WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooperative human linkage

  1. Robustness of linkage strategy that leads to large-scale cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Misato; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2016-11-21

    One of the most well-known models to characterize cooperation among unrelated individuals is Social dilemma (SD). However there is no consensus about how to solve the SD by itself. Since SDs are often embedded in other social interactions, including indirect reciprocity games (IR), human can coordinate their behaviors across multiple games. Such coordination is called 'linkage'. Recently linkage has been considered as a promising solution to resolve SDs, since excluding SD defectors (i.e. those who defected in SD) from indirectly reciprocal relationships functions as a costless sanction. A previous study performed mathematical modeling and revealed that a linkage strategy, which cooperates in SD and engages in the Standing strategy in IR based on the recipients' behaviors in both SD and IR, was an ESS against a non-linkage strategy which defects in SD and engages in the Standing strategy in IR based on recipients' behaviors only in IR (Panchanathan and Boyd, 2004). In order to investigate the robustness of the linkage strategy, we devised a non-linkage strategy, which cooperates in SD but does not link two games. First, we conducted a mathematical analysis and demonstrated that the linkage strategy was not an ESS against cooperating non-linkage strategy. Second, we conducted a series of agent-based computer simulations to examine how the strategies perform in situations in which various types of errors can occur. Our results showed that the linkage strategy was an ESS only when there are implementation errors in SD. However, the equilibrium of the linkage strategy was unstable when there are perception errors. Since we know that humans are not free from perception errors in their social life, future studies will need to show how perception errors can be overcome in order to provide support for the conclusion that linkage is a plausible solution to SDs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Globalization and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  3. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  4. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  5. Statistical physics of human cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž; Jordan, Jillian J.; Rand, David G.; Wang, Zhen; Boccaletti, Stefano; Szolnoki, Attila

    2017-05-01

    Extensive cooperation among unrelated individuals is unique to humans, who often sacrifice personal benefits for the common good and work together to achieve what they are unable to execute alone. The evolutionary success of our species is indeed due, to a large degree, to our unparalleled other-regarding abilities. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of human cooperation remains a formidable challenge. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that it is important to focus on the collective behavior that emerges as the result of the interactions among individuals, groups, and even societies. Non-equilibrium statistical physics, in particular Monte Carlo methods and the theory of collective behavior of interacting particles near phase transition points, has proven to be very valuable for understanding counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes. By treating models of human cooperation as classical spin models, a physicist can draw on familiar settings from statistical physics. However, unlike pairwise interactions among particles that typically govern solid-state physics systems, interactions among humans often involve group interactions, and they also involve a larger number of possible states even for the most simplified description of reality. The complexity of solutions therefore often surpasses that observed in physical systems. Here we review experimental and theoretical research that advances our understanding of human cooperation, focusing on spatial pattern formation, on the spatiotemporal dynamics of observed solutions, and on self-organization that may either promote or hinder socially favorable states.

  6. The early evolution of cooperation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czárán, T.; Aanen, Duur K.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation is difficult to understand, because cheaters — individuals who profit without cooperating themselves — have a benefit in interaction with cooperators. Cooperation among humans is even more difficult to understand, because cooperation occurs in large groups, making cheati

  7. Human and automation: a matter of cooperation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoc, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Most of the time, machine design should be considered as human-machine system design in order to solve human-machine cooperation problems. The traditional levels of automation should be re-interpreted in terms of cooperation requirements. A framework is proposed in order to categorise car-driving assistance devices on the basis of human-machine cooperation.

  8. Human Capital Linkages to Labour Productivity: Implications from Thai Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukumnuaykit, Pungpond; Pholphirul, Piriya

    2016-01-01

    Human capital investment is a necessary condition for improving labour market outcomes in most countries. Empirical studies to investigate human capital and its linkages on the labour demand side are, however, relatively scarce due to limitations of firm-level data-sets. Using firm-level data from the Thai manufacturing sector, this paper aims to…

  9. Human Capital Linkages to Labour Productivity: Implications from Thai Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukumnuaykit, Pungpond; Pholphirul, Piriya

    2016-01-01

    Human capital investment is a necessary condition for improving labour market outcomes in most countries. Empirical studies to investigate human capital and its linkages on the labour demand side are, however, relatively scarce due to limitations of firm-level data-sets. Using firm-level data from the Thai manufacturing sector, this paper aims to…

  10. Between-group competition and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puurtinen, Mikael; Mappes, Tapio

    2009-01-22

    A distinctive feature of human behaviour is the widespread occurrence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Explaining the maintenance of costly within-group cooperation is a challenge because the incentive to free ride on the efforts of other group members is expected to lead to decay of cooperation. However, the costs of cooperation can be diminished or overcome when there is competition at a higher level of organizational hierarchy. Here we show that competition between groups resolves the paradigmatic 'public goods' social dilemma and increases within-group cooperation and overall productivity. Further, group competition intensifies the moral emotions of anger and guilt associated with violations of the cooperative norm. The results suggest an important role for group conflict in the evolution of human cooperation and moral emotions.

  11. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A; Acheson, Daniel J; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-12-22

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species.

  12. Extensive fitness and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hateren, J H

    2015-12-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known as inclusive fitness. Here it is argued that a further elaboration of fitness has evolved, particularly in humans. It is called extensive fitness and it incorporates producing organisms that are merely similar in phenotype. The evolvability of this mechanism is illustrated by computations on a simple model combining heredity and behaviour. Phenotypes are driven into the direction of high fitness through a mechanism that involves an internal estimate of fitness, implicitly made within the organism itself. This mechanism has recently been conjectured to be responsible for producing agency and goals. In the model, inclusive and extensive fitness are both implemented by letting fitness increase nonlinearly with the size of subpopulations of similar heredity (for the indirect part of inclusive fitness) and of similar phenotype (for the phenotypic part of extensive fitness). Populations implementing extensive fitness outcompete populations implementing mere inclusive fitness. This occurs because groups with similar phenotype tend to be larger than groups with similar heredity, and fitness increases more when groups are larger. Extensive fitness has two components, a direct component where individuals compete in inducing others to become like them and an indirect component where individuals cooperate and help others who are already similar to them.

  13. Benevolent characteristics promote cooperative behaviour among humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Capraro

    Full Text Available Cooperation is fundamental to the evolution of human society. We regularly observe cooperative behaviour in everyday life and in controlled experiments with anonymous people, even though standard economic models predict that they should deviate from the collective interest and act so as to maximise their own individual payoff. However, there is typically heterogeneity across subjects: some may cooperate, while others may not. Since individual factors promoting cooperation could be used by institutions to indirectly prime cooperation, this heterogeneity raises the important question of who these cooperators are. We have conducted a series of experiments to study whether benevolence, defined as a unilateral act of paying a cost to increase the welfare of someone else beyond one's own, is related to cooperation in a subsequent one-shot anonymous Prisoner's dilemma. Contrary to the predictions of the widely used inequity aversion models, we find that benevolence does exist and a large majority of people behave this way. We also find benevolence to be correlated with cooperative behaviour. Finally, we show a causal link between benevolence and cooperation: priming people to think positively about benevolent behaviour makes them significantly more cooperative than priming them to think malevolently. Thus benevolent people exist and cooperate more.

  14. Cooperation in human-computer communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kronenberg, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to simulate cooperation in human-computer communication to model the communicative interaction process of agents in natural dialogs in order to provide advanced human-computer interaction in that coherence is maintained between contributions of both agents, i.e. the human user and the computer. This thesis contributes to certain aspects of understanding and generation and their interaction in the German language. In spontaneous dialogs agents cooperate by the pro...

  15. Human Rights: Dialogue and International Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王水霞; 孟保林

    2007-01-01

    @@ Dialogue is a major form of international cooperation on human rights issues. It is also instrumental in settling human rights disputes between nations. In this age of globalization, extensive global dialogues on human rights serve to deepen mutual understanding between nations, speed up the formation of international norms governing human rights, and hasten the advent of a harmonious world.

  16. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieling, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias; Pirker, Heidemarie

    2014-01-01

    Human well-being is tightly linked to the natural environment. Although this notion is well-established, it remains difficult to assess how the biophysical features of a specific area contribute towards the well-being of the people attached to it. We explore this topic using the case of four areas...... in Germany and Austria by performing open, single-question interviews with 262 respondents. Data reveal an outstanding relevance of nonmaterial values. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being are tied to specific features of the material environment but, likewise, practices and experiences play...

  17. NCI’s Cooperative Human Tissue Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality biospecimens are a foundational resource for cancer research. One of NCI’s longest running biospecimen programs is the Cooperative Human Tissue Network, a resource mainly for basic discovery and early translational research.

  18. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieling, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias; Pirker, Heidemarie;

    2014-01-01

    Human well-being is tightly linked to the natural environment. Although this notion is well-established, it remains difficult to assess how the biophysical features of a specific area contribute towards the well-being of the people attached to it. We explore this topic using the case of four areas...... in Germany and Austria by performing open, single-question interviews with 262 respondents. Data reveal an outstanding relevance of nonmaterial values. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being are tied to specific features of the material environment but, likewise, practices and experiences play...... to engage with their natural surroundings should be considered a strategy for fostering human well-being. ...

  19. Human Cooperation and Its Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Sabrina; Park, Soyoung Q

    2017-01-01

    Cooperation is a uniquely human behavior and can be observed across cultures. In order to maintain cooperative behavior in society, people are willing to punish deviant behavior on their own expenses and even without any personal benefits. Cooperation has been object of research in several disciplines. Psychologists, economists, sociologists, biologists, and anthropologists have suggested several motives possibly underlying cooperative behavior. In recent years, there has been substantial progress in understanding neural mechanisms enforcing cooperation. Psychological as well as economic theories were tested for their plausibility using neuroscientific methods. For example, paradigms from behavioral economics were adapted to be tested in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Also, related brain functions were modulated by using transmagnetic brain stimulation (TMS). While cooperative behavior has often been associated with positive emotions, noncooperative behavior was found to be linked to negative emotions. On a neural level, the temporoparietal junction (TPJ), the striatum, and other reward-related brain areas have been shown to be activated by cooperation, whereas noncooperation has mainly been associated with activity in the insula.

  20. Darwin and the Evolution of Human Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Karl; Hilbe, Christian

    Humans are characterized by a high propensity for cooperation. The emergence and stability of this trait is one of the hottest topics in evolutionary game theory, and leads to a wide variety of models offering a rich source of complex dynamics based on social interactions. This chapter offers an overview of different approaches to this topic (such as kin selection, group selection, direct and indirect reciprocity) and relates it to some of the views that Darwin expressed over 150 years ago. It turns out that, in many cases, Darwin displayed a remarkably lucid intuition of the major issues affecting the complex mechanisms promoting the evolution of cooperation.

  1. Human-machine cooperative telerobotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, R.V.; Everett, S.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Due to the increasing number of work sites that are hazardous or merely inaccessible, remote manipulation has become more and more important. Nuclear, underwater, and space applications, exemplify a few of the dangerous environments in which work may be desired, while micromanipulation, which has become of more interest lately, is an example of an inherently inaccessible environment. The past 50 yr have seen great advances in remote manipulation technology, from the pioneering work of Ray Goertz in the 1950s to the ongoing development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) of the modular light-duty utility arm (MLDUA), which is a long-reach manipulator for use in the cleanup of the waste storage tanks. Mainly, research has either focused on the improvement of manually operated remote manipulators or teleoperators, in which a human is an integral part of the control loop, or autonomous robots, which have the required decision-making capability and sensors. However, in the past few years, it has become increasingly evident that there are limitations in each of these modalities, which make them individually unsuited for certain tasks. While a human operator may be required to make high-level decisions, fatigue and tedium can result from repetitive tasks. On the other hand, computers can provide fast and efficient operation but are limited by their currently inadequate decision-making abilities as well as inaccuracies in the utilized sensors. An ideal teleoperator would be one in which the human is involved in the operation only to the extent that high-level decisions must be made and corrections must be made to account for inaccuracies in the sensors. Responsibilities such as gross alignment and repetitive motions would be delegated to computer control.

  2. Genome-wide linkage analysis for human longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekman, Marian; Blanché, Hélène; Perola, Markus

    2013-01-01

    sibling pairs that have been enrolled in 15 study centers of 11 European countries as part of the Genetics of Healthy Aging (GEHA) project. In the joint linkage analyses, we observed four regions that show linkage with longevity; chromosome 14q11.2 (LOD = 3.47), chromosome 17q12-q22 (LOD = 2...

  3. The Thai-Canadian nuclear human resources development linkage project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumitra, Tatchai; Chankow, Nares [Chulalongkorn university (Thailand); Bradley, K.; Bereznai, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    The Thai-Canadian Nuclear Human Resources Development Linkage Project (the ''Project'') was initiated in 1994 in order to develop the engineering and scientific expertise needed for Thailand to decide whether and how the country can best benefit from the establishment of a nuclear power program. The Project was designed to upgrade current academics and people in industry, and to develop an adequate supply of new technical personnel for academic, industry, utility, regulatory and other government institutions. The key Project objectives included the establishment of a Chair in Nuclear Engineering at Chulalongkorn University, the upgrading of the current Masters level curriculum, the establishment of undergraduate and doctorate level curricula, development and delivery of an industrial training program for people in industry and government, exchanges of Thai and Canadian academics and industry experts to establish common research programs and teaching interests, and a public education program that was to test in Thailand some of the techniques that have been successfully used in Canada. (author)

  4. Phase transitions in models of human cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž

    2016-08-01

    If only the fittest survive, why should one cooperate? Why should one sacrifice personal benefits for the common good? Recent research indicates that a comprehensive answer to such questions requires that we look beyond the individual and focus on the collective behavior that emerges as a result of the interactions among individuals, groups, and societies. Although undoubtedly driven also by culture and cognition, human cooperation is just as well an emergent, collective phenomenon in a complex system. Nonequilibrium statistical physics, in particular the collective behavior of interacting particles near phase transitions, has already been recognized as very valuable for understanding counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes. However, unlike pairwise interactions among particles that typically govern solid-state physics systems, interactions among humans often involve group interactions, and they also involve a larger number of possible states even for the most simplified description of reality. Here we briefly review research done in the realm of the public goods game, and we outline future research directions with an emphasis on merging the most recent advances in the social sciences with methods of nonequilibrium statistical physics. By having a firm theoretical grip on human cooperation, we can hope to engineer better social systems and develop more efficient policies for a sustainable and better future.

  5. Linkage disequilibrium of evolutionarily conserved regions in the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Todd A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strong linkage disequilibrium (LD recently found in genic or exonic regions of the human genome demonstrated that LD can be increased by evolutionary mechanisms that select for functionally important loci. This suggests that LD might be stronger in regions conserved among species than in non-conserved regions, since regions exposed to natural selection tend to be conserved. To assess this hypothesis, we used genome-wide polymorphism data from the HapMap project and investigated LD within DNA sequences conserved between the human and mouse genomes. Results Unexpectedly, we observed that LD was significantly weaker in conserved regions than in non-conserved regions. To investigate why, we examined sequence features that may distort the relationship between LD and conserved regions. We found that interspersed repeats, and not other sequence features, were associated with the weak LD tendency in conserved regions. To appropriately understand the relationship between LD and conserved regions, we removed the effect of repetitive elements and found that the high degree of sequence conservation was strongly associated with strong LD in coding regions but not with that in non-coding regions. Conclusion Our work demonstrates that the degree of sequence conservation does not simply increase LD as predicted by the hypothesis. Rather, it implies that purifying selection changes the polymorphic patterns of coding sequences but has little influence on the patterns of functional units such as regulatory elements present in non-coding regions, since the former are generally restricted by the constraint of maintaining a functional protein product across multiple exons while the latter may exist more as individually isolated units.

  6. Human cooperation based on punishment reputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Miguel; Rankin, Daniel J; Wedekind, Claus

    2013-08-01

    The threat of punishment usually promotes cooperation. However, punishing itself is costly, rare in nonhuman animals, and humans who punish often finish with low payoffs in economic experiments. The evolution of punishment has therefore been unclear. Recent theoretical developments suggest that punishment has evolved in the context of reputation games. We tested this idea in a simple helping game with observers and with punishment and punishment reputation (experimentally controlling for other possible reputational effects). We show that punishers fully compensate their costs as they receive help more often. The more likely defection is punished within a group, the higher the level of within-group cooperation. These beneficial effects perish if the punishment reputation is removed. We conclude that reputation is key to the evolution of punishment.

  7. Cooperatives in India: The Humanization of Our World

    OpenAIRE

    Sapovadia, Vrajlal

    2012-01-01

    Cooperatives are socio-economic institute. Cooperatives in India are made conducive by legal empowerment to undertake economic activities with angle of humanization. International Cooperative Alliance defines a cooperative as an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise. Cooperatives are based on the values of self-help, self-responsibility, dem...

  8. Linkage disequilibrium and its expectation in human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sved, John A

    2009-02-01

    Abstract Linkage disequilibrium (LD), the association in populations between genes at linked loci, has achieved a high degree of prominence in recent years, primarily because of its use in identifying and cloning genes of medical importance. The field has recently been reviewed by Slatkin (2008). The present article is largely devoted to a review of the theory of LD in populations, including historical aspects.

  9. Non-cooperative game theory in biology and cooperative reasoning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalak, Alihan; Smirnova, Elena; Jost, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    The readiness for spontaneous cooperation together with the assumptions that others share this cooperativity has been identified as a fundamental feature that distinguishes humans from other animals, including the great apes. At the same time, cooperativity presents an evolutionary puzzle because non-cooperators do better in a group of cooperators. We develop here an analysis of the process leading to cooperation in terms of rationality concepts, game theory and epistemic logic. We are, however, not attempting to reconstruct the actual evolutionary process. We rather want to provide the logical structure underlying cooperation in order to understand why cooperation is possible and what kind of reasoning and beliefs would lead to cooperative decision-making. Game theory depends on an underlying common belief in non-cooperative rationality of the players, and cooperativity similarly can utilize a common belief in cooperative rationality as its basis. We suggest a weaker concept of rational decision-making in games that encompasses both types of decision-making. We build this up in stages, starting from simple optimization, then using anticipation of the reaction of others, to finally arrive at reflexive and cooperative reasoning. While each stage is more difficult than the preceding, importantly, we also identify a reduction of complexity achieved by the consistent application of higher stage reasoning.

  10. Linkage in the chain of care: a grounded theory of professional cooperation between antenatal care, postpartum care and child health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Barimani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present a Swedish study exploring health care professionals’ cooperation in the chain of care for expectant and new parents between antenatal care (AC, postpartum care (PC and child health care (CHC. Furthermore, the rationale was to conceptualise barriers and facilitators of cooperation in order to generate a comprehensive theoretical model which may explain variations in the care providers’ experiences. Methods: Thirty-two midwives and CHC nurses were interviewed in five focus group – and two individual interviews in a suburb of a large Swedish city. Grounded Theory was applied as the research methodology. Results: One core category was discerned: linkage in the chain of care, including six categories with subcategories. Despite the fact that midwives as well as CHC nurses have common visions about linkage, cooperation is not achieved because of interacting barriers that have different influences on the three links in the chain. Conclusions: Barriers to linkage are lack of professional gain, link perspective and first or middle position in the chain, while facilitators are chain perspective, professional gain and last position in the chain. As the last link, CHC nurses promote a linkage most strongly and have the greatest gain from such linking.

  11. North American Higher Education Cooperation: An Inventory of U.S.-Canada and U.S.-Mexico Academic Linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    This report describes the variety of bilateral linkages which have been developed by U.S. institutions with specific Canadian and Mexican colleges in a wide range of fields. Out of 1,219 U.S. colleges and universities responding (35 percent response rate) to a survey concerning educational linkages, 109 reported linkages with Canadian…

  12. The CEPH consortium linkage map of human chromosome 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowcock, A.M.; Barnes, R.I. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Gerken, S.C.; Leppert, M. [Univ. of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shiang, R. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Jabs, E.W.; Warren, A.C.; Antonarakis, S. [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Retief, A.E. [Univ. of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg (South Africa); Vergnaud, G. [Centre d`Etudes du Bouchet, Vert le Petit (France)] [and others

    1993-05-01

    The CEPH consortium map of chromosome 13 is presented. This map contains 59 loci defined by genotypes generated from CEPH family DNAs with 94 different probe and restriction enzyme combinations contributed by 9 laboratories. A total of 25 loci have been placed on the map with likelihood support of at least 1000:1. The map extends from loci in the centromeric region of chromosome 13 to the terminal band of the long arm. Multipoint linkage analyses provided estimates that the male, female, and sex-averaged maps extend for 158, 203, and 178cM respectively. The largest interval is 24 cM and is between D13Z1 (alphaRI) and ATP1AL1. The mean genetic distance between the 25 uniquely placed loci is 7 cM. 76 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. An extended anchored linkage map and virtual mapping for the american mink genome based on homology to human and dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Ansari, S.; Farid, A.;

    2009-01-01

    In this report we present an extended linkage map of the American mink (Neovison vison) consisting of 157 microsatellite markers and comprising at least one linkage group for each of the autosomes. Each linkage group has been assigned to a chromosome and oriented by fluorescence in situ hybridiza......In this report we present an extended linkage map of the American mink (Neovison vison) consisting of 157 microsatellite markers and comprising at least one linkage group for each of the autosomes. Each linkage group has been assigned to a chromosome and oriented by fluorescence in situ...... comparative human/dog/mink data, these assignments represent useful virtual maps for the American mink genome. Comparison of the current human/dog assembled sequential map with the existing Zoo-FISH-based human/dog/mink maps helped to refine the human/dog/mink comparative map. Furthermore, comparison...

  14. Cooperative and human aspects of software engineering: CHASE 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Sharp, Helen C.; Winschiers Theophilus, Heike

    2010-01-01

    Software is created by people -- software engineers in cooperation with domain experts, users and other stakeholders--in varied environments, under various conditions. Thus understanding cooperative and human aspects of software development is crucial to comprehend how and which methods and tools...... are required, to improve the creation and maintenance of software. The 3rd workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering held at the International Conference on Software Engineering continued the tradition from earlier workshops and provided a lively forum to discuss current developments...... and high quality research in the field. Further dissemination of research results will lead to an improvement of software development and deployment across the globe....

  15. Collective-goal ascription increases cooperation in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Mitkidis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooperation is necessary in many types of human joint activity and relations. Evidence suggests that cooperation has direct and indirect benefits for the cooperators. Given how beneficial cooperation is overall, it seems relevant to investigate the various ways of enhancing individuals' willingness to invest in cooperative endeavors. We studied whether ascription of a transparent collective goal in a joint action promotes cooperation in a group. METHODS: A total of 48 participants were assigned in teams of 4 individuals to either a "transparent goal-ascription" or an "opaque goal-ascription" condition. After the manipulation, the participants played an anonymous public goods game with another member of their team. We measured the willingness of participants to cooperate and their expectations about the other player's contribution. RESULTS: Between subjects analyses showed that transparent goal ascription impacts participants' likelihood to cooperate with each other in the future, thereby greatly increasing the benefits from social interactions. Further analysis showed that this could be explained with a change in expectations about the partner's behavior and by an emotional alignment of the participants. CONCLUSION: The study found that a transparent goal ascription is associated with an increase of cooperation. We propose several high-level mechanisms that could explain the observed effect: general affect modulation, trust, expectation and perception of collective efficacy.

  16. Linkage of the human inducible nitric oxide synthase gene to type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, J; Pie, A; Pociot, F; Kristiansen, O P; Karlsen, A E; Nerup, J

    2001-06-01

    Exposure of human pancreatic islets to a mixture of cytokines induces expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), impairs beta-cell function, and induces apoptosis. We performed a mutational scanning of all 27 exons of the human NOS2 gene and linkage transmission disequilibrium testing of identified NOS2 polymorphisms in a Danish nationwide type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDDM) family collection. Mutational screening was performed using PCR-amplified exons, followed by single stranded conformation polymorphism and verification of potential polymorphisms by sequencing. The transmission disequilibrium test was performed in an IDDM family material comprising 257 Danish families; 154 families were affected sibling pair families, and 103 families were simplex families. In total, 10 polymorphisms were identified in 8 exons, of which 4 were tested in the family material. A C/T single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 16 resulting in an amino acid substitution, Ser(608)Leu, showed linkage to IDDM in human leukocyte antigen DR3/4-positive affected offspring (P = 0.008; corrected P = 0.024). No other distorted transmission patterns were found for any other tested single nucleotide polymorphism or constructed haplotypes with the exception of those including data from exon 16. In conclusion, linkage of the human NOS2 gene to IDDM in a subset of patients supports a pathogenic role of nitric oxide in human IDDM.

  17. A linkage map of mouse chromosome 8: further definition of homologous linkage relationships between mouse chromosome 8 and human chromosomes 8, 16, and 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, T A; Rochelle, J M; Saunders, A M; Seldin, M F

    1991-05-01

    Using an interspecific cross, a mouse chromosome 8 linkage map spanning 72 cM has been defined by the segregation of restriction fragment length variants. Linkage and genetic distance were established for 10 loci by analysis of 114 meiotic events and indicated the following gene order: (centromere)-Insr-3.5 cM-Plat-26.3 cM-Crryps/Mel/Jund-3.5 cM-Junb/Ucp-10.5 cM-Mt-1-27.2 cM-Acta2-0.9 cM-Aprt. These data provide further definition of mouse chromosome 8 linkage relationships and the relationship between segments of this chromosome and human chromosomes 8, 16, and 19.

  18. Tracking the evolutionary origins of dog-human cooperation: The ‘Canine Cooperation Hypothesis’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike eRange

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, beyond the fact that dogs can be easier socialized with humans than wolves, we know little about the motivational and cognitive effects of domestication. Despite this, it has been suggested that during domestication dogs have become socially more tolerant and attentive than wolves. These two characteristics are crucial for cooperation, and it has been argued that these changes allowed dogs to successfully live and work with humans. However, these domestication hypotheses have been put forward mainly based on dog-wolf differences reported in regard to their interactions with humans. Thus, it is possible that these differences reflect only an improved capability of dogs to accept humans as social partners instead of an increase of their general tolerance, attentiveness and cooperativeness.At the Wolf Science Center, in order to detangle these two explanations, we raise and keep dogs and wolves similarly socializing them with conspecifics and humans and then test them in interactions not just with humans but also conspecifics. When investigating attentiveness towards human and conspecific partners using different paradigms, we found that the wolves were at least as attentive as the dogs to their social partners and their actions. Based on these findings and the social ecology of wolves, we propose the Canine Cooperation Hypothesis suggesting that wolves are characterized with high social attentiveness and tolerance and are highly cooperative. This is in contrast with the implications of most domestication hypotheses about wolves. We argue, however, that these characteristics of wolves likely provided a good basis for the evolution of dog-human cooperation.

  19. Tracking the evolutionary origins of dog-human cooperation: the "Canine Cooperation Hypothesis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

    2014-01-01

    At present, beyond the fact that dogs can be easier socialized with humans than wolves, we know little about the motivational and cognitive effects of domestication. Despite this, it has been suggested that during domestication dogs have become socially more tolerant and attentive than wolves. These two characteristics are crucial for cooperation, and it has been argued that these changes allowed dogs to successfully live and work with humans. However, these domestication hypotheses have been put forward mainly based on dog-wolf differences reported in regard to their interactions with humans. Thus, it is possible that these differences reflect only an improved capability of dogs to accept humans as social partners instead of an increase of their general tolerance, attentiveness and cooperativeness. At the Wolf Science Center, in order to detangle these two explanations, we raise and keep dogs and wolves similarly socializing them with conspecifics and humans and then test them in interactions not just with humans but also conspecifics. When investigating attentiveness toward human and conspecific partners using different paradigms, we found that the wolves were at least as attentive as the dogs to their social partners and their actions. Based on these findings and the social ecology of wolves, we propose the Canine Cooperation Hypothesis suggesting that wolves are characterized with high social attentiveness and tolerance and are highly cooperative. This is in contrast with the implications of most domestication hypotheses about wolves. We argue, however, that these characteristics of wolves likely provided a good basis for the evolution of dog-human cooperation.

  20. Context modulates effects of nicotine abstinence on human cooperative responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, R; Day, J D; Schmitz, J M; Broitman, M; Elk, R; Caperton-Brown, H

    1998-11-01

    The effects of ad libitum smoking, abstinence, and 0-, 2-, and 4-mg nicotine gum on human cooperative responding were examined. Participants were provided the opportunity to respond cooperatively or independently to episodes initiated by a computer-simulated other person. Participants could also initiate episodes that ostensibly provided the other person the opportunity to respond cooperatively or independently of the participant. Working cooperatively added points to both the participant's and other person's counters. Working independently added points only to the participant's counter. Results demonstrated that abstinence decreased cooperative responses during episodes initiated by the computer-stimulated other person. Relative to abstinence and placebo gum conditions, ad libitum smoking and administration of 2- and 4-mg nicotine gum increased these cooperative responses. No gender differences were observed. The number of cooperative episodes initiated by the participants was not affected significantly by the smoking or gum conditions. Nicotine increased reports of vigor and decreased abstinence-engendered reports of depression, anger, confusion, and tension. The difference in the effects of nicotine abstinence on the 2 classes of cooperative responding demonstrates that the social contingency mediates the behavioral effects of abstinence.

  1. Centralized sanctioning and legitimate authority promote cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia; Grossman, Guy

    2011-07-01

    Social sanctioning is widely considered a successful strategy to promote cooperation among humans. In situations in which individual and collective interests are at odds, incentives to free-ride induce individuals to refrain from contributing to public goods provision. Experimental evidence from public goods games shows that when endowed with sanctioning powers, conditional cooperators can discipline defectors, thus leading to greater levels of cooperation. However, extant evidence is based on peer punishment institutions, whereas in complex societies, systems of control are often centralized: for instance, we do not sanction our neighbors for driving too fast, the police do. Here we show the effect of centralized sanctioning and legitimate authority on cooperation. We designed an adaptation of the public goods game in which sanctioning power is given to a single monitor, and we experimentally manipulated the process by which the monitor is chosen. To increase the external validity of the study, we conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 1,543 Ugandan farmers from 50 producer cooperatives. This research provides evidence of the effectiveness of centralized sanctioning and demonstrates the causal effect of legitimacy on cooperation: participants are more responsive to the authority of an elected monitor than a randomly chosen monitor. Our essay contributes to the literature on the evolution of cooperation by introducing the idea of role differentiation. In complex societies, cooperative behavior is not only sustained by mechanisms of selection and reciprocity among peers, but also by the legitimacy that certain actors derive from their position in the social hierarchy.

  2. Refinement of linkage of human severe combined immunodeficiency (SCIDXI) to polymorphic markers in Xq13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puck, J.M (Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States) Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Conely, M.E. (St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital and Univ. of Tennessee School of Medicine, Memphis (United States)); Bailey, L.C. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1993-07-01

    The most common form of human severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is inherited as an X-linked recessive genetic defect, MIM 300400. The disease locus, SCIDX1, has previously been placed in Xq13.1-q21.1 by demonstration of linkage to polymorphic markers between DXS159 and DXS3 and by exclusion from interstitial deletions of Xq21.1-q21.3. The authors report an extension of previous linkage studies, with new markers and a total of 25 SCIDX1 families including female carriers identified by nonrandom X chromosome inactivation in their T lymphocytes. SCIDX1 was nonrecombinant with DXS441, with a lod score of 17.96. Linkage relationships of new markers in the SCIDX1 families were consistent with the linkage map generated in the families of the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisms Humain (CEPH) and with available physical map data. The most likely locus order was DXS1-(DXS159,DXS153)-DXS106-DXS132-DXS453-(SCIDX1,PGK1, DXS325,DXS347,DXS441)-DXS447-DXS72-DXYS1X-DXS3. The SCIDX1 region now spans approximately 10 Mb of DNA in Xq13; this narrowed genetic localization will assist efforts to identify gene candidates and will improve genetic management for families with SCID. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Cooperative Human-Machine Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Roger; Palmer, Everett

    1987-02-01

    Current expert system technology does not permit complete automatic fault diagnosis; significant levels of human intervention are still required. This requirement dictates a need for a division of labor that recognizes the strengths and weaknesses of both human and machine diagnostic skills. Relevant findings from the literature on human cognition are combined with the results of reviews of aircrew performance with highly automated systems to suggest how the interface of a fault diagnostic expert system can be designed to assist human operators in verifying machine diagnoses and guiding interactive fault diagnosis. It is argued that the needs of the human operator should play an important role in the design of the knowledge base.

  4. Cooperation and human cognition: the Vygotskian intelligence hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Henrike; Tomasello, Michael

    2007-04-29

    Nicholas Humphrey's social intelligence hypothesis proposed that the major engine of primate cognitive evolution was social competition. Lev Vygotsky also emphasized the social dimension of intelligence, but he focused on human primates and cultural things such as collaboration, communication and teaching. A reasonable proposal is that primate cognition in general was driven mainly by social competition, but beyond that the unique aspects of human cognition were driven by, or even constituted by, social cooperation. In the present paper, we provide evidence for this Vygotskian intelligence hypothesis by comparing the social-cognitive skills of great apes with those of young human children in several domains of activity involving cooperation and communication with others. We argue, finally, that regular participation in cooperative, cultural interactions during ontogeny leads children to construct uniquely powerful forms of perspectival cognitive representation.

  5. A model of human cooperation in social dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Capraro

    Full Text Available Social dilemmas are situations in which collective interests are at odds with private interests: pollution, depletion of natural resources, and intergroup conflicts, are at their core social dilemmas. Because of their multidisciplinarity and their importance, social dilemmas have been studied by economists, biologists, psychologists, sociologists, and political scientists. These studies typically explain tendency to cooperation by dividing people in proself and prosocial types, or appealing to forms of external control or, in iterated social dilemmas, to long-term strategies. But recent experiments have shown that cooperation is possible even in one-shot social dilemmas without forms of external control and the rate of cooperation typically depends on the payoffs. This makes impossible a predictive division between proself and prosocial people and proves that people have attitude to cooperation by nature. The key innovation of this article is in fact to postulate that humans have attitude to cooperation by nature and consequently they do not act a priori as single agents, as assumed by standard economic models, but they forecast how a social dilemma would evolve if they formed coalitions and then they act according to their most optimistic forecast. Formalizing this idea we propose the first predictive model of human cooperation able to organize a number of different experimental findings that are not explained by the standard model. We show also that the model makes satisfactorily accurate quantitative predictions of population average behavior in one-shot social dilemmas.

  6. Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Jose A; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-19

    Cooperativeness is a defining feature of human nature. Theoreticians have suggested several mechanisms to explain this ubiquitous phenomenon, including reciprocity, reputation, and punishment, but the problem is still unsolved. Here we show, through experiments conducted with groups of people playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma on a dynamic network, that it is reputation what really fosters cooperation. While this mechanism has already been observed in unstructured populations, we find that it acts equally when interactions are given by a network that players can reconfigure dynamically. Furthermore, our observations reveal that memory also drives the network formation process, and cooperators assort more, with longer link lifetimes, the longer the past actions record. Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time, that reputation can be very well quantified as a weighted mean of the fractions of past cooperative acts and the last action performed. This finding has potential applications in collaborative systems and e-commerce.

  7. Which activation function of cooperation describes human behavior?

    CERN Document Server

    Jarynowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Properties of cooperation's probability function in Prisoner`s Dilemma have impact on evolution of game. Basic model defines that probability of cooperation depends linearly, both on the player's altruism and the co-player's reputation. I propose modification of activation function to smooth one (hyperbolic tangent with scaling parameter a, which corresponds to its shape) and observe three phases for different range of a. (1) For small a, strategies seem to randomly change in time and situation of mixed choices (one cooperates and second defects) dominate. (2) For medium a, players choose only one strategy for given period of time (the common state can switch to opposite one with some probability). (3) For large a, mixed strategy (once defect, once cooperate) is coexisting with common strategies and no change is allowed. I believe that proposed function characterizes better socio-economical phenomena and especially phase 1 and 2 contain most of human behavior.

  8. Emergence of human cooperation and altruism by evolutionary feedback selection

    CERN Document Server

    Darcet, D

    2006-01-01

    Strong reciprocity is a fundamental human characteristic associated with our extraordinary sociality and cooperation. Laboratory experiments on social dilemma games and many field studies have quantified well-defined levels of cooperation and propensity to punish/reward. The level of cooperation is observed to be strongly dependent on the availability of punishments and/or rewards. Here, we suggest that the propensity for altruistic punishment and reward is an emergent property that has co-evolved with cooperation by providing an efficient feedback mechanism through both biological and cultural interactions. By favoring high survival probability and large individual gains, the propensity for altruistic punishment and rewards reconciles self- and group interests. We show that a simple cost/benefit analysis at the level of a single agent, who anticipates the action of her fellows, determines an optimal level of altruistic punishment, which explains quantitatively experimental results on the third-party punishme...

  9. The role of roles: physical cooperation between humans and robots

    OpenAIRE

    Küçükyılmaz, Ayşe; Sezgin, Tevfik Metin; Başdoğan, Çağatay; Moertl, Alexander; Lawitzky, Martin; Hirche, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Since the strict separation of working spaces of humans and robots has experienced a softening due to recent robotics research achievements, close interaction of humans and robots comes rapidly into reach. In this context, physical human-robot interaction raises a number of questions regarding a desired intuitive robot behavior. The continuous bilateral information and energy exchange requires an appropriate continuous robot feedback. Investigating a cooperative manipulation task, the desired...

  10. Demography and ecology drive variation in cooperation across human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti; Mace, Ruth

    2011-08-30

    Recent studies argue that cross-cultural variation in human cooperation supports cultural group selection models of the evolution of large-scale cooperation. However, these studies confound cultural and environmental differences between populations by predominantly sampling one population per society. Here, we test the hypothesis that behavioral variation between populations is driven by environmental differences in demography and ecology. We use a public goods game played with money and a naturalistic measure of behavior involving the distribution of salt, an essential and locally valued resource, to demonstrate significant variation in levels of cooperation across 16 discrete populations of the same small-scale society, the Pahari Korwa of central India. Variation between these populations of the same cultural group is comparable to that found between different cultural groups in previous studies. Demographic factors partly explain this variation; age and a measure of social network size are associated with contributions in the public goods game, while population size and the number of adult sisters residing in the population are associated with decisions regarding salt. That behavioral variation is at least partly contingent on environmental differences between populations questions the existence of stable norms of cooperation. Hence, our findings call for reinterpretation of cross-cultural data on cooperation. Although cultural group selection could theoretically explain the evolution of large-scale cooperation, our results make clear that existing cross-cultural data cannot be taken as empirical support for this hypothesis.

  11. Linkage mapping of the human CSF2 and IL3 genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolova, E.I.; Dolganov, G.M.; Mazo, I.A.; Smirnov, D.V. (M.M. Shemyakin Inst. of Bio-organic Chemistry, Moscow (USSR)); Copeland, P.; Stewart, C.; Dean, M. (Program Resources, Inc./DynCorp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)); O' Brien, S.J. (National Cancer Inst., Frederick, MD (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Interleukin 3 (encoded by the IL3 gene) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (encoded by the CSF2 gene) are small secreted polypeptides that bind to specific cell surface receptors and regulate the growth, gene expression, and differentiation of many of the hematopoietic cell lineages, particularly nonlymphoid cells. The IL3 and CSF2 genes have been cloned and mapped to human chromosome bands 5q23-31. Only 10 kilobases of dna separates the two genes, suggesting that they have a common origin and/or regulation. The authors have cloned 70 kilobases of genomic DNA that includes the IL3 and CSF2 genes, as well as flanking sequences, and report a physical map of this region. Several unique-sequence DNA segments have been identified in this region, and one of these fragments detects two restriction fragment length polymorphisms in DNA from unrelated Caucasians. Segregation of these DNA polymorphisms was followed in the Centre Etude du Polymorphisme Humaine (CEPH) panel of 40 large three-generation pedigrees, and linkage was detected with 17 genetic markers previously typed in these families. Multipoint linkage analysis permits the placement of the region containing the IL3 and CSF2 structural genes on the recombination-genetic linkage map of chromosome 5q and thereby allows the role of these genes in leukemogenesis to be more critically examined.

  12. Genetic linkage analysis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using human chromosome 21 microsatellite DNA markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, D.R.; Sapp, P.; O`Regan, J.; McKenna-Yasek, D.; Schlumpf, K.S.; Haines, J.L.; Gusella, J.F.; Horvitz, H.R.; Brown, R.H. Jr. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-05-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig`s Disease) is a lethal neurodegenerative disease of upper and lower motorneurons in the brain and spinal cord. We previously reported linkage of a gene for familial ALS (FALS) to human chromosome 21 using 4 restriction fragment length polymorphism DNA markers and identified disease-associated mutations in the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 gene in some ALS families. We report here the genetic linkage data that led us to examine the SOD-1 gene for mutations. We also report a new microsatellite DNA marker for D21S63, derived from the cosmid PW517. Ten microsatellite DNA markers, including the new marker D21S63, were used to reinvestigate linkage of FALS to chromosome 21. Genetic linkage analysis performed with 13 ALS familes for these 10 DNA markers confirmed the presence of a FALS gene on chromosome 21. The highest total 2-point LOD score for all families was 4.33, obtained at a distance of 10 cM from the marker D21S223. For 5 ALS families linked to chromosome 21, a peak 2-point LOD score of 5.94 was obtained at the DNA marker D21S223. A multipoint score of 6.50 was obtained with the markers D21S213, D21S223, D21S167, and FALS for 5 chromosome 21-linked ALS families. The haplotypes of these families for the 10 DNA markers reveal recombination events that further refined the location of the FALS gene to a segment of approximately 5 megabases (Mb) between D21S213 and D21S219. The only characterized gene within this segment was SOD-1, the structural gene for Cu, Zn SOD. 30 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Unto Others: Illustrating the Human Capacity for Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J. Andrew; Urbanski, John; Hunt, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Research in both evolutionary economics and evolutionary psychology provides strong evidence that human behavior can be, and is, a complex mix of hedonism and altruism with a strong inclination toward cooperation under certain conditions. In this article, behavioral assumptions made in mainstream business theory are compared and contrasted with…

  14. Cooperation and a Harmonious World: Advances for the Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琛

    2007-01-01

    @@ It is an important challenge to outline some comments on the theme of international cooperation and, in the extent of the construction of a more harmonious world, the potential interactions of both government and civil society, at a national and international level, making ways for advances in the area of human rights.

  15. Designing a Social Environment for Human-Robot Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Fred M.

    Noting that work is partly a social activity, and that workers' psychological and emotional needs influence their productivity, this paper explores avenues for improving human-robot cooperation and for enhancing worker satisfaction in the environment of flexible automation. The first section of the paper offers a brief overview of the…

  16. The Foundations of Human Cooperation in Teaching and Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin N

    2017-01-09

    Humans exhibit extensive large-scale cooperation, of a form unprecedented in the natural world. Here I suggest that this cooperation arises in our species alone because of our uniquely potent capacities for social learning, imitation and teaching, combined with the co-evolutionary feedbacks that these capabilities have generated on the human mind. Culture took human populations down evolutionary pathways not available to non-cultural species, either by creating conditions that promoted established cooperative mechanisms, such as indirect reciprocity and mutualism, or by generating novel cooperative mechanisms not seen in other taxa, such as cultural group selection. In the process, gene-culture co-evolution seemingly generated an evolved psychology, comprising an enhanced ability and motivation to learn, teach, communicate through language, imitate and emulate, as well as predispositions to docility, social tolerance, and the sharing of goals, intentions and attention. This evolved psychology is entirely different from that observed in any other animal, or that could have evolved through conventional selection on genes alone.

  17. Interactions between personality and institutions in cooperative behaviour in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K B; Nettle, D; McElreath, R

    2015-12-05

    Laboratory attempts to identify relationships between personality and cooperative behaviour in humans have generated inconsistent results. This may partially stem from different practices in psychology and economics laboratories, with both hypothetical players and incentives typical only in the former. Another possible cause is insufficient consideration of the contexts within which social dilemmas occur. Real social dilemmas are often governed by institutions that change the payoff structure via rewards and punishments. However, such 'strong situations' will not necessarily suppress the effects of personality. On the contrary, they may affect some personalities differentially. Extraversion and neuroticism, reflecting variation in reward and punishment sensitivity, should predict modification of cooperative behaviour following changes to the payoff structure. We investigate interactions between personality and a punishment situation via two versions of a public goods game. We find that, even in a strong situation, personality matters and, moreover, it is related to strategic shifts in cooperation. Extraversion is associated with a shift from free-riding to cooperation in the presence of punishment, agreeableness is associated with initially higher contributions regardless of game, and, contrary to our predictions, neuroticism is associated with lower contributions regardless of game. Results should lead to new hypotheses that relate variation in biological functioning to individual differences in cooperative behaviour and that consider three-way interactions among personality, institutional context and sociocultural background.

  18. Investigation of the Impedance Characteristic of Human Arm for Development of Robots to Cooperate with Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mozasser; Ikeura, Ryojun; Mizutani, Kazuki

    In the near future many aspects of our lives will be encompassed by tasks performed in cooperation with robots. The application of robots in home automation, agricultural production and medical operations etc. will be indispensable. As a result robots need to be made human-friendly and to execute tasks in cooperation with humans. Control systems for such robots should be designed to work imitating human characteristics. In this study, we have tried to achieve these goals by means of controlling a simple one degree-of-freedom cooperative robot. Firstly, the impedance characteristic of the human arm in a cooperative task is investigated. Then, this characteristic is implemented to control a robot in order to perform cooperative task with humans. A human followed the motion of an object, which is moved through desired trajectories. The motion is actuated by the linear motor of the one degree-of-freedom robot system. Trajectories used in the experiments of this method were minimum jerk (the rate of change of acceleration) trajectory, which was found during human and human cooperative task and optimum for muscle movement. As the muscle is mechanically analogous to a spring-damper system, a simple second-order equation is used as models for the arm dynamics. In the model, we considered mass, stiffness and damping factor. Impedance parameter is calculated from the position and force data obtained from the experiments and based on the “Estimation of Parametric Model”. Investigated impedance characteristic of human arm is then implemented to control a robot, which performed cooperative task with human. It is observed that the proposed control methodology has given human like movements to the robot for cooperating with human.

  19. Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE 2010)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; De Souza, Cleidson; Korpela, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Software is created by people---software engineers---working in varied environments, under various conditions. Thus understanding cooperative and human aspect of software development is crucial to comprehend how methods and tools are used, and thereby improving the creation and maintenance...... research on human and cooperative aspects of software engineering. We aim at providing both a meeting place for the growing community and the possibility for researchers interested in joining the field to present their work in progress and get an overview over the field....... of software. Inspired by the hosting country's concept of co-responsibility -- ubuntu -- we especially invited contributions that address community-based development like open source development and sustainability of ICT eco-systems. The goal of this workshop is to provide a forum for discussing high quality...

  20. Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE 2010)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; De Souza, Cleidson; Korpela, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    of software. Inspired by the hosting country's concept of co-responsibility -- ubuntu -- we especially invited contributions that address community-based development like open source development and sustainability of ICT eco-systems. The goal of this workshop is to provide a forum for discussing high quality......Software is created by people---software engineers---working in varied environments, under various conditions. Thus understanding cooperative and human aspect of software development is crucial to comprehend how methods and tools are used, and thereby improving the creation and maintenance...... research on human and cooperative aspects of software engineering. We aim at providing both a meeting place for the growing community and the possibility for researchers interested in joining the field to present their work in progress and get an overview over the field....

  1. Cooperative and human aspects of software engineering: CHASE 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Sharp, Helen C.; Winschiers Theophilus, Heike;

    2010-01-01

    are required, to improve the creation and maintenance of software. The 3rd workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering held at the International Conference on Software Engineering continued the tradition from earlier workshops and provided a lively forum to discuss current developments...... and high quality research in the field. Further dissemination of research results will lead to an improvement of software development and deployment across the globe....

  2. A putative human pheromone, androstadienone, increases cooperation between men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huoviala, Paavo; Rantala, Markus J

    2013-01-01

    Androstadienone, a component of male sweat, has been suggested to function as a human pheromone, an airborne chemical signal causing specific responses in conspecifics. In earlier studies androstadienone has been reported to increase attraction, affect subjects' mood, cortisol levels and activate brain areas linked to social cognition, among other effects. However, the existing psychological evidence is still relatively scarce, especially regarding androstadienone's effects on male behaviour. The purpose of this study was to look for possible behavioural effects in male subjects by combining two previously distinct branches of research: human pheromone research and behavioural game theory of experimental economics. Forty male subjects participated in a mixed-model, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment. The participants were exposed to either androstadienone or a control stimulus, and participated in ultimatum and dictator games, decision making tasks commonly used to measure cooperation and generosity quantitatively. Furthermore, we measured participants' salivary cortisol and testosterone levels during the experiment. Salivary testosterone levels were found to positively correlate with cooperative behaviour. After controlling for the effects of participants' baseline testosterone levels, androstadienone was found to increase cooperative behaviour in the decision making tasks. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that androstadienone directly affects behaviour in human males.

