WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooperative border security

  1. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/7: A Generic Model for Cooperative Border Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzer, Colonel Gideon

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a generic model for dealing with security problems along borders between countries. It presents descriptions and characteristics of various borders and identifies the threats to border security, while emphasizing cooperative monitoring solutions.

  2. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/8: Cooperative Border Security for Jordan: Assessment and Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qojas, M.

    1999-03-01

    This document is an analysis of options for unilateral and cooperative action to improve the security of Jordan's borders. Sections describe the current political, economic, and social interactions along Jordan's borders. Next, the document discusses border security strategy for cooperation among neighboring countries and the adoption of confidence-building measures. A practical cooperative monitoring system would consist of hardware for early warning, command and control, communications, and transportation. Technical solutions can expand opportunities for the detection and identification of intruders. Sensors (such as seismic, break-wire, pressure-sensing, etc.) can warn border security forces of intrusion and contribute to the identification of the intrusion and help formulate the response. This document describes conceptual options for cooperation, offering three scenarios that relate to three hypothetical levels (low, medium, and high) of cooperation. Potential cooperative efforts under a low cooperation scenario could include information exchanges on military equipment and schedules to prevent misunderstandings and the establishment of protocols for handling emergency situations or unusual circumstances. Measures under a medium cooperation scenario could include establishing joint monitoring groups for better communications, with hot lines and scheduled meetings. The high cooperation scenario describes coordinated responses, joint border patrols, and sharing border intrusion information. Finally, the document lists recommendations for organizational, technical, and operational initiatives that could be applicable to the current situation.

  3. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection taking...

  4. Improving Nigerian Border Security -- A Comprehensive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    threats, overlapping jurisdictions between different agencies, presence of private sector businesses, and partnerships with neighboring states produce a...help us increase trade amongst West African states. Increased trade means that more goods and services will be produced , increased production means...Border Security, Cooperation and Integration, 69. 22. Adeola and Fayomi, Implications of Cross Border Migration, 6-7. 23. Ibid., 7. 24. Aluko Ola

  5. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection taki...... of choosing a foreign partner while the decision between foreign partners from different locations is not. The results do however not provide support for the theory of knowledge bases influencing the location of innovation partners....... the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was used to analyse cross-border innovation cooperation patterns...... of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on choosing partners within EU. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic innovation partner is independent of the choice...

  6. Border Security: A Journey Without a Destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    immigrants include “ undocumented immigrants ,” “ undocumented migrants,” “ undocumented aliens,” and “illegal aliens.”12 7. Border Security Border... Undocumented Immigrants : Facts and Figures.” Urban Institute, January 12, 2004. http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF...the future. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Border, Border Security, Secure Border, DHS, CBP, USBP, Immigration , Measures, Project Management, Project

  7. Extending Eurasia Security Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    After 14 years of development, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) , has set its sights on goals for the next de-cade at the 15th meeting of the Council of SCO Heads of State that was held in Ufa, the capital of Russia's Bashkortostan Republic, on July 9-10. The SCO, established in Shanghai in 2001, is committed to building fdendly neighbor rela- tions and maintaining security and stability in the Central Asian region through multilateral cooperation.

  8. Cross-border Innovation Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    Introduction Increase in innovation cooperation of firms is related to; faster product life cycles, complexity of technology and sharing of risk Choice between different partners is based on significance of the knowledge they offer and cost savings (Balderboes et al. 2004). Choosing a foreign...... partner can give access to knowledge not available in the region but comes with a cost (Boschma, 2005). Choice of partner is influenced by firm characteristics, industry and location of the firm...

  9. Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-30

    Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL33659 Border Security...Presidencia,” May 12, 2005. Translation by CRS. Available at [http://www.presidencia.gob.mx/actividades/crecimiento/?contenido=18195& pagina =31]. Last

  10. Partnership and Cooperation Models in Cross-Border Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Slusarciuc

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at exploring the partnership and cooperation issues in cross-border areas in European Union. The theoretical part of the papers is defining the role of the borders in the framework of the European Union enlarged and it includes a review of forms of cooperation and principles applicable in cross-border cooperation considered by the Council of Europe and the European Union or the Association of European Border Regions. Further there are identified in the specific literature important challenges and key points that are marking the cross-border partnerships. The last part of the paper is focusing on some examples of cross-border cooperation, making distinction between two main situations: the border between Member States and the borders between EU and neighbouring countries.

