study on cooperative learning strategy of reading and writing course in university English class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡雨秋

    2012-01-01

      In recent years, with the education system reform, our country colleges continued to expand in size and also a large number of enrollment of students, this leads to students increased dramatically, making the university English teaching mostly adopt teaching teaching mode. In this paper, the strategies of cooperative learning in English class of reading and writing course in university the paper studies the application of cooperative learning strategy, expounds the connotation, studied our country University EFL reading and writing course teaching present situation, analyzed the university EFL reading and writing course of cooperative learning strategy in the feasibility and the concrete application.%  近年来,随着教育体制的改革,我国各高校在不断扩大规模的同时也大量扩招学生,这就导致了在校学生急剧增加,从而使得大学英语教学大都采用大班教学的教学模式。本文针对合作学习策略在大学英语大班读写课程中的应用进行了实证研究,阐述了合作学习策略的内涵,研究了我国大学英语大班读写课程教学的现状,分析了大学英语大班读写课程中合作学习策略的可行性以及具体应用。

  15. Collaborative Practices in Bilingual Cooperative Learning Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    It is by now well established that self-organized acts of learning can have important long-term cognitive benefits. The many programs of cooperative learning, while they vary in detail, all agree that participants must actively work together for such benefits to be realized (Cohen, 1990). Further, because cognitive change is revealed through the ways in which learners' sense of ownership and control over their intellectual products is increased over time, the changes are not easily observed a...

  16. Roots of Cooperative Learning in General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.; McCafferty, Steven G.; Iddings, Ana Christina DaSilva

    2006-01-01

    This chapter presents a basic overview about psychological theories that are foundational to cooperative learning: social psychology, developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, humanistic psychology, and motivational theories. In so doing, our purpose is to acquaint readers with aspects of theory and research that may be helpful to teachers…

  17. Students' Ideas on Cooperative Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoruk, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study is to investigate students' ideas on cooperative learning method. For that purpose students who are studying at elementary science education program are distributed into two groups through an experimental design. Factors threaten the internal validity are either eliminated or reduced to minimum value. Data analysis is done…

  18. Cooperating learning in two Norwegian schools

    OpenAIRE

    Konkola, Happy Musonda; Mutale, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Norway is one of the secular-rational nations. These nations practice the culture of high modernity in which autonomy and individualism are virtues. This write-up tries to find out whether individualism does or does not adversely affect cooperative learning at Kvåle and Feios Schools.

  19. Adapting Cooperative Learning in Tertiary ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Huiping

    2011-01-01

    An updated guideline for tertiary ELT in China has shifted the emphasis to the development of learners' ability to communicate in English. Using group work and getting learners actively involved in the actual use of English are highlighted more than before. This article focuses on adapting cooperative learning methods for ELT with tertiary…

  20. Improving Reading Comprehension through Cooperative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caposey, Tracey; Heider, Barbara

    This report describes a program for improving reading comprehension through cooperative learning. The targeted population consisted of elementary and middle school students in growing middle class communities, located in northern Illinois. The problems of reading comprehension in content areas were documented through teacher observation and…

  1. Cooperative Learning, Intragroup Dynamics, and Student Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Daniel; And Others

    This study examined relationships between students' cooperative learning experiences (including both the frequency and quality of their interactions in small groups) and their attitudes toward school; perceptions of the classroom environment; intrinsic motivation; and various social attitudes, skills, and values. Participants (n=756) were teachers…

  2. Impact of Cooperative Learning Approach on Senior Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work investigated the impact of cooperative learning approach on the performance of secondary school students in mathematics using ... The experimental group was taught using the cooperative learning approach while the ...

  3. Implementing Cooperative Learning in Australian Primary Schools: Generalist Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Angela; Dionigi, Rylee A.

    2013-01-01

    To implement cooperative learning successfully in practice, teachers require knowledge of cooperative learning, its features and terms, and how it functions in classrooms. This qualitative study examined 12 Australian generalist primary teachers', understandings of cooperative learning and perceived factors affecting its implementation. Using…

  4. The Teacher's Role in Implementing Cooperative Learning in the Classroom.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillies, R.; Ashman, A.; Terwel, J.

    The teacher’s role in implementing cooperative learning in the classroom provides a comprehensive overview of the theories, research outcomes, challenges and issues in guided cooperative learning. In many chapters there are clear guidelines and discussion about how cooperative learning practices can

  5. Cooperative learning in the first year of undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthan Rani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive research data indicating that cooperative learning promotes higher achievement, the creation of positive relationships, and greater psychological health for students at all levels in their education, cooperative learning as a teaching strategy is still underutilized in undergraduate medical education. Methods A cooperative learning task was introduced as part of the mandatory first Year undergraduate Pathology course. The task was to create an 8.5" × 11" poster summary of pre-assigned content in self-chosen groups of four or five students. On the designated "Poster Day," the posters were displayed and evaluated by the students using a group product evaluation. Students also completed an individual group process reflection survey. An objective evaluation of their understanding was gauged at the midterm examination by specific content-related questions. Results Majority (91–96% of students judged the group products to be relevant, effective, easy-to-understand, and clearly communicated. The majority of the students (90–100% agreed that their group process skills of time management, task collaboration, decision-making and task execution were effective in completing this exercise. This activity created a dynamic learning environment as was reflected in the students' positive, professional discussion, and evaluation of their posters. The content-related questions on the midterm examination were answered correctly by 70–92% of the students. This was a mutually enriching experience for the instructor and students. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that cooperative learning as a teaching strategy can be effectively incorporated to address both content and interpersonal skill development in the early years of undergraduate medical education.

  6. Small-group cooperative learning and teaching strategies in the perspective of beyond methods%后方法视野下的小组合作学习与教学策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴方敏

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning is a kind of teaching activity which centers on small-group activities. The effective implementation of this method in the classroom teaching of foreign languages,especially in the course of conversation,helps the implementation of classroom teaching and improves the studentsˊoral expression.In the implementation process,the teacher should reasonably use the fol-lowing teaching strategies:it is necessary to scientifically and rationally establish a cooperative learn-ing group,give clear assignments,pay attention to the diversification and difficulty of the tasks,par-ticipate fully in the guidance of the students,give a scientific assessment of all the learning outcomes, and create a unique class culture.The theory of beyond methods in language education is the latest de-velopment of the theory of the second language teaching,whose macro-strategies of the maximization of learning opportunities,the promotion of negotiation and interaction,and the integration of lan-guage skills have a close relationship with small-group cooperative learning.%合作学习是以小组活动为主体进行的一种教学活动,在对外汉语中高级会话课教学中,采用小组合作学习方法,有利于有效提高学生的口语表达水平。在实施小组合作的过程中,教师应科学合理地组建合作学习小组,清晰明确地布置任务,注意任务的难度与多样化,充分参与指导学生的学习过程,全面展示与科学评价学习成果,创建独特的课堂文化。“后方法”语言教育理论是第二语言教学理论的最新发展,其中的最大化学习机会、促进协商互动、整合语言技能等宏观策略与合作学习存在密切关系。

  7. China's Energy Strategy and China-Russia Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yishan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation are based on the estimation of China's energy supply and demand.Therefore, before we get to the main point, we need to analyze the development of energy in China first,and then discuss the issue of China's energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation.

  8. Learning Microbiology Through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities that Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine E. Trempy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A microbiology course and its corresponding learning activities have been structured according to the Cooperative Learning Model. This course, The World According to Microbes, integrates science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET majors and non-SMET majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. In this study we describe development of learning activities that utilize key components of Cooperative Learning—positive interdependence, promotive interaction, individual accountability, teamwork skills, and group processing. Assessments and evaluations over an 8-year period demonstrate high retention of key concepts in microbiology and high student satisfaction with the course.

  9. A 2-stage strategy updating rule promotes cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Xiang-Sheng; Zhu Ping; Liu Run-Ran; Liu En-Yu; Wei Gui-Yi

    2012-01-01

    In this study,we propose a spatial prisoner's dilemma game model with a 2-stage strategy updating rule,and focus on the cooperation behavior of the system.In the first stage,i.e.,the pre-learning stage,a focal player decides whether to update his strategy according to the pre-learning factor β and the payoff difference between himself and the average of his neighbors.If the player makes up his mind to update,he enters into the second stage,i.e.,the learning stage,and adopts a strategy of a randomly selected neighbor according to the standard Fermi updating rule. The simulation results show that the cooperation level has a non-trivial dependence on the pre-learning factor.Generally,the cooperation frequency decreases as the pre-learning factor increases; but a high cooperation level can be obtained in the intermediate region of -3 < β < -1.We then give some explanations via studying the co-action of pre-learning and learning.Our results may sharpen the understanding of the influence of the strategy updating rule on evolutionary games.

  10. Cooperative activity and its potential for learning in tertiary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirila Peklaj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A learning situation can be structured in different ways, as an individual, competitive, or cooperative activity. Each of these structures can be used for different purposes and can lead to different learning outcomes. This paper focuses on cooperative activity and its potential for learning in tertiary education. After defining cooperative activity (or, in a broader sense, learning in interaction and introducing the CAMS theoretical framework to analyse cooperative activity, the main discussion focuses on the theoretical reasons for the usefulness of group learning and on the research of effects of cooperative learning on cognitive (metacognitive, affective-motivational and social processes in university students. The key elements that should be established for successful cooperation are also discussed. At the end, a new direction in using cooperative activity in learning—computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL, which emerged with rapid technology development in the last two decades—is presented and discussed.

  11. 高中英语写作合作学习策略研究%Strategy Research of Cooperative Learning in High School English Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雅君

    2014-01-01

    Under the new curriculum, putting forward higher request to the high school English, especially in English writing, it is not only key point high school English teaching,but also difficult, therefore, in English writing teaching in senior high school, the group cooperative learning mode, can cultivate students’ team spirit and writing ability,make English writing teaching achieve good teaching effect.%新课标下,对高中英语提出了更高的要求,尤其是英语写作,既是高中英语教学的重点,同时也是难点,因此,在高中英语写作教学中,采用小组合作学习模式,培养学生的团队合作精神及写作能力,使英语写作教学达到良好的教学效果。

  12. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini, Jose A.; Méndez-Gimenez, Antonio; Mendez-Alonso, David; Prieto, Jose A.

    2017-01-01

    Learning to learn and learning to cooperate are two important goals for individuals. Moreover, self regulation has been identified as fundamental to prevent school failure. The goal of the present study was to assess the interactions between self-regulated learning, cooperative learning and academic self-efficacy in secondary education students experiencing cooperative learning as the main pedagogical approach for at least one school year. 2.513 secondary education students (1.308 males, 1.205 females), 12–17 years old (M = 13.85, SD = 1.29), enrolled in 17 different schools belonging to the National Network of Schools on Cooperative Learning in Spain agreed to participate. They all had experienced this pedagogical approach a minimum of one school year. Participants were asked to complete the cooperative learning questionnaire, the strategies to control the study questionnaire and the global academic self-efficacy questionnaire. Participants were grouped based on their perceptions on cooperative learning and self-regulated learning in their classes. A combination of hierarchical and κ-means cluster analyses was used. Results revealed a four-cluster solution: cluster one included students with low levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster two included students with high levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster three included students with high levels of cooperative learning, low levels of self-regulated learning and intermediate-low levels of academic self-efficacy, and, finally, cluster four included students with high levels of self-regulated learning, low levels of cooperative learning, and intermediate-high levels of academic self-efficacy. Self-regulated learning was found more influential than cooperative learning on students’ academic self-efficacy. In cooperative learning contexts students interact through different types of regulations: self, co, and

  13. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini, Jose A; Méndez-Gimenez, Antonio; Mendez-Alonso, David; Prieto, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    Learning to learn and learning to cooperate are two important goals for individuals. Moreover, self regulation has been identified as fundamental to prevent school failure. The goal of the present study was to assess the interactions between self-regulated learning, cooperative learning and academic self-efficacy in secondary education students experiencing cooperative learning as the main pedagogical approach for at least one school year. 2.513 secondary education students (1.308 males, 1.205 females), 12-17 years old (M = 13.85, SD = 1.29), enrolled in 17 different schools belonging to the National Network of Schools on Cooperative Learning in Spain agreed to participate. They all had experienced this pedagogical approach a minimum of one school year. Participants were asked to complete the cooperative learning questionnaire, the strategies to control the study questionnaire and the global academic self-efficacy questionnaire. Participants were grouped based on their perceptions on cooperative learning and self-regulated learning in their classes. A combination of hierarchical and κ-means cluster analyses was used. Results revealed a four-cluster solution: cluster one included students with low levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster two included students with high levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster three included students with high levels of cooperative learning, low levels of self-regulated learning and intermediate-low levels of academic self-efficacy, and, finally, cluster four included students with high levels of self-regulated learning, low levels of cooperative learning, and intermediate-high levels of academic self-efficacy. Self-regulated learning was found more influential than cooperative learning on students' academic self-efficacy. In cooperative learning contexts students interact through different types of regulations: self, co, and shared

  14. STRATEGY OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona DANILIUC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the authors describe the essence of cooperation and those strategic problems that can be solved internationally only through cooperation efforts. In this context, the authors propose to understand cooperation as the actions of a few companies, corporations from one country or several countries that through their activities contribute to the achievement of goals of economic, ecological and social importance for a region, a country, many countries or for all humanity. Cooperation in such cases, contribute to realization of synergistic results and development of preconditions for each participant to carry out its activities according to its own optimization criteria. Cooperation generates productive systems based on principles and technologies, it can be multispectral, creates preconditions for demand increasing, solves some marketing problems, creates a comfortable space for the activities of all economic subjects.

  15. Strategy of International Economic Cooperation: methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Silvestru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the authors describe the essence of cooperation and those strategic problems that can be solved internationally only through cooperation efforts. In this context, the authors propose to understand cooperation as the actions of a few companies, corporations from one country or several countries that through their activities contribute to the achievement of goals of economic, ecological and social importance for a region, a country, many countries or for all humanity. Cooperation in such cases, contribute to realization of synergistic results and development of preconditions for each participant to carry out its activities according to its own optimization criteria. Cooperation generates productive systems based on principles and technologies, it can be multispectral, creates preconditions for demand increasing, solves some marketing problems, creates a comfortable space for the activities of all economic subjects.

  16. Cooperative Learning i læreruddannelsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Tobias; Palmvang, Kirsten

    På Læreruddannelsen Blaagaard/KDAS blev der i undervisningsåret 2009/2010 fokuseret på udviklingsarbejde under overskrifterne ’Uddannelsesudviklere’ og ’Varierede undervisningsformer’. Projektet ’Cooperative Learning i læreruddannelsen’ er stablet på benene inden for temaet ’Varierede undervisnin......På Læreruddannelsen Blaagaard/KDAS blev der i undervisningsåret 2009/2010 fokuseret på udviklingsarbejde under overskrifterne ’Uddannelsesudviklere’ og ’Varierede undervisningsformer’. Projektet ’Cooperative Learning i læreruddannelsen’ er stablet på benene inden for temaet ’Varierede...... undervisningsformer’ og har til hensigt at undersøge, eksperimentere og indsamle erfaringer med undervisningsmetoderne fra ’Cooperative Learning’ sådan som de fremgår af bogen af samme navn (Kagan & Stenlev, 2006). I denne sammenhæng bygger anvendelsen af CL således specifikt på Spencer Kagans strukturelle tilgang...

  17. When in Rome, do as the Romans do: the coevolution of altruistic punishment, conformist learning, and cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, Ricardo Andrés; Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos; Rowthorn, Robert

    2006-01-01

    We model the coevolution of behavioral strategies and social learning rules in the context of a cooperative dilemma, a situation in which individuals must decide whether or not to subordinate their own interests to those of the group. There are two learning rules in our model, conformism and payoff-dependent imitation, which evolve by natural selection, and three behavioral strategies, cooperate, defect, and cooperate plus punish defectors, which evolve under the influence of the prevailing l...

  18. Teachers as learners in a cooperative learning biochemistry class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Marcy P; Mitchell, Steve M; Anderson, William L

    2005-11-01

    Upper level college students majoring in biochemistry at the University of New Mexico have the opportunity to participate in an advanced biochemistry course entitled "Biochemistry Education." This course introduces theories of teaching and learning, provides opportunities for participation in course organization, design, and assessment strategies, and requires practice in lecturing, exam writing, and grading. One component of this course required the biochemistry majors to act as educational assistants, leading problem-based learning sessions in a cooperative learning introductory survey biochemistry course for nonmajors. Problem-based learning scenarios used in this course were based on real-life biochemistry problems. As a result of their participation, the educational assistants increased their understanding of the biochemistry principles, gained an appreciation for the difficulty of the job of a "good teacher," developed new approaches to their own learning, and became more confident speakers. The participating biochemistry faculty were also positively affected by the collaborative approach they were attempting to model for the two sets of students and realized the benefits of truly cooperative team teaching.

  19. Emotional Strategies as Catalysts of Cooperation in Signed Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Righi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of unconditional cooperation is one of the key problems of science. We suggest a new solution to this puzzle. We introduce an evolutionary model where agents play the Prisoner's Dilemma on signed networks and the topology is allowed to co-evolve with relational signs as well as with agent strategies. The introduction of conditional strategies, exploiting the emotional content embedded in network signs, can act as catalysts and create favorable conditions for the spread of unconditional cooperation. In line with the literature, evidence is found that evolution of unconditional cooperation is most likely to occur in networks with relatively high chances of rewiring and low likelihood of strategy adoption. However, while some rewiring enhances cooperation too much is shown to limit its diffusion. Furthermore, unlike the non signed network case, cooperation becomes more prevalent in denser topologies.

  20. Computer-Supported Cooperative Learning in a Virtual University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, S.; Yazdani, M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses computer-supported learning, cooperative learning, and virtual universities and links them in a way that reflects a vision of the future. Conclusions are based on results of student questionnaires and interviews with students and instructors involved in cooperative learning taking place at the University of Exeter's Computer Science…

  1. COMBINING COOPERATIVE LEARNING WITH READING ALOUD BY TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jacobs

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with a section that describes cooperative learning and explains eight cooperative learning principles. The second section discusses the interface between cooperative learning and language pedagogy. Next is a section about the why and how of reading aloud by teachers. The heart of the article resides in the last and longest section which describes techniques for integrating cooperative learning with reading aloud by teachers. These techniques include ones that can be used before, while and after the teacher has read aloud to the class.

  2. Advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning in English teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓慧

    2015-01-01

    The group cooperative learning is a student-centered learning activities.In the practice of the English teaching reform,cooperative learning is beneficial to reflect the students' main body status,to provide students more chance to exercise,promoting the all-round development of students,and is conducive to the harmonious relationship between teachers and students; at the same time,cooperative learning also has some disadvantages,such as hard to control the student,good students become the authority of the group activities,cooperation too often that ignored the students' independent thinking,etc.

  3. Advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning in English teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓慧

    2015-01-01

    The group cooperative learning is a studentcentered learning activities.In the practice of the English teaching reform,cooperative learning is beneficial to reflect the students’ main body status,to provide students more chance to exercise,promoting the all-round development of students,and is conducive to the harmonious relationship between teachers and students; at the same time,cooperative learning also has some disadvantages,such as hard to control the student,good students become the authority of the group activities,cooperation too often that ignored the students’ independent thinking,etc.

  4. Learning Strategy Instruction Innovation Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Jean B.

    2011-01-01

    One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…

  5. Win-stay-lose-learn promotes cooperation in the prisoner’s dilemma game with voluntary participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chen; Liu, Jinzhuo; Shen, Chen; Jin, Jiahua; Shi, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Voluntary participation, demonstrated to be a simple yet effective mechanism to promote persistent cooperative behavior, has been extensively studied. It has also been verified that the aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule promotes the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by this well-known fact, we combine the Win-Stay-Lose-Learn updating rule with voluntary participation: Players maintain their strategies when they are satisfied, or players attempt to imitate the strategy of one randomly chosen neighbor. We find that this mechanism maintains persistent cooperative behavior, even further promotes the evolution of cooperation under certain conditions. PMID:28182707

  6. Forgetting constrains the emergence of cooperative decision strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Stevens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies of cooperative behavior have focused on decision strategies that depend on a partner's last choices. The findings from this work assume that players accurately remember past actions. The kind of memory that these strategies employ, however, does not reflect what we know about memory. Here, we show that human memory may not meet the requirements needed to use these strategies. When asked to recall the previous behavior of simulated partners in a cooperative memory task, participants performed poorly, making errors in 10-24% of the trials. Participants made more errors when required to track more partners. We conducted agent-based simulations to evaluate how well cooperative strategies cope with error. These simulations suggest that, even with few errors, cooperation could not be maintained at the error rates demonstrated by our participants. Our results indicate that the strategies typically used in the study of cooperation likely do not reflect the underlying cognitive capacities used by humans and other animals in social interactions. By including unrealistic assumptions about cognition, theoretical models may have overestimated the robustness of the existing cooperative strategies. To remedy this, future models should incorporate what we know about cognition.

  7. 吉林省产学研合作创新的对策研究%Research on the Strategy of the Innovation of the Cooperation in Manufacture-Learning-Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯春华; 孙宝军

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation in Manufacture-learning-research is the strategy of rejuvenating the country through science and education and talents,is the fundamental way to science and technology and economic.In the era of knowledge-based economy of the 21st century,international competition has become more intense,Jilin Province in order to seize the opportunity,to accelerate the economic development of the province,and to enhance the economic strength of the province,must strength the research cooperation innovation so that make our province an invincible position in the future competition.%产学研合作是贯彻落实科教兴国和人才强国战略,促进教育、科技与经济紧密结合的根本途径。在21世纪知识经济的时代,国际竞争更加激烈,吉林省要想抓住机遇,加快经济发展、提升经济实力,必须加强产学研合作创新,才能在未来竞争中立于不败之地。

  8. Percolation and cooperation with mobile agents: Geometric and strategy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Vainstein, Mendeli H; Arenzon, Jeferson J

    2014-01-01

    We study the conditions for persistent cooperation in an off-lattice model of mobile agents playing the Prisoner's Dilemma game with pure, unconditional strategies. Each agent has an exclusion radius rP, which accounts for the population viscosity, and an interaction radius rint, which defines the instantaneous contact network for the game dynamics. We show that, differently from the rP=0 case, the model with finite-sized agents presents a coexistence phase with both cooperators and defectors, besides the two absorbing phases, in which either cooperators or defectors dominate. We provide, in addition, a geometric interpretation of the transitions between phases. In analogy with lattice models, the geometric percolation of the contact network (i.e., irrespective of the strategy) enhances cooperation. More importantly, we show that the percolation of defectors is an essential condition for their survival. Differently from compact clusters of cooperators, isolated groups of defectors will eventually become extin...

  9. Function if Cooperative Learning in Developing Positive Affect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟玉平

    2008-01-01

    This paper focus on the function of cooperative learning in developing positive affect, Including reducing anxiety, increasing motivation, facilitating the development of positive attitudes toward learning and language learning, promoting serf- esteem, as well as supporting different learning styles and encouraging perseverance in the difficult and confusing process of learning a foreign language.

  10. Use of Peer Tutoring, Cooperative Learning, and Collaborative Learning: Implications for Reducing Anti-Social Behavior of Schooling Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Obiyo, N.; Obidoa, M.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the use of peer tutoring, cooperative learning, and collaborative learning as strategies to reduce anti-social behavior among schooling adolescents. The study is a descriptive survey study. The area of study was Nsukka education zone in Enugu State of Nigeria. The sample of the study was 200 teachers randomly sampled from…

  11. The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Developing the Sixth Grade Students Decision-Making Skill and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Intisar K.; Al Hawi, Asma M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooperative learning on developing the sixth graders' decision making skill and their academic achievement. The study sample, which was selected randomly, consisted of (46) students and divided into two groups: the experimental group that taught using the cooperative learning strategy and the control…

  12. The Strategies of Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁

    2003-01-01

    The aim of English learning is to cultivate the student's ability to listen, speak, read and write. This dissertation will present some useful strategies for learning listening, reading, speaking and writing.

  13. Effect of peer tutoring and cooperative learning instructional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... sampling with the use of the Pupil Rating Scale, Mathematics Tests (A and B) for ... Keywords: peer tutoring, cooperative learning, learning disabilities, personality types, school ...

  14. The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Tertiary EFL Learners' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Huiping; Hornby, Garry

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the impact of cooperative learning on the motivation of tertiary English learners. Participants were from two randomly assigned classes at a university in the north of China. A pre-test-post-test control group design was employed to compare the impact of the cooperative learning approach with that of…

  15. Implementing Cooperative Learning with Mildly Handicapped Students in Regular Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Howard; Freund, Lisa A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses research on cooperative learning, shows how it can help meet student needs in heterogeneous classes, addresses how to overcome potential problems, and offers implementation guidelines. It also provides a framework for initiating cooperative learning in ways that reduce or eliminate resistance. (Author/JDD)

  16. Cooperative learning in Confucian heritage cultures is a superficial success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The use of cooperative learning in Asia does not take the sociocultural aspects into consideration. Researchers say that there is a need for healthy scepticism when importing any foreign educational reforms.......The use of cooperative learning in Asia does not take the sociocultural aspects into consideration. Researchers say that there is a need for healthy scepticism when importing any foreign educational reforms....