  3. A putative human pheromone, androstadienone, increases cooperation between men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paavo Huoviala

    Full Text Available Androstadienone, a component of male sweat, has been suggested to function as a human pheromone, an airborne chemical signal causing specific responses in conspecifics. In earlier studies androstadienone has been reported to increase attraction, affect subjects' mood, cortisol levels and activate brain areas linked to social cognition, among other effects. However, the existing psychological evidence is still relatively scarce, especially regarding androstadienone's effects on male behaviour. The purpose of this study was to look for possible behavioural effects in male subjects by combining two previously distinct branches of research: human pheromone research and behavioural game theory of experimental economics. Forty male subjects participated in a mixed-model, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment. The participants were exposed to either androstadienone or a control stimulus, and participated in ultimatum and dictator games, decision making tasks commonly used to measure cooperation and generosity quantitatively. Furthermore, we measured participants' salivary cortisol and testosterone levels during the experiment. Salivary testosterone levels were found to positively correlate with cooperative behaviour. After controlling for the effects of participants' baseline testosterone levels, androstadienone was found to increase cooperative behaviour in the decision making tasks. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that androstadienone directly affects behaviour in human males.

  4. Strong reciprocity, human cooperation, and the enforcement of social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Ernst; Fischbacher, Urs; Gächter, Simon

    2002-03-01

    This paper provides strong evidence challenging the self-interest assumption that dominates the behavioral sciences and much evolutionary thinking. The evidence indicates that many people have a tendency to voluntarily cooperate, if treated fairly, and to punish noncooperators. We call this behavioral propensity "strong reciprocity" and show empirically that it can lead to almost universal cooperation in circumstances in which purely self-interested behavior would cause a complete breakdown of cooperation. In addition, we show that people are willing to punish those who behaved unfairly towards a third person or who defected in a Prisoner's Dilemma game with a third person. This suggests that strong reciprocity is a powerful device for the enforcement of social norms involving, for example, food sharing or collective action. Strong reciprocity cannot be rationalized as an adaptive trait by the leading evolutionary theories of human cooperation (in other words, kin selection, reciprocal altruism, indirect reciprocity, and costly signaling theory). However, multilevel selection theories of cultural evolution are consistent with strong reciprocity.

  5. [Recent knowledge on the linkage of strain specific genotypes with clinical manifestations of human citomegalovirus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatelli, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Human citomegalovirus (CMV) is a beta-herpesvirus able to establish lifelong persistent infections which usually remain asymptomatic. However, severe diseases may develop in immunocompromised subjects (e.g., AIDS patients and transplant recipients) and if acquired in utero. Circulating CMV clinical strains display genetic polymorphisms in multiple genes, which may be implicated in CMV-induced immunopathogenesis, as well as strain-specific tissue-tropism, viral spread in the host cells and virulence, finally determining the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of CMV disease. Current literature report a number of studies regarding the main CMV polymorphic genes (UL55-gB, UL144, UL73-gN, UL74-gO), their diagnostic and therapeutic impact, their potential clinical relevance as prognostic markers. This paper aims to critically analyse the results of these studies and evaluate the linkage of strain-specific genotypes with clinical manifestations of CMV disease and their perspective implications.

  6. Human population dispersal "Out of Africa" estimated from linkage disequilibrium and allele frequencies of SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Brian P; Powell, Joseph E; Goddard, Michael E; Visscher, Peter M

    2011-06-01

    Genetic and fossil evidence supports a single, recent (modern Homo sapiens in Africa, followed by later population divergence and dispersal across the globe (the "Out of Africa" model). However, there is less agreement on the exact nature of this migration event and dispersal of populations relative to one another. We use the empirically observed genetic correlation structure (or linkage disequilibrium) between 242,000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 17 global populations to reconstruct two key parameters of human evolution: effective population size (N(e)) and population divergence times (T). A linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based approach allows changes in human population size to be traced over time and reveals a substantial reduction in N(e) accompanying the "Out of Africa" exodus as well as the dramatic re-expansion of non-Africans as they spread across the globe. Secondly, two parallel estimates of population divergence times provide clear evidence of population dispersal patterns "Out of Africa" and subsequent dispersal of proto-European and proto-East Asian populations. Estimates of divergence times between European-African and East Asian-African populations are inconsistent with its simplest manifestation: a single dispersal from the continent followed by a split into Western and Eastern Eurasian branches. Rather, population divergence times are consistent with substantial ancient gene flow to the proto-European population after its divergence with proto-East Asians, suggesting distinct, early dispersals of modern H. sapiens from Africa. We use simulated genetic polymorphism data to demonstrate the validity of our conclusions against alternative population demographic scenarios.

  7. Conserved synteny between pig chromosome 8 and human chromosome 4 but rearranged and distorted linkage maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellegren, H.; Edfors-Lilja, I.; Anderson, L. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Wintero, A.K. (Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Fredriksberg (Denmark))

    1993-09-01

    The porcine genes encoding interleukin 2, alcohol dehydrogenase (class I) gamma polypeptide, and osteopontin were mapped to chromosome 8 by linkage analysis. Together with previous assignments to this chromosome (the albumin, platelet-derived growth factor receptor A, and fibrinogen genes), an extensive syntenic homology with human chromosome 4 was discovered. Loci from about three-quarters of the q arm of human chromosome 4 are on pig chromosome 8. However, the linear order of the markers is not identical in the two species, and there are several examples of interspecific differences in the recombination fractions between adjacent markers. The conserved synteny between man and the pig gives strong support to a previous suggestion that a synteny group present in the ancestor of mammalian species has been retained on human chromosome 4q. Since loci from this synteny group are found on two cattle chromosomes, the bovine rearrangement must have occurred after the split of Suidae and Bovidae within Artiodactyla. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Linkage disequilibrium decay and past population history in the human genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeyoung Park

    Full Text Available The fluctuation of population size has not been well studied in the previous studies of theoretical linkage disequilibrium (LD expectation. In this study, an improved theoretical prediction of LD decay was derived to account for the effects of changes in effective population sizes. The equation was used to estimate effective population size (N(e assuming a constant N(e and LD at equilibrium, and these N(e estimates implied the past changes of N(e for a certain number of generations until equilibrium, which differed based on recombination rate. As the influence of recent population history on the N(e estimates is larger than old population history, recent changes in population size can be inferred more accurately than old changes. The theoretical predictions based on this improved expression showed accurate agreement with the simulated values. When applied to human genome data, the detailed recent history of human populations was obtained. The inferred past population history of each population showed good correspondence with historical studies. Specifically, four populations (three African ancestries and one Mexican ancestry showed population growth that was significantly less than that of other populations, and two populations originated from China showed prominent exponential growth. During the examination of overall LD decay in the human genome, a selection pressure on chromosome 14, the gephyrin gene, was observed in all populations.

  9. Safe Human-Robot Cooperation in an Industrial Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pedrocchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard EN ISO10218 is fostering the implementation of hybrid production systems, i.e., production systems characterized by a close relationship among human operators and robots in cooperative tasks. Human-robot hybrid systems could have a big economic benefit in small and medium sized production, even if this new paradigm introduces mandatory, challenging safety aspects. Among various requirements for collaborative workspaces, safety-assurance involves two different application layers; the algorithms enabling safe space-sharing between humans and robots and the enabling technologies allowing acquisition data from sensor fusion and environmental data analysing. This paper addresses both the problems: a collision avoidance strategy allowing on-line re-planning of robot motion and a safe network of unsafe devices as a suggested infrastructure for functional safety achievement.

  10. Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE 2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The CHASE 2008 workshop is concerned with exploring the cooperative and human aspects of software engineering, and providing a forum for discussing high-quality research. Accepted papers reflect diversity of the field of software engineering – ranging from requirements to testing, and from...... ethnographic research to experiments. Moreover, the background of attendees reflects the diversity of researchers in this domain, ranging from sociology to psychology, from informatics to software engineering. CHASE 1008 met its goals in presenting high-quality research and building community through a mixture...

  11. Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE 2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The CHASE 2008 workshop is concerned with exploring the cooperative and human aspects of software engineering, and providing a forum for discussing high-quality research. Accepted papers reflect diversity of the field of software engineering – ranging from requirements to testing, and from...... ethnographic research to experiments. Moreover, the background of attendees reflects the diversity of researchers in this domain, ranging from sociology to psychology, from informatics to software engineering. CHASE 1008 met its goals in presenting high-quality research and building community through a mixture...

  12. Integrating human factors and artificial intelligence in the development of human-machine cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Lindenberg, J.; Neericx, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing machine intelligence leads to a shift from a mere interactive to a much more complex cooperative human-machine relation requiring a multidisciplinary development approach. This paper presents a generic multidisciplinary cognitive engineering method CE+ for the integration of human factors

  13. [Linkage to care among new human immunodeficiency virus diagnoses in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Jesús; Malo, Carmen; Fernández, Ana; Izquierdo, Ana; Marcos, Henar; Cevallos, Carlos; Castilla, Jesús; García, Rocio; Díez, Mercedes

    2014-03-01

    To describe linkage to care among new HIV diagnoses in Spain; and to estimate factors associated to linkage to care within three months after diagnosis. The distribution of the time elapsing between the date of HIV diagnosis and the date of first determination of CD4 (considered to be the date of linkage to care) was calculated among new HIV diagnoses in 2010 in the seven Autonomous Regions participating, where data on date of CD4 count was available. Linkage to care was considered «correct» if done within three months after diagnosis. Factors associated to correct linkage to care were estimated using logistic regression. A total of 1769 new HIV diagnoses were included. Of them, 83.1% had evidence of linkage to care within a year, and 75.7% were linked within three months after diagnosis. Being an injectable drug user (IDU) was the only factor inversely associated with linkage to care within 3 months (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2-0.6). In Spain linkage to care after HIV diagnosis is good, but there is still room for improvement, especially among IDUs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Safe Human-Robot Cooperation in an Industrial Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pedrocchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard EN ISO10218 is fostering the implementation of hybrid production systems, i.e., production systems characterized by a close relationship among human operators and robots in cooperative tasks. Human‐robot hybrid systems could have a big economic benefit in small and medium sized production, even if this new paradigm introduces mandatory, challenging safety aspects. Among various requirements for collaborative workspaces, safety‐assurance involves two different application layers; the algorithms enabling safe space‐sharing between humans and robots and the enabling technologies allowing acquisition data from sensor fusion and environmental data analysing. This paper addresses both the problems: a collision avoidance strategy allowing on‐line re‐planning of robot motion and a safe network of unsafe devices as a suggested infrastructure for functional safety achievement.

  15. Humanization: Explaining the Law of Cooperatives in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sapovadia, Vrajlal; Patel, Sweta

    2012-01-01

    International Cooperative Alliance defines a cooperative as an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise. Cooperatives are based on the values of self-help, self-responsibility, democracy, equality, equity, mutual cooperation, and solidarity. Members of the cooperative society believe in the ethical values of honesty, openness, social respo...

  16. Educational Cooperation between Thailand and Cambodia: Outcomes on Human Development, International Understanding and Future Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijtorntham, Wichuda; Ruangdej, Phumjit; Saisuwan, Chatchanog

    2015-01-01

    Thailand and Cambodia set up educational cooperation since 1996, before signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Promotion of Education in 2003. This research aimed to investigate outcomes of educational cooperation projects on Cambodia human development and international understanding, process of participatory learning and…

  17. Promotion of Bilateral Cooperative Programs in Nuclear Human Resources Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Nam, Y. M. (and others)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of this project is strengthening of bilateral cooperation with those countries for sharing Korea's technology, and providing of education and training on Korean experience regarding national nuclear policy, technology self reliance, and technology itself, in the field of nuclear power generation and the application of radioisotopes and radiation. This project covers an analysis on the need of nuclear human resource development in countries having interest in the introduction of nuclear power and/or promotion of the use of nuclear energy, and provision of courses on 'nuclear power policy, planning and management' and 'design and operation of nuclear research reactor, and application of radiation technology' along with the country specific needs. Education and training of key members in nuclear energy development from Egypt: It was implemented through bilateral cooperation and support by KOICA program. The first part, which targeted staff members from Egypt Nuclear Commission, was held for 2 months providing a KOICA course on policy, planning and management for nuclear power project, and second part was on the job training in Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, KAERI respectively. On the job training of 1 scientist from Vietnam was implemented on the basis of bilateral cooperation in a research laboratory on radioactive waste treatment technology, at KAERI. Education and training for scientists from South East RCA countries were carried out for 11 participants from Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, China, Pakistan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Bangladesh. The course dealt with nuclear research reactor and radiation application technology. Development of nuclear education and training programs for key persons involved in nuclear power projects from countries of Middle East: The developed program consists of 15 courses addressing 3 technical levels, i.e. high level policy makers, middle level project

  18. Human umbilical cord hyaluronate. Neutral sugar content and carbohydrate-protein linkage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, R; Varma, R S; Allen, W S; Wardi, A H

    1975-07-14

    Paper chromatography of neutral sugars and gas chromatography of their aldononitrile acetates indicated the presence of fucose, arabinose and a small amount of glucose in purified human umbilical cord hyaluronate. The molar ratios of serine, threonine and aspartic acid to neutral sugars were not unity, suggesting the non-involvement of the neutral sugars and the amino acids in a carbohydrate-protein linkage. The same was indicated by an increase in the percentage of the aforementioned amino acids and by the absence of sugar alditols in umbilical cord hyaluronate reduced eith NaBH4 -PdCl2, after alkali treatment. This reduction caused a decrease in the intrinsic viscosity and molecular wieght to about one-half and an appreciable decrease in the specific rota tion of hyaluronate, suggesting a separation of the two antiparallel chains o the double helical hyaluronate. The umbilical cord hyluronate containe contained bound silicon and it is possible that this bound silicon may cross-link the two chains at interspersed intervals through the uronic acid moiety and/or through neutral sugars.

  19. Cooperative binding of drugs on human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, L. M.; Pérez-Rodríguez, M.; García, M.

    In order to explain the adsorption isotherms of the amphiphilic penicillins nafcillin and cloxacillin onto human serum albumin (HSA), a cooperative multilayer adsorption model is introduced, combining the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) adsorption isotherm with an amphiphilic ionic adsorbate, whose chemical potential is derived from Guggenheim's theory. The non-cooperative model has been previously proved to qualitatively predict the measured adsorption maxima of these drugs [Varela, L. M., García, M., Pérez-Rodríguez, M., Taboada, P., Ruso, J. M., and Mosquera, V., 2001, J. chem. Phys., 114, 7682]. The surface interactions among adsorbed drug molecules are modelled in a mean-field fashion, so the chemical potential of the adsorbate is assumed to include a term proportional to the surface coverage, the constant of proportionality being the lateral interaction energy between bound molecules. The interaction energies obtained from the empirical binding isotherms are of the order of tenths of the thermal energy, therefore suggesting the principal role of van der Waals forces in the binding process.

  20. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms.

  1. Decay of linkage disequilibrium within genes across HGDP-CEPH human samples: most population isolates do not show increased LD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Arcadi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that the pattern of linkage disequilibrium varies between human populations, with remarkable geographical stratification. Indirect association studies routinely exploit linkage disequilibrium around genes, particularly in isolated populations where it is assumed to be higher. Here, we explore both the amount and the decay of linkage disequilibrium with physical distance along 211 gene regions, most of them related to complex diseases, across 39 HGDP-CEPH population samples, focusing particularly on the populations defined as isolates. Within each gene region and population we use r2 between all possible single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP pairs as a measure of linkage disequilibrium and focus on the proportion of SNP pairs with r2 greater than 0.8. Results Although the average r2 was found to be significantly different both between and within continental regions, a much higher proportion of r2 variance could be attributed to differences between continental regions (2.8% vs. 0.5%, respectively. Similarly, while the proportion of SNP pairs with r2 > 0.8 was significantly different across continents for all distance classes, it was generally much more homogenous within continents, except in the case of Africa and the Americas. The only isolated populations with consistently higher LD in all distance classes with respect to their continent are the Kalash (Central South Asia and the Surui (America. Moreover, isolated populations showed only slightly higher proportions of SNP pairs with r2 > 0.8 per gene region than non-isolated populations in the same continent. Thus, the number of SNPs in isolated populations that need to be genotyped may be only slightly less than in non-isolates. Conclusion The "isolated population" label by itself does not guarantee a greater genotyping efficiency in association studies, and properties other than increased linkage disequilibrium may make these populations interesting in

  2. Decay of linkage disequilibrium within genes across HGDP-CEPH human samples: most population isolates do not show increased LD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Elena; Laayouni, Hafid; Morcillo-Suarez, Carlos; Casals, Ferran; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ferrer-Admetlla, Anna; Gardner, Michelle; Rosa, Araceli; Navarro, Arcadi; Comas, David; Graffelman, Jan; Calafell, Francesc; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    Background It is well known that the pattern of linkage disequilibrium varies between human populations, with remarkable geographical stratification. Indirect association studies routinely exploit linkage disequilibrium around genes, particularly in isolated populations where it is assumed to be higher. Here, we explore both the amount and the decay of linkage disequilibrium with physical distance along 211 gene regions, most of them related to complex diseases, across 39 HGDP-CEPH population samples, focusing particularly on the populations defined as isolates. Within each gene region and population we use r2 between all possible single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) pairs as a measure of linkage disequilibrium and focus on the proportion of SNP pairs with r2 greater than 0.8. Results Although the average r2 was found to be significantly different both between and within continental regions, a much higher proportion of r2 variance could be attributed to differences between continental regions (2.8% vs. 0.5%, respectively). Similarly, while the proportion of SNP pairs with r2 > 0.8 was significantly different across continents for all distance classes, it was generally much more homogenous within continents, except in the case of Africa and the Americas. The only isolated populations with consistently higher LD in all distance classes with respect to their continent are the Kalash (Central South Asia) and the Surui (America). Moreover, isolated populations showed only slightly higher proportions of SNP pairs with r2 > 0.8 per gene region than non-isolated populations in the same continent. Thus, the number of SNPs in isolated populations that need to be genotyped may be only slightly less than in non-isolates. Conclusion The "isolated population" label by itself does not guarantee a greater genotyping efficiency in association studies, and properties other than increased linkage disequilibrium may make these populations interesting in genetic epidemiology. PMID

  3. Parochial cooperation in humans: forms and functions of self-sacrifice in intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Balliet, D.; Halevy, N.; Elliot, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Although cooperation between groups is not unusual, most forms of human cooperation are in-group bounded and, sometimes, motivated by the desire to ward-off and subordinate rivaling out-groups. Building on evolutionary perspectives and models, we propose that humans evolved a capacity for parochial

  4. Cooperation between humans and robots in fine assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, C. K.; Konold, P.; Rapp, I.; Mann, C.; Muminovic, A.

    2017-01-01

    The development of ever smaller components in manufacturing processes require handling, assembling and testing of miniature similar components. The human eye meets its optical limits with ongoing miniaturization of parts, due to the fact that it is not able to detect particles with a size smaller than 0.11 mm or register distances below 0.07 mm - like separating gaps. After several hours of labour, workers cannot accurately differentiate colour nuances as well as constant quality of work cannot be guaranteed. Assembly is usually done with tools, such as microscopes, magnifiers or digital measuring devices. Due to the enormous mental concentration, quickly a fatigue process sets in. This requires breaks or change of task and reduces productivity. Dealing with handling devices such as grippers, guide units and actuators for component assembling, requires a time consuming training process. Often productivity increase is first achieved after years of daily training. Miniaturizations are ubiquitously needed, for instance in the surgery. Very small add-on instruments must be provided. In measurement, e.g. it is a technological must and a competitive advantage, to determine required data with a small-as-possible, highest-possible-resolution sensor. Solution: The realization of a flexible universal workstation, using standard robotic systems and image processing devices in cooperation with humans, where workers are largely freed up from highly strenuous physical and fine motoric work, so that they can do productive work monitoring and adjusting the machine assisted production process.

  5. Localization of the homolog of a mouse craniofacial mutant to human chromosome 18q11 and evaluation of linkage to human CLP and CPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, A.J.; Burgess, D.L.; Kohrman, D.C.; Yu, J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-15

    The transgene-induced mutation 9257 and the spontaneous mutation twirler cause craniofacial and inner ear malformations and are located on mouse chromosome 18 near the ataxia locus ax. To map the human homolog of 9257, a probe from the transgene insertion site was used to screen a human genomic library. Analysis of a cross-hybridizing human clone identified a 3-kb conserved sequence block that does not appear to contain protein coding sequence. Analysis of somatic cell hybrid panels assigned the human locus to 18q11. The polymorphic microsatellite markers D18S1001 and D18S1002 were isolated from the human locus and mapped by linkage analysis using the CEPH pedigrees. The 9257 locus maps close to the centromeres of human chromosome 18q and mouse chromosome 18 at the proximal end of a conserved linkage group. To evaluate the role of this locus in human craniofacial disorders, linkage to D18S1002 was tested in 11 families with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate and 3 families with autosomal dominant cleft palate only. Obligatory recombinants were observed in 8 of the families, and negative lod scores from the other families indicated that these disorders are not linked to the chromosome 18 loci. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Bacterial zoonoses of fishes: a review and appraisal of evidence for linkages between fish and human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, David T

    2015-01-01

    Human contact with and consumption of fishes presents hazards from a range of bacterial zoonotic infections. Whereas many bacterial pathogens have been presented as fish-borne zoonoses on the basis of epidemiological and phenotypic evidence, genetic identity between fish and human isolates is not frequently examined or does not provide support for transmission between these hosts. In order to accurately assess the zoonotic risk from exposure to fishes in the context of aquaculture, wild fisheries and ornamental aquaria, it is important to critically examine evidence of linkages between bacteria infecting fishes and humans. This article reviews bacteria typically presented as fish-borne zoonoses, and examines the current strength of evidence for this classification. Of bacteria generally described as fish-borne zoonoses, only Mycobacterium spp., Streptococcus iniae, Clostridium botulinum, and Vibrio vulnificus appear to be well-supported as zoonoses in the strict sense. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, while transmissible from fishes to humans, does not cause disease in fishes and is therefore excluded from the list. Some epidemiological and/or molecular linkages have been made between other bacteria infecting both fishes and humans, but more work is needed to elucidate routes of transmission and the identity of these pathogens in their respective hosts at the genomic level.

  7. Building the Leviathan--Voluntary centralisation of punishment power sustains cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jörg; Méder, Zsombor Z; Okamoto-Barth, Sanae; Riedl, Arno

    2016-02-18

    The prevalence of cooperation among humans is puzzling because cooperators can be exploited by free riders. Peer punishment has been suggested as a solution to this puzzle, but cumulating evidence questions its robustness in sustaining cooperation. Amongst others, punishment fails when it is not powerful enough, or when it elicits counter-punishment. Existing research, however, has ignored that the distribution of punishment power can be the result of social interactions. We introduce a novel experiment in which individuals can transfer punishment power to others. We find that while decentralised peer punishment fails to overcome free riding, the voluntary transfer of punishment power enables groups to sustain cooperation. This is achieved by non-punishing cooperators empowering those who are willing to punish in the interest of the group. Our results show how voluntary power centralisation can efficiently sustain cooperation, which could explain why hierarchical power structures are widespread among animals and humans.

  8. Building the Leviathan – Voluntary centralisation of punishment power sustains cooperation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jörg; Méder, Zsombor Z.; Okamoto-Barth, Sanae; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cooperation among humans is puzzling because cooperators can be exploited by free riders. Peer punishment has been suggested as a solution to this puzzle, but cumulating evidence questions its robustness in sustaining cooperation. Amongst others, punishment fails when it is not powerful enough, or when it elicits counter-punishment. Existing research, however, has ignored that the distribution of punishment power can be the result of social interactions. We introduce a novel experiment in which individuals can transfer punishment power to others. We find that while decentralised peer punishment fails to overcome free riding, the voluntary transfer of punishment power enables groups to sustain cooperation. This is achieved by non-punishing cooperators empowering those who are willing to punish in the interest of the group. Our results show how voluntary power centralisation can efficiently sustain cooperation, which could explain why hierarchical power structures are widespread among animals and humans. PMID:26888519

  9. Heterogeneous networks do not promote cooperation when humans play a Prisoner's Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Tarancón, Alfonso; Cuesta, José A; Sánchez, Angel; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-08-07

    It is not fully understood why we cooperate with strangers on a daily basis. In an increasingly global world, where interaction networks and relationships between individuals are becoming more complex, different hypotheses have been put forward to explain the foundations of human cooperation on a large scale and to account for the true motivations that are behind this phenomenon. In this context, population structure has been suggested to foster cooperation in social dilemmas, but theoretical studies of this mechanism have yielded contradictory results so far; additionally, the issue lacks a proper experimental test in large systems. We have performed the largest experiments to date with humans playing a spatial Prisoner's Dilemma on a lattice and a scale-free network (1,229 subjects). We observed that the level of cooperation reached in both networks is the same, comparable with the level of cooperation of smaller networks or unstructured populations. We have also found that subjects respond to the cooperation that they observe in a reciprocal manner, being more likely to cooperate if, in the previous round, many of their neighbors and themselves did so, which implies that humans do not consider neighbors' payoffs when making their decisions in this dilemma but only their actions. Our results, which are in agreement with recent theoretical predictions based on this behavioral rule, suggest that population structure has little relevance as a cooperation promoter or inhibitor among humans.

  10. Structural basis of cooperativity in human UDP-glucose dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalam Rajakannan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH is the sole enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of UDP-glucose to UDP-glucuronic acid. The product is used in xenobiotic glucuronidation in hepatocytes and in the production of proteoglycans that are involved in promoting normal cellular growth and migration. Overproduction of proteoglycans has been implicated in the progression of certain epithelial cancers, while inhibition of UGDH diminished tumor angiogenesis in vivo. A better understanding of the conformational changes occurring during the UGDH reaction cycle will pave the way for inhibitor design and potential cancer therapeutics. METHODOLOGY: Previously, the substrate-bound of UGDH was determined to be a symmetrical hexamer and this regular symmetry is disrupted on binding the inhibitor, UDP-α-D-xylose. Here, we have solved an alternate crystal structure of human UGDH (hUGDH in complex with UDP-glucose at 2.8 Å resolution. Surprisingly, the quaternary structure of this substrate-bound protein complex consists of the open homohexamer that was previously observed for inhibitor-bound hUGDH, indicating that this conformation is relevant for deciphering elements of the normal reaction cycle. CONCLUSION: In all subunits of the present open structure, Thr131 has translocated into the active site occupying the volume vacated by the absent active water and partially disordered NAD+ molecule. This conformation suggests a mechanism by which the enzyme may exchange NADH for NAD+ and repolarize the catalytic water bound to Asp280 while protecting the reaction intermediates. The structure also indicates how the subunits may communicate with each other through two reaction state sensors in this highly cooperative enzyme.

  11. Genome-wide Linkage Disequilibrium Linkage Analysis (LDLA) of Body Fat Traits in an F2 Porcine Model for Human Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pant, Sameer Dinkar; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Cirera Salicio, Susanna;

    , body composition was determined at about two months of age (64 ± 11 days) via dual-energy xray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. All pigs were genotyped using Illumina Porcine 60k SNP Beadchip and a combined LDLA approach was used to perform genomewide linkage and association analysis for body fat traits...

  12. Human-FES cooperative control for wrist movement: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Gui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional electrical stimulation (FES sometimes applies to patients with partial paralysis, so human voluntary control and FES control both exist. Our study aims to build a cooperative controller to achieve human-FES cooperation. This cooperative controller is formed by a classical FES controller and an impedance controller. The FES controller consists of a back propagation (BP neural network-based feedforward controller and a PID-based feedback controller. The function of impedance controller is to convert volitional force/torque, which is estimated from a three-stage filter based on EMG, into additional angle. The additional angle can reduce the FES intensity in our cooperative controller, comparing to that in classical FES controller. Some assessment experiments are designed to test the performance of the cooperative controller.

  13. I Reach Faster When I See You Look: Gaze Effects in Human-Human and Human-Robot Face-to-Face Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jean-David; Pattacini, Ugo; Lelong, Amelie; Bailly, Gerrard; Elisei, Frederic; Fagel, Sascha; Dominey, Peter Ford; Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    Human-human interaction in natural environments relies on a variety of perceptual cues. Humanoid robots are becoming increasingly refined in their sensorimotor capabilities, and thus should now be able to manipulate and exploit these social cues in cooperation with their human partners. Previous studies have demonstrated that people follow human and robot gaze, and that it can help them to cope with spatially ambiguous language. Our goal is to extend these findings into the domain of action, to determine how human and robot gaze can influence the speed and accuracy of human action. We report on results from a human-human cooperation experiment demonstrating that an agent's vision of her/his partner's gaze can significantly improve that agent's performance in a cooperative task. We then implement a heuristic capability to generate such gaze cues by a humanoid robot that engages in the same cooperative interaction. The subsequent human-robot experiments demonstrate that a human agent can indeed exploit the predictive gaze of their robot partner in a cooperative task. This allows us to render the humanoid robot more human-like in its ability to communicate with humans. The long term objectives of the work are thus to identify social cooperation cues, and to validate their pertinence through implementation in a cooperative robot. The current research provides the robot with the capability to produce appropriate speech and gaze cues in the context of human-robot cooperation tasks. Gaze is manipulated in three conditions: Full gaze (coordinated eye and head), eyes hidden with sunglasses, and head fixed. We demonstrate the pertinence of these cues in terms of statistical measures of action times for humans in the context of a cooperative task, as gaze significantly facilitates cooperation as measured by human response times.

  14. Human-Induced Effects on RSS Ranging Measurements for Cooperative Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Pelosi, Mauro; Nurmi, Jari

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental evaluations of human-induced perturbations on received-signal-strength-(RSS-) based ranging measurements for cooperative mobile positioning. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to gain insight and understand the impact of both body loss and hand grip...... on the RSS for enhancing proximity measurements among neighbouring devices in cooperative scenarios. Our main contribution is represented by experimental investigations. Analysis of the errors introduced in the distance estimation using path-loss-based methods has been carried out. Moreover, the exploitation...... of human-induced perturbations for enhancing the final positioning accuracy through cooperative schemes has been assessed. It has been proved that the effect of cooperation is very limited if human factors are not taken into account when performing experimental activities....

  15. The Role of Administrative Record Linkage in Creating Trajectories of Early Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzman, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood development (ECD) is a significant social determinant of health. Monitoring ECD to reveal trends and patterns of development requires high-quality information on a population from infancy through adulthood. This study linked data from the Early Development Instrument (EDI), administered in senior kindergarten, with data from the Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA), graduation status and SES to show that Vancouver schools with poor FSA results also had high proportions of children with low EDI and SES scores. Linking EDI data to data on pregnancy, birth, medical history, hospital care and success in school would enable the creation of normative EDC trajectories for all children. A person-specific, anonymized, population-based record linkage system is an indispensable prerequisite for creating and monitoring developmental trajectories. PMID:24933373

  16. Human Capital Reporting and its Linkage with Key Performance Indicators of Companies: Evidence from Estonian Companies Listed on Nasdax OMX Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Startseva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the subject of non-financial accounting and reporting has become very popular. Human Capital Reporting (HCR has become a vital part of everyday business activities of companies across the world. Most companies declare that human capital is the most important factor of their competiveness, which is also reflected in their CSR reports by incorporated social disclosures. The subject of the present research is human capital reporting and its linkage with the performance indicators of companies. The aim of this research is to establish whether there is a linkage between HCR and financial performance indicators of Estonian companies listed on the Nasdaq OMX Baltic (Tallinn market. The authors calculated various ratios and carried out HCR scoring to examine the presence of linkage between HCR reporting and companies’ financial performance. The results demonstrate that there is no direct relationship between the level of HCR and the financial performance of selected companies.

  17. CR Cistrome: a ChIP-Seq database for chromatin regulators and histone modification linkages in human and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qixuan; Huang, Jinyan; Sun, Hanfei; Liu, Jing; Wang, Juan; Wang, Qian; Qin, Qian; Mei, Shenglin; Zhao, Chengchen; Yang, Xiaoqin; Liu, X Shirley; Zhang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Diversified histone modifications (HMs) are essential epigenetic features. They play important roles in fundamental biological processes including transcription, DNA repair and DNA replication. Chromatin regulators (CRs), which are indispensable in epigenetics, can mediate HMs to adjust chromatin structures and functions. With the development of ChIP-Seq technology, there is an opportunity to study CR and HM profiles at the whole-genome scale. However, no specific resource for the integration of CR ChIP-Seq data or CR-HM ChIP-Seq linkage pairs is currently available. Therefore, we constructed the CR Cistrome database, available online at http://compbio.tongji.edu.cn/cr and http://cistrome.org/cr/, to further elucidate CR functions and CR-HM linkages. Within this database, we collected all publicly available ChIP-Seq data on CRs in human and mouse and categorized the data into four cohorts: the reader, writer, eraser and remodeler cohorts, together with curated introductions and ChIP-Seq data analysis results. For the HM readers, writers and erasers, we provided further ChIP-Seq analysis data for the targeted HMs and schematized the relationships between them. We believe CR Cistrome is a valuable resource for the epigenetics community.

  18. Absence of linkage of apparently single gene mediated ADHD with the human syntenic region of the mouse mutant coloboma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, E.J.; Rogan, P.K.; Domoto, M. [Pennsylvania State Univ. College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    Attention deficit disorder (ADHD) is a complex biobehavioral phenotype which affects up to 8% of the general population and often impairs social, academic, and job performance. Its origins are heterogeneous, but a significant genetic component is suggested by family and twin studies. The murine strain, coloboma, displays a spontaneously hyperactive phenotype that is responsive to dextroamphetamine and has been proposed as a genetic model for ADHD. Coloboma is a semi-dominant mutation that is caused by a hemizygous deletion of the SNAP-25 and other genes on mouse chromosome 2q. To test the possibility that the human homolog of the mouse coloboma gene(s) could be responsible for ADHD, we have carried out linkage studies with polymorphic markers in the region syntenic to coloboma (20p11-p12). Five families in which the pattern of inheritance of ADHD appears to be autosomal dominant were studied. Segregation analysis of the traits studied suggested that the best fitting model was a sex-influenced, single gene, Mendelian pattern. Several genetic models were evaluated based on estimates of penetrance, phenocopy rate, and allele frequency derived from our patient population and those of other investigators. No significant linkage was detected between the disease locus and markers spanning this chromosome 20 interval. 39 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Sexual selection of human cooperative behaviour: an experimental study in rural Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Tognetti

    Full Text Available Human cooperation in large groups and between non-kin individuals remains a Darwinian puzzle. Investigations into whether and how sexual selection is involved in the evolution of cooperation represent a new and important research direction. Here, 69 groups of four men or four women recruited from a rural population in Senegal played a sequential public-good game in the presence of out-group observers, either of the same sex or of the opposite sex. At the end of the game, participants could donate part of their gain to the village school in the presence of the same observers. Both contributions to the public good and donations to the school, which reflect different components of cooperativeness, were influenced by the sex of the observers. The results suggest that in this non-Western population, sexual selection acts mainly on men's cooperative behaviour with non-kin, whereas women's cooperativeness is mainly influenced by nonsexual social selection.

  20. Definition of arthritis candidate risk genes by combining rat linkage-mapping results with human case-control association data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckdahl, L; Guo, J P; Jagodic, M; Becanovic, K; Ding, B; Olsson, T; Lorentzen, J C

    2009-12-01

    To define genomic regions that link to rat arthritis and to determine the potential association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the corresponding human genomic regions. Advanced intercross lines (AIL) between arthritis susceptible DA rats and arthritis resistant PVG.1AV1 rats were injected with differently arthritogenic oils to achieve an experimental situation with substantial phenotypic variation in the rat study population. Genotyping of microsatellite markers was performed over genomic regions with documented impact on arthritis, located on rat chromosomes 4, 10 and 12. Linkage between genotypes and phenotypes were determined by R/quantitative trait loci (QTL). Potential association with RA of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in homologous human chromosome regions was evaluated from public Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) data derived from 2000 cases and 3000 controls. A high frequency of arthritis (57%) was recorded in 422 rats injected with pristane. Maximum linkage to pristane-induced arthritis occurred less than 130 kb from the known genetic arthritis determinants Ncf1 and APLEC, demonstrating remarkable mapping precision. Five novel quantitative trait loci were mapped on rat chromosomes 4 and 10, with narrow confidence intervals. Some exerted sex-biased effects and some were linked to chronic arthritis. Human homologous genomic regions contain loci where multiple nearby SNPs associate nominally with RA (eg, at the genes encoding protein kinase Calpha and interleukin 17 receptor alpha). High-resolution mapping in AIL populations defines limited sets of candidate risk genes, some of which appear also to associate with RA and thus may give clues to evolutionarily conserved pathways that lead to arthritis.

  1. [Human ecology and interdisciplinary cooperation for primary prevention of environmental risk factors for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Jan W

    2007-01-01

    Human ecology makes a scientific base for more effective prevention against contamination of the air, water and food, and other environmental factors making common risk factors for human health. It integrates interdisciplinary cooperation of experts from natural, technological, socio-economical and other sciences. Complex study is necessary for better estimation of real risk factors for an individual person. This risk is connected with the exposure of people to pollutants in working places, housing environment, areas for recreation and by food (including synergistic effects). Such study implicates real tasks for representatives of different sciences (technological and agricultural in particular) as well as for teachers and journalists. Especially dangerous are environmental risk factors when principles of human ecology are not taking into consideration at the intensification of food production, processing and conservation, as well as at designing of housing environment (where the exposure to harmful physical, chemical and biological factors is the longest) and also while selecting of the main directions of development of technical infrastructure for motorization (e.g. designing of cars, roads and their surrounding). EU recognize study of the human ecology as basis for sustainable development (sponsoring e.g. diploma and doctoral studies in this field at the Free University of Brussels). Author's experiences connected with the participation as a visiting professor taking part in related training activity at this University as well as during study visits in several countries were useful for the introduction of human ecology in linkage with ecotoxicology and environmental biotechnology as the subject of study at environmental engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering at AGH-UST. Methodological experience of 40 years of interdisciplinary case studies and problem-oriented education in this field may be useful for modernization of

  2. Reciprocity, culture and human cooperation: previous insights and a new cross-cultural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt

    2009-03-27

    Understanding the proximate and ultimate sources of human cooperation is a fundamental issue in all behavioural sciences. In this paper, we review the experimental evidence on how people solve cooperation problems. Existing studies show without doubt that direct and indirect reciprocity are important determinants of successful cooperation. We also discuss the insights from a large literature on the role of peer punishment in sustaining cooperation. The experiments demonstrate that many people are 'strong reciprocators' who are willing to cooperate and punish others even if there are no gains from future cooperation or any other reputational gains. We document this in new one-shot experiments, which we conducted in four cities in Russia and Switzerland. Our cross-cultural approach allows us furthermore to investigate how the cultural background influences strong reciprocity. Our results show that culture has a strong influence on positive and in especially strong negative reciprocity. In particular, we find large cross-cultural differences in 'antisocial punishment' of pro-social cooperators. Further cross-cultural research and experiments involving different socio-demographic groups document that the antisocial punishment is much more widespread than previously assumed. Understanding antisocial punishment is an important task for future research because antisocial punishment is a strong inhibitor of cooperation.

  3. Power of non-parametric linkage analysis in mapping genes contributing to human longevity in long-lived sib-pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, J H; Iachine, I

    2004-01-01

    This report investigates the power issue in applying the non-parametric linkage analysis of affected sib-pairs (ASP) [Kruglyak and Lander, 1995: Am J Hum Genet 57:439-454] to localize genes that contribute to human longevity using long-lived sib-pairs. Data were simulated by introducing a recently...... developed statistical model for measuring marker-longevity associations [Yashin et al., 1999: Am J Hum Genet 65:1178-1193], enabling direct power comparison between linkage and association approaches. The non-parametric linkage (NPL) scores estimated in the region harboring the causal allele are evaluated...... in case of a dominant effect. Although the power issue may depend heavily on the true genetic nature in maintaining survival, our study suggests that results from small-scale sib-pair investigations should be referred with caution, given the complexity of human longevity....

  4. Linkage disequilibrium blocks, haplotype structure, and htSNPs of human CYP7A1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yu-Jui

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1 is the rate limiting enzyme for converting cholesterol into bile acids. Genetic variations in the CYP7A1 gene have been associated with metabolic disorders of cholesterol and bile acids, including hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, arteriosclerosis, and gallstone disease. Current genetic studies are focused mainly on analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at A-278C in the promoter region of the CYP7A1 gene. Here we report a genetic approach for an extensive analysis on linkage disequilibrium (LD blocks and haplotype structures of the entire CYP7A1 gene and its surrounding sequences in Africans, Caucasians, Asians, Mexican-Americans, and African-Americans. Result The LD patterns and haplotype blocks of CYP7A1 gene were defined in Africans, Caucasians, and Asians using genotyping data downloaded from the HapMap database to select a set of haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNP. A low cost, microarray-based platform on thin-film biosensor chips was then developed for high-throughput genotyping to study transferability of the HapMap htSNPs to Mexican-American and African-American populations. Comparative LD patterns and haplotype block structure was defined across all test populations. Conclusion A constant genetic structure in CYP7A1 gene and its surrounding sequences was found that may lead to a better design for association studies of genetic variations in CYP7A1 gene with cholesterol and bile acid metabolism.

  5. A Study on Governance and Human Resources for Cooperative Road Facilities Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sachiko; Takagi, Akiyoshi; Kurauchi, Fumitaka; Demura, Yoshifumi

    Within today's infrastructure management, Asset Management systems are becoming a mainstream feature. For region where the risk is low, it is necessary to create a "cooperative road facilities management system". This research both examined and suggested what kind of cooperative road facilities management system should be promoted by the regional society. Concretely, this study defines the operational realities of a previous case. It discusses the problem of the road facilities management as a governance. Furthermore, its realization depends on "the cooperation between municipalities", "the private-sector initiative", and "residents participation" .Also, it discusses the problem of human resources for governance. Its realization depends on "the engineers' promotion", and "creation of a voluntary activity of the resident" as a human resources. Moreover, it defines that the intermediary is important because the human resources tied to the governance. As a result, the prospect of the road facilities management is shown by the role of the player and the relation among player.

  6. Human Behavior, Social Environment, Social Reconstruction, and Social Policy: A System of Linkages, Goals, and Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Brij

    1980-01-01

    The idea of a wholesome relationship between human behavior and the forces of social environment is explored. The goals and foci of the human behavior and social environment component in social work education are reconceptualized in the light of knowledge that underscores the need for social reconstruction. (Author/MLW)

  7. Eco-Health linkages: assessing the role of ecosystem goods and services on human health using causal criteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Crespo, Rebeca; Fulford, Richard

    2017-08-01

    In the last decade, we saw an upsurge of studies evaluating the role of ecosystem goods and services (EGS) on human health (Eco-Health). Most of this work consists of observational research of intermediate processes and few address the full pathways from ecosystem to EGS to human health, limiting our ability to assess causality. We conducted a causal criteria analysis of Eco-Health literature using Eco-Evidence, a software tool that helps evaluate evidence of cause-effect relationships. We focus on the context of green spaces providing "buffering" EGS that may influence disease. We found support for a causal linkage between green spaces and all of the EGS tested, and sufficient evidence linking EGS to gastro intestinal disease and heat morbidities. Inconsistencies were found when assessing the link between EGS to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Few studies directly link green spaces to health. Those that do, support a connection to cardiovascular disease, and heat morbidities, but provide inconsistent evidence regarding respiratory illness. Our results help establish an agenda to shape future Eco-Health research and define priorities for managing green spaces to provide human health benefits.

  8. Pi-pi Stacking Mediated Cooperative Mechanism for Human Cytochrome P450 3A4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botao Fa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4 is an important member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily with responsibility for metabolizing ~50% of clinical drugs. Experimental evidence showed that CYP3A4 can adopt multiple substrates in its active site to form a cooperative binding model, accelerating substrate metabolism efficiency. In the current study, we constructed both normal and cooperative binding models of human CYP3A4 with antifungal drug ketoconazoles (KLN. Molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculation were then carried out to study the cooperative binding mechanism. Our simulation showed that the second KLN in the cooperative binding model had a positive impact on the first one binding in the active site by two significant pi-pi stacking interactions. The first one was formed by Phe215, functioning to position the first KLN in a favorable orientation in the active site for further metabolism reactions. The second one was contributed by Phe304. This pi-pi stacking was enhanced in the cooperative binding model by the parallel conformation between the aromatic rings in Phe304 and the dioxolan moiety of the first KLN. These findings can provide an atomic insight into the cooperative binding in CYP3A4, revealing a novel pi-pi stacking mechanism for drug-drug interactions.

  9. Workshop on cooperative and human aspects of software engineering (CHASE 2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cataldo, Marcelo; de Souza, Cleidson; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    is to provide a forum for discussing high quality research on human and cooperative aspects of software engineering. We aim at providing both a meeting place for the growing community and the possibility for researchers interested in joining the field to present their work in progress and get an overview over......Software is created by people for people working in varied environments, under various conditions. Thus understanding cooperative and human aspects of software development is crucial to comprehend how methods and tools are used, and thereby improve the creation and maintenance of software. Over...

  10. The Impact of International Cooperation for the Development of Democracy and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Prado Lallande

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the Cold War, the developed countries agreed that democracy and human rights would be top priority goals of the international cooperation for development. However, nearly two decades after those official commitments, these goals have not been relevant elements of the international agenda, since political, economic and security issues still prevail over both values. This paper analyzes the existing situation, in reference to the U.S. and European Union experiences. The article includes some considerations for the improvement of the international cooperation ability to promote democracy and human rights in third world countries.

  11. Workshop on cooperative and human aspects of software engineering (CHASE 2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cataldo, Marcelo; de Souza, Cleidson; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    is to provide a forum for discussing high quality research on human and cooperative aspects of software engineering. We aim at providing both a meeting place for the growing community and the possibility for researchers interested in joining the field to present their work in progress and get an overview over......Software is created by people for people working in varied environments, under various conditions. Thus understanding cooperative and human aspects of software development is crucial to comprehend how methods and tools are used, and thereby improve the creation and maintenance of software. Over...

  12. A Formalization of Linkage Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Christensen, A.I.; Hansen, Jens A.

    In this report a formalization of genetic linkage analysis is introduced. Linkage analysis is a computationally hard biomathematical method, which purpose is to locate genes on the human genome. It is rooted in the new area of bioinformatics and no formalization of the method has previously been ...

  13. A Formalization of Linkage Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Christensen, A.I.; Hansen, Jens A.

    In this report a formalization of genetic linkage analysis is introduced. Linkage analysis is a computationally hard biomathematical method, which purpose is to locate genes on the human genome. It is rooted in the new area of bioinformatics and no formalization of the method has previously been...

  14. Human capital identification process: linkage for family medicine and community medicine to mobilize the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Thongbunjob, Krid

    2012-06-01

    Community diagnosis and approach has shifted from a professional focus to a community focus. The information system has also been developed to reflect socio-cultural information. This new system has been established throughout the country and is being recorded in the computer system. However these data still lack human capital information to promote community mobilization. The present study aims to develop a process which reflects human capital from the insider and outsider points of view and which builds on the existing work system of primary care service, family medicine, and community medicine. The present study applies the participatory action research design with mixed methods including community grand-tour, household survey socio-metric questionnaire and focus group discussion in order to gather insider view of human capital. A key instrument developed in the present study is the socio-metric questionnaire which was designed according to the community grand tour and household survey results. The findings indicate that the process is feasible and the insider point of view given a longer evidence based list of the human capital. The model enhanced a closer relationship between professional and community people and suggested the realistic community mobilizer name list. Human capital identification process is feasible and should be recommended to integrate in the existing work process of the health staff in family and community practice.

  15. Cooperative Tasks between Humans and Robots in Industrial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Corrales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative tasks between human operators and robotic manipulators can improve the performance and flexibility of industrial environments. Nevertheless, the safety of humans should always be guaranteed and the behaviour of the robots should be modified when a risk of collision may happen. This paper presents the research that the authors have performed in recent years in order to develop a human‐robot interaction system which guarantees human safety by precisely tracking the complete body of the human and by activating safety strategies when the distance between them is too small. This paper not only summarizes the techniques which have been implemented in order to develop this system, but it also shows its application in three real human‐robot interaction tasks.

  16. Genetic linkage studies in familial partial epilepsy: Exclusion of the human chromosome regions syntenic to the El-1 mouse locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes-Cendes, I. [Montreal General Hospital (Canada); Mulley, J.C. [Alelaide Children`s Hospital (Canada); Andermann, E. [Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Recently, six families with a familial form of partial epilepsy were described. All pedigrees showed autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Affected individuals present with predominantly nocturnal seizures with frontal lobe semiology. In 1959, a genetic mouse model for partial epilepsy, the El mouse, was reported. In the El mouse, a major seizure susceptibility gene, El-1, segregates in an autosomal dominant fashion and has been localized to a region distal to the centromere of mouse chromosome 9. Comparative genetic maps between man and mouse have been used for prediction of localization of several human disease genes. Because the region of mouse chromosome 9 that is the most likely to contain the El-1 locus is syntenic to regions on human chromosomes 3q21-p22, 3q21-q23.3, 6q12 and 15q24, we adopted the candidate gene approach as an initial linkage strategy. Twenty-two polymorphic microsatellite markers covering these regions were used for genotyping individuals in the three larger families ascertained, two of which are Australian and one French-Canadian. Negative two-point lod scores were obtained separately for each family. The analysis of all three families combined significantly excludes the candidate regions on chromosomes 3, 6 and 15.

  17. Linkages between biodiversity loss and human health: a global indicator analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynen, M.M.T.E.; Martens, P.; Groot, de R.S.