  11. CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION AT THE EXTERNAL BORDERS OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Popescu (Stîngaciu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To cooperate means to work and act together for a common advantage or purpose. The cooperation across borders, between different countries and regions sharing the same border, to reach common goals, is aimed to increase the overall competitiveness of the regional economy and to improve the quality of living standards for the these areas. European Union’s programmes are good accelerators for cross-border cooperation. The paper is focused on cross-border cooperation programmes at the external border of the EU and the expected impact of the allocated funds. The cross-border cooperation programmes are creating the conditions to exist the relationships between different social and economic stakeholders in order to contribute to economic and social development by supporting SME development, innovation, human resources development, civil society and local communities, increasing educational, social, cultural and sporting exchanges, improving local governance in different cross-border areas.

  12. Cross-border cooperation in the Fehmarn Belt Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    Ph.d. thesis on cross-border cooperation around transport planning and regional development. Successfully defended on December 1st, 2015. Executive summary available on page V of the document......Ph.d. thesis on cross-border cooperation around transport planning and regional development. Successfully defended on December 1st, 2015. Executive summary available on page V of the document...

  13. INFORMATION SECURITY IN LOGISTICS COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Małkus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation of suppliers of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, wholesalers, retailers in the form of the supply chain, as well as outsourcing of specialized logistics service require ensuring adequate support of information. It concerns the use of appropriate computer tools. The security of information in such conditions of collaboration becomes the important problem for parties of contract. The objective of the paper is to characterize main issues relating to security of information in logistics cooperation.

  14. Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Graniczny; Jonas Satkunas; Jurga Lazauskiene; Jiri Sebesta

    2006-01-01

    @@ The International Workshop on "Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America" was organized in Managua, Nicaragua, 5-8 December, 2005 by the Working Group International Borders-Geoenvironmental Concerns (IBC), under the IUGS Commission on Geosciences for Environmental Management (GEM) and in the framework of the IUGS funded project "Application of geosciences for sustainable development of cross-border areas(GEOCrossBorder)".

  15. Border Security Agency Structure: A Hindrance to Demonstrating Border Security Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Citizenship and Immigration Services USCS United States Customs Service VSP Visa Security Program WMD Weapons of Mass Destruction WTC World Trade Center... destruction ” was not part of the border security agencies’ mission lexicon before the passage of the HSA. 2. The U.S. Customs Service In 1992, the GAO...laws. Focus on terrorists and weapons of mass destruction were the province of the FBI and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. INS and the

  16. Local border traffic as an efficient tool for developing cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Local border traffic (LBT is a tool for cooperation between the EU member states and neighbouring countries. It emerged as a measure to mitigate the barrier effect of the EU’s external border. In 2006, the European Parliament authorised the EU member states to conclude bilateral agreements on a simplified border crossing regime in border areas. This article analyses local border traffic as a cross-border cooperation tool. The territory described in the study includes the external borders of the EU (and Norway with the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus. The article will be of interest to specialists in international and, particularly, in cross-border cooperation. The authors analyse the mechanism of local border traffic and identify possible trends based on the general socioeconomic situation and foreign policy background in Russia, Belarus, and the EU (Norway. The article employs the cartographic method to enhance the visual component of the study. It is concluded that the LBT mechanism is effective and it has a positive effect on the development of border contacts between countries. There is a need to continue the dialogue between Russia, Belarus and the EU countries on both expanding the geographical scope of the LBT mechanism and ensuring its qualitative development.

  17. Nonstate Actors and the Open Border Policy: The Border Security Case Study of Nepal and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    49 3. Human and Drug Trafficking ...border policy, the Polish and German governments continue to address border security challenges, “including illicit trafficking of humans , arms...terrorists and organized criminals), human trafficking , technology, and corruption. As states respond to disruptive nonstate actors, which have implications

  18. Cross-border innovation cooperation: Partner selection, national borders and knowledge bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... by taking the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was utilized to analyse cross-border innovation...... cooperation patterns of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and research and development (R&D) intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level...