  17. Developing Cooperative Learning in Initial Teacher Education: Indicators for Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, Wendy; Snaith, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of supporting pre-service teachers to use cooperative learning in one initial teacher education institution in England. In a context where the government requires all teacher education to be "school-led" and where school partners do not commonly use cooperative learning (Baines, Rubie-Davies, and Blatchford…

  18. Implementing Cooperative Learning with Mildly Handicapped Students in Regular Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Howard; Freund, Lisa A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses research on cooperative learning, shows how it can help meet student needs in heterogeneous classes, addresses how to overcome potential problems, and offers implementation guidelines. It also provides a framework for initiating cooperative learning in ways that reduce or eliminate resistance. (Author/JDD)

  19. The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Tertiary EFL Learners' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Huiping; Hornby, Garry

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the impact of cooperative learning on the motivation of tertiary English learners. Participants were from two randomly assigned classes at a university in the north of China. A pre-test-post-test control group design was employed to compare the impact of the cooperative learning approach with that of…

  20. Using Large Data to Analyze the Effect of Learning Attitude for Cooperative Learning between the High Achievement Students and the Low Achievement Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia-Ling, Hsu; Ya-Fung, Chang

    2017-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of the cooperation learning between the high achievement students and the low achievement students. Nowadays, the influences of the flipped classroom are all over the world in the secondary school education. Therefore, the cooperative learning becomes hot teaching strategies again. However, the learning…

  1. Students' views of cooperative learning and group testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Today's radiologic technology students must learn to collaborate and communicate to function as part of the health care team. Innovative educational techniques such as cooperative learning (working collectively in small groups) and group testing (collaborating on tests) can foster these skills. Assess students' familiarity with and opinions about cooperative learning and group testing before and after participation in a semester-long course incorporating these methods. Twenty-eight students enrolled in a baccalaureate-level radiologic technology program in Louisiana were surveyed at the beginning and end of the semester. Results showed that students were more knowledgeable about and more accepting of cooperative learning and group testing after participating in the course. However, some students continued to prefer independent learning. Students are open to new learning methods such as cooperative learning and group testing. These techniques can help them develop the skills they will need to function collaboratively in the workplace.

  2. Coevolution of Cooperation and Layer Selection Strategy in Multiplex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuki Hayashi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the emergent dynamics in multiplex networks, composed of layers of multiple networks, has been discussed extensively in network sciences. However, little is still known about whether and how the evolution of strategy for selecting a layer to participate in can contribute to the emergence of cooperative behaviors in multiplex networks of social interactions. To investigate these issues, we constructed a coevolutionary model of cooperation and layer selection strategies in which each an individual selects one layer from multiple layers of social networks and plays the Prisoner’s Dilemma with neighbors in the selected layer. We found that the proportion of cooperative strategies increased with increasing the number of layers regardless of the degree of dilemma, and this increase occurred due to a cyclic coevolution process of game strategies and layer selection strategies. We also showed that the heterogeneity of links among layers is a key factor for multiplex networks to facilitate the evolution of cooperation, and such positive effects on cooperation were observed regardless of the difference in the stochastic properties of network topologies.

  3. Cooperative learning and academic achievement: why does groupwork work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Slavin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Four major theoretical perspectives on achievement effects of cooperative learning are reviewed: Motivational, social cohesion, developmental, and cognitive elaboration. Evidence from practical classroom research primarily supports the motivational perspective, which emphasizes the use of group goals and individual accountability for group success. However, there are conditions under which methods derived from all four theoretical perspectives contribute to achievement gain. This chapter reconciles these perspectives in a unified theory of cooperative learning effects.

  4. COOPERATIVE LEARNING AND TEACHING OF GEOGRAPHY UNDER THE EHEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Luque Gil

    Full Text Available The university is in the process of change by the new society of knowledge that emerged with globalization. The working methods of teachers must adapt to new needs of the European Higher Education Area. The article has the following objectives clarify what is cooperative learning, present the advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning, learn the main techniques and present the results of an innovative educational project which has experimented with these techniques in two courses geography; methodology values the opinion of students and teachers on cooperative learning. The results are clarifying and highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of these techniques.

  5. Motivation's Influence on English Learning and Strategies for Improving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玢; 张亚铃

    2009-01-01

    The article mainly focuses on the relationship between motivation and English learning,the influence of motivation on English learning(That is,English learning motive may be simply viewed as the reason of learning English;different motives will lead to different learning methods;generally speaking,surface motive does not endure longer than deep motive.;strong motivation can lead to final Success.)and six strategies of improving English learning(That is,developing proper attitudes towards English learning and letting students know the pressure of it;goal and feedback;praise and criticism;contest and cooperation;expectation and appraisement;achievement motive.).

  6. VI International Workshop on Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Otero, Fernando; Masegosa, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Biological and other natural processes have always been a source of inspiration for computer science and information technology. Many emerging problem solving techniques integrate advanced evolution and cooperation strategies, encompassing a range of spatio-temporal scales for visionary conceptualization of evolutionary computation. This book is a collection of research works presented in the VI International Workshop on Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization (NICSO) held in Canterbury, UK. Previous editions of NICSO were held in Granada, Spain (2006 & 2010), Acireale, Italy (2007), Tenerife, Spain (2008), and Cluj-Napoca, Romania (2011). NICSO 2013 and this book provides a place where state-of-the-art research, latest ideas and emerging areas of nature inspired cooperative strategies for problem solving are vigorously discussed and exchanged among the scientific community. The breadth and variety of articles in this book report on nature inspired methods and applications such as Swarm In...

  7. Introduction to the Application of Cooperative Learning in English Teaching of Junior Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭欣

    2015-01-01

    In the traditional teaching , English teaching is af ected by examination-oriented education ideas,classroom teaching is used of non-computer majors and cramming methods.Adjust the emotion and strategy during the learning process,to form a positive learning at itude and improve language practical application ability.Cooperative learning is based on the requirement of new curriculum reform to arise at the historic moment of new classroom teaching mode.

  8. Emergence of Cooperative Behavior based on Learning and Evolution in Collective Autonomous Mobile Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, H.B.; Sim, K.B. [Chungang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a behavior learning algorithm of the collective autonomous mobile robots based on the reinforcement learning and conditional evolution. The cooperative behavior is a high level phenomenon observed in the society of social animals and, recently the emergence of cooperative behavior in collective autonomous mobile robots becomes an interesting field in artificial life. In our system each robot with simple behavior strategies can adapt to its environment by means of the reinforcement learning. The internal reinforcement signal for the reinforcement learning is generated by fuzzy interference engine, and dynamic recurrent neural networks are used as an action generation module. We propose conditional evolution for the emergence of cooperative behavior. The evolutionary conditions are spatio-temporal limitations to the occurrence of genetic operations. We show the validity of the proposed learning and evolutionary algorithm through several computer simulations. (author). 22 refs., 9 figs.

  9. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model and Kolb Learning Styles on Learning Result of the Basics of Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to determine the effect of cooperative learning model and learning styles on learning result. This quasi-experimental study employed a 2x2 treatment by level, involved independent variables, i.e. cooperative learning model and learning styles, and learning result as the dependent variable. Findings signify that: (1)…

  10. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF FINANCIAL SOCIAL LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES ON LOAN REPAYMENT BEHAVIOUR OF COOPERATOR BORROWERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ogbonna EMEROLE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on analysis of influence of financial social learning opportunities on loan repayment behavior of cooperator borrowers was carried out in Abia State, Nigeria. It was the objectives of the study to relate social learning financial opportunities in cooperative societies and member borrowers budgeting and timely repayment of loans; and determine demographic, social learning and financial factors that influenced loan repayment by cooperator borrowers. Two-stage random sampling technique was used in selecting first, two of the three agricultural zones; and second two registered farmers’ multi-purpose agricultural cooperative societies. This was followed by purposive selection from registers of the chosen cooperative societies sixty cooperators who currently were repaying loans borrowed. Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used in analyzing the gathered cross sectional data. Results suggest important relationships between financial social learning opportunities in cooperative societies and borrowers’ budgeting and timely loan repayment behaviours. Attendance to meetings, discussions with fellow cooperators and meaningful observation on financial behaviour of members of cooperative societies had significant positive influences on conduct and performance loan beneficiaries. The number of times beneficiaries attended meeting since after loan(s were received; number of times they discussed loan matters with members before loan(s were received; and number of times they discussed loan repayment strategies with other cooperators after loans were received had positive influences on loan repayment behaviour of cooperator borrowers. Cooperator(s should participate in all union activities to truly belong and reap the benefits of being a member

  11. An Empirical Study on the Application of Cooperative Learning to English Listening Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning is a strategic instructional system applied by many educators the world over. Researchers of cooperative learning have carried out the study in this field and proved that cooperative learning can create a more interesting and relaxed learning atmosphere. It is generally acknowledged that cooperative learning can reduce…

  12. Using Weblog in Cooperative Learning to Improve the Achievement of History Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Lim Hooi; Leng, Chin Hai; Abedalaziz, Nabeel

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates the use of Weblog in Cooperative Learning to enhance students' learning of History. The main issues of this study were the lack of interest and low achievement scores in History learning. The objectives of this study are to explore the incorporation of Weblog in Cooperative Learning within the teaching and learning…

  13. Using Cooperative Learning Strategy to Enhance the English Learning of Lower-Achieving Non-English Major Students in Higher Vocational Colleges%以合作学习促进高职非英语专业英语学困生的转化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林胜强

    2012-01-01

    高职公共英语教学中,学困生大量存在。在英语课堂内以多种方式开展合作学习进行,能降低学困生英语学习焦虑,激发学习兴趣,提升学习效率,在一定程度上促进学困生转化。%There are a large number of lower-achieving non-English major students in higher vocational colleges. The application of cooperative learning strategy in the English class proves to be effective in lowering students' anxiety, provoking their interests, developing their learning efficiency, and finally transforming their overall learning performance.

  14. The Cooperative Multi-agent Learning with Random Reward Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua-xiang; HUANG Shang-teng

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigated how to learn the optimal action policies in cooperative multiagent systems if the agents' rewards are random variables, and proposed a general two-stage learning algorithm for cooperative multiagent decision processes. The algorithm first calculates the averaged immediate rewards, and considers these learned rewards as the agents' immediate action rewards to learn the optimal action policies. It is proved that the learning algorithm can find the optimal policies in stochastic environment. Extending the algorithm to stochastic Markov decision processes was also discussed.

  15. Pembelajaran Membaca Interpreatif dengan Pendekatan Cooperative Learning di Sekolah Dasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ridhani Ar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how to foster the learning of interpretative reading by using cooperative learning approach in the fifth grade of SDN Lowokwaru VI Malang. This is a collaborative action research using three cycles, involving 53 students. The results of the study reveal that to make the learning of interpretative reading by using cooperative learning approach in the fifth grade of SDN Lowokwaru VI Malang effective, the practitioners encourage the students schemata, divide the students into 8 groups, use their peers to understand the texts, share with them the content of the texts, revise the task, and respond to the whole process of learning.

  16. Social Networking, the Writing Process, and Cooperative Learning: A Three-Strategy Approach Helping Developmental Students and First-Year Composition Students Prewrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Brandi

    2012-01-01

    Students in developmental writing courses and first-year composition courses struggle with the writing process. Individual instructional strategies have been insufficient to engage these students or build their self-confidences for further writing courses. The purpose of this study was to understand how students perceive a combination of three…

  17. Cooperative Learning in a Macroeconomics Course: A Team Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Cheryl L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a classroom experiment in cooperative learning, in which economics students were grouped into learning teams and given a computer simulation package to learn the effects of fiscal/monetary policy on various economic variables. Results included thorough coverage of course material, greater student interest, better discussion, higher…

  18. Manufacturer's pricing strategies in cooperative and non-cooperative advertising supply chain under retail competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Giri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the manufacturer's pricing strategy in a supply chain with a single manufacturer and two competing retailers. The manufacturer, as a Stackelberg leader specifies wholesale prices to two retailers who face advertisement dependent demand. Based on this gaming structure, two mathematical models are developed - the cooperative advertising model where manufacturer shares a fraction of retailers' advertising costs and the non-cooperative advertising model where manufacturer does not share any retailer's advertising expenses. The optimal strategies of the manufacturer and retailers are determined and a numerical example is taken to illustrate the theoretical results derived. We show that cooperative advertising policy is beneficial not only for the participating entities but also for the entire supply chain.

  19. Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chun-lan

    2013-01-01

      The proper use of learning strategies can facilitate language learning. There are abundant studies on L2 learning strate⁃gies and the initial research is studies on good language learners, which provides information on strategy use contributing to suc⁃cessful language learning. Strategies used by successful learners differ from less successful learners and strategies can be learned.

  20. Investigating the cooperative strategies between China and North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigating the cooperative strategies between China and North Korea for the ... to how to build multi-purpose dams and allocate the benefits and costs thereof. ... in this case, moved from a low-growth scenario to a high-growth scenario.

  1. Reinforcement learning accounts for moody conditional cooperation behavior: experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Yutaka; Takezawa, Masanori; Inukai, Keigo; Kita, Toshimasa; Masuda, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    In social dilemma games, human participants often show conditional cooperation (CC) behavior or its variant called moody conditional cooperation (MCC), with which they basically tend to cooperate when many other peers have previously cooperated. Recent computational studies showed that CC and MCC behavioral patterns could be explained by reinforcement learning. In the present study, we use a repeated multiplayer prisoner’s dilemma game and the repeated public goods game played by human participants to examine whether MCC is observed across different types of game and the possibility that reinforcement learning explains observed behavior. We observed MCC behavior in both games, but the MCC that we observed was different from that observed in the past experiments. In the present study, whether or not a focal participant cooperated previously affected the overall level of cooperation, instead of changing the tendency of cooperation in response to cooperation of other participants in the previous time step. We found that, across different conditions, reinforcement learning models were approximately as accurate as a MCC model in describing the experimental results. Consistent with the previous computational studies, the present results suggest that reinforcement learning may be a major proximate mechanism governing MCC behavior. PMID:28071646

  2. Instructional design principles for cooperative learning in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Phuong-Mai; Terlouw, C.; Pilot, A.

    2006-01-01

    Social sciences possess a plethora of studies about cooperative learning. However, most of these researches have been conducted mainly by and on Westerners with fundamental assumptions based on Western values. Many recent intercultural studies proved that people cooperate with each other differently

  3. Explaining Cooperation in Groups: Testing Models of Reciprocity and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biele, Guido; Rieskamp, Jorg; Czienskowski, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    What are the cognitive processes underlying cooperation in groups? This question is addressed by examining how well a reciprocity model, two learning models, and social value orientation can predict cooperation in two iterated n-person social dilemmas with continuous contributions. In the first of these dilemmas, the public goods game,…

  4. Reinforcement learning accounts for moody conditional cooperation behavior: experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Yutaka; Takezawa, Masanori; Inukai, Keigo; Kita, Toshimasa; Masuda, Naoki

    2017-01-10

    In social dilemma games, human participants often show conditional cooperation (CC) behavior or its variant called moody conditional cooperation (MCC), with which they basically tend to cooperate when many other peers have previously cooperated. Recent computational studies showed that CC and MCC behavioral patterns could be explained by reinforcement learning. In the present study, we use a repeated multiplayer prisoner's dilemma game and the repeated public goods game played by human participants to examine whether MCC is observed across different types of game and the possibility that reinforcement learning explains observed behavior. We observed MCC behavior in both games, but the MCC that we observed was different from that observed in the past experiments. In the present study, whether or not a focal participant cooperated previously affected the overall level of cooperation, instead of changing the tendency of cooperation in response to cooperation of other participants in the previous time step. We found that, across different conditions, reinforcement learning models were approximately as accurate as a MCC model in describing the experimental results. Consistent with the previous computational studies, the present results suggest that reinforcement learning may be a major proximate mechanism governing MCC behavior.

  5. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Method and Systematic Teaching on Students' Achievement and Retention of Knowledge in Social Studies Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz Toklucu, Selma; Tay, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Many effective instructional strategies, methods, and techniques, which were developed in accordance with constructivist approach, can be used together in social studies lessons. Constructivist education comprises active learning processes. Two active learning approaches are cooperative learning and systematic teaching. Purpose…

  6. Language Learning Strategies in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Murat Hismanoglu

    2010-01-01

    @@ This paper aims at emphasizing the importance of language learning strategies in foreign language learning and teaching. It summarizes the background of language learning strategies, defines the concept of a language learning strategy, and outlines the taxonomy of language learning strategies proposed by several researchers. It also takes into account the teacher's role in strategy training and poses questions for further research on language learning strategies.

  7. COOPERATIVE LEARNING AS AN ENVIRONMENT FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    OpenAIRE

    SERNIAK O.M.

    2012-01-01

    The article concentrates on ways of providing opportunities for meaningful interaction in foreign language classroom settings. The investigation deals with the analysis of cooperative learning as an environment for foreign language acquisition at a university level. The article explores several methods and activities that are for most part compatible with an interactional approach. Special techniques of implementation cooperative learning activities in foreign language classroom settings are ...

  8. Action Learning Enabled Strategy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, John

    2008-01-01

    Action learning encourages individual reflection, insightful questioning and assumption breaking that result in changes in attitude and behaviour. This learning process provides the potential to explore and solve complex organizational problems such as the question of how to develop a future business strategy. Existing literature on the process of…

  9. 浅析Cooperative Learning的优点和不足%A Preliminary Study on Strengths and Limitations of Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓红

    2007-01-01

    As a useful learning strategy, Cooperative Learning is now becoming more and more popular in China. But like many other educational theories, reasonably Cooperative Learning has its strengths and limitations, according to overseas researchers such as Johnson & Johnson [1][2] , Radencich & McKay [3], Randall [4] , and so on. In order to make full use of Cooperative Learning strategy in our current educational reform, this article explored several ways to better implement it in our classroom instruction.%作为当代的教育理论,Cooperative Learning在我国教育界正越来越受到广大师生的热烈欢迎.然而,就像许多其他的教育理论一样,除了优点之外,Cooperative Learning也难免有着其自身的诸多不足之处.结合国外教育界在此领域的科研成果,本文剖析了Cooperative Learning的种种优、缺点,并进一步提出了若干旨在更好地将Cooperative Learning应用到日常课堂教学的办法和措施.

  10. High School Economics, Cooperative Learning, and the End-of-Course-Test--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this twelve-week case study was to explore the use of a cooperative learning strategy with small groups of students in a 12th-grade economics class as diverse learners prepared for tests. The complete case study was based on observations of students, student surveys, focus group interviews, and interviews with educators at…

  11. The Effect of Incorporating Cooperative Learning Principles in Pair Programming for Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentz, E.; van der Walt, J. L.; Goosen, L.

    2008-01-01

    Based on their quantitative and qualitative investigations, the authors conclude that pair programming as a strategy for teaching student teachers could be made more effective through the incorporation of principles associated with cooperative learning. They substantiate this claim by referring to a literature study about the advantages and…

  12. Quantitative and Qualitative Results: Cooperative Learning Implementation with Hispanic Community College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Bobbette M.; Keitz, Ruth A.; Wells, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Five classes of Art Appreciation first semester undergraduate Hispanic students assigned to one professor were selected to experience cooperative learning over a full semester. Pre-semester surveys and post-semester surveys were completed by 104 Hispanic freshmen college students. Strategies used in the classes included Think-Pair-Share, Ticket…

  13. Achieving Gender Equity in Science Class: Shift from Competition to Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiobu, G. O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to verify the impact of cooperative learning as an intervention strategy towards the achievement of peace, equality and equity in the science classroom as part of the democratic process necessary for sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach: The study sample comprised 56 SSS 2 students in one public…

  14. Collective strategy for obstacle navigation during cooperative transport by ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Helen F; Dix, Zachary A; Breed, Michael D; Nagpal, Radhika

    2016-11-01

    Group cohesion and consensus have primarily been studied in the context of discrete decisions, but some group tasks require making serial decisions that build on one another. We examine such collective problem solving by studying obstacle navigation during cooperative transport in ants. In cooperative transport, ants work together to move a large object back to their nest. We blocked cooperative transport groups of Paratrechina longicornis with obstacles of varying complexity, analyzing groups' trajectories to infer what kind of strategy the ants employed. Simple strategies require little information, but more challenging, robust strategies succeed with a wider range of obstacles. We found that transport groups use a stochastic strategy that leads to efficient navigation around simple obstacles, and still succeeds at difficult obstacles. While groups navigating obstacles preferentially move directly toward the nest, they change their behavior over time; the longer the ants are obstructed, the more likely they are to move away from the nest. This increases the chance of finding a path around the obstacle. Groups rapidly changed directions and rarely stalled during navigation, indicating that these ants maintain consensus even when the nest direction is blocked. Although some decisions were aided by the arrival of new ants, at many key points, direction changes were initiated within the group, with no apparent external cause. This ant species is highly effective at navigating complex environments, and implements a flexible strategy that works for both simple and more complex obstacles. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Management Strategies in Multinational PricewaterhouseCoopers Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norina Popovici

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyzes the key strategies that underpin multinational firms acting in this global environment. The paper underlines the importance of strategy, in the current economic context, for a complex company such as PriceWaterhouse Coopers. After a laborious documentation, theoretical and practical, the paper presents the main strategic options which ensure the business development in the context of globalization. Due to complexity of work carried out by PricewaterhouseCoopers, due to a developed organizational structure and the large number of employees , the need for the strategy is " vital " for achieve the desired performance . In the past 10 years, PriceWaterhouse Coopers turned its global work on expanding the network size and diversity of services offered. Challenges and opportunities of today require a new strategic vision. Therefore, PriceWaterhouse Coopers calls for integrating the concept of sustainability as a management philosophy. In this context, which shapes the economy based on knowledge, management is a science which, through instruments such as corporate social responsibility, coaching procces, attracting talents, can help businesses to develop, diversify or to survive. The research of this company that led to the application of these tools work in Romanian companies, depending on the particular circumstances.

  16. Control and Protection Cooperation Strategy for Voltage Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun;

    2012-01-01

    Most cascaded blackouts are caused by unexpected backup relay operations due to low voltage or overload state caused by post fault load restoration dynamics. If such state can be sensed and adjusted appropriately prior to those relay actions, system stability might be sustained. This paper proposed...... a control and protection cooperation strategy to prevent post fault voltage instability. The multi-agent technology is applied for the strategy implementation; the criteria based on wide area measured apparent impedances are defined to choose the control strategy, such as tap changer adjusting or load...

  17. Cooperative Strategies: evaluating network strategy management of small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolaso,Ingridi; Verschoore,Jorge Renato; Antunes Júnior,José Antônio Valle

    2012-01-01

    Network formation aiming the development of cooperation among small and medium-sized companies has received increasing interest from the organizational field. Recent studies have been devoted to understand the management of those networks, deepening the collective aspects of the structure, the coordination, and the processes, among others. This article lies within the context of network strategy management progress and tries to understand how cooperative strategies are developed and executed....

  18. The Cooperative Learning Effects on English Reading Comprehension and Learning Motivation of EFL Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ching-Ying; Wu, Hui-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study aims to investigate the effects of using cooperative learning to enhance the English reading comprehension and learning motivation of EFL freshmen by comparing the cooperative learning instruction and traditional lecture instruction. This experiment was implemented in a Freshman English Reading course, a two credit course,…

  19. Cooperative Learning, Responsibility, Ambiguity, Controversy and Support in Motivating Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Brecke, PhD

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that student motivation is nurtured more by intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards. Rather than relying on grades alone to stimulate students, this paper explores how engendering a natural critical learning environment can give students a sense of ownership in their own learning and lead to their commitment to that learning. We examine uses of cooperative learning, shared responsibility, ambiguity, controversy and support in student motivation.

  20. Cooperative Learning, Responsibility, Ambiguity, Controversy and Support in Motivating Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Brecke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that student motivation is nurtured more by intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards. Rather than relying on grades alone to stimulate students, this paper explores how engendering a natural critical learning environment can give students a sense of ownership in their own learning and lead to their commitment to that learning. We examine uses of cooperative learning, shared responsibility, ambiguity, controversy and support in student motivation.

  1. Using Cooperative Learning to Foster the Development of Adolescents’ English Writing Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Caicedo Triviño

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventh grade teachers at a Colombian public school chose cooperative learning as a strategy to improve student’s social performance and as a tool to get learners to enrich their academic level. This article reports on an action research and innovation project focused on the results eight students obtained in their written performance in English classes during three cooperative lessons. This article gathers some existing research on writing skills and cooperative learning and a presentation and analysis about students’ real expectations and thoughts about writing in the English language. The systematization of this teaching experience also sheds lights on further actions to analyze closely students’ texts construction in a cooperative environment.

  2. Mining Learning Social Networks for Cooperative Learning with Appropriate Learning Partners in a Problem-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Chang, Chia-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have identified web-based cooperative learning as an increasingly popular educational paradigm with potential to increase learner satisfaction and interactions. However, peer-to-peer interaction often suffers barriers owing to a failure to explore useful social interaction information in web-based cooperative learning environments.…

  3. Mining Learning Social Networks for Cooperative Learning with Appropriate Learning Partners in a Problem-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Chang, Chia-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have identified web-based cooperative learning as an increasingly popular educational paradigm with potential to increase learner satisfaction and interactions. However, peer-to-peer interaction often suffers barriers owing to a failure to explore useful social interaction information in web-based cooperative learning environments.…

  4. Computer, electrical and electronic engineering students' attitude towards cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halis Altun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to adapt the Cooperative Learning Attitude Scale into Turkish and determine engineering students’attitudes towards the cooperative learning. The study is based on the descriptive scanning model. The study group consistsof 466 engineering students. The validity of the scale is confirmed through exploration factor analysis and item discriminativepower methods. On these data descriptive statistics and t, Anova and Scheffe tests have been employed (p<0, 05. Thefindings show that the adapted scale is valid and reliable in determining the level of cooperative learning attitudes of theengineering students in Turkish cultural environment. Moreover, the level of the attitude towards the cooperative learningfor engineering students is found to be high and does not show any meaningful difference across the gender and engineeringdisciplines. On the other hand, the level of the attitudes shows a meaningful difference across the grade levels in engineeringeducation.

  5. The Effect of Cooperative Learning on the Learning Approaches of Students with Different Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Esma

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: For this study, a cooperative learning process was designed in which students with different learning styles could help each other in heterogeneous groups to perform teamwork-based activities. One aspect deemed important in this context was whether the instructional environment designed to reach students with different learning…

  6. Redesigning Language Learning Strategy Classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ag. Bambang Setiyadi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study a total of 79 university students of a 3-month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what learning strategies language Indonesian learners used and how the strategies were classified. To increase the internal consistency of the hypotesized scales, Cronbach Alpha coefficients of internal consistency were computed for each scale of skill-based areas, namely: speaking, listening, reading and writing. Correlation analysis was also conducted to see how variance of speaking, listening, reading and writing in language learning strategy questionnare were correlated. The result shows that each skill-based scale has realatively high reliability with alpha .73, .67, .69, .80 for listening, speaking, reading, and writing respectively. It is also found out that the four scales are significantly and positively correlated. The classification of learning strategies based on the language skills is a new way of learning strategy measurement, which may be worth considering in the Indonesian context in which English is learned as a foreign language.