    2004-01-01

    The association between health and biodiversity loss was explored by means of regression analysis on a global scale, with control for confounding by socio-economic developments. For this we selected indicators of human health (life expectancy, disability adjusted life expectancy, infant mortality

  18. Human Xq28 Inversion Polymorphism: From Sex Linkage to Genomics--A Genetic Mother Lode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Cait S.; Kolber, Natalie; Salih Almohaidi, Asmaa M.; Bierwert, Lou Ann; Saunders, Lori; Williams, Steven; Merritt, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An inversion polymorphism of the filamin and emerin genes at the tip of the long arm of the human X-chromosome serves as the basis of an investigative laboratory in which students learn something new about their own genomes. Long, nearly identical inverted repeats flanking the filamin and emerin genes illustrate how repetitive elements can lead to…

  19. Linkages Between Human Capital and the Environment: Implications for Sustainable Econmic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz, Stephan J.; Debertin, David L.; Pagoulatos, Angelos

    1997-01-01

    An empirical analysis reveals that US states with a more highly educated population have better environmental conditions, after controlling for income and industrial composition. The strategy of raising human capital stocks to maintain or improve environmental quality is proposed as a complement, if not an alternative, to direct government intervention which consists of command and control, market incentives and moral suasion. Under this approach, general education becomes the control variabl...

  20. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  1. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  2. Resource conflict and cooperation between human host and gut microbiota: implications for nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewski, Helen; Alcock, Joe; Aktipis, Athena

    2016-05-01

    Diet has been known to play an important role in human health since at least the time period of the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. In the last decade, research has revealed that microorganisms inhabiting the digestive tract, known as the gut microbiota, are critical factors in human health. This paper draws on concepts of cooperation and conflict from ecology and evolutionary biology to make predictions about host-microbiota interactions involving nutrients. To optimally extract energy from some resources (e.g., fiber), hosts require cooperation from microbes. Other nutrients can be utilized by both hosts and microbes (e.g., simple sugars, iron) in their ingested form, which may lead to greater conflict over these resources. This framework predicts that some negative health effects of foods are driven by the direct effects of these foods on human physiology and by indirect effects resulting from microbiome-host competition and conflict (e.g., increased invasiveness and inflammation). Similarly, beneficial effects of some foods on host health may be enhanced by resource sharing and other cooperative behaviors between host and microbes that may downregulate inflammation and virulence. Given that some foods cultivate cooperation between hosts and microbes while others agitate conflict, host-microbe interactions may be novel targets for interventions aimed at improving nutrition and human health.

  3. Quantifying the Role of Homophily in Human Cooperation Using Multiplex Evolutionary Game Theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Di Stefano

    Full Text Available Nature shows as human beings live and grow inside social structures. This assumption allows us to explain and explore how it may shape most of our behaviours and choices, and why we are not just blindly driven by instincts: our decisions are based on more complex cognitive reasons, based on our connectedness on different spaces. Thus, human cooperation emerges from this complex nature of social network. Our paper, focusing on the evolutionary dynamics, is intended to explore how and why it happens, and what kind of impact is caused by homophily among people. We investigate the evolution of human cooperation using evolutionary game theory on multiplex. Multiplexity, as an extra dimension of analysis, allows us to unveil the hidden dynamics and observe non-trivial patterns within a population across network layers. More importantly, we find a striking role of homophily, as the higher the homophily between individuals, the quicker is the convergence towards cooperation in the social dilemma. The simulation results, conducted both macroscopically and microscopically across the network layers in the multiplex, show quantitatively the role of homophily in human cooperation.

  4. Quantifying the Role of Homophily in Human Cooperation Using Multiplex Evolutionary Game Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Alessandro; Scatà, Marialisa; La Corte, Aurelio; Liò, Pietro; Catania, Emanuele; Guardo, Ermanno; Pagano, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Nature shows as human beings live and grow inside social structures. This assumption allows us to explain and explore how it may shape most of our behaviours and choices, and why we are not just blindly driven by instincts: our decisions are based on more complex cognitive reasons, based on our connectedness on different spaces. Thus, human cooperation emerges from this complex nature of social network. Our paper, focusing on the evolutionary dynamics, is intended to explore how and why it happens, and what kind of impact is caused by homophily among people. We investigate the evolution of human cooperation using evolutionary game theory on multiplex. Multiplexity, as an extra dimension of analysis, allows us to unveil the hidden dynamics and observe non-trivial patterns within a population across network layers. More importantly, we find a striking role of homophily, as the higher the homophily between individuals, the quicker is the convergence towards cooperation in the social dilemma. The simulation results, conducted both macroscopically and microscopically across the network layers in the multiplex, show quantitatively the role of homophily in human cooperation.

  5. Evolution of Humans: Understanding the Nature and Methods of Science through Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Chung

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of an enquiry-based approach to the study of human evolution in a practical context, integrating role-playing, jigsaw cooperative learning and scientific argumentation. The activity seeks to unravel the evolutionary relationships of five hominids and one ape from rather "messy" evidence. This approach enhanced the…

  6. Evolution of Humans: Understanding the Nature and Methods of Science through Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Chung

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of an enquiry-based approach to the study of human evolution in a practical context, integrating role-playing, jigsaw cooperative learning and scientific argumentation. The activity seeks to unravel the evolutionary relationships of five hominids and one ape from rather "messy" evidence. This approach enhanced the…

  7. Global Human Footprint on the Linkage between Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning in Reef Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Camilo; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Ayala Bocos, Arturo; Ayotte, Paula M.; Banks, Stuart; Bauman, Andrew G.; Beger, Maria; Bessudo, Sandra; Booth, David J.; Brokovich, Eran; Brooks, Andrew; Chabanet, Pascale; Cinner, Joshua E.; Cortés, Jorge; Cruz-Motta, Juan J.; Cupul Magaña, Amilcar; DeMartini, Edward E.; Edgar, Graham J.; Feary, David A.; Ferse, Sebastian C. A.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Gaston, Kevin J.; Gough, Charlotte; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Green, Alison; Guzman, Hector; Hardt, Marah; Kulbicki, Michel; Letourneur, Yves; López Pérez, Andres; Loreau, Michel; Loya, Yossi; Martinez, Camilo; Mascareñas-Osorio, Ismael; Morove, Tau; Nadon, Marc-Olivier; Nakamura, Yohei; Paredes, Gustavo; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Reyes Bonilla, Héctor; Rivera, Fernando; Sala, Enric; Sandin, Stuart A.; Soler, German; Stuart-Smith, Rick; Tessier, Emmanuel; Tittensor, Derek P.; Tupper, Mark; Usseglio, Paolo; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Williams, Ivor; Wilson, Shaun K.; Zapata, Fernando A.

    2011-01-01

    Difficulties in scaling up theoretical and experimental results have raised controversy over the consequences of biodiversity loss for the functioning of natural ecosystems. Using a global survey of reef fish assemblages, we show that in contrast to previous theoretical and experimental studies, ecosystem functioning (as measured by standing biomass) scales in a non-saturating manner with biodiversity (as measured by species and functional richness) in this ecosystem. Our field study also shows a significant and negative interaction between human population density and biodiversity on ecosystem functioning (i.e., for the same human density there were larger reductions in standing biomass at more diverse reefs). Human effects were found to be related to fishing, coastal development, and land use stressors, and currently affect over 75% of the world's coral reefs. Our results indicate that the consequences of biodiversity loss in coral reefs have been considerably underestimated based on existing knowledge and that reef fish assemblages, particularly the most diverse, are greatly vulnerable to the expansion and intensity of anthropogenic stressors in coastal areas. PMID:21483714

  8. Global human footprint on the linkage between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in reef fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Mora

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in scaling up theoretical and experimental results have raised controversy over the consequences of biodiversity loss for the functioning of natural ecosystems. Using a global survey of reef fish assemblages, we show that in contrast to previous theoretical and experimental studies, ecosystem functioning (as measured by standing biomass scales in a non-saturating manner with biodiversity (as measured by species and functional richness in this ecosystem. Our field study also shows a significant and negative interaction between human population density and biodiversity on ecosystem functioning (i.e., for the same human density there were larger reductions in standing biomass at more diverse reefs. Human effects were found to be related to fishing, coastal development, and land use stressors, and currently affect over 75% of the world's coral reefs. Our results indicate that the consequences of biodiversity loss in coral reefs have been considerably underestimated based on existing knowledge and that reef fish assemblages, particularly the most diverse, are greatly vulnerable to the expansion and intensity of anthropogenic stressors in coastal areas.

  9. Inter-group cooperation in humans and other animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Elva; Barker, Jessica Livia

    2017-01-01

    groups in both quantity and type. Where the difference is in type, inequalities can lead to specialization and division of labour between groups, a phenomenon characteristic of human societies, but rarely seen in other animals. The ability to identify members of one’s own group is essential for social...

  10. A Putative Human Pheromone, Androstadienone, Increases Cooperation between Men

    OpenAIRE

    Paavo Huoviala; Rantala, Markus J.

    2013-01-01

    Androstadienone, a component of male sweat, has been suggested to function as a human pheromone, an airborne chemical signal causing specific responses in conspecifics. In earlier studies androstadienone has been reported to increase attraction, affect subjects' mood, cortisol levels and activate brain areas linked to social cognition, among other effects. However, the existing psychological evidence is still relatively scarce, especially regarding androstadienone's effects on male behaviour....

  11. Linkage of DNA Methylation Quantitative Trait Loci to Human Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Heyn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic regulation and, in particular, DNA methylation have been linked to the underlying genetic sequence. DNA methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTL have been identified through significant associations between the genetic and epigenetic codes in physiological and pathological contexts. We propose that interrogating the interplay between polymorphic alleles and DNA methylation is a powerful method for improving our interpretation of risk alleles identified in genome-wide association studies that otherwise lack mechanistic explanation. We integrated patient cancer risk genotype data and genome-scale DNA methylation profiles of 3,649 primary human tumors, representing 13 solid cancer types. We provide a comprehensive meQTL catalog containing DNA methylation associations for 21% of interrogated cancer risk polymorphisms. Differentially methylated loci harbor previously reported and as-yet-unidentified cancer genes. We suggest that such regulation at the DNA level can provide a considerable amount of new information about the biology of cancer-risk alleles.

  12. Variable postpartum responsiveness among humans and other primates with "cooperative breeding": A comparative and evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdy, Sarah B

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care".Until recently, evolutionists reconstructing mother-infant bonding among human ancestors relied on nonhuman primate models characterized by exclusively maternal care, overlooking the highly variable responsiveness exhibited by mothers in species with obligate reliance on allomaternal care and provisioning. It is now increasingly recognized that apes as large-brained, slow maturing, and nutritionally dependent for so long as early humans were, could not have evolved unless "alloparents" (group members other than genetic parents), in addition to parents, had helped mothers to care for and provision offspring, a rearing system known as "cooperative breeding." Here I review situation-dependent maternal responses ranging from highly possessive to permissive, temporarily distancing, rejecting, or infanticidal, documented for a small subset of cooperatively breeding primates. As in many mammals, primate maternal responsiveness is influenced by physical condition, endocrinological priming, prior experience and local environments (especially related to security). But mothers among primates who evolved as cooperative breeders also appear unusually sensitive to cues of social support. In addition to more "sapient" or rational decision-making, humankind's deep history of cooperative breeding must be considered when trying to understand the extremely variable responsiveness of human mothers.

  13. Glazed panel construction with human-robot cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seungyeol

    2011-01-01

    These days, construction companies are beginning to be concerned about a potential labor shortage by demographic changes and an aging construction work force. Also, an improvement in construction safety could not only reduce accidents but also decrease the cost of the construction, and is therefore one of the imperative goals of the construction industry. These challenges correspond to the potential for Automation and Robotics in Construction as one of solutions. Almost half of construction work is said to be material handling and materials used for construction are heavy and bulky for humans.

  14. Human factors in continuous time-concerned cooperative systems represented by NΣ-labeled calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuya MIZUTANI; Shigeru IGARASH; Masayuki SHIO; Yasuwo IKEDA

    2008-01-01

    N-E-labeled calculus is a generalization of N-labeled calculus so as to describe time-concerned recog-nition, knowledge, belief and decision of humans or com-puter programs together with related external physical or logical phenomena. N-labeled calculus is the smallest for-mal system applicable to verification and analysis of coop-erative real-timing systems on natural number time introduced as an adaptation of tense arithmetic (TA). A merging problem of vehicles with misunderstanding or incorrect recognition is discussed as an example of coop-erating systems controlling continuously changing objects including human factor. Euler's approximation is intro-duced in order to represent the continuously changing objects. Through this example, relationship among arti-ficial intelligence, external environment and human fac-tors is investigated.

  15. Evolutionary, neurobiological, gene-based solution of the ideological "puzzle" of human altruism and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschetti, Riccardo

    2007-01-01

    Despite hundreds of published articles about humankind's eusocial behaviours, most scholars still regard the origin of human altruism and cooperation as an enduring puzzle, because it seems incompatible with two central tenets of evolution, namely, the competition between individuals and the consequent selective advantages of selfish traits. This "puzzle", however, rather than being due to insurmountable scientific difficulties, is to be attributed to two powerful ideologies, which are politically opposite, but nevertheless concurred to prevent scholars from solving it. One ideology rejects the concept of genetic determinism, whereas the other dislikes the concept of group selection. As a consequence, these widespread ideologies, which are common in the scientific community, too, kept scholars from realising that the puzzle of human altruism and cooperation can only be solved by proposing a theoretical model that is based precisely on both genetic determinism and group selection. This model, which was never advanced in published papers, is presented here. This article also proposes to regard ancestral environments as determinants of human eusociality. By contrast, virtually all previous articles about it leave primitive habitats unmentioned. To support the hypothesis that human unselfish behaviours represent genetically conserved traits that evolved ancestrally, not products of cultural transmission, this paper also discusses six groups of arguments in the section "Genes versus culture". Finally, this article advances a purely genetic evolutionary explanation for the uniqueness of human eusociality, thereby challenging prevailing cultural explanations for the incomparably developed levels of cooperation in humankind, which are observed in no other social species.

  16. Fuzzy variable impedance control based on stiffness identification for human-robot cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dachao; Yang, Wenlong; Du, Zhijiang

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a dynamic fuzzy variable impedance control algorithm for human-robot cooperation. In order to estimate the intention of human for co-manipulation, a fuzzy inference system is set up to adjust the impedance parameter. Aiming at regulating the output fuzzy universe based on the human arm’s stiffness, an online stiffness identification method is developed. A drag interaction task is conducted on a 5-DOF robot with variable impedance control. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is superior.

  17. Cosmopolitan linkage disequilibrium maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Jane

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Linkage maps have been invaluable for the positional cloning of many genes involved in severe human diseases. Standard genetic linkage maps have been constructed for this purpose from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain and other panels, and have been widely used. Now that attention has shifted towards identifying genes predisposing to common disorders using linkage disequilibrium (LD and maps of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, it is of interest to consider a standard LD map which is somewhat analogous to the corresponding map for linkage. We have constructed and evaluated a cosmopolitan LD map by combining samples from a small number of populations using published data from a 10-megabase region on chromosome 20. In support of a pilot study, which examined a number of small genomic regions with a lower density of markers, we have found that a cosmopolitan map, which serves all populations when appropriately scaled, recovers 91 to 95 per cent of the information within population-specific maps. Recombination hot spots appear to have a dominant role in shaping patterns of LD. The success of the cosmopolitan map might be attributed to the co-localisation of hot spots in all populations. Although there must be finer scale differences between populations due to other processes (mutation, drift, selection, the results suggest that a whole-genome standard LD map would indeed be a useful resource for disease gene mapping.

  18. Development cooperation in water and sanitation: is it based on the human rights framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colin; Heller, Léo

    2017-07-01

    The water and sanitation sector is verifiably receiving increased attention and funding through international development cooperation. Not least because of the way that it affects incentives and institutions in partner countries, development cooperation can have either positive or negative effects on human rights though. The consolidated frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation is becoming linked to the international community's coordinated development efforts, as evidenced notably in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, a review of major funders' official policies for development cooperation in the sector suggests that many only partially endorse the frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation. An observation of development cooperation flows to the sector allows the hypothesis to be advanced that worldwide inequalities in access to these services may be reduced through a full and clear application of the human rights framework in development cooperation activities. The article presents findings of this research and explores key stakes for development cooperation in the water and sanitation sector that are relevant for their ability to either negatively or positively contribute to the realization of human rights. Resumen El sector de agua y saneamiento ha recibido creciente atención y financiación a través de la cooperación internacional para el desarrollo. La cooperación para el desarrollo puede tener efectos tanto positivos cuanto negativos sobre los derechos humanos. El hito que consolida los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento están articulados a esfuerzos de cooperación para el desarrollo promovidos por la comunidad internacional, como se evidencia en la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible. Sin embargo, una revisión de las políticas oficiales de los principales financiadores del sector sugiere que muchos de ellos aprueban solo parcialmente los hitos de los derechos humanos al agua y el

  19. The Importance of Human Capacity Building in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereso Simbulan Jr. Tulloa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the importance of human capacity building has been cited in the growth of economies, it has not taken a central role in carrying out regional cooperation in Asia Pacific. In addition, human capacity building is associated with the competitiveness of the economies in the Asia Pacific region. Because of these associations, there are regional benefits arising from enhanced human capacity building beyond the usual private returns and social benefits. In addition, narrowing technological gap through human capacity building can promote greater regional trade. Lastly, regional efforts on human capacity building should not be perceived as a prelude to labor mobility but instead as a prerequisite for greater mobility of capital. Thus, aside from the role of human capacity building in economic growth and competitiveness, it is also crucial in regional connectivity and related with trade liberalization which are major thrusts of APEC.

  20. The role of cultural group selection in explaining human cooperation is a hard case to prove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth; Silva, Antonio S

    2016-01-01

    We believe cultural group selection is an elegant theoretical framework to study the evolution of complex human behaviours, including large-scale cooperation. However, the empirical evidence on key theoretical issues - such as levels of within- and between-group variation and effects of intergroup competition - is so far patchy, with no clear case where all the relevant assumptions and predictions of cultural group selection are met, to the exclusion of other explanations.

  1. OPTIMIZATION DESIGN OF HYDRAU-LIC MANIFOLD BLOCKS BASED ON HUMAN-COMPUTER COOPERATIVE GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yi; Li Li; Tian Shujun

    2003-01-01

    Optimization design of hydraulic manifold blocks (HMB) is studied as a complex solid spatial layout problem. Based on comprehensive research into structure features and design rules of HMB, an optimal mathematical model for this problem is presented. Using human-computer cooperative genetic algorithm (GA) and its hybrid optimization strategies, integrated layout and connection design schemes of HMB can be automatically optimized. An example is given to testify it.

  2. International Environmental Problems, Issue Linkage and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kroeze-Gil, J.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis explores the circumstances under which issue linkage can be applied to achieve cooperation on international environmental problems in general and on environmental problems in the European Union in particular. A major topic in this thesis is the development and analysis of cooperative and non-cooperative game theoretical methods of issue linkage that include imperfectly reversed interests. The relevance of the models is shown in the context of EU environmental decision making.

  3. The effects of extra-somatic weapons on the evolution of human cooperation towards non-kin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tim; Li, Jiawei; Kendall, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Human cooperation and altruism towards non-kin is a major evolutionary puzzle, as is 'strong reciprocity' where no present or future rewards accrue to the co-operator/altruist. Here, we test the hypothesis that the development of extra-somatic weapons could have influenced the evolution of human cooperative behaviour, thus providing a new explanation for these two puzzles. Widespread weapons use could have made disputes within hominin groups far more lethal and also equalized power between individuals. In such a cultural niche non-cooperators might well have become involved in such lethal disputes at a higher frequency than cooperators, thereby increasing the relative fitness of genes associated with cooperative behaviour. We employ two versions of the evolutionary Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma (IPD) model--one where weapons use is simulated and one where it is not. We then measured the performance of 25 IPD strategies to evaluate the effects of weapons use on them. We found that cooperative strategies performed significantly better, and non-cooperative strategies significantly worse, under simulated weapons use. Importantly, the performance of an 'Always Cooperate' IPD strategy, equivalent to that of 'strong reciprocity', improved significantly more than that of all other cooperative strategies. We conclude that the development of extra-somatic weapons throws new light on the evolution of human altruistic and cooperative behaviour, and particularly 'strong reciprocity'. The notion that distinctively human altruism and cooperation could have been an adaptive trait in a past environment that is no longer evident in the modern world provides a novel addition to theory that seeks to account for this major evolutionary puzzle.

  4. The co-evolution of social institutions, demography, and large-scale human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Simon T; Lehmann, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    Human cooperation is typically coordinated by institutions, which determine the outcome structure of the social interactions individuals engage in. Explaining the Neolithic transition from small- to large-scale societies involves understanding how these institutions co-evolve with demography. We study this using a demographically explicit model of institution formation in a patch-structured population. Each patch supports both social and asocial niches. Social individuals create an institution, at a cost to themselves, by negotiating how much of the costly public good provided by cooperators is invested into sanctioning defectors. The remainder of their public good is invested in technology that increases carrying capacity, such as irrigation systems. We show that social individuals can invade a population of asocials, and form institutions that support high levels of cooperation. We then demonstrate conditions where the co-evolution of cooperation, institutions, and demographic carrying capacity creates a transition from small- to large-scale social groups. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Development of an excretion care support robot with human cooperative characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yina Wang; Shuoyu Wang

    2015-01-01

    To support care giving in an aging society with a shrinking population, various life support robots are being developed. In the authors' laboratory, an excretion care support robot (ECSR) with human cooperative characteristic has been developed to relieve the burden of caregivers and improve the quality of life for bedridden persons. This robot consists of a portable toilet with storage tank and a mobile robot which can run autonomously to conduct the cooperative work with others. Our research is focused on how to improve the motion accuracy and how the robot can cooperate with users. In this paper, to enable the ECSR could precisely move in the indoor environment, a proper controller is proposed considering the center of gravity shift and load changes. Then, to perform the cooperative task, two acceleration sensors are used to recognize the users' intended posture and position when moving from bed to toilet. The robot's target angle and position are determined by the user's posture. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by a pseudo excretion support experiment.

  6. Humanoid Robot RH-1 for Collaborative Tasks: A Control Architecture for Human-Robot Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción A. Monje

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The full-scale humanoid robot RH-1 has been totally developed in the University Carlos III of Madrid. In this paper we present an advanced control system for this robot so that it can perform tasks in cooperation with humans. The collaborative tasks are carried out in a semi-autonomous way and are intended to be put into operation in real working environments where humans and robots should share the same space. Before presenting the control strategy, the kinematic model and a simplified dynamic model of the robot are presented. All the models and algorithms are verified by several simulations and experimental results.

  7. Genome scan of human systemic lupus erythematosus: Evidence for linkage on chromosome 1q in African-American pedigrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Kathy L.; Neas, Barbara R.; Salmon, Jane E.; Yu, Hua; Gray-McGuire, Courtney; Asundi, Neeraj; Bruner, Gail R.; Fox, Jerome; Kelly, Jennifer; Henshall, Stephanie; Bacino, Debra; Dietz, Myron; Hogue, Robert; Koelsch, Gerald; Nightingale, Lydia; Shaver, Tim; Abdou, Nabih I.; Albert, Daniel A.; Carson, Craig; Petri, Michelle; Treadwell, Edward L.; James, Judith A.; Harley, John B.

    1998-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by production of autoantibodies against intracellular antigens including DNA, ribosomal P, Ro (SS-A), La (SS-B), and the spliceosome. Etiology is suspected to involve genetic and environmental factors. Evidence of genetic involvement includes: associations with HLA-DR3, HLA-DR2, Fcγ receptors (FcγR) IIA and IIIA, and hereditary complement component deficiencies, as well as familial aggregation, monozygotic twin concordance >20%, λs > 10, purported linkage at 1q41–42, and inbred mouse strains that consistently develop lupus. We have completed a genome scan in 94 extended multiplex pedigrees by using model-based linkage analysis. Potential [log10 of the odds for linkage (lod) > 2.0] SLE loci have been identified at chromosomes 1q41, 1q23, and 11q14–23 in African-Americans; 14q11, 4p15, 11q25, 2q32, 19q13, 6q26–27, and 12p12–11 in European-Americans; and 1q23, 13q32, 20q13, and 1q31 in all pedigrees combined. An effect for the FcγRIIA candidate polymorphism) at 1q23 (lod = 3.37 in African-Americans) is syntenic with linkage in a murine model of lupus. Sib-pair and multipoint nonparametric analyses also support linkage (P 2.0). Our results are consistent with the presumed complexity of genetic susceptibility to SLE and illustrate racial origin is likely to influence the specific nature of these genetic effects. PMID:9843982

  8. Contribution of negative cooperativity to the thyrotropin-receptor interaction in normal human thyroid: kinetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Jones, C H; Thomas, C G; Nayfeh, S N

    1979-02-01

    The kinetics of 125I-labeled thyrotropin (125I-TSH) binding to human thyroid receptors are presented. At pH 6.0, binding was maximal (30--35%) and there was one class of binding sites [Kd = 6.8 X 10(-9) M; binding capacity (Ro) = 57 pmol/mg of protein]. At pH 7.4, Scatchard plots of binding were nonlinear, indicating either a single class of negatively cooperative sites (Kd = 3.7 X 10(-9) M; Ro = 26 pmol/mg of protein) or, alternatively, independent high- (Kd = 5.0 X 10(-10) M; Ro = 3 pmol/mg of protein) and low-affinity (Kd = 1.7 X 10(-8) M; Ro = 26 pmol/mg of protein) binding sites. The role of negative cooperativity was evaluated from the rates of association and dissociation at pH 7.4. The kinetically determined binding constants (Kd = 1.7 X 10(-11) M; Ro = 2 pmol/mg of protein) were more similar to those determined for the high-affinity component than to those predicted from the negative cooperativity model. Dissociation of bound TSH was independent of initial site occupancy over a 40-fold range, corresponding to a 100-fold range of free TSH concentration. The dissociation rate of 125I-TSH was enhanced by unlabeled TSH to a similar degree, irrespective of initial binding site occupancy. Because the negative cooperativity model does not accommodate these data, it is concluded that TSH receptors in human thyroid behave kinetically and at equilibrium as a single class of high-affinity sites up to TSH concentrations well above the physiological range.

  9. Tailoring chemical and physical properties of fibrous scaffolds from block copolyesters containing ether and thio-ether linkages for skeletal differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Honglin; Gigli, Matteo; Gualandi, Chiara; Truckenmüller, Roman; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Lotti, Nadia; Munari, Andrea; Focarete, Maria Letizia; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive scaffolds for tissue engineering call for demands on new materials which can enhance traditional biocompatibility requirements previously considered for clinical implantation. The current commercially available thermoplastic materials, such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and their copolymers, have been used to fabricate scaffolds for regenerative medicine. However, these polymers have limitations including lacking of broadly tuning mechanical and degradable properties, and activation of specific cell-scaffold interactions, which limit their further application in tissue engineering. In the present study, electrospun scaffolds were successfully fabricated from a new class of block poly(butylene succinate)-based (PBS-based) copolyesters containing either butylene thiodiglycolate (BTDG) or butylene diglycolate (BDG) sequences. The polyesters displayed tunable mechanical properties and hydrolysis rate depending on the molecular architecture and on the kind of heteroatom introduced along the polymer backbone. To investigate their potential for skeletal regeneration, human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were cultured on the scaffolds in basic, osteogenic and chondrogenic media. Our results demonstrated that PBS-based copolyesters containing thio-ether linkages (i.e. BTDG segments) were more favorable for chondrogenesis of hMSCs than those containing ether linkages (i.e. BDG sequences). In contrast, PBS-based copolyesters containing ether linkages showed enhanced mineralization. Therefore, these new functional scaffolds might hold potential for osteochondral tissue engineering applications.

  10. Neural coding of cooperative vs. affective human interactions: 150 ms to code the action's purpose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado Proverbio

    Full Text Available The timing and neural processing of the understanding of social interactions was investigated by presenting scenes in which 2 people performed cooperative or affective actions. While the role of the human mirror neuron system (MNS in understanding actions and intentions is widely accepted, little is known about the time course within which these aspects of visual information are automatically extracted. Event-Related Potentials were recorded in 35 university students perceiving 260 pictures of cooperative (e.g., 2 people dragging a box or affective (e.g., 2 people smiling and holding hands interactions. The action's goal was automatically discriminated at about 150-170 ms, as reflected by occipito/temporal N170 response. The swLORETA inverse solution revealed the strongest sources in the right posterior cingulate cortex (CC for affective actions and in the right pSTS for cooperative actions. It was found a right hemispheric asymmetry that involved the fusiform gyrus (BA37, the posterior CC, and the medial frontal gyrus (BA10/11 for the processing of affective interactions, particularly in the 155-175 ms time window. In a later time window (200-250 ms the processing of cooperative interactions activated the left post-central gyrus (BA3, the left parahippocampal gyrus, the left superior frontal gyrus (BA10, as well as the right premotor cortex (BA6. Women showed a greater response discriminative of the action's goal compared to men at P300 and anterior negativity level (220-500 ms. These findings might be related to a greater responsiveness of the female vs. male MNS. In addition, the discriminative effect was bilateral in women and was smaller and left-sided in men. Evidence was provided that perceptually similar social interactions are discriminated on the basis of the agents' intentions quite early in neural processing, differentially activating regions devoted to face/body/action coding, the limbic system and the MNS.

  11. Physical and linkage mapping of the human and murine genes for the [alpha]1 chain of type IX collagen (COL9A1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warman, M.L. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States) Children' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Tiller, G.E.; Polumbo, P.A. (Vanderbilt Univ. Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States)); Seldin, M.F.; Rochelle, J.M. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)); Knoll, J.H.M.; Cheng, Sou De (Children' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Olsen, B.R. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))

    1993-09-01

    The IX collagen, a member of the FACIT family of extracellular matrix proteins, is a heterotrimer composed of three genetically distinct [alpha] chains. The cDNAs for the human and mouse [alpha]1(IX) chains have been cloned. In this paper the authors confirm the mapping of the human COL9A1 gene to chromosome 6q12-q13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization utilizing two genomic clones which also contain short tandem repeat polymorphisms. They also report the characterization of these repeats and their incorporation into the chromosome 6 linkage map. The COL9A1 locus shows no recombination with the marker D6Z1 (Z = 27.61 at [theta] = 0) and identifies the most likely locus order of KRAS1P-[D6Z1-COL9A1]-D6S30. In addition, using an interspecific backcross panel, they have mapped murine Col9a1 to mouse chromosome 1. Together with other comparative mapping results, these data suggest that the pericentric region of human chromosome 6 is homologous to the most proximal segment of mouse chromosome 1. These data may facilitate linkage studies with COL9A1 (or col9a1) as a candidate gene for hereditary chondrodysplasias and osteoarthritis. 35 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Polymorphic human (CTAT)n microsatellite provides a conserved linkage marker for mouse mutants causing cleft palate, vestibular defects, obesity and ataxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, A.J.; Burgess, D.L.; Kohrman, D. [Univ. of MIchigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The Twirler mutation (Tw) causing cleft palate {plus_minus} cleft lip, vestibular defects and obesity is located within 0.5 cM of an ataxia locus (ax) on mouse chromosome 18. We identified a transgene-induced insertional mutation with vestibular and craniofacial defects that appears to be a new allele of Twirler. Mouse DNA flanking the transgene insertion site was isolated from a cosmid library. An evolutionarily conserved, zoo blot positive cosmid subclone was used to probe a human {lambda} genomic library. From the sequence of a highly homologous human {lambda} clone, we designed STS primers and screened a human P1 library. DNA from two positive P1 clones was hybridized with simple sequence probes, and a (CTAT){sub 12} repeat was detected. Analysis of 62 CEPH parents with primers flanking the repeat identified six alleles containing 9 to 14 copies of the repeat, at frequencies of 0.17, 0.17, 0.17, 0.27, 0.15 and 0.07, respectively. The observed heterozygosity was 49/62 with a calculated PIC value of 0.76. This polymorphic microsatellite marker, designated Umi3, was mapped to the predicted conserved human linkage group by analysis of somatic cell hybrid panels. The anticipated short distance between Umi3 and the disease genes will facilitate detection of linkage in small families. We would like to type appropriate human pedigrees with Umi3 in order to identify patients with inherited disorders homologous to the mouse mutations Twirler and ataxia.

  13. A cross-country review of strategies of the German development cooperation to strengthen human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyss Kaspar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent years have seen growing awareness of the importance of human resources for health in health systems and with it an intensifying of the international and national policies in place to steer a response. This paper looks at how governments and donors in five countries – Cameroon, Indonesia, Malawi, Rwanda and Tanzania – have translated such policies into action. More detailed information with regard to initiatives of German development cooperation brings additional depth to the range and entry doors of human resources for health initiatives from the perspective of donor cooperation. Methods This qualitative study systematically presents different approaches and stages to human resources for health development in a cross-country comparison. An important reference to capture implementation at country level was grey literature such as policy documents and programme reports. In-depth interviews along a predefined grid with national and international stakeholders in the five countries provided information on issues related to human resources for health policy processes and implementation. Results All five countries have institutional entities in place and have drawn up national policies to address human resources for health. Only some of the countries have translated policies into strategies with defined targets and national programmes with budgets and operational plans. Traditional approaches of supporting training for individual health professionals continue to dominate. In some cases partners have played an advocacy and technical role to promote human resources for health development at the highest political levels, but usually they still focus on the provision of ad hoc training within their programmes, which may not be in line with national human resources for health development efforts or may even be counterproductive to them. Countries that face an emergency, such as Malawi, have intensified their efforts within a

  14. Structural health monitoring for bolt loosening via a non-invasive vibro-haptics human-machine cooperative interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekedis, Mahmut; Mascerañas, David; Turan, Gursoy; Ercan, Emre; Farrar, Charles R.; Yildiz, Hasan

    2015-08-01

    For the last two decades, developments in damage detection algorithms have greatly increased the potential for autonomous decisions about structural health. However, we are still struggling to build autonomous tools that can match the ability of a human to detect and localize the quantity of damage in structures. Therefore, there is a growing interest in merging the computational and cognitive concepts to improve the solution of structural health monitoring (SHM). The main object of this research is to apply the human-machine cooperative approach on a tower structure to detect damage. The cooperation approach includes haptic tools to create an appropriate collaboration between SHM sensor networks, statistical compression techniques and humans. Damage simulation in the structure is conducted by releasing some of the bolt loads. Accelerometers are bonded to various locations of the tower members to acquire the dynamic response of the structure. The obtained accelerometer results are encoded in three different ways to represent them as a haptic stimulus for the human subjects. Then, the participants are subjected to each of these stimuli to detect the bolt loosened damage in the tower. Results obtained from the human-machine cooperation demonstrate that the human subjects were able to recognize the damage with an accuracy of 88 ± 20.21% and response time of 5.87 ± 2.33 s. As a result, it is concluded that the currently developed human-machine cooperation SHM may provide a useful framework to interact with abstract entities such as data from a sensor network.

  15. Mezhgosudarstvennye obrazovatel'nye forumy kak faktor ukreplenija global'nogo gumanitarnogo sotrudnichestva [International education fora as a factor for strengthening global cooperation in the Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pivovar Yefim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of new forms of international cooperation in education, such as international fora of rectors of universities and faculties of Humanities. Such fora are regarded as an innovative form of inter-university cooperation, which opens new prospects and opportunities for cooperation in education, science and culture.

  16. Order-disorder transitions govern kinetic cooperativity and allostery of monomeric human glucokinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara Larion

    Full Text Available Glucokinase (GCK catalyzes the rate-limiting step of glucose catabolism in the pancreas, where it functions as the body's principal glucose sensor. GCK dysfunction leads to several potentially fatal diseases including maturity-onset diabetes of the young type II (MODY-II and persistent hypoglycemic hyperinsulinemia of infancy (PHHI. GCK maintains glucose homeostasis by displaying a sigmoidal kinetic response to increasing blood glucose levels. This positive cooperativity is unique because the enzyme functions exclusively as a monomer and possesses only a single glucose binding site. Despite nearly a half century of research, the mechanistic basis for GCK's homotropic allostery remains unresolved. Here we explain GCK cooperativity in terms of large-scale, glucose-mediated disorder-order transitions using 17 isotopically labeled isoleucine methyl groups and three tryptophan side chains as sensitive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR probes. We find that the small domain of unliganded GCK is intrinsically disordered and samples a broad conformational ensemble. We also demonstrate that small-molecule diabetes therapeutic agents and hyperinsulinemia-associated GCK mutations share a strikingly similar activation mechanism, characterized by a population shift toward a more narrow, well-ordered ensemble resembling the glucose-bound conformation. Our results support a model in which GCK generates its cooperative kinetic response at low glucose concentrations by using a millisecond disorder-order cycle of the small domain as a "time-delay loop," which is bypassed at high glucose concentrations, providing a unique mechanism to allosterically regulate the activity of human GCK under physiological conditions.

  17. Defecting or not defecting: how to "read" human behavior during cooperative games by EEG measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio De Vico Fallani

    Full Text Available Understanding the neural mechanisms responsible for human social interactions is difficult, since the brain activities of two or more individuals have to be examined simultaneously and correlated with the observed social patterns. We introduce the concept of hyper-brain network, a connectivity pattern representing at once the information flow among the cortical regions of a single brain as well as the relations among the areas of two distinct brains. Graph analysis of hyper-brain networks constructed from the EEG scanning of 26 couples of individuals playing the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma reveals the possibility to predict non-cooperative interactions during the decision-making phase. The hyper-brain networks of two-defector couples have significantly less inter-brain links and overall higher modularity--i.e., the tendency to form two separate subgraphs--than couples playing cooperative or tit-for-tat strategies. The decision to defect can be "read" in advance by evaluating the changes of connectivity pattern in the hyper-brain network.

  18. Defecting or not defecting: how to "read" human behavior during cooperative games by EEG measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Fallani, F De Vico; Sinatra, R; Astolfi, L; Cincotti, F; Mattia, D; Wilke, C; Doud, A; Latora, V; He, B; Babiloni, F; 10.1371/journal.pone.0014187

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the neural mechanisms responsible for human social interactions is difficult, since the brain activities of two or more individuals have to be examined simultaneously and correlated with the observed social patterns. We introduce the concept of hyper-brain network, a connectivity pattern representing at once the information flow among the cortical regions of a single brain as well as the relations among the areas of two distinct brains. Graph analysis of hyper-brain networks constructed from the EEG scanning of 26 couples of individuals playing the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma reveals the possibility to predict non-cooperative interactions during the decision-making phase. The hyper-brain networks of two-defector couples have significantly less inter-brain links and overall higher modularity - i.e. the tendency to form two separate subgraphs - than couples playing cooperative or tit-for-tat strategies. The decision to defect can be "read" in advance by evaluating the changes of connectivity patte...

  19. Fuelling Insecurity? Sino-Myanmar Energy Cooperation and Human Security in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botel, Gabriel

    This thesis examines the relationship between energy, development and human security in Sino-Myanmar relations. Rapid economic growth and increased urbanisation have intensified China's industrial and domestic energy consumption, drastically increasing demand and overwhelming national supply capacities. Chinese foreign policy has responded by becoming more active in securing and protecting foreign energy resources and allowing Chinese companies more freedom and opportunities for investment abroad. Consequently, Chinese foreign investment and policies have become increasing sources of scrutiny and debate, typically focusing on their (presumed) intentions and the social, economic, environmental and political impacts they have on the rest of the world. Within this debate, a key issue has been China's engagement with so-called pariah states. China has frequently received substantial international criticism for its unconditional engagement with such countries, often seen as a geopolitical pursuit of strategic national (energy) interests, unconcerned with international opprobrium. In the case of Myanmar, traditional security analyses interpret this as, at best, undermining (Western) international norms and, at worst, posing a direct challenge to international security. However, traditional security analyses rely on state-centric concepts of security, and tend to over-simply Sino-Myanmar relations and the dynamics which inform it. Conversely, implications for human security are overlooked; this is in part because human security remains poorly defined and also because there are questions regarding its utility. However, human security is a critical tool in delineating between state, corporate and 'civilian' interests, and how these cleavages shape the security environment and potential for instability in the region. This thesis takes a closer look at some of the entrenched and changing security dynamics shaping this Sino-Myanmar energy cooperation, drawing on an extensive

  20. VT Wildlife Linkage Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Wildlife Linkage Habitat Analysis uses landscape scale data to identify or predict the location of potentially significant wildlife linkage...

  1. Genome-wide linkage and sequence analysis challenge CCDC66 as a human retinal dystrophy candidate gene and support a distinct NMNAT1-related fundus phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A O; Budde, B S; Nürnberg, P; Kawalia, A; Lenzner, S; Bolz, H J

    2017-03-30

    To uncover the genotype underlying early-onset cone-rod dystrophy and central nummular macular atrophic lesion in 2 siblings from an endogamous Arab family, we performed targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 44 retinal dystrophy genes, whole-exome sequencing (WES) and genome-wide linkage analysis. Targeted NGS and WES in the index patient highlighted 2 homozygous variants, a CCDC66 frameshift deletion and a novel missense NMNAT1 variant, c.500G>A (p.Asn167Ser). Linkage and segregation analysis excluded the CCDC66 variant and confirmed the NMNAT1 mutation. Biallelic NMNAT1 mutations cause Leber congenital amaurosis with a central nummular macular atrophic lesion (LCA9). The NMNAT1 mutation reported here underlied cone-rod dystrophy rather than LCA but the fundus lesion was compatible with that of LCA9 patients, highlighting that such a fundus appearance should raise suspicion for biallelic mutations in NMNAT1 when in the context of any retinal dystrophy. Although Ccdc66 mutations have been proposed to cause retinal disease in dogs, our results and public databases challenge CCDC66 as a candidate gene for human retinal dystrophy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cooperation and dialogical modeling for designing a safe Human space exploration mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grès, Stéphane; Tognini, Michel; Le Cardinal, Gilles; Zalila, Zyed; Gueydan, Guillaume

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes an approach for a complex and innovative project requiring international contributions from different communities of knowledge and expertise. Designing a safe and reliable architecture for a manned mission to Mars or the Asteroids necessitates strong cooperation during the early stages of design to prevent and reduce risks for the astronauts at each step of the mission. The stake during design is to deal with the contradictions, antagonisms and paradoxes of the involved partners for the definition and modeling of a shared project of reference. As we see in our research which analyses the cognitive and social aspects of technological risks in major accidents, in such a project, the complexity of the global organization (during design and use) and the integration of a wide and varie d range of sciences and innovative technologies is likely to increase systemic risks as follows: human and cultural mistakes, potential defaults, failures and accidents. We identify as the main danger antiquated centralized models of organization and the operational limits of interdisciplinarity in the sciences. Beyond this, we can see that we need to take carefully into account human cooperation and the quality of relations between heterogeneous partners. Designing an open, self-learning and reliable exploration system able to self-adapt in dangerous and unforeseen situations implies a collective networked intelligence led by a safe process that organizes interaction between the actors and the aims of the project. Our work, supported by the CNES (French Space Agency), proposes an innovative approach to the coordination of a complex project.

  3. Using "human state aware" robots to enhance physical human-robot interaction in a cooperative scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Carlos Rodriguez; Fraile Marinero, Juan Carlos; Turiel, Javier Perez; Muñoz, Victor

    2013-11-01

    Human motor performance, speed and variability are highly susceptible to emotional states. This paper reviews the impact of the emotions on the motor control performance, and studies the possibility of improving the perceived skill/challenge relation on a multimodal neural rehabilitation scenario, by means of a biocybernetic controller that modulates the assistance provided by a haptic controlled robot in reaction to undesirable physical and mental states. Results from psychophysiological, performance and self assessment data for closed loop experiments in contrast with their open loop counterparts, suggest that the proposed method had a positive impact on the overall challenge/skill relation leading to an enhanced physical human-robot interaction experience.

  4. Disease Model of GATA4 Mutation Reveals Transcription Factor Cooperativity in Human Cardiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Yen-Sin; Rivas, Renee N; Ribeiro, Alexandre J S; Srivas, Rohith; Rivera, Janell; Stone, Nicole R; Pratt, Karishma; Mohamed, Tamer M A; Fu, Ji-Dong; Spencer, C Ian; Tippens, Nathaniel D; Li, Molong; Narasimha, Anil; Radzinsky, Ethan; Moon-Grady, Anita J; Yu, Haiyuan; Pruitt, Beth L; Snyder, Michael P; Srivastava, Deepak

    2016-12-15

    Mutation of highly conserved residues in transcription factors may affect protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions, leading to gene network dysregulation and human disease. Human mutations in GATA4, a cardiogenic transcription factor, cause cardiac septal defects and cardiomyopathy. Here, iPS-derived cardiomyocytes from subjects with a heterozygous GATA4-G296S missense mutation showed impaired contractility, calcium handling, and metabolic activity. In human cardiomyocytes, GATA4 broadly co-occupied cardiac enhancers with TBX5, another transcription factor that causes septal defects when mutated. The GATA4-G296S mutation disrupted TBX5 recruitment, particularly to cardiac super-enhancers, concomitant with dysregulation of genes related to the phenotypic abnormalities, including cardiac septation. Conversely, the GATA4-G296S mutation led to failure of GATA4 and TBX5-mediated repression at non-cardiac genes and enhanced open chromatin states at endothelial/endocardial promoters. These results reveal how disease-causing missense mutations can disrupt transcriptional cooperativity, leading to aberrant chromatin states and cellular dysfunction, including those related to morphogenetic defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Co-evolution of behaviour and social network structure promotes human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehl, Katrin; van der Post, Daniel J; Semmann, Dirk

    2011-06-01

    The ubiquity of cooperation in nature is puzzling because cooperators can be exploited by defectors. Recent theoretical work shows that if dynamic networks define interactions between individuals, cooperation is favoured by natural selection. To address this, we compare cooperative behaviour in multiple but independent repeated games between participants in static and dynamic networks. In the latter, participants could break their links after each social interaction. As predicted, we find higher levels of cooperation in dynamic networks. Through biased link breaking (i.e. to defectors) participants affected their social environment. We show that this link-breaking behaviour leads to substantial network clustering and we find primarily cooperators within these clusters. This assortment is remarkable because it occurred on top of behavioural assortment through direct reciprocity and beyond the perception of participants, and represents a self-organized pattern. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between ecological context and selective pressures on cooperation.

  6. Complex high-resolution linkage disequilibrium and haplotype patterns of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 2.5 Mb of sequence on human chromosome 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, M; Bustos, V I; Levy, M R; Smick, G A; Moreno, I; Bushard, J M; Almendras, A A; Sheppard, K; Zierten, D L; Aggarwal, A; Carlson, C S; Foster, B D; Vo, N; Kelly, L; Liu, X; Cox, D R

    2001-11-01

    One approach to identify potentially important segments of the human genome is to search for DNA regions with nonrandom patterns of human sequence variation. Previous studies have investigated these patterns primarily in and around candidate gene regions. Here, we determined patterns of DNA sequence variation in 2.5 Mb of finished sequence from five regions on human chromosome 21. By sequencing 13 individual chromosomes, we identified 1460 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and obtained unambiguous haplotypes for all chromosomes. For all five chromosomal regions, we observed segments with high linkage disequilibrium (LD), extending from 1.7 to>81 kb (average 21.7 kb), disrupted by segments of similar or larger size with no significant LD between SNPs. At least 25% of the contig sequences consisted of segments with high LD between SNPs. Each of these segments was characterized by a restricted number of observed haplotypes,with the major haplotype found in over 60% of all chromosomes. In contrast, the interspersed segments with low LD showed significantly more haplotype patterns. The position and extent of the segments of high LD with restricted haplotype variability did not coincide with the location of coding sequences. Our results indicate that LD and haplotype patterns need to be investigated with closely spaced SNPs throughout the human genome, independent of the location of coding sequences, to reliably identify regions with significant LD useful for disease association studies.

  7. A Review of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's International Education Surveys: Governance, Human Capital Discourses, and Policy Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara; Volante, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Given the influential role that the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) plays in educational governance, we believe it is timely to provide an in-depth review of its education surveys and their associated human capital discourses. By reviewing and summarizing the OECD's suite of education surveys, this paper identifies the…

  8. A Review of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's International Education Surveys: Governance, Human Capital Discourses, and Policy Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara; Volante, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Given the influential role that the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) plays in educational governance, we believe it is timely to provide an in-depth review of its education surveys and their associated human capital discourses. By reviewing and summarizing the OECD's suite of education surveys, this paper identifies the…

  9. Human cooperation in the simultaneous and the alternating Prisoner's Dilemma: Pavlov versus Generous Tit-for-Tat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, C; Milinski, M

    1996-04-02

    The iterated Prisoner's Dilemma has become the paradigm for the evolution of cooperation among egoists. Since Axelrod's classic computer tournaments and Nowak and Sigmund's extensive simulations of evolution, we know that natural selection can favor cooperative strategies in the Prisoner's Dilemma. According to recent developments of theory the last champion strategy of "win--stay, lose--shift" ("Pavlov") is the winner only if the players act simultaneously. In the more natural situation of players alternating the roles of donor and recipient a strategy of "Generous Tit-for-Tat" wins computer simulations of short-term memory strategies. We show here by experiments with humans that cooperation dominated in both the simultaneous and the alternating Prisoner's Dilemma. Subjects were consistent in their strategies: 30% adopted a Generous Tit-for-Tat-like strategy, whereas 70% used a Pavlovian strategy in both the alternating and the simultaneous game. As predicted for unconditional strategies, Pavlovian players appeared to be more successful in the simultaneous game whereas Generous Tit-for-Tat-like players achieved higher payoffs in the alternating game. However, the Pavlovian players were smarter than predicted: they suffered less from defectors and exploited cooperators more readily. Humans appear to cooperate either with a Generous Tit-for-Tat-like strategy or with a strategy that appreciates Pavlov's advantages but minimizes its handicaps.