  19. Cross-Border Electricity Cooperation in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Anoop; Jamasb, Tooraj; Nepal, Rabindra; Toman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    South Asian countries, facing challenges in efficiently meeting growing electricity demand, can benefit from increased cross-border electricity cooperation and trade by harnessing complementarities in electricity demand patterns, diversity in resource endowments for power generation, and gains from larger market access. The region has witnessed slow progress in expanding regional electrici...

  20. ASEAN and Thailand's regional security cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Kanpachai, Saisak

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established in 1967 by the integration of the Southeast Asian non communist states. Common security concerns in the region made the cooperation possible among them in the first place. Established mainly because of security reasons, ASEAN at present has only loose regional security cooperation. On the other hand, it provides close regional economic cooperation. Distrust among ASEAN ...

  1. Mapping the potential of cross-border cooperation in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the socio-economic potential of border regions can provide great insights as to where cross-border co-operation could be intensified in West Africa.......Mapping the socio-economic potential of border regions can provide great insights as to where cross-border co-operation could be intensified in West Africa....

  2. Cross-border cooperation potential in fostering redevelopment of degraded border areas - a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Castanho, Rui; Ramírez, Beatriz; Loures, Luis; Fernández-Pozo, Luis; Cabezas, José

    2017-04-01

    Border interactions have reached unprecedented levels in recent decades, not only due to their potential for territorial integration but also considering their role in supranational processes, such as landscape reclamation, infrastructure development and land use planning on European territory. In this scenario, successful examples related to the redevelopment of degraded areas have been showing positive impacts at several levels, such as the social, economic, environmental and aesthetic ones which have ultimately related this process, positively, to sustainability issues. However, concerning to border areas, and due to their inherent legislative and bureaucratic conflicts, the intervention in these areas is more complex. Still, and taking into account previously developed projects and strategies of cross-border cooperation (CBC) in European territory it is possible to identified that the definition of common master plans and common objectives are critical issues to achieve the desired territorial success. Additionally, recent studies have put forward some noteworthy ideas highlighting that it is possible to establish a positive correlation between CBC processes and an increasing redevelopment of degraded border areas, with special focus on the reclamation of derelict landscapes fostering soil reuse and redevelopment. The present research, throughout case study analysis at the Mediterranean level - considering case studies from Portugal, Spain, Monaco and Italy - which presents specific data on border landscape redevelopment, enables us to conclude that CBC processes have a positive influence on the potential redevelopment of degraded border areas, considering not only urban but also rural land. Furthermore, this paper presents data obtained through a public participation process which highlights that these areas present a greater potential for landscape reclamation, fostering resource sustainability and sustainable growth. Keywords: Spatial planning; Land

  3. Border Security Fencing and Wildlife: The End of the Transboundary Paradigm in Eurasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, John D C; Trouwborst, Arie; Boitani, Luigi; Kaczensky, Petra; Huber, Djuro; Reljic, Slaven; Kusak, Josip; Majic, Aleksandra; Skrbinsek, Tomaz; Potocnik, Hubert; Hayward, Matt W; Milner-Gulland, E J; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Olson, Kirk A; Badamjav, Lkhagvasuren; Bischof, Richard; Zuther, Steffen; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2016-06-01

    The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows a trend of border fence construction across Eurasia during the post-9/11 era. This development has gone largely unnoticed by conservation biologists during an era in which, ironically, transboundary cooperation has emerged as a conservation paradigm. These fences represent a major threat to wildlife because they can cause mortality, obstruct access to seasonally important resources, and reduce effective population size. We summarise the extent of the issue and propose concrete mitigation measures.

  4. Concepts and Practices of Cooperative Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent; Wheeler, Nicholas J

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers how the security dilemma can be overcome in ways that promote cooperation and even trust, mitigating or transcending the international uncertainty that can otherwise inhibit interstate cooperation. It argues that there are two mechanisms to create the trust necessary...... for the development of a security community, Charles Osgood's GRIT strategy and a unilateral 'leap of trust.' Both of these, however, initially require elites to develop security dilemma sensibility. The long-term stability of security communities is fundamentally linked to the presence of embedded trust among...

  5. Concepts and Practices of Cooperative Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent; Wheeler, Nicholas J

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers how the security dilemma can be overcome in ways that promote cooperation and even trust, mitigating or transcending the international uncertainty that can otherwise inhibit interstate cooperation. It argues that there are two mechanisms to create the trust necessary for th...