  7. On learning soccer strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salustowicz, R.; Wiering, M.A.; Schmidhuber, J.

    1997-01-01

    We use simulated soccer to study multiagent learning. Each team's players (agents) share action set and policy but may behave differently due to position-dependent inputs. All agents making up a team are rewarded or punished collectively in case of goals. We conduct simulations with varying team

  8. Cooperative Evolutionary Strategy between the Bacteriome and Mycobiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghannoum

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonhealing chronic wounds are all unique in origin and circumstance, and attempting to isolate a single etiology for the failure of a wound to heal is daunting. Wounds represent complex systems of multispecies fungal and bacterial biofilms. The survival strategies of interactive microbial communities have led to cooperative evolutionary strategies that culminate in biofilm formation. In microbial dysbiosis, biofilms are beneficial to both bacterial and fungal communities but detrimental to the host. Fungi benefit by a surge in their virulence factors, while bacteria become tolerant to antibacterials as a consequence of living under the protective umbrella of the biofilm matrix. This interkingdom cooperation negatively impacts the host, as the fungi and bacteria produce extracellular enzymes that inflict tissue damage, leading to an increase in proinflammatory cytokines, which results in oxidative damage and apoptotic cell death.

  9. Cooperative Learning as a Tool To Teach Vertebrate Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, John L.; Perigo, Nan

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for teaching biology that includes more investigative exercises that foster an environment for cooperative learning in introductory laboratories that focus on vertebrates. Fosters collaborative learning by facilitating interaction between students as they become experts on their representative vertebrate structures. (SAH)

  10. Impact of a Sustained Cooperative Learning Intervention on Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Sanz, Naira; Fernandez-Cando, Judith; Santos, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cooperative Learning has been recently defined as a true pedagogical model. Moreover, in a recent review Casey and Goodyear reported that it can help physical education promote the four basic learning outcomes: physical, cognitive, social and affective. Purpose: The main goal was to investigate the impact of a sustained Cooperative…

  11. Cooperative Learning as a Tool To Teach Vertebrate Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, John L.; Perigo, Nan

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for teaching biology that includes more investigative exercises that foster an environment for cooperative learning in introductory laboratories that focus on vertebrates. Fosters collaborative learning by facilitating interaction between students as they become experts on their representative vertebrate structures. (SAH)

  12. Applicability of cooperative learning model in gastronomy education

    OpenAIRE

    SARIOĞLAN, Mehmet; CEVİZKAYA, Gülhan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to reveal of “Cooperative learning model’s applicability which is one of the vital models of gastronomy. Learning model that is based on cooperativisim, have importance for students in terms of being successful in their group Works at gastronomy education. This study divides into two parts, one is “literature” and other is “model proposal”. At scanning of “literature” is going to be focused on cooperative learning model gastronomy education’s description. In the se...

  13. Applicability of cooperative learning model in gastronomy education

    OpenAIRE

    SARIOĞLAN, Mehmet; CEVİZKAYA, Gülhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to reveal of “Cooperative learning model’s applicability which is one of the vital models of gastronomy. Learning model that is based on cooperativisim, have importance for students in terms of being successful in their group Works at gastronomy education. This study divides into two parts, one is “literature” and other is “model proposal”. At scanning of “literature” is going to be focused on cooperative learning model gastronomy education’s description. In the se...

  14. A Cooperative Network Coding Strategy for the Interference Relay Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Bui, Huyen-Chi; Lacan, Jerome; Boucheret, Marie-Laure

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study an interference relay network with a satellite as relay. We propose a cooperative strategy based on physical layer network coding and superposition modulation decoding for uni-directional communications among users. The performance of our solution in terms of throughput is evaluated through capacity analysis and simulations that include practical constraints such as the lack of synchronization in time and frequency. We demonstrate throughputs significantly larger than the classical time sharing case.

  15. VOCABULARY STRATEGIES AND VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This research is a comparative study of Chinese EFLgradutes′vocabulary strategies applied in their EGeneralAP(English for General Academic Purposes)and ESpecialAP(English for Special Academic Purpose)learning.Participantswere the first-year graduates of non-English major in ChinaPharmaceutical University(N=102).The present study uses ataxonomy of strategies developed by O’Malley and Chamot(1990),which was modified to more accurately reflectvocabulary strategies(altogether 31 sub-strategy variables within16 strategies).Analysis through SAS(Statistic Analysis System)on the collected date has revealed that:1)Learners apply more types of vocabulary stategies inEGeneralAP than in ESpecialAP vocabulary learning.2)Translation and Extensive Reading gain higher frequencyof application in ESpecialAP learning.3)11 vocabulary strategies strongly predict EGeneralAPvocabulary achievement and only 6 strategies strongly predictESpecialAp vocabulary achievement.At the end of the paper,some practical suggestions aremade for EFL graduate teachers to adjust their teaching targetand methods.

  16. Distributed Lazy Q-learning for Cooperative Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude F. Touzet

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Compared to single robot learning, cooperative learning adds the challenge of a much larger search space (combined individual search spaces, awareness of other team members, and also the synthesis of the individual behaviors with respect to the task given to the group. Over the years, reinforcement learning has emerged as the main learning approach in autonomous robotics, and lazy learning has become the leading bias, allowing the reduction of the time required by an experiment to the time needed to test the learned behavior performance. These two approaches have been combined together in what is now called lazy Q-learning, a very efficient single robot learning paradigm. We propose a derivation of this learning to team of robots : the ?pessimistic? algorithm able to compute for each team member a lower bound of the utility of executing an action in a given situation. We use the cooperative multi-robot observation of multiple moving targets (CMOMMT application as an illustrative example, and study the efficiency of the Pessimistic Algorithm in its task of inducing learning of cooperation.

  17. Machine learning for evolution strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces numerous algorithmic hybridizations between both worlds that show how machine learning can improve and support evolution strategies. The set of methods comprises covariance matrix estimation, meta-modeling of fitness and constraint functions, dimensionality reduction for search and visualization of high-dimensional optimization processes, and clustering-based niching. After giving an introduction to evolution strategies and machine learning, the book builds the bridge between both worlds with an algorithmic and experimental perspective. Experiments mostly employ a (1+1)-ES and are implemented in Python using the machine learning library scikit-learn. The examples are conducted on typical benchmark problems illustrating algorithmic concepts and their experimental behavior. The book closes with a discussion of related lines of research.

  18. Cooperative learning in science: intervention in the secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, K. J.; Thurston, A.; Tolmie, A.; Christie, D.; Murray, P.; Karagiannidou, E.

    2011-04-01

    The use of cooperative learning in secondary school is reported - an area of considerable concern given attempts to make secondary schools more interactive and gain higher recruitment to university science courses. In this study the intervention group was 259 pupils aged 12-14 years in nine secondary schools, taught by 12 self-selected teachers. Comparison pupils came from both intervention and comparison schools (n = 385). Intervention teachers attended three continuing professional development days, in which they received information, engaged with resource packs and involved themselves in cooperative learning. Measures included both general and specific tests of science, attitudes to science, sociometry, self-esteem, attitudes to cooperative learning and transferable skills (all for pupils) and observation of implementation fidelity. There were increases during cooperative learning in pupil formulation of propositions, explanations and disagreements. Intervened pupils gained in attainment, but comparison pupils gained even more. Pupils who had experienced cooperative learning in primary school had higher pre-test scores in secondary education irrespective of being in the intervention or comparison group. On sociometry, comparison pupils showed greater affiliation to science work groups for work, but intervention pupils greater affiliation to these groups at break and out of school. Other measures were not significant. The results are discussed in relation to practice and policy implications.

  19. Metacognition in a process of autonomous and cooperative learning in the university classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Pérez de Albéniz Iturriaga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the new framework of the European Higher Education Area, teaching should be guided and managed in light of students learning. Students need to activate the necessary competencies to carry out an autonomous learning. In this context, an experience was conducted in the subject Psychology of Education with the first year Pre-service Elementary School Teachers from theUniversity ofLa Rioja. The objective was to know the metacognitive analysis made by students when they had to do tasks that required both autonomous and cooperative strategies. As expected, results from the metacognitive analysis revealed a positive evaluation of this methodology. Moreover, students reported having achieved a better mastery of contents worked through the autonomous and cooperative development in comparison with those worked through common strategies based on receptive learning.

  20. Win-stay-lose-learn promotes cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongkui; Chen, Xiaojie; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Long; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Holding on to one's strategy is natural and common if the later warrants success and satisfaction. This goes against widespread simulation practices of evolutionary games, where players frequently consider changing their strategy even though their payoffs may be marginally different than those of the other players. Inspired by this observation, we introduce an aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule into the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. The rule is simple and intuitive, foreseeing strategy changes only by dissatisfied players, who then attempt to adopt the strategy of one of their nearest neighbors, while the strategies of satisfied players are not subject to change. We find that the proposed win-stay-lose-learn rule promotes the evolution of cooperation, and it does so very robustly and independently of the initial conditions. In fact, we show that even a minute initial fraction of cooperators may be sufficient to eventually secure a highly cooperative final state. In addition to extensive simulation results that support our conclusions, we also present results obtained by means of the pair approximation of the studied game. Our findings continue the success story of related win-stay strategy updating rules, and by doing so reveal new ways of resolving the prisoner's dilemma.

  1. Win-stay-lose-learn promotes cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkui Liu

    Full Text Available Holding on to one's strategy is natural and common if the later warrants success and satisfaction. This goes against widespread simulation practices of evolutionary games, where players frequently consider changing their strategy even though their payoffs may be marginally different than those of the other players. Inspired by this observation, we introduce an aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule into the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. The rule is simple and intuitive, foreseeing strategy changes only by dissatisfied players, who then attempt to adopt the strategy of one of their nearest neighbors, while the strategies of satisfied players are not subject to change. We find that the proposed win-stay-lose-learn rule promotes the evolution of cooperation, and it does so very robustly and independently of the initial conditions. In fact, we show that even a minute initial fraction of cooperators may be sufficient to eventually secure a highly cooperative final state. In addition to extensive simulation results that support our conclusions, we also present results obtained by means of the pair approximation of the studied game. Our findings continue the success story of related win-stay strategy updating rules, and by doing so reveal new ways of resolving the prisoner's dilemma.

  2. Win-Stay-Lose-Learn Promotes Cooperation in the Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongkui; Chen, Xiaojie; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Long; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Holding on to one's strategy is natural and common if the later warrants success and satisfaction. This goes against widespread simulation practices of evolutionary games, where players frequently consider changing their strategy even though their payoffs may be marginally different than those of the other players. Inspired by this observation, we introduce an aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule into the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. The rule is simple and intuitive, foreseeing strategy changes only by dissatisfied players, who then attempt to adopt the strategy of one of their nearest neighbors, while the strategies of satisfied players are not subject to change. We find that the proposed win-stay-lose-learn rule promotes the evolution of cooperation, and it does so very robustly and independently of the initial conditions. In fact, we show that even a minute initial fraction of cooperators may be sufficient to eventually secure a highly cooperative final state. In addition to extensive simulation results that support our conclusions, we also present results obtained by means of the pair approximation of the studied game. Our findings continue the success story of related win-stay strategy updating rules, and by doing so reveal new ways of resolving the prisoner's dilemma. PMID:22363470

  3. Agriculture Cooperative Training--"Learning by Doing."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Lewis E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A vocational agriculture instructor describes the Agricultural Cooperative Training (ACT) program at Nottoway (Virginia) Senior High School for on-the-job training in agribusiness and agricultural production. Especially important are student and site selection, ACT guidelines, a parent-student-employer-school written agreement, and the student…

  4. Cooperative Inquiry for Learning and Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Sonia; El Hadidy, Waad; Hofmann-Pinilla, Amparo

    2008-01-01

    There has been rising concern about the disconnect between universities, their communities and society at large. This is of special interest to professional schools, whose missions are founded on connecting practice and theory. We argue that cooperative inquiry, an action-based methodology, can help foster connectedness and contribute to healing…

  5. The Effects of Cooperative Learning and Feedback on E-Learning in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Ulrike-Marie; Stark, Robin; Mandl, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether cooperative learning and feedback facilitate situated, example-based e-learning in the field of statistics. The factors "social context" (individual vs. cooperative) and "feedback intervention" (available vs. not available) were varied; participants were 137 university students. Results showed that the feedback…

  6. The definition and features of Learning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪晖

    2016-01-01

    Abstract:Learning strategies are becoming widely recognized throughout education in general. This essay is mainly about the definition and features of learning strategies. We can focus on learning strategies, and trying to develop learner awareness and use of a wide variety of strategies.

  7. Understanding Cognitive Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Di Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over time, definitions and taxonomies of language learning strategies have been critically examined. This article defines and classifies cognitive language learning strategies on a more grounded basis. Language learning is a macro-process for which the general hypotheses of information processing are valid. Cognitive strategies are represented by the pillars underlying the encoding, storage and retrieval of information. In order to understand the processes taking place on these three dimensions, a functional model was elaborated from multiple theoretical contributions and previous models: the Smart Processing Model. This model operates with linguistic inputs as well as with any other kind of information. It helps to illustrate the stages, relations, modules and processes that occur during the flow of information. This theoretical advance is a core element to classify cognitive strategies. Contributions from cognitive neuroscience have also been considered to establish the proposed classification which consists of five categories. Each of these categories has a different predominant function: classification, preparation, association, elaboration and transfer-practice. This better founded taxonomy opens the doors to potential studies that would allow a better understanding of the interdisciplinary complexity of language learning. Pedagogical and methodological implications are also discussed. Keywords: cognitive processes, cognitive neuroscience, information processing, second and foreign language acquisition, Smart Processing Model

  8. Organisational Learning And Multinational Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Nooteboom (Bart)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, it has been recognised that in their process of internationalisation multinationals may learn. They may take a strategy not only of exploitation, to leverage existing assets, competencies and products, built up in their home countries, but also, and perhaps even primarily,

  9. Evaluating the Cooperative Component in Cooperative Learning: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; English, Linda K.; McGoldrick, KimMarie

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors employed a quasi-experimental research design to examine the efficacy of a cooperative learning pedagogy (i.e., think-pair-share exercises) integrated into sections of microeconomic principles. Materials, exercises, and assessment instruments for all study sections are identical except for the nature of the…

  10. Language Learning Strategies and Communication Strategies: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Kausar

    2006-01-01

    Since Selinker's (1972) historic invocation of language learning strategies (LLS) and communication strategies (CS) as two distinct processes involved in the development of interlanguage, it has become customary in SLA literature to distinguish the strategies of learning from the strategies of communication. It has been argued in this article that…

  11. Using Cooperative Learning In Teaching Critical Thinking In Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anit Pranita Devi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how cooperative learning facilitates students in learning critical thinking in reading and to find out the benefits and challenges during the implementation of cooperative learning in one vocational school in Cimahi. A case study is utilized by using instruments of classroom observations, questionnaires, semi structured interview and students’ written tests. The findings show that the implementation of cooperative learning facilitates students develop their critical thinking and enhance critical thinking dispositions in reading. Three features which contribute to the development of students’ critical thinking in reading are: the encouragement of student-student interaction; the provision of group purposes; and the provision of stimulus to the students’ development of thought and ideas. The aforementioned features promote benefits which involved higher motivation and involvement, increased opportunity for language use, and developed interpersonal relationship. Nevertheless, these benefits are constrained by the availability of time, students’ English proficiency, and students’ contribution to the groupwork. It is recommended that further researchers conduct the similar study in a longer period to make sure that the key elements of cooperative learning are well-structured.

  12. The Choice of Effective Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建芳

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to make a comparison between good and poor language learners in the use of vocabulary learning strategies.It will introduce some helpful vocabulary learning strategies to help those frustrated Chinese college non-English major learners.

  13. Preparing Pupils to Cooperate during Cooperative Controversy in Grade 6: A Way to Increase Positive Interactions and Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Mijal; Buchs, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Research has underlined the necessity to prepare pupils to cooperate in order to boost cooperative learning benefits. However, this kind of training may appear very demanding. The present study aims to demonstrate that a short preparation related to social support and targeted cooperative rules relevant for the task increases constructive…

  14. PENGARUH COOPERATIVE LEARNING DIPANDU INQUIRY TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KRITIS SISWA SMA BERKEMAMPUAN ATAS DAN BAWAH DI KOTA METRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko Santoso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to know the influence of biology teaching through inquiry integrated with cooperative towards the critical thinking ability. This research addresses the role of inquiry and cooperative learning strategy as well as these interactions towards the increase of the critical thinking ability. Quasi experimental research of Pretest-postest nonequivalent control group design with factorial design 2x2x2 were implemented on the odd semester in academic years of 2006/2007  on X grade student of the state SMA in Metro City Lampung. The  research sample consists of 96 students, comprising of student from high and low academic abilities. To examine hypothesis, it is used Ancova technique and continued by LSD test. There was a difference on the critical thinking ability  between students who learn by inquiry level 1 with student who learn by inquiry level 2, between students, who have high academic ability and students who have low academic ability, and there was not difference on the critical thinking ability  between students who learn by STAD cooperative  with student who learn by TPS. There is no effect of interaction between inquiry with cooperative, inquiry with student’s academic ability, cooperative with student’s academic ability, inquiry with cooperative and student’s academic ability towards the cognitive achievement   Kata kunci: cooperative learning, inquiry, berpikir kritis

  15. The Local Area Network and the Cooperative Learning Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Fred A.; Koohang, Alex A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the advantages of local area networks (LANs) focuses on their use for successful cooperative learning. Individual and group assessment of success are discussed, effects on academic and affective achievement are considered, and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs to use with networking are suggested. (19 references) (LRW)

  16. Cooperative Learning and Adaptive Instruction in a Mathematics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwel, Jan; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that current research suggests that heterogeneous grouping is preferable. Reports on a study of a new mathematics curriculum using 600 students in 6 Dutch schools. Finds that students in heterogeneous classes taught with cooperative-learning techniques achieved more than students in traditional ability-grouped classrooms. (CFR)

  17. Project-Based Learning in Geotechnics: Cooperative versus Collaborative Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Lopes, Margarida; Macedo, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007/2008 project-based learning models have been used to deliver two fundamental courses on Geotechnics in University of Aveiro, Portugal. These models have evolved and have encompassed either cooperative or collaborative teamwork. Using data collected in five editions of each course (Soil Mechanics I and Soil Mechanics II), the different…

  18. Cooperative Learning and Technology: Using Interactive Group Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockterman, David

    1998-01-01

    Discusses cooperative learning and considers the use of interactive group software. Highlights include students' roles in groups; group accountability and peer pressure; the use of strong narrative; and characteristics to look for when reviewing software for interactive group use, including opportunity and context for group interaction and social…

  19. Establishing Classroom Management for Cooperative Learning: Three Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Edmund T.; Gerwels, Mary Claire

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify how effective teachers manage productive groups in elementary grade classrooms. Multiple instrumental case study methods were used to document the managerial actions of selected teachers who made extensive use of cooperative learning (CL) activities. Four teachers in three elementary grade classrooms (two…

  20. Project-Based Learning in Geotechnics: Cooperative versus Collaborative Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Lopes, Margarida; Macedo, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007/2008 project-based learning models have been used to deliver two fundamental courses on Geotechnics in University of Aveiro, Portugal. These models have evolved and have encompassed either cooperative or collaborative teamwork. Using data collected in five editions of each course (Soil Mechanics I and Soil Mechanics II), the different…

  1. Useful Expressions for Implementing Cooperative Learning in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Machiko; Kanamaru, Ayako; Plaza, Taron; Shiramizu, Chie

    2016-01-01

    With the Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology calling for junior and senior high school English classes in Japan to be more communicative and taught in English, teachers need effective tools to help make their classrooms more interactive. Cooperative learning activities have the potential to increase interaction among students and…

  2. Enhancing Instruction through Constructivism, Cooperative Learning, and Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing technologies, such as Google Docs and Microsoft Office Live, have the potential to enhance instructional methods predicated on constructivism and cooperative learning. Cloud-based application features like file sharing and online publishing are prompting departments of education across the nation to adopt these technologies.…

  3. Cooperative Learning for Faculty: Building Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The science teaching community is currently in the midst of a major shift from traditional, lecture-based teaching approaches to student-centered approaches that emphasize inquiry, cooperative learning, and development of a broad range of transferrable skills. These changes demand substantial curricular reform. One way to support the collective…

  4. The State of Cooperative Learning in Postsecondary and Professional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Smith, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Modern cooperative learning began in the mid- 1960s (D. W. Johnson & R. Johnson, 1999a). Its use, however, was resisted by advocates of social Darwinism (who believed that students must be taught to survive in a "dog-eat-dog" world) and individualism (who believed in the myth of the "rugged individualist"). Despite the resistance, cooperative…

  5. A Lifespan Perspective on Cooperative Education Learning: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study sits at the intersection of two trends in vocational education. The first trend is a narrative approach to understanding cooperative education learning; the second is a movement away from career development theories toward the view that individuals use work experiences to help construct their lives. Both trends view learning…

  6. Postsecondary Peer Cooperative Learning Programs: Annotated Bibliography 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendale, David R., Comp.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This 2016 annotated bibliography reviews seven postsecondary peer cooperative learning programs that have been implemented nationally to increase student achievement. Methodology: An extensive literature search was conducted of published journal articles, newspaper accounts, book chapters, books, ERIC documents, thesis and dissertations,…

  7. Cooperative learning and Mathematics Education: A happy Marriage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwel, J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main questions in this paper is: ‘Should knowledge be provided or generated in mathematics education?’ In trying to respond on this fundamental question it became clear that this dichotomy is not fruitful. Therefore we looked for a third way in which guided cooperative learning was a comp

  8. Enhancing Instruction through Constructivism, Cooperative Learning, and Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing technologies, such as Google Docs and Microsoft Office Live, have the potential to enhance instructional methods predicated on constructivism and cooperative learning. Cloud-based application features like file sharing and online publishing are prompting departments of education across the nation to adopt these technologies.…

  9. Cooperative Learning in Turkey: A Content Analysis of Theses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlikli, Murat

    2016-01-01

    This study is a content analysis of theses concerning cooperative learning prepared in Turkey between the years 1993 and 2014. A total of 220 theses which were accessible online (open access) at the site of Council of Higher Education (CoHE) were analyzed. The publishing classification form used in this study was prepared analyzing similar forms…

  10. Collaborative Learning or Cooperative Learning? The Name Is Not Important; Flexibility Is

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Jacobs

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A great deal of theory and research, not to mention students’ and teachers’ practical experience, supports the use of group activities in education. Collaborative learning and cooperative learning are two terms commonly used in discussions of how and why to use group activities. This article looks at the issue of whether the two terms collaborative learning and cooperative learning are synonymous or whether they represent different conceptualisations of how and why students should interact as part of their learning. Those scholars who differentiate the two terms often see collaborative learning as more student centred and cooperative learning as a more teacher centred way to facilitate student-student interaction. The present article argues that collaborative and cooperative learning should be seen as synonymous student centric approaches, and that teachers and students, regardless of which of the two terms they use, should and will vary the ways they shape their learning environments in order to best facilitate the cognitive and affective benefits that student-student interaction offers. Keywords: Collaborative learning, cooperative learning, flexibility

  11. Language Learning Strategies and Its Training Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes and reviews the literature regarding language learning strategies and it's training model, pointing out the significance of language learning strategies to EFL learners and an applicable and effective language learning strategies training model, which is beneficial both to EFL learners and instructors, is badly needed.

  12. MUET Preparation Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoong Li Kuen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to examine the English language learning strategies (LLS used by Lower Six students in secondary schools who are sitting for their MUET test. It analyzed the language learning strategies that students use in order to prepare for the MUET test. Data were collected using a survey questionnaire with 300 students. The instrument used in this study called “MUET Preparation Language Strategy Use Inventory” is an adapted and bilingual questionnaire designed by Cohen, Oxford and Chi (2005 known as Language Strategy Use Inventory. Forty items were analyzed and they comprised of the four skills tested in MUET which is listening, speaking, reading and writing. Data were analyzed by performing frequency analysis. The findings revealed that the listening skill is the most frequently used, while the writing skill is the least frequently used. Only the listening skill has high frequency of use, while the reading, speaking and writing skills fall under the range of moderate frequency of use. There were variations in responses with regard to the use of LLS among Form Six students in secondary schools. The findings had practical implications.

  13. Teamwork Skills Assessment for Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Teamwork skills are required at work, but teacher efforts in many countries to track achievement within this context have been hindered by lack of assessment tools and input from students. The Teamwork Skills Inventory relies on peer and self-evaluation to establish accountability, identify competencies, and detect learning needs. Twenty-five…

  14. Learning and the cooperative computational universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaans, P.; Adriaans, P.; van Benthem, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 1956, a number of scientists gathered at the Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. Their goal was to study human intelligence with the help of computers. Their central hypothesis was: "that every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so p

  15. Learning and the cooperative computational universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaans, P.; Adriaans, P.; van Benthem, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 1956, a number of scientists gathered at the Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. Their goal was to study human intelligence with the help of computers. Their central hypothesis was: "that every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so

  16. Teamwork Skills Assessment for Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Teamwork skills are required at work, but teacher efforts in many countries to track achievement within this context have been hindered by lack of assessment tools and input from students. The Teamwork Skills Inventory relies on peer and self-evaluation to establish accountability, identify competencies, and detect learning needs. Twenty-five…

  17. Learning and the cooperative computational universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaans, P.; Adriaans, P.; van Benthem, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 1956, a number of scientists gathered at the Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. Their goal was to study human intelligence with the help of computers. Their central hypothesis was: "that every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so p

  18. Conditional strategies and the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2012-01-01

    The fact that individuals will most likely behave differently in different situations begets the introduction of conditional strategies. Inspired by this, we study the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game, where besides unconditional cooperators and defectors, also different types of conditional cooperators compete for space. Conditional cooperators will contribute to the public good only if other players within the group are likely to cooperate as well, but will withhold their contribution otherwise. Depending on the number of other cooperators that are required to elicit cooperation of a conditional cooperator, the latter can be classified in as many types as there are players within each group. We find that the most cautious cooperators, such that require all other players within a group to be conditional cooperators, are the undisputed victors of the evolutionary process, even at very low synergy factors. We show that the remarkable promotion of cooperation is due primarily to the spo...