  10. International Environmental Problems, Issue Linkage and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze-Gil, J.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis explores the circumstances under which issue linkage can be applied to achieve cooperation on international environmental problems in general and on environmental problems in the European Union in particular. A major topic in this thesis is the development and analysis of cooperative and

  11. Markerless human motion tracking using hierarchical multi-swarm cooperative particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Sanjay; Zakaria, Nordin; Rambli, Dayang Rohaya Awang; Sulaiman, Suziah

    2015-01-01

    The high-dimensional search space involved in markerless full-body articulated human motion tracking from multiple-views video sequences has led to a number of solutions based on metaheuristics, the most recent form of which is Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). However, the classical PSO suffers from premature convergence and it is trapped easily into local optima, significantly affecting the tracking accuracy. To overcome these drawbacks, we have developed a method for the problem based on Hierarchical Multi-Swarm Cooperative Particle Swarm Optimization (H-MCPSO). The tracking problem is formulated as a non-linear 34-dimensional function optimization problem where the fitness function quantifies the difference between the observed image and a projection of the model configuration. Both the silhouette and edge likelihoods are used in the fitness function. Experiments using Brown and HumanEva-II dataset demonstrated that H-MCPSO performance is better than two leading alternative approaches-Annealed Particle Filter (APF) and Hierarchical Particle Swarm Optimization (HPSO). Further, the proposed tracking method is capable of automatic initialization and self-recovery from temporary tracking failures. Comprehensive experimental results are presented to support the claims.

  12. Analysis of long-range interactions in primary human cells identifies cooperative CFTR regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Stéphanie; Berlivet, Soizik; Ka, Chandran; Le Gac, Gérald; Dostie, Josée; Férec, Claude

    2016-04-07

    A mechanism by which control DNA elements regulate transcription over large linear genomic distances is by achieving close physical proximity with genes, and looping of the intervening chromatin paths. Alterations of such regulatory 'chromatin looping' systems are likely to play a critical role in human genetic disease at large. Here, we studied the spatial organization of a ≈790 kb locus encompassing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Dysregulation of CFTR is responsible for cystic fibrosis, which is the most common lethal genetic disorder in Caucasian populations. CFTR is a relatively large gene of 189 kb with a rather complex tissue-specific and temporal expression profile. We used chromatin conformation at the CFTR locus to identify new DNA sequences that regulate its transcription. By comparing 5C chromatin interaction maps of the CFTR locus in expressing and non-expressing human primary cells, we identified several new contact points between the CFTR promoter and its surroundings, in addition to regions featuring previously described regulatory elements. We demonstrate that two of these novel interacting regions cooperatively increase CFTR expression, and suggest that the new enhancer elements located on either side of the gene are brought together through chromatin looping via CTCF.

  13. Markerless human motion tracking using hierarchical multi-swarm cooperative particle swarm optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Saini

    Full Text Available The high-dimensional search space involved in markerless full-body articulated human motion tracking from multiple-views video sequences has led to a number of solutions based on metaheuristics, the most recent form of which is Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. However, the classical PSO suffers from premature convergence and it is trapped easily into local optima, significantly affecting the tracking accuracy. To overcome these drawbacks, we have developed a method for the problem based on Hierarchical Multi-Swarm Cooperative Particle Swarm Optimization (H-MCPSO. The tracking problem is formulated as a non-linear 34-dimensional function optimization problem where the fitness function quantifies the difference between the observed image and a projection of the model configuration. Both the silhouette and edge likelihoods are used in the fitness function. Experiments using Brown and HumanEva-II dataset demonstrated that H-MCPSO performance is better than two leading alternative approaches-Annealed Particle Filter (APF and Hierarchical Particle Swarm Optimization (HPSO. Further, the proposed tracking method is capable of automatic initialization and self-recovery from temporary tracking failures. Comprehensive experimental results are presented to support the claims.

  14. The fight against human trafficking in the EU: the challenges to cross-border criminal justice cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirentxu Jordana Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The fight against human trafficking presents a number of challenges to the European Union. The multilateral dimension of the cases complicates the action of national authorities and results in limited, partial manhunts and criminal prosecutions that perpetuate the impunity of these crimes. Faced with this problem, the EU has committed to an integrated approach to investigations, which requires exploration of the potential for criminal justice cooperation, an area in which Eurojust, the EU’s criminal justice cooperation unit, plays an important role.

  15. Examining uncertainties in the linkage between global climate change and potential human health impacts in the western USA -- Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Goldman, M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-09-30

    Industrial societies have altered the earth`s environment in ways that could have important, long-term ecological, economic, and health implications. In this paper the authors define, characterize, and evaluate parameter and outcome uncertainties using a model that links global climate change with predictions of chemical exposure and human health risk in the western region of the US. They illustrate the impact of uncertainty about global climate change on such potential secondary outcomes using as a case study the public health consequences related to the behavior environmentally of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), an ubiquitous multimedia pollutant. They begin by constructing a matrix that reveals the linkage between global environmental change and potential regional human-health effects that might be induced directly and/or indirectly by HCB released into the air and water. This matrix is useful for translating critical uncertainties into terms that can be understood and used by policy makers to formulate strategies against potential adverse irreversible health and economic consequences. Specifically, the authors employ a combined uncertainty/sensitivity analysis to investigate how the HCB that has been released is affected by increasing atmospheric temperature and the accompanying climate alterations that are anticipated and how such uncertainty propagates to affect the expected magnitude and calculational precision of estimates of associated potential human exposures and health effects.

  16. Linkage mapping of the gene for Type III collagen (COL3A1) to human chromosome 2q using a VNTR polymorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, G.E.; Polumbo, P.A.; Summar, M.L. (Vanderbilt Univ. Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States))

    1994-03-15

    The gene for the [alpha]1(III) chain of type III collagen, COL3A1, has been previously mapped to human chromosome 2q24.3-q31 by in situ hybridization. Physical mapping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has demonstrated that COL3A1 lies within 35 kb of COL5A2. The authors genotyped the CEPH families at the COL3A2 locus using a pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism within intron 25. They demonstrated significant linkage to 18 anonymous markers as well as the gene for carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPSI), which had been previously mapped to this region. No recombination was seen between COL3A1 and COL5A2 (Z = 9.93 at [theta] = 0) or D2S24 (Z = 10.55 at [theta] = 0). The locus order is (D2S32-D2S138-D2S148)-(D2S24-COL5A2-COL3A1)-(D2S118-D2S161), with odds of 1:2300 for the next most likely order. These relationships are consistent with the physical mapping of COL3A1 to the distal portion of 2q and place it proximal to CPSI by means of multipoint analysis. These linkage relationships should prove useful in further studies of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV and carbamyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency and provide an additional framework for localizing other genes in this region. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. A negative cooperativity mechanism of human CYP2E1 inferred from molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jue; Wei, Dong-Qing; Wang, Jing-Fang; Li, Yi-Xue

    2011-12-27

    Human cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) participates in the metabolism of over 2% of all the oral drugs. A hallmark peculiar feature of this enzyme is that it exhibits a pronounced negative cooperativity in substrate binding. However the mechanism by which the negative cooperativity occurs is unclear. Here, we performed molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations on human CYP2E1 to examine the structural differences between the substrate-free and the enzymes with one and two aniline molecules bound. Our results indicate that although the effector substrate does not bind in the active site cavity, it still can directly interact with the active site residues of human CYP2E1. The interaction of the effector substrate with the active site leads to a reorientation of active site residues, which thereby weakens the interactions of the active substrate with this site. We also identify a conserved residue T303 that plays a crucial role in the negative cooperative binding on the short-range effects. This residue is a key factor in the positioning of substrates and in proton delivery to the active site. Additionally, a long-range effect of the effector substrate is identified in which F478 is proposed to play a key role. As located in the interface between the active and effector sites, this residue structurally links the active and effector sites and is found to play a significant role in affecting substrate access and ligand positioning within the active site. In the negative cooperative binding, this residue can decrease the interactions of the active substrate with the active site by π-π stacking which then lowers the hydroxylation activity for the active substrate. These findings are in agreement with previous experimental observations and thus provide detailed atomistic insight into the poorly understood mechanism of the negative cooperativity in human CYP2E1.

  18. Dopamine and angiotensin type 2 receptors cooperatively inhibit sodium transport in human renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Wang, Xiaoli; Shah, Neema; Tran, Hanh; Spinosa, Michael; Van Sciver, Robert; Sasaki, Midori; Yatabe, Junichi; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2012-08-01

    Little is known regarding how the kidney shifts from a sodium and water reclaiming state (antinatriuresis) to a state where sodium and water are eliminated (natriuresis). In human renal proximal tubule cells, sodium reabsorption is decreased by the dopamine D(1)-like receptors (D(1)R/D(5)R) and the angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT(2)R), whereas the angiotensin type 1 receptor increases sodium reabsorption. Aberrant control of these opposing systems is thought to lead to sodium retention and, subsequently, hypertension. We show that D(1)R/D(5)R stimulation increased plasma membrane AT(2)R 4-fold via a D(1)R-mediated, cAMP-coupled, and protein phosphatase 2A-dependent specific signaling pathway. D(1)R/D(5)R stimulation also reduced the ability of angiotensin II to stimulate phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, an effect that was partially reversed by an AT(2)R antagonist. Fenoldopam did not increase AT(2)R recruitment in renal proximal tubule cells with D(1)Rs uncoupled from adenylyl cyclase, suggesting a role of cAMP in mediating these events. D(1)Rs and AT(2)Rs heterodimerized and cooperatively increased cAMP and cGMP production, protein phosphatase 2A activation, sodium-potassium-ATPase internalization, and sodium transport inhibition. These studies shed new light on the regulation of renal sodium transport by the dopaminergic and angiotensin systems and potential new therapeutic targets for selectively treating hypertension.

  19. Evolving techniques of diagnosis. Toward establishment of new paradigm for human machine cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Masaharu; Takahashi, Makoto [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kanamoto, Shigeru; Saeki, Akira; Washio, Takashi; Ohga, Yukiharu; Furuta, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Shinji

    1998-09-01

    By monitoring equipments of a plant and state of a process, the diagnostic technique to detect a sign of abnormality properly to identify its reason has often been advanced on a lot of researches in various industrial fields containing atomic force. Some fundamental studies expected for such diagnostic technique to play an important role to keep and improve operational safety of a nuclear plant have been conducted since early period of the nuclear reaction development, but their contents are evolved and changed rapidly, in recent. The technique on the diagnosis was related closely to a statistical analysis method on signal fluctuation component, so-called reactor noise analysis method in early 1980s, but technical innovation step of their recent advancement were remarkable by introduction of new techniques such as chaos theory, wavelet analysis, model base application of expert system, artificial intelligence, and so on at middle of 1980s. And, when diagnosing in the field of atomic force, owing to be required for much high ability, studies on a multi method integration system considered complementary application of a plurality of technical methods and a cooperative method between human and mechanical intelligences, are also forwarded actively faster than those in other industrial areas. In this paper, in each important item, its technical nature and present state of its application to diagnosis are described with their future technical view. (G.K.)

  20. Thyrotropin receptors in normal human thyroid. Nonclassical binding kinetics not explained by the negative cooperativity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Jones, C H; Thomas, C G; Nayfeh, S N

    1980-05-10

    Saturation analysis of equilibrium binding of iodinated thyrotropin (125I-TSH) to normal human thyroid preparations yielded linear Scatchard plots under non-physiological conditions of pH 6.0 or 20 mM Tris/acetate buffer, pH 7.4. The apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of this binding was approximately 10(-8) M. By contrast, nonlinear plots were obtained under standard conditions of pH 7.4 and 40 mM Tris/acetate buffer. Resolution of the components of these curves by computer analysis revealed the presence of at least two classes of binding sites, one of which is of a low capacity and high affinity (approximately 10(-10) M) consistent with receptor binding. The other component is of a high capacity and lower affinity. Binding to non-target tissues of muscle, parathyroid, mammary carcinoma, and placenta was only demonstrable at pH 6.0 or in 20 mM Tris/acetate buffer, pH 7.4, yielding linear Scatchard plots with similar binding affinity (approximately 10(-8)M) to normal thyroid but much reduced capacity. Preincubation of thyroid tissue at 50 degrees C resulted in an apparent selective loss of the high affinity component of binding measured under standard conditions. Kinetic experiments on the dissociation of bound 125I-TSH were undertaken to determine whether the non-linearity of Scatchard plots was due to two or more classes of binding sites or negative cooperativity. It was found that the experimental determinant that is presently ascribed to a negative cooperativity phenomenon regulating receptor affinity (i.e. an enhanced dilution-induced dissociation rate in the presence of excess native hormone), although apparently hormone-specific, was demonstrated under nonphysiological binding conditions and in non-target tissue. Significantly, the phenomenon was found under conditions of pH 6.0 or 20 mM Tris where a linear Scatchard plot was obtained. The evidence thus suggests that 125I-TSH binds to heterogeneous binding sites (of which the high affinity is

  1. The evolution process of seawater intrusion in Laizhou Bay, and its linkage to climate change and human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Seawater Intrusion is that seawater or saltwater intrude into the continent along the aquifer.Under the effects of the natural and artificial factors, the hydrodynamic conditions of aquifer in the coastal area has been changed ,which break the equilibrium between the seawater and the freshwater, hence the salt-fresh interface moves on the continent. Sea-level rise due to climate change and the paleoseawater hosting in marine strata combined with a rising population density in the Laizhou Bay have led to higher stresses on coastal water resources, and the risk of seawater intrusion has increased. Despite comprehensive seawater intrusion research and prevention measures are developed, the effects of climate change and human activity on seawater intrusion is still unclear. Therefore to reveal how climate change and human activity impact on seawater intrusion and to mathematical quantify it is important to establish reasonable prevention and control of seawater intrusion measures. Laizhou Bay is the region suffering from the geo-hazard of sea (saline) water intrusion most seriously in China, and is divided into seawater intrusion area, saline water (paleo-sea water) intrusion area and sea-saline water intrusion area The area of seawter intrusion in Laizhou Bay nearly 4,000 km2. And the seawater intrusion disasters in Laizhou bay can be divided into five stage from 1976 to now, which is Initial stage (1976-1979),Developing stage (1980-1985), Deterioration stage(1987-1989), Release stage (1990-2000)and Differentiation stage (2000-). The impact of human activities is shown as seawater intrusion in the linear growth trend. With the rapid economic development, the increase in abstraction from aquifers results in a serious imbalance between the seawater and freshwater interface, and the risk of seawater intrusion has increased. Taking into account of the climate change and human activity factors and seawater intrusion evaluation factors, such as the intensity of Cl

  2. Aspects of record linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, Marijn Paul

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an exploration of the subject of historical record linkage. The general goal of historical record linkage is to discover relations between historical entities in a database, for any specific definition of relation, entity and database. Although this task originates from historical

  3. Subsidiary Linkage Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulf; Perri, Alessandra; Nell, Phillip C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the pattern of subsidiaries' local vertical linkages under varying levels of competition and subsidiary capabilities. Contrary to most previous literature, we explicitly account for the double role of such linkages as conduits of learning prospects as well as potential...

  4. Test of a causal Human Resource Management-Performance Linkage Model: Evidence from the Greek manufacturing sector

    OpenAIRE

    Katou, A.

    2011-01-01

    Although a number of studies have recognized the relationship between Human Resource Management (HRM) policies and organisational performance, the mechanisms through which HRM policies lead to organisational performance remain still unexplored. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pathways leading from HRM policies to organisational performance by using structural equation modelling. Specifically, this analytical tool has been used to test a research framework that is constituted ...

  5. Of River Linkage and Issue Linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, Jeroen Frank

    2016-01-01

    It is a truism in mainstream International Relations that issue linkage promotes regime formation and integration. The present article applies this idea to the transboundary lower river Meuse and finds its history of integration to be a tortuous one. Contextual political factors have at times

  6. IFI16 and cGAS cooperate in the activation of STING during DNA sensing in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almine, Jessica F; O'Hare, Craig A J; Dunphy, Gillian; Haga, Ismar R; Naik, Rangeetha J; Atrih, Abdelmadjid; Connolly, Dympna J; Taylor, Jordan; Kelsall, Ian R; Bowie, Andrew G; Beard, Philippa M; Unterholzner, Leonie

    2017-02-13

    Many human cells can sense the presence of exogenous DNA during infection though the cytosolic DNA receptor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), which produces the second messenger cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). Other putative DNA receptors have been described, but whether their functions are redundant, tissue-specific or integrated in the cGAS-cGAMP pathway is unclear. Here we show that interferon-γ inducible protein 16 (IFI16) cooperates with cGAS during DNA sensing in human keratinocytes, as both cGAS and IFI16 are required for the full activation of an innate immune response to exogenous DNA and DNA viruses. IFI16 is also required for the cGAMP-induced activation of STING, and interacts with STING to promote STING phosphorylation and translocation. We propose that the two DNA sensors IFI16 and cGAS cooperate to prevent the spurious activation of the type I interferon response.

  7. Power-law distributed temporal heterogeneity of human activities promotes cooperation on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Li, Rong

    2016-09-01

    An evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) with players located on Barabási-Albert scale-free networks is studied. The impact of players' heterogeneous temporal activity pattern on the evolution of cooperation is investigated. To this end, the normal procedure that players update their strategies immediately after a round of game is discarded. Instead, players update strategies according to their assigned reproduction time, which follows a power-law distribution. We find that the temporal heterogeneity of players' activities facilitates the prosperity of cooperation, indicating the important role of hubs in the maintenance of cooperation on scale-free networks. When the reproduction time is assigned to individuals negatively related to their degrees, a fluctuation of the cooperation level with the increase of the exponent β is observed.

  8. HOXB5 cooperates with NKX2-1 in the transcription of human RET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zhu

    Full Text Available The enteric nervous system (ENS regulates peristaltic movement of the gut, and abnormal ENS causes Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR in newborns. HSCR is a congenital complex genetic disorder characterised by a lack of enteric ganglia along a variable length of the intestine. The receptor tyrosine kinase gene (RET is the major HSCR gene and its expression is crucial for ENS development. We have previously reported that (i HOXB5 transcription factor mediates RET expression, and (ii mouse with defective HOXB5 activity develop HSCR phenotype. In this study, we (i elucidate the underlying mechanisms that HOXB5 mediate RET expression, and (ii examine the interactions between HOXB5 and other transcription factors implicated in RET expression. We show that human HOXB5 binds to the promoter region 5' upstream of the binding site of NKX2-1 and regulates RET expression. HOXB5 and NKX2-1 form a protein complex and mediate RET expression in a synergistic manner. HSCR associated SNPs at the NKX2-1 binding site (-5G>A rs10900296; -1A>C rs10900297, which reduce NKX2-1 binding, abolish the synergistic trans-activation of RET by HOXB5 and NKX2-1. In contrast to the synergistic activation of RET with NKX2-1, HOXB5 cooperates in an additive manner with SOX10, PAX3 and PHOX2B in trans-activation of RET promoter. Taken together, our data suggests that HOXB5 in coordination with other transcription factors mediates RET expression. Therefore, defects in cis- or trans-regulation of RET by HOXB5 could lead to reduction of RET expression and contribute to the manifestation of the HSCR phenotype.

  9. A cognitive neuroscience perspective on embodied language for human-robot cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Carol; Hoen, Michel; Dominey, Peter Ford

    2010-03-01

    This article addresses issues in embodied sentence processing from a "cognitive neural systems" approach that combines analysis of the behavior in question, analysis of the known neurophysiological bases of this behavior, and the synthesis of a neuro-computational model of embodied sentence processing that can be applied to and tested in the context of human-robot cooperative interaction. We propose a Hybrid Comprehension Model that links compact propositional representations of sentences and discourse with their temporal unfolding in situated simulations, under the control of grammar. The starting point is a model of grammatical construction processing which specifies the neural mechanisms by which language is a structured inventory of mappings from sentence to meaning. This model is then "embodied" in a perceptual-motor system (robot) which allows it access to sentence-perceptual representation pairs, and interaction with the world providing the basis for language acquisition. We then introduce a "simulation" capability, such that the robot has an internal representation of its interaction with the world. The control of this simulator and the associated representations present a number of interesting "neuro-technical" issues. First, the "simulator" has been liberated from real-time. It can run without being connected to current sensory motor experience. Second, "simulations" appear to be represented at different levels of detail. Our paper provides a framework for beginning to address the questions: how does language and its grammar control these aspects of simulation, what are the neurophysiological bases, and how can this be demonstrated in an artificial yet embodied cognitive system. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Sulfated Glycosaminoglycan Linkage Region is a Novel Type of Human Natural Killer-1 (HNK-1 Epitope Expressed on Aggrecan in Perineuronal Nets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Yabuno

    Full Text Available Human natural killer-1 (HNK-1 carbohydrate (HSO3-3GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R is highly expressed in the brain and required for learning and neural plasticity. We previously demonstrated that expression of the HNK-1 epitope is mostly abolished in knockout mice for GlcAT-P (B3gat1, a major glucuronyltransferase required for HNK-1 biosynthesis, but remained in specific regions such as perineuronal nets (PNNs in these mutant mice. Considering PNNs are mainly composed of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs and regulate neural plasticity, GlcAT-P-independent expression of HNK-1 in PNNs is suggested to play a role in neural plasticity. However, the function, structure, carrier glycoprotein and biosynthetic pathway for GlcAT-P-irrelevant HNK-1 epitope remain unclear. In this study, we identified a unique HNK-1 structure on aggrecan in PNNs. To determine the biosynthetic pathway for the novel HNK-1, we generated knockout mice for GlcAT-S (B3gat2, the other glucuronyltransferase required for HNK-1 biosynthesis. However, GlcAT-P and GlcAT-S double-knockout mice did not exhibit reduced HNK-1 expression compared with single GlcAT-P-knockout mice, indicating an unusual biosynthetic pathway for the HNK-1 epitope in PNNs. Aggrecan was purified from cultured cells in which GlcAT-P and -S are not expressed and we determined the structure of the novel HNK-1 epitope using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS as a sulfated linkage region of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, HSO3-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-R. Taken together, we propose a hypothetical model where GlcAT-I, the sole glucuronyltransferase required for synthesis of the GAG linkage, is also responsible for biosynthesis of the novel HNK-1 on aggrecan. These results could lead to discovery of new roles of the HNK-1 epitope in neural plasticity.

  11. The linkage of chromatin remodeling to genome maintenance: contribution from a human disease gene BRIT1/MCPH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guang; Lin, Shiaw-Yih

    2009-10-01

    Genomic DNA is packed into a highly condensed chromatin structure, which acts as natural barrier preventing accessibility of DNA. In various processes to maintain genomic integrity such as DNA replication, DNA repair, telomere regulation, proteins need to overcome the barrier of condensed chromatin to gain access to DNA. ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling is one of the fundamental mechanisms used by cells to relax chromatin. However, the chromatin remodeling complex does not contain intrinsic specificity for particular nuclear process, and the mechanism mediating its recruitment to DNA lesions remains to be an outstanding question. To address this question, in this review, we will discuss our current findings and future perspectives about how BRIT1/MCPH1, a human disease gene, specifies the function of chromatin remodelers and links chromatin remodeling to genome maintenance.

  12. The human otubain2-ubiquitin structure provides insights into the cleavage specificity of poly-ubiquitin-linkages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Altun

    Full Text Available Ovarian tumor domain containing proteases cleave ubiquitin (Ub and ubiquitin-like polypeptides from proteins. Here we report the crystal structure of human otubain 2 (OTUB2 in complex with a ubiquitin-based covalent inhibitor, Ub-Br2. The ubiquitin binding mode is oriented differently to how viral otubains (vOTUs bind ubiquitin/ISG15, and more similar to yeast and mammalian OTUs. In contrast to OTUB1 which has exclusive specificity towards Lys48 poly-ubiquitin chains, OTUB2 cleaves different poly-Ub linked chains. N-terminal tail swapping experiments between OTUB1 and OTUB2 revealed how the N-terminal structural motifs in OTUB1 contribute to modulating enzyme activity and Ub-chain selectivity, a trait not observed in OTUB2, supporting the notion that OTUB2 may affect a different spectrum of substrates in Ub-dependent pathways.

  13. Test of a causal Human Resource Management-Performance Linkage Model: Evidence from the Greek manufacturing sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katou, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a number of studies have recognized the relationship between Human Resource Management (HRM policies and organisational performance, the mechanisms through which HRM policies lead to organisational performance remain still unexplored. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pathways leading from HRM policies to organisational performance by using structural equation modelling. Specifically, this analytical tool has been used to test a research framework that is constituted by a set of causal relationships between organisational and other contingencies, business strategies, HRM policies, HRM outcomes, and organisational performance. Employing data from organisations operating in the Greek manufacturing sector, results indicate that the impact of HRM policies on organisational performance is mediated through the HRM outputs of skills, attitudes and behaviour, and moderated by business strategies, organisational context and other contingencies. Thus, the paper not only supports that HRM policies have a positive impact on organisational performance but also explains the mechanisms through which HRM policies improve organisational performance.

  14. Linkage analysis in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windemuth, C; Hahn, A; Strauch, K; Baur, M P; Wienker, T F

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol dependence often is a familial disorder and has a genetic component. Research in causative factors of alcoholism is coordinated by a multi-center program, COGA [The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, Begleiter et al., 1995]. We analyzed a subset of the COGA family sample, 84 pedigrees of Caucasian ancestry comprising 745 persons, 339 of whom are affected according to DSM-III-R and Feighner criteria. Using parametric and nonparametric methods, evidence for linkage was found on chromosome 1 (near markers D1S532, D1S1588, and D1S534), as well as on chromosome 15 (near marker D15S642). Other regions of the genome showed suggestive evidence for contributing loci. Related findings are discussed in recent publications investigating linkage in humans [Reich et al., 1998] and mice [Melo et al., 1996].

  15. Statistical evaluation of multiple-locus linkage data in experimental species and its relevance to human studies: Application to nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse and human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risch, N. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)); Ghosh, S.; Todd, J.A.

    1993-09-01

    Common, familial human disorders generally do not follow Mendelian inheritance patterns, presumably because multiple loci are involved in disease susceptibility. One approach to mapping genes for such traits in humans is to first study an analogous form in an animal model, such as mouse, by using inbred strains and backcross experiments. Here the authors describe methodology for analyzing multiple-locus linkage data from such experimental backcrosses, particularly in light of multilocus genetic models, including the effects of epistasis. They illustrate these methods by using data from backcrosses involving nonobese diabetic mouse, which serves as an animal model for human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. They show that it is likely that a minimum of nine loci contribute to susceptibility, with strong epistasis effects among these loci. Three of the loci actually confer a protective effect in the homozygote, compared with the heterozygote. Further, they discuss the relevance of these studies for analogous studies of the human form of the trait. Specifically, they show that the magnitude of the gene effect in the experimental backcross is likely to correlate only weakly, at best, with the expected magnitude of effect for a human form, because in humans the gene effect will depend more heavily on disease allele frequencies than on the observed penetrance ratios; such allele frequencies are unpredictable. Hence, the major benefit from animal studies may be a better understanding of the disease process itself, rather than identification of cells through comparison mapping in humans by using regions of homology. 12 refs., 7 tabs.

  16. Subsidiary Linkage Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perri, Alessandra; Andersson, Ulf; Nell, Phillip C.;

    This paper investigates local vertical linkages of foreign subsidiaries and the dual role of such linkages as conduits for learning as well as potential channels for spillovers to competitors. On the basis of data from 97 subsidiaries, we analyze the quality of such linkages under varying levels...... of competition and subsidiary capabilities. Our theoretical development and the results from the analysis document a far more complex and dynamic relationship between levels of competition and MNCs’ local participation in knowledge intensive activities, i.e. learning and spillovers, than previous studies do. We...

  17. A scoping analysis of peer-reviewed literature about linkages between aquaculture and determinants of human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Theresa E; Wade, Joy; Stephen, Craig; Toews, Lorraine

    2014-06-01

    For many of the world's poor, aquatic products are critical for food security and health. Because the global population is increasing as wild aquatic stocks are declining, aquaculture is an increasingly important source of aquatic products. We undertook a scoping review of the English-language peer-reviewed literature to evaluate how the research community has examined the impacts of aquaculture on four key determinants of human health: poverty, food security, food production sustainability, and gender equality. The review returned 156 primary research articles. Most research (75%) was focused in Asia, with limited research from Africa (10%) and South America (2%). Most research (80%) focused on freshwater finfish and shrimp production. We used qualitative content analysis of records which revealed 11 themes: famer income; the common environment; shared resources; integrated farming/ polyculture; employment; extensive vs. intensive production; local vs. distant ownership; food security; income equity; gender equality; and input costs. We used quantitative content analysis of records and full-text publications about freshwater finfish and shrimp aquaculture to record the frequency with which themes were represented and the positive or negative impacts of aquaculture associated with each theme. Scatter plots showed that no theme was identified in more than half of all articles and publications for both production types. Farmer income was a theme that was identified commonly and was positively impacted by both shrimp and fresh water finfish aquaculture. Polyculture, employment, and local ownership were identified less often as themes, but were also associated with positive impacts. The common environment and shared resources were more common themes in shrimp aquaculture than freshwater finfish aquaculture research, while polyculture and local ownership were more common themes in freshwater finfish aquaculture than shrimp aquaculture. Gender equality, employment, and

  18. Linkages between human health and ocean health: a participatory climate change vulnerability assessment for marine mammal harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Gadamus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Indigenous residents of Alaska’s Bering Strait Region depend, both culturally and nutritionally, on ice seal and walrus harvests. Currently, climate change and resultant increases in marine industrial development threaten these species and the cultures that depend on them. Objective. To document: (a local descriptions of the importance of marine mammal hunting; (b traditional methods for determining if harvested marine mammals are safe to consume; and (c marine mammal outcomes that would have adverse effects on community health, the perceived causes of these outcomes, strategies for preventing these outcomes and community adaptations to outcomes that cannot be mitigated. Design. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with 82 indigenous hunters and elders from the Bering Strait region. Standard qualitative analysis was conducted on interview transcripts, which were coded for both inductive and deductive codes. Responses describing marine mammal food safety and importance are presented using inductively generated categories. Responses describing negative marine mammal outcomes are presented in a vulnerability framework, which links human health outcomes to marine conditions. Results. Project participants perceived that shipping noise and pollution, as well as marine mammal food source depletion by industrial fishing, posed the greatest threats to marine mammal hunting traditions. Proposed adaptations primarily fell into 2 categories: (a greater tribal influence over marine policy; and (b documentation of traditional knowledge for local use. This paper presents 1 example of documenting traditional knowledge as an adaptation strategy: traditional methods for determining if marine mammal food is safe to eat. Conclusions. Participant recommendations indicate that 1 strategy to promote rural Alaskan adaptation to climate change is to better incorporate local knowledge and values into decision-making processes

  19. Linkages between human health and ocean health: a participatory climate change vulnerability assessment for marine mammal harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadamus, Lily

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous residents of Alaska's Bering Strait Region depend, both culturally and nutritionally, on ice seal and walrus harvests. Currently, climate change and resultant increases in marine industrial development threaten these species and the cultures that depend on them. To document: (a) local descriptions of the importance of marine mammal hunting; (b) traditional methods for determining if harvested marine mammals are safe to consume; and (c) marine mammal outcomes that would have adverse effects on community health, the perceived causes of these outcomes, strategies for preventing these outcomes and community adaptations to outcomes that cannot be mitigated. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with 82 indigenous hunters and elders from the Bering Strait region. Standard qualitative analysis was conducted on interview transcripts, which were coded for both inductive and deductive codes. Responses describing marine mammal food safety and importance are presented using inductively generated categories. Responses describing negative marine mammal outcomes are presented in a vulnerability framework, which links human health outcomes to marine conditions. Project participants perceived that shipping noise and pollution, as well as marine mammal food source depletion by industrial fishing, posed the greatest threats to marine mammal hunting traditions. Proposed adaptations primarily fell into 2 categories: (a) greater tribal influence over marine policy; and (b) documentation of traditional knowledge for local use. This paper presents 1 example of documenting traditional knowledge as an adaptation strategy: traditional methods for determining if marine mammal food is safe to eat. Participant recommendations indicate that 1 strategy to promote rural Alaskan adaptation to climate change is to better incorporate local knowledge and values into decision-making processes. Participant interest in documenting traditional knowledge for local use also

  20. Dream of future on human-machine cooperative system; Ningen robot system ni okeru fluid power gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y. [Hosei University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-01-15

    This paper describes the human-machine cooperative system and fluid power technology. Most of Japanese robot R and D activities shifted from early R and D on hydraulic or pneumatic driving to that on simple electric driving, and development of fluid power technology as actuator and control technology is retarded. For creating an artificial work environment with a presence by virtual reality formation technology, an equipment (actuator) directly acting such five senses (sensor) of operators as visual, auditory, pressure and contact senses is essential. Pneumatic actuator is extremely suitable for such one because of its small size, light weight, safety and high power density. Robocup has been held as the soccer game of many autonomous robots. For the soccer game of human beings and robots, development of such technologies for advanced autonomous robots is necessary as realtime processing, advanced intelligence, human friendliness, safety, high-efficiency high-power actuator equivalent to human muscle, and energy source. (NEDO)

  1. Punitive preferences, monetary incentives and tacit coordination in the punishment of defectors promote cooperation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Przepiorka, Wojtek

    2015-01-01

    Peer-punishment is effective in promoting cooperation, but the costs associated with punishing defectors often exceed the benefits for the group. It has been argued that centralized punishment institutions can overcome the detrimental effects of peer-punishment. However, this argument presupposes th

  2. Positive cooperativity in substrate binding of human prostatic acid phosphatase entrapped in AOT-isooctane-water reverse micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchter-Wasylewska, Ewa; Iciek, Małgorzata

    2004-05-15

    The kinetics of 1-naphthyl phosphate and phenyl phosphate hydrolysis, catalyzed by human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) entrapped in AOT-isooctane-water reverse micelles, has been studied over surfactant hydration degree (w0) range 5 to 35. Continuous spectrophotometric acid phosphatase assays, previously prepared, were employed. PAP was catalytically active over the whole w0 studied range. In order to determine steady-state reaction constants the experimental data were fitted to Hill rate equation. Positive cooperativity in substrate binding was observed, as it was earlier found in aqueous solutions. The extent of cooperativity (expressed as the value of the Hill cooperation coefficient h) increased from 1 to 4, when the micellar water-pool size was growing, at fixed enzyme concentration. In the plots of catalytic activity (kcat) versus w0, the maxima have been found at w0=10 (pH 5.6) and 23 (pH 3.8). It is suggested that catalytically active monomeric and dimeric PAP forms are entrapped in reverse micelles of w0=10 and 23, respectively.

  3. Interactive Record Linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to carry out demographic analyses at individual and group levels, a manual method of linking individual event records from parish registers was developed in the late 1950s. In order to save time and to work with larger areas than small parishes, systems for automatic record linkage were developed a couple of decades later. A third method, an interactive record linkage, named Demolink, has been developed even more recently. The main new feature of the method is the possibility of linking from more than two historical sources simultaneously. This improves the process of sorting out which events belong to which individual life courses. This paper discusses how Demolink was used for record linkage in a large Norwegian parish for the period 1801-1878.

  4. Structural insights into the autoregulation and cooperativity of the human transcription factor Ets-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Joseph A; Cooper, Christopher D O; Aitkenhead, Hazel; Gileadi, Opher

    2015-03-27

    Ets-2, like its closely related homologue Ets-1, is a member of the Ets family of DNA binding transcription factors. Both proteins are subject to multiple levels of regulation of their DNA binding and transactivation properties. One such regulatory mechanism is the presence of an autoinhibitory module, which in Ets-1 allosterically inhibits the DNA binding activity. This inhibition can be relieved by interaction with protein partners or cooperative binding to closely separated Ets binding sites in a palindromic arrangement. In this study we describe the 2.5 Å resolution crystal structure of a DNA complex of the Ets-2 Ets domain. The Ets domain crystallized with two distinct species in the asymmetric unit, which closely resemble the autoinhibited and DNA bound forms of Ets-1. This discovery prompted us to re-evaluate the current model for the autoinhibitory mechanism and the structural basis for cooperative DNA binding. In contrast to Ets-1, in which the autoinhibition is caused by a combination of allosteric and steric mechanisms, we were unable to find clear evidence for the allosteric mechanism in Ets-2. We also demonstrated two possibly distinct types of cooperative binding to substrates with Ets binding motifs separated by four and six base pairs and suggest possible molecular mechanisms for this behavior. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Structural Insights into the Autoregulation and Cooperativity of the Human Transcription Factor Ets-2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Joseph A; Cooper, Christopher D. O.; Aitkenhead, Hazel; Gileadi, Opher

    2015-01-01

    Ets-2, like its closely related homologue Ets-1, is a member of the Ets family of DNA binding transcription factors. Both proteins are subject to multiple levels of regulation of their DNA binding and transactivation properties. One such regulatory mechanism is the presence of an autoinhibitory module, which in Ets-1 allosterically inhibits the DNA binding activity. This inhibition can be relieved by interaction with protein partners or cooperative binding to closely separated Ets binding sites in a palindromic arrangement. In this study we describe the 2.5 Å resolution crystal structure of a DNA complex of the Ets-2 Ets domain. The Ets domain crystallized with two distinct species in the asymmetric unit, which closely resemble the autoinhibited and DNA bound forms of Ets-1. This discovery prompted us to re-evaluate the current model for the autoinhibitory mechanism and the structural basis for cooperative DNA binding. In contrast to Ets-1, in which the autoinhibition is caused by a combination of allosteric and steric mechanisms, we were unable to find clear evidence for the allosteric mechanism in Ets-2. We also demonstrated two possibly distinct types of cooperative binding to substrates with Ets binding motifs separated by four and six base pairs and suggest possible molecular mechanisms for this behavior. PMID:25670864

  6. Cooperative federalism and hydraulic fracturing: a human right to a clean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This Article argues that filling the energy governance gaps regarding unconventional natural gas can best be accomplished through collaborative governance that is genuinely adaptive and cooperative. Through cooperative federalism, combined with procedural rights for inclusive, innovative decision-making, state and non-state actors should design and implement the requisite safeguards before further natural gas development advances. Hydraulic fracturing provisions are strikingly fragmented and have sparked a fierce debate about chemical disclosure, radioactive wastewater disposal, and greenhouse gas emissions. United States natural gas production may stunt the direction and intensity of renewable energy by up to two decades and will not provide a bridge to a sound energy policy if it "erode[s] efforts to prepare a landing at the other end of the bridge." Unconventional natural gas extraction need not become a transition to a new addiction. This Article analyzes how cooperative federalism and inclusive decision-making can provide legitimacy and transparency when balancing property rights against police powers to regulate natural gas production.

  7. A Linkage Learning Genetic Algorithm with Linkage Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The goal of linkage learning, or building block identification, is the creation of a more effective Genetic Algorithm (GA). This paper proposes a new Linkage Learning Genetic Algorithms, named m-LLGA. With the linkage learning module and the linkage-based genetic operation, m-LLGA is not only able to learn and record the linkage information among genes without any prior knowledge of the function being optimized. It also can use the linkage information stored in the linkage matrix to guide the selection of crossover point. The preliminary experiments on two kinds of bounded difficulty problems and a TSP problem validated the performance of m-LLGA. The m-LLGA learns the linkage of different building blocks parallel and therefore solves these problems effectively; it can also reasonably reduce the probability of building blocks being disrupted by crossover at the same time give attention to getting away from local minimum.

  8. 76 FR 29252 - Part F Special Projects of National Significance Program Cooperative Agreement Under the Ryan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... preliminary descriptive information on demonstration sites' linkage models. This is a temporary extension with... sites' delays in receiving required human subjects research approvals. The SPNS Enhancing Linkages ESC...

  9. 人权国际合作的多元实践形态%Multiple Practice Forms of International Cooperation for Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛俊响

    2013-01-01

    It has been general consensus in international community currently that conducting international cooperation could promote international protection for human rights. In practice, the forms of international cooperation for human rights include making human rights rules by negotiation, participation in international human rights systems, conducting technical cooperation, regional human rights systems, human right-oriented in policy-making, human rights dialogue and international human rights conferences or forums. The analysis of international cooperation for human rights shows that international cooperation for human rights not only runs throughout the whole process of formulating and implementing human rights standards, but also exists in other areas such as international trade, finance, social development and international peace and security. International cooperation for human rights is not the exclusive responsibility of nations. International governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations have become the indispensible subjects of international cooperation for human rights.%开展国际合作以促进国际人权保护已经成为当前国际社会的普遍共识。在实践中,人权国际合作体现为协商制定国际人权规则、参与国际人权机制、开展技术合作、区域人权安排、政策框架中的人权导向、人权对话与人权会议等多元形态。人权国际合作不仅贯穿于国际人权标准制定与实施的整个过程,还广泛存在于国际贸易、国际金融、社会发展以及安全合作等领域。通过国际合作来促进人权国际保护不再是国家的专属责任,国际组织、非政府组织也是人权国际合作不可或缺的主体。

  10. An Effective Division of Labor Between Human and Robotic Agents Performing a Cooperative Assembly Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehnmark, Fredrik; Bluethmann, William; Rochlis, Jennifer; Huber, Eric; Ambrose, Robert

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight program depends heavily on spacewalks performed by human astronauts. These so-called extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) are risky, expensive and complex. Work is underway to develop a robotic astronaut's assistant that can help reduce human EVA time and workload by delivering human-like dexterous manipulation capabilities to any EVA worksite. An experiment is conducted to evaluate human-robot teaming strategies in the context of a simplified EVA assembly task in which Robonaut, a collaborative effort with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), an anthropomorphic robot works side-by-side with a human subject. Team performance is studied in an effort to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each teaming configuration and to recommend an appropriate division of labor. A shared control approach is developed to take advantage of the complementary strengths of the human teleoperator and robot, even in the presence of significant time delay.

  11. Cooperation of Notch and Ras/MAPK signaling pathways in human breast carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Devaveena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have implicated aberrant Notch signaling in breast cancers. Yet, relatively little is known about the pattern of expression of various components of the Notch pathway, or its mechanism of action. To better understand the role of the Notch pathway in breast cancer, we have undertaken a detailed expression analysis of various Notch receptors, their ligands, and downstream targets at different stages of breast cancer progression. Results We report here that there is a general increase in the expression levels of Notch 1, 2, 4, Jagged1, Jagged2, and Delta-like 4 proteins in breast cancers, with simultaneous upregulation of multiple Notch receptors and ligands in a given cancer tissue. While Notch3 and Delta-like1 were undetectable in normal tissues, moderate to high expression was detected in several cancers. We detected the presence of active, cleaved Notch1, along with downstream targets of the Notch pathway, Hes1/Hes5, in ~75% of breast cancers, clearly indicating that in a large proportion of breast cancers Notch signaling is aberrantly activated. Furthermore, we detected cleaved Notch1 and Hes1/5 in early precursors of breast cancers - hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ - suggesting that aberrant Notch activation may be an early event in breast cancer progression. Mechanistically, while constitutively active Notch1 alone failed to transform immortalized breast cells, it synergized with the Ras/MAPK pathway to mediate transformation. This cooperation is reflected in vivo, as a subset of cleaved Notch positive tumors additionally expressed phopsho-Erk1/2 in the nuclei. Such cases exhibited high node positivity, suggesting that Notch-Ras cooperation may lead to poor prognosis. Conclusions High level expression of Notch receptors and ligands, and its increased activation in several breast cancers and early precursors, places Notch signaling as a key player in breast cancer pathogenesis. Its cooperation with

  12. From Enclave to Linkage Economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.

    and local enterprises by themselves will indeed produce linkages, the scope, depth and development impacts of linkages eventually depend on government intervention. Resource-rich African countries’ governments are aware of this and linkage promotion is increasingly becoming a key element...

  13. Cooperation between MEF2 and PPARγ in human intestinal β,β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Bingfang

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A and its derivatives, the retinoids, are essential for normal embryonic development and maintenance of cell differentiation. β, β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1 catalyzes the central cleavage of β-carotene to all-trans retinal and is the key enzyme in the intestinal metabolism of carotenes to vitamin A. However, human and various rodent species show markedly different efficiencies in intestinal BCMO1-mediated carotene to retinoid conversion. The aim of this study is to identify potentially human-specific regulatory control mechanisms of BCMO1 gene expression. Results We identified and functionally characterized the human BCMO1 promoter sequence and determined the transcriptional regulation of the BCMO1 gene in a BCMO1 expressing human intestinal cell line, TC-7. Several functional transcription factor-binding sites were identified in the human promoter that are absent in the mouse BCMO1 promoter. We demonstrate that the proximal promoter sequence, nt -190 to +35, confers basal transcriptional activity of the human BCMO1 gene. Site-directed mutagenesis of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR binding elements resulted in decreased basal promoter activity. Mutation of both promoter elements abrogated the expression of intestinal cell BCMO1. Electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays and transcription factor co-expression in TC-7 cells showed MEF2C and PPARγ bind to their respective DNA elements and synergistically transactivate BCMO1 expression. Conclusion We demonstrate that human intestinal cell BCMO1 expression is dependent on the functional cooperation between PPARγ and MEF2 isoforms. The findings suggest that the interaction between MEF2 and PPAR factors may provide a molecular basis for interspecies differences in the transcriptional regulation of the BCMO1 gene.

  14. A common oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism modulates intranasal oxytocin effects on the neural response to social cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, C; Lori, A; Waldman, I D; Binder, E B; Haroon, E; Rilling, J K

    2015-09-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) can modulate social-emotional functioning and related brain activity in humans. Consequently, OT has been discussed as a potential treatment for psychiatric disorders involving social behavioral deficits. However, OT effects are often heterogeneous across individuals. Here we explore individual differences in OT effects on the neural response to social cooperation as a function of the rs53576 polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Previously, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which healthy men and women were randomized to treatment with intranasal OT or placebo. Afterwards, they were imaged with functional magnetic resonance imaging while playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game with same-sex partners. Within the left ventral caudate nucleus, intranasal OT treatment increased activation to reciprocated cooperation in men, but tended to decrease activation in women. Here, we show that these sex differences in OT effects are specific to individuals with the rs53576 GG genotype, and are not found for other genotypes (rs53576 AA/AG). Thus, OT may increase the reward or salience of positive social interactions for male GG homozygotes, while decreasing those processes for female GG homozygotes. These results suggest that rs53576 genotype is an important variable to consider in future investigations of the clinical efficacy of intranasal OT treatment.

  15. [Simulator-based modular human factor training in anesthesiology. Concept and results of the module "Communication and Team Cooperation"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pierre, M; Hofinger, G; Buerschaper, C; Grapengeter, M; Harms, H; Breuer, G; Schüttler, J

    2004-02-01

    Human factors (HF) play a major role in crisis development and management and simulator training can help to train HF aspects. We developed a modular training concept with psychological intensive briefing. The aim of the study was to see whether learning and transfer in the treatment group (TG) with the module "communication and team-cooperation" differed from that in the control group (CG) without psychological briefing ("anaesthesia crisis resource management type course"). A total of 34 residents (TG: n=20, CG: n=14) managed 1 out of 3 scenarios and communication patterns and management were evaluated using video recordings. A questionnaire was answered at the end of the course and 2 months later participants were asked for lessons learnt and behavioral changes. Good communication and medical management showed a significant correlation (r=0.57, p=0.001). The TG showed greater initiative ( p=0.001) and came more often in conflict with the surgeon ( p=0.06). The TG also reported more behavioral changes than the CG 2 months later. The reported benefit of the simulation was training for rare events in the CG, whereas in the TG it was issues of communication and cooperation ( p=0.001). A training concept with psychological intensive briefing may enhance the transfer of HF aspects more than classical ACRM.

  16. Comparison of two human-machine-interfaces for cooperative maneuver-based driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Benjamin; Kauer, Michaela; Blanke, Anton; Schreiber, Michael; Bruder, Ralph; Geyer, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    In the project "Conduct-by-Wire" which is founded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) cooperative maneuver based driving is examined. In this paper two different input devices (gesture recognition and tactile touch display) are compared in a simulator study with 29 participants. It shows that the major advantage of the gesture recognition is that there is no need for the driver to take his gaze off the road. In contrast, the number of gazes at the tactile touch display is significantly higher. The major advantage of the tactile touch display is that no input errors occurred during the test drives. Conversely, the gesture recognition was significantly worse. Nevertheless, further work is needed to decide which input device is the best.