  6. Cross-border Cooperation as a Mechanism of Regional Marketing in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidov Denis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a pragmatic approach to certain aspects of cross-border regionalisation. The marketing component of Euroregion development and the implementation of cross-border cooperation projects are considered as key directions of the joint activity of cross-border partner-regions. The authors analyse the opportunity to apply the territory brand model to research on the mechanisms of cross-border cooperation and to the elaboration of an efficient development strategy as a promising direction of further study of the cross-border cooperation and regionalisation phenomena.

  7. Information Analysis Methodology for Border Security Deployment Prioritization and Post Deployment Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, Paul M.; Maple, Scott A.

    2010-06-08

    Due to international commerce, cross-border conflicts, and corruption, a holistic, information driven, approach to border security is required to best understand how resources should be applied to affect sustainable improvements in border security. The ability to transport goods and people by land, sea, and air across international borders with relative ease for legitimate commercial purposes creates a challenging environment to detect illicit smuggling activities that destabilize national level border security. Smuggling activities operated for profit or smuggling operations driven by cross border conflicts where militant or terrorist organizations facilitate the transport of materials and or extremists to advance a cause add complexity to smuggling interdiction efforts. Border security efforts are further hampered when corruption thwarts interdiction efforts or reduces the effectiveness of technology deployed to enhance border security. These issues necessitate the implementation of a holistic approach to border security that leverages all available data. Large amounts of information found in hundreds of thousands of documents can be compiled to assess national or regional borders to identify variables that influence border security. Location data associated with border topics of interest may be extracted and plotted to better characterize the current border security environment for a given country or region. This baseline assessment enables further analysis, but also documents the initial state of border security that can be used to evaluate progress after border security improvements are made. Then, border security threats are prioritized via a systems analysis approach. Mitigation factors to address risks can be developed and evaluated against inhibiting factor such as corruption. This holistic approach to border security helps address the dynamic smuggling interdiction environment where illicit activities divert to a new location that provides less resistance

  8. Sustainable rural development and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Žaklina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable rural development comprises three aspects - social, economical and ecological. They are supposed to act in synergy, but, at the same time, these aspects are supposed to be competitive. Agriculture, as a traditional activity of rural economy, contributes to the sustainable development of rural areas only if there is an adequate resources management. If not, there will be a significant degradation of rural environment. These are the reasons why sustainable agriculture development is emphasized since it maximizes productivity and minimizes negative effects on nature and human resources. In this context, one should observe the connection between agriculture and tourism existing in the EU, where the application of sustainable agricultural development concept produces external effects connected to biodiversity protection and environment in rural areas. These become a good foundation for the development of rural and ecotourism. EU enlargement induced diversification of support programmes that EU gives to the candidate countries, as well as to those who are just entering the process of stabilization and association to the EU. Through cross-border cooperation projects, many goals can be accomplished, among which aspiration for promotion of sustainable economical and social development in border regions is one of the leading. Knowing that these regions are usually passive and underdeveloped, the projects of cross-border cooperation could induce development of those activities in local economy, which could bring better living conditions and economic prosperity on the one hand, and protection of environment on the other. Examples of this kind of projects in Serbia can usually be found in rural and ecotourism development.

  9. National Security Threats at the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-24

    civil authorities in numbers sufficient to operate and expand their nefarious enterprise with reasonable freedom and security. This process has also been...have no desire to be involved in politics or governance. Corruption is utilized, along with violence, to obtain freedom of action for their criminal...Each troop was also screened for tattoos indicating gang affiliation. Finally, volunteers who lived within 70 miles of the border were

  10. THE NORTHERN BORDER A FORGOTTEN NATIONAL SECURITY THREAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    Democracy, Human Rights and Global Women’s Issues, Committee on Foreign Relations for a hearing entitled “Cartels and The U.S. Heroin Epidemic...before the Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere, Transnational Crime, Civilian Security, Democracy, Human Rights and Global Women’s Issues, Committee on...and smuggling between the ports of entry (POEs), a focus on cross border economic flow at entry points, and a growing number of Syrian refugees in

  11. Global Stability Through Security Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    operations via piracy , smuggling of weapons, narcotics, human trafficking, conducting terrorist operations, and if possible terrorist operations with...sovereign state and region. This collaboration, coordination, and cooperation require a unity of purpose and reading from the “same sheet of music .” The...requirement for three distinct organizations to operate together and be on the same “sheet of music ” must demand a strategic, comprehensive assessment

  12. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/13: Cooperative monitoring for confidence building: A case study of the Sino-Indian border areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIDHU,WAHEGURU PAL SINGH; YUAN,JING-DONG; BIRINGER,KENT L.