  19. Orientating cooperative learning model on social responsibility in physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chuan Chiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Five alternative generic models on Physical Education were addressed by Jewett et al. (1995. Although these five generic models enumerate the main curriculum design, it rarely presents well the full view of it. Cooperative learning (CL is generally adopted by the teachers in social science field and receives splendid effects. In the field of physical education, there are also numerous successful examples applied on CL model. On the other hand, CL curriculum emphasizes on active learning that involves the processes of social interaction, making decision, and cognitive outcome to provide students with a holistic education; that was expelled from the five generic models. Therefore, this study adopts content analysis to explore the link between cooperative learning and social responsibility in physical education. Aforementioned, the contribution of this study is preliminarily building up CL model on social responsibility value orientation in physical education for the extension of Jewett et al. (1995 to complete the structure of the theoretical integrity.

  20. On Reducing Students' Anxiety in English Listening through Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国芬

    2012-01-01

    Listening is an important means by which English learners can obtain information and communicate with others.Therefore,listening is an important skill of English learning and listening training is an indispensible part of language learning.However,listening can easily be affected by anxiety.Anxiety,an obvious psychological phenomenon in listening and speaking,has negative effect on language input,process and output.Although anxiety has negative influence on English listening,it can be overcome by Cooperative Learning (CL).CL can reduce anxiety,improve communication ability and strengthen learners' confidence,etc.

  1. The Current Situation and the Development Strategies of Rubber Farmer Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huide; HUANG; Wanzhen; ZHANG; Xizhu; ZHANG; Haolun; HUANG

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the distribution,member structure and industrial operation structure of the rubber farmer cooperatives in Hainan Province,and points out some problems in the cooperatives,such as small member scale,unbalanced regional development,lack of standardization in operation,and industrial operation structure imbalance. Finally some development strategies are put forward as follows: building large-scale cooperatives; attaching importance to the development of rubber farmer cooperatives,standardizing the cooperatives management, and guiding the adjustment of operating structure of rubber farmer cooperatives; attracting the college graduates to work in the cooperatives.

  2. Current Situation of Farmers’ Specialized Cooperatives in Hainan Province and Development Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanzhen; ZHANG; Huide; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the distribution, membership structure and industrial structure of farmers’ specialized cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out some problems in farmers’ specialized cooperatives in Hainan Province, such as small scale, low ability to resist risks, lack of standardization in operation, and generally low quality of cooperative members. Finally the following development strategies are put forth: promoting the large scale and standardized development of farmers’ specialized cooperatives; enhancing institutionalized education and training for members; encouraging university graduates to work in the cooperatives; providing conventional credit support to cooperatives; increasing fiscal efficiency to support cooperatives.

  3. Cooperative Learning Instructional Methods for CS1: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Leland; Chizhik, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative learning is a well-known instructional technique that has been applied with a wide variety of subject matter and a broad spectrum of populations. This article briefly reviews the principles of cooperative learning, and describes how these principles were incorporated into a comprehensive set of cooperative learning activities for a CS1…

  4. Cooperative Learning: Improving University Instruction by Basing Practice on Validated Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Smith, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is an example of how theory validated by research may be applied to instructional practice. The major theoretical base for cooperative learning is social interdependence theory. It provides clear definitions of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Hundreds of research studies have validated its basic…

  5. Cooperative Learning Instructional Methods for CS1: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Leland; Chizhik, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative learning is a well-known instructional technique that has been applied with a wide variety of subject matter and a broad spectrum of populations. This article briefly reviews the principles of cooperative learning, and describes how these principles were incorporated into a comprehensive set of cooperative learning activities for a CS1…

  6. Cooperative Learning: Improving University Instruction by Basing Practice on Validated Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Smith, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is an example of how theory validated by research may be applied to instructional practice. The major theoretical base for cooperative learning is social interdependence theory. It provides clear definitions of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Hundreds of research studies have validated its basic…

  7. Design Fixation and Cooperative Learning in Elementary Engineering Design Project: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a case study examining 3rd, 4th and 5th graders' design fixation and cooperative learning in an engineering design project. A mixed methods instrument, the Cooperative Learning Observation Protocol (CLOP), was adapted to record frequency and class observation on cooperative learning engagement through detailed field notes.…

  8. Plurilingualism, Language Learning Strategy Use and Learning Style Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaltou-Joycey, Angeliki; Kantaridou, Zoe

    2009-01-01

    The present paper investigates the language learning strategy use and learning style preferences of Greek university students in order to find out the possible relations that hold between degrees of plurilingualism, strategy use and learning styles. The subjects were 1555 Greek undergraduates from a number of disciplines, learning foreign…

  9. What Are the Perceptions of Lecturers towards Using Cooperative Learning in Civil Engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Aoife

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the current paper is to examine how group learning and cooperative learning are used in civil engineering courses. The paper defines group learning and cooperative learning in the first section. It is hypothesized that group learning is used in civil engineering courses to build teamwork skills and communication skills among civil…

  10. Effects of Cooperative Learning on Students’ Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariha Gull

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple teaching methods are used by teachers in order to improve learning of students. The most popular is lecture method, while very effective is cooperative learning method. Later teaching method had been preferred for teaching science and languages as cited by previous research studies. However, in the subjects of social sciences and humanities, its importance cannot be ignored. Following study is an effort to determine effect of cooperative learning method on students’ achievement in subject of Education.  Qusi experimental design, with pre and post test of control and experimental group was used to achieve target of the study. Sample of the study consisted of 63 female students enrolled in grade 12 of a public college. An achievement test was used as a pre-test, the students were than divided in experimental and control groups. Multiple cooperative learning activities were performed with experimental group by using three common methods of cooperative learning i.e., STAD, TGT and Jigsaw II. The control group was taught by lecture method only. After 8 weeks a post test was administered on both experimental and control group in order to identify difference in achievement. The independent sample t-test was used to measure the mean scores difference between achievement scores of control and treatment groups on pretest.  The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups (p=.825 leading to assumption that both groups were on equal level of achievement before intervention.  Same test was applied to find out difference between two groups before and after intervention.  The results showed that there was a significant difference in scores of control and experimental group in post-test. In addition to this paired sample t-test was conducted to compare the effect of intervention on achievement scores of experimental group.  The results showed that there was significant difference between scores of experimental

  11. 网络合作学习策略下的大学生英语思辨能力培养实证研究%An Empirical Study on Critical Thinking Skills Training based on the Implementation of Web-based Cooperative Learning Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳鹏

    2014-01-01

    The new reform plan of college English education emphasized to improve students’criti-cal thinking skills and creativity.The writer tries to carry out the web-based cooperative learning strategy in teaching activities by means of experimental teaching,questionnaire survey and inter-view.From the experimental data,the writer found that by implementing the web-based coopera-tive learning strategy at the whole process of classroom,the strategies can really help the students to improve their critical thinking skills to some extent.%我国大学英语新一轮教学改革特别强调应注重学思结合,其根本目标就是要提高学生的思辨能力、创新能力。作者将网络合作学习策略探索性的应用在大学英语课堂教学活动中,通过实验教学、问卷调查及访谈等方式开展实证研究。通过实验数据分析,发现网络合作学习策略在教学中的应用的确对提高学生的思辨能力水平起到了积极推动的作用。

  12. Simulated trust: a cheap social learning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Ahn, René M C; Barakova, Emilia I

    2009-11-01

    Animals use heuristic strategies to determine from which conspecifics to learn socially. This leads to directed social learning. Directed social learning protects them from copying non-adaptive information. So far, the strategies of animals, leading to directed social learning, are assumed to rely on (possibly indirect) inferences about the demonstrator's success. As an alternative to this assumption, we propose a strategy that only uses self-established estimates of the pay-offs of behavior. We evaluate the strategy in a number of agent-based simulations. Critically, the strategy's success is warranted by the inclusion of an incremental learning mechanism. Our findings point out new theoretical opportunities to regulate social learning for animals. More broadly, our simulations emphasize the need to include a realistic learning mechanism in game-theoretic studies of social learning strategies, and call for re-evaluation of previous findings.

  13. How Should Students Learn in the School Science Laboratory? The Benefits of Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Ayala; Cohen, Sarit; Aflalo, Ester

    2017-07-01

    Despite the inherent potential of cooperative learning, there has been very little research into its effectiveness in middle school laboratory classes. This study focuses on an empirical comparison between cooperative learning and individual learning in the school science laboratory, evaluating the quality of learning and the students' attitudes. The research included 67 seventh-grade students who undertook four laboratory experiments on the subject of "volume measuring skills." Each student engaged both in individual and cooperative learning in the laboratory, and the students wrote individual or group reports, accordingly. A total of 133 experiment reports were evaluated, 108 of which also underwent textual analysis. The findings show that the group reports were superior, both in terms of understanding the concept of "volume" and in terms of acquiring skills for measuring volume. The students' attitudes results were statistically significant and demonstrated that they preferred cooperative learning in the laboratory. These findings demonstrate that science teachers should be encouraged to implement cooperative learning in the laboratory. This will enable them to improve the quality and efficiency of laboratory learning while using a smaller number of experimental kits. Saving these expenditures, together with the possibility to teach a larger number of students simultaneously in the laboratory, will enable greater exposure to learning in the school science laboratory.

  14. On the Universality of Sequential Slotted Amplify and Forward Strategy in Cooperative Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Ning, Haishi; Leung, Kin K

    2010-01-01

    While cooperative communication has many benefits and is expected to play an important role in future wireless networks, many challenges are still unsolved. Previous research has developed different relaying strategies for cooperative multiple access channels (CMA), cooperative multiple relay channels (CMR) and cooperative broadcast channels (CBC). However, there lacks a unifying strategy that is universally optimal for these three classical channel models. Sequential slotted amplify and forward (SSAF) strategy was previously proposed to achieve the optimal diversity and multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) for CMR. In this paper, the use of SSAF strategy is extended to CBC and CMA, and its optimality for both of them is shown. For CBC, a CBC-SSAF strategy is proposed which can asymptotically achieve the DMT upper bound when the number of cooperative users is large. For CMA, a CMA-SSAF strategy is proposed which even can exactly achieve the DMT upper bound with any number of cooperative users. In this way, SSAF strate...

  15. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Junior High School Students during Small Group Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2004-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of cooperative learning on junior high school students who worked in structured or unstructured cooperative groups. Two hundred and twenty-three junior high school students participated in the study and worked in three or four-person, mixed gender and achievement groups. The results show that the children in the…

  16. Learner Autonomy and Learning Strategies in EFL Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭薇

    2009-01-01

    Autonomy is one of the goals of EFL teaching.And strategy training is an important approach to developing autonomy.This paper briefly reviews the theories and researches on learning strategies,including the definitions,classifications of the learning strategies,and how to prepare for and implement strategy training.

  17. Distributed cooperative synchronization strategy for multi-bus microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yao; Zhong, Chaolu; Hou, Xiaochao

    2017-01-01

    Microgrids can operate in both grid-connected mode and islanded mode. In order to smooth transfer from islanded mode to grid-connected mode, it is necessary to synchronize the point of common coupling (PCC) with main utility grid (UG) in voltage frequency, phase and amplitude. Conventional...... synchronization methods based on centralized communication are very costly and not suitable for multi-bus microgrids that have a large number of distributed generators (DGs). To address this concern, this study presents an active synchronization control strategy based on distributed cooperation technology...... communication breaks down, the primary droop control can still operate robustly. Small signal model of entire system is developed to adjust the parameters of distributed active synchronization controller. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method....

  18. Learning with repeated-game strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos A; Romero, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2 × 2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we find that the strategy with the most occurrences is the "Grim-Trigger." In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the "Win-Stay, Lose-Shift" and "Grim-Trigger" strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  19. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  20. Conceptual change strategies and cooperative group work in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Patricia A.; Sanford, Julie P.

    This study conducted at a suburban community college tested a method of conceptual change in which treatment students worked in small cooperative groups on tasks aimed at eliciting their misconceptions so that they could then be discussed in contrast to the scientific conceptions that had been taught in direct instruction. Categorizations of student understanding of the target concepts of the laws of conservation of matter and energy and aspects of the particulate nature of gases, liquids, and solids were ascertained by pre- and posttesting. Audiotapes of student verbal interaction in the small groups provided quantitative and qualitative data concerning student engagement in behaviors suggestive of the conditions posited to be part of the conceptual change process (Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982). Chi-square analysis of posttests indicated that students in treatment groups had significantly lower (p < 0.05) proportion of misconceptions than control students on four of the five target concepts. Students who exhibited no change in concept state had a higher frequency of verbal behaviors suggestive of impeding conceptual change when compared to students who did change. Three factors emerged from qualitative analysis of group interaction that appeared to influence learning: (a) many students had flawed understanding of concepts that supported the target concepts; (b) student views towards learning science affected their engagement in assigned tasks, (c) good and poor group leaders had a strong influence on group success.

  1. Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies in English learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田田

    2011-01-01

    English learning strategy is one of the popular research fields in educational psychology, In spite of too much research on teaching; the other side of pedagogy learning has been neglected. The research on English learning strategy is an important way to

  2. Project-based learning in Geotechnics: cooperative versus collaborative teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Lopes, Margarida; Macedo, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007/2008 project-based learning models have been used to deliver two fundamental courses on Geotechnics in University of Aveiro, Portugal. These models have evolved and have encompassed either cooperative or collaborative teamwork. Using data collected in five editions of each course (Soil Mechanics I and Soil Mechanics II), the different characteristics of the models using cooperative or collaborative teamwork are pointed out and analysed, namely in terms of the students' perceptions. The data collected include informal feedback from students, monitoring of their marks and academic performance, and answers to two sets of questionnaires: developed for these courses, and institutional. The data indicate students have good opinion of the project-based learning model, though collaborative teamwork is the best rated. The overall efficacy of the models was analysed (sum of their effectiveness, efficiency and attractiveness). The collaborative model was found more adequate.

  3. Cooperative Power Saving Strategies for IP-Services Supported over DVB-H Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, F.H.P.; Katz, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces power saving strategies for cooperative wireless communication systems. The described scenario focuses on IP-services over DVB-H networks showing the strength of non-altruistic cooperation between mobile devices. The envisioned cooperation is based on cellular reception of d...

  4. Learning Strategy Training in Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文梅

    2007-01-01

    A great many recent studies haye shown that making good use of learning strategies can contribute much to students'foreign language learning.This poper deals with some important issues about strategy training based on O'Malley and Chamot's theory,including the concept,value and goals of strategy training and approaches to such training

  5. The Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning%浅谈合作学习的有效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江亚平

    2014-01-01

    通过对合作学习的分组是否合理、合作学习的任务是否合理、合作学习中学生的创造力是否要时刻激发、合作学习的评价是否合理、以及合作学习中教师的作用等方面的分析,优化合作,进而实现有效的合作学习。%Analysis of evaluation by grouping analysis of cooperative learning is reasonable,cooperative learning task is reasonable, cooperative learning is to stimulate the creativity of middle school students,cooperative learning is reasonable,and the role of teachers in cooperative learning,so as to optimize the cooperative learning,so as to realize the effective cooperative learning.

  6. Predicting High School Student Use of Learning Strategies: The Role of Preferred Learning Styles and Classroom Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the predictiveness of preferred learning styles (competitive and cooperative) and classroom climate (teacher support and disciplinary climate) on learning strategy use in mathematics. The student survey part of the Programme for International Student Assessment 2003 comprising of 4633 US observations was used in a weighted…

  7. Predicting High School Student Use of Learning Strategies: The Role of Preferred Learning Styles and Classroom Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the predictiveness of preferred learning styles (competitive and cooperative) and classroom climate (teacher support and disciplinary climate) on learning strategy use in mathematics. The student survey part of the Programme for International Student Assessment 2003 comprising of 4633 US observations was used in a weighted…

  8. Toward Transdisciplinary Research by Means of Cooperative Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aureliano Betancourt Bethencourt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the observation that fifth year Medicine students do not have enough skills in statistics, IT, or information management to adequately prepare and implement research projects. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to describe the experiences obtained by using the cooperative learning method and to present the results obtained by students in their research projects.  In order to meet the proposed objectives the cooperative learning method was applied to several topics of the Public Health course in the Medical Program.  Consequently, students were divided into five groups to interact with health care specialists and workers, workers from other sectors, and the general public. They identified the most urgent health problems in a participative manner and conducted a research project. The students’ acceptance of the method was evaluated using an exploratory statistical technique.  As a result, students analyzed data, drew conclusions, and participated in debates having the professor as the facilitator and coordinator. All groups successfully presented the results of their research projects, which included 2 projects on the control of Dengue and the Aedes aegypti mosquito and 3 on potential maternal mortality risks. Surveys reflected acceptance of the method.  The experiences obtained by using the cooperative learning technique and the results obtained by students in their projects are described; this experience should be systematized.

  9. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model of Teams Games Tournament (TGT) and Students' Motivation toward Physics Learning Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadrah; Tolla, Ismail; Ali, Muhammad Sidin; Muris

    2017-01-01

    This research aims at describing the effect of cooperative learning model of Teams Games Tournament (TGT) and motivation toward physics learning outcome. This research was a quasi-experimental research with a factorial design conducted at SMAN 2 Makassar. Independent variables were learning models. They were cooperative learning model of TGT and…

  10. Strategies of learning from failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Amy C

    2011-04-01

    Many executives believe that all failure is bad (although it usually provides Lessons) and that Learning from it is pretty straightforward. The author, a professor at Harvard Business School, thinks both beliefs are misguided. In organizational life, she says, some failures are inevitable and some are even good. And successful learning from failure is not simple: It requires context-specific strategies. But first leaders must understand how the blame game gets in the way and work to create an organizational culture in which employees feel safe admitting or reporting on failure. Failures fall into three categories: preventable ones in predictable operations, which usually involve deviations from spec; unavoidable ones in complex systems, which may arise from unique combinations of needs, people, and problems; and intelligent ones at the frontier, where "good" failures occur quickly and on a small scale, providing the most valuable information. Strong leadership can build a learning culture-one in which failures large and small are consistently reported and deeply analyzed, and opportunities to experiment are proactively sought. Executives commonly and understandably worry that taking a sympathetic stance toward failure will create an "anything goes" work environment. They should instead recognize that failure is inevitable in today's complex work organizations.

  11. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  12. A Study on the Correlations Between Chinese EFL Learners’Autono-mous Learning and Their Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-mei; NIE Cai-lan

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative learning and learner autonomy have become heated topics in English teaching. Many researchers both at home and abroad have carried out the study on this field, and they proved that learner autonomy and cooperative learning are rel-evant, cooperative learning can promote English majors’learning autonomy in terms of listening, reading, speaking, however, no obvious findings in vocabulary and writing. This study is conducted to prove the feasibilities and effectiveness of cooperative learning applied to foster first-year non-English majors’learning autonomy from the aspect of vocabulary and structure. The re-sults of this study showed that cooperative learning was much more effective than traditional teaching approaches in fostering some positive affective factors. According to this research, cooperative learning can also improve learners ’vocabulary and struc-ture significantly.

  13. TEACHING VOCABULARY LEARNING STRATEGIES IN CLASSROOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangWentao

    2004-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is one component of language skills such as reading and writing and enables language learners to more appropriate language use. 13ecause of the features of vocabulary learning, which is wide coverage in content and time, teaching vocabulary should base on learners previous knowledge and arouse their motivation to .further learning. Teaching language learning strategy in class can help studentsmore consciously monitor their learning, learn autonomously and become independent learner. Hence teacher should attach great importance to the instruction of voeabalary learnig strategies to students in classroom. This paper discusses theoretically the function and application of teaching learning strategy in vocabulary learning and also provides an applicable class sample to teach some vocabulary learning strategies to students.

  14. Video Modeling of Cooperative Discussion Group Behaviors with Students with Learning Disabilities in a Secondary Content-area Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Chris; Wood, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer-mediated instructional strategies such as cooperative learning are commonly used in general education classrooms in secondary schools; however, students with disabilities often lack the group interaction and discussion skills necessary to fully benefit from evidence-based interventions. The present study used a multiple baseline across…

  15. The Effectiveness of Structured Co-Operative Teaching and Learning in Greek Primary School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldi, Stavroula; Filippatou, Diamanto; Anthopoulou, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses upon the effectiveness of structured co-operative group work on primary school students, aged between 8.5 and 9.5 years old, regarding their content knowledge, attitudes towards co-operative group work, experiential learning and open-ended curriculum as well as students' social and learning behaviour during co-operative group…

  16. The Effectiveness of Structured Co-Operative Teaching and Learning in Greek Primary School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldi, Stavroula; Filippatou, Diamanto; Anthopoulou, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses upon the effectiveness of structured co-operative group work on primary school students, aged between 8.5 and 9.5 years old, regarding their content knowledge, attitudes towards co-operative group work, experiential learning and open-ended curriculum as well as students' social and learning behaviour during co-operative group…

  17. Successful Group Work: Using Cooperative Learning and Team-Based Learning in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant-Vallone, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    This research study examined student perceptions of group experiences in the classroom. The author used cooperative learning and team-based learning to focus on three characteristics that are critical for the success of groups: structure of activities, relationships of group members, and accountability of group members. Results indicated that…

  18. Collaborative Learning or Cooperative Learning? The Name Is Not Important; Flexibility Is

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of theory and research, not to mention students' and teachers' practical experience, supports the use of group activities in education. Collaborative learning and cooperative learning are two terms commonly used in discussions of how and why to use group activities. This article looks at the issue of whether the two…

  19. Public Libraries and Cooperative Extension as Community Partners for Lifelong Learning and Learning Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peich, Alysia; Fletcher, Cynthia Needles

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the parallel histories and visions of public libraries and land-grant universities' Cooperative Extension in providing lifelong learning opportunities; it illustrates how partnerships between organizations can enhance the vibrancy of adult education in the context of learning cities.

  20. Public Libraries and Cooperative Extension as Community Partners for Lifelong Learning and Learning Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peich, Alysia; Fletcher, Cynthia Needles

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the parallel histories and visions of public libraries and land-grant universities' Cooperative Extension in providing lifelong learning opportunities; it illustrates how partnerships between organizations can enhance the vibrancy of adult education in the context of learning cities.

  1. English Learning Strategies & Problems of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋捷

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to study the learning strategies deployed by a sample of college students with the hope of finding certain learning pattern and typical problems and hence help students hone language skill in a more efficient way. The report focuses on the students’learning strategies in different respects of liste-ning, speaking, reading, writing, cultural background, vocabulary and etc. by the frequent use of statistical analysis, trying to explain learning obstacles according to cognitive theory. At last part, common advice for English learning is given as an approach for efficient learning.

  2. Peningkatan Kompetensi Manajemen Asfiksia Bayi Baru Lahir Melalui Metode Cooperative-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma, Reni M.; Anwar, Anita D.; Prasetyo, Dwi

    2017-01-01

    Background: The competence of asphyxia management on newborn baby is essential for midwife. The quality of learning process should be improved by applying interactive learning method. The cooperative learning method is often applied to enhance the effectiveness of clinical learning process. The purpose of this research was to analyze the influence of cooperative learning on competence which consists of student’s knowledge, attitude, and skill in comparison to teacher-centered learning method....

  3. Individual remediation and cooperative learning in inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Benkmann

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In Germany as well as in foreign countries an educational discussion for more than three decades and political statements since the mid-nineties have demanded an inclusive education for students with special educational needs. The rate of students attending special schools in Germany is still very high compared to the rates of other countries. The German four-track school system is identified being one reason, because it underlines the fiction of homogeneity of classes favoring class teaching. In contrast, inclusive education takes into account heterogeneity recommending a reformpedagogical teaching with a high degree of self-regulatory individualized learning. Research in the U.S., however, shows that direct instructions by teachers are an effective method for educating students with learning disabilities in reading, writing and arithmetic. Therefore, we prefer a combination of direct individualized instruction and self-regulatory cooperative learning in inclusive education.

  4. Learning on the Job: Understanding the Cooperative Education Work Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison I. Griffith

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning programs in Ontario provide on the job learning experiences for students. This paper analyzes three cases of student work placements described in extensive interviews with students, teachers and co-workers. Some students had enjoyed their work experience while others had not. When the student experiences were situated in the socially organized work processes of the work sites, the diverse experiences were found to have a common theme. When students are able to participate in and make sense of the work process, their work placement experience was seen to be useful for making future employment decisions. Where students were marginal to the work process, their lack of knowledge often translates into an unpleasant work experience and decisions about employment based on an experience of failure. This article suggests that our understanding of student learning on the job would be strengthened by a focus on the socially organized work process.

  5. A Case Study on the Employment of Cooperative Learning Approach in Culture Teaching in ESL%合作式学习法在英语文化教学中的应用案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-hua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional research is to explore whether the employment of cooperative learning strategy, in the process of culture teaching in College English Integrated Course can enhance students’ learning. This research involved 62 students from Grade 08, Class 33 in a pilot in which cooperative learning strategy was employed. In this research an eclectic method was used. Through sampling, questionnaires and focus group interviews both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. Triangulation was also adopted in the research to validate the results. Data analysis indicates that the application of cooperative learning strategies can not only optimize the effectiveness of teaching but also can promote deep learning and enhance students’ learning. Although there are still some improvements concerning statistical measure aspects need to be made, the findings indicate that employing cooperative learning strategy in teaching cultural background is worth recommending and disseminating.