  17. Humans choose representatives who enforce cooperation in social dilemmas through extortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinski, Manfred; Hilbe, Christian; Semmann, Dirk; Sommerfeld, Ralf; Marotzke, Jochem

    2016-03-01

    Social dilemmas force players to balance between personal and collective gain. In many dilemmas, such as elected governments negotiating climate-change mitigation measures, the decisions are made not by individual players but by their representatives. However, the behaviour of representatives in social dilemmas has not been investigated experimentally. Here inspired by the negotiations for greenhouse-gas emissions reductions, we experimentally study a collective-risk social dilemma that involves representatives deciding on behalf of their fellow group members. Representatives can be re-elected or voted out after each consecutive collective-risk game. Selfish players are preferentially elected and are hence found most frequently in the `representatives' treatment. Across all treatments, we identify the selfish players as extortioners. As predicted by our mathematical model, their steadfast strategies enforce cooperation from fair players who finally compensate almost completely the deficit caused by the extortionate co-players. Everybody gains, but the extortionate representatives and their groups gain the most.

  18. CURRENCY LINKAGES AMONG ASEAN

    OpenAIRE

    CHIN LEE; M. Azali

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the potential linkages among ASEAN-5 currencies, in particular the possibility of a Singapore dollar bloc during the pre- and post-crisis periods by using the Johansen multivariate cointegration test and the Granger causality test. Significant nonstationarity and the presence of unit roots were documented for each currency under both study periods. Using ASEAN-4 exchange rates against the Singapore dollar, the Johansen cointegration test showed that the...

  19. Human Capital, Education and the Promotion of Social Cooperation: A Philosophical Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Tal

    2009-01-01

    Although since the 1960s human capital theory has played a major role in guiding educational policy, philosophical issues that stem from this development have rarely been discussed. In this article, I critically examine how the idea that human capital should serve as a guide to educational policy making stands in relation to the role assigned to…

  20. Human Capital, Education and the Promotion of Social Cooperation: A Philosophical Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Tal

    2009-01-01

    Although since the 1960s human capital theory has played a major role in guiding educational policy, philosophical issues that stem from this development have rarely been discussed. In this article, I critically examine how the idea that human capital should serve as a guide to educational policy making stands in relation to the role assigned to…

  1. HPV16 E7 protein and hTERT proteins defective for telomere maintenance cooperate to immortalize human keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Miller

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that wild-type human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT protein can functionally replace the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16 E6 protein, which cooperates with the viral E7 protein in the immortalization of primary keratinocytes. In the current study, we made the surprising finding that catalytically inactive hTERT (hTERT-D868A, elongation-defective hTERT (hTERT-HA, and telomere recruitment-defective hTERT (hTERT N+T also cooperate with E7 in mediating bypass of the senescence blockade and effecting cell immortalization. This suggests that hTERT has activities independent of its telomere maintenance functions that mediate transit across this restriction point. Since hTERT has been shown to have a role in gene activation, we performed microarray studies and discovered that E6, hTERT and mutant hTERT proteins altered the expression of highly overlapping sets of cellular genes. Most important, the E6 and hTERT proteins induced mRNA and protein levels of Bmi1, the core subunit of the Polycomb Group (PcG complex 1. We show further that Bmi1 substitutes for E6 or hTERT in cell immortalization. Finally, tissue array studies demonstrated that expression of Bmi1 increased with the severity of cervical dysplasia, suggesting a potential role in the progression of cervical cancer. Together, these data demonstrate that hTERT has extra-telomeric activities that facilitate cell immortalization and that its induction of Bmi1 is one potential mechanism for mediating this activity.

  2. Localizing genes using linkage disequilibrium in plants: integrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... in humans in the presence of population structure. For outbred species, the ..... plants are immotile, distant gene dispersal is largely uniparental (through .... Linkage disequilibrium among modern sugarcane cultivars. Theor.

  3. Simulating the evolution of the human family: cooperative breeding increases in harsh environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; Newson, Lesley; Schank, Jeffrey C; Richerson, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Verbal and mathematical models that consider the costs and benefits of behavioral strategies have been useful in explaining animal behavior and are often used as the basis of evolutionary explanations of human behavior. In most cases, however, these models do not account for the effects that group structure and cultural traditions within a human population have on the costs and benefits of its members' decisions. Nor do they consider the likelihood that cultural as well as genetic traits will be subject to natural selection. In this paper, we present an agent-based model that incorporates some key aspects of human social structure and life history. We investigate the evolution of a population under conditions of different environmental harshness and in which selection can occur at the level of the group as well as the level of the individual. We focus on the evolution of a socially learned characteristic related to individuals' willingness to contribute to raising the offspring of others within their family group. We find that environmental harshness increases the frequency of individuals who make such contributions. However, under the conditions we stipulate, we also find that environmental variability can allow groups to survive with lower frequencies of helpers. The model presented here is inevitably a simplified representation of a human population, but it provides a basis for future modeling work toward evolutionary explanations of human behavior that consider the influence of both genetic and cultural transmission of behavior.

  4. Simulating the evolution of the human family: cooperative breeding increases in harsh environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Smaldino

    Full Text Available Verbal and mathematical models that consider the costs and benefits of behavioral strategies have been useful in explaining animal behavior and are often used as the basis of evolutionary explanations of human behavior. In most cases, however, these models do not account for the effects that group structure and cultural traditions within a human population have on the costs and benefits of its members' decisions. Nor do they consider the likelihood that cultural as well as genetic traits will be subject to natural selection. In this paper, we present an agent-based model that incorporates some key aspects of human social structure and life history. We investigate the evolution of a population under conditions of different environmental harshness and in which selection can occur at the level of the group as well as the level of the individual. We focus on the evolution of a socially learned characteristic related to individuals' willingness to contribute to raising the offspring of others within their family group. We find that environmental harshness increases the frequency of individuals who make such contributions. However, under the conditions we stipulate, we also find that environmental variability can allow groups to survive with lower frequencies of helpers. The model presented here is inevitably a simplified representation of a human population, but it provides a basis for future modeling work toward evolutionary explanations of human behavior that consider the influence of both genetic and cultural transmission of behavior.

  5. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  6. Neonatal Gut Microbiota and Human Milk Glycans Cooperate to Attenuate Infection and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburg, David S; He, Yingying

    2015-12-01

    Glycans of the intestinal mucosa and oligosaccharides of human milk influence the early colonization of the infant gut and establishment of mucosal homeostasis, and differences in colonization of the gut influence the ontogeny of glycans on the surface of the intestinal mucosa, proinflammatory signaling, homeostasis, and resilience to insult. This interkingdom reciprocal interaction is typical of a mutualistic symbiotic relationship. The period in which the infant gut most needs protection from hypersensitive inflammation overlaps with the recommended period of exclusive nursing; electively substituting artificial formula that lacks human milk protective glycans seems ill advised, especially for premature infants.

  7. User Location Identification for Cooperative Human-Centric Sensing (HCS) Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova

    -critical. In a typical HCS scenario, there may be many hundreds of sensor streams connections; centered around the human, who would be the determining factor for the number, the purpose, the direction and the frequency of the sensor streams. This paper investigates the accuracy of user location identification...

  8. LIN28 cooperates with WNT signaling to drive invasive intestinal and colorectal adenocarcinoma in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Ho-Chou; Schwitalla, Sarah; Qian, Zhirong; LaPier, Grace S; Yermalovich, Alena; Ku, Yuan-Chieh; Chen, Shann-Ching; Viswanathan, Srinivas R; Zhu, Hao; Nishihara, Reiko; Inamura, Kentaro; Kim, Sun A; Morikawa, Teppei; Mima, Kosuke; Sukawa, Yasutaka; Yang, Juhong; Meredith, Gavin; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji; Daley, George Q

    2015-05-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a major contributor to cancer-related mortality. LIN28A and LIN28B are highly related RNA-binding protein paralogs that regulate biogenesis of let-7 microRNAs and influence development, metabolism, tissue regeneration, and oncogenesis. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of either LIN28 paralog cooperates with the Wnt pathway to promote invasive intestinal adenocarcinoma in murine models. When LIN28 alone is induced genetically, half of the resulting tumors harbor Ctnnb1 (β-catenin) mutation. When overexpressed in Apc(Min/+) mice, LIN28 accelerates tumor formation and enhances proliferation and invasiveness. In conditional genetic models, enforced expression of a LIN28-resistant form of the let-7 microRNA reduces LIN28-induced tumor burden, while silencing of LIN28 expression reduces tumor volume and increases tumor differentiation, indicating that LIN28 contributes to tumor maintenance. We detected aberrant expression of LIN28A and/or LIN28B in 38% of a large series of human CRC samples (n = 595), where LIN28 expression levels were associated with invasive tumor growth. Our late-stage CRC murine models and analysis of primary human tumors demonstrate prominent roles for both LIN28 paralogs in promoting CRC growth and progression and implicate the LIN28/let-7 pathway as a therapeutic target. © 2015 Tu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Cooperation in International Strategic Alliances and Impact on Host Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that linkages between multinational enterprises entering developing countries and local firms can promote knowledge upgrading in local firms. Alliances are a particularly intense type of linkage, and this study investigates how the construct of cooperation, which is the...

  10. A generalization of Kempe's linkages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO De-can; LUO Yao-zhi; YOU Zhong

    2007-01-01

    A new, general type of planar linkages is presented, which extends the classical linkages developed by Kempe consisting of two single-looped kinematic chains of linkages, interconnected by revolute hinges. Together with a locking device, these new linkages have only one degree of freedom (DOF), which makes them ideal for serving as deployable structures for different purposes. Here, we start with a fresh matrix method of analysis for double-loop planar linkages, using 2D transformation matrices and a new symbolic notation. Further inspection for one case of Kempe's linkages is provided. Basing on the inspection, by means of some novel algebraic and geometric techniques, one particularly fascinating solution was found. Physical models were built to show that the derivation in this paper is valid and the new mechanisms are correct.

  11. Behavioral Dynamics in the Cooperative Control of Mixed Human/Robotic Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    mediated communication, human/machine parity 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...the grant are (i) decision modeling, (ii) action- mediated communication, and (iii) task partitioning. Progress on all three of these has 2007 MURI...Baillieul et al. mediated control using new concepts in what has been called control communication complexity. In his seminal paper, “Control

  12. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  13. Land - Ocean Climate Linkages and the Human Evolution - New ICDP and IODP Drilling Initiatives in the East African Rift Valley and SW Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, R.; Feibel, C.; Co-Pis, Icdp/Iodp

    2009-04-01

    The past 5 Ma were marked by systematic shifts towards colder climates and concomitant reorganizations in ocean circulation and marine heat transports. Some of the changes involved plate-tectonic shifts such as the closure of the Panamanian Isthmus and restructuring of the Indonesian archipelago that affected inter-ocean communications and altered the world ocean circulation. These changes induced ocean-atmosphere feedbacks with consequences for climates globally and locally. Two new ICDP and IODP drilling initiatives target these developments from the perspectives of marine and terrestrial palaeoclimatology and the human evolution. The ICDP drilling initiative HSPDP ("Hominid Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project"; ICDP ref. no. 10/07) targets lacustrine depocentres in Ethiopia (Hadar) and Kenya (West Turkana, Olorgesailie, Magadi) to retrieve sedimentary sequences close to the places and times where various species of hominins lived over currently available outcrop records. The records will provide a spatially resolved record of the East African environmental history in conjunction with climate variability at orbital (Milankovitch) and sub-orbital (ENSO decadal) time scales. HSPDP specifically aims at (1) compiling master chronologies for outcrops around each of the depocentres; (2) assessing which aspects of the paleoenvironmental records are a function of local origin (hydrology, hydrogeology) and which are linked with regional or larger-scale signals; (3) correlating broad-scale patterns of hominin phylogeny with the global beat of climate variability and (4) correlating regional shifts in the hominin fossil and archaeological record with more local patterns of paleoenvironmental change. Ultimately the aim is to test hypotheses that link physical and cultural adaptations in the course of the hominin evolution to local environmental change and variability. The IODP initiative SAFARI ("Southern African Climates, Agulhas Warm Water Transports and Retroflection

  14. International Grants and Cooperative Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA provides grants and enters into cooperative agreements that support protecting human health and the environment while advancing U.S. national interests through international environmental collaboration.

  15. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  16. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways cooperate in zearalenone-induced apoptosis of human leukemic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokchaichamnankit Daranee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zearalenone (ZEA is a phytoestrogen from Fusarium species. The aims of the study was to identify mode of human leukemic cell death induced by ZEA and the mechanisms involved. Methods Cell cytotoxicity of ZEA on human leukemic HL-60, U937 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was performed by using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Reactive oxygen species production, cell cycle analysis and mitochondrial transmembrane potential reduction was determined by employing 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, propidium iodide and 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide and flow cytometry, respectively. Caspase-3 and -8 activities were detected by using fluorogenic Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (DEVD-AMC and Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (IETD-AMC substrates, respectively. Protein expression of cytochrome c, Bax, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL was performed by Western blot. The expression of proteins was assessed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (PAGE coupled with LC-MS2 analysis and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR approach. Results ZEA was cytotoxic to U937 > HL-60 > PBMCs and caused subdiploid peaks and G1 arrest in both cell lines. Apoptosis of human leukemic HL-60 and U937 cell apoptosis induced by ZEA was via an activation of mitochondrial release of cytochrome c through mitochondrial transmembrane potential reduction, activation of caspase-3 and -8, production of reactive oxygen species and induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Bax was up regulated in a time-dependent manner and there was down regulation of Bcl-xL expression. Two-dimensional PAGE coupled with LC-MS2 analysis showed that ZEA treatment of HL-60 cells produced differences in the levels of 22 membrane proteins such as apoptosis inducing factor and the ER stress proteins including endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 (ERp29, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, heat shock

  17. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways cooperate in zearalenone-induced apoptosis of human leukemic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Zearalenone (ZEA) is a phytoestrogen from Fusarium species. The aims of the study was to identify mode of human leukemic cell death induced by ZEA and the mechanisms involved. Methods Cell cytotoxicity of ZEA on human leukemic HL-60, U937 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was performed by using 3-(4,5-dimethyl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Reactive oxygen species production, cell cycle analysis and mitochondrial transmembrane potential reduction was determined by employing 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, propidium iodide and 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide and flow cytometry, respectively. Caspase-3 and -8 activities were detected by using fluorogenic Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (DEVD-AMC) and Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (IETD-AMC) substrates, respectively. Protein expression of cytochrome c, Bax, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL was performed by Western blot. The expression of proteins was assessed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (PAGE) coupled with LC-MS2 analysis and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach. Results ZEA was cytotoxic to U937 > HL-60 > PBMCs and caused subdiploid peaks and G1 arrest in both cell lines. Apoptosis of human leukemic HL-60 and U937 cell apoptosis induced by ZEA was via an activation of mitochondrial release of cytochrome c through mitochondrial transmembrane potential reduction, activation of caspase-3 and -8, production of reactive oxygen species and induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Bax was up regulated in a time-dependent manner and there was down regulation of Bcl-xL expression. Two-dimensional PAGE coupled with LC-MS2 analysis showed that ZEA treatment of HL-60 cells produced differences in the levels of 22 membrane proteins such as apoptosis inducing factor and the ER stress proteins including endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 (ERp29), 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, heat shock protein 90 and

  18. Multipoint linkage map of the human pseudoautosomal region, based on single-sperm typing: Do double crossovers occur during male meiosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, K.; Arnheim, N. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lazzeroni, L.C.; Goradia, T.M.; Lange, K. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Foote, S.; Vollrath, D.; Fisher, E.M.C.; Page, D.C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Sperm typing was used to measure recombination fractions among pseudoautosomal markers and the beginning of the X/Y-specific sequences located at the pseudoautosomal boundary. These experiments included primer-extension preamplification and PCR followed by allele typing using gel electrophoresis. A newly developed data-analysis program allowed the construction of the first multipoint-linkage sperm-typing map, using results obtained on seven loci from three individuals. The large sample size not only confirmed the increased recombination activity of the pseudoautosomal region but allowed an estimate of interference of recombination to be made. The coefficient of coincidence was calculated to be .26 over a physical distance of only {approximately} 1,800 kb. The observation of a few sperm presumably resulting from double recombination argues that more than one crossover event can occur in this region during male meiosis. 44 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the cooperative learning as a teaching method in a second language learning class. It mainly talks about the background, foundation, features, definitions, components, goals, advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning. And as the encounter of the disadvantages in cooperative learning, this paper also proposes some strategies.

  20. Noisy cooperative intermittent processes: From blinking quantum dots to human consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegrini, Paolo; Paradisi, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Bedini, Remo; Gemignani, Angelo [Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica (IFC-CNR), Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Fronzoni, Leone, E-mail: allegrini@ifc.cnr.it [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' -Universita di Pisa and INFM CRS-SOFT, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-07-08

    We study the superposition of a non-Poisson renewal process with the presence of a superimposed Poisson noise. The non-Poisson renewals mark the passage between meta-stable states in system with self-organization. We propose methods to measure the amount of information due to the two independent processes independently, and we see that a superficial study based on the survival probabilities yield stretched-exponential relaxations. Our method is in fact able to unravel the inverse-power law relaxation of the isolated non-Poisson processes, even when noise is present. We provide examples of this behavior in system of diverse nature, from blinking nano-crystals to weak turbulence. Finally we focus our discussion on events extracted from human electroencephalograms, and we discuss their connection with emerging properties of integrated neural dynamics, i.e. consciousness.

  1. Passivity-based control of robotic manipulators for safe cooperation with humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchettin, Andrea Maria; Lacevic, Bakir; Rocco, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the control of articulated robots in unstructured environments. The proposed control ensures several properties. First, the controller guarantees the achievement of a goal position without getting stuck in local minima. Then, the controller makes the closed-loop system passive, which renders the approach attractive for applications where the robot needs to safely interact with humans. Finally, the control law is explicitly shaped by the safety measure - the danger field. The proposed control law has been implemented and validated in a realistic experimental scenario, demonstrating the effectiveness in driving the robot to a given configuration in a cluttered environment, without any offline planning phase. Furthermore, the passivity of the system enables the robot to easily accommodate external forces on the tool, when a physical contact between the robot and the environment is established.

  2. Noisy cooperative intermittent processes: From blinking quantum dots to human consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Paolo; Paradisi, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Bedini, Remo; Gemignani, Angelo; Fronzoni, Leone

    2011-07-01

    We study the superposition of a non-Poisson renewal process with the presence of a superimposed Poisson noise. The non-Poisson renewals mark the passage between meta-stable states in system with self-organization. We propose methods to measure the amount of information due to the two independent processes independently, and we see that a superficial study based on the survival probabilities yield stretched-exponential relaxations. Our method is in fact able to unravel the inverse-power law relaxation of the isolated non-Poisson processes, even when noise is present. We provide examples of this behavior in system of diverse nature, from blinking nano-crystals to weak turbulence. Finally we focus our discussion on events extracted from human electroencephalograms, and we discuss their connection with emerging properties of integrated neural dynamics, i.e. consciousness.

  3. Cooperative Learning Groups and the Evolution of Human Adaptability : (Another Reason) Why Hermits Are Rare in Tonga and Elsewhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Adrian Viliami; Hernandez, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the prevalence of adaptive culture in part requires understanding the dynamics of learning. Here we explore the adaptive value of social learning in groups and how formal social groups function as effective mediums of information exchange. We discuss the education literature on Cooperative Learning Groups (CLGs), which outlines the potential of group learning for enhancing learning outcomes. Four qualities appear essential for CLGs to enhance learning: (1) extended conversations, (2) regular interactions, (3) gathering of experts, and (4) incentives for sharing knowledge. We analyze these four qualities within the context of a small-scale agricultural society using data we collected in 2010 and 2012. Through an analysis of surveys, interviews, and observations in the Tongan islands, we describe the role CLGs likely plays in facilitating individuals' learning of adaptive information. Our analysis of group affiliation, membership, and topics of conversation suggest that the first three CLG qualities reflect conditions for adaptive learning in groups. We utilize ethnographic anecdotes to suggest the fourth quality is also conducive to adaptive group learning. Using an evolutionary model, we further explore the scope for CLGs outside the Tongan socioecological context. Model analysis shows that environmental volatility and migration rates among human groups mediate the scope for CLGs. We call for wider attention to how group structure facilitates learning in informal settings, which may be key to assessing the contribution of groups to the evolution of complex, adaptive culture.

  4. Cooperative effect of roscovitine and irradiation targets angiogenesis and induces vascular destabilization in human breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiorella, L; Aubel, C; Haton, C; Milliat, F; Connault, E; Opolon, P; Deutsch, E; Bourhis, J

    2009-02-01

    Angiogenesis is considered as an essential process for tumour development and invasion. Previously, we demonstrated that cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition by roscovitine induces a radiosensitization and a synergistic antitumoral effect in human carcinoma but its effect on the microenvironment and tumour angiogenesis remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of the combination roscovitine and ionizing radiation (IR) on normal cells in vitro and on tumour angiogenesis in MDA-MB 231 tumour xenografts. We observed that the combination roscovitine and IR induced a marked reduction of angiogenic hot spot and microvascular density in comparison with IR or roscovitine treatments alone. The Ang-2/Tie-2 ratio was increased in presence of reduced vascular endothelial growth factor level suggesting vessel destabilization. In vitro, no radiosensitization effect of roscovitine was found in endothelial, fibroblast, and keratinocyte cells. IR potentiated the antiproliferative effect of roscovitine without inducing apoptosis in endothelial cells. Roscovitine decreased IR-stimulated vascular endothelial growth factor secretion of MDA-MB 231 and endothelial cells. A reduction in the endothelial cells invasion and the capillary-like tube formation in Matrigel were observed following the combination roscovitine and IR. This combined treatment targets angiogenesis resulting in microvessel destabilization without inducing normal cell toxicity.

  5. Cooperative functions of manganese and thiol redox system against oxidative stress in human spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Kaur Bansal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this study, the effects of 0.1 mM Mn 2+ on thiol components (total thiols [TSH], glutathione reduced [GSH], glutathione oxidized [GSSG] and redox ratio [GSH/ GSSG] have been determined in human spermatozoa. Settings and Design: The subjects of the study were healthy males having more than 75% motility and 80 x 10 6 sperms/mL. Materials and Methods: Fresh semen was suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS (pH 7.2 and this suspension was divided into eight equal fractions. All fractions, control (containing PBS and experimental (treated/untreated with [ferrous ascorbate, FeAA - 200 FeSO 4 μM, 1000 μM ascorbic acid, nicotine (0.5 mM and FeAA + nicotine], supplemented/unsupplemented with Mn 2+ [0.1 mM], were incubated for 2 h at 378C. These fractions were assessed for determining the thiol components. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed by Students " t" test. Results and Conclusions: Ferrous ascorbate, nicotine and ferrous ascorbate + nicotine induced oxidative stress and decreased GSH and redox ratio (GSH/GSSG ratio but increased the TSH and GSSG levels. Mn 2+ supplementation improved TSH, GSH and redox ratio (GSH/GSSG but decreased the GSSG level under normal and oxidative stress conditions. Thiol groups serve as defense mechanisms of sperm cells to fight against oxidative stress induced by stress inducers such as ferrous ascorbate, nicotine and their combination (ferrous ascorbate + nicotine. In addition, Mn 2+ supplementation maintains the thiol level by reducing oxidative stress.

  6. Use of an intron length polymorphism to localize the tropoelastin gene to mouse Chromosome 5 in a region of linkage conservation with human Chromosome 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wydner, K.S.; Passmore, H.C. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sechler, J.L.; Boyd, C.D. [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The complete coding sequence for mouse tropoelastin was obtained from overlapping reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplimers. These cDNA fragments were derived from mouse tropoelastin mRNA using PCR oligomers complementary to conserved domains within rat tropoelastin mRNA. A comparison of coding domains of mouse and rat tropoelastin mRNA revealed a greater than 93% homology at the nucleotide level and over 96% similarity in the predicted amino acid sequence. PCR primers complementary to regions of the mouse tropoelastin mRNA were used to define a novel intron length polymorphism (ILP) within intron 8 of the mouse tropoelastin gene (Eln). This ILP proved to be informative in an intraspecific backcross in which genomic DNA samples from 75 backcross mice were used to map the tropoelastin gene to a position in the distal half of mouse chromosome 5. The linkage and genetic distances between Eln and the closest molecular markers used in this study are centromere-D5Mit95, D5Mit96-6.7 cM-Gus, Eln-4.0 cM-Zp3-telomere.

  7. Cooperation Without Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In January, China announced its desire to increase cooperation with African countries by issuing China's African Policy, a paper intended to guide relations with the continent by continuing a non-interventionist and non-ideological strategy. Christopher Mutsvangwa, Zimbabwean Ambassador to China, shared his views of the policy with Beijing Review reporter Ni Yanshuo and answered criticisms of the China-Africa relationship by Western countries that tie cooperation to democracy and human rights.

  8. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects...

  9. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  10. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  11. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  12. Model-based methods for linkage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John P; Saccone, Nancy L; Corbett, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The logarithm of an odds ratio (LOD) score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential so that pedigrees or LOD curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders where the maximum LOD score statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional LOD score approach, but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the LOD score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.

  13. Groebner bases via linkage

    CERN Document Server

    Gorla, Elisa; Nagel, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give a sufficient condition for a set $\\mathal G$ of polynomials to be a Gr\\"obner basis with respect to a given term-order for the ideal $I$ that it generates. Our criterion depends on the linkage pattern of the ideal $I$ and of the ideal generated by the initial terms of the elements of $\\mathcal G$. We then apply this criterion to ideals generated by minors and pfaffians. More precisely, we consider large families of ideals generated by minors or pfaffians in a matrix or a ladder, where the size of the minors or pfaffians is allowed to vary in different regions of the matrix or the ladder. We use the sufficient condition that we established to prove that the minors or pfaffians form a reduced Gr\\"obner basis for the ideal that they generate, with respect to any diagonal or anti-diagonal term-order. We also show that the corresponding initial ideal is Cohen-Macaulay. Our proof relies on known results in liaison theory, combined with a simple Hilbert function computation. In particular, our...

  14. Simultaneous Cooperation and Competition in the Evolution of Musical Behavior: Sex-Related Modulations of the Singer's Formant in Human Chorusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Keller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Human interaction through music is a vital part of social life across cultures. Influential accounts of the evolutionary origins of music favor cooperative functions related to social cohesion or competitive functions linked to sexual selection. However, work on non-human “chorusing” displays, as produced by congregations of male insects and frogs to attract female mates, suggests that cooperative and competitive functions may coexist. In such chorusing, rhythmic coordination between signalers, which maximizes the salience of the collective broadcast, can arise through competitive mechanisms by which individual males jam rival signals. Here, we show that mixtures of cooperative and competitive behavior also occur in human music. Acoustic analyses of the renowned St. Thomas Choir revealed that, in the presence of female listeners, boys with the deepest voices enhance vocal brilliance and carrying power by boosting high spectral energy. This vocal enhancement may reflect sexually mature males competing for female attention in a covert manner that does not undermine collaborative musical goals. The evolutionary benefits of music may thus lie in its aptness as a medium for balancing sexually motivated behavior and group cohesion.

  15. Holocene climate change evidence from high-resolution loess/paleosol records and the linkage to fire-climate change-human activities in the Horqin dunefield in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yan; Qin, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Bing

    2016-05-01

    The combination of high-resolution sedimentary paleoclimate proxies of total organic carbon and magnetic susceptibility of a loess/paleosol section with black carbon (BC) records provides us with information about climate change and the linkage of fire-climate change-vegetation-human activities in the Horqin dunefield over the past 11,600 cal yr BP. We found that during 11,600-8000 cal yr BP (the early Holocene), the area was dominated by a dry climate. The vegetation coverage was low, which limited the extent of fire. The Holocene optimum can be placed between 8000 and 3200 cal yr BP, and during this period, anthropogenic fire was a key component of total fire occurrence as the intensity of human activity increased. The development of agricultural activities and the growing population during this period increased the use of fire for cooking food and burning for cultivation and land fertilization purposes. During 2800-2600 cal yr BP, a warm/moister climate prevailed and was associated with a high degree of pedogenesis and vegetation cover density, evident at 2700 cal yr BP. Fires may have contributed to human survival by enabling the cooking of food in the warm and wet climate. In the period since 2000 cal yr BP, fires linked to agriculture may have led to increased biomass burning associated with agricultural activity.

  16. Emergency Linkage Mode of Power Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power emergency disposal needs take full advantage of the power enterprise within the external emergency power and resources. Based on analyzing and summarizing the relevant experience of domestic and foreign emergency linkage, this paper draws the Emergency Linkage subjects, Emergency Linkage contents, Emergency Linkage level, which are three key elements if power enterprise Emergency Linkage. Emergency Linkage subjects are divided into the two types of inner subjects and the external body; Emergency Linkage contents are in accordance with four phases of prevention, preparedness, response and recovery; Emergency Linkage level is divided into three levels of enterprise headquarter, provincial enterprise and incident unite. Binding power enterprise emergency management practice, this paper studies the internal Emergency Linkage modes (including horizontal mode and vertical mode, external Emergency Linkage mode and comprehensive Emergency Linkage Mode of power enterprise based on Fishbone Diagram and Process Management Technology.

  17. Human-robot cooperative movement training: learning a novel sensory motor transformation during walking with robotic assistance-as-needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emken, Jeremy L; Benitez, Raul; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2007-03-28

    A prevailing paradigm of physical rehabilitation following neurologic injury is to "assist-as-needed" in completing desired movements. Several research groups are attempting to automate this principle with robotic movement training devices and patient cooperative algorithms that encourage voluntary participation. These attempts are currently not based on computational models of motor learning. Here we assume that motor recovery from a neurologic injury can be modelled as a process of learning a novel sensory motor transformation, which allows us to study a simplified experimental protocol amenable to mathematical description. Specifically, we use a robotic force field paradigm to impose a virtual impairment on the left leg of unimpaired subjects walking on a treadmill. We then derive an "assist-as-needed" robotic training algorithm to help subjects overcome the virtual impairment and walk normally. The problem is posed as an optimization of performance error and robotic assistance. The optimal robotic movement trainer becomes an error-based controller with a forgetting factor that bounds kinematic errors while systematically reducing its assistance when those errors are small. As humans have a natural range of movement variability, we introduce an error weighting function that causes the robotic trainer to disregard this variability. We experimentally validated the controller with ten unimpaired subjects by demonstrating how it helped the subjects learn the novel sensory motor transformation necessary to counteract the virtual impairment, while also preventing them from experiencing large kinematic errors. The addition of the error weighting function allowed the robot assistance to fade to zero even though the subjects' movements were variable. We also show that in order to assist-as-needed, the robot must relax its assistance at a rate faster than that of the learning human. The assist-as-needed algorithm proposed here can limit error during the learning of a

  18. Multipoint linkage detection in the presence of heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yen-Feng; Liang, Kung-Yee; Beaty, Terri H

    2002-06-01

    Linkage heterogeneity is common for complex diseases. It is well known that loss of statistical power for detecting linkage will result if one assumes complete homogeneity in the presence of linkage heterogeneity. To this end, Smith (1963, Annals of Human Genetics 27, 175-182) proposed an admixture model to account for linkage heterogeneity. It is well known that for this model, the conventional chi-squared approximation to the likelihood ratio test for no linkage does not apply even when the sample size is large. By dealing with nuclear families and one marker at a time for genetic diseases with simple modes of inheritance, score-based test statistics (Liang and Rathouz, 1999, Biometrics 55, 65-74) and likelihood-ratio-based test statistics (Lemdani and Pons, 1995, Biometrics 51, 1033-1041) have been proposed which have a simple large-sample distribution under the null hypothesis of linkage. In this paper, we extend their work to more practical situations that include information from multiple markers and multi-generational pedigrees while allowing for a class of general genetic models. Three different approaches are proposed to eliminate the nuisance parameters in these test statistics. We show that all three approaches lead to the same asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis of no linkage. Simulation results show that the proposed test statistics have adequate power to detect linkage and that the performances of these two classes of test statistics are quite comparable. We have applied the proposed method to a family study of asthma (Barnes et al., 1996), in which the score-based test shows evidence of linkage with p-value <0.0001 in the region of interest on chromosome 12. Additionally, we have implemented this score-based test within the frequently used computer package GENEHUNTER.

  19. STAKEHOLDER LINKAGES FOR SUSTAINABLE LAND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    stakeholder interactions for SLM in the study areas. Key words: Stakeholders; farmer-expert linkages; resource management; Ethiopia ... management practices in many parts of Africa. Farmers .... chosen with consideration of distance to the.

  20. Network modularity promotes cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-05-01

    Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported.

  1. Linkage disequilibrium in wild mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy C Laurie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosses between laboratory strains of mice provide a powerful way of detecting quantitative trait loci for complex traits related to human disease. Hundreds of these loci have been detected, but only a small number of the underlying causative genes have been identified. The main difficulty is the extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD in intercross progeny and the slow process of fine-scale mapping by traditional methods. Recently, new approaches have been introduced, such as association studies with inbred lines and multigenerational crosses. These approaches are very useful for interval reduction, but generally do not provide single-gene resolution because of strong LD extending over one to several megabases. Here, we investigate the genetic structure of a natural population of mice in Arizona to determine its suitability for fine-scale LD mapping and association studies. There are three main findings: (1 Arizona mice have a high level of genetic variation, which includes a large fraction of the sequence variation present in classical strains of laboratory mice; (2 they show clear evidence of local inbreeding but appear to lack stable population structure across the study area; and (3 LD decays with distance at a rate similar to human populations, which is considerably more rapid than in laboratory populations of mice. Strong associations in Arizona mice are limited primarily to markers less than 100 kb apart, which provides the possibility of fine-scale association mapping at the level of one or a few genes. Although other considerations, such as sample size requirements and marker discovery, are serious issues in the implementation of association studies, the genetic variation and LD results indicate that wild mice could provide a useful tool for identifying genes that cause variation in complex traits.

  2. The human met-ase gene (GZMM): Structure, sequence, and close physical linkage to the serine protease gene cluster on 19p13.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, D.; Zimmer, M.; Wekerle, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Psychiatrie, Martinsried (Germany)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    Cosmid clones containing the genes for the human and murine natural killer cell serine protease Met-ase (gene symbol GZMM; granzyme M) were identified by screening human and murine cosmid libraries with rat Met-ase (RNIK-Met-1) cDNA. The human gene has a size of 7.5 kb and an exon-intron structure identical to that of serine protease genes located on human chromosomes 5q11-q12, 14q11.2, and 19p13.3 that are expressed by lymphocytes, mast cells, or myelomonocyte precursors. Using cosmid DNA as a probe for fluorescence in situ hybridization, we identified the chromosomal position of human Met-ase as 19p13.3. Interphase studies with two differentially labeled probes for Met-ase and the azurocidin (AZU1), proteinase 3 (PRTN3), and neutrophil elastase (ELA2) gene cluster revealed that the distance of Met-ase from this gene cluster is in the range of 200 to 500 kb. Using differentially labeled mouse cosmid probes, we also mapped the murine gene for Met-ase to chromosomal band 10C, close to the gene for lamin B2. Thus, the Met-ase, AZU1, PRTN3, and ELA2 genes fall into an established region of homology between mouse chromosomal band 10C and human 19p13.3. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  3. JLIN: A java based linkage disequilibrium plotter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCaskie Pamela A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A great deal of effort and expense are being expended internationally in attempts to detect genetic polymorphisms contributing to susceptibility to complex human disease. Techniques such as Linkage Disequilibrium mapping are being increasingly used to examine and compare markers across increasingly large datasets. Visualisation techniques are becoming essential to analyse the ever-growing volume of data and results available with any given analysis. Results JLIN (Java LINkage disequilibrium plotter is a software package designed for customisable, intuitive visualisation of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD across all common computing platforms. Customisation allows the user to choose particular visualisations, statistical measures and measurement ranges. JLIN also allows the user to export images of the LD visualisation in several common document formats. Conclusion JLIN allows the user to visually compare and contrast the results of a range of statistical measures on the input dataset(s. These measures include the commonly used D' and r2 statistics and empirical p-values. JLIN has a number of unique and novel features that improve on existing LD visualisation tools.

  4. Movement Performance of Human-Robot Cooperation Control Based on EMG-driven Hill-type and Proportional Models for an Ankle Power-assist Exoskeleton Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Gao, Jin-Wu

    2016-06-22

    Although the merits of electromyography (EMG)-based control of powered assistive systems have been certified, the factors that affect the performance of EMG-based human-robot cooperation, which are very important, have received little attention. This study investigates whether a more physiologically appropriate model could improve the performance of human-robot cooperation control for an ankle power-assist exoskeleton robot. To achieve the goal, an EMG-driven Hill-type neuromusculoskeletal model (HNM) and a linear proportional model (LPM) were developed and calibrated through maximum isometric voluntary dorsiflexion (MIVD). The two control models could estimate the real-time ankle joint torque, and HNM is more accurate and can account for the change of the joint angle and muscle dynamics. Then, eight healthy volunteers were recruited to wear the ankle exoskeleton robot and complete a series of sinusoidal tracking tasks in the vertical plane. With the various levels of assist based on the two calibrated models, the subjects were instructed to track the target displayed on the screen as accurately as possible by performing ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. Two measurements, the root mean square error (RMSE) and root mean square jerk (RMSJ), were derived from the assistant torque and kinematic signals to characterize the movement performances, whereas the amplitudes of the recorded EMG signals from the tibialis anterior (TA) and the gastrocnemius (GAS) were obtained to reflect the muscular efforts. The results demonstrated that the muscular effort and smoothness of tracking movements decreased with an increase in the assistant ratio. Compared with LPM, subjects made lower physical efforts and generated smoother movements when using HNM, which implied that a more physiologically appropriate model could enable more natural and human-like human-robot cooperation and has potential value for improvement of human-exoskeleton interaction in future applications.

  5. The 1999 activities and the 1st seminar on human resources development in the nuclear field as part of Asian regional cooperation (contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    In August, 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, organized by the Atomic Energy Commission based on a resolution of the 10th International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, held in March, 1999. The resolution was adopted as a recognition that 'human resources development' was an important area that should be added to the existing fields of cooperation. The Project was organized by the Atomic Energy Bureau of the Science and Technology Agency (STA) and is administrated by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center (NuTEC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities: in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities, as the time of the workshops themselves is too short to achieve the objectives. As In-workshop activities, 1st Seminar on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 25 and 26, 1999, at the Tokyo International Forum. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, with Australia submitting a study report only. This report consists of presentation papers at the Seminar as in-workshop activities, and a letter of proposal from the project leader of Japan to the project leaders of participating countries after the Seminar and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the First Coordinators Meeting on March 7 and 8, 2000 as outside-of-workshop activities. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more...

  7. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  8. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  9. Co-evolution of soil and water conservation policy and human-environment linkages in the Yellow River Basin since 1949

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; Mu, X.; Li, R.; Fleskens, L.; Stringer, L.C.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Policy plays a very important role in natural resource management as it lays out a government framework for guiding long-term decisions, and evolves in light of the interactions between human and environment. This paper focuses on soil and water conservation (SWC) policy in the Yellow River Basin (Y

  10. Co-evolution of soil and water conservation policy and human-environment linkages in the Yellow River Basin since 1949

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; Mu, X.; Li, R.; Fleskens, L.; Stringer, L.C.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Policy plays a very important role in natural resource management as it lays out a government framework for guiding long-term decisions, and evolves in light of the interactions between human and environment. This paper focuses on soil and water conservation (SWC) policy in the Yellow River Basin

  11. A high-density screen for linkage in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawcer, Stephen; Ban, Maria; Maranian, Mel; Yeo, Tai Wai; Compston, Alastair; Kirby, Andrew; Daly, Mark J; De Jager, Philip L; Walsh, Emily; Lander, Eric S; Rioux, John D; Hafler, David A; Ivinson, Adrian; Rimmler, Jacqueline; Gregory, Simon G; Schmidt, Silke; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Akesson, Eva; Hillert, Jan; Datta, Pameli; Oturai, Annette; Ryder, Lars P; Harbo, Hanne F; Spurkland, Anne; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Laaksonen, Mikko; Booth, David; Heard, Robert; Stewart, Graeme; Lincoln, Robin; Barcellos, Lisa F; Hauser, Stephen L; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Kenealy, Shannon J; Haines, Jonathan L

    2005-09-01

    To provide a definitive linkage map for multiple sclerosis, we have genotyped the Illumina BeadArray linkage mapping panel (version 4) in a data set of 730 multiplex families of Northern European descent. After the application of stringent quality thresholds, data from 4,506 markers in 2,692 individuals were included in the analysis. Multipoint nonparametric linkage analysis revealed highly significant linkage in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p21 (maximum LOD score [MLS] 11.66) and suggestive linkage on chromosomes 17q23 (MLS 2.45) and 5q33 (MLS 2.18). This set of markers achieved a mean information extraction of 79.3% across the genome, with a Mendelian inconsistency rate of only 0.002%. Stratification based on carriage of the multiple sclerosis-associated DRB1*1501 allele failed to identify any other region of linkage with genomewide significance. However, ordered-subset analysis suggested that there may be an additional locus on chromosome 19p13 that acts independent of the main MHC locus. These data illustrate the substantial increase in power that can be achieved with use of the latest tools emerging from the Human Genome Project and indicate that future attempts to systematically identify susceptibility genes for multiple sclerosis will have to involve large sample sizes and an association-based methodology.

  12. Testosterone, facial symmetry and cooperation in the prisoners' dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Pages, Santiago; Turiegano, Enrique

    2010-03-03

    Recent research has analyzed how individual characteristics, like the exposure to different hormones and symmetry, affect decision-making and strategic behaviour. The present article investigates the effect of symmetry, of exposure to testosterone (T) in utero and during puberty and of current T on cooperation in a Prisoners' Dilemma Game (PDG). T is a hormone with well known effect on males' behaviour, and that promotes activities that seek to increase reproductive success. Fluctuating Asymmetry (FA) reflects the ability of the organism to maintain a stable development and it is usually employed as a variable reflecting genetic quality (low FA values are thought to signal higher genetic quality). Our results show that subjects with intermediate levels of second to fourth digit ratio (a proxy of exposure to T in utero) and with high FA cooperate more often in the PDG. We also observe that the latter effect is due to the fact that FA has an impact on subjects' expectations about the behaviour of their counterpart in the game. These results reinforce the described link between markers related to genetic quality and cooperative behaviour. This possible linkage of individual condition and pro-social behaviour in humans clearly merits further attention. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tobacco smoke activates human papillomavirus 16 p97 promoter and cooperates with high-risk E6/E7 for oxidative DNA damage in lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Nelson; Carrillo, Diego; Muñoz, Juan P; Chnaiderman, Jonás; Urzúa, Ulises; León, Oscar; Tornesello, Maria L; Corvalán, Alejandro H; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Aguayo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown a functional interaction between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 and E7 oncoproteins and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) in lung cells suggesting cooperation during carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of such interaction, however, remain to be elucidated. Here we first present evidence showing that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) has the ability to activate the HPV-16 p97 promoter by acting on the long control region (LCR) in lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, we observed that CSC-induced p97 promoter activation occurs in a dose-dependent manner in both tumor A-549 (lung adenocarcinoma), H-2170 (bronchial carcinoma), SiHa or Hela (cervical carcinoma) cells but not in non-tumor BEAS-2B (bronchial) or NL-20 (alveolar) lung cells unless they ectopically expressed the HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes. In addition, we also observed a significant increase of primary DNA damage in tumor and non-tumor CSC-treated lung cells expressing HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes suggesting a cooperative effect in this process, even though the contribution of E7 was significantly higher. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that tobacco smoke is able to induce the activation of the HPV-16 p97 promoter in cooperation with HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes that, in turn, sensitize lung cells to tobacco smoke-induced DNA damage.

  14. Tobacco Smoke Activates Human Papillomavirus 16 p97 Promoter and Cooperates with High-Risk E6/E7 for Oxidative DNA Damage in Lung Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Juan P.; Chnaiderman, Jonás; Urzúa, Ulises; León, Oscar; Tornesello, Maria L.; Corvalán, Alejandro H.; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Aguayo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown a functional interaction between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 and E7 oncoproteins and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) in lung cells suggesting cooperation during carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of such interaction, however, remain to be elucidated. Here we first present evidence showing that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) has the ability to activate the HPV-16 p97 promoter by acting on the long control region (LCR) in lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, we observed that CSC-induced p97 promoter activation occurs in a dose-dependent manner in both tumor A-549 (lung adenocarcinoma), H-2170 (bronchial carcinoma), SiHa or Hela (cervical carcinoma) cells but not in non-tumor BEAS-2B (bronchial) or NL-20 (alveolar) lung cells unless they ectopically expressed the HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes. In addition, we also observed a significant increase of primary DNA damage in tumor and non-tumor CSC-treated lung cells expressing HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes suggesting a cooperative effect in this process, even though the contribution of E7 was significantly higher. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that tobacco smoke is able to induce the activation of the HPV-16 p97 promoter in cooperation with HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes that, in turn, sensitize lung cells to tobacco smoke-induced DNA damage. PMID:25830243

  15. Tobacco smoke activates human papillomavirus 16 p97 promoter and cooperates with high-risk E6/E7 for oxidative DNA damage in lung cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Peña

    Full Text Available We have previously shown a functional interaction between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC in lung cells suggesting cooperation during carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of such interaction, however, remain to be elucidated. Here we first present evidence showing that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC has the ability to activate the HPV-16 p97 promoter by acting on the long control region (LCR in lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, we observed that CSC-induced p97 promoter activation occurs in a dose-dependent manner in both tumor A-549 (lung adenocarcinoma, H-2170 (bronchial carcinoma, SiHa or Hela (cervical carcinoma cells but not in non-tumor BEAS-2B (bronchial or NL-20 (alveolar lung cells unless they ectopically expressed the HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes. In addition, we also observed a significant increase of primary DNA damage in tumor and non-tumor CSC-treated lung cells expressing HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes suggesting a cooperative effect in this process, even though the contribution of E7 was significantly higher. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that tobacco smoke is able to induce the activation of the HPV-16 p97 promoter in cooperation with HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes that, in turn, sensitize lung cells to tobacco smoke-induced DNA damage.

  16. Specific tumor labeling enhanced by polyethylene glycol linkage of near infrared dyes conjugated to a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody in a nude mouse model of human pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maawy, Ali A.; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhang, Yong; Luiken, George A.; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Labeling of metastatic tumors can aid in their staging and resection of cancer. Near infrared (NIR) dyes have been used in the clinic for tumor labeling. However, there can be a nonspecific uptake of dye by the liver, lungs, and lymph nodes, which hinders detection of metastasis. In order to overcome these problems, we have used two NIR dyes (DyLight 650 and 750) conjugated to a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody to evaluate how polyethylene glycol linkage (PEGylation) can improve specific tumor labeling in a nude mouse model of human pancreatic cancer. The conjugated PEGylated and non-PEGylated DyLight 650 and 750 dyes were injected intravenously into non-tumor-bearing nude mice. Serum samples were collected at various time points in order to determine serum concentrations and elimination kinetics. Conjugated PEGylated dyes had significantly higher serum dye concentrations than non-PEGylated dyes (p=0.005 for the 650 dyes and pdecreased their accumulation in lymph nodes, liver, and lung. These results demonstrate enhanced selective tumor labeling by PEGylation of dyes conjugated to a tumor-specific antibody, suggesting their future clinical use in fluorescence-guided surgery.

  17. Human bZIP transcription factor gene NRL: structure, genomic sequence, and fine linkage mapping at 14q11.2 and negative mutation analysis in patients with retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjo, Q; Jackson, A; Pieke-Dahl, S; Scott, K; Kimberling, W J; Sieving, P A; Richards, J E; Swaroop, A

    1997-10-15

    The NRL gene encodes an evolutionarily conserved basic motif-leucine zipper transcription factor that is implicated in regulating the expression of the photoreceptor-specific gene rhodopsin. NRL is expressed in postmitotic neuronal cells and in lens during embryonic development, but exhibits a retina-specific pattern of expression in the adult. To understand regulation of NRL expression and to investigate its possible involvement in retinopathies, we have determined the complete sequence of the human NRL gene, identified a polymorphic (CA)n repeat (identical to D14S64) within the NRL-containing cosmid, and refined its location by linkage analysis. Since a locus for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) has been linked to markers at 14q11 and since mutations in rhodopsin can lead to RP, we sequenced genomic PCR products of the NRL gene and of the rhodopsin-Nrl response element from a panel of patients representing independent families with inherited retinal degeneration. The analysis did not reveal any causative mutations in this group of patients. These investigations provide the basis for delineating the DNA sequence elements that regulate NRL expression in distinct neuronal cell types and should assist in the analysis of NRL as a candidate gene for inherited diseases/syndromes affecting visual function. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  18. The State of Human Anatomy Teaching in the Medical Schools of Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: Present and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Habbal, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Available literature on medical education charts an emerging trend in the field of anatomy. In the past decade, assisted by innovations in informatics and the paradigm shift in medical education, the hands-on experience of cadaver dissection has progressively become a relic of the past. Within the context of the situation in Gulf Cooperation Council countries, this paper compares the traditional teaching approach with the modern one that tends to emphasise technical gadgetry, virtual reality ...

  19. Close linkage of the mouse and human CD3. gamma. - and delta-chain genes suggests that their transcription is controlled by common regulatory elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, H.; Koyama, T.; Georgopoulos, K.; Clevers, H.; Haser, W.G.; LeBien, T.; Tonegawa, S.; Terhorst, C.