    1999-08-01

    This occasional paper identifies applicable cooperative monitoring techniques and develops models for possible application in the context of the border between China and India. The 1993 and 1996 Sino-Indian agreements on maintaining peace and tranquility along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) and establishing certain confidence building measures (CBMs), including force reductions and limitation on military exercises along their common border, are used to examine the application of technically based cooperative monitoring in both strengthening the existing terms of the agreements and also enhancing trust. The paper also aims to further the understanding of how and under what conditions technology-based tools can assist in implementing existing agreements on arms control and confidence building. The authors explore how cooperative monitoring techniques can facilitate effective implementation of arms control agreements and CBMS between states and contribute to greater security and stability in bilateral, regional, and global contexts.

  13. China-ASEAN Security Cooperation in Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xianwu

    2012-01-01

    For years, an obsession with economic cooperation - flee-trade areas in particular - has marginalized research into China-ASEAN security issues. In recent years such issues have become more prominent, albeit so far mostly confined to specific issues such as territorial disputes in the South China Sea.

  14. Reviewing the Spanish-Portuguese border: conflict, interaction and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Calderón Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available European borders, or borders between European Union member states, are historical products that embody the ebbs and flows of European borderlands. These areas are evolving from past struggles and confrontations between European kingdoms toward a future of progressive European integration. Such processes are highly complex, as they involve border deactivation. In this work, we examine the evolution of the Spanish- Portuguese border from the perspective of cross-border interaction.

  15. The Impact of Land Border Security on Terrorism Financing: Turkey’s Southeast Land Border and the PKK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    LAND BORDER SECURITY ON TERRORISM FINANCING: TURKEY’S SOUTHEAST LAND BORDER AND THE PKK by Yunus Eren December 2013 Thesis Advisor...FINANCING: TURKEY’S SOUTHEAST LAND BORDER AND THE PKK 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Yunus Eren 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...of terrorist organizations takes an important place in countering terrorism. This thesis focuses on the Kurdistan Workers’ Party ( PKK ) financing

  16. Cross-Border Governance: Balancing Formalized and Less Formalized Co-Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Zumbusch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses cross-border co-operation with regard to its degree of formalization. Herewith, the focus is not on single cross-border organizations, but on the encompassing governance systems in the respective regions. That means that the specific combination of differently organized cross-border arrangements is analyzed. Cross-border governance systems are facing multiple governance challenges which ask either for a certain degree of institutionalization or for more informal solutions. Based on an empirical comparison of the two experienced, but differently organized, cross-border regions in Europe the Lake Constance Region and the Upper-Rhine Region, the paper illustrates that the organizational variation of cross-border governance systems show specific patterns. From these findings, first arguments are deduced for balancing formalized and more informal co-operations in cross-border governance systems.

  17. CASE STUDIES OF CROSS-BORDER CO-OPERATION IN EUROPEAN TOURISM – PERSPECTIVES AND CHALLENGES FOR THE CROSS-BORDER REGION BUCOVINA/OBLAST TSCHERNIWZI

    OpenAIRE

    HEIKE BÄHRE

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on success factors and management models in destination management for cross-border co-operation in tourism. The method is based on literature research, case-studies in European cross-border-regions and descriptive.

  18. Optical benchmarking of security document readers for automated border control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentín, Kristián.; Wild, Peter; Å tolc, Svorad; Daubner, Franz; Clabian, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Authentication and optical verification of travel documents upon crossing borders is of utmost importance for national security. Understanding the workflow and different approaches to ICAO 9303 travel document scanning in passport readers, as well as highlighting normalization issues and designing new methods to achieve better harmonization across inspection devices are key steps for the development of more effective and efficient next- generation passport inspection. This paper presents a survey of state-of-the-art document inspection systems, showcasing results of a document reader challenge investigating 9 devices with regards to optical characteristics.