  6. Discovery Learning Strategies in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, G.

    2012-01-01

    The study substantiates that the effectiveness of Discovery Learning method in learning English Grammar for the learners at standard V. Discovery Learning is particularly beneficial for any student learning a second language. It promotes peer interaction and development of the language and the learning of concepts with content. Reichert and…

  7. Teaching Strategies to Improve Algebra Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbiek, Rose Mary; Larson, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Improving student learning is the primary goal of every teacher of algebra. Teachers seek strategies to help all students learn important algebra content and develop mathematical practices. The new Institute of Education Sciences[IES] practice guide, "Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students"…

  8. Pronunciation Learning Strategies: A First Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Susan S.

    In recent years, articles about second language learning strategies and about second language pronunciation instruction have been on the increase. Surprisingly, there appears to be no published study to date that focuses on the relationship between pronunciation and learning strategies. This exploratory study focuses solely on documenting and…

  9. How to develop vocabulary learning strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董振

    2010-01-01

    @@ Due to limited class time,students will not be able to learn all the vocabulary simply from class teaching.Thus we need to help students develop items vocabulary learning strategies so that they can effectively acquire more vocabulary on their own,especially outside the class.Below are some strategies.

  10. Language Learning Strategy Use and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafournia, Narjes

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the differences across the varying levels of EFL learners in the frequency and choice of learning strategies. Using a reading test, questionnaire, and parametric statistical analysis, the findings yielded up discrepancies among the participants in the implementation of language-learning strategies concerning their…

  11. Teaching and Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Diana

    2015-01-01

    "Teaching and Learning Strategies" is a practical guide for pre-service teachers who know and understand the content of the curriculum and are looking for additional tools to teach it effectively. This book will help students to develop a comprehensive knowledge of teaching and learning strategies, which is essential in ensuring lessons…

  12. Teaching and Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Diana

    2015-01-01

    "Teaching and Learning Strategies" is a practical guide for pre-service teachers who know and understand the content of the curriculum and are looking for additional tools to teach it effectively. This book will help students to develop a comprehensive knowledge of teaching and learning strategies, which is essential in ensuring lessons…

  13. The Choice of Effective Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-fang

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to make a comparison between good and poor language learners in the use of vocabulary learning strat-egies. It will introduce some helpful vocabulary learning strategies to help those frustrated Chinese college non-English major learners.

  14. Language Learning Strategy Use across Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…

  15. COLLEGE ENGLISH AND ITS LEARNING STRATEGIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    This paper is a questionnaire survey on learning strategies used by Chinese non-English majors including good language learners and less successful learners. It is based on English Band Four examination scores and final examination scores of 80 university students. The objective of this study is to find out whether the two groups of students used the same or different learning strategies.

  16. Teaching Strategies to Improve Algebra Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbiek, Rose Mary; Larson, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Improving student learning is the primary goal of every teacher of algebra. Teachers seek strategies to help all students learn important algebra content and develop mathematical practices. The new Institute of Education Sciences[IES] practice guide, "Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students"…

  17. Facilitating Cooperative Learning in Online and Blended Courses: An Example from an Integrated Marketing Communications Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katryna

    2013-01-01

    Employers today expect that students will be able to work in teams. Cooperative learning theory addresses how skills such as decision making, problem solving and communication can be learned by individuals in group settings. This paper discusses how cooperative learning can be used in an online and blended environment to increase active learning…

  18. Regulation during Cooperative and Collaborative Learning: A Theory-Based Review of Terms and Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoor, Cornelia; Narciss, Susanne; Körndle, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the terms and concepts that have been used for describing regulation of learning during cooperative and collaborative learning and suggests differentiating them on the basis of which parts of a regulatory feedback loop model are being shared. During cooperative and collaborative learning, not only self-regulation but also the…

  19. Using Technology-Enhanced, Cooperative, Group-Project Learning for Student Comprehension and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Suhre, Cor; Hofman, Adriaan

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning may improve students' motivation, understanding of course concepts, and academic performance. This study therefore enhanced a cooperative, group-project learning technique with technology resources to determine whether doing so improved students' deep learning and performance. A sample of 118 engineering students, randomly…

  20. Cooperative Group, Risk-Taking and Inclusion of Pupils with Learning Disabilities in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Amael; Louvet, Benoit; Deneuve, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the impact of cooperative learning on changes in cooperative behaviours and acceptance amongst pupils with learning disabilities related to risk-taking. One hundred and sixty-eight French first year middle school pupils participated in this study. Thirty-six pupils with learning disabilities were mainstreamed…

  1. Internationalization and Diversification Strategies of Agricultural Cooperatives: a Quantitative Study of the Agricultural Cooperatives in the State of Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Monica Ritossa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of internationalization on the results achieved by agricultural cooperatives in the State of Parana, at the same time examining strategies for diversification of markets as well as diversification of products aimed exclusively at international markets. Of the 28 cooperatives to be included in the study, 67.9% returned valid structured questionnaires. The collected data was submitted to non-parametric statistical analysis. Key findings suggest the following: external markets are served by indirect and direct exports; product diversification strategies are motivated by the creation of revenue alternatives to members and by the reduction of risks associated to agricultural business; diversification strategies are conceived to develop new business in accordance with market demand and to expand customized products from the existing portfolio; the formation of strategic alliances prioritizes access to distribution channels abroad; internationalization and diversification strategies produce positive results both from an economic and a social perspective.

  2. Proposal for a Cooperative Space Strategy with China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    119 Jeff Foust , “U.S.-China Space Cooperation: The Congressional View.” The Space Review. http://www.thespacereview.com/article/661/1...Connecticut: Praeger Security International - An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 2008. Foust , Jeff. “U.S.-China Space Cooperation: The

  3. Exploration of Learning Strategies Associated With Aha Learning Moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2016-01-01

    Educators recognize aha moments as powerful aspects of learning. Yet limited research has been performed regarding how to promote these learning moments. This article describes an exploratory study of aha learning moments as experienced and described by participants. Findings showed use of visuals, scenarios, storytelling, Socratic questions, and expert explanation led to aha learning moments. The findings provide guidance regarding the types of learning strategies that can be used to promote aha moments.

  4. The Competitive Strategy of Mutual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelner, Stephen P.; Slavin, Lois

    1998-01-01

    Defines and discusses mutual learning in organizations. Suggests that the idea of people and companies sharing knowledge is becoming a competitive strategy because mutual learning enables executives and employees to increase their capacity to work together, accelerate organizational learning, and avoid mistakes. (JOW)

  5. Strategies for Bridging Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchman, J. A.; Sadowski, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Regardless of the instrument used to determine learning styles, it is commonly accepted that people learn in different ways. As Professors, we tend to teach in a style that matches the way we ourselves learn. Tis may or may not match the learning styles of the students in our classroom. As Graphics educators, we cannot meet every student's…

  6. Difficulties and Solutions in Cooperative Learning of English Teaching%英语教学中采用合作学习的难点及应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑云贤

    2012-01-01

    合作学习是一种有效的教学理论和策略,本文分析了采用合作学习方法可能会遇到的负面结果,并提出了应对措施。%Cooperative learning is an effective teaching theories and strategies, the article analyzes the cooperative learning method may experience negative results, and proposed measures to deal with.

  7. Language Learning Strategies: Classification and Pedagogical Implication

    OpenAIRE

    Ag. Bambang Setiyadi

    2001-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted to explore language learning strategies (Rubin, 1975, Naiman et . al ., 1978; Fillmore, 1979; O'Malley et . al ., 1985 and 1990; Politzer and Groarty, 1985; Prokop, 1989; Oxford, 1990; and Wenden, 1991). In the current study a total of 79 university students participating in a 3 month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what language learning strategies successful learners used and to what extent the strategies contributed to success i...

  8. Vocabulary Learning Strategies in an ESP Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Jurkovič

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on vocabulary learning strategies as a subcategory of language learning strategies and their instruction within the ESP context at the Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport in Portorož. Vocabulary strategy instruction will be implemented at our faculty as part of a broader PhD research into the effect of language learning strategy instruction on strategy use and subject-specific and general language acquisition. Additional variables that will be taken into consideration are language proficiency, motivation and learning styles of the students. The introductory section in which the situation that triggered my PhD research is presented is followed by a theoretical introduction to the concept of language and vocabulary learning strategies. The aspects that the paper focuses on are the central role of lexis within ESP, vocabulary learning strategy taxonomies, and the presentation of research studies made in the examined field to date. The final section presents the explicit vocabulary learning strategy instruction model. In the conclusion, some implications for teaching can be found.

  9. A Study on the Application of Cooperative Language Learning in the Spoken English Class of the University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨然

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative Language Learning(hereafter CLL)is one of the most widely used pedagogical theories, both in China and abroad. It emphasizes on the learner-centered teaching principle and makes maximum use of cooperative activities. Under the guidelines of the Cooperative Language Learning, this paper explores the application of cooperative language learning in the spoken English class of the university.

  10. Using the Learning Together Strategy to Affect Student Achievement in Physical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Manda D.

    Despite efforts mandated by national legislation, the state of Georgia has made little progress in improving Grade 5 students' standardized test scores in science, spurring the need for social change. The purpose of this quantitative causal-comparative study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in the student achievement in the conceptual understanding of science concepts in a classroom where the teacher applied the cooperative learning strategy, Learning Together, as compared to the classroom in which teacher-directed instruction was applied. The theories of positive social interdependence and social development, which posit that social interaction promotes cognitive gains, provided a framework for the study. A convenience sample of 38 students in Grade 5 participated in the 6-week study. Nineteen students received the cooperative learning strategy treatment, while 19 students did not. Pre- and post-tests were administered to students in both groups, and an analysis of variance was performed to examine differences between the 2 sample means. Results indicated that the group receiving the cooperative learning strategy scored significantly higher than did the control group receiving direct instruction. The experimental group also scored higher in vocabulary acquisition. Using the cooperative learning strategy of Learning Together could guide teachers' efforts to help students achieve excellent state-mandated test scores. Learning Together may be employed as a powerful teaching tool across grade levels and content areas, thus promoting positive gains in other state-mandated testing areas such as math, language arts, and social studies.

  11. A Study of Effective Strategies to Stimulate College Non-English Majors' Motivation for Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向玉

    2008-01-01

    As an English teacher for non-English majors in a college in Wuhan,I find that most of my students are not interested in learning English.Thus.I am concerned about how to stimulate my students' motivation in learning English.This paper discusses some effective strategies to stimulate college non-English majors' motivation for learning English.such as creating a comfortable atmosphere,buiIding students' confidence,promoting cooperative learning.and incorporating the multiple intelligences concept in the classroom.These strategies do have practical application in my classroom and have motivated my students' interest in English learning.

  12. Language Learning Strategies: Classification and Pedagogical Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ag. Bambang Setiyadi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to explore language learning strategies (Rubin, 1975, Naiman et . al ., 1978; Fillmore, 1979; O'Malley et . al ., 1985 and 1990; Politzer and Groarty, 1985; Prokop, 1989; Oxford, 1990; and Wenden, 1991. In the current study a total of 79 university students participating in a 3 month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what language learning strategies successful learners used and to what extent the strategies contributed to success in learning English in Indonesia . Factor analyses, accounting for 62.1 %, 56.0 %, 41.1 %, and 43.5 % of the varience of speaking, listening, reading and writing measures in the language learning strategy questionnaire, suggested that the questionnaire constituted three constructs. The three constructs were named metacognitive strategies, deep level cognitive and surface level cognitive strategies. Regression analyses, performed using scales based on these factors revealed significant main effects for the use of the language learning strategies in learning English, constituting 43 % of the varience in the posttest English achievement scores. An analysis of varience of the gain scores of the highest, middle, and the lowest groups of performers suggested a greater use of metacognitive strategies among successful learners and a greater use of surface level cognitive strategies among unsuccessful learners. Implications for the classroom and future research are also discussed.

  13. Mutual Learning in the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    in the European employment strategy have been either determined by the sender's interests or have underestimated how mutual learning between countries takes place. In stead the article develops a constructivist approach to learning and uses it to generate some concrete hypothesis about when learning in committees...... is most likely to take place. Afterwards, this constructivist approach is used to analyse the institutional framework surrounding the European employment strategy in order to evaluate whether the potential for learning is optimal. Finally, the article concludes that even though some basic premises......Mutual learning among the Member States is the primary purpose of the employment policy of the European Union. The two most important questions in this regard are how learning occurs and how much learning takes place. In this article I argue that the existing analyses of the effects of learning...

  14. Promoting Cooperative Learning in the Classroom: Comparing Explicit and Implicit Training Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Elliott

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated whether providing 4th and 5th-grade students with explicit instruction in prerequisite cooperative-learning skills and techniques would enhance their academic performance and promote in them positive attitudes towards cooperative learning. Overall, students who received explicit training outperformed their peers on both the unit project and test and presented more favourable attitudes towards cooperative learning. The findings of this study support the use of explicitly instructing students about the components of cooperative learning prior to engaging in collaborative activities. Implications for teacher-education are discussed.

  15. The Challenge of Measuring Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Lindy

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the usefulness of using generic strategy inventories to assess language learning strategies (LLSs) across contexts. A review of the LLS research is presented with a critique of extant studies in relation to classification of strategies, methodological issues, and the predictability of language performance. The present…

  16. Learning Strategies for Adolescents with Mild Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn

    2013-01-01

    Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…

  17. Effect of learning strategies and anxiety of learning mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusmono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is intended to discover the effect of instructional strategies and math anxiety on learning outcomes in mathematics. Factorial design 2 x 2 was employed in order to answer the research question how the effect of the instructional strategies and math anxiety on learning outcomes in mathematics. It implies that there is no single instructional strategy that gives better result on learning outcomes in mathematics for all students with the different math anxieties. Based on this research findings mathematics vocational teachers in the field of technology and industry should apply several instructional strategies to serve students with different math anxieties.

  18. Practice and Evaluation of a Cooperative Learning Support on Educational Function as Teamwork in Project-based Learning with Regional Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hideyuki; Kamata, Motohiro; Yamagami, Norihisa

    The purpose of my study was to develop of cooperative learning support on Educational Function as Teamwork in Project-based Learning with Regional Cooperation. Analysis of validation of the original method were made using correlation analysis of student satisfaction of relationships among teammate and educational function as teamwork, result of self-diagnose. As a result, we achieved analysis results with a collective creativity were involved in student‧s planning skill. It was shown that educational functions as teamwork plays an important part in the growth of students. Our study revealed that there was method using cooperative learning technique helps to promote improvement of educational function as teamwork.

  19. Representing adaptive eLearning strategies in IMS Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Tattersall, Colin; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Burgos, D., Tattersall, C., & Koper, E. J. R. (2006). Representing adaptive eLearning strategies in IMS Learning Design. In R. Koper & K. Stefanov (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development (pp. 54-60). March, 30-31, 2006, Sofia, Bulgar

  20. Prenatal stress changes learning strategies in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohbot, Veronique D; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-11-01

    It is well known that stressful experiences may shape hippocampus-dependent learning and memory processes. However, although most studies focused on the impact of stress at the time of learning or memory testing, very little is known about how stress during critical periods of brain development affects learning and memory later in life. In this study, we asked whether prenatal stress exposure may influence the engagement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning strategies and caudate nucleus-dependent response learning strategies in later life. To this end, we tested healthy participants whose mothers had experienced major negative life events during their pregnancy in a virtual navigation task that can be solved by spatial and response strategies. We found that young adults with prenatal stress used rigid response learning strategies more often than flexible spatial learning strategies compared with participants whose mothers did not experience major negative life events during pregnancy. Individual differences in acute or chronic stress do not account for these findings. Our data suggest that the engagement of hippocampal and nonhippocampal learning strategies may be influenced by stress very early in life.

  1. Parallel versus Sequential Update and the Evolution of Cooperation with the Assistance of Emotional Strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Righi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Our study contributes to the debate on the evolution of cooperation in the single-shot Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) played on networks. We construct a model in which individuals are connected with positive and negative ties. Some agents play sign-dependent strategies that use the sign of the relation as a shorthand for determining appropriate action toward the opponent. In the context of our model in which network topology, agent strategic types and relational signs coevolve, the presence of sign-dependent strategies catalyzes the evolution of cooperation. We highlight how the success of cooperation depends on a crucial aspect of implementation: whether we apply parallel or sequential strategy update. Parallel updating, with averaging of payoffs across interactions in the social neighborhood, supports cooperation in a much wider set of parameter values than sequential updating. Our results cast doubts about the realism and generalizability of models that claim to explain the evolution of cooperation but implicitly...

  2. Effects of Cooperative and Individualistic Instructional Strategies On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    This study investigated the relative effectiveness of cooperative and individualistic instructional .... This research is based on a quasi-experimental pretest-post test, non-randomize ..... Journal of Educational Psychology, 35 [1], 9 1-100. Nelson ...

  3. Online cooperative learning via the Campus Andaluz Virtual. An analysis of interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel HERNANDO GÓMEZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important aspects of cooperative group work is the type of interactions that take place within the group, either among students or between students and the teachers responsible for the group dynamic. If the quality of these interactions is the key element in face-to-face teaching, then it is even more so when tasks are performed out online. This research aims to analyse empirically the phases of cooperative work, its timeline development and the structural factors of the interactions in the learning processes that occur in the performance of cooperative work and in activities within distance learning contexts via digital platforms. To meet this objective, the teachers responsible organized the students into eight secondary groups from the nine universities in the region of Andalusia enrolled in academic year 2008/09, within the framework of the «Intervening in risky behaviour» elective course offered on the Campus Andaluz Virtual. The methodology used was the analysis of activity registers in discussion forums. This article describes how the investigation developed, the tools and resources used, the methodological strategies, and the main results and conclusions. The latter highlight the importance of the teacher-tutor’s actions as the dynamic element in online cooperative work, the fact that the frequency of interactions within the group is a winning factor in the success of learning communities, and the confirmation of the potential of the Net and virtual teaching for the performance of collaborative tasks in which processes of shared reflection are developed.

  4. Academic Buoyancy Mediates Academic Anxiety's Effects on Learning Strategies: An Investigation of English- and Chinese-Speaking Australian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Ginns, Paul; Martin, Andrew J.; Papworth, Brad

    2017-01-01

    A primary goal our study was to explore whether relations between academic anxiety and students' use of a range of learning strategies (memorisation, elaboration, personal best [PB] goals and cooperation) were mediated by academic buoyancy. We were also interested in extending knowledge of anxiety and its role in students' learning strategy use.…

  5. Learning Strategies Under the Process Writing Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖青芝

    2008-01-01

    Learning strategies play an important role in second language writing.It is even believed by some linguists that experienced writers and novice writers differ mainly in their writing strategies instead of language proficiency.Within the theoretical framework of the process writing approach,this article introduces the writing strategies with all attempt to increase students'awareness of strategy use and improve their English writing.

  6. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Jiankun Peng; Hongwen He; Wei Liu; Hongqiang Guo

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking s...

  7. Learning strategies: a synthesis and conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattie, John A. C.; Donoghue, Gregory M.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore a model of learning that proposes that various learning strategies are powerful at certain stages in the learning cycle. The model describes three inputs and outcomes (skill, will and thrill), success criteria, three phases of learning (surface, deep and transfer) and an acquiring and consolidation phase within each of the surface and deep phases. A synthesis of 228 meta-analyses led to the identification of the most effective strategies. The results indicate that there is a subset of strategies that are effective, but this effectiveness depends on the phase of the model in which they are implemented. Further, it is best not to run separate sessions on learning strategies but to embed the various strategies within the content of the subject, to be clearer about developing both surface and deep learning, and promoting their associated optimal strategies and to teach the skills of transfer of learning. The article concludes with a discussion of questions raised by the model that need further research.

  8. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  9. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Enhancing Hong Kong Fifth Graders' Achievement Goals, Autonomous Motivation and Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yin-Kum

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that cooperative learning with teacher-guided instruction is more effective in helping young children to learn than cooperative learning with minimal guidance. In the present study, two different cooperative learning activities (jigsaw and drama) and a control condition (a traditional teacher-led approach) were compared. The…

  10. Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbing, Jana; Koidl, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Abbing, J. & Koidl, K. (2006). Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies. Proceedings of Adaptive Hypermedia. June, Dublin, Ireland. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetworks.org

  11. An Empirical Study on the Application and Effect of Writing Strategy Under Cooperative Learning Model by English Majors of Vocational Colleges%合作学习模式下高职高专英语专业学生写作策略使用及其效果实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李微

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of cooperative leaning theory, this thesis makes an empirical study on the ap-plication and effect of writing strategy by English majors of vocational colleges. Major findings are as follows:(1) The frequent-used strategy in the experimental class and the controlled classes is editing strategy, while the less frequent-used strategy is drafting strategy. The experimental class uses the planning and editing strategy much more than the controlled class. As the drafting and revising strategy, the frequency used by the two classes is almost the same. (2) After the experiment, the writing proficiency of students in experi-mental class is better than the controlled class. (3) Compared with the controlled class, the experimental class has improved more in tense of verbs, subject-verb agreement and the numbers of nouns; for the use of preposition and articles, there is no obvious difference between the two classes. This study has enriched the research on the writing strategy and the cooperative learning. Besides, it has proved that cooperative learning can improve students’ writing proficiency and English learners should attach great importance to it.%以合作学习理论为基础,通过问卷调查和独立样本T检验对高职高专英语专业学生写作策略使用及其效果进行实证研究。结果表明:(1)实验班和对照班使用最多的是润色策略,最少的是初稿策略。实验班使用写前策略和润色策略比对照班要多,两班在初稿策略和修改策略使用上大致相同。(2)实验结束后,实验班的英语写作平均成绩高于对照班。(3)实验班在时态、主谓一致、名词单复数等方面的得分高于对照班,两班在介词和冠词的使用方面没有明显差异。该研究丰富了人们对写作策略和合作学习的认识,证实了合作学习模式对提高学生写作水平有促进作用,应该得到英语学习者的高度重视。

  12. Effects of Cooperative Learning Plus Inquiry Method on Student Learning and Attitudes: A Comparative Study for Engineering Economic Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehizadeh, M. Reza; Behin-Aein, Noureddin

    2014-01-01

    In the Iranian higher education system, including engineering education, effective implementation of cooperative learning is difficult because classrooms are usually crowded and the students never had a formal group working background in their previous education. In order to achieve the benefits of cooperative learning in this condition, this…

  13. Students’ Learning Strategies for Developing Speaking Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Sofyan A. Gani; Dian Fajrina; Rizaldy Hanifa

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to study the learning strategies used by both low and high performance speaking students in developing their speaking skills as well as the differences between the learning strategies used by both groups of learners. The reason for conducting this research was the fact that the competency of many students in speaking English was still considered unsatisfactory in Banda Aceh. We postulated that one aspect involved in the process of developing speaking skills was the learnin...

  14. The role of strategies in motor learning

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jordan A.; Ivry, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    There has been renewed interest in the role of strategies in sensorimotor learning. The combination of new behavioral methods and computational methods has begun to unravel the interaction between processes related to strategic control and processes related to motor adaptation. These processes may operate on very different error signals. Strategy learning is sensitive to goal-based performance error. In contrast, adaptation is sensitive to prediction errors between the desired and actual cons...

  15. Cooperative Learning in a Hong Kong Primary School: Perceptions, Problems and Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kam Wing

    2014-01-01

    Some educators may see cooperative learning as a Western pedagogy that is difficult to use in Eastern countries with a Confucian Heritage, while others argue that the philosophy of Confucius parallels the elements of cooperative learning. This article reports the key findings of a 2-year longitudinal study that investigated the perceptions of…

  16. A Validity and Reliability Study of the Online Cooperative Learning Attitude Scale (OCLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Ozgen

    2012-01-01

    Determination of students' attitudes towards online cooperative learning is an important issue, which has not been studied adequately. In the literature, there are few scales to measure the attitude towards online cooperative learning for which validity and reliability have been proven. The main purpose of this study is to develop an attitude…

  17. The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Tertiary EFL Learners' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Huiping; Hornby, Garry

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the impact of cooperative learning on the motivation of tertiary English learners. Participants were from two randomly assigned classes at a university in the north of China. A pre-test-post-test control group design was employed to compare the impact of the cooperative learning approach with that of…

  18. A Conceptual Framework for the Cultural Integration of Cooperative Learning: A Thai Primary Mathematics Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Yong; Nuntrakune, Tippawan

    2013-01-01

    The Thailand education reform adopted cooperative learning to improve the quality of education. However, it has been reported that the introduction and maintenance of cooperative learning has been difficult and uncertain because of the cultural differences. The study proposed a conceptual framework developed based on making a connection between…

  19. The Effects of Cooperative Training and Ability Grouping on Microcomputer Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Lois J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a study of fifth and sixth graders that investigated the effects of cooperative training and ability grouping on microcomputer learning. Results on four measures of achievement did not support the use of cooperative learning or ability grouping to enhance achievement in computer-assisted instruction. (Author/LRW)

  20. Team Learning: Through the Relational Dynamics of Co-operation and Rivalry in Team Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Maja

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the constructive links between cooperation, rivalry, and learning within the structure of team communities. Drawing upon social learning theory and qualitative data from case studies conducted in Danish team-based firms, the main purpose is to argue that both cooperation and rivalry are important triggers for mobilizing…

  1. Team Learning: Through the Relational Dynamics of Co-operation and Rivalry in Team Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Maja

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the constructive links between cooperation, rivalry, and learning within the structure of team communities. Drawing upon social learning theory and qualitative data from case studies conducted in Danish team-based firms, the main purpose is to argue that both cooperation and rivalry are important triggers for mobilizing…

  2. Structuring Cooperative Learning for Motivation and Conceptual Change in the Concepts of Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge Can, Hatice; Boz, Yezdan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of structuring cooperative learning based on conceptual change approach on grade 9 students' understanding the concepts of mixtures and their motivation, compared with traditional instruction. Among six classes of a high school, two of them were randomly assigned to cooperative learning group where students were…

  3. Effect of Cooperative Learning on the Acquisition of Second Language Rules and Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaith, G. M.; Yaghi, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effect of cooperative learning on Lebanese elementary students' acquisition of English-as-a-Second-Language rules and mechanics. Pretest and posttest comparison of experimental and control classes did not significantly favor cooperative learning as compared to individualistic instruction, though low achieving experimental class…

  4. Strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Teng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents an overview of current research on second language vocabulary learning and proposes eight strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary. First, to facilitate effective vocabulary teaching, choosing high-frequency words is essential. Teachers of vocabulary also need to add explicit, intentional teaching to incidental learning. In addition, vocabulary learning strategies including morphological awareness and lexical inference provides a platform by which learners can improve both receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. This article also suggests that productive vocabulary knowledge needs more attention than receptive vocabulary knowledge, and that available textbooks seldom address vocabulary sufficiently. In summary, it is very important for all learners and teachers to acknowledge that learning vocabulary is incremental in nature, and we should develop a principled, long-term program for teaching and learning vocabulary.