    1987-12-01

    Antigen receptors on the T-cell surface are noncovalently associated with at least four invariant polypeptide chains, CD3-..gamma.., -delta, -epsilon, and -zeta. The mouse CD3-..gamma.. gene, consisting of seven exons, was found to be highly homologous to the CD3-..gamma.. described earlier. Both the high level of sequence homology and the exon/intron organization indicate that the CD3-..gamma.. and -delta genes arose by gene duplication. Surprisingly, murine and human genomic DNA clones could be isolated that contained elements of both the CD3-..gamma.. and CD3-delta genes. In fact, the putative transcription start site of the mouse CD3-..gamma.. gene is less than 1.4 kilobases from the transcription initiation site of the mouse CD3-delta gene. Common elements that regulate the divergent transcription of the two genes are therefore proposed to be located in the intervening 1.4-kilobase DNA segment. This might contribute to the coordinate expression of the CD3-..gamma.. and -delta genes during intrathymic maturation of T lymphocytes.

  20. Dubin's Minimal Linkage Construct Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Donald P.

    This paper contains a theoretical analysis and empirical study that support the major premise of Robert Dubin's minimal-linkage construct-that restricting communication links increases organizational stability. The theoretical analysis shows that fewer communication links are associated with less uncertainty, more redundancy, and greater…

  1. Constructing dense genetic linkage maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Jong, de A.G.; Ooijen, van J.W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a novel combination of techniques for the construction of dense genetic linkage maps. The construction of such maps is hampered by the occurrence of even small proportions of typing errors. Simulated annealing is used to obtain the best map according to the optimality criterion:

  2. North-South Business Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    Based on empirical studies of linkages between TNCs and local firms in India, Malaysia, Vietnam, Ghana and South Africa, five themes are discussed and related to present theoretical perspectives. The themes are (1) Linakge Governance; (2) Globalisation and the dynamics in developing countries (the...

  3. Fiscal 2000 report on result of R and D on robot system cooperating and coexisting with human beings. R and D on robot system cooperating and coexisting with human beings; 2000 nendo ningen kyocho kyozongata robot system kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    A highly safe and reliable robot is being developed capable of cooperating with human beings and executing complicated operations in a human working/living space. This paper describes the fiscal 2000 results. Development of robot motion library was continued for extended task for providing services to people in care houses for the aged controlling motions of the humanoid robot. A basic design for a personal service system by the humanoid robot was conducted with the aim of nursing assistance and for the objective of developing a portable terminal type tele-operation device. A public and a home cockpit were researched with the purpose of developing user interfaces for telexistence control. A dynamic simulator for humanoid robots was built, with motions of standing-up and walking examined, in order to develop basic theories for the dual-handed tasks aided by the leg-arm cooperative motion. To develop a robot that properly and safely cooperates and coexists with the human beings, it is essential to obtain a dynamically reasonable and natural control law, so that the basic studies were conducted in this direction. With the purpose of developing a motion capture and learning system, a virtual robot platform and an information acquiring interface were developed. Studies were also conducted on modeling technique for achieving realistic material properties from high-precision image synthesis and actual images. (NEDO)

  4. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  5. Co-evolution of soil and water conservation policy and human-environment linkages in the Yellow River Basin since 1949.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Mu, Xingmin; Li, Rui; Fleskens, Luuk; Stringer, Lindsay C; Ritsema, Coen J

    2015-03-01

    Policy plays a very important role in natural resource management as it lays out a government framework for guiding long-term decisions, and evolves in light of the interactions between human and environment. This paper focuses on soil and water conservation (SWC) policy in the Yellow River Basin (YRB), China. The problems, rural poverty, severe soil erosion, great sediment loads and high flood risks, are analyzed over the period of 1949-present using the Driving force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework as a way to organize analysis of the evolution of SWC policy. Three stages are identified in which SWC policy interacts differently with institutional, financial and technology support. In Stage 1 (1949-1979), SWC policy focused on rural development in eroded areas and on reducing sediment loads. Local farmers were mainly responsible for SWC. The aim of Stage 2 (1980-1990) was the overall development of rural industry and SWC. A more integrated management perspective was implemented taking a small watershed as a geographic interactional unit. This approach greatly improved the efficiency of SWC activities. In Stage 3 (1991 till now), SWC has been treated as the main measure for natural resource conservation, environmental protection, disaster mitigation and agriculture development. Prevention of new degradation became a priority. The government began to be responsible for SWC, using administrative, legal and financial approaches and various technologies that made large-scale SWC engineering possible. Over the historical period considered, with the implementation of the various SWC policies, the rural economic and ecological system improved continuously while the sediment load and flood risk decreased dramatically. The findings assist in providing a historical perspective that could inform more rational, scientific and effective natural resource management going forward.

  6. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.

    2006-12-01

    Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation means that selfish replicators forgo some of their reproductive potential to help one another. But natural selection implies competition and therefore opposes cooperation unless a specific mechanism is at work. Here I discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation.

  7. THE ANALYSIS OF THE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN THE ROMANIAN LEGAL SYSTEM FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE COOPERATION AND VERIFICATION MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA POPESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available At 1st January 2007 when Romania joined the European Union was established a Cooperation and Verification Mechanism (further named “CVM” in order to support Romania to remedy certain shortcomings in the areas of judicial reform and fight against corruption, as well as to monitor the achieved progress through periodic reports. Though the reforms of the human resources management in the Romanian legal system were conceived in a coherent framework, the main changes in this area often did not complement each other, their implementation being sometimes inconsistent with previous measures taken. In this context, the study aims to make a short analysis of the way in which the human resources management’s reform was reflected in the European Commission’s reports, pointing the measures adopted by the Romanian authorities.

  8. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  9. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which...

  10. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public... HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In...

  11. Exploitation of linkage learning in evolutionary algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ying-ping

    2010-01-01

    The exploitation of linkage learning is enhancing the performance of evolutionary algorithms. This monograph examines recent progress in linkage learning, with a series of focused technical chapters that cover developments and trends in the field.

  12. Sequential dimerization of human zipcode-binding protein IMP1 on RNA: a cooperative mechanism providing RNP stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.; Kristensen, M. A.; Willemoes, Martin;

    2004-01-01

    zipcode-binding protein IMP1 on targets in the 3'-UTR from Igf-II mRNA and in H19 RNA. In both cases, two molecules of IMP1 bound to RNA by a sequential, cooperative mechanism, characterized by an initial fast step, followed by a slow second step. The first step created an obligatory assembly intermediate...... of low stability, whereas the second step was the discriminatory event that converted a putative RNA target into a ‘locked' stable RNP. The ability to dimerize was also observed between members of the IMP family of zipcode-binding proteins, providing a multitude of further interaction possibilities...

  13. ENHANCING COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China and Japan can cooperate on a wide scope of issues, such as the organization of the Beijing Olympic Games next year and aid to Africa,said Ide Keiji, Minister of Public Relations, Press, Culture, Education and Sports and Spokesperson of the Embassy

  14. Male food defence as a by-product of intersexual cooperation in a non-human primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneau-Robar, T. Jean M.; Müller, Eliane; Taucher, Anouk L.; van Schaik, Carel P.; Willems, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Males in a number of group-living species fight in intergroup conflicts to defend access to food resources, a seemingly paradoxical behaviour, given that this resource does not usually limit male fitness directly. We investigated the mechanism(s) driving apparent male food defence in wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops pygerythrus) by testing the effect that female resource access, and female audience size and activity had on the response of focal males during simulated intergroup encounters. Males do not appear to defend food to increase the reproductive success of female group members because their response was not influenced by the presence of provisioning boxes that only females could access. Female audience size was also unimportant, suggesting males do not participate in intergroup encounters to advertise their quality to potential mates. However, focal males almost always followed/supported female group members who initiated an approach towards simulated intruders, supporting that male participation largely functions to gain status as a cooperative group member, and that apparent male food defence in this species arises as a by-product of intersexual cooperation. Our study highlights that considering audience composition and activity can reveal the presence of social incentives and illuminate the evolutionary mechanism(s) promoting joint action in intergroup aggression. PMID:27775042

  15. Cooperative antiproliferative signaling by aspirin and indole-3-carbinol targets microphthalmia-associated transcription factor gene expression and promoter activity in human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindexter, Kevin M; Matthew, Susanne; Aronchik, Ida; Firestone, Gary L

    2016-04-01

    Antiproliferative signaling of combinations of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a natural indolecarbinol compound derived from cruciferous vegetables, was investigated in human melanoma cells. Melanoma cell lines with distinct mutational profiles were sensitive to different extents to the antiproliferative response of aspirin, with oncogenic BRAF-expressing G361 cells and wild-type BRAF-expressing SK-MEL-30 cells being the most responsive. I3C triggered a strong proliferative arrest of G361 melanoma cells and caused only a modest decrease in the proliferation of SK-MEL-30 cells. In both cell lines, combinations of aspirin and I3C cooperatively arrested cell proliferation and induced a G1 cell cycle arrest, and nearly ablated protein and transcript levels of the melanocyte master regulator microphthalmia-associated transcription factor isoform M (MITF-M). In melanoma cells transfected with a -333/+120-bp MITF-M promoter-luciferase reporter plasmid, treatment with aspirin and I3C cooperatively disrupted MITF-M promoter activity, which accounted for the loss of MITF-M gene products. Mutational analysis revealed that the aspirin required the LEF1 binding site, whereas I3C required the BRN2 binding site to mediate their combined and individual effects on MITF-M promoter activity. Consistent with LEF1 being a downstream effector of Wnt signaling, aspirin, but not I3C, downregulated protein levels of the Wnt co-receptor LDL receptor-related protein-6 and β-catenin and upregulated the β-catenin destruction complex component Axin. Taken together, our results demonstrate that aspirin-regulated Wnt signaling and I3C-targeted signaling pathways converge at distinct DNA elements in the MITF-M promoter to cooperatively disrupt MITF-M expression and melanoma cell proliferation.

  16. International Police Cooperation on Countering Transnational Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    28 Sandler T., Arce D.G., and Enders W., “An Evaluation of Interpol’s Cooperative-Based Counterterrorism Linkages,” Journal of Law and Economics 54...a span of bombing attacks to the Olympic Games .89 F. CONCLUSION INTERPOL is structured mainly in a transgovernmental manner and peer-to-peer...Blurring the Lines.” SAIS Review XXIV, no. 1 (Winter-Spring 2004): 49–61. Sandler T., Arce D.G., and Enders W. “An Evaluation of Interpol’s Cooperative

  17. Apoptotic Efficacy of Etomoxir in Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells. Cooperation with Arsenic Trioxide and Glycolytic Inhibitors, and Regulation by Oxidative Stress and Protein Kinase Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estañ, María Cristina; Calviño, Eva; Calvo, Susana; Guillén-Guío, Beatriz; Boyano-Adánez, María del Carmen; de Blas, Elena; Rial, Eduardo; Aller, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are frequently exacerbated in leukemia cells, and may therefore represent a target for therapeutic intervention. In this work we analyzed the apoptotic and chemo-sensitizing action of the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor etomoxir in human acute myeloid leukemia cells. Etomoxir caused negligible lethality at concentrations up to 100 µM, but efficaciously cooperated to cause apoptosis with the anti-leukemic agent arsenic trioxide (ATO, Trisenox), and with lower efficacy with other anti-tumour drugs (etoposide, cisplatin), in HL60 cells. Etomoxir-ATO cooperation was also observed in NB4 human acute promyelocytic cells, but not in normal (non-tumour) mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Biochemical determinations in HL60 cells indicated that etomoxir (25–200 µM) dose-dependently inhibited mitochondrial respiration while slightly stimulating glycolysis, and only caused marginal alterations in total ATP content and adenine nucleotide pool distribution. In addition, etomoxir caused oxidative stress (increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation, decrease in reduced glutathione content), as well as pro-apoptotic LKB-1/AMPK pathway activation, all of which may in part explain the chemo-sensitizing capacity of the drug. Etomoxir also cooperated with glycolytic inhibitors (2-deoxy-D-glucose, lonidamine) to induce apoptosis in HL60 cells, but not in NB4 cells. The combined etomoxir plus 2-deoxy-D-glucose treatment did not increase oxidative stress, caused moderate decrease in net ATP content, increased the AMP/ATP ratio with concomitant drop in energy charge, and caused defensive Akt and ERK kinase activation. Apoptosis generation by etomoxir plus 2-deoxy-D-glucose was further increased by co-incubation with ATO, which is apparently explained by the capacity of ATO to attenuate Akt and ERK activation. In summary, co-treatment with etomoxir may represent an interesting strategy to increase the apoptotic

  18. Cooperative effects in differentiation and proliferation between PDGF-BB and matrix derived synthetic peptides in human osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vordemvenne Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enhancing osteogenic capabilities of bone matrix for the treatment of fractures and segmental defects using growth factors is an active area of research. Recently, synthetic peptides like AC- 100, TP508 or p-15 corresponding to biologically active sequences of matrix proteins have been proven to stimulate bone formation. The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF BB has been identified as an important paracrine factor in early bone healing. We hypothesized that the combined use of PDGF-BB with synthetic peptides could result in an increase in proliferation and calcification of osteoblast-like cells. Methods Osteoblast-like cell cultures were treated with PDGF and synthetic peptides, singly and as combinations, and compared to non-treated control cell cultures. The cultures were evaluated at days 2, 5, and 10 in terms of cell proliferation, calcification and gene expression of alkaline phosphate, collagen I and osteocalcin. Results Experimental findings revealed that the addition of PDGF, p-15 and TP508 and combinations of PDGF/AC-100, PDGF/p-15 and PDGF/TP508 resulted in an increase in proliferating osteoblasts, especially in the first 5 days of cultivation. Proliferation did not significantly differ between single factors and factor combinations (p > 0.05. The onset of calcification in osteoblasts occurred earlier and was more distinct compared to the corresponding control or PDGF stimulation alone. Significant difference was found for the combined use of PDGF/p-15 and PDGF/AC-100 (p Conclusions Our findings indicate that PDGF exhibits cooperative effects with synthetic peptides in differentiation and proliferation. These cooperative effects cause a significant early calcification of osteoblast-like cells (p

  19. Environment and cooperation: cooperative values as an assumption of sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo de Miranda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to establishing an understanding of the meaning of environment, the work clarifies that the environmental damage resulting value gives the minimization of the man dedicated to nature. In this regard, bearing in mind the environmental crisis confrontation served humanity, the future is viewed with doubt. It also offers, the alternative cooperative established by the Declaration of Rio and cooperative values is presented as a precondition for sustainability.Received: 06.06.10Accepted: 25.06.10

  20. Inhibition of human two-pore domain K+ channel TREK1 by local anesthetic lidocaine: negative cooperativity and half-of-sites saturation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Tapan K; Harinath, S; Nama, S; Somasundaram, K; Sikdar, S K

    2009-10-01

    TWIK-related K+ channel TREK1, a background leak K+ channel, has been strongly implicated as the target of several general and local anesthetics. Here, using the whole-cell and single-channel patch-clamp technique, we investigated the effect of lidocaine, a local anesthetic, on the human (h)TREK1 channel heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells by an adenoviral-mediated expression system. Lidocaine, at clinical concentrations, produced reversible, concentration-dependent inhibition of hTREK1 current, with IC(50) value of 180 muM, by reducing the single-channel open probability and stabilizing the closed state. We have identified a strategically placed unique aromatic couplet (Tyr352 and Phe355) in the vicinity of the protein kinase A phosphorylation site, Ser348, in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of hTREK1, that is critical for the action of lidocaine. Furthermore, the phosphorylation state of Ser348 was found to have a regulatory role in lidocaine-mediated inhibition of hTREK1. It is interesting that we observed strong intersubunit negative cooperativity (Hill coefficient = 0.49) and half-of-sites saturation binding stoichiometry (half-reaction order) for the binding of lidocaine to hTREK1. Studies with the heterodimer of wild-type (wt)-hTREK1 and Delta119 C-terminal deletion mutant (hTREK1(wt)-Delta119) revealed that single CTD of hTREK1 was capable of mediating partial inhibition by lidocaine, but complete inhibition necessitates the cooperative interaction between both the CTDs upon binding of lidocaine. Based on our observations, we propose a model that explains the unique kinetics and provides a plausible paradigm for the inhibitory action of lidocaine on hTREK1.

  1. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  2. DNA ligase IV and artemis act cooperatively to suppress homologous recombination in human cells: implications for DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Aya; Saito, Shinta; So, Sairei; Hashimoto, Mitsumasa; Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi; Watabe, Haruka; Adachi, Noritaka

    2013-01-01

    Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) are two major pathways for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs); however, their respective roles in human somatic cells remain to be elucidated. Here we show using a series of human gene-knockout cell lines that NHEJ repairs nearly all of the topoisomerase II- and low-dose radiation-induced DNA damage, while it negatively affects survival of cells harbouring replication-associated DSBs. Intriguingly, we find that loss of DNA ligase IV, a critical NHEJ ligase, and Artemis, an NHEJ factor with endonuclease activity, independently contribute to increased resistance to replication-associated DSBs. We also show that loss of Artemis alleviates hypersensitivity of DNA ligase IV-null cells to low-dose radiation- and topoisomerase II-induced DSBs. Finally, we demonstrate that Artemis-null human cells display increased gene-targeting efficiencies, particularly in the absence of DNA ligase IV. Collectively, these data suggest that DNA ligase IV and Artemis act cooperatively to promote NHEJ, thereby suppressing HR. Our results point to the possibility that HR can only operate on accidental DSBs when NHEJ is missing or abortive, and Artemis may be involved in pathway switching from incomplete NHEJ to HR.

  3. DNA ligase IV and artemis act cooperatively to suppress homologous recombination in human cells: implications for DNA double-strand break repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Kurosawa

    Full Text Available Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ and homologous recombination (HR are two major pathways for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs; however, their respective roles in human somatic cells remain to be elucidated. Here we show using a series of human gene-knockout cell lines that NHEJ repairs nearly all of the topoisomerase II- and low-dose radiation-induced DNA damage, while it negatively affects survival of cells harbouring replication-associated DSBs. Intriguingly, we find that loss of DNA ligase IV, a critical NHEJ ligase, and Artemis, an NHEJ factor with endonuclease activity, independently contribute to increased resistance to replication-associated DSBs. We also show that loss of Artemis alleviates hypersensitivity of DNA ligase IV-null cells to low-dose radiation- and topoisomerase II-induced DSBs. Finally, we demonstrate that Artemis-null human cells display increased gene-targeting efficiencies, particularly in the absence of DNA ligase IV. Collectively, these data suggest that DNA ligase IV and Artemis act cooperatively to promote NHEJ, thereby suppressing HR. Our results point to the possibility that HR can only operate on accidental DSBs when NHEJ is missing or abortive, and Artemis may be involved in pathway switching from incomplete NHEJ to HR.

  4. Cooperation of endothelin-1 signaling with melanosomes plays a role in developing and/or maintaining human skin hyperpigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Murase

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Skin hyperpigmentation is characterized by increased melanin synthesis and deposition that can cause significant psychosocial and psychological distress. Although several cytokine-receptor signaling cascades contribute to the formation of ultraviolet B-induced cutaneous hyperpigmentation, their possible involvement in other types of skin hyperpigmentation has never been clearly addressed. Since our continuous studies using skin specimens from more than 30 subjects with ethnic skin diversity emphasized a consistent augmentation in the expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1 and its receptor (Endothelin B receptor, ET-B in hyperpigmented lesions, including senile lentigos (SLs, the precise function of ET-1 signaling was investigated in the present study. In line with previous studies, ET-1 significantly induced melanogenesis followed by increases in melanosome transport in melanocytes and in its transfer to keratinocytes while inhibition of ET-B function substantially depressed melanogenic ability in tissue-cultured SLs. Additionally, in agreement with a previous report that the formation of autophagosomes rather than melanosomes is stimulated according to starvation or defective melanosome production, ET-1 was found to remarkably augment the expression of components necessary for early melanosome formation, indicating its counteraction against autophagy-targeting melanosome degradation in melanocytes. Despite the lack of substantial impact of ET-1 on keratinocyte melanogenic functions, the expression of ET-1 was enhanced following melanosome uptake by keratinocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that ET-1 plays a substantial role in the development and/or maintenance of skin hyperpigmentation in reciprocal cooperation with increased melanosome incorporation.

  5. The 2000 activities and the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field as part of Asian regional cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), organized by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities; in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities. As in-workshop activities, the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 27 and 28, 2000, at the Tokai Research Institute of JAERI. As outside-of-workshop activities. 'The presentation of the present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan' was held on November 29, 2000 after the workshop. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The secretariat for the Human Resources Development Projects is provided by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report consists of presentation papers and materials at the Workshop, presentation documents of 'The present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan', a letter of proposal from the Project Leader of Japan to the project leaders of the participating countries after the Workshop and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the 3rd Coordinators Meeting of FNCA at Tokyo on March 14-16, 2001. (author)

  6. Directed Graphs, Decompositions, and Spatial Linkages

    CERN Document Server

    Shai, Offer; Whiteley, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The decomposition of a system of constraints into small basic components is an important tool of design and analysis. Specifically, the decomposition of a linkage into minimal components is a central tool of analysis and synthesis of linkages. In this paper we prove that every pinned 3-isostatic (minimally rigid) graph (grounded linkage) has a unique decomposition into minimal strongly connected components (in the sense of directed graphs) which we call 3-Assur graphs. This analysis extends the Assur decompositions of plane linkages previously studied in the mathematical and the mechanical engineering literature. These 3-Assur graphs are the central building blocks for all kinematic linkages in 3-space. They share a number of key combinatorial and geometric properties with the 2-Assur graphs, including an associated lower block-triangular decomposition of the pinned rigidity matrix which provides a format for extending the motion induced by inserting one driver in a bottom Assur linkage to the joints of the e...

  7. BCL-xL/MCL-1 inhibition and RARγ antagonism work cooperatively in human HL60 leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Mariarita; Yap, Jeremy L; Yu, Jianshi; Cione, Erika; Fletcher, Steven; Kane, Maureen A

    2014-10-01

    The acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by chromosomal translocations that result in fusion proteins, including the promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor, alpha fusion protein (PML-RARα). All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) treatment is the standard drug treatment for APL yielding cure rates > 80% by activating transcription and proteasomal degradation of retinoic acid receptor, alpha (RARα). Whereas combination therapy with As2O3 has increased survival further, patients that experience relapse and are refractory to atRA and/or As2O3 is a clinically significant problem. BCL-2 family proteins regulate apoptosis and over-expression of anti-apoptotic B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family proteins has been associated with chemotherapeutic resistance in APL including impairment of the ability of atRA to induce growth arrest and differentiation. Here we investigated the novel BH3 domain mimetic, JY-1-106, which antagonizes the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members B-cell lymphoma-extra large (BCL-xL) and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1) alone and in combination with retinoids including atRA, AM580 (RARα agonist), and SR11253 (RARγ antagonist). JY-1-106 reduced cell viability in HL-60 cells alone and in combination with retinoids. The combination of JY-1-106 and SR11253 had the greatest impact on cell viability by stimulating apoptosis. These studies indicate that dual BCL-xL/MCL-1 inhibitors and retinoids could work cooperatively in leukemia treatment.

  8. BCL-x{sub L}/MCL-1 inhibition and RARγ antagonism work cooperatively in human HL60 leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perri, Mariarita; Yap, Jeremy L.; Yu, Jianshi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, 20 N Pine Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Cione, Erika [Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, Ed. Polifunzionale, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende, CS (Italy); Fletcher, Steven [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, 20 N Pine Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Kane, Maureen A., E-mail: mkane@rx.umaryland.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, 20 N Pine Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by chromosomal translocations that result in fusion proteins, including the promyelocytic leukemia–retinoic acid receptor, alpha fusion protein (PML–RARα). All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) treatment is the standard drug treatment for APL yielding cure rates >80% by activating transcription and proteasomal degradation of retinoic acid receptor, alpha (RARα). Whereas combination therapy with As{sub 2}O{sub 3} has increased survival further, patients that experience relapse and are refractory to atRA and/or As{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a clinically significant problem. BCL-2 family proteins regulate apoptosis and over-expression of anti-apoptotic B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family proteins has been associated with chemotherapeutic resistance in APL including impairment of the ability of atRA to induce growth arrest and differentiation. Here we investigated the novel BH3 domain mimetic, JY-1-106, which antagonizes the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members B-cell lymphoma-extra large (BCL-x{sub L}) and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1) alone and in combination with retinoids including atRA, AM580 (RARα agonist), and SR11253 (RARγ antagonist). JY-1-106 reduced cell viability in HL-60 cells alone and in combination with retinoids. The combination of JY-1-106 and SR11253 had the greatest impact on cell viability by stimulating apoptosis. These studies indicate that dual BCL-x{sub L}/MCL-1 inhibitors and retinoids could work cooperatively in leukemia treatment. - Highlights: • Novel Bcl-x{sub L}/Mcl-1 inhibitor JY-1-106 reduces HL60 cell viability. • JY-1-106 is investigated in combination with retinoic acid, AM580, and SR11253. • AM580 is an RARα agonist; SR11253 is an RARγ antagonist. • Combined use of JY-1-106/SR11253 exhibited the greatest cell viability reduction. • JY-1-106 alone or in combination with retinoids induces apoptosis.

  9. Bayesian linkage analysis of categorical traits for arbitrary pedigree designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abra Brisbin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pedigree studies of complex heritable diseases often feature nominal or ordinal phenotypic measurements and missing genetic marker or phenotype data. METHODOLOGY: We have developed a Bayesian method for Linkage analysis of Ordinal and Categorical traits (LOCate that can analyze complex genealogical structure for family groups and incorporate missing data. LOCate uses a Gibbs sampling approach to assess linkage, incorporating a simulated tempering algorithm for fast mixing. While our treatment is Bayesian, we develop a LOD (log of odds score estimator for assessing linkage from Gibbs sampling that is highly accurate for simulated data. LOCate is applicable to linkage analysis for ordinal or nominal traits, a versatility which we demonstrate by analyzing simulated data with a nominal trait, on which LOCate outperforms LOT, an existing method which is designed for ordinal traits. We additionally demonstrate our method's versatility by analyzing a candidate locus (D2S1788 for panic disorder in humans, in a dataset with a large amount of missing data, which LOT was unable to handle. CONCLUSION: LOCate's accuracy and applicability to both ordinal and nominal traits will prove useful to researchers interested in mapping loci for categorical traits.

  10. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation.

  11. Unique and shared signaling pathways cooperate to regulate the differentiation of human CD4+ T cells into distinct effector subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cindy S; Wong, Natalie; Rao, Geetha; Nguyen, Akira; Avery, Danielle T; Payne, Kathryn; Torpy, James; O'Young, Patrick; Deenick, Elissa; Bustamante, Jacinta; Puel, Anne; Okada, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Martinez-Barricarte, Ruben; Elliott, Michael; Sebnem Kilic, Sara; El Baghdadi, Jamila; Minegishi, Yoshiyuki; Bousfiha, Aziz; Robertson, Nic; Hambleton, Sophie; Arkwright, Peter D; French, Martyn; Blincoe, Annaliesse K; Hsu, Peter; Campbell, Dianne E; Stormon, Michael O; Wong, Melanie; Adelstein, Stephen; Fulcher, David A; Cook, Matthew C; Stepensky, Polina; Boztug, Kaan; Beier, Rita; Ikincioğullari, Aydan; Ziegler, John B; Gray, Paul; Picard, Capucine; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Phan, Tri Giang; Grimbacher, Bodo; Warnatz, Klaus; Holland, Steven M; Uzel, Gulbu; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Tangye, Stuart G

    2016-07-25

    Naive CD4(+) T cells differentiate into specific effector subsets-Th1, Th2, Th17, and T follicular helper (Tfh)-that provide immunity against pathogen infection. The signaling pathways involved in generating these effector cells are partially known. However, the effects of mutations underlying human primary immunodeficiencies on these processes, and how they compromise specific immune responses, remain unresolved. By studying individuals with mutations in key signaling pathways, we identified nonredundant pathways regulating human CD4(+) T cell differentiation in vitro. IL12Rβ1/TYK2 and IFN-γR/STAT1 function in a feed-forward loop to induce Th1 cells, whereas IL-21/IL-21R/STAT3 signaling is required for Th17, Tfh, and IL-10-secreting cells. IL12Rβ1/TYK2 and NEMO are also required for Th17 induction. Strikingly, gain-of-function STAT1 mutations recapitulated the impact of dominant-negative STAT3 mutations on Tfh and Th17 cells, revealing a putative inhibitory effect of hypermorphic STAT1 over STAT3. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the requirements for human T cell effector function, and explain clinical manifestations of these immunodeficient conditions. Furthermore, they identify molecules that could be targeted to modulate CD4(+) T cell effector function in the settings of infection, vaccination, or immune dysregulation. © 2016 Ma et al.

  12. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  13. Cooperation and deception in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katie; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2017-08-01

    Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates. In experimental food competitions, primates flexibly manipulate group-mates' behavior to tactically deceive them. Deception can infiltrate cooperative interactions, such as when one takes an unfair share of meat after a coordinated hunt. In order to counter competition of this sort, primates maintain cooperation through partner choice, partner control, and third party punishment. Yet humans appear to stand alone in their ability to understand others' beliefs, which allows us not only to deceive others with the explicit intent to create a false belief, but it also allows us to put ourselves in others' shoes to determine when cheaters need to be punished, even if we are not directly disadvantaged by the cheater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Linkages between NAMA - LEDS - MRV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyemang-Bonsu, William; Benioff, Ron; Cox, Sadie

    Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS), Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) are three of the key conceptual components emerging as part of the global architecture for a new climate agreement by 2015. The three components are devel......Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS), Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) are three of the key conceptual components emerging as part of the global architecture for a new climate agreement by 2015. The three components...... how the three components are conceptually interlinked. Identifying the linkages can inform the work on each component and strengthen coordination of work in the context of the three big partnerships; the International Partnership on Mitigation and MRV, the LEDS Global Partnership and the NAMA...

  15. Genomewide linkage analysis of stature in multiple populations reveals several regions with evidence of linkage to adult height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, J N; Lindgren, C M; Daly, M J; Kirby, A; Schaffner, S F; Burtt, N P; Altshuler, D; Parker, A; Rioux, J D; Platko, J; Gaudet, D; Hudson, T J; Groop, L C; Lander, E S

    2001-07-01

    Genomewide linkage analysis has been extremely successful at identification of the genetic variation underlying single-gene disorders. However, linkage analysis has been less successful for common human diseases and other complex traits in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to influence disease risk. We hypothesized that a highly heritable complex trait, in which the contribution of environmental factors was relatively limited, might be more amenable to linkage analysis. We therefore chose to study stature (adult height), for which heritability is approximately 75%-90% (Phillips and Matheny 1990; Carmichael and McGue 1995; Preece 1996; Silventoinen et al. 2000). We reanalyzed genomewide scans from four populations for which genotype and height data were available, using a variance-components method implemented in GENEHUNTER 2.0 (Pratt et al. 2000). The populations consisted of 408 individuals in 58 families from the Botnia region of Finland, 753 individuals in 183 families from other parts of Finland, 746 individuals in 179 families from Southern Sweden, and 420 individuals in 63 families from the Saguenay-Lac-St.-Jean region of Quebec. Four regions showed evidence of linkage to stature: 6q24-25, multipoint LOD score 3.85 at marker D6S1007 in Botnia (genomewide Pgenetically tractable and provide insight into the genetic architecture of complex traits.

  16. Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.

  17. Cooperative Effect of Erythropoietin and TGF-β Inhibition on Erythroid Development in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yinliang; Bai, Hao; Liu, Yanfeng; Hoyle, Dixie L; Cheng, Tao; Wang, Zack Z

    2015-12-01

    Patient-specific human induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) represent important cell sources to treat patients with acquired blood disorders. To realize the therapeutic potential of hiPSCs, it is crucial to understand signals that direct hiPSC differentiation to a hematopoietic lineage fate. Our previous study demonstrated that CD34(+)CD31(+) cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) contain hemato-endothelial progenitors (HEPs) that give rise to hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. Here, we established a serum-free and feeder-free system to induce the differentiation of hPSC-derived CD34(+)CD31(+) progenitor cells to erythroid cells. We show that extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins promote the differentiation of CD34(+)CD31(+) progenitor cells into CD235a(+) erythroid cells through CD41(+)CD235a(+) megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors (MEP). Erythropoietin (EPO) is a predominant factor for CD34(+)CD31(+) progenitor differentiation to erythroid cells, whereas transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) inhibits the development of CD34(+)CD31(+) progenitor cells. Apoptosis of progenitor cells is induced by TGF-β in early erythroid differentiation. Suppression of TGF-β signaling by SB431542 at early stage of CD34(+)CD31(+) progenitor differentiation induces the erythroid cell generation. Together, these findings suggest that TGF-β suppression and EPO stimulation promote erythropoiesis of CD34(+)CD31(+) progenitor cells derived from hPSCs.

  18. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Veenendaal, T.; Ovcharenko, I.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Gordon, L.; Stubbs, L.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Rodoinov, A.; Gaginskaya, E.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the economically important traits in chicken are multifactorial and governed by multiple genes located at different quantitative trait loci (QTLs). The optimal marker density to identify these QTLs in linkage and association studies is largely determined by the extent of linkage

  19. Working through Laboratory/Industry Linkages: Creating an Enabling Mechanism in CSIR India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh, Dr.

    India's research base rests on its more than 260 universities and about 2500 recognized research and development (r&d) laboratories. Most of them, representing diverse science disciplines have linkages, both formal and informal with academia and industry. These linkages, established primarily because of increasing global competition, burgeoning research costs and rapid technological changes, have helped in synergisation of intellectual efforts, sharing of r&d results, pooling of resources, and availability of trained manpower. This case study details institutionalization of one such cooperative effort in which a laboratory of India's Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in a multilateral linkage with industrial units and government agencies has embarked upon a programme which integrates the technology upgradation and management needs of a cluster of small enterprises. Initiated under the Government of India's Upgradation of Technology (UPTECH) scheme this cooperative effort involving four major agencies, with one of them being the nodal one, is to be implemented in three phases over a two year period. It has well set goals and agreed output norms. The programme, which started six months ago, has already given results which do generate hope for the success of this large multilateral linkage programme. It also heralds a promise for hundreds of small industrial enterprises, which need to modernize in terms of process upgradation, environmental friendliness and reaching out to global markets by following cluster and participative management approaches.

  20. Third-party punishment increases cooperation in children through (misaligned) expectations and conditional cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lergetporer, Philipp; Angerer, Silvia; Glätzle-Rützler, Daniela; Sutter, Matthias

    2014-05-13

    The human ability to establish cooperation, even in large groups of genetically unrelated strangers, depends upon the enforcement of cooperation norms. Third-party punishment is one important factor to explain high levels of cooperation among humans, although it is still somewhat disputed whether other animal species also use this mechanism for promoting cooperation. We study the effectiveness of third-party punishment to increase children's cooperative behavior in a large-scale cooperation game. Based on an experiment with 1,120 children, aged 7 to 11 y, we find that the threat of third-party punishment more than doubles cooperation rates, despite the fact that children are rarely willing to execute costly punishment. We can show that the higher cooperation levels with third-party punishment are driven by two components. First, cooperation is a rational (expected payoff-maximizing) response to incorrect beliefs about the punishment behavior of third parties. Second, cooperation is a conditionally cooperative reaction to correct beliefs that third party punishment will increase a partner's level of cooperation.

  1. KRAS (G12D Cooperates with AML1/ETO to Initiate a Mouse Model Mimicking Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It has been demonstrated that KRAS mutations represent about 90% of cancer-associated mutations, and that KRAS mutations play an essential role in neoplastic transformation. Cancer-associated RAS mutations occur frequently in acute myeloid leukemia (AML, suggesting a functional role for Ras in leukemogenesis. Methods: We successfully established a mouse model of human leukemia by transplanting bone marrow cells co-transfected with the K-ras (G12D mutation and AML1/ETO fusion protein. Results: Mice transplanted with AML/ETO+KRAS co-transduced cells had the highest mortality rate than mice transplanted with AML/ETO- or KRAS-transduced cells (115d vs. 150d. Upon reaching a terminal disease stage, EGFP-positive cells dominated their spleen, lymph nodes, peripheral blood and central nervous system tissue. Immunophenotyping, cytologic analyses revealed that AML/ETO+KRAS leukemias predominantly contained immature myeloid precursors (EGFP+/c-Kit+/Mac-1-/Gr-1-. Histologic analyses revealed that massive leukemic infiltrations were closely packed in dense sheets that effaced the normal architecture of spleen and thymus in mice transplanted with AML1/ETO + KRAS co-transduced cells. K-ras mRNA and protein expression were upregulated in bone marrow cells of the K-ras group and AML1/ETO + Kras group. The phosphorylation of MEK/ERK was significantly enhanced in the AML1/ETO + Kras group. The similar results of the AML1/ETO + Nras group were consistent with those reported previously. Conclusion: Co-transduction of KrasG12D and AML1/ETO induces acute monoblastic leukemia. Since expression of mutant K-ras alone was insufficient to induce leukemia, this model may be useful for investigating the multi-step leukemogenesis model of human leukemia.

  2. The economics of altruistic punishment and the maintenance of cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egas, M.; Riedl, A.

    2008-01-01

    Explaining the evolution and maintenance of cooperation among unrelated individuals is one of the fundamental problems in biology and the social sciences. Recent findings suggest that altruistic punishment is an important mechanism maintaining cooperation among humans. We experimentally explore the

  3. Evolution of cooperation with shared costs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joel S; Vincent, Thomas L

    2008-09-07

    The quest to determine how cooperation evolves can be based on evolutionary game theory, in spite of the fact that evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS) for most non-zero-sum games are not cooperative. We analyse the evolution of cooperation for a family of evolutionary games involving shared costs and benefits with a continuum of strategies from non-cooperation to total cooperation. This cost-benefit game allows the cooperator to share in the benefit of a cooperative act, and the recipient to be burdened with a share of the cooperator's cost. The cost-benefit game encompasses the Prisoner's Dilemma, Snowdrift game and Partial Altruism. The models produce ESS solutions of total cooperation, partial cooperation, non-cooperation and coexistence between cooperation and non-cooperation. Cooperation emerges from an interplay between the nonlinearities in the cost and benefit functions. If benefits increase at a decelerating rate and costs increase at an accelerating rate with the degree of cooperation, then the ESS has an intermediate level of cooperation. The game also exhibits non-ESS points such as unstable minima, convergent-stable minima and unstable maxima. The emergence of cooperative behaviour in this game represents enlightened self-interest, whereas non-cooperative solutions illustrate the Tragedy of the Commons. Games having either a stable maximum or a stable minimum have the property that small changes in the incentive structure (model parameter values) or culture (starting frequencies of strategies) result in correspondingly small changes in the degree of cooperation. Conversely, with unstable maxima or unstable minima, small changes in the incentive structure or culture can result in a switch from non-cooperation to total cooperation (and vice versa). These solutions identify when human or animal societies have the potential for cooperation and whether cooperation is robust or fragile.

  4. Polymorphic L1 retrotransposons are frequently in strong linkage disequilibrium with neighboring SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Saneyuki; Ohno, Tomoyuki; Ishiguro, Koichi; Aizawa, Yasunori

    2014-05-10

    L1 retrotransposons have been the major driver of structural variation of the human genome. L1 insertion polymorphism (LIP)-mediated genomic variation can alter the transcriptome and contribute to the divergence of human phenotypes. To assess this possibility, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including LIPs is required. Toward this ultimate goal, the present study examined linkage disequilibrium between six LIPs and their neighboring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genomic PCR and sequencing of L1-plus and -minus alleles from different donors revealed that all six LIPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium with at least one SNP. In addition, comparison of syntenic regions containing the identified SNP nucleotides was performed among modern humans (L1-plus and -minus alleles), archaic humans and non-human primates, revealing two different evolutionary schemes that might have resulted in the observed strong SNP-LIP linkage disequilibria. This study provides an experimental framework and guidance for a future SNP-LIP integrative GWAS.

  5. Inhibition of mTOR pathway by everolimus cooperates with EGFR inhibitors in human tumours sensitive and resistant to anti-EGFR drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, R; Garofalo, S; Rosa, R; Damiano, V; Gelardi, T; Daniele, G; Marciano, R; Ciardiello, F; Tortora, G

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of a single transduction pathway is often inefficient due to activation of alternative signalling. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key intracellular kinase integrating proliferation, survival and angiogenic pathways and has been implicated in the resistance to EGFR inhibitors. Thus, mTOR blockade is pursued to interfere at multiple levels with tumour growth. We used everolimus (RAD001) to inhibit mTOR, alone or in combination with anti-EGFR drugs gefitinib or cetuximab, on human cancer cell lines sensitive and resistant to EGFR inhibitors, both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that everolimus is active against EGFR-resistant cancer cell lines and partially restores the ability of EGFR inhibitors to inhibit growth and survival. Everolimus reduces the expression of EGFR-related signalling effectors and VEGF production, inhibiting proliferation and capillary tube formation of endothelial cells, both alone and in combination with gefitinib. Finally, combination of everolimus and gefitinib inhibits growth of GEO and GEO-GR (gefitinib resistant) colon cancer xenografts, activation of signalling proteins and VEGF secretion. Targeting mTOR pathway with everolimus overcomes resistance to EGFR inhibitors and produces a cooperative effect with EGFR inhibitors, providing a valid therapeutic strategy to be tested in a clinical setting. PMID:18319715

  6. Multifaceted enrichment analysis of RNA-RNA crosstalk reveals cooperating micro-societies in human colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Tommaso; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Fusilli, Caterina; Capocefalo, Daniele; Panza, Anna; Biagini, Tommaso; Castellana, Stefano; Gentile, Annamaria; De Cata, Angelo; Palumbo, Orazio; Stallone, Raffaella; Rubino, Rosa; Carella, Massimo; Piepoli, Ada

    2016-05-19

    Alterations in the balance of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles contribute to the onset and development of colorectal cancer. The regulatory functions of individual miRNA-gene pairs are widely acknowledged, but group effects are largely unexplored. We performed an integrative analysis of mRNA-miRNA and miRNA-miRNA interactions using high-throughput mRNA and miRNA expression profiles obtained from matched specimens of human colorectal cancer tissue and adjacent non-tumorous mucosa. This investigation resulted in a hypernetwork-based model, whose functional backbone was fulfilled by tight micro-societies of miRNAs. These proved to modulate several genes that are known to control a set of significantly enriched cancer-enhancer and cancer-protection biological processes, and that an array of upstream regulatory analyses demonstrated to be dependent on miR-145, a cell cycle and MAPK signaling cascade master regulator. In conclusion, we reveal miRNA-gene clusters and gene families with close functional relationships and highlight the role of miR-145 as potent upstream regulator of a complex RNA-RNA crosstalk, which mechanistically modulates several signaling pathways and regulatory circuits that when deranged are relevant to the changes occurring in colorectal carcinogenesis. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. The impact of human-technology cooperation and distributed cognition in forensic science: biasing effects of AFIS contextual information on human experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Itiel E; Wertheim, Kasey; Fraser-Mackenzie, Peter; Walajtys, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    Experts play a critical role in forensic decision making, even when cognition is offloaded and distributed between human and machine. In this paper, we investigated the impact of using Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) on human decision makers. We provided 3680 AFIS lists (a total of 55,200 comparisons) to 23 latent fingerprint examiners as part of their normal casework. We manipulated the position of the matching print in the AFIS list. The data showed that latent fingerprint examiners were affected by the position of the matching print in terms of false exclusions and false inconclusives. Furthermore, the data showed that false identification errors were more likely at the top of the list and that such errors occurred even when the correct match was present further down the list. These effects need to be studied and considered carefully, so as to optimize human decision making when using technologies such as AFIS.

  8. The REBUS-MCNP linkage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, J. G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-04-24

    The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program uses the REBUS-PC computer code to provide reactor physics and core design information such as neutron flux distributions in space, energy, and time, and to track isotopic changes in fuel and neutron absorbers with burnup. REBUS-PC models the complete fuel cycle including shuffling capability. REBUS-PC evolved using the neutronic capabilities of multi-group diffusion theory code DIF3D 9.0, but was extended to apply the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP for one-group fluxes and cross-sections. The linkage between REBUS-PC and MCNP has recently been modernized and extended, as described in this manual. REBUS-PC now calls MCNP via a system call so that the user can apply any valid MCNP executable. The interface between REBUS-PC and MCNP requires minimal changes to an existing MCNP model, and little additional input. The REBUS-MCNP interface can also be used in conjunction with DIF3D neutronics to update an MCNP model with fuel compositions predicted using a DIF3D based depletion.

  9. Helping and Cooperation in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Colombi, Costanza; Rogers, Sally J.; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Helping and cooperation are central to human social life. Here, we report two studies investigating these social behaviors in children with autism and children with developmental delay. In the first study, both groups of children helped the experimenter attain her goals. In the second study, both groups of children cooperated with an adult, but…

  10. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.1114...

  11. Maritime English for Communication and Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Teresa A.

    Because most maritime accidents are caused by human error, notably breakdowns in communication or cooperation, and because English is the international maritime language, instruction in maritime English for communication and cooperation is an important element in maritime education. The International Maritime Organization, a specialized agency of…

  12. Problems and Solutions in Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易彦池

    2007-01-01

    Heterogeneous cooperative learning,as the best kind of cooperative learning,is quite often adopted to make utmost use of the human power in second language learning. On the other hand ,some problems existing in it make it far from satisfactory. In this thesis ,the writer will analyse the problems and put forward some solutions to perfect HCL.

  13. Construction of Trust Judgments within Cooperative Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evin, Agathe; Sève, Carole; Saury, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the aims of physical education (PE) is to develop social skills such as cooperation, teamwork, and mutual helping among students. Cooperation is a broad research topic, implicating several disciplines in the human sciences (e.g. psychology, sociology, linguistics, philosophy). It is also an important topic in various domains…

  14. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with...

  15. Competing Environmental Ethics in Cooper's "The Pioneers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnassar, Sabri

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the environmental worthiness of James Fenimore Cooper's "The Pioneers" and analyzes the various and competing environmental ethics that Cooper introduces in this novel through his descriptions of the different relationships between humans and the natural world. Among these different environmental ethics are the…

  16. PKA and Epac cooperate to augment bradykinin-induced interleukin-8 release from human airway smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halayko Andrew J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway smooth muscle contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases by secreting inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-8 (IL-8. IL-8 production is in part regulated via activation of Gq-and Gs-coupled receptors. Here we study the role of the cyclic AMP (cAMP effectors protein kinase A (PKA and exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac1 and Epac2 in the bradykinin-induced IL-8 release from a human airway smooth muscle cell line and the underlying molecular mechanisms of this response. Methods IL-8 release was assessed via ELISA under basal condition and after stimulation with bradykinin alone or in combination with fenoterol, the Epac activators 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP and Sp-8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMPS, the PKA activator 6-Bnz-cAMP and the cGMP analog 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cGMP. Where indicated, cells were pre-incubated with the pharmacological inhibitors Clostridium difficile toxin B-1470 (GTPases, U0126 (extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2 and Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS (PKA. The specificity of the cyclic nucleotide analogs was confirmed by measuring phosphorylation of the PKA substrate vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. GTP-loading of Rap1 and Rap2 was evaluated via pull-down technique. Expression of Rap1, Rap2, Epac1 and Epac2 was assessed via western blot. Downregulation of Epac protein expression was achieved by siRNA. Unpaired or paired two-tailed Student's t test was used. Results The β2-agonist fenoterol augmented release of IL-8 by bradykinin. The PKA activator 6-Bnz-cAMP and the Epac activator 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP significantly increased bradykinin-induced IL-8 release. The hydrolysis-resistant Epac activator Sp-8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMPS mimicked the effects of 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, whereas the negative control 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cGMP did not. Fenoterol, forskolin and 6-Bnz-cAMP induced VASP phosphorylation, which was diminished by the PKA inhibitor Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS. 6-Bnz-cAMP and 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP induced GTP

  17. DYNAMIC DESIGN OF VARIABLE SPEED PLANAR LINKAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Yanan; Yan Hongsen; Zou Huijun

    2005-01-01

    A method for improving dynamic characteristics of planar linkages by actively varying the speed function of the input link is presented. Design criteria and constraints for the dynamic design of variable speed planar linkages are developed. Both analytical and optimization approaches for determining suitable input speed functions to minimize the driving torque, the shaking moment, or both simultaneously of planar linkages, subject to various design requirements and constraints, are derived.Finally, some examples are given to illustrate the design procedure and to verify its feasibility.