  19. European integration and cooperation, basic vectors of European space of freedom, security and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Balaceanu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available European integration and cooperation, basic vectors of European space of freedom, security and justiceAbstract: The European countries joining to the Schengen area had the effect elimination of internal border controls between Schengen member countries, that use permenent provisions of the Schengen acquis, being a single external border where operational checks are carried out according to a set of clear rules on immigration, visas, the asylum, as well as some decisions concerning police cooperation, judicial or customs. This means that the border crossing can be made at any time through many places, and citizens of member countries who are traveling in the Schengen area must present a valid ID. Overcoming internal border can be equated with a journey through the country.

  20. Current International Cooperation and Developments in Information Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Global information security and the threats to its integrity are becoming increasingly important. In this paper,the authors talk about areas requiring international cooperation, the major problems with current international cooperation, and finally give their reflections on international cooperation.

  1. Enhancing regional security agreements through cooperative monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes that strengthening regional capabilities for formulating and implementing arms control and confidence-building measures is a tangible method of enhancing regional security. It discusses the importance of developing a regional infrastructure for arms control and confidence building and elucidates the role of technology in facilitating regional arms control and confidence-building agreements. In addition, it identifies numerous applications for regional cooperative monitoring in the areas of arms control, resource management, international commerce and disaster response. The Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, whose aim is to help individual countries and regions acquire the tools they need to develop their own solutions to regional problems, is discussed briefly. The paper ends with recommendations for establishing regional cooperative monitoring centers.

  2. Regulatory and Legal Provision of Trans-border Co-operation of Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Oleh Ye.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of regulatory and legal provision of trans-border co-operation of enterprises. Having analysed scientific works of many scientists and considered a significant number of regulatory and legal acts, the authors systemised the component elements of the legal provision of trans-border co-operation of enterprises and showed a hierarchical connection between them. In the result of the study the article presents a rather complete system of regulatory and legal provision of trans-border co-operation of enterprises and provides a complete list of regulatory and legal acts directed at regulation of such a co-operation. The prospects of further studies in this direction are development of proposals on improvement of the existing regulatory and legal base of Ukraine in the sphere of trans-border co-operation and development of efficient ways of development of trans-border co-operation of enterprises. Urgency of the study is confirmed by the fact that development of trans-border co-operation of enterprises can become a real tool of facilitation of faster entering of Ukraine into European economic environment.

  3. Cross-border Co-operation and Policy Networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trémolières, Marie; Walther, Olivier

    policy networks, showing that borders have notable and diverse impacts on exchanges of information and the relative power of networks. The report then analyses a range of regional indicators of co-operation potential, visually demonstrating that borders can also affect the ability of sub-regions within......This publication examines how policy actors involved in cross-border co-operation contribute to the regional integration process in West Africa. It uses a pioneering methodology, known as social network analysis, to visualise the formal and informal relationships between actors involved in cross-border...... West Africa to develop cross-border initiatives in a number of ways. Combining these two analyses with the perceptions of regional policy makers as to which border areas they consider as priorities for regional integration, the publication concludes with the analytical foundations for more effective...

  4. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nonproliferation and Arms Control Analysis Dept.

    1996-11-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations. Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  5. A balanced way for China's inter-regional cross-border insolvency cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, X.

    2016-01-01

    In pursuit of solutions to China’s inter-regional cross-border insolvency cooperation, the doctoral dissertation provides 10 original recommendations accompanied with comments, which are entitled “CICIA”.

  6. Security-aware cooperation in cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    This brief investigates spectrum efficient and energy efficient strategies, known as cognitive radio networks (CRNs), to ensure secure cooperation between licensed and unlicensed users. The authors address issues of spectrum scarcity, spectrum sensing, transmission performance, trust-aware cooperation, and secure communications. Two security-aware cooperation based spectrum access schemes are presented. The first is a trust-aware cooperative framework for CRNs to improve the throughput or energy efficiency of licensed users and offer transmission opportunities to unlicensed users, taking into

  7. Advanced Technologies for Intelligent Systems of National Border Security

    CERN Document Server

    Simek, Krzysztof; Świerniak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    One of the world’s leading problems in the field of national security is protection of borders and borderlands. This book addresses multiple issues on advanced innovative methods of multi-level control of both ground (UGVs) and aerial drones (UAVs). Those objects combined with innovative algorithms become autonomous objects capable of patrolling chosen borderland areas by themselves and automatically inform the operator of the system about potential place of detection of a specific incident. This is achieved by using sophisticated methods of generation of non-collision trajectory for those types of objects and enabling automatic integration of both ground and aerial unmanned vehicles. The topics included in this book also cover presentation of complete information and communication technology (ICT) systems capable of control, observation and detection of various types of incidents and threats. This book is a valuable source of information for constructors and developers of such solutions for uniformed servi...