  5. Degree Variance and Emotional Strategies Catalyze Cooperation in Dynamic Signed Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Righi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We study the problem of the emergence of cooperation in dynamic signed networks where agent strategies coevolve with relational signs and network topology. Running simulations based on an agent-based model, we compare results obtained in a regular lattice initialization with those obtained on a comparable random network initialization. We show that the increased degree heterogeneity at the outset enlarges the parametric conditions in which cooperation survives in the long run. Furthermore, we show how the presence of sign-dependent emotional strategies catalyze the evolution of cooperation with both network topology initializations.

  6. The entrenchment strategy of logistics service providers: Towards a sequential cooperation-competition process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Paché

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The logistics industry has been attracting the attention of researchers in management for several years. Their focus is increasingly on interorganisational relationships between logistics service providers and their customers, examining the modes of interaction occurring between them. An abundant literature emphasises the importance of cooperative strategies in the logistics industry, hinting that this is a dominant requirement, destined for inevitable development. This article presents a more qualified position and proposes that cooperative strategies are most likely a transition step between arm’s-length competition periods, and resorts to the entrenchment theory, imported from organisational finance, to propose a sequential cooperation-competition model.

  7. Motivation and Its Relationship with Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunzhen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates motivation that influences heritage and non-heritage students' learning of Chinese, and its relationship with Chinese language learning strategies (LLS). The study uses Deci and Ryan's typology--"Intrinsic Motivation" and "Extrinsic Motivation", for the investigation, examining issues such as: (1) What…

  8. Individual strategies in artificial grammar learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, I.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.; Pothos, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) has been used extensively to study theories of learning, but compelling conclusions cannot be drawn without an analysis of individual strategies. We describe a new statistical method for doing so, based on the increasingly popular framework of latent variable

  9. Applying Learning Strategy Questionnaires: Problems and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellings, Gonny

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses measuring learning strategies by means of questionnaires. In "multi-method" research, in which think-aloud measures are compared with questionnaires, low or moderate correlations are found. A conclusion often drawn is that learners are not able to verbally report on their learning activities. Alternative explanations concern…

  10. Management Strategies for Promoting Teacher Collective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eric C. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to validate a theoretical model for developing teacher collective learning by using a quasi-experimental design, and explores the management strategies that would provide a school administrator practical steps to effectively promote collective learning in the school organization. Twenty aided secondary schools in Hong Kong were…

  11. Applying Learning Strategy Questionnaires: Problems and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellings, Gonny

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses measuring learning strategies by means of questionnaires. In "multi-method" research, in which think-aloud measures are compared with questionnaires, low or moderate correlations are found. A conclusion often drawn is that learners are not able to verbally report on their learning activities. Alternative explanations concern…

  12. Design Fixation and Cooperative Learning in Elementary Engineering Design Project: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Luo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study examining 3rd, 4th and 5th graders’ design fixation and cooperative learning in an engineering design project. A mixed methods instrument, the Cooperative Learning Observation Protocol (CLOP, was adapted to record frequency and class observation on cooperative learning engagement through detailed field notes. Students’ design journals and reflections were also analyzed for an inductive qualitative analysis. The findings indicate three major themes of design fixation: 1 fixation on common features of things; 2 fixation on popular teenage culture; 3 fixation on the first design idea. In the cooperative learning process of elementary engineering design project, although pupils had demonstrated some abilities to solve concrete problems in a logical fashion, the participants encountered a number of obstacles in the group. Dominance, social loafing, and other problems occurring in the group process might have offset certain benefits of cooperative learning. Implications of the findings are also discussed.

  13. [Flipped classroom as a strategy to enhance active learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews the introduction of a flipped class for fourth grade dentistry students, and analyzes the characteristics of the learning method. In fiscal 2013 and 2014, a series of ten three-hour units for removable partial prosthodontics were completed with the flipped class method; a lecture video of approximately 60 minutes was made by the teacher (author) and uploaded to the university's e-learning website one week before each class. Students were instructed to prepare for the class by watching the streaming video on their PC, tablet, or smartphone. In the flipped class, students were not given a lecture, but were asked to solve short questions displayed on screen, to make a short presentation about a part of the video lecture, and to discuss a critical question related to the main subject of the day. An additional team-based learning (TBL) session with individual and group answers was implemented. The average individual scores were considerably higher in the last two years, when the flipped method was implemented, than in the three previous years when conventional lectures were used. The following learning concepts were discussed: the role of the flipped method as an active learning strategy, the efficacy of lecture videos and short questions, students' participation in the class discussion, present-day value of the method, cooperation with TBL, the significance of active learning in relation with the students' learning ability, and the potential increase in the preparation time and workload for students.

  14. One4All Cooperative Media Access Strategy in Infrastructure Based Distributed Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank H.P.; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose the one4all cooperative access strategy to introduce a more efficient media access strategy for wireless networks. The one4all scheme is designed for the infrastructure based distributed wireless network architecture. The basic idea is that mobile devices can form...... a cooperative cluster using their short-range air interface and one device contends the channel for all the devices within the cluster. This strategy reduces the number of mobile devices involved in the collision process for the wireless medium resulting in larger throughput, smaller access delay, and less...... energy consumption. Based on an analytical model, the proposed strategy is compared with the two existing strategies RTS/CTS (request to send/ clear to send) and packet aggregation. The results show that the proposed cooperative scheme has similar throughput performance as packet aggregation and it has...

  15. Knowledge Strategies for Enhancing School Learning Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the knowledge strategies applied in aided secondary schools in Hong Kong and to explore the predictive relationship between knowledge strategies and school learning capacity. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional quantitative survey was designed to collect data from 427 teachers at 15…

  16. The Spread of Cooperative Strategies on Grids with Random Asynchronous Updating

    CERN Document Server

    Duffy, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Prisoner's Dilemma Process on a graph $G$ is an iterative process where each vertex, with a fixed strategy (\\emph{cooperate} or \\emph{defect}), plays the game with each of its neighbours. At the end of a round each vertex may change its strategy to that of its neighbour with the highest pay-off. Here we study the spread of cooperative and selfish behaviours on a toroidal grid, where each vertex is initially a cooperator with probability $p$. When vertices are permitted to change their strategies via a randomized asynchronous update scheme, we find that for some values of $p$ the limiting ratio of cooperators may be modelled as a polynomial in $p$. Theoretical bounds for this ratio are confirmed via simulation.

  17. Making strategy: learning by doing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, C M

    1997-01-01

    Companies find it difficult to change strategy for many reasons, but one stands out: strategic thinking is not a core managerial competence at most companies. Executives hone their capabilities by tackling problems over and over again. Changing strategy, however, is not usually a task that they face repeatedly. Once companies have found a strategy that works, they want to use it, not change it. Consequently, most managers do not develop a competence in strategic thinking. This Manager's Tool Kit presents a three-stage method executives can use to conceive and implement a creative and coherent strategy themselves. The first stage is to identify and map the driving forces that the company needs to address. The process of mapping provides strategy-making teams with visual representations of team members' assumptions, those pictures, in turn, enable managers to achieve consensus in determining the driving forces. Once a senior management team has formulated a new strategy, it must align the strategy with the company's resource-allocation process to make implementation possible. Senior management teams can translate their strategy into action by using aggregate project planning. And management teams that link strategy and innovation through that planning process will develop a competence in implementing strategic change. The author guides the reader through the three stages of strategy making by examining the case of a manufacturing company that was losing ground to competitors. After mapping the driving forces, the company's senior managers were able to devise a new strategy that allowed the business to maintain a competitive advantage in its industry.

  18. Reproductive Strategies of Northern Goshawks and Cooper's Hawks in North-Central New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Patricia L.

    1991-01-01

    I assumed that the reproductive strategies of the two Accipiter species investigated in this study, the northern Goshawk (A. gentilis) and the Cooper's hawk (A. cooperii), would be similar to the strategies of other monogamous raptors with sex role partitioning. Any differences in the species' reproductive strategies, particularly hunting strategies, were expected to be a function of their size differences. Contrary to predictions, results indicated that, in north-central New Mexico during br...

  19. Instructional Strategies to Facilitate Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunenburg, Frederick C.; Irby, Beverly J.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher behavior research has shown that teacher behaviors, as well as specific teaching strategies, make a difference with regard to student achievement. Ten durable instructional strategies are discussed: set induction, stimulus variation, reinforcement, questioning, recognizing attending behavior, lecturing or direct instruction, planned…

  20. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research methodology…

  1. Cooperative Learning Instruction for Conceptual Change in the Concepts of Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirik, Ozgecan Tastan; Boz, Yezdan

    2012-01-01

    Learning is a social event and so the students need learning environments that enable them to work with their peers so that they can learn through their interactions. This study discusses the effectiveness of cooperative learning compared to traditional instruction in terms of students' motivation and understanding of chemical kinetics in a high…

  2. The application of strategy of cooperative learning method of "effective interaction" teaching pattern of moral education in vocational schools%合作学习法在职业学校德育课“有效互动”教学模式中的应用策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓水英

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, the vocational school moral education subject teachers dedicated to mobilize students study enthusiasm, make effective moral education class exploration and attempt, strive to break through the existing difficulties students' quality, to find a suitable vocational education teaching mode for the road ahead. Therefore, our school moral education group actively carry out "effective interaction" teaching pattern in the research, the cooperative learning method into secondary vocational moral education class, efforts to build a highly efficient, harmonious, emotion, dynamic classroom of moral education. This paper from the application strategies of cooperative learning in secondary vocational moral education, utility and other issues discussed in this paper.%多年来,职业学校的德育学科教师致力于如何调动学生学习积极性、如何打造高效德育课堂的探索与尝试,力求突破现有学生素质的困境,寻找适合职业教育教学模式的康庄大道。因此,我校德育组积极开展“有效互动”教学模式的课题研究,将合作学习法引入中职德育课堂,努力打造一种高效、和谐、情感、动态的德育课堂。本文拟从合作学习法在中职德育课的应用策略、效用等问题展开探讨。

  3. Using technology-enhanced, cooperative, group-project learning for student comprehension and academic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Suhre, Cor; Hofman, Adriaan

    2016-05-01

    Cooperative learning may improve students' motivation, understanding of course concepts, and academic performance. This study therefore enhanced a cooperative, group-project learning technique with technology resources to determine whether doing so improved students' deep learning and performance. A sample of 118 engineering students, randomly divided into two groups, participated in this study and provided data through questionnaires issued before and after the experiment. The results, obtained through analyses of variance and structural equation modelling, reveal that technology-enhanced, cooperative, group-project learning improves students' comprehension and academic performance.

  4. Study strategies and approaches to learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter

    In this study students’ study strategies have been compared to their approaches to learning. The time students spend on different study activities has been investigated at the Technical University of Denmark, and as a pilot project a few students also filled in a reduced version of Bigg's Study...... Process Questionnaire to identify their approach to learning. It was hypothesised that the students’ learning approach would depend more on the quality of the study work than on the quantity; that an active and reflective study strategy was required to obtain deep conceptual understanding. The result....... There was however a much stronger linear correlation (significant at the 0.01 level) between the deep-surface ratio and the total study load. The same result was observed when measuring other students’ study strategy and learning approach for a single course. The empirical basis is still too limited to draw...

  5. Metacognitive awareness of learning strategies in undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Two studies examined undergraduates' metacognitive awareness of six empirically-supported learning strategies. Study 1 results overall suggested an inability to predict the learning outcomes of educational scenarios describing the strategies of dual-coding, static-media presentations, low-interest extraneous details, testing, and spacing; there was, however, weak endorsement of the strategy of generating one's own study materials. In addition, an independent measure of metacognitive self-regulation was correlated with scenario performance. Study 2 demonstrated higher prediction accuracy for students who had received targeted instruction on applied memory topics in their psychology courses, and the best performance for those students directly exposed to the original empirical studies from which the scenarios were derived. In sum, this research suggests that undergraduates are largely unaware of several specific strategies that could benefit memory for course information; further, training in applied learning and memory topics has the potential to improve metacognitive judgments in these domains.

  6. Russia and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Some Elements of Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Konarovsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The new geopolitical reality that resulted from the dissolution of the USSR created the conditions for the establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO in 2001. The successful settlement of border issues between Russia and Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan and Tajikistan as well as with China also facilitated the process. With Uzbekistan joining the “Shanghai Five,” a new regional organization emerged. The SCO’s priorities were in the security sphere and the fight against the proliferation of drugs, illegal migration and organized crime, given the requirements of the times and the specific regional situation (including that in Afghanistan. As one of the active founders, Russia has always taken a leading role in the SCO’s organizational, political and legal formation, including setting specific trends and forms of cooperation, taking common measures, and holding events. During its presidency in 2008–2009 and 2014–2015, Moscow made additional efforts to strengthen cooperation among the SCO members in meeting new regional security challenges and to agree on coordinated positions on the key issues on the international and regional agenda. To increase the SCO’s credibility and political significance, Moscow emphasized its expansion, particularly with regard to the Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt. With global political and economic development growing more complicated, in order to revitalize Russia’s role in the SCO it is necessary to strengthen cooperation with China. The strategic character of bilateral relations reaffirmed at the Russian-Chinese summit in the summer of 2016 set a solid foundation.

  7. TRAINING OF LEARNING STRATEGIES IN WRITING ESSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Edi Winarto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Writing essay is still considered difficult for English students to master. The students are expected to be able to express their ideas correctly without making any chance of messages to be misinterpreted by the readers; therefore, they have to know and use the best or the most appropriate ways to write. The purpose of writing this article is to introduce learning strategies and the possibility of training of learning strategies in writing essay to English students. The first strategy is integration of strategy with the process of writing essay: pre-writing, writing draft, and post-writing activities. The second is training learning strategies, such as memory, cognitive, compensation, metacognitive, affective, and social strategies to students to make writing essay easier, faster, more enjoyable, more effective, and more self-directed to achieve the desired result in their writing. To get better result of improvement, the model of training of learning strategies in writing essay should be applied and developed based on the appropriateness of teachers, learners, subjects, and situations.

  8. Espacial.com : a cooperative learning model in internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Poch, A.; Solans, R.

    Espacial.com is the leading and oldest internet site in Spanish language which reports 24 hours a day on space exploration. Moreover it is the only specialized site that has broadcasted live the main space events in the past years with expert comments in Spanish . From its first day, education is the main purpose of the site always with an international and multidisciplinary approach. Fernando Caldeiro, Class 16 NASA Astronaut, is the leading person in the project with his non-stop presence in the forums making valuable comments and answering questions from its young audience. We analyse the ongoing dynamics in the forum, and how a virtual community of space enthusiasts is created. We show that, because of the presence of some key factors (leadership, commitment to excel, motivation, communicative skills, ldots), it is possible to establish a high degree of compromise for learning although in an non-formal way. Cooperative learning is a well-known pedagogical technique which has proven its efficacy in different formal and non-formal areas. Using internet capabilities this technique proves to be an excellent approach to educational outreach on space-related subjects.

  9. Sharing for building. Efficacy processes of Cooperative Learning in multicultural contexts of primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Malusà

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies show the importance of social interaction as a paradigm of education and the efficacy of Cooperative Learning in promoting the development of relational competences that facilitate the learning process.In this contribution the author critically focuses on Cooperative Learning (Learning Together Technique in a multicultural class of a primary school in Trentino. The longitudinal case study - that involved 19 pupils, 38 parents and 13 teachers - was generated by the need to identify and enhance the efficacy elements which, first of all, help the establishment of an intercultural group based on trustworthy relationships and then can create a supporting environment for the class learning process.After a presentation of the chosen methodology, the author presents the results obtained in the three main areas (intercultural education, parents’ co-operation in school and Cooperative Learning efficacy, discussing the presence of specific synergistic factors of transferability to other contexts.

  10. Language Learning Strategies of Multilingual Adults Learning Additional Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrenko, Violetta

    2017-01-01

    The main goal consisted in identifying and bringing together strategies of multilinguals as a particular learner group. Therefore, research was placed in the intersection of the three fields: language learning strategies (LLS), third language acquisition (TLA), and the didactics of plurilingualism. First, the paper synthesises the major findings…

  11. Language Learning Strategies of Multilingual Adults Learning Additional Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrenko, Violetta

    2017-01-01

    The main goal consisted in identifying and bringing together strategies of multilinguals as a particular learner group. Therefore, research was placed in the intersection of the three fields: language learning strategies (LLS), third language acquisition (TLA), and the didactics of plurilingualism. First, the paper synthesises the major findings…

  12. Student Discussions in Cooperative Learning Groups in a High School Mathematics Classroom: A Descriptive Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan R.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers want and need students to excel in the classroom. Cooperative learning is one method recognized to address this. Numerous researchers have shown that cooperative learning leads to improved skills in teamwork and communication in other fields (Johnson and Johnson, 2007; Slavin, 1995). Cooperative learning used in this study showed that the…

  13. Language Learning Strategies of EFL College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Furwana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were (1 to investigate the most dominant language learning strategies (LLS used by sixth semester students of English Department of Tarbiyah Faculty at UIN Alauddin Makassar and (2 to find out the differences of using LLS between high achieving students and low achieving students. The result of the quantitative data through questionnaire showed that (1 metacognitive strategies was the most dominant LLS used, and (2 the high achieving students used metacognitive strategies with the highest preference and low achieving students used compensation strategies with the highest preference. The result of the qualitative data through think aloud showed that (1 the most dominant LLS employed by students were listening music, utilizing time for practicing and self-evaluating, (2 the most dominant LLS used by high achieving students were utilizing time for practicing, practicing English together and self-evaluating, whereas the most dominant LLS used by low achieving students were listening music, asking friend and selecting topic. The data were collected through documentation used to classify high achieving students and low achieving students based on their grade point average. It is concluded that the most dominant language learning strategies employed by students was metacognitive strategies. High achieving students employed different strategy than low achieving students. High achieving students used learning strategies more frequently than low achieving students.

  14. A Distributed Cooperative Dynamic Task Planning Algorithm for Multiple Satellites Based on Multi-agent Hybrid Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chong; LI Jun; JING Ning; WANG Jun; CHEN Hao

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally,heuristic re-planning algorithms are used to tackle the problem of dynamic task planning for multiple satellites.However,the traditional heuristic strategies depend on the concrete tasks,which often affect the result's optimality.Noticing that the historical information of cooperative task planning will impact the latter planning results,we propose a hybrid learning algorithrn for dynamic multi-satellite task planning,which is based on the multi-agent reinforcement learning of policy iteration and the transfer learning.The reinforcement learning strategy of each satellite is described with neural networks.The policy neural network individuals with the best topological structure and weights are found by applying co-evolutionary search iteratively.To avoid the failure of the historical learning caused by the randomly occurring observation requests,a novel approach is proposed to balance the quality and efficiency of the task planning,which converts the historical leaming strategy to the current initial learning strategy by applying the transfer learning algorithm.The simulations and analysis show the feasibility and adaptability of the proposed approach especially for the situation with randomly occurring observation requests.

  15. Cognitive Strategies in Learning Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormrod, Jeanne Ellis; And Others

    This report presents two experiments that compared the performance of map experts to that of novices. Subjects (from the areas of geography, educational psychology, and sociology) were 13 university faculty members in experiment one and 12 undergraduate students in experiment two. Following a practice trial, the learning of a logical map and a…

  16. Discussion on the Effectiveness of Cooperative Teaching and Learning%论教与学协作的有效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛彩花; 李军靠

    2013-01-01

      在新课改的推动下,协作学习越来越受到人们的重视。教与学的协作,不仅突出了教师教学的重要性,也体现了学生学习的主体性,然而在教师教学与学生学习的协作的过程中往往存在定位不准、流于形式、偏离主题以及缺乏引导等问题。从存在问题的原因来看,强化协作认知力、提高协作参与度、关注协作平等性以及评价协作多元化应是教与学有效协作的基本策略。%In the promotion of the new curriculum reform, cooper-ative learning has been paid more and more attention. Collabora-tion between teaching and learning not only highlights the impor-tance of teaching, but also reflects the subjectivity of students, however, there are still some problems exist in the process of teaching and learning, such as inaccurate positioning, in a mere formality, deviated from the theme and the lack of guidance and so on. From the reasons of these, it is the basic strategy of effec-tive collaboration between teaching and learning that strengthen-ing cooperation and cognitive ability, improving cooperation par-ticipation, focusing on cooperation equality and evaluation diver-sification of cooperation.

  17. Competition and cooperation among different punishing strategies in the spatial public goods game

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaojie; Perc, Matjaz

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the fact that people have diverse propensities to punish wrongdoers, we study a spatial public goods game with defectors and different types of punishing cooperators. During the game, cooperators punish defectors with class-specific probabilities and subsequently share the associated costs of sanctioning. We show that in the presence of different punishing cooperators the highest level of public cooperation is always attainable through a selection mechanism. Interestingly, the selection not necessarily favors the evolution of punishers who would be able to prevail on their own against the defectors, nor does it always hinder the evolution of punishers who would be unable to prevail on their own. Instead, the evolutionary success of punishing strategies depends sensitively on their invasion velocities, which in turn reveals fascinating examples of both competition and cooperation among them. Furthermore, we show that under favorable conditions, when punishment is not strictly necessary for the main...

  18. Optimal cooperation-trap strategies for the iterated rock-paper-scissors game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zedong Bi

    Full Text Available In an iterated non-cooperative game, if all the players act to maximize their individual accumulated payoff, the system as a whole usually converges to a Nash equilibrium that poorly benefits any player. Here we show that such an undesirable destiny is avoidable in an iterated Rock-Paper-Scissors (RPS game involving two rational players, X and Y. Player X has the option of proactively adopting a cooperation-trap strategy, which enforces complete cooperation from the rational player Y and leads to a highly beneficial and maximally fair situation to both players. That maximal degree of cooperation is achievable in such a competitive system with cyclic dominance of actions may stimulate further theoretical and empirical studies on how to resolve conflicts and enhance cooperation in human societies.

  19. Importance and difficulties of cooperative learning application in class teaching from teachers' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Marina Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on previous knowledge of cooperative learning two approaches stand out in researching the importance of cooperative learning: a the first approach tries to examine the effects, conditions and mechanisms by which educational outcomes are realized in the application of cooperative learning; and b the second approach moves the focus towards attitudes and perceptions of teachers and students on the relevance of cooperative learning. By applying descriptive-analytical technique we conducted a research aimed at examining the opinions of teachers (N=305 about the importance and difficulties in application of cooperative learning in the context of class teaching. The results show that the teachers had positive attitudes towards the importance of cooperative learning for reaching various educational goals and socio-affective and cognitive development of students. It turned out that the opinions of the teachers were not determined by the level of their education or work experience. Additionally, it turned out that the teachers' opinions about the difficulties of application in class are due more to work organization and were not assessed from the aspect of knowledge, attitudes and convictions of the participants in the teaching process. The obtained results, although generally encouraging for teaching practice indicate a need for further advancement of this segment of the teacher's work in order to understand better the value of cooperative learning and consider more critically the difficulties for its application in classroom.

  20. The cooperative monitoring of military forces: An exercise in strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This exercise examines a hypothetical security problem associated with conventional military forces and border security: a surprise attack. The goal of the exercise is to provide an opportunity to think about how cooperative monitoring can be part of regional security. Two hypothetical countries, VOLCANOES and MOUNTAINS, have been created for this exercise based on the US states of Arizona and New Mexico. They were selected for their size and variety of terrain. Hypothetical background information and characteristics of the two countries are provided. An outline of activities is given, including prioritization of security concerns and monitoring of objectives for security concerns. 6 tabs.

  1. Comprensive-cooperative learning of handball in physical education: Effect on the motivational climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Valls Castillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive-cooperative learning hybrid model in sport increases the effects of both strategies separately and promotes a more comprehensive and meaningful learning for students. However is still little used in Physical Education (PE and handball teaching. The participants in this study were 96 students, 31 in the experimental group and 65 in the control group, of 4th in Secondary Education. A quasi-experimental design was used with non-equivalent control group and pre-test and post-test measures to analyze the motivational climate variable. We used the perceived motivational climate in sport questionnaire-2 (PMCSQ-2. Non-parametric tests were applied (Wilcoxon and U of Mannwithney for related and for independent samples respectively.The results show significant differences (z = 2.88, p = 0.004 in the perceived motivational climate in experimental group versus control group, with similar records in the different elements of this variable. These data suggest that the hybrid model comprehensive-cooperative positively modifies student motivation and behavior towards PE classes and handball practice.

  2. 合作学习在大学英语阅读教学中的应用%Application of Cooperative Learning in College English Reading Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩艳会

    2015-01-01

    本文对合作性学习的内涵进行阐述,指出合作性学习运用应具备自主性阅读、培育合作意识、合作技能指导这三大条件,并在明确合作学习对学生英语学习的重要性基础上,重点探讨了合作学习在大学英语阅读教学中的应用策略,并就运用过程中突显的一些问题进行简述,希望可以有助于促进合作学习在英语阅读教学中的推广运用.%In this paper, the connotation of cooperative learning elaborate, noting the use of cooperative learning to read should have the autonomy to cultivate the sense of cooperation, collaboration skills to guide the three conditions and clear basis for cooperative learning for students on the importance of learning English, focuses on the cooperative learning strateg-ies in college English reading teaching, and to highlight some of the problems in the process of application were brief, hoping to contribute to the promotion and use of cooperative learning in English reading teaching.