  18. Comparative linkage analysis and visualization of high-density oligonucleotide SNP array data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Richard JH

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of disease-associated genes using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs has been increasingly reported. In particular, the Affymetrix Mapping 10 K SNP microarray platform uses one PCR primer to amplify the DNA samples and determine the genotype of more than 10,000 SNPs in the human genome. This provides the opportunity for large scale, rapid and cost-effective genotyping assays for linkage analysis. However, the analysis of such datasets is nontrivial because of the large number of markers, and visualizing the linkage scores in the context of genome maps remains less automated using the current linkage analysis software packages. For example, the haplotyping results are commonly represented in the text format. Results Here we report the development of a novel software tool called CompareLinkage for automated formatting of the Affymetrix Mapping 10 K genotype data into the "Linkage" format and the subsequent analysis with multi-point linkage software programs such as Merlin and Allegro. The new software has the ability to visualize the results for all these programs in dChip in the context of genome annotations and cytoband information. In addition we implemented a variant of the Lander-Green algorithm in the dChipLinkage module of dChip software (V1.3 to perform parametric linkage analysis and haplotyping of SNP array data. These functions are integrated with the existing modules of dChip to visualize SNP genotype data together with LOD score curves. We have analyzed three families with recessive and dominant diseases using the new software programs and the comparison results are presented and discussed. Conclusions The CompareLinkage and dChipLinkage software packages are freely available. They provide the visualization tools for high-density oligonucleotide SNP array data, as well as the automated functions for formatting SNP array data for the linkage analysis programs Merlin and Allegro and calling

  19. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  20. A COMPARISON BETWEEN SINGLE LINKAGE AND COMPLETE LINKAGE IN AGGLOMERATIVE HIERARCHICAL CLUSTER ANALYSIS FOR IDENTIFYING TOURISTS SEGMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Rashidah Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Cluster Analysis is a multivariate method in statistics. Agglomerative Hierarchical Cluster Analysis is one of approaches in Cluster Analysis. There are two linkage methods in Agglomerative Hierarchical Cluster Analysis which are Single Linkage and Complete Linkage. The purpose of this study is to compare between Single Linkage and Complete Linkage in Agglomerative Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. The comparison of performances between these linkage methods was shown by using Kruskal-Wallis tes...

  1. Supply and Marketing Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Supply and Marketing Cooperatives Council of CCPIT was established in March 1996. It is an institution under direct leadership of China Supply and Market-ing Cooperatives and at the same time a branch of China Council for Promotion of International Trade, with its major task to promoting and facilitating export-oriented economic trade and technological cooper-ation of the national supply and marketing cooperative system.

  2. Evolution of Cooperation on Temporal Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Aming; Su, Qi; Cornelius, Sean P; Liu, Yang-Yu; Wang, Long

    2016-01-01

    The structure of social networks is a key determinant in fostering cooperation and other altruistic behavior among naturally selfish individuals. However, most real social interactions are temporal, being both finite in duration and spread out over time. This raises the question of whether stable cooperation can form despite an intrinsically fragmented social fabric. Here we develop a framework to study the evolution of cooperation on temporal networks in the setting of the classic Prisoner's Dilemma. By analyzing both real and synthetic datasets, we find that temporal networks generally facilitate the evolution of cooperation compared to their static counterparts. More interestingly, we find that the intrinsic human interactive pattern like bursty behavior impedes the evolution of cooperation. Finally, we introduce a measure to quantify the temporality present in networks and demonstrate that there is an intermediate level of temporality that boosts cooperation most. Our results open a new avenue for investi...

  3. [Dystroglycan linkage and muscular dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Teruo

    2002-11-01

    Dystroglycan is a key complex between basal lamina laminin, extracellularly and membrano-cytoskeleton, intracellularly. The damage of this linkage is turned out to cause muscular dystrophies. Dystroglycan knockout is lethal. Dystroglycan-associated intracellular proteins such as dystrophin, dystrobrevin, sarcoglycans, plectin and caveolin-3 are responsible for causing severe (Duchenne type) and moderate forms (Becker, LGMDs). Laminin, dystroglycan-binding extracellular protein, is deficient in the most severe form of congenital muscular dystrophy with normal intelligence and eye. Recently, a remarkable progress is made in most severe forms of congenital muscular dystrophy with anomalies of brain and eye such as Fukuyama type (Japan) and muscle-eye-brain disease (Finland). The gene product for Fukuyama type, fukutin, belongs to a family of glycosylation enzymes in bacteria and yeast. Since alpha-dystroglycan contains 14-15 o-glycans, ser/thr-mannose 2-1 GlcNAc 4-1 Gal 3-2 Sial in the middle third mucin-domain and the sial-o-glycan is essential for laminin-binding, and since alpha-dystroglycan is defective in Fukuyama type sarcolemma with anti both sugar moiety- and peptide-antidodies, defective fukutin causes incomplete o-glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan. In '02, it is clarified that a glycosylation enzyme, POMGnT1 which modifies GlcNAc onto ser/thr-mannose, is defective in 6 MEB patients. The loss of the enzyme activity is turned out to lose alpha-dystroglycan from sarcolemma of MEB. These data strongly suggests that o-glycosylation defect of alpha-dystroglycan causes the most severe congenital muscular dystrophy such as Fukuyama type, MEB and Walker Warburg syndrome.

  4. An estimating function approach to linkage heterogeneity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    He Gao; Ying Zhou; Weijun Ma; Haidong Liu; Linan Zhao

    2013-12-01

    Testing linkage heterogeneity between two loci is an important issue in genetics. Currently, there are four methods (K-test, A-test, B-test and D-test) for testing linkage heterogeneity in linkage analysis, which are based on the likelihood-ratio test. Among them, the commonly used methods are the K-test and A-test. In this paper, we present a novel test method which is different from the above four tests, called G-test. The new test statistic is based on estimating function, possessing a theoretic asymptotic distribution, and therefore demonstrates its own advantages. The proposed test is applied to analyse a real pedigree dataset. Our simulation results also indicate that the G-test performs well in terms of power of testing linkage heterogeneity and outperforms the current methods to some degree.

  5. Missing Linkages in California's Landscape [ds420

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The critical need for conserving landscape linkages first came to the forefront of conservation thinking in California in November 2000, when a statewide interagency...

  6. Connectivity and Linkages Between Isolated Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Proposed areas where connectiviy and linkages between isolated habitat on the San Joaquin Valley floor and natural lands in the surrounding foothills should be...

  7. Resource linkages and sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anouti, Yahya

    Historically, fossil fuel consumers in most developing hydrocarbon-rich countries have enjoyed retail prices at a discount from international benchmarks. Governments of these countries consider the subsidy transfer to be a means for sharing the wealth from their resource endowment. These subsidies create negative economic, environmental, and social distortions, which can only increase over time with a fast growing, young, and rich population. The pressure to phase out these subsidies has been mounting over the last years. At the same time, policy makers in resource-rich developing countries are keen to obtain the greatest benefits for their economies from the extraction of their exhaustible resources. To this end, they are deploying local content policies with the aim of increasing the economic linkages from extracting their resources. Against this background, this dissertation's three essays evaluate (1) the global impact of rationalizing transport fuel prices, (2) how resource-rich countries can achieve the objectives behind fuel subsidies more efficiently through direct cash transfers, and (3) the economic tradeoffs from deploying local content policies and the presence of an optimal path. We begin by reviewing the literature and building the case for rationalizing transport fuel prices to reflect their direct costs (production), indirect costs (road maintenance) and negative externalities (climate change, local pollutants, traffic accidents and congestion). To do so, we increase the scope of the economic literature by presenting an algorithm to evaluate the rationalized prices in different countries. Then, we apply this algorithm to quantify the rationalized prices across 123 countries in a partial equilibrium setting. Finally, we present the first comprehensive measure of the impact of rationalizing fuel prices on the global demand for gasoline and diesel, environmental emissions, government revenues, and consumers' welfare. By rationalizing transport fuel

  8. Love or fear: can punishment promote cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupa, Sebestian

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is a paradox: Why should one perform a costly behavior only to increase the fitness of another? Human societies, in which individuals cooperate with genetically unrelated individuals on a considerably larger scale than most mammals do, are especially puzzling in this regard. Recently, the threat of punishment has been given substantial attention as one of the mechanisms that could help sustain human cooperation in such situations. Nevertheless, using punishment to explain cooperation only leads to further questions: Why spend precious resources to penalize free-riders, especially if others can avoid this investment and cheaters can punish you back? Here, it is argued that current evidence supports punishment as an efficient means for the maintenance of cooperation, and that the gravity of proposed limitations of punishment for maintaining cooperation may have been overestimated in previous studies due to the features of experimental design. Most notably, the importance of factors as characteristic of human societies as reputation and language has been greatly neglected. Ironically, it was largely the combination of the two that enabled humans to shape costly punishment into numerous low-cost and less detrimental strategies that clearly can promote human cooperation.

  9. Enhancing Educational Cooperation for Further Humane Cooperation with SAARC%加强教育合作促进中国南盟间的人文领域合作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹平

    2011-01-01

    A Friendly cooperative relationship of cultural and educational exchanges between China and SAARC has been developing successfully for a long time.Viewed as the communication carrier of cultural and educational exchanges,educational exchange has played a fundamentally and universally long -lasting leading role.Moreover,it has improved the mutual trust between the member states.Based on the different national conditions,cultures and education systems of China and SAARC,however,education in China could draw on many parts,such as learning and communication,for competitive improvement,problems and challenges in economic globalization.

  10. Gredos San Diego Cooperative. Cooperate to undertake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de la Higuera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the cooperative experience through Gredos San Diego model, its institutional approaches and its history from the point of view of management, focusing on the variables that enable the success of a collective ownership institution. First, the author makes a brief analysis of the principles that guide the cooperative, its origins and its current situation, including the development of GSD Cooperative Group. It continues exploring the evolution of management, dividing it into four distinct stages, and concludes with a summary with the findings of the previous president of the cooperative.Received: 23.07.2012Accepted: 10.09.2012

  11. Extensive fitness and human cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hateren, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known

  12. 基于动态博弈下的区域间人才合作分析%Analysis on Human Talents Cooperation of the Regions based on the Complete Information Dynamic Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉山

    2015-01-01

    Resources of human talents is one of the most important factor of production in the development of regional economy. This paper sets up a dynamic game model under complete information in human talents cooperation of enterprises on the basis of the management decisions of enterprises from the micro perspective by using black-box principle and game tools. Based on the reverse cluster analysis of the tree game stages of the model, it studies all kinds of net profit and blocking cost when there is cooperation of resources of human talents between two enterprises in the same or different region. At last it is concluded that the cost of human talents cooperation and the credible human talents system will influence business cooperation and human talents cooperation in the region. Therefore , the local government should not only make the strategy of encouraging the cooperation between the enterprises with talents and reducing the talents blocking, but also reduce and standardize the talent cooperation sharing costs for the talents demanded enterprises so as to promote the regional economic prosperity and exchange and make the cooperation among the talents in different areas also can contribute to the balanced development of the regional economy. It provides the reference and the strategy for eliminating bottlenecks of talents in the economic development of the region.%区域经济发展中,人才资源是最重要的生产要素之一。文章以微观角度,从企业的经营决策出发,利用黑箱原理和博弈工具,建立了采用完全信息下企业间的人才合作的动态博弈模型,通过对模型的三个博弈阶段进行逆向归纳分析,讨论相同或不同区域内两个企业间的人才资源合作时在各种情况下的净得益和阻碍成本,从而最终认为合适的人才合作费用和可信的人才合作共享机制都会影响到该区域的企业合作和人才交流。为此,建议地方政府不仅要制定出鼓励拥

  13. Cooperative Online Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Flate Paulsen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. The pedagogical and administrative challenges with regard to accommodating both individual freedom and cooperation are explained in the Theory of Cooperative Freedom. This article shows that cooperative learning can be implemented successfully through a set of instruments or means. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article also discusses how issues such as web 2.0, transparency, learning partners and individual progression plans relate to cooperative online education.

  14. Comparing linkage designs based on land facets to linkage designs based on focal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Brian M; Beier, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Least-cost modeling for focal species is the most widely used method for designing conservation corridors and linkages. However, these designs depend on today's land covers, which will be altered by climate change. We recently proposed an alternative approach based on land facets (recurring landscape units of relatively uniform topography and soils). The rationale is that corridors with high continuity of individual land facets will facilitate movement of species associated with each facet today and in the future. Conservation practitioners might like to know whether a linkage design based on land facets is likely to provide continuity of modeled breeding habitat for species needing connectivity today, and whether a linkage for focal species provides continuity and interspersion of land facets. To address these questions, we compared linkages designed for focal species and land facets in three landscapes in Arizona, USA. We used two variables to measure linkage utility, namely distances between patches of modeled breeding habitat for 5-16 focal species in each linkage, and resistance profiles for focal species and land facets between patches connected by the linkage. Compared to focal species designs, linkage designs based on land facets provided as much or more modeled habitat connectivity for 25 of 28 species-landscape combinations, failing only for the three species with the most narrowly distributed habitat. Compared to land facets designs, focal species linkages provided lower connectivity for about half the land facets in two landscapes. In areas where a focal species approach to linkage design is not possible, our results suggest that conservation practitioners may be able to implement a land facets approach with some confidence that the linkage design would serve most potential focal species. In areas where focal species designs are possible, we recommend using the land facet approach to complement, rather than replace, focal species approaches.

  15. Keep your opponents close: social context affects EEG and fEMG linkage in a turn-based computer game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel M Spapé

    Full Text Available In daily life, we often copy the gestures and expressions of those we communicate with, but recent evidence shows that such mimicry has a physiological counterpart: interaction elicits linkage, which is a concordance between the biological signals of those involved. To find out how the type of social interaction affects linkage, pairs of participants played a turn-based computer game in which the level of competition was systematically varied between cooperation and competition. Linkage in the beta and gamma frequency bands was observed in the EEG, especially when the participants played directly against each other. Emotional expression, measured using facial EMG, reflected this pattern, with the most competitive condition showing enhanced linkage over the facial muscle-regions involved in smiling. These effects were found to be related to self-reported social presence: linkage in positive emotional expression was associated with self-reported shared negative feelings. The observed effects confirmed the hypothesis that the social context affected the degree to which participants had similar reactions to their environment and consequently showed similar patterns of brain activity. We discuss the functional resemblance between linkage, as an indicator of a shared physiology and affect, and the well-known mirror neuron system, and how they relate to social functions like empathy.

  16. Modelling and visualizing fine-scale linkage disequilibrium structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Detailed study of genetic variation at the population level in humans and other species is now possible due to the availability of large sets of single nucleotide polymorphism data. Alleles at two or more loci are said to be in linkage disequilibrium (LD) when they are correlated...... the methods they are applied to data obtained by genotyping 8341 pigs. It is found that roughly 20% of the porcine genome exhibits complex LD patterns, forming islands of relatively high genetic diversity. Conclusions The proposed algorithm is efficient and makes it feasible to estimate and visualize...

  17. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  18. Fine mapping quantitative trait loci under selective phenotyping strategies based on linkage and linkage disequilibrium criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari-Mahyari, S; Berg, P; Lund, M S

    2009-01-01

    In fine mapping of a large-scale experimental population where collection of phenotypes are very expensive, difficult to record or time-demanding, selective phenotyping could be used to phenotype the most informative individuals. Linkage analyses based sampling criteria (LAC) and linkage...... disequilibrium-based sampling criteria (LDC) for selecting individuals to phenotype are compared to random phenotyping in a quantitative trait loci (QTL) verification experiment using stochastic simulation. Several strategies based on LAC and LDC for selecting the most informative 30%, 40% or 50% of individuals...... for phenotyping to extract maximum power and precision in a QTL fine mapping experiment were developed and assessed. Linkage analyses for the mapping was performed for individuals sampled on LAC within families and combined linkage disequilibrium and linkage analyses was performed for individuals sampled across...

  19. Evaluation Of Investments In Science, Technology And Innovation: Applying Scientific and Technical Human Capital Framework For Assessment of Doctoral Students In Cooperative Research Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonchuk, Olena

    other students' outcomes by employing data from a matched sample of S&E doctoral students trained at the Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers, I/UCRCs (N=173), and doctoral students from the same universities and disciplines who were trained more traditionally (N=87). Two exploratory path models demonstrate the important role of availability of network resources and proxy for mobilizing them on students' perceived career preparedness and satisfaction with their training. Study 2 is a case study of one I/UCRC's whole social network. The researcher attempts to provide a better understanding of the embeddedness components of students' social capital in their I/UCRC network. The case study has significant limitations in that findings cannot be generalized to the population of I/UCRC students. Nevertheless, findings are interesting for the one I/UCRC. The students scored significantly higher on preparedness when they had higher out-degree centrality, indicator of how much they reach out to other center's personnel. Also, a visual representation of the whole I/UCRC social network could be used to understand better students' embeddedness. Both studies show that social capital is a very hard concept to measure mainly because of its different dimensions. Nevertheless, they also show that social capital is a useful tool for comparing students' outcomes in different STI programs. A focus on students and social capital is one of the ways the S&T human capital model can be applied in evaluation of the STI programs. Such focus provides a considerable contrast to linear STI metrics that focus on long-term outcomes and often exclude students all together. It is important to provide information about the human side of science in its current state including students' graduate training, experiences and social networks. In addition, inclusion of students provides a view into the future - an opportunity to look at science of tomorrow as the same students will be part of the

  20. Visualization of pairwise and multilocus linkage disequilibrium structure using latent forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Mourad

    Full Text Available Linkage disequilibrium study represents a major issue in statistical genetics as it plays a fundamental role in gene mapping and helps us to learn more about human history. The linkage disequilibrium complex structure makes its exploratory data analysis essential yet challenging. Visualization methods, such as the triangular heat map implemented in Haploview, provide simple and useful tools to help understand complex genetic patterns, but remain insufficient to fully describe them. Probabilistic graphical models have been widely recognized as a powerful formalism allowing a concise and accurate modeling of dependences between variables. In this paper, we propose a method for short-range, long-range and chromosome-wide linkage disequilibrium visualization using forests of hierarchical latent class models. Thanks to its hierarchical nature, our method is shown to provide a compact view of both pairwise and multilocus linkage disequilibrium spatial structures for the geneticist. Besides, a multilocus linkage disequilibrium measure has been designed to evaluate linkage disequilibrium in hierarchy clusters. To learn the proposed model, a new scalable algorithm is presented. It constrains the dependence scope, relying on physical positions, and is able to deal with more than one hundred thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms. The proposed algorithm is fast and does not require phase genotypic data.

  1. 基于多智能体的人机协作智能信息系统%Human-Computer-Cooperated Intelligent Information System Based on Multi-Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操龙兵; 戴汝为

    2003-01-01

    综合集成研讨厅理论体系是作为处理开放的复杂巨系统的有关问题而提出的,其实质是一个人机协作的智能信息系统.本文主要探索研讨厅的实现途径,给出了基于网络的研讨厅的层次模型与系统结构,提出了基于内嵌客户/Agent/服务器的请求器-中介器-供应器模型的多智能体研讨厅的多层分布计算模型,并基于Java的智能信息Agent技术探讨了支持宏观经济决策的多智能体研讨厅的构架及工作机制.研究表明,基于Internet有关技术与Agent计算技术有可能实现研讨厅,并由于Agent技术的优势而可能得到较好的系统性能.%The Hall for Workshop of Metasynthetic Engineering(HWME) is an engeering technology proposed for coping with open complex giant systems. In this paper we describe the implementation of a human-computer-cooperated intelligent information system with HWME and multi-agents. We propose a layered model, a system structure over the network, and a distributed computing model-an n-tier client/agent/server-nested Requester-Mediator-Provider-for building the system. Furthermore, we discuss the framework and working mechanisms of an agent-based system of HWME, which is designed for macroeconomic decision-support based on intelligent information agents in Java. Our system implementation shows that an agent-oriented HWME system over the Internet may exhibit better performance in terms of handling open complex problems.

  2. Effectiveness of service linkages in primary mental health care: a narrative review part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Sharon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the move to community care and increased involvement of generalist health care providers in mental health, the need for health service partnerships has been emphasised in mental health policy. Within existing health system structures the active strategies that facilitate effective partnership linkages are not clear. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence from peer reviewed literature regarding the effectiveness of service linkages in primary mental health care. Methods A narrative and thematic review of English language papers published between 1998 and 2009. Studies of analytic, descriptive and qualitative designs from Australia, New Zealand, UK, Europe, USA and Canada were included. Data were extracted to examine what service linkages have been used in studies of collaboration in primary mental health care. Findings from the randomised trials were tabulated to show the proportion that demonstrated clinical, service delivery and economic benefits. Results A review of 119 studies found ten linkage types. Most studies used a combination of linkage types and so the 42 RCTs were grouped into four broad linkage categories for meaningful descriptive analysis of outcomes. Studies that used multiple linkage strategies from the suite of "direct collaborative activities" plus "agreed guidelines" plus "communication systems" showed positive clinical (81%, service (78% and economic (75% outcomes. Most evidence of effectiveness came from studies of depression. Long term benefits were attributed to medication concordance and the use of case managers with a professional background who received expert supervision. There were fewer randomised trials related to collaborative care of people with psychosis and there were almost none related to collaboration with the wider human service sectors. Because of the variability of study types we did not exclude on quality or attempt to weight findings according to power or effect

  3. Extensive Dialogues and Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chinese Taipei On March 23,Chairman Wan Jifei of the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) and Board Chairman Wang Zhigang of the Taipei World Trade Center (TWTC) signed a cooperation agreement at the Taipei World Trade Tower,marking the new page of the development of cooperation and relations between the two organizations and the establishment of their cooperation mechanism.

  4. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperato...

  5. Cooperative Software Testing and Analysis:Advances and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢涛; 张路; 肖旭生; 熊英飞; 郝丹

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, to maximize the value of software testing and analysis, we have proposed the methodology of cooperative software testing and analysis (in short as cooperative testing and analysis) to enable testing and analysis tools to cooperate with their users (in the form of tool-human cooperation), and enable one tool to cooperate with another tool (in the form of tool-tool cooperation). Such cooperations are motivated by the observation that a tool is typically not powerful enough to address complications in testing or analysis of complex real-world software, and the tool user or another tool may be able to help out some problems faced by the tool. To enable tool-human or tool-tool cooperation, effective mechanisms need to be developed 1) for a tool to communicate problems faced by the tool to the tool user or another tool, and 2) for the tool user or another tool to assist the tool to address the problems. Such methodology of cooperative testing and analysis forms a new research frontier on synergistic cooperations between humans and tools along with cooperations between tools and tools. This article presents recent example advances and challenges on cooperative testing and analysis.

  6. FY 1998 Report on research and development project. Research and development of human-cooperative/coexisting robot systems; 1998 nendo ningen kyocho kyozongata robot system kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This R and D project is aimed at development of the human-cooperative/coexisting robot systems with high safety and reliability, capable of performing complicated works cooperatively and in a coexisting manner with humans in human working and living spaces, in order to help improve safety and efficiency in various industrial areas, improve services and convenience in manufacturing and service areas, and create new industries. The trend surveys cover humanoid robot systems, remote control systems and simulators, and the application surveys cover services for humans, basic humanoids and entertainment communication. The 1998 R and D efforts include research and development, fabrication and surveys for the following themes; (1) fabrication of robot platforms for supporting manual works, (2) development of surrounded visual display systems, (3) development of robot arm manipulation and force displaying systems, (4) development of a dynamic simulator, (5) development of a distributed software platform, (6) researches and development of computation algorithm for kinematic chain dynamics, (7) development of motion teaching system for multi-functional robots, (8) investigation of trends in robotics technology, and (9) researches and surveys of robot application. (NEDO)

  7. Inter-organizational linkages and resource dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod B. McNaughton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the relationship between inter-industry, inter-corporate ownership (ICO patterns and inter-industry resource exchange patterns. Using data from Statistics Canada, this paper reveals a positive association between the degree of ICO linkages and the degree of input–output dependence among Canadian industry groups. This provides empirical support for the primary assertion of resource dependence theory: that corporations employ ICO linkages to manage their input–output dependence resulting from recurrent resource exchanges. This research differs from extant tests of resource dependence in that it uses data for the population of firms (over a size threshold in Canada and includes all forms of interdependence between enterprises. The findings suggest scenarios in which corporations can adopt ICO linkages to manage resource dependence and reduce transaction costs.

  8. Intragroup Emotions: Physiological Linkage and Social Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion—communicative expression and physiological state—to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence. PMID:26903913

  9. Intragroup emotions: physiological linkage and social presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eJärvelä

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion – communicative expression and physiological state – to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member’s physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence.

  10. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  11. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  12. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Cao

    Full Text Available Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks. This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels meet, they play the (anti- coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic. We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  13. STRATEGY OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona DANILIUC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the authors describe the essence of cooperation and those strategic problems that can be solved internationally only through cooperation efforts. In this context, the authors propose to understand cooperation as the actions of a few companies, corporations from one country or several countries that through their activities contribute to the achievement of goals of economic, ecological and social importance for a region, a country, many countries or for all humanity. Cooperation in such cases, contribute to realization of synergistic results and development of preconditions for each participant to carry out its activities according to its own optimization criteria. Cooperation generates productive systems based on principles and technologies, it can be multispectral, creates preconditions for demand increasing, solves some marketing problems, creates a comfortable space for the activities of all economic subjects.

  14. Strategy of International Economic Cooperation: methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Silvestru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the authors describe the essence of cooperation and those strategic problems that can be solved internationally only through cooperation efforts. In this context, the authors propose to understand cooperation as the actions of a few companies, corporations from one country or several countries that through their activities contribute to the achievement of goals of economic, ecological and social importance for a region, a country, many countries or for all humanity. Cooperation in such cases, contribute to realization of synergistic results and development of preconditions for each participant to carry out its activities according to its own optimization criteria. Cooperation generates productive systems based on principles and technologies, it can be multispectral, creates preconditions for demand increasing, solves some marketing problems, creates a comfortable space for the activities of all economic subjects.

  15. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  16. Some methods for blindfolded record linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen Peter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The linkage of records which refer to the same entity in separate data collections is a common requirement in public health and biomedical research. Traditionally, record linkage techniques have required that all the identifying data in which links are sought be revealed to at least one party, often a third party. This necessarily invades personal privacy and requires complete trust in the intentions of that party and their ability to maintain security and confidentiality. Dusserre, Quantin, Bouzelat and colleagues have demonstrated that it is possible to use secure one-way hash transformations to carry out follow-up epidemiological studies without any party having to reveal identifying information about any of the subjects – a technique which we refer to as "blindfolded record linkage". A limitation of their method is that only exact comparisons of values are possible, although phonetic encoding of names and other strings can be used to allow for some types of typographical variation and data errors. Methods A method is described which permits the calculation of a general similarity measure, the n-gram score, without having to reveal the data being compared, albeit at some cost in computation and data communication. This method can be combined with public key cryptography and automatic estimation of linkage model parameters to create an overall system for blindfolded record linkage. Results The system described offers good protection against misdeeds or security failures by any one party, but remains vulnerable to collusion between or simultaneous compromise of two or more parties involved in the linkage operation. In order to reduce the likelihood of this, the use of last-minute allocation of tasks to substitutable servers is proposed. Proof-of-concept computer programmes written in the Python programming language are provided to illustrate the similarity comparison protocol. Conclusion Although the protocols described in

  17. Dilemmas of partial cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Related to the often applied cooperation models of social dilemmas, we deal with scenarios in which defection dominates cooperation, but an intermediate fraction of cooperators, that is, "partial cooperation," would maximize the overall performance of a group of individuals. Of course, such a solution comes at the expense of cooperators that do not profit from the overall maximum. However, because there are mechanisms accounting for mutual benefits after repeated interactions or through evolutionary mechanisms, such situations can constitute "dilemmas" of partial cooperation. Among the 12 ordinally distinct, symmetrical 2 x 2 games, three (barely considered) variants are correspondents of such dilemmas. Whereas some previous studies investigated particular instances of such games, we here provide the unifying framework and concisely relate it to the broad literature on cooperation in social dilemmas. Complementing our argumentation, we study the evolution of partial cooperation by deriving the respective conditions under which coexistence of cooperators and defectors, that is, partial cooperation, can be a stable outcome of evolutionary dynamics in these scenarios. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such models for research on the large biodiversity and variation in cooperative efforts both in biological and social systems.

  18. Global Stability Through Security Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    operations via piracy , smuggling of weapons, narcotics, human trafficking, conducting terrorist operations, and if possible terrorist operations with...sovereign state and region. This collaboration, coordination, and cooperation require a unity of purpose and reading from the “same sheet of music .” The...requirement for three distinct organizations to operate together and be on the same “sheet of music ” must demand a strategic, comprehensive assessment

  19. Linkage of traffic crash and hospitalization records with limited identifiers for enhanced public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderino, Sarah; Fung, Lawrence; Sedlar, Slavenka; Norton, Jennifer M

    2017-04-01

    Motor vehicle traffic (MVT) crashes kill or seriously injure approximately 4250 people in New York City (NYC) each year. Traditionally, NYC surveillance practices use hospitalization and crash data separately to monitor trends in MVT-related injuries, but key information linking crash circumstances to health outcomes is lost when analyzing these data sources in isolation. Our objective was to match crash reports to hospitalization records to create a traffic injury surveillance dataset that can be used to describe crash circumstances and related injury outcomes. The linkage of the two systems presents a unique challenge since the system tracking crashes and the system tracking hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits lack key identifying data such as names and dates of birth. NYC Department of Transportation provided electronic records based on reports of motor vehicle crashes submitted to the New York State Department of Motor Vehicles for all crashes occurring in NYC from 2009 to 2013. New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) ED and hospitalization administrative data from NYC hospitals were used to identify unintentional MVT-related injuries using external cause of injury codes. Since the two systems do not share unique individual identifiers, probabilistic record linkage was conducted using LinkSolv9.0. Sensitivity/specificity calculations and chi-square analyses of linkage rates were conducted to assess linkage results. From 2009-2013, there were 1,054,344 individuals involved in MVT crashes in NYC and 280,340 ED visits and hospitalizations from MVT-related injuries. There were 145,003 linked pairs, giving a linkage rate of 52% of the total MVT-related hospital records. This linkage had a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 93%. Linkage rates were comparable by age, sex, crash role, collision type, hospital county, injury location, hospital type, and hospital status, indicating no apparent biases in the match by

  20. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed their li......To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...... of this research project. The main objective of this research is to better understand the proces of collective maintenance of these ancient water tunnels. The study evaluates the social, cultural, political and environmental factors that have driven abandonment and decay of qanats in Syria. It tries to reconcile...

  1. HLA region excluded by linkage analyses of early onset periodontitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, C.; Wang, S.; Lopez, N.

    1994-09-01

    Previous studies suggested that HLA genes may influence susceptibility to early-onset periodontitis (EOP). Segregation analyses indicate that EOP may be due to a single major gene. We conducted linkage analyses to assess possible HLA effects on EOP. Fifty families with two or more close relatives affected by EOP were ascertained in Virginia and Chile. A microsatellite polymorphism within the HLA region (at the tumor necrosis factor beta locus) was typed using PCR. Linkage analyses used a donimant model most strongly supported by previous studies. Assuming locus homogeneity, our results exclude a susceptibility gene within 10 cM on either side of our marker locus. This encompasses all of the HLA region. Analyses assuming alternative models gave qualitatively similar results. Allowing for locus heterogeneity, our data still provide no support for HLA-region involvement. However, our data do not statistically exclude (LOD <-2.0) hypotheses of disease-locus heterogeneity, including models where up to half of our families could contain an EOP disease gene located in the HLA region. This is due to the limited power of even our relatively large collection of families and the inherent difficulties of mapping genes for disorders that have complex and heterogeneous etiologies. Additional statistical analyses, recruitment of families, and typing of flanking DNA markers are planned to more conclusively address these issues with respect to the HLA region and other candidate locations in the human genome. Additional results for markers covering most of the human genome will also be presented.

  2. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Saavedra

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  3. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-27

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  4. Subgame consistent cooperation a comprehensive treatise

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, David W K

    2016-01-01

    Strategic behavior in the human and social world has been increasingly recognized in theory and practice. It is well known that non-cooperative behavior could lead to suboptimal or even highly undesirable outcomes. Cooperation suggests the possibility of obtaining socially optimal solutions and the calls for cooperation are prevalent in real-life problems. Dynamic cooperation cannot be sustainable if there is no guarantee that the agreed upon optimality principle at the beginning is maintained throughout the cooperation duration. It is due to the lack of this kind of guarantees that cooperative schemes fail to last till its end or even fail to get started. The property of subgame consistency in cooperative dynamic games and the corresponding solution mechanism resolve this “classic” problem in game theory. This book is a comprehensive treatise on subgame consistent dynamic cooperation covering the up-to-date state of the art analyses in this important topic. It sets out to provide the theory, solution tec...

  5. Uncalculating cooperation is used to signal trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jillian J; Hoffman, Moshe; Nowak, Martin A; Rand, David G

    2016-08-02

    Humans frequently cooperate without carefully weighing the costs and benefits. As a result, people may wind up cooperating when it is not worthwhile to do so. Why risk making costly mistakes? Here, we present experimental evidence that reputation concerns provide an answer: people cooperate in an uncalculating way to signal their trustworthiness to observers. We present two economic game experiments in which uncalculating versus calculating decision-making is operationalized by either a subject's choice of whether to reveal the precise costs of cooperating (Exp. 1) or the time a subject spends considering these costs (Exp. 2). In both experiments, we find that participants are more likely to engage in uncalculating cooperation when their decision-making process is observable to others. Furthermore, we confirm that people who engage in uncalculating cooperation are perceived as, and actually are, more trustworthy than people who cooperate in a calculating way. Taken together, these data provide the first empirical evidence, to our knowledge, that uncalculating cooperation is used to signal trustworthiness, and is not merely an efficient decision-making strategy that reduces cognitive costs. Our results thus help to explain a range of puzzling behaviors, such as extreme altruism, the use of ethical principles, and romantic love.

  6. Environmental adversity and uncertainty favour cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andras, Peter; Lazarus, John; Roberts, Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    Background A major cornerstone of evolutionary biology theory is the explanation of the emergence of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. There is an unexplained tendency in the plant and animal world – with examples from alpine plants, worms, fish, mole-rats, monkeys and humans – for cooperation to flourish where the environment is more adverse (harsher) or more unpredictable. Results Using mathematical arguments and computer simulations we show that in more adverse environments individuals perceive their resources to be more unpredictable, and that this unpredictability favours cooperation. First we show analytically that in a more adverse environment the individual experiences greater perceived uncertainty. Second we show through a simulation study that more perceived uncertainty implies higher level of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. Conclusion This study captures the essential features of the natural examples: the positive impact of resource adversity or uncertainty on cooperation. These newly discovered connections between environmental adversity, uncertainty and cooperation help to explain the emergence and evolution of cooperation in animal and human societies. PMID:18053138

  7. Environmental adversity and uncertainty favour cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus John

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major cornerstone of evolutionary biology theory is the explanation of the emergence of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. There is an unexplained tendency in the plant and animal world – with examples from alpine plants, worms, fish, mole-rats, monkeys and humans – for cooperation to flourish where the environment is more adverse (harsher or more unpredictable. Results Using mathematical arguments and computer simulations we show that in more adverse environments individuals perceive their resources to be more unpredictable, and that this unpredictability favours cooperation. First we show analytically that in a more adverse environment the individual experiences greater perceived uncertainty. Second we show through a simulation study that more perceived uncertainty implies higher level of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. Conclusion This study captures the essential features of the natural examples: the positive impact of resource adversity or uncertainty on cooperation. These newly discovered connections between environmental adversity, uncertainty and cooperation help to explain the emergence and evolution of cooperation in animal and human societies.

  8. Cooperative gating between ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kee-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative gating between ion channels, i.e. the gating of one channel directly coupled to the gating of neighboring channels, has been observed in diverse channel types at the single-channel level. Positively coupled gating could enhance channel-mediated signaling while negative coupling may effectively reduce channel gating noise. Indeed, the physiological significance of cooperative channel gating in signal transduction has been recognized in several in vivo studies. Moreover, coupled gating of ion channels was reported to be associated with some human disease states. In this review, physiological roles for channel cooperativity and channel clustering observed in vitro and in vivo are introduced, and stimulation-induced channel clustering and direct channel cross linking are suggested as the physical mechanisms of channel assembly. Along with physical clustering, several molecular mechanisms proposed as the molecular basis for functional coupling of neighboring channels are covered: permeant ions as a channel coupling mediator, concerted channel activation through the membrane, and allosteric mechanisms. Also, single-channel analysis methods for cooperative gating such as the binomial analysis, the variance analysis, the conditional dwell time density analysis, and the maximum likelihood fitting analysis are reviewed and discussed.

  9. Producer Services, Manufacturing Linkages, and Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); J. Kepler; J. Woerz

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWorking with a mix of panel data on goods and services trade for the OECD for 1994-2004, combined with social accounts data (i.e. data on intermediate linkages) for 78 countries benchmarked to the panel midpoint, we examine the role of services as inputs in manufacturing, with a particul

  10. Asset Market Linkages in Crisis Periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hartmann; S. Straetmans; C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe characterize asset return linkages during periods of stress by an extremal dependence measure. Contrary to correlation analysis, this non-parametric measure is not predisposed towards the normal distribution and can account for non-linear relationships. Our estimates for the G-5 count

  11. Asset Market Linkages in Crisis Periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hartmann; S. Straetmans; C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe characterize asset return linkages during periods of stress by an extremal dependence measure. Contrary to correlation analysis, this non-parametric measure is not predisposed towards the normal distribution and can account for non-linear relationships. Our estimates for the G-5

  12. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    : wst5 (white streaks), necl (necrotic leaf spots), Ml-nn (powdery mildew resistance), and Pa4 (leaf rust resistance). Further, the two sections of the map are united, and the precision of the map is improved. A system for designating the positions of the loci on the linkage map is proposed. A 0...

  13. Innovation, Technology Transfer and Labor Productivity Linkages: Evidence from a Panel of Manufacturing Industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apergis, N.; Economidou, C.; Filippidis, I.

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores the linkages between labor productivity, innovation and technology spillovers in a panel of manufacturing industries. The roles of R&D, human capital and international trade are considered in stimulating innovation and/or facilitating technology transfer. Using panel-based unit ro

  14. Linkages among Education, Health, and Social Services Systems in States That Are Creating New Governance Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Sue E.; Pollard, Joyce S.

    As they work to develop integrated, community-driven service systems that meet the constellation of needs of children and families, several states are beginning to develop new governance structures at the local level. This paper describes the ways in which states are creating or supporting linkages among education, health, and human services. A…

  15. Detection of tandam duplications and implications for linkage analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matise, T.C.; Weeks, D.E. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Chakravarti, A. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)); Patel, P.I.; Lupski, J.R. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Nelis, E.; Timmerman, V.; Van Broeckhoven, C. (Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium))

    1994-06-01

    The first demonstration of an autosomal dominant human disease caused by segmental trisomy came in 1991 for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). For this disorder, the segmental trisomy is due to a large tandem duplication of 1.5 Mb of DNA located on chromosome 17p11.2-p12. The search for the CMT1A disease gene was misdirected and impeded because some chromosome 17 genetic markers that are linked to CMT1A lie within this duplication. To better understand how such a duplication might affect genetic analyses in the context of disease gene mapping, the authors studied the effects of marker duplication on transmission probabilities of marker alleles, on linkage analysis of an autosomal dominant disease, and on tests of linkage homogeneity. They demonstrate that the undetected presence of a duplication distorts transmission ratios, hampers fine localization of the disease gene, and increases false evidence of linkage heterogeneity. In addition, they devised a likelihood-based method for detecting the presence of a tandemly duplicated marker when one is suspected. They tested their methods through computer simulations and on CMT1A pedigrees genotyped at several chromosome 17 markers. On the simulated data, the method detected 96% of duplicated markers (with a false-positive rate of 5%). On the CMT1A data the method successfully identified two of three loci that are duplicated (with no false positives). This method could be used to identify duplicated markers in other regions of the genome and could be used to delineate the extent of duplications similar to that involved in CMT1A. 18 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumnam, Bibek; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Qureshi, Qamar; Maldonado, Jesus E; Gopal, Rajesh; Saini, Swati; Srinivas, Y; Fleischer, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km(2) of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km(2). After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST) between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05) compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should provide legal status

  17. Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibek Yumnam

    Full Text Available Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km(2 of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km(2. After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05 compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should

  18. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028.114 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS... institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects and for complying with...

  19. Role of aspiration-induced migration in cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Both cooperation and migration are ubiquitous in human society and animal world. In this Rapid Communication, we propose an aspiration-induced migration in which individuals will migrate to new sites provided that their payoffs are below some aspiration level. It is found that moderate aspiration level can best favor cooperative behavior. In particular, moderate aspiration level enables cooperator clusters to maintain and expand whereas induces defector clusters to disintegrate, thus promoting the diffusion of cooperation among population. Our results provide insights into understanding the role played by migration in the emergence of cooperative behavior.

  20. Autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia; Linkage analysis and evidence for linkage to chromosome 2p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figlewicz, D.A. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Dube, M.P.; Rouleau, G.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Familial spastic paraplegia (FSP) is a degenerative disorder of the motor system characterized by progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs. Little is known about the pathophysiology of this disorder. FSP can be inherited as an autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive, or X-linked trait. We have undertaken linkage analysis for a group of 36 AD FSP families from which we have collected blood samples from 427 individuals, including 148 affected individuals. Typing of polymorphic markers has allowed us to exclude more than 50% of the genome. Recently, linkage for AD FSP to a locus on chromosome 14q was reported. Our AD FSP kindreds were tested for linkage to markers spanning the 20 cM region between D14S69 and D14S66; however, we were not able to establish linkage for any of our families to chromosome 14. Lod scores suggestive of linkage for some AD FSP kindreds have been obtained for markers on chromosome 2p. We have tested seven polymorphic markers spanning the region between D2S405 and D2S177. Our highest aggregate lod score, including all families tested, was obtained at the locus D2S352: 2.4 at 20 cM. Results from HOMOG analysis for linkage heterogeneity will be reported.

  1. Cooperative wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative devices and mechanisms are increasingly important to enhance the performance of wireless communications and networks, with their ability to decrease power consumption and packet loss rate and increase system capacity, computation, and network resilience. Considering the wide range of applications, strategies, and benefits associated with cooperative wireless communications, researchers and product developers need a succinct understanding of relevant theory, fundamentals, and techniques to navigate this challenging field. ""Cooperative Wireless Communications"" provides just that. I

  2. Genome-wide family-based linkage analysis of exome chip variants and cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwege, Jacklyn N; Palmer, Nicholette D; Raffield, Laura M; Ng, Maggie C Y; Hawkins, Gregory A; Long, Jirong; Lorenzo, Carlos; Norris, Jill M; Ida Chen, Y-D; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Rotter, Jerome I; Langefeld, Carl D; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Bowden, Donald W

    2014-05-01

    Linkage analysis of complex traits has had limited success in identifying trait-influencing loci. Recently, coding variants have been implicated as the basis for some biomedical associations. We tested whether coding variants are the basis for linkage peaks of complex traits in 42 African-American (n = 596) and 90 Hispanic (n = 1,414) families in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS) using Illumina HumanExome Beadchips. A total of 92,157 variants in African Americans (34%) and 81,559 (31%) in Hispanics were polymorphic and tested using two-point linkage and association analyses with 37 cardiometabolic phenotypes. In African Americans 77 LOD scores greater than 3 were observed. The highest LOD score was 4.91 with the APOE SNP rs7412 (MAF = 0.13) with plasma apolipoprotein B (ApoB). This SNP was associated with ApoB (P-value = 4 × 10(-19)) and accounted for 16.2% of the variance in African Americans. In Hispanic families, 104 LOD scores were greater than 3. The strongest evidence of linkage (LOD = 4.29) was with rs5882 (MAF = 0.46) in CETP with HDL. CETP variants were strongly associated with HDL (0.00049 evidence of strong linkage in this genome wide survey of primarily coding variants was uncommon. Loci with strong evidence of linkage was characterized by large contributions to the variance, and, in these cases, are common variants. Less compelling evidence of linkage and association was observed with additional loci that may require larger family sets to confirm. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  3. Linkage analysis of chromosome 14 and essential hypertension in Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei-yan; HUANG Jian-feng; GE Dong-liang; SU Shao-yong; LI Biao; GU Dong-feng

    2005-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a complex biological trait that influenced by multiple factors. The encouraging results for hypertension research showed that the linkage analysis can be used to replicate other studies and discover new genetic risk factors. Previous studies linked human chromosome 14 to essential hypertension or blood pressure traits. With a Chinese population, we tried to replicate these findings. Methods A linkage scan was performed on chromosome 14 with 14-microsatellite markers with a density of about 10 centi Morgen (cM) in 147 Chinese hypertensive nuclear families. Multipoint non-parametric linkage analysis and exclusion mapping were performed with the GENEHUNTER software, whereas quantitative analysis was performed with the variance component method integrated in the SOLAR package. Results In the qualitative analysis, the highest non-parametric linkage score is 1.0 (P=0.14) at D14S261 in the single point analysis, and no loci achieved non-parametric linkage score more than 1.0 in the multipoint analysis. Maximum-likelihood mapping showed no significant results, either. Subsequently the traditional exclusion criteria of the log-of-the-odds score-2 were adopted, and the chromosome 14 with λs≥2.4 was excluded. In the quantitative analysis of blood pressure with the SOLAR software, two-point analysis and multipoint analysis suggested no evidence for linkage occurred on chromosome 14 for systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion There was no substantial evidence to support the linkage of chromosome 14 and essential hypertension or blood pressure trait in Chinese hypertensive subjects in this study.

  4. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  5. Futures for energy cooperatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A listing of Federal agencies and programs with potential funding for community-scale cooperatives using conservation measures and solar technologies is presented in Section 1. Section 2 presents profiles of existing community energy cooperatives describing their location, history, membership, services, sources of finance and technical assistance. A condensed summary from a recent conference on Energy Cooperatives featuring notes on co-op members' experiences, problems, and opportunities is presented in Section 3. Section 4 lists contacts for additional information. A National Consumer Cooperative Bank Load Application is shown in the appendix.

  6. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    a gravitational pull which goes beyond economic problems. Furthermore, the EU has gradually built up a coherent policy on many fields. The EU has become the “reform anchor” and most important cooperation partner for Egypt. The progress towards increasing Egypt’s “Stake in the Internal Market” places cooperation...... on an increasingly institutionalized basis. In terms of military cooperation the US is still the partner for Egypt. But outside the military sphere institutionalized cooperation is comparatively week. In particular the failure of the US to conclude a free-trade agreement has been crucial. But it would be wrong...

  7. Cooperation between CERN and ITER

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN and the International Fusion Organisation ITER have just signed a first cooperation agreeement. Kaname Ikeda, the Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organisation (ITER) (on the right) and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN, signing the agreement.The Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organization, Mr Kaname Ikeda, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement at a meeting on the Meyrin site on Thursday 6 March. One of the main purposes of this agreement is for CERN to give ITER the benefit of its experience in the field of technology as well as in administrative domains such as finance, procurement, human resources and informatics through the provision of consultancy services. Currently in its start-up phase at its Cadarache site, 70 km from Marseilles (France), ITER will focus its research on the scientific and technical feasibility of using fusion energy as a fu...

  8. Biomechanical design of escalading lower limb exoskeleton with novel linkage joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoan; Liu, Gangfeng; Ma, Sun; Wang, Tianshuo; Zhao, Jie; Zhu, Yanhe

    2017-07-20

    In this paper, an obstacle-surmounting-enabled lower limb exoskeleton with novel linkage joints that perfectly mimicked human motions was proposed. Currently, most lower exoskeletons that use linear actuators have a direct connection between the wearer and the controlled part. Compared to the existing joints, the novel linkage joint not only fitted better into compact chasis, but also provided greater torque when the joint was at a large bend angle. As a result, it extended the angle range of joint peak torque output. With any given power, torque was prioritized over rotational speed, because instead of rotational speed, sufficiency of torque is the premise for most joint actions. With insufficient torque, the exoskeleton will be a burden instead of enhancement to its wearer. With optimized distribution of torque among the joints, the novel linkage method may contribute to easier exoskeleton movements.

  9. Genome-wide linkage scan for loci associated with epilepsy in Belgian shepherd dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regan Kelly R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd dog is known to have a substantial genetic component. The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with the expression of generalized seizures in the Belgian Tervuren and Sheepdog. Results DNA from 366 dogs, of which 74 were classified as epileptic, representing two extended families were subjected to a genome-wide linkage scan using 410 microsatellite markers yielding informative coverage averaging 5.95 ± 0.21 Mb. Though previous studies based on pedigree analyses proposed a major gene of influence, the present study demonstrated the trait to be highly polygenic. Studies of complex disorders in humans indicate that a liberal composite evaluation of genetic linkage is needed to identify underlying quantitative trait loci (QTLs. Four chromosomes yielded tentative linkage based upon LOD scores in excess of 1.0. Possible QTLs within these regions were supported also by analyses of multipoint linkage, allele frequency, TDT, and transmission of haplotype blocks. Conclusions Taken together the data tentatively indicate six QTLs, three on CFA 2, and one on each of CFA 6, 12, and 37, that support fine mapping for mutations associated with epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd. The study also underscores the complexity of genomic linkage studies for polygenic disorders.

  10. A population genetics model of linkage disequilibrium in admixed populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Understanding linkage disequilibrium (LD) created in admixed population and the rate of decay in the disequilibrium over evolution is an important subject in population genetics theory and in disease gene mapping in human populations. The present study represents the theoretical investigation of effects of gene frequencies, levels of LD and admixture proportions of donor populations on the evolutionary dynamics of the LD of the admixed population. We examined the conditions under which the admixed population reached linkage equilibrium or the peak level of the LD. The study reveals the inappropriateness in approximating the dynamics of the LD generated by population admixture by the commonly used formula in literature. An appropriate equation for the dynamics is proposed. The distinct feature of the newly suggested formula is that the value of the nonlinear component of the LD remains constant in the first generation of the population evolution. Comparison between the predicted disequilibrium dynamics shows that the error will be caused by using the old formula, and thus resulting in a misguidance in using the evolutionary information of the admixed population in gene mapping.