  8. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ASPECTS IN ROMANIA-REPUBLIC OF SERBIA IPA CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Nicolae-Eugen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is based on the analysis of the sustainability aspects in cross-border cooperation programmes. The importance of this research topic consists in presenting if the implementation of the activities of the projects submitted under cross-border cooperation programmes is based on the sustainability aspects. In this matter, the article will present theoretical aspects of sustainable development, territorial cohesion and cross-border development and focuses on practical questions related to sustainability aspects in the case of the Romania – Republic of Serbia IPA Cross-border Cooperation Programme. One of the main challenges of the cross-border area is also environmental challenges. Sustainable development is represents the fundamental objective of the European Union and refers to the economic, social and environmental dimensions of development. Countries cannot develop without existing cooperation between them, therefore EU policy is based on economic, social and territorial cohesion. Methodologically, the research is based on identifying of appropriate theoretical concepts corresponding to the chosen theme, collecting and processing data. The paper concludes with answers to key questions related to the integration of sustainable development aspects in cross-border cooperation programmes and projects. The results of the research have implications that could contribute to the current problem of absorption rate of EU funds, offering information about IPA cross-border cooperation programmes and increasing the capacity of potential applicants to elaborate and implement projects for obtaining and using financial EU funds. The added value of the paper results from the fact that EU financing is a topical issue of great interest to European and national level. To the best of our knowledge, this topic has not yet been researched within the national literature. The author contributed by performing methodology of qualitative research

  9. Cross-border mergers between agricultural co-operatives -a governance perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jerker; Madsen, Ole Øhlenschlæger

    that the driving force behind a crossbordermerger is the top management teams of the co-operatives, and these persons have onlyweak connections to the co-operative societies, and limited knowledge about the socialnetworks within the memberships. These observations imply that there are some challenges tocross......A merger between agricultural co-operatives involves two merger processes - one concerningthe two co-operative business firms and the other concerning the two co-operative societies,i.e., the ownership organisations. These two merger processes are mutually dependent. If amerger involves co-operatives......-border mergers between agricultural co-operatives....

  10. Problems and Prospects of Cross-Border Cooperation in Tourism between Russia and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitseva Natalia A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this research is related to the increasing role of tourism in the world in general and in border areas in particular. This article sets out to identify the problems and prospects of the development of cross-border cooperation in tourism between Russia and European countries. The authors focus on the scientific and theoretical aspects of cross-border cooperation and examine the role of tourism, and recreational potential and its effective use. The authors employ the methods of expert judgement and statistical analysis, refer to the surveys of Russian and European consumers showing their preferences, as well as to the authors’ own materials. The analysis makes it possible to have a deeper insight into the issue of cross-border cooperation in tourism between Russia and European countries and to assess the prospects of it. The authors provide an assessment of changes in the socio-economic relations between Russia and European countries and identify key problems in the development of cross-border cooperation in tourism. These problems relate to both macroeconomic and regional/industrial factors. The article is of interest for researchers studying cross-border tourism, the regional and local administrations of border areas of Russia and European countries, and representatives of the tourism business.

  11. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities: (1) the demilitarization of the Sinai region between Israel and Egypt in the 1970s; (2) the 1991 quadripartite agreement for monitoring nuclear facilities among Brazil, Argentina, The Argentine-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency; and (3) a bilateral Open Skies agreement between Hungary and Romania in 1991. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations.Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  12. Perspective: border security in the age of globalization: how can we protect ourselves without losing the benefits of openness?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Border security has become increasingly important since 9-11. Yet the benefits of globalization depend on moving people and goods across national boundaries. How can we improve border security without losing the benefits of openness?