  3. Strategies That Make Learning Last

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have asked college students how they study, and the results show that most use four inefficient strategies that do not often work: (1) reading assigned chapter, trying to understand individual sentences as he goes but not necessarily ensuring he's got the overall gist; (2) marking what he takes to be important points with a…

  4. Two success-biased social learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Ryan

    2013-06-01

    I compare the evolutionary dynamics of two success-biased social learning strategies, which, by definition, use the success of others to inform one's social learning decisions. The first, "Compare Means", causes a learner to adopt cultural variants with highest mean payoff in her sample. The second, "Imitate the Best", causes a learner to imitate the single most successful individual in her sample. I summarize conditions under which each strategy performs well or poorly, and investigate their evolution via a gene-culture coevolutionary model. Despite the adaptive appeal of these strategies, both encounter conditions under which they systematically perform worse than simply imitating at random. Compare Means performs worst when the optimal cultural variant is usually at high frequency, while Imitate the Best performs worst when suboptimal variants sometimes produce high payoffs. The extent to which it is optimal to use success-biased social learning depends strongly on the payoff distributions and environmental conditions that human social learners face.

  5. Hi-Tek Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Selman; Jerry Selman

    2011-01-01

    Unorthodox ways currently used in colleges to accelerate the velocity of learning are reviewed. To augment persuasion and articulation ability of business school students, stand-up comedy is used (University of Chicago). Song writing, storytelling and improvisation (VanderbiltUniversity-Owens Management), and for Shakespearean motivation for other management skills at the corporate execu-tive level (Northrup Grumman). Food chow-down, before and during classes, including pizza and chocolate ca...

  6. The impact of cooperative learning on student engagement: Results from an intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Kim Jesper

    2013-01-01

    education. However, empirical evidence of the impact of cooperative learning at the university level is still limited. This study reports the result of a quasi-experimental real-life intervention with cooperative learning in an undergraduate course. In-class participation and student approaches to learning......With an increasing awareness that many undergraduates are passive during teaching sessions, calls for instructional methods that allow students to become actively engaged have increased. Cooperative learning has long been popular at the primary and secondary level and, within recent years, higher...... were measured before and after the intervention to assess the impact on 140 students’ engagement levels. In addition, open-ended comments were analysed, revealing what faculty adopting cooperative learning principles in higher education should be especially aware of....

  7. Study strategies and approaches to learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter

    Process Questionnaire to identify their approach to learning. It was hypothesised that the students’ learning approach would depend more on the quality of the study work than on the quantity; that an active and reflective study strategy was required to obtain deep conceptual understanding. The result...... showed a weak correlation between the student’s main learning approach as defined by the ratio of the deep approach score to the surface approach score and the student’s study intensity as identified by the ratio of non-scheduled independent activities to scheduled teacher-controlled activities....... There was however a much stronger linear correlation (significant at the 0.01 level) between the deep-surface ratio and the total study load. The same result was observed when measuring other students’ study strategy and learning approach for a single course. The empirical basis is still too limited to draw...

  8. Competition and cooperation among different punishing strategies in the spatial public goods game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-07-01

    Inspired by the fact that people have diverse propensities to punish wrongdoers, we study a spatial public goods game with defectors and different types of punishing cooperators. During the game, cooperators punish defectors with class-specific probabilities and subsequently share the associated costs of sanctioning. We show that in the presence of different punishing cooperators the highest level of public cooperation is always attainable through a selection mechanism. Interestingly, the selection does not necessarily favor the evolution of punishers who would be able to prevail on their own against the defectors, nor does it always hinder the evolution of punishers who would be unable to prevail on their own. Instead, the evolutionary success of punishing strategies depends sensitively on their invasion velocities, which in turn reveals fascinating examples of both competition and cooperation among them. Furthermore, we show that under favorable conditions, when punishment is not strictly necessary for the maintenance of public cooperation, the less aggressive, mild form of sanctioning is the sole victor of the selection process. Our work reveals that natural strategy selection cannot only promote, but sometimes also hinders competition among prosocial strategies.

  9. Learning Strategies-A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Elaboration, Relationships, Understanding, Sign Language and Reinforcement, Ease of Studying, and Selection/Retention. Smith, D. E. P. (1961). Learning to...and cognitive skills in reading acquisition. In D. D. Duane and M. B. Rawson (Eds.), Reading Perception and Language : Papers from the World Congress on... Dyslexia . Baltimore, MD: York Press. Cook, L.K. & Mayer, R.E. (1983). Reading strategies training for meaningful learning from prose. In M. Pressley

  10. Impact of E-Learning Strategy on Students' Academic Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of E-Learning Strategy on Students' Academic Performance at Strathmore University, Kenya. ... Makerere Journal of Higher Education. Journal Home · ABOUT ... of e-learning. Keywords: Teaching and Learning; E-learning; ICT.

  11. Cognitive strategies take advantage of the cooperative potential of heterogeneous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukov, Jeromos; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the emergence and maintenance of cooperation is one of the most challenging topics of our time. Evolutionary game theory offers a very flexible framework within which to address this challenge. Here we use the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate the performance of individuals who are capable of adopting reactive strategies in communities structurally organized by means of Barabási-Albert scale-free networks. We find that basic cognitive abilities, such as the capability to distinguish their partners and act according to their previous actions, enable cooperation to thrive. This result is particularly significant whenever fear is the leading social tension, as this fosters retaliation, thus enforcing and sustaining cooperation. Being able to simultaneously reward fellow cooperators and punish defectors proves instrumental in achieving cooperation and the welfare of the community. As a result, central individuals can successfully lead the community and turn defective players into cooperative ones. Finally, even when participation costs—known to be detrimental to cooperation in scale-free networks—are explicitly included, we find that basic cognitive abilities have enough potential to help cooperation to prevail.

  12. Evolution of cooperation in the snowdrift game among mobile players with random-pairing and reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ning; Ma, Shoufeng

    2013-11-01

    The evolutionary spatial game in a mobile population has attracted many researchers of biological, social and economic sciences. Considering some facts observed in the real world, this paper proposes a novel spatial evolutionary snowdrift game model with movable players. In this model, one player interacts only with the nearest neighbor in each turn, and makes decision in a reinforcement learning way. In a very large range of the parameters moving ability enhances cooperation, but under some special condition, velocity heavily depresses cooperation. Some explanations have also been given out by investigating the strategy-change behavior of players. The findings may be helpful in understanding cooperative behavior in natural and social systems consisting of mobile agents.

  13. STRATEGIES FOR ACTION AND PUBLIC POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF THE THIRD DEGREE COOPERATIVES IN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches the impact of the Argentine cooperative entities representing the contemporary public policy. We present a case study of the two largest third-degree cooperatives in the country, discuss the goals and strategies in interactions with State agencies. The results of the actions of actors define goals and strategies that can be convergent and / or divergent. We conclude that the links have been built with the State federations selected characteristics of complementarily and cooperation in general. Also, the power to influence the organizations surveyed in the definition of public policies is not only equity, but mainly the political opportunities and the ability to inter-stakeholder alliances through collective strategies.

  14. OPTIMAL POWER ALLOCATION WITH AF AND SDF STRATEGIES IN DUAL-HOP COOPERATIVE MIMO NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiaorong; Zheng Baoyu; Zhang Jianwu

    2010-01-01

    Dual-hop cooperative Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) network with multi-relay cooperative communication is introduced. Power allocation problem with Amplify-and-Forward (AF) and Selective Decode-and-Forward (SDF) strategies in multi-node scenario are formulated and solved respectively. Optimal power allocation schemes that maximize system capacity with AF strategy are presented. In addition,optimal power allocation methods that minimize asymptotic Symbol Error Rate (SER) with SDF cooperative protocol in multi-node scenario are also proposed. Furthermore,performance comparisons are provided in terms of system capacity and approximate SER. Numerical and simulation results confirm our theoretical analysis. It is revealed that,maximum system capacity could be obtained when powers are allocated optimally with AF protocol,while minimization of system's SER could also be achieved with optimum power allocation in SDF strategy. In multi-node scenario,those optimal power allocation algorithms are superior to conventional equal power allocation schemes.

  15. A Combined Cooperative Braking Model with a Predictive Control Strategy in an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqiang Guo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative braking with regenerative braking and mechanical braking plays an important role in electric vehicles for energy-saving control. Based on the parallel and the series cooperative braking models, a combined model with a predictive control strategy to get a better cooperative braking performance is presented. The balance problem between the maximum regenerative energy recovery efficiency and the optimum braking stability is solved through an off-line process optimization stream with the collaborative optimization algorithm (CO. To carry out the process optimization stream, the optimal Latin hypercube design (Opt LHD is presented to discrete the continuous design space. To solve the poor real-time problem of the optimization, a high-precision predictive model based on the off-line optimization data of the combined model is built, and a predictive control strategy is proposed and verified through simulation. The simulation results demonstrate that the predictive control strategy and the combined model are reasonable and effective.

  16. Robustness of linkage strategy that leads to large-scale cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Misato; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2016-11-21

    One of the most well-known models to characterize cooperation among unrelated individuals is Social dilemma (SD). However there is no consensus about how to solve the SD by itself. Since SDs are often embedded in other social interactions, including indirect reciprocity games (IR), human can coordinate their behaviors across multiple games. Such coordination is called 'linkage'. Recently linkage has been considered as a promising solution to resolve SDs, since excluding SD defectors (i.e. those who defected in SD) from indirectly reciprocal relationships functions as a costless sanction. A previous study performed mathematical modeling and revealed that a linkage strategy, which cooperates in SD and engages in the Standing strategy in IR based on the recipients' behaviors in both SD and IR, was an ESS against a non-linkage strategy which defects in SD and engages in the Standing strategy in IR based on recipients' behaviors only in IR (Panchanathan and Boyd, 2004). In order to investigate the robustness of the linkage strategy, we devised a non-linkage strategy, which cooperates in SD but does not link two games. First, we conducted a mathematical analysis and demonstrated that the linkage strategy was not an ESS against cooperating non-linkage strategy. Second, we conducted a series of agent-based computer simulations to examine how the strategies perform in situations in which various types of errors can occur. Our results showed that the linkage strategy was an ESS only when there are implementation errors in SD. However, the equilibrium of the linkage strategy was unstable when there are perception errors. Since we know that humans are not free from perception errors in their social life, future studies will need to show how perception errors can be overcome in order to provide support for the conclusion that linkage is a plausible solution to SDs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interfrm Cooperation Strategy of Hyper-Growth and Stable-Growth ICT Firms in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Golonka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to compare the phenomenon of interfrm cooperation strategy in both hyper-growth, and stable-growth knowledge and technology–intensive frms, in a country characterized by a high level of generalized trust: Sweden. Methodology: Qualitative methods were incorporated: direct semistructured interviews with top managers in 13 ICT frms (8 hyper-growth and 5 stable-growth, analyzis of reports, corporate websites and press releases. Furthermore, interviews in 3 expert frms in the industry were conducted, facilitating interfrm cooperation. Conclusions: There were signifcant differences in interfrm cooperation strategy in two distinguished groups of the frms: hyper-growth, and stable-growth. Managers’ individual approaches to uncertainty, strategy and cooperation might be more important than institutional settings. The ICT frms operate in a constantly changing global environment and local context seems to have only a minor impact on the rules of the game in the industry. Research limitations: This study was a qualitative explorative approach as an introduction to further empirical research. Originality: The study presents an interfrm cooperation phenomenon incorporating different perspectives and settings. It contributes to alliance portfolio literature (forming and managing of alliance portfolio in a different context/country/industry, and enhances understanding of frm strategies characterized by different growth rates.

  18. Evaluation of teaching and learning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Lechner

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available With the growing awareness of the importance of teaching and learning in universities and the need to move towards evidence-based teaching, it behooves the professions to re-examine their educational research methodology. While the what, how and why of student learning have become more explicit, the professions still struggle to find valid methods of evaluating the explosion of new innovation in teaching/learning strategies. This paper discusses the problems inherent in applying traditional experimental design techniques to advances in educational practice.

  19. Who Knows? Metacognitive Social Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-03-01

    To make good use of learning from others (social learning), we need to learn from the right others; from agents who know better than we do. Research on social learning strategies (SLSs) has identified rules that focus social learning on the right agents, and has shown that the behaviour of many animals conforms to these rules. However, it has not asked what the rules are made of, that is, about the cognitive processes implementing SLSs. Here, I suggest that most SLSs depend on domain-general, sensorimotor processes. However, some SLSs have the characteristics tacitly ascribed to all of them. These metacognitive SLSs represent 'who knows' in a conscious, reportable way, and have the power to promote cultural evolution.

  20. Reassessing biological threats: Implications for cooperative mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharine Grace Young

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple factors ranging from globalization to ecosystem disruption are presenting the global community with evolving biological threats to local, national, and global security that reach beyond the realm of traditional bioweapons threats. As a result, mitigation strategies have adapted necessarily to the increased diversity of biological threats. In general, response and preparedness strategies have largely shifted from being primarily reactive to traditional biological weapons to more proactive in nature. In this review, we briefly explore biological threats through a wider aperture, to embrace a deeper appreciation of viral pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and agricultural pathogens, and their potential to cause civil, economic, and political devastation. In addition we discuss current mitigation strategies codified by the Global Health Security Agenda and the One Health paradigm, as well as some of the available tools to assist with their sustainable implementation.

  1. Incorporating Learning Strategies into ELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武海燕

    2002-01-01

    近年来的大量研究表明,影响学生学习效果的一个很重要的因素就是学习者在自我学习过程中所采取的学习策略。学习策略是指学习者个人根据自己的实际情况、学习目的、学习条件等而灵活运用的学习方法。学习策略可以分为认知策略(cognitive strategies)、元认知策略(metacognitive strategles)和社会情感策略(so-cioaffective strategies)。笔者在分析当前英语教学研究趋势的基础上,阐述了学习策略的定义、种类及在英语学习中的作用,并提出了在英语教学中培养学生英语学习策略的方法。

  2. A Study on Cooperative Learning to Promote Learner Autonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Mingjing; Li Jingfei

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore how Cooperative Learning (CL) activities can promote learner autonomy by examining several CL activities used in two non-major English classes.CL activities,such as collaborative group work and peer review activities,are designed to involve all the group members. Thus,it is possible to keep an effective learning process:CL activities→enhanced motivation→more autonomous learning. At the end of the semester,a questionnaire was given out to the learners,which could show they feel more motivated to study. Based on the learners' feedback on the CL activities and their expectations of the teacher showed in the questionnaire,some aspects that teachers should take into consideration in such teaching process are elaborated:①pre-class lesson preparation and curriculum design,②in-class collaboration and interaction,③after-class reflection,④the teacher’s role.%通过对两个非英语专业班级的若干合作学习活动的研究探讨了合作学习如何提高学习者的自主学习能力。设计了合作学习的各种活动如小组活动和同学互评等使所有学生参与其中。如此能让学生保持有效的学习过程:合作学习→提高动力→自主学习。学期末对学生的问卷调查显示学生的学习动力得到明显提高。同时基于学生对合作学习活动和对老师的期望的反馈本文也阐述了教师在教学中应考虑的一些问题:①课前准备和课程设计,②课堂合作与互动,③课后反思,④教师角色。

  3. Language Learning Strategies in Second & Foreign Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEUCHI, Osamu; 竹内, 理

    1991-01-01

    This article is an attempt to the work on language learning strategies(LLS) in second & foreign language acquisiton (SFLA) research, and to give suggestions for future language learning strategies research. In the first section, I will discuss briefly the background of language learning strategies reserch, and in the ensuing sections, I will review articles on: (ⅰ) the identification & classification of language learning strategies; (ⅱ) the variables affecting the use of language learning str...

  4. Situating Students' Motivation in Cooperative Learning Contexts: Proposing Different Levels of Goal Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-In; Kim, Myoungsook; Svinicki, Marilla D.

    2012-01-01

    The present studies aimed to reexamine college students' achievement goal orientations by situating their motivation in a cooperative learning context. The authors proposed and validated a scale of 3 levels of trichotomous achievement goal orientations. In Study 1, confirmatory factor analyses supported that, in laboratory cooperative learning…

  5. Cooperative Learning about Nature of Science with a Case from the History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensberger, Balz; Canella, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a predominantly qualitative classroom study on cooperative learning about nature of science (NOS) using a case from the history of science. The purpose of the research was to gain insight into how students worked with the historical case study during cooperative group work, how students and teachers assessed the teaching unit,…

  6. The Attitude of Math Teachers toward Cooperative Learning and Institutional Elements that May Help or Hinder its Use as a Teaching Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gerardo Meza-Cascante

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research conducted in high schools in the central region of the Cartago province, Costa Rica. The goal of the research was to determine the attitude of high school math teachers toward cooperative learning in math and identify factors in secondary education institutions that can help or hinder the implementation of cooperative learning as a strategy for teaching mathematics. The research was conducted with 39 secondary education math teachers, who participated in a workshop on cooperative learning in mathematics. The attitude toward this methodology was measured by using semantic differential. This information was triangulated with data obtained from non-participant observation. A combination of in-depth interviews and non-participant observation was used to access data that identifies institutional factors helping or hindering the implementation of math cooperative learning. Findings suggest a positive attitude from teachers toward integrating cooperative work as a teaching strategy to promote math learning and toward the role played by school principals in the adoption of educational innovations. It also reveals that high schools have adequate material conditions to implement the methodology, although the need for training is considered. This finding should be taken into account by the proponents of this methodological option.

  7. Do Young Learners Exploit the Same Learning Strategies as Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrozková, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Learning strategies are considered to be one of the key factors affecting the learning process, its effectiveness and study results. They are important for lifelong learning of foreign languages and as a learning skill they represent a priority in the process of European globalization and integration. Moreover, learning strategies as a foreign…

  8. Active Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…

  9. Learning Strategies in Acquisition of Medical Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田俊英; 蒋东坡

    2016-01-01

    Medical vocabulary consists of so many words and terms.Medical students are often terrified by large vocabulary.The paper aimed to analyze the problems lie in acquisition of medical vocabulary,review literature of learning strategies of medical vocabulary,and offers a few simple rules for students to follow to facilitate their acquisition of medical vocabulary.

  10. Foreign Language Learning Difficulties and Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tiffini

    2008-01-01

    Beginning foreign language (FL) courses in high school often have high numbers of learning disabled (LED) and at-risk students, perhaps because many students who are considered to be college bound begin foreign language study in middle school. This paper examines FL difficulties as well as effective strategies that others have used to conquer…

  11. Applying learning strategy questionnaires: problems and possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellings, G.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses measuring learning strategies by means of questionnaires. In ‘multi-method’ research, in which think-aloud measures are compared with questionnaires, low or moderate correlations are found. A conclusion often drawn is that learners are not able to verbally report on their lear

  12. Language Learning Strategies and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomoossi, Nematullah; Kooshan, Mohsen; Ketabi, Saeed

    2008-01-01

    The role of learner's strategies and skills in learning a foreign language has been investigated in the last three decades. However, the part it plays in ESP achievement tests is not seriously treated. Moreover, as students take the final exam, their chief complaint concerns the idea of test anxiety as a debilitating factor. Therefore, the present…

  13. Identifying Language Learning Strategies: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    This is a small scale, inductive, ethnographic study whose objective is to explore the language learning strategies used by the students of different languages at a language program at the university level. Students of English, French, Portuguese, Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, Italian, and German participate in the study. Three instruments are used…

  14. Capacity development or new learning spaces through municipal international cooperation : Policy mobility at work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, E.; Baud, I.; Bontenbal, M.; Hordijk, M.; van Lindert, P.; Nijenhuis, G.; van Westen, G.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of strengthening local governments is widely recognised as local governments face new challenges against the backdrop of global decentralisation processes. Municipal International Cooperation (MIC) contributes strategically to such processes by peer-to-peer learning within existing lo

  15. Capacity development or new learning spaces through municipal international cooperation: policy mobility at work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, E.; Baud, I.; Bontenbal, M.; Hordijk, M.; van Lindert, P.; Nijenhuis, G.; van Westen, G.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of strengthening local governments is widely recognised as local governments face new challenges against the backdrop of global decentralisation processes. Municipal International Cooperation (MIC) contributes strategically to such processes by peer-to-peer learning within existing lo

  16. RELATION BETWEEN COOPERATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING WITH THE COMPETITIVENESS IN AN INTERORGANIZATIONAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Zonta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the relationship between cooperation and organizational learning with competitiveness in a small and medium enterprises (SME network, with business of the groups of the Commercial and Industrial Association of Chapecó (ACIC. The methodology used was quantitative, with the factorial analysis. Currently, ACIC has 14 groups and 236 SME´s nucleated, developing joint activities of economic and social sustainability in Chapecó. The theoretical study raised concepts already endorsed by the scientific community on interorganizational networks, competitiveness, cooperation and organizational learning. The results demonstrated that indicators related to cooperation and learning in horizontal networks are characterized as antecedents of competitiveness in organizational networks, and that there is a positive correlation between the constructs cooperation and organizational learning with competitiveness construct. The study confirms the belief that small businesses associated in networks can increase their competitiveness, thus contributing to regional development.

  17. A Unit on "Fahrenheit 451" That Uses Cooperative Learning (Resources and Reviews).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbers, Frances A.

    1991-01-01

    Provides a curriculum unit using the novel "Fahrenheit 451" to provide student-centered activities based on solid pedagogical methodology. Emphasizes value-centered analysis of the novel, comparison of alternative arguments, and integration of cooperative learning activities. (PRA)

  18. Blackboxing: social learning strategies and cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-05-05

    Social learning strategies (SLSs) enable humans, non-human animals, and artificial agents to make adaptive decisions aboutwhenthey should copy other agents, andwhothey should copy. Behavioural ecologists and economists have discovered an impressive range of SLSs, and explored their likely impact on behavioural efficiency and reproductive fitness while using the 'phenotypic gambit'; ignoring, or remaining deliberately agnostic about, the nature and origins of the cognitive processes that implement SLSs. Here I argue that this 'blackboxing' of SLSs is no longer a viable scientific strategy. It has contributed, through the 'social learning strategies tournament', to the premature conclusion that social learning is generally better than asocial learning, and to a deep puzzle about the relationship between SLSs and cultural evolution. The puzzle can be solved by recognizing that whereas most SLSs are 'planetary'--they depend on domain-general cognitive processes--some SLSs, found only in humans, are 'cook-like'--they depend on explicit, metacognitive rules, such ascopy digital natives. These metacognitive SLSs contribute to cultural evolution by fostering the development of processes that enhance the exclusivity, specificity, and accuracy of social learning.

  19. COOPERATIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT WITH THE WEB 2.0 TOOL E-PORTFOLIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soh OR KAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of information and communication technology (ICT in the world and Malaysia namely has created a significant impact on the methods of communicating information and knowledge to the learners and consequently, innovative teaching techniques have evolved to change the ways teachers teach and the ways students learn. This study main focuses are directed on developing a cooperative learning environment to promote an active learning environment of smart schools in Malaysia. Within this learning process, multimedia technology and Web 2.0 tools, namely, MyPortfolio were integrated to provide the students to learn on their own as well as to document their progress and experience within this cooperative learning environment. The core purpose of this study is to establish the impact on student learning, their perceptions and learning experiences of the cooperative learning environment using web 2.0 tools among the smart secondary schools students in Malaysia. Surveys were conducted to students to ascertain their reaction towards these learning environment activities. The results of this project were encouraging as the students managed to cope with each other to reach their common goal. The usage of blogs acts as an important tool to enhance team cooperation and to foster a learning community within the class.

  20. Facilitating vocabulary learning through metacognitive strategy training and learning journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Luz Trujillo Becerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a mixed- method action research study carried out with participants from three public high schools in different regions in Colombia: Bogotá, Orito and Tocaima.  The overall aim of this study was to analyze whether training in the use of metacognitive strategies (MS through learning journals could improve the participants’ vocabulary learning. The data, collected mainly through students’ learning journals, teachers’ field notes, questionnaires and mind maps, was analyzed following the principles of grounded theory. The results suggested that the training helped participants to develop metacognitive awareness of their vocabulary learning process and their lexical competence regarding daily routines.  Participants also displayed some improvements in critical thinking and self-directed attitudes that could likewise benefit their vocabulary learning. Finally, the study proposes that training in metacognitive and vocabulary strategies should be implemented in language classrooms to promote a higher degree of student control over learning and to facilitate the transference of these strategies to other areas of knowledge.

  1. A strategic conflict avoidance approach based on cooperative coevolutionary with the dynamic grouping strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiangmin; Zhang, Xuejun; Wei, Jian; Hwang, Inseok; Zhu, Yanbo; Cai, Kaiquan

    2016-07-01

    Conflict avoidance plays a crucial role in guaranteeing the safety and efficiency of the air traffic management system. Recently, the strategic conflict avoidance (SCA) problem has attracted more and more attention. Taking into consideration the large-scale flight planning in a global view, SCA can be formulated as a large-scale combinatorial optimisation problem with complex constraints and tight couplings between variables, which is difficult to solve. In this paper, an SCA approach based on the cooperative coevolution algorithm combined with a new decomposition strategy is proposed to prevent the premature convergence and improve the search capability. The flights are divided into several groups using the new grouping strategy, referred to as the dynamic grouping strategy, which takes full advantage of the prior knowledge of the problem to better deal with the tight couplings among flights through maximising the chance of putting flights with conflicts in the same group, compared with existing grouping strategies. Then, a tuned genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to different groups simultaneously to resolve conflicts. Finally, the high-quality solutions are obtained through cooperation between different groups based on cooperative coevolution. Simulation results using real flight data from the China air route network and daily flight plans demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reduce the number of conflicts and the average delay effectively, outperforming existing approaches including GAs, the memetic algorithm, and the cooperative coevolution algorithms with different well-known grouping strategies.

  2. Economic trade-offs amongst production diversification strategies in Brazilian coffee cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellipe Silva Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian agricultural cooperatives have seen an unprecedented growth in production in the last decade which has led to several different product diversification strategies. Almost all studies in Brazil focus on the financial outcome of these strategies but few empirical studies have addressed them properly. Even fewer researches have dealt with the causes and possible strategies for the diversification of such cooperatives and their impact on their strategic planning. Hence, this paper aims at comprehending the different strategies in operations management for production diversification in coffee-producing cooperatives in south-eastern Brazil. This was done through a multi-case analysis comprising 6 coffee-producing cooperatives. The research analysed both verbal (through interviews and non-verbal (multi-criteria decision analysis responses to the causes of their diversification behaviours. It was possible to find out that most of the cooperatives’ rationale for diversifying is their pre-emptive response to financial crisis followed by increasing the number of associates as a strategy to overcome this economic struggle.