  11. Molecular characterization of Blau syndrome: Genetic linkage to chromosome 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromp, G.; Duivaniemi, H.; Christiano, A. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The Blau syndrome is an autosomal, dominantly-inherited disease characterized by multi-organ, tissue-specific inflammation. Its clinical phenotype includes granulomatous uveitis, arthritis and skin rash. The syndrome is unique in that it is the sole human model for a variety of multi-system inflammatory diseases that afflict a significant percentage of the population. Karyotypic analysis of the large, three generation kindred whose disease originally characterized the syndrome was unremarkable. Following exclusion of a number of extracellular matrix candidates genes, a genome-wide search was undertaken of the Blau susceptibility locus. Fifty-seven members of the family were genotyped for about 200 highly polymorphic dinucleotide repeat markers. Linkage analysis was performed using the LINKAGE package of programs under a model of dominant inheritance with reduced penetrance. Five liability classes were used to specify penetrances and phenocopy rates for those affected the arthritis, uveitis, skin rash and combinations thererof. In addition, five age-dependent penetrance classes were used for unaffected individuals. The marker D16S298 gave a maximum lod score of 3.6 at {theta} = 0.05 with two-point analysis. Lod scores for flanking markers were consistent. These data provide convincing evidence that the Blau susceptibility locus is situated within the 16p12-q21 interval. Fine mapping of the candidate interval with additional families exhibiting the Blau phenotype, as well as with more polymorphic markers, is underway.

  12. PI3K/AKT/mTOR and sonic hedgehog pathways cooperate together to inhibit human pancreatic cancer stem cell characteristics and tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Narinder; Nanta, Rajesh; Sharma, Jay; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Singh, Karan P; Shankar, Sharmila; Srivastava, Rakesh K

    2015-10-13

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play major roles in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. It is evident from growing reports that PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathways are aberrantly reactivated in pancreatic CSCs. Here, we examined the efficacy of combining NVP-LDE-225 (PI3K/mTOR inhibitor) and NVP-BEZ-235 (Smoothened inhibitor) on pancreatic CSCs characteristics, microRNA regulatory network, and tumor growth. NVP-LDE-225 co-operated with NVP-BEZ-235 in inhibiting pancreatic CSC's characteristics and tumor growth in mice by acting at the level of Gli. Combination of NVP-LDE-225 and NVP-BEZ-235 inhibited self-renewal capacity of CSCs by suppressing the expression of pluripotency maintaining factors Nanog, Oct-4, Sox-2 and c-Myc, and transcription of Gli. NVP-LDE-225 co-operated with NVP-BEZ-235 to inhibit Lin28/Let7a/Kras axis in pancreatic CSCs. Furthermore, a superior interaction of these drugs was observed on spheroid formation by pancreatic CSCs isolated from Pankras/p53 mice. The combination of these drugs also showed superior effects on the expression of proteins involved in cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis. In addition, NVP-LDE-225 co-operated with NVP-BEZ-235 in inhibiting EMT through modulation of cadherin, vimentin and transcription factors Snail, Slug and Zeb1. In conclusion, these data suggest that the combined inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Shh pathways may be beneficial for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  13. Cellular cooperation: insights from microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiker, Hasan; Gore, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation between cells is a widespread phenomenon in nature, found across diverse systems ranging from microbial populations to multicellular organisms. For cooperation to evolve and be maintained within a population of cells, costs due to competition have to be outweighed by the benefits gained through cooperative actions. Because cooperation generally confers a cost to the cooperating cells, defector cells that do not cooperate but reap the benefits of cooperation can thrive and eventually drive the cooperating phenotypes to extinction. Here we summarize recent advances made in understanding how cooperation and multicellularity can evolve in microbial populations in the face of such conflicts and discuss parallels with cell populations within multicellular organisms.

  14. Varieties of religion-family linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snarey, J R; Dollahite, D C

    2001-12-01

    The 4 articles in this special issue make important contributions to both family and religious studies as well as to their interface. This commentary begins by considering 4 unifying themes present across all of the articles, including meaningful religion-family linkages, the importance of gender differences in the faith-family interface, the significance of intergenerational relationships, and the need for better theory. The authors then discuss the unique major strength and secondary limitations of each study. Finally, the commentary focuses on two challenges inhibiting the contemporary study of religion and the family--a relative lack of racial and religious diversity in samples and the lack of a unifying theory of religion-family linkages--and suggests how to adjust the trajectory of future theory and research to address these issues.

  15. Co-operative suppression of inflammatory responses in human dendritic cells by plant proanthocyanidins and products from the parasitic nematode Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R; Klaver, Elsenoor J; Laan, Lisa C

    2017-01-01

    , e.g. soluble products from the helminth parasite Trichuris suis (TsSP). We show that PAC are endocytosed by monocyte-derived DCs and selectively induce CD86 expression. Subsequently, PAC suppress the LPS-induced secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-12p70, while enhancing secretion of IL-10...... that selectively down-regulates Th1 response in naive T cells, and that they also act cooperatively with TsSP. Our results indicate a novel interaction between dietary compounds and parasite products to influence immune function, and may suggest that combinations of PAC and TsSP can have therapeutic potential...

  16. The first constant-domain (CH1) exon of human IGHG2 is polymorphic and in strong linkage disequilibrium with the CH2 exon polymorphism encoding the G2m(n+) allotype in Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougs, L; Svejgaard, A; Barington, T

    2001-01-01

    Here we describe a hitherto unknown proline/threonine polymorphism at residue 72 of the human IgG2 CH1 domain (EU numbering 189) and show that it is linked to the known valine/methionine polymorphism at residue 52 of CH2 (EU numbering 282) defining the G2m(n+)/G2m(n-) allotypes. We sequenced...

  17. Characterization of the human laminin beta2 chain locus (LAMB2): linkage to a gene containing a nonprocessed, transcribed LAMB2-like pseudogene (LAMB2L) and to the gene encoding glutaminyl tRNA synthetase (QARS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durkin, M E; Jäger, A C; Khurana, T S

    1999-01-01

    The laminin beta2 chain is an important constituent of certain kidney and muscle basement membranes. We have generated a detailed physical map of a 110-kb genomic DNA segment surrounding the human laminin beta2 chain gene (LAMB2) on chromosome 3p21.3-->p21.2, a region paralogous with the chromoso...

  18. Determinants of public cooperation in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Federico; Perc, Matjaž; Latora, Vito

    2017-07-01

    Synergies between evolutionary game theory and statistical physics have significantly improved our understanding of public cooperation in structured populations. Multiplex networks, in particular, provide the theoretical framework within network science that allows us to mathematically describe the rich structure of interactions characterizing human societies. While research has shown that multiplex networks may enhance the resilience of cooperation, the interplay between the overlap in the structure of the layers and the control parameters of the corresponding games has not yet been investigated. With this aim, we consider here the public goods game on a multiplex network, and we unveil the role of the number of layers and the overlap of links, as well as the impact of different synergy factors in different layers, on the onset of cooperation. We show that enhanced public cooperation emerges only when a significant edge overlap is combined with at least one layer being able to sustain some cooperation by means of a sufficiently high synergy factor. In the absence of either of these conditions, the evolution of cooperation in multiplex networks is determined by the bounds of traditional network reciprocity with no enhanced resilience. These results caution against overly optimistic predictions that the presence of multiple social domains may in itself promote cooperation, and they help us better understand the complexity behind prosocial behavior in layered social systems.

  19. A Statistical Approach to Crime Linkage

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The object of this paper is to develop a statistical approach to criminal linkage analysis that discovers and groups crime events that share a common offender and prioritizes suspects for further investigation. Bayes factors are used to describe the strength of evidence that two crimes are linked. Using concepts from agglomerative hierarchical clustering, the Bayes factors for crime pairs are combined to provide similarity measures for comparing two crime series. This facilitates crime series...

  20. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    on an increasingly institutionalized basis. In terms of military cooperation the US is still the partner for Egypt. But outside the military sphere institutionalized cooperation is comparatively week. In particular the failure of the US to conclude a free-trade agreement has been crucial. But it would be wrong...

  1. Readings in Cooperative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Jerome I.

    Twenty-three journal articles on cooperative education were selected in a review of the literature by two Temple University graduate classes in the fall of 1975 and the spring of 1976 for those interested in the role of coordinating cooperative education programs. The journal readings consist of articles on theory/planning (6), implementation…

  2. Coordination and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can be rationalized on individualistic grounds. Finally, psychological game theory should consider how players perceive their gaming situation. ---------------------------------------------------------...

  3. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own di

  4. Cooperative Science Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperative Learning, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Offers several elementary level cooperative science lesson plans. The article includes a recipe for cooperative class learning, instructions for making a compost pile, directions for finding evidence of energy, experiments in math and science using oranges to test density, and discussions of buoyancy using eggs. (SM)

  5. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Buckley; O'Farrell, Gail

    1990-01-01

    Presents essential characteristics and types of cooperative learning strategies for use in elementary social studies. Outlines exercises for forming teams and building team spirit. Points out such methods promote group interdependence and student responsibility for learning and teaching others. Highlights two cooperative group strategies, Jigsaw…

  6. Coordination and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can

  7. International Cooperation Advances Internationalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Mingyi

    2004-01-01

    @@ Intemational scientific cooperation continues to successfully promote the development of research and the quality of researchers in China, and also the internationalization of China's research system and research organizations. An outstanding example of this is the 30 years of fruitful cooperation between the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Max Planck Society.

  8. Coordination and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can

  9. Methods for genetic linkage analysis using trisomies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feingold, E. [Emory Univ. School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lamb, N.E.; Sherman, S.L. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Certain genetic disorders are rare in the general population, but more common in individuals with specific trisomies. Examples of this include leukemia and duodenal atresia in trisomy 21. This paper presents a linkage analysis method for using trisomic individuals to map genes for such traits. It is based on a very general gene-specific dosage model that posits that the trait is caused by specific effects of different alleles at one or a few loci and that duplicate copies of {open_quotes}susceptibility{close_quotes} alleles inherited from the nondisjoining parent give increased likelihood of having the trait. Our mapping method is similar to identity-by-descent-based mapping methods using affected relative pairs and also to methods for mapping recessive traits using inbred individuals by looking for markers with greater than expected homozygosity by descent. In the trisomy case, one would take trisomic individuals and look for markers with greater than expected homozygosity in the chromosomes inherited from the nondisjoining parent. We present statistical methods for performing such a linkage analysis, including a test for linkage to a marker, a method for estimating the distance from the marker to the trait gene, a confidence interval for that distance, and methods for computing power and sample sizes. We also resolve some practical issues involved in implementing the methods, including how to use partially informative markers and how to test candidate genes. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Developing Cultural Tourism Through Cross-Sector Co-operation: Evidence from the West of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Mottiar, Ziene; Quinn, Bernadette; Ryan, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Studies of co-operative activity in the tourism literature focus largely on linkages between tourism firms and little has been done to examine co-operation between tourism firms and those in other sectors. Yet the inter-dependency that exits between tourism and other sectors in product development is clearly apparent. One such example is in the production of cultural tourism where co-operation between the cultural and tourism sectors is a necessity. This paper reports on the findings of a pro...

  11. Structural synthesis of linkages for quadruped bio-robot legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonescu, O.; Robu, C.; Antonescu, P.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a few kinematic schemes of planar mechanisms with bars (linkages) used as part of the quadruped robot legs. The Dunshee linkage having only four elements as crank-rocker mechanism is analyzed. Further, the Klann linkage, which is accomplished by amplifying the crank-rocker mechanism with a dyadic kinematic chain, is also presented. More than that, the Jansen linkage, which is obtained by extending and amplifying the crank-rocker mechanism with two dyadic kinematic chains, is also analyzed. At the end of the paper, the authors present a novel linkage application consisting of a quadric kinematic chain.

  12. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  13. Culture and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-09-12

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities.

  14. Cooperative motion of a key positively charged residue and metal ions for DNA replication catalyzed by human DNA Polymerase-η.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genna, Vito; Gaspari, Roberto; Dal Peraro, Matteo; De Vivo, Marco

    2016-04-07

    Trans-lesion synthesis polymerases, like DNA Polymerase-η (Pol-η), are essential for cell survival. Pol-η bypasses ultraviolet-induced DNA damages via a two-metal-ion mechanism that assures DNA strand elongation, with formation of the leaving group pyrophosphate (PPi). Recent structural and kinetics studies have shown that Pol-η function depends on the highly flexible and conserved Arg61 and, intriguingly, on a transient third ion resolved at the catalytic site, as lately observed in other nucleic acid-processing metalloenzymes. How these conserved structural features facilitate DNA replication, however, is still poorly understood. Through extended molecular dynamics and free energy simulations, we unravel a highly cooperative and dynamic mechanism for DNA elongation and repair, which is here described by an equilibrium ensemble of structures that connect the reactants to the products in Pol-η catalysis. We reveal that specific conformations of Arg61 help facilitate the recruitment of the incoming base and favor the proper formation of a pre-reactive complex in Pol-η for efficient DNA editing. Also, we show that a third transient metal ion, which acts concertedly with Arg61, serves as an exit shuttle for the leaving PPi. Finally, we discuss how this effective and cooperative mechanism for DNA repair may be shared by other DNA-repairing polymerases.

  15. Cooperation and the evolution of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Luke; Brown, Sam P; Jackson, Andrew L

    2012-08-01

    The high levels of intelligence seen in humans, other primates, certain cetaceans and birds remain a major puzzle for evolutionary biologists, anthropologists and psychologists. It has long been held that social interactions provide the selection pressures necessary for the evolution of advanced cognitive abilities (the 'social intelligence hypothesis'), and in recent years decision-making in the context of cooperative social interactions has been conjectured to be of particular importance. Here we use an artificial neural network model to show that selection for efficient decision-making in cooperative dilemmas can give rise to selection pressures for greater cognitive abilities, and that intelligent strategies can themselves select for greater intelligence, leading to a Machiavellian arms race. Our results provide mechanistic support for the social intelligence hypothesis, highlight the potential importance of cooperative behaviour in the evolution of intelligence and may help us to explain the distribution of cooperation with intelligence across taxa.

  16. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  17. Intuition, deliberation, and the evolution of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Adam; Rand, David G

    2016-01-26

    Humans often cooperate with strangers, despite the costs involved. A long tradition of theoretical modeling has sought ultimate evolutionary explanations for this seemingly altruistic behavior. More recently, an entirely separate body of experimental work has begun to investigate cooperation's proximate cognitive underpinnings using a dual-process framework: Is deliberative self-control necessary to reign in selfish impulses, or does self-interested deliberation restrain an intuitive desire to cooperate? Integrating these ultimate and proximate approaches, we introduce dual-process cognition into a formal game-theoretic model of the evolution of cooperation. Agents play prisoner's dilemma games, some of which are one-shot and others of which involve reciprocity. They can either respond by using a generalized intuition, which is not sensitive to whether the game is one-shot or reciprocal, or pay a (stochastically varying) cost to deliberate and tailor their strategy to the type of game they are facing. We find that, depending on the level of reciprocity and assortment, selection favors one of two strategies: intuitive defectors who never deliberate, or dual-process agents who intuitively cooperate but sometimes use deliberation to defect in one-shot games. Critically, selection never favors agents who use deliberation to override selfish impulses: Deliberation only serves to undermine cooperation with strangers. Thus, by introducing a formal theoretical framework for exploring cooperation through a dual-process lens, we provide a clear answer regarding the role of deliberation in cooperation based on evolutionary modeling, help to organize a growing body of sometimes-conflicting empirical results, and shed light on the nature of human cognition and social decision making.

  18. Development of cooperative system bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; WAN Qi-bai; SHI Lei

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative system bridges comprise several basic structures that act jointly to improve structural characteristics. We delved into the historical development of cooperative system bridges. Cooperative systems are classified as different-load cooperative systems and same-load cooperative systems by distinguishing the modes of load distribution. For different-load cooperation, individual basic structures are at different positions in the direction along bridge axis and carry the loads separately. While for same-load cooperation, all basic structures overlap in geometrical locations and support the entire loads conjointly. The choosing of span ratios between basic structures, the design of connections of different-load cooperative systems were discussed as well as optimizations of relative rigidity for same-load cooperative systems which greatly influence structural characteristics. The general situation and several structural measurements of several cooperative bridges were demonstrated. This information can assist engineers in developing their concepts in cooperative systems and can lead to more efficient and economical cooperative bridges.

  19. Contagion of Cooperation in Static and Fluid Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian J Jordan

    Full Text Available Cooperation is essential for successful human societies. Thus, understanding how cooperative and selfish behaviors spread from person to person is a topic of theoretical and practical importance. Previous laboratory experiments provide clear evidence of social contagion in the domain of cooperation, both in fixed networks and in randomly shuffled networks, but leave open the possibility of asymmetries in the spread of cooperative and selfish behaviors. Additionally, many real human interaction structures are dynamic: we often have control over whom we interact with. Dynamic networks may differ importantly in the goals and strategic considerations they promote, and thus the question of how cooperative and selfish behaviors spread in dynamic networks remains open. Here, we address these questions with data from a social dilemma laboratory experiment. We measure the contagion of both cooperative and selfish behavior over time across three different network structures that vary in the extent to which they afford individuals control over their network ties. We find that in relatively fixed networks, both cooperative and selfish behaviors are contagious. In contrast, in more dynamic networks, selfish behavior is contagious, but cooperative behavior is not: subjects are fairly likely to switch to cooperation regardless of the behavior of their neighbors. We hypothesize that this insensitivity to the behavior of neighbors in dynamic networks is the result of subjects' desire to attract new cooperative partners: even if many of one's current neighbors are defectors, it may still make sense to switch to cooperation. We further hypothesize that selfishness remains contagious in dynamic networks because of the well-documented willingness of cooperators to retaliate against selfishness, even when doing so is costly. These results shed light on the contagion of cooperative behavior in fixed and fluid networks, and have implications for influence

  20. Technology transfer, human capital, and cooperation: Determinants of innovative output in the manufacturing industry in Colombia 2007-2008; Transferencia tecnológica, capital humano y cooperación: factores determinantes de los resultados innovadores en la industria manufacturera en Colombia 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hurtado Ayala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investment in technology and human capital, and co-operation networks,appear to play an important role in the development of the innovative process of a country ; proof of this are the different perspectives on innovation, including the theory of endogenous development. With the information from the IV Survey for Technological Innovation and Development conducted in Colombiafor the 2007-2008 period, The authors used a method of linear regression that allows defining causal relationships among the variables mentioned above. The results establish that variables like technology, the relations of cooperation, and investment in human capital determine the innovative results of the Colombian manufacturing industry, finding that these results are greater when they establish cooperative relations with other entities that support innovation and when investment in human capital formation takes place.

  1. When cooperation begets cooperation: the role of key individuals in galvanizing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Wrangham, Richard; Glowacki, Luke; Russell, Andrew F

    2015-12-05

    Life abounds with examples of conspecifics actively cooperating to a common end, despite conflicts of interest being expected concerning how much each individual should contribute. Mathematical models typically find that such conflict can be resolved by partial-response strategies, leading investors to contribute relatively equitably. Using a case study approach, we show that such model expectations can be contradicted in at least four disparate contexts: (i) bi-parental care; (ii) cooperative breeding; (iii) cooperative hunting; and (iv) human cooperation. We highlight that: (a) marked variation in contributions is commonplace; and (b) individuals can often respond positively rather than negatively to the contributions of others. Existing models have surprisingly limited power in explaining these phenomena. Here, we propose that, although among-individual variation in cooperative contributions will be influenced by differential costs and benefits, there is likely to be a strong genetic or epigenetic component. We then suggest that selection can maintain high investors (key individuals) when their contributions promote support by increasing the benefits and/or reducing the costs for others. Our intentions are to raise awareness in--and provide testable hypotheses of--two of the most poorly understood, yet integral, questions regarding cooperative ventures: why do individuals vary in their contributions and when does cooperation beget cooperation? © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Human Resources Development and Technical Cooperation - pursue safer operation. Directorate General of Mines Safety Training Program Australia - India, 1997-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, G. [CSIRO (Australia)

    2002-09-01

    This paper details the project, which was performed under the Memorandum of Understanding 'Agreement on Development Cooperation between India and Australia' signed in 1990. In its initial phase the objective was to review the existing procedures and practices in mine safety in India and to update these based on contemporary practices in a country employing more advanced mining technology - Australia. Other objectives were to expose Indian Mines Inspectors to mining conditions and practices in Australia to mining conditions and practices in Australia, and to train a number of inspectors in managing mine safety using techniques which render operators responsible for the health and safety of mineworkers in individual mines. The project summary section of this paper details the initial and expanded objectives of the project as well as the achieved outcomes. It further details several key findings and recommendations for organizations considering entering into similar projects. 1 fig., 6 tabs., 1 annex.

  3. Survival via cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaojin; Zhi, Haizhao; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2011-11-01

    By incorporating ecological dynamics into evolutionary games, we introduce natural and unnatural death to the spatial prisoner's dilemma game in which individuals can play mixed strategies. This introduction can give a simple explanation for the emergence and abundance of cooperation in animal and human societies. We found that individuals are more likely to cooperate in a highly competitive environment. In addition, our simulation results suggest that the individuals would tend to cooperate when the temptation to defect is small.

  4. 76 FR 57058 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical... International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... regulatory agencies in different countries. FDA has actively participated in the International Conference...

  5. 76 FR 17658 - National Forum for State and Territorial Chief Executives (National Forum) Program Cooperative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Forum for State and Territorial Chief Executives (National Forum) Program Cooperative Agreement AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... Forum for State and Territorial Chief Executives (National Forum) Program Cooperative Agreement. SUMMARY...

  6. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....... of relationships to these historical contributions. Thus, we propose that Scandinavia offers a particularly promising context from which to draw inspiration regarding effective company-stakeholder cooperation and where ample of examples of what is more recently referred to as “creating shared value” can be found...

  7. Linkage relationships in the bovine MHC region. High recombination frequency between class II subregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L; Lundén, A; Sigurdardottir, S; Davies, C J; Rask, L

    1988-01-01

    Class II genes of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been investigated by Southern blot analysis using human DNA probes. Previous studies revealed the presence of bovine DO beta, DQ alpha, DQ beta, DR alpha, and DR beta genes, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms for each of these genes were documented. In the present study, the presence of three additional class II genes, designated DZ alpha, DY alpha, and DY beta, are reported. DZ alpha was assumed to correspond to the human DZ alpha gene while the other two were designated DY because their relationship to human class II genes could not be firmly established. The linkage relationships among bovine class II genes and two additional loci, TCP1B and C4, were investigated by family segregation analysis and analysis of linkage disequilibrium. The results clearly indicated that all these loci belong to the same linkage group. This linkage group is divided into two subregions separated by a fairly high recombination frequency. One region includes the C4, DQ alpha, DQ beta, DR alpha, and DR beta loci and the other one is composed of the DO beta, DY alpha, DY beta, and TCP1B loci. No recombinant was observed within any of these subregions and there was a strong or fairly strong linkage disequilibrium between loci within groups. In contrast, as many as five recombinants among three different families were detected in the interval between these subregions giving a recombination frequency estimate of 0.17 +/- 0.07. The fairly high recombination frequency observed between class II genes in cattle is strikingly different from the corresponding recombination estimates in man and mouse. The finding implies either a much larger molecular distance between some of the bovine class II genes or alternatively the presence of a recombinational "hot spot" in the bovine class II region.

  8. A genome-wide linkage study of individuals with high scores on NEO personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, N; Schuur, M; Gusareva, E S; Isaacs, A; Aulchenko, Y S; Kirichenko, A V; Zorkoltseva, I V; Axenovich, T I; Oostra, B A; Janssens, A C J W; van Duijn, C M

    2012-10-01

    The NEO-Five-Factor Inventory divides human personality traits into five dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness. In this study, we sought to identify regions harboring genes with large effects on the five NEO personality traits by performing genome-wide linkage analysis of individuals scoring in the extremes of these traits (>90th percentile). Affected-only linkage analysis was performed using an Illumina 6K linkage array in a family-based study, the Erasmus Rucphen Family study. We subsequently determined whether distinct, segregating haplotypes found with linkage analysis were associated with the trait of interest in the population. Finally, a dense single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array (Illumina 318K) was used to search for copy number variations (CNVs) in the associated regions. In the families with extreme phenotype scores, we found significant evidence of linkage for conscientiousness to 20p13 (rs1434789, log of odds (LOD)=5.86) and suggestive evidence of linkage (LOD >2.8) for neuroticism to 19q, 21q and 22q, extraversion to 1p, 1q, 9p and12q, openness to 12q and 19q, and agreeableness to 2p, 6q, 17q and 21q. Further analysis determined haplotypes in 21q22 for neuroticism (P-values = 0.009, 0.007), in 17q24 for agreeableness (marginal P-value = 0.018) and in 20p13 for conscientiousness (marginal P-values = 0.058, 0.038) segregating in families with large contributions to the LOD scores. No evidence for CNVs in any of the associated regions was found. Our findings imply that there may be genes with relatively large effects involved in personality traits, which may be identified with next-generation sequencing techniques.

  9. Unpeeling the layers of language: Bonobos and chimpanzees engage in cooperative turn-taking sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Marlen Fröhlich; Paul Kuchenbuch; Gudrun Müller; Barbara Fruth; Takeshi Furuichi; Wittig, Roman M.; Simone Pika

    2016-01-01

    Human language is a fundamentally cooperative enterprise, embodying fast-paced and extended social interactions. It has been suggested that it evolved as part of a larger adaptation of humans’ species-unique forms of cooperation. Although our closest living relatives, bonobos and chimpanzees, show general cooperative abilities, their communicative interactions seem to lack the cooperative nature of human conversation. Here, we revisited this claim by conducting the first systematic comparison...

  10. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  11. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  12. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  13. Solar cooperatives; Genosse Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Dierk

    2010-06-15

    Not a boom but a trend: Increasingly, solar power plants and other renewables-based systems are financed by cooperatives. This organizational structure requires long-term strategies and some idealism. (orig.)

  14. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  15. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  16. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are public-private partnerships composed of states, tribes, federal agencies, non-governmental organizations,...

  17. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  18. Cooperative Purchasing Reduces Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Edwin J.

    1981-01-01

    Several suburban Chicago (Illinois) school districts are members of the South Suburban School Purchasing Cooperative, which serves as a conduit for volume purchases of educational supplies. (Author/MLF)

  19. Cooperating and Prospering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO MINGWEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since its establish-ment in 2001, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)-a re-gional organization grouping China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan-has grown at a notable pace.

  20. Cooperative Fire Protection Agreement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Agreement is to provide for cooperation in the prevention, detection and suppression of wildland fires within the protection areas designated in...

  1. Cooperation Beats Conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China and the Philippines agree to strengthen economic and trade cooperation while minimizing disputes Philippine President Benigno Aquino III recently completed a five-day visit to China, his first state visit to China since he took office last year.

  2. Population-environment linkages in international law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babor, D.D.M.

    1999-03-31

    This article explores population-environment linkages both within developed and developing nations, and considers the consequences of a population growth rate which, as one hectare of arable land is simultaneously lost or destroyed, currently results in eight live births every three seconds. In order to better comprehend the forces governing their perceptions, Part 1 of this article will discuss eight interactive variables which inform decision-making. Part 2 will examine the existence of legal duties under international law to limit or constrain the level of consumption and the right to freely reproduce, particularly as applicable in states considered free of a population problem.

  3. LINKAGES FOR QUADRUPED BIO-ROBOT WALKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu ANTONESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the Jansen mechanism. It then presents a few pictures of a mobile quadruped robot, which will help to describe how the robot moves. We take into consideration the kinematic scheme of the spatial mechanism with bars (spatial linkage, which is used for each of the four robot legs. Each leg mechanism is driven by two rotate brushless actuators that include a spur gear low-ratio transmission. By means of analyzing the kinematic scheme, the spatial mechanism mobility that operates in both horizontal and vertical plane is calculated

  4. Cooperating mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  5. Extending Eurasia Security Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    After 14 years of development, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) , has set its sights on goals for the next de-cade at the 15th meeting of the Council of SCO Heads of State that was held in Ufa, the capital of Russia's Bashkortostan Republic, on July 9-10. The SCO, established in Shanghai in 2001, is committed to building fdendly neighbor rela- tions and maintaining security and stability in the Central Asian region through multilateral cooperation.

  6. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed....... The management logic of the main contractor is interpreted as based on a sociology-inspired understanding focusing on norms and social values rather than on contractual (law) and functional (engineering) logic, which had hitherto been prevalent in Danish construction management....

  7. Global Reserve Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t GLOBAL RESERVE COOPERATION BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL PAMELA L. MCGAHA United States Army National Guard...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Reserve Cooperation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...decade, the United States, its allies, and partner nations have greatly increased their reliance on Reserve Component forces. This global

  8. Market linkage for maize in Rwanda : Case SOSOMA Industries and farmers’ cooperative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yumvabose, P.; Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation (CDI),

    2012-01-01

    A Research Project submitted to Van Hall Larenstein University of Applied Sciences in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master in Management of Development, Specialization in Rural Development and Food Security.

  9. Cooperation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan Clark, C; Thorne, Christopher B; Hardy, Sonya; Cropsey, Karen L

    2013-09-25

    Deficits in pro-social cooperation are common in many individuals with mental illnesses such as depression. For decades, researchers have used economic game paradigms to compare cross-cultural cooperative behavior. However, research using economic games to assess cooperative behavior in clinical populations is in the early stages. We hypothesized that individuals with greater depressive symptoms would struggle to maintain reciprocity in iterative games, but not in single-iteration games measuring personal values. Participants (n=41) played four computer-based economic games (prisoner's dilemma, the public goods game, the ultimatum game, and the trust game) measuring different aspects of cooperation. Participants completed the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and other measures of personality and demographics. Analyses assessed the relationships between game performance and psychological distress as measured by the DASS. Significant correlations were found between game performance and depressive symptoms, but not symptoms of anxiety or stress. Performance in the prisoner's dilemma and public goods game was significantly related to depression in a linear regression even when known associations with depressive affect such as age, gender, race, education, marital status, and neuroticism were controlled for. Depressive symptoms were associated with an inability to sustain reciprocal cooperation. Participants showed the predicted deficits in cooperation in these economic games. Economic games show the potential for assessing the social deficits associated with depressive symptoms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Conservative Meta-Analysis of Linkage and Linkage-Association Studies of Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2005-01-01

    Linkage studies of complex phenotypes such as reading ability/disability (developmental dyslexia or reading disorder) and related componential processes, where the effects attributable to individual genes appear to be modest, are critically dependent on the nature and composition of the samples and the phenotypes analyzed. Thus, it might be…

  11. A Comparing and Contrasting Analysis of Cooperation and Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨菁; 黄大鹏

    2014-01-01

    <正>Language is the basic tool of communication between human beings and the society.In communication or social interaction,people should follow some principles such as Cooperation and Politeness,in order to achieve the goal of successful communication.As two of the communicative principles,Cooperation and Politeness have been widely accepted by people,especially

  12. 78 FR 55731 - Health Workforce Research Center Cooperative Agreement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... workforce policy and planning questions. Though the FOA indicated the intent to fund only one cooperative... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Workforce Research Center Cooperative...: The Bureau of Health Professions (BHPr) is announcing a change to its Health Workforce Research...

  13. Validation of Interdisciplinary Cooperative Education Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Sheila D.

    A field test examined the validity of the "Interdisciplinary Cooperative Education Curriculum Manual." (Among those topics covered in the manual are the following: vocational student organizations, leadership, civic responsibility, health and safety, human relations, communications, resource management, consumer skills, consumer law,…

  14. Linkages between development and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K. [UNEP, Roskilde (Denmark); Verhagen, J. [Plant Res. International, Wageningen (Netherlands); Rovere, E. La [Centro Clima. Centre for Integrated Studies on Climate Change and Environment, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Klein, R. [Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impacts Res., PIK, Potsdam (DE); Huq, S. [International Inst. for Environment and Development, IIED, London (United Kingdom)

    2003-11-01

    This paper aims at assessing how the development and climate change literature has considered potential linkages and synergies between general development policies and climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. The starting point for this review is to give an overview of how alternative economic development paradigms can be used as a background for understanding and assessing development and climate linkages. In this way, it is demonstrated how climate change issues are related to basic factors in economic and social development processes, as an introduction to a discussion about how alternative policy recommendations for integrated development and climate policies can be understood in the context of different development paradigms. The last part of the paper returns to the climate change and sustainable development discussion that in recent years has been running in parallel to the Third Assessment of IPCC. This discussion, to a large extent has been dominated by the climate change agenda rather than a broader development policy perspectives, and the paper finally suggests a number of areas where integrated development and climate studies could anchor climate change studies more in the development agenda. (au)

  15. Methods for genetic linkage analysis using trisomies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feingold, E.; Lamb, N.E.; Sherman, S.L. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Certain genetic disorders (e.g. congenital cataracts, duodenal atresia) are rare in the general population, but more common in people with Down`s syndrome. We present a method for using individuals with trisomy 21 to map genes for such traits. Our methods are analogous to methods for mapping autosomal dominant traits using affected relative pairs by looking for markers with greater than expected identity-by-descent. In the trisomy case, one would take trisomic individuals and look for markers with greater than expected reduction to homozygosity in the chromosomes inherited form the non-disjoining parent. We present statistical methods for performing such a linkage analysis, including a test for linkage to a marker, a method for estimating the distance from the marker to the gene, a confidence interval for that distance, and methods for computing power and sample sizes. The methods are described in the context of gene-dosage model for the etiology of the disorder, but can be extended to other models. We also resolve some practical issues involved in implementing the methods, including how to use partially informative markers, how to test candidate genes, and how to handle the effect of reduced recombination associated with maternal meiosis I non-disjunction.

  16. Genome-wide linkage scan identifies two novel genetic loci for coronary artery disease: in GeneQuest families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hanxiang; Li, Lin; Rao, Shaoqi; Shen, Gongqing; Xi, Quansheng; Chen, Shenghan; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Kai; Ellis, Stephen G; Chen, Qiuyun; Topol, Eric J; Wang, Qing K

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified >50 common variants associated with CAD or its complication myocardial infarction (MI), but collectively they account for missing heritability". Rare variants with large effects may account for a large portion of missing heritability. Genome-wide linkage studies of large families and follow-up fine mapping and deep sequencing are particularly effective in identifying rare variants with large effects. Here we show results from a genome-wide linkage scan for CAD in multiplex GeneQuest families with early onset CAD and MI. Whole genome genotyping was carried out with 408 markers that span the human genome by every 10 cM and linkage analyses were performed using the affected relative pair analysis implemented in GENEHUNTER. Affected only nonparametric linkage (NPL) analysis identified two novel CAD loci with highly significant evidence of linkage on chromosome 3p25.1 (peak NPL  = 5.49) and 3q29 (NPL  = 6.84). We also identified four loci with suggestive linkage on 9q22.33, 9q34.11, 17p12, and 21q22.3 (NPL  = 3.18-4.07). These results identify novel loci for CAD and provide a framework for fine mapping and deep sequencing to identify new susceptibility genes and novel variants associated with risk of CAD.

  17. Genetic Mapping in Xenopus Laevis: Eight Linkage Groups Established

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    Inheritance of alleles at 29 electrophoretically detected protein loci and one pigment locus (albinism) was analyzed in Xenopus laevis by backcrossing multiply heterozygous individuals generated by intersubspecies hybridization. Pairwise linkage tests revealed eight classical linkage groups. These groups have been provisionally numbered from 1 to 8 in an arbitrarily chosen order. Linkage group 1 includes ALB-2 (albumin), ADH-1 (alcohol dehydrogenase), NP (nucleoside phosphorylase), and a(p) (...

  18. Model-free linkage analysis of a binary trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Bull, Shelley B; Mirea, Lucia; Greenwood, Celia M T

    2012-01-01

    Genetic linkage analysis aims to detect chromosomal regions containing genes that influence risk of specific inherited diseases. The presence of linkage is indicated when a disease or trait cosegregates through the families with genetic markers at a particular region of the genome. Two main types of genetic linkage analysis are in common use, namely model-based linkage analysis and model-free linkage analysis. In this chapter, we focus solely on the latter type and specifically on binary traits or phenotypes, such as the presence or absence of a specific disease. Model-free linkage analysis is based on allele-sharing, where patterns of genetic similarity among affected relatives are compared to chance expectations. Because the model-free methods do not require the specification of the inheritance parameters of a genetic model, they are preferred by many researchers at early stages in the study of a complex disease. We introduce the history of model-free linkage analysis in Subheading 1. Table 1 describes a standard model-free linkage analysis workflow. We describe three popular model-free linkage analysis methods, the nonparametric linkage (NPL) statistic, the affected sib-pair (ASP) likelihood ratio test, and a likelihood approach for pedigrees. The theory behind each linkage test is described in this section, together with a simple example of the relevant calculations. Table 4 provides a summary of popular genetic analysis software packages that implement model-free linkage models. In Subheading 2, we work through the methods on a rich example providing sample software code and output. Subheading 3 contains notes with additional details on various topics that may need further consideration during analysis.

  19. Adaptive Linkage Disequilibrium Between Two Esterase Loci of a Salamander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, T. Preston

    1973-01-01

    In some populations of the salamander Plethodon cinereus, two polymorphic esterase loci are in linkage disequilibrium. Short-term stability of the linkage disequilibrium is demonstrated by an age class analysis. Long, perhaps very long, term stability is suggested by its distribution. This stability and concordant geographic variation in allelic frequencies imply selective origin and maintenance. Data on the frequencies of two color morphs suggest that formation of the linkage disequilibrium is dependent on the genetic background. Images PMID:4515614

  20. Automated Generation of Kempe Linkage and Its Complexity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高小山; 朱长才

    1999-01-01

    It is a famous result of Kempe that a linkage can be designed to generate any given plane algebraic curve.In this paper,Kempe's result is improved to give a precise algorithm for generating Kempe linkage.We proved that for an algebraic plane curve of degrenn n,Kempe linkage uses at most O(n4) links.Efforts to implement a program which may generate Kempe linkage and simulation of the generation process of the plane curves are presented in the paper.

  1. Stability of the guinea pigs personality - cognition - linkage over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, Vera; Guenther, Anja

    2017-01-01

    In human psychological research, personality traits as well as cognitive traits are usually validated for both, their stability over time and contexts. While stability over time gives an estimate on how genetically fixated a trait can be, correlations across traits have the power to reveal linkages or trade - offs. In animals, these validations have widely been done for personality but not for cognitive traits. We tested guinea pigs in four consecutive discrimination tasks using four unique pairs of objects with two objects of the same form but different size in each pair. The same animals were tested twice each for three personality traits, i.e. boldness, aggression and sociopositive behaviour. The animals did not learn to "always choose the larger item" in the cognitive task but learned to discriminate the two objects of each stimulus pair anew, so that we did test for learning speed in four slightly different task setups. Performance over the four tasks was significantly repeatable as well as all tested personality traits. A stable linkage over time was found between sociopositive behaviour and learning performance, probably indicating an ecological relevance for a correlation between these two traits. Still, not all traits seem to be connected amongst each other, as in our case boldness and aggression are both not linked to individual learning performance. Future studies will hopefully further investigate the repeatability of various cognitive traits in several species and thus lead to a better understanding of the interdependence of personality and cognition. This will help to unravel which suites of traits facilitate individual life histories and hence improve our understanding of the emergence and maintenance of individual differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cooperative Object Transportation With Multiple Humanoid Robots

    OpenAIRE

    呉, 孟鴻

    2015-01-01

    There are more and more robots appearing in factory or our daily life due to development of recent technology. Among all types of robots, humanoid robots have the potential to perform multiple tasks and walk on uneven terrain like human beings. Hence, it is expected that humanoid robots work instead of human beings at dangerous zones such as plant facilities. In such dangerous zones, humanoid robots must cooperate with each other in order to carry heavy and large objects. Although there is...

  3. Quantifying landscape linkages among giant panda subpopulations in regional scale conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dunwu; Hu, Yibo; Gu, Xiaodong; Yang, Xuyi; Yang, Guang; Wei, Fuwen

    2012-06-01

    Understanding habitat requirements and identifying landscape linkages are essential for the survival of isolated populations of endangered species. Currently, some of the giant panda populations are isolated, which threatens their long-term survival, particularly in the Xiaoxiangling mountains. In the present study, we quantified niche requirements and then identified potential linkages of giant panda subpopulations in the most isolated region, using ecological niche factor analysis and a least-cost path model. Giant pandas preferred habitat with conifer forest and gentle slopes (>20 to ≤30°). Based on spatial distribution of suitable habitat, linkages were identified for the Yele subpopulation to 4 other subpopulations (Liziping, Matou, Xinmin and Wanba). Their lengths ranged from 15 to 54 km. The accumulated cost ranged from 693 to 3166 and conifer forest covered over 31%. However, a variety of features (e.g. major roads, human settlements and large unforested areas) might act as barriers along the linkages for giant panda dispersal. Our analysis quantified giant panda subpopulation connectivity to ensure long-term survival.

  4. Opting out against defection leads to stable coexistence with cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo-Yu; Fan, Song-Jia; Li, Cong; Zheng, Xiu-Deng; Bao, Jian-Zhang; Cressman, Ross; Tao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation coexisting with defection is a common phenomenon in nature and human society. Previous studies for promoting cooperation based on kin selection, direct and indirect reciprocity, graph selection and group selection have provided conditions that cooperators outcompete defectors. However, a simple mechanism of the long-term stable coexistence of cooperation and defection is still lacking. To reveal the effect of direct reciprocity on the coexistence of cooperation and defection, we conducted a simple experiment based on the Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) game, where the basic idea behind our experiment is that all players in a PD game should prefer a cooperator as an opponent. Our experimental and theoretical results show clearly that the strategies allowing opting out against defection are able to maintain this stable coexistence. PMID:27775099

  5. The increased risk of joint venture promotes social cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te Wu

    Full Text Available The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games.

  6. The increased risk of joint venture promotes social cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

    2013-01-01

    The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games.

  7. DNA polymerases κ and ζ cooperatively perform mutagenic translesion synthesis of the C8-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct of the dietary mutagen IQ in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Arindam; Pande, Paritosh; Jasti, Vijay P; Millsap, Amy D; Hawkins, Edward K; Rizzo, Carmelo J; Basu, Ashis K

    2015-09-30

    The roles of translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases in bypassing the C8-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct (dG-C8-IQ) formed by 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), a highly mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine found in cooked meats, were investigated. Three plasmid vectors containing the dG-C8-IQ adduct at the G1-, G2- or G3-positions of the NarI site (5'-G1G2CG3CC-3') were replicated in HEK293T cells. Fifty percent of the progeny from the G3 construct were mutants, largely G→T, compared to 18% and 24% from the G1 and G2 constructs, respectively. Mutation frequency (MF) of dG-C8-IQ was reduced by 38-67% upon siRNA knockdown of pol κ, whereas it was increased by 10-24% in pol η knockdown cells. When pol κ and pol ζ were simultaneously knocked down, MF of the G1 and G3 constructs was reduced from 18% and 50%, respectively, to <3%, whereas it was reduced from 24% to <1% in the G2 construct. In vitro TLS using yeast pol ζ showed that it can extend G3*:A pair more efficiently than G3*:C pair, but it is inefficient at nucleotide incorporation opposite dG-C8-IQ. We conclude that pol κ and pol ζ cooperatively carry out the majority of the error-prone TLS of dG-C8-IQ, whereas pol η is involved primarily in its error-free bypass.

  8. Fundamental Limits of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, Angel; Andrews, Jeffrey G

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation is viewed as a key ingredient for interference management in wireless systems. This paper shows that cooperation has fundamental limitations. The main result is that even full cooperation between transmitters cannot in general change an interference-limited network to a noise-limited network. The key idea is that there exists a spectral efficiency upper bound that is independent of the transmit power. First, a spectral efficiency upper bound is established for systems that rely on pilot-assisted channel estimation; in this framework, cooperation is shown to be possible only within clusters of limited size, which are subject to out-of-cluster interference whose power scales with that of the in-cluster signals. Second, an upper bound is also shown to exist when cooperation is through noncoherent communication; thus, the spectral efficiency limitation is not a by-product of the reliance on pilot-assisted channel estimation. Consequently, existing literature that routinely assumes the high-power spect...

  9. Education, ethics, and solidarity in international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Janete Lima de; Vilar, Rosana Lucia Alves de; Germano, Raimunda Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes an experience in technical cooperation between Brazil and Andean countries in the form of the International Course in the Management of Human Resource Policies in Health. This exploratory documental study encompassed a number of Latin American countries whose institutions of higher education had partnerships with the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, mediated by the Pan American Health Organization Representation in Brazil. The course experience shows that fundamental values like ethics and solidarity are determinant to the success of technical cooperation processes.

  10. Organizational choices for international cooperation: East-West European cooperation on regional environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Barbara Mary

    This dissertation applies theoretical insights from transaction cost economics to explain and predict the organizational form of cooperative agreements between Eastern and Western Europe in areas of regional environmental and political concern. It examines five contracting problems related to nuclear power safety and acid rain, and describes the history of international negotiations to manage these problems. It argues that the level of interdependence in a given issue area, or costly effects experienced in one state due to activities and decisions of other states, along with the level of transactional vulnerability, or sunk costs invested in support of a particular contractual relationship among these states, are key determinants of the governance structures states choose to facilitate cooperation in that issue area. Empirically, the dissertation traces the evolution of three sets of institutional arrangements related to nuclear safety: governance for western nuclear safety assistance to Eastern Europe, negotiations of a global convention on safety standards for nuclear power plants, and contracts among utilities and multilateral banks to build new nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe. Next it studies European acid rain, chronicling the history of international acid rain controls within the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) and the European Union, and finally examining institutional arrangements for burden-sharing to promote European bargains on emissions reduction, including bilateral aid transfers and proposals for multilateral burden sharing. Political actors have a wide range of choice among institutional arrangements to facilitate international cooperation, from simple market-type exchanges, to arbitration-type regimes that provide information and enhance reputation effects, to self-enforcing agreements such as issue-linkage, to supranational governance. The governance structures states devise to manage their cooperative

  11. Transnational Research Co-operation: Opportunities and Challenges for transnational research co-operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    participated this workpackage. The objectives of this workpackage relates to the facilitation of transnational research co-operation among Science Shops and development of concepts and procedures for co-operation between the International Science Shop Network Living Knowledge’s members, on community based...... for transnational co-operation like: an investigation/project concerning the driving forces behind urban development,or a co-operation in the field of wastewater reuse and minimization of wastewater loads and discharge, or a service page (internet) to search for potential partners. The governmental institutions...... of pollution • Dioxin leakage from incinerators • Nuclear power • Transport • Energy and climate • GMO • Environmental conditions in communities • Cleaner production • Environmental impact of human activities • Common international Science Shop database • Comparative studies of Science Shop projects...

  12. Resource use, dependence and vulnerability: community-resource linkages on Alaska's Tongass National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.T. Mekbeb; R.J. Lilieholm; D.J. Blahna; L.E. Kruger

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how rural communities use and depend upon local natural resources is a critical factor in developing policies to sustain the long-term viability of human and natural systems. Such “community-resource” linkages are particularly important in Alaska, where rural communities – many of them comprised of indigenous Alaskan Natives – are highly dependent upon...

  13. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  14. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... these experiences we discuss problems in the process, requirements for design tools, and issues involved in getting going with cooperative prototyping with active user involvement....

  15. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  16. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  17. CAS to Further Strengthen Cooperation with the EU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In light of the concept that scientific knowledge should serve humanity, CAS is open to the whole world and will further cooperate with the European Union in various fields, asserts CAS President Lu Yongxiang.

  18. 75 FR 21307 - Injury Prevention Program; Announcement Type: Cooperative Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... information in their scope of work. Provide organizational structure (chart) Coalition/ Collaboration... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Injury Prevention Program; Announcement Type: Cooperative Agreement... strategies in 3-year projects with no population requirements. II. Award Information Type of Awards...

  19. Some remarks about flux linkage and inductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kurz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the area of computational electromagnetics there is an increasing demand for various coupled simulations. One example is the coupling between field and circuit simulation for the description of electromagnetic devices. In the context of such couplings, theoretical questions arise as well. How can a field device be represented as an equivalent multiport circuit element? What is meant by flux linkage if the considered conductors are not filamentary? What is meant by inductance if the magnetic media exhibit nonlinear behaviour? These questions and their answers are not new. However, according to the author’s view, these issues are not sufficiently addressed in the usual textbooks. The aim of the paper is therefore to (hopefully answer the questions concisely and correctly. The modern language of differential forms will be employed for this purpose.

  20. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...... for estimating a linkage map; it involves (1) transformation by the Kosambi mapping function of the available recombination percentages to additive map distances, (2) calculations of a set of map distances from the transformed recombination percentages by a maximum likelihood method in which all the available...... data are utilized jointly, and (3) omission of inconsistent data and determination of the most likely order of the loci. This procedure was applied to the 42 recombination percentages available for the 13 “mapped” loci. Due to inconsistencies 14 of the recombination percentages and, therefore, two...