  3. Subsistence styles shape human social learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Luke; Molleman, Lucas

    2017-04-28

    Social learning is a fundamental element of human cognition. Learning from others facilitates the transmission of information that helps individuals and groups rapidly adjust to new environments and underlies adaptive cultural evolution1-6. While basic human propensities for social learning are traditionally assumed to be species-universal1,7, recent empirical studies show that they vary between individuals and populations8-13. Yet the causes of this variation remain poorly understood9. Here we show that interdependence in everyday social and economic activities can strongly amplify social learning. With an experimental decision-making task we examine individual versus social learning in three recently diverged populations of a single-ethnic group, whose subsistence styles require varying degrees of interdependence. Interdependent pastoralists and urban dwellers have markedly higher propensities for social learning than independent horticulturalists, who predominantly rely on individual payoff information. These results indicate that everyday social and economic practices can mould human social learning strategies and they highlight the flexibility of human cognition to change with local ecology. Our study further suggests that shifts in subsistence styles - which can occur when humans inhabit new habitats or cultural niches2 - can alter reliance on social learning and may therefore impact the ability of human societies to adapt to novel circumstances.

  4. Metacognitive strategies in learning sight-singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a part of a wider study that is based on interdisciplinary research of sight-singing (psychology and music education. Our intention was to join the psychological knowledge of cognitive processes on the one hand, and the practical approach of music teachers, based on methods, techniques and procedures of mastering sight-reading-singing skills on the other. We aimed: 1. to determine the kinds and levels of strategies that music students use in the cognitive processes involved during sight-singing; 2. to explore strategies of problem solving when difficulties appear; 3. to investigate the self-evaluation perspectives of students; and 4. to relate students' learning experience to the strategies used. The sample consisted of 89 music students from higher music education in Belgrade and The Hague. They filled in the questionnaire based on self-reports, covering general data about their music education background, different issues of sight-singing, such as planning, problem solving, monitoring and evaluation of outcomes, and three melodic examples written in different musical styles. Results showed that strategies used during sight-singing can be roughly sorted into three groups that differ according to the 'key accent' given: cognitive, intuitive and no-strategy. The music cognitive strategies involved cover three levels of musical organization and representation: a relying on smaller chunks of the musical piece, referring to existing knowledge and learning experience; b leaning on a slightly 'bigger picture' of familiar patterns; and c mental representation of melodic/rhythmic/harmonic structures. When faced with a problem, half of the students employed analytic approaches. Comparisons between sub-samples showed, for example, that future performing musicians more often used 'tone-to-tone' thinking and 'bottom-up' strategies in approaching musical structure, while music theory students had better insight into the whole and used

  5. Cooperative Learning in Oral English Classroom Teaching in Higher Vocational Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong-mei

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative learning in spoken English teaching process occupies an important position. It is a relatively new teaching method to provide students with more opportunities to speak English, to reduce the tension of the students, to enhance the en⁃thusiasm of the students to participate in the oral group activities, and to improve the students' English speaking ability significant⁃ly. Cooperative learning has been widely used in teaching practice, but in spoken English classroom teaching, it is not be used completely.

  6. A Radio Resource Management strategy for downlink cooperation in distributed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pischella, Mylene

    2007-01-01

    Downlink cooperation between Base Stations is a simple, efficient alternative to macrodiversity for providing QoS continuity during mobility in distributed cellular networks. It brings cooperation diversity and only requires data forwarding between Base Stations. This paper presents a strategy for downlink cooperation triggering, resource allocation and power control in an OFDMA-based system. Power control aims at maximizing the equivalent capacity that is achieved thanks to the diversity brought by relaying, while taking into account inter-cell interference. We use an iterative method which dedicates a proportion of the total power to relayed users. Simulation results show that our method increases capacity at any load. It importantly reduces the rejection probability thanks to SIR increase of users at cell's border. The paper also shows that cooperation should be limited to cell-border users for restricting additional resource consumption, and that it should make use of diversity as much as possible.

  7. How People Learn in an Asynchronous Online Learning Environment: The Relationships between Graduate Students' Learning Strategies and Learning Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Beomkyu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between learners' learning strategies and learning satisfaction in an asynchronous online learning environment. In an attempt to shed some light on how people learn in an online learning environment, one hundred and sixteen graduate students who were taking online learning courses…

  8. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Liu, Wei; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  9. Mathematical Modeling of Cooperative E-Learning Performance in Face to Face Tutoring (Ant Colony System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mohammed Mustafa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigational analysis and evaluation of cooperative learning phenomenon is an interdisciplinary and challenging educational research issue. Educationalists have been interesting in modeling of human's cooperative learning to investigate its analogy with some learning aspects of observed social insect behavior. Specifically, this paper presents realistic modeling inspired from interdisciplinary integrated fields of ecology, education ,and animal behavior learning sciences. Presented modeling considers cooperative behavioral learning at ant colony system (ACS. That's motivated by qualitative simulation results obtained after running of an ACS algorithm searching for optimal solution of Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP. In the context of computational intelligence ; cooperative ACS algorithm reaches optimal TSP solution analogously to convergence process of Hebbian coincidence learning paradigm. Moreover, suggested mathematical modeling presents diversity of positive interdependence aspect observed during human's interactive cooperative learning. Interestingly, presented analysis and evaluation of mathematically modeled practical insights of adopted phenomenon, may shed light on promising future enhancement of cooperative learning performance.

  10. Cooperation and Coordination Between Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning Agents in Continuous State Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenji, Hamid R.; Vengerov, David

    1999-01-01

    Successful operations of future multi-agent intelligent systems require efficient cooperation schemes between agents sharing learning experiences. We consider a pseudo-realistic world in which one or more opportunities appear and disappear in random locations. Agents use fuzzy reinforcement learning to learn which opportunities are most worthy of pursuing based on their promise rewards, expected lifetimes, path lengths and expected path costs. We show that this world is partially observable because the history of an agent influences the distribution of its future states. We consider a cooperation mechanism in which agents share experience by using and-updating one joint behavior policy. We also implement a coordination mechanism for allocating opportunities to different agents in the same world. Our results demonstrate that K cooperative agents each learning in a separate world over N time steps outperform K independent agents each learning in a separate world over K*N time steps, with this result becoming more pronounced as the degree of partial observability in the environment increases. We also show that cooperation between agents learning in the same world decreases performance with respect to independent agents. Since cooperation reduces diversity between agents, we conclude that diversity is a key parameter in the trade off between maximizing utility from cooperation when diversity is low and maximizing utility from competitive coordination when diversity is high.

  11. Assessing the Effect of Cooperative Learning on Financial Accounting Achievement among Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Inuwa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of cooperative learning approach on financial accounting achievement among secondary school students in Gombe state, Nigeria. A pre-test-post-test-control group design was adopted. 120 students participated in the study were selected randomly from six schools. The students were divided into two equal groups, namely: experimental (i.e., cooperative learning approach and control group (i.e., conventional approach, both at random. A Financial Accounting Achievement Test (FAAT was used as an instrument for data collection. The study found that at the pre-test stage, there was no statistically significant difference between the achievement of cooperative learning students and conventional approach students, the results suggested that the students were initially equal in terms of their achievements. Nevertheless, at the post-test stage, the achievement of students who were exposed to the cooperative learning was found to be significantly better than the achievement of students who were exposed to the conventional approach. The findings further suggested that cooperative learning approach effectively enhanced the financial accounting achievement of the secondary school students. It is, therefore, recommended that government should encourage both curriculum planners and secondary schools’ teachers to adopt cooperative learning approach as an instructional approach for teaching financial accounting in secondary schools to improve students’ achievement in the subject.

  12. SISL and SIRL: Two knowledge dissemination models with leader nodes on cooperative learning networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Yumei; Man, Jiayu; Zhou, Yun; Wu, Xiaojun

    2017-02-01

    Cooperative learning is one of the most effective teaching methods, which has been widely used. Students' mutual contact forms a cooperative learning network in this process. Our previous research demonstrated that the cooperative learning network has complex characteristics. This study aims to investigating the dynamic spreading process of the knowledge in the cooperative learning network and the inspiration of leaders in this process. To this end, complex network transmission dynamics theory is utilized to construct the knowledge dissemination model of a cooperative learning network. Based on the existing epidemic models, we propose a new susceptible-infected-susceptible-leader (SISL) model that considers both students' forgetting and leaders' inspiration, and a susceptible-infected-removed-leader (SIRL) model that considers students' interest in spreading and leaders' inspiration. The spreading threshold λcand its impact factors are analyzed. Then, numerical simulation and analysis are delivered to reveal the dynamic transmission mechanism of knowledge and leaders' role. This work is of great significance to cooperative learning theory and teaching practice. It also enriches the theory of complex network transmission dynamics.

  13. How to Integrate Cooperative Skills Training into Learning Tasks: An Illustration with Young Pupils' Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehraus, Katia

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how to integrate cooperative skills training into learning tasks in the area of writing. Cooperative learning sessions, aimed at developing both cooperative and cognitive skills, were created and conducted in two elementary school classes (Grade 2, age 7-8). Pupils' teamwork interactions were videotaped and analysed.…

  14. Development Strategy using Cognitive Domain in e-Requirement Engineering Learning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azliana Akmal Jamaludin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Current trend of e-learning promote continuous learning environment. Unfortunately, it fails to optimize the learning between student and learner. Some factors are discussed to encounter the current problem. It should have suitable contents representations that will be remembered and applied in practice by the students. The e-learning discussed in context of Requirement Engineering domain. Maximize the usage of e-Requirement Engineering Learning System, the cognitive domain is suggested to cooperate with the e-learning system. It will help Higher Learning Education (HLE deliver students with employability skill with critical thinking strategy. In addition, it gives a big impact to software development project. Future work will be discussed on the quantitative analysis to measure the effectiveness of e-Requirement Engineering Learning System.

  15. The Strategic Changes in a Cooperative of Agricultural Electrification: a look from the strategies formation schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Oneide Sausen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is resulted of a research that objective the understanding of the process of change and strategic adaptation of an organization of the cooperative branch, specifically of agricultural electrification, observing the context and the content of the process of change throughout the description of life of this organization. Been born under égide of the entrepreneurship it had in this perspective its main strategy of growth. In terms of used methodology, one is about a case study, with characteristics the historical, longitudinal and contextualist boarding. The study, interpreted to the light of the estimated ones of the schools of formation of strategies, it shows the influences of an enterprising management in the 17 growth of the cooperative, the impacts of the conjunctural and politic factors in the changing process of the organization, as well as the presence of the governmental instances in the decisions and action of the cooperative.

  16. Self-service in Retail Trade of Consumer Cooperation: Assessment and Strategy of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaenko EV

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the necessity to convert consumer cooperatives’ stores into the self-service system, directions of self-service development strategy implementation in retailing. The authors analyze assessment methods of the sale process, a single store and a consumer cooperative organization in the whole.

  17. On the preservation of cooperation in two-strategy games with nonlocal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogmus, Ozgur; Zhou, Wen; Kang, Yun

    2017-03-01

    Nonlocal interactions such as spatial interaction are ubiquitous in nature and may alter the equilibrium in evolutionary dynamics. Models including nonlocal spatial interactions can provide a further understanding on the preservation and emergence of cooperation in evolutionary dynamics. In this paper, we consider a variety of two-strategy evolutionary spatial games with nonlocal interactions based on an integro-differential replicator equation. By defining the invasion speed and minimal traveling wave speed for the derived model, we study the effects of the payoffs, the selection pressure and the spatial parameter on the preservation of cooperation. One of our most interesting findings is that, for the Prisoners Dilemma games in which the defection is the only evolutionary stable strategy for unstructured populations, analyses on its asymptotic speed of propagation suggest that, in contrast with spatially homogeneous games, the cooperators can invade the habitat under proper conditions. Other two-strategy evolutionary spatial games are also explored. Both our theoretical and numerical studies show that the nonlocal spatial interaction favors diversity in strategies in a population and is able to preserve cooperation in a competing environment. A real data application in a virus mutation study echoes our theoretical observations. In addition, we compare the results of our model to the partial differential equation approach to demonstrate the importance of including non-local interaction component in evolutionary game models.

  18. Investigation the Relationship among Language Learning Strategies, English Self-Efficacy, and Explicit Strategy Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Ling; Wang, Ai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship among EFL college learners' language learning strategies, English self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction from the perspectives of Social Cognitive Theory. Three constructs, namely language learning strategies, English learning self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction, were…

  19. Aspiration-based learning promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongkui; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long; Li, Bin; Zhang, Wenge; Wang, Huifeng

    2011-06-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma by proposing an aspiration-based preference learning, under which individuals switch the learning agents only if the achieved payoffs are lower than their aspirations. Both synchronous and asynchronous updates are considered. We find that the aspiration level can substantially influence the evolution of cooperation, with the moderate aspiration level leading to a plateau of the high cooperation level. There exist phase transitions for proper combinations of parameters and we give an analysis for the phase transition points. We also investigate the stationary configuration patterns and the stationary distributions of cooperators and defectors on the square lattice for a comprehensive understanding. The behavior of the well-mixed system of our model has also been discussed. Our results may provide further insights into understanding the role played by individual aspiration in the emergence of cooperation.

  20. Effects of cooperative incentives and heterogeneous arrangement on achievement and interaction of cooperative learning groups in a college life science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott B.; Marshall, James E.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the importance of cooperative incentives and heterogeneous grouping as elements of cooperative learning in a college life science course. Cooperative learning may be defined as a classroom learning environment in which students work together in heterogeneous groups toward completion of some task. Cooperative incentive structures provide some type of group reward based on group products or individual learning. In heterogeneous grouping, students are arranged in order to maximize variety within groups. A 2 × 2 design was utilized in this study. The independent variables considered included (a) use of cooperative incentives in learning groups, and (b) use of heterogeneous grouping in cooperative learning groups. Dependent variables for all treatment groups were scores from a multiple-choice instrument developed for an earlier, related study, along with direct observational data on frequency of cooperative interactions. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used as the data analysis procedure for the achievement portion of the study, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for analysis of the cooperative interaction portion of the study. No significant differences were found between the treatment groups.

  1. Learning strategies during clerkships and their effects on clinical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lohuizen, M. T.; Kuks, J. B. M.; van Hell, E. A.; Raat, A. N.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous research revealed relationships between learning strategies and knowledge acquisition. During clerkships, however, students' focus widens beyond mere knowledge acquisition as they further develop overall competence. This shift in focus can influence learning strategy use. Aim: W

  2. Strategies of learning in the process of transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the learning and innovation strategies of manufacturing companies in the economies of transformation.......The paper deals with the learning and innovation strategies of manufacturing companies in the economies of transformation....

  3. Interdisciplinary cooperation in the integrated information learning environment of technical university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Rzheutskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyze the integrated learning environment facilities in order to organize interdisciplinary cooperation within the learning process at the technical university. The problem of interdisciplinary cooperation is the key one for university teachers when putting the competence approach into practice, for according to the state educational standards, cultural and professional competences are integrative and must be developed in the process of studying of various subjects. The one more goal to be achieved only by means of realizing interdisciplinary cooperation is the development of professionally important personal qualities among the future engineers. The integrated learning environment that is the object of the research work has already been formed at the Vologda State University and used in the learning process of the bachelors and masters in several fields of studying connected with IT. The foundation of this learning environment is laid by the system of distance learning MOODLE, supplemented by program components of own authoring. Such components are integrated with MOODLE by means of common database gathering the whole information about the learning process. Among software of own authoring we can point out the interdisciplinary distance training system, embracing such disciplines as programming, database technologies and other related sciences, and including automatic checking of students’ solutions and trainer for individual progress in English language. During the researching process we devised the structure-functional model of interdisciplinary cooperation with the use of the integrated learning environment, presenting available forms of cooperation of the learning process individuals at the interdisciplinary level and the means of realizing this cooperation. By now all the structural and functional components of the model have been embedded in the learning process and proved to be viable. The article

  4. Situated Cognition and Strategies for Meaningful Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Díaz Barriga Arceo

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the principles underlying situated cognition linked to the Vygotskian sociocultural perspective, which state that situated cognition is both a part and the result of activity, context and culture. It highlights the importance of mediation, the joint construction of meaning and the mechanism of adapted assistance. There are examples of instructional approaches which vary in cultural relevance and the type of social activity they elicit. It also presents a number of meaningful learning strategies based on situated experiential teaching (authentic problem solving, learning while in service, case studies, projects, situated simulation, among others. Finally, the paper deals with the potentiality of empowerment.

  5. From Scorecard to Social Learning: A Reflective Coassessment Approach for Promoting Multiagency Cooperation in Natural Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Roux

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The responsibility for managing and conserving freshwater ecosystems is typically shared by multiple organizations with sometimes conflicting policy mandates. However, scorecard-based approaches for measuring management effectiveness in natural resource management are usually confined to single organizations. This paper describes a social learning approach which acknowledges cooperation as an essential precondition for effective management and that encourages reflective coassessment of cooperative relationships. The approach was pilot tested with eight participating organizations in one water management area in South Africa. It specifically aimed to allow for a multiagency reflective assessment of issues determining cooperative behavior, allow context-specific adaptations, and be embedded in adaptive management. It involved development of a spreadsheet-based scorecard-type tool that can be used to facilitate a multiagency workshop. This workshop serves to bring parties face-to-face and helps them codiscover their interdependence, shortcomings, and strengths. The spreadsheet structures reflection on their respective roles and effectiveness while the reflective coassessment motivates participants to address shortcomings. Overall, insights that emerged included: cooperation should be an explicit component of each organization's operational strategy; facilitation of appropriate cooperative behavior could be very effectively achieved by external "bridging organizations"; the reflective assessment process must be followed by purposefully adaptive interventions; the ability of the scorecard to be contextually adaptive was important; and institutional readiness requires investigation as the approach does sit somewhat uncomfortably with much current practice.

  6. THE STUDENTS’ LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN READING AND SPEAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Al Azmi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Many types of learning strategies can be used by the language learners to make the learning process running well. However, in the doing the practice the students are identified have limited types of learning strategies and it makes them face many problems in learning. The aims of the study is to find the typical language learning strategies used by the English Department Students in speaking and reading in English. The result of the study showed that the level of the strategies used were still medium. Thus, the students of English Department are suggested to apply many strategies. it also hopes that the teachers are able to train sufficient strategy.

  7. Learning operational strategies in surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydar, Shahram; Ghahramani, Zahra; Bolandparvaz, Shahram; Khalili, Hosseinali; Abbasi, Hamid Reza

    2014-04-01

    Education and training in surgery is in the middle of apprenticeship style of learning especially in operating room with little importance of understanding on how trainees learn. This training is one of the most difficult types of training. Medical training and expertise are the specialty of this education system. We can name these complex fields as "Operational Strategies". The strategies are includes of "what to do", "what to think" and "what to create". These strategies are good to test and train higher functions in persons who have professional's positions. Most of educational fields are complex. It means that the training is not limited in an area and includes of theory fields, areas of decision making and areas of handy and practical skills. These fields are the most relevant skills or expertise which individual must be informed of the performance of maintenance and repair or upgrade and make a new system.   The operational strategy is a new training strategy for surgery students. It is useful to train surgery students to modify and improve their practices and doing surgeries and treating patients in best conditions.

  8. Civic Engagement and Organizational Learning Strategies for Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tami L.; Mendez, Jesse P.

    2014-01-01

    Students succeed in college by engaging with faculty, peers, and the community. Institutional leaders can utilize organizational learning strategies to learn what works to support civic learning outcomes and student success.

  9. On the College English Learning Strategies and Their Usages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建英

    2014-01-01

    English language learning strategy is an important part in the process of learning, and the selection and use of it has a di-rect impact on the effect of English learning. Now there are some problems in the use of college English learning strategy, which have many factors, such as:learning environment, learning concepts , learning motivation and so on. Therefore, some correspond-ing strategies must been taken so as to improve the quality of teachers’teaching and the efficiency of students’learning.

  10. Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    REPORT Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Modeling human decision making... Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning Report Title ABSTRACT Modeling human decision making in strategic problem domains is challenging with...an unknown automated opponent. Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning Roi Ceren Department of Computer Science

  11. Metacognition and Successful Learning Strategies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railean, Elena, Ed.; Alev Elçi, Ed.; Elçi, Atilla, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    Metacognition plays an important role in numerous aspects of higher educational learning strategies. When properly integrated in the educational system, schools are better equipped to build more efficient and successful learning strategies for students in higher education. "Metacognition and Successful Learning Strategies in Higher…

  12. Learning Strategy Preference and Personality Type: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Gary J.; McNeil, Rita C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of learning strategy preference to personality type. Learning strategy preference was identified with the "A"ssessing "T"he "L"earning Strategies of "A"dult"S" (ATLAS), and personality type was measured with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The…

  13. Do Language Proficiency Levels Correspond to Language Learning Strategy Adoption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbavi, Abdullah; Mousavi, Seyyed Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The primary focus of research on employment of language learning strategies has been on identification of adoption of different learning strategies. However, the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency levels was ignored in previous research. The present study was undertaken to find out whether there are any relationship…

  14. Mental Time Travel, Memory and the Social Learning Strategies Tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, L.; Rendell, L.; Laland, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    The social learning strategies tournament was an open computer-based tournament investigating the best way to learn in a changing environment. Here we present an analysis of the impact of memory on the ability of strategies entered into the social learning strategies tournament (Rendell, Boyd, et al., 2010) to modify their own behavior to suit a…

  15. A Comparison between the Effect of Cooperative Learning Teaching Method and Lecture Teaching Method on Students' Learning and Satisfaction Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadjani, Farzad; Tonkaboni, Forouzan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to investigate a comparison between the effect of cooperative learning teaching method and lecture teaching method on students' learning and satisfaction level. The research population consisted of all the fourth grade elementary school students of educational district 4 in Shiraz. The statistical population…

  16. Decentralized Cooperation Strategies in Two-Dimensional Traffic of Cellular Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方峻; 覃征; 陈喜群; 冷彪; 徐朝晖; 江子能

    2012-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional traffic of cellular automata using computer simulation. We propose two type of decentralized cooperation strategies, which are called stepping aside (CS-SA) and choosing alternative routes (CS-CAR) respectively. We introduce them into an existing two-dimensional cellular automata (CA) model. CS-SA is designed to prohibit a kind of ping-pong jump when two objects standing together try to move in opposite directions. CS-CAR is designed to change the solution of conflict in parallel update. CS-CAR encourages the objects involved in parallel conflicts choose their alternative routes instead of waiting. We also combine the two cooperation strategies (CS-SA-CAR) to test their combined effects. It is found that the system keeps on a partial jam phase with nonzero velocity and flow until the density reaches one. The ratios of the ping-pong jump and the waiting objects involved in conflict are decreased obviously, especially at the free phase. And the average flow is improved by the three cooperation strategies. Although the average travel time is lengthened a bit by CS-CAR, it is shorten by CS-SA and CS-SA-CAR. In addition, we discuss the advantage and applicability of decentralized cooperation modeling.

  17. Decentralized Cooperation Strategies in Two-Dimensional Traffic of Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun; Qin, Zheng; Chen, Xi-Qun; Leng, Biao; Xu, Zhao-Hui; Jiang, Zi-Neng

    2012-12-01

    We study the two-dimensional traffic of cellular automata using computer simulation. We propose two type of decentralized cooperation strategies, which are called stepping aside (CS-SA) and choosing alternative routes (CS-CAR) respectively. We introduce them into an existing two-dimensional cellular automata (CA) model. CS-SA is designed to prohibit a kind of ping-pong jump when two objects standing together try to move in opposite directions. CS-CAR is designed to change the solution of conflict in parallel update. CS-CAR encourages the objects involved in parallel conflicts choose their alternative routes instead of waiting. We also combine the two cooperation strategies (CS-SA-CAR) to test their combined effects. It is found that the system keeps on a partial jam phase with nonzero velocity and flow until the density reaches one. The ratios of the ping-pong jump and the waiting objects involved in conflict are decreased obviously, especially at the free phase. And the average flow is improved by the three cooperation strategies. Although the average travel time is lengthened a bit by CS-CAR, it is shorten by CS-SA and CS-SA-CAR. In addition, we discuss the advantage and applicability of decentralized cooperation modeling.

  18. Cooperation stimulation strategies for peer-to-peer wireless live video-sharing social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W Sabrina; Zhao, H Vicky; Liu, K J Ray

    2010-07-01

    Human behavior analysis in video sharing social networks is an emerging research area, which analyzes the behavior of users who share multimedia content and investigates the impact of human dynamics on video sharing systems. Users watching live streaming in the same wireless network share the same limited bandwidth of backbone connection to the Internet, thus, they might want to cooperate with each other to obtain better video quality. These users form a wireless live-streaming social network. Every user wishes to watch video with high quality while paying as little as possible cost to help others. This paper focuses on providing incentives for user cooperation. We propose a game-theoretic framework to model user behavior and to analyze the optimal strategies for user cooperation simulation in wireless live streaming. We first analyze the Pareto optimality and the time-sensitive bargaining equilibrium of the two-person game. We then extend the solution to the multiuser scenario. We also consider potential selfish users' cheating behavior and malicious users' attacking behavior and analyze the performance of the proposed strategies with the existence of cheating users and malicious attackers. Both our analytical and simulation results show that the proposed strategies can effectively stimulate user cooperation, achieve cheat free and attack resistance, and help provide reliable services for wireless live streaming applications.

  19. Effects of Cooperative Learning Method on the Development of Listening Comprehension and Listening Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbas, Abdulkadir

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of the learning together technique, which is one of the cooperative learning methods, on the development of the listening comprehension and listening skills of the secondary school eighth grade students was investigated. Regarding the purpose of the research, experimental and control groups consisting of 75 students from,…

  20. Forms of Cooperative Learning in Language Teaching in Slovenian Language Classes at the Primary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrhovec, Alenka Rot

    2015-01-01

    In the Slovenian language syllabus, teachers are recommended to provide a greater share of group work during class. During types of learning such as cooperative learning in smaller groups or pairs, students actively develop communicative competence. The present article presents a survey that attempted to determine whether teachers from the first…