  13. THE CONTRIBUTION AND SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF CROSS BORDER COOPERATION FOR MOLDOVAN SMES (THE CASE OF COOPERATION WITH ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Aculai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, some characteristics of cross border cooperation of Moldovan SMEs are examined - types of cooperation, problems and preferences in choosing foreign partners, impact of cross border cooperation on business and regional development. The stress is made on the cooperation with Romania. Content of the paper is based on results of the international research project “Cross-border Cooperation and Partnership in selected NIS countries and the Consequences of EU-Enlargement: Fostering Entrepreneurship in the Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova”, elaborated by a research team from 5 countries during 2005-2007 years with the support of INTAS. The main research method within the project was weakly structured “face to face” interviews with different actors, first of all, with enterprises and households involved in CBC. In Moldova, actors from 2 districts (Edinet, Cahul placed in the northern and southern parts of the country, correspondingly on the territories of Upper Prut and Lower Danube Euroregions, right along the border with Romania, were interviewed.

  14. Study on Enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jounghoon; Heo, Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Regional and global cooperation in nuclear security was urged. Nevertheless, it is hard to seek a successful example of regional cooperation in nuclear security, with the exception of EURATOM. Northeast Asia which includes China, Russia, Japan, ROK and, DPRK has many nuclear issues. For example, the concerns of the international community were raised when the DPRK has conducted three nuclear tests. Countries in this region also possess many nuclear power plants and materials. However, there has been no attempt at creating a community or organization for multinational security in this region. In this paper, we discuss various ways of enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia. We begin with an examination of current global, regional and national nuclear security cooperation efforts. We then discuss directions and strategies for nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia, and offer some detailed cooperation agendas to be considers. Northeast Asia countries have tried to cooperate in many areas such as energy, environment, economy, and policy. However, nuclear security issues have not been discussed seriously. We need to start cooperating on nuclear security issues, because a nuclear security event may affect several countries. One country may not be able to respond to such an event independently. In order to gain cooperate in nuclear security, we have to be able to suggest pertinent agendas to Northeast Asia countries. R and D, education and training of nuclear security may be a good suggestion for starting cooperation. And more practical and detailed agendas such as joint response and information sharing may be suggested for cooperation strengthening.

  15. A Trusted Centralized Public Key to Secure Border Gateway Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divan Raimagia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Secure Border Gateway Protocol (S-BGP is used when two different Autonomous System communicate with each other and upon reception of UPDATE from neighbor Autonomous System. A core layer Router in single Autonomous System called BGP speaker first verifies the receiving update and signs the full path with own digital signature and send it to neighbor AS. In Real scenario so many ASes and Routers communicate to each other. So due to several digital signatures mandates, large storage require in router as well as high processor overhead and more time require for sign generation and verification in S-BGP. In this paper, we propose a new approach that less burden on BGP Speaker for verify and generate number of digital signatures using Autonomous System makes trusted through KDC server. The Central KDC Server will send master certificate to validate autonomous system. In this environment each BGP speaker verify only one sign on each update and verify path only between itself and neighbor router. After verification of UPDATE, each BGP speaker sign full path encrypt routing table with neighbor’s public key,

  16. German cooperatives: property right hybrids with strong tenant security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.; Brunner, D.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperatives in Germany can be considered a hybrid tenure, which offers a bundle of property rights that lies in between renting and owning. Being a cooperative occupier of a dwelling should allow for more secure occupancy rights than ordinarily available to renters and less secure occupancy rights

  17. Shaping the Victim: Borders, security, and human trafficking in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Campbell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces a discursively defined victim of trafficking. When projected back within the national territory, the border essentially produces a criminalised sex worker. To argue this point, the article discusses the role victims of trafficking play in the EU and looks at how international norms espoused by the OSCE and IOM have prepped the Albanian border for EU ascension and created the means for governable populations within Albania.

  18. Cultural cross-border co-operation among Balkan's countries with the case of Serbia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Borislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural cross-border cooperation includes all fields of cross-border cooperation and gives base for main connections and interactions. Without strengthening cultural cross-border cooperation, it is impossible to build significant relations between neighbors. Culture, as a foundation, an activator and a purpose of development in cross-border regions, represents a cardinal and conditional factor of cross-border cooperation. Today's situation in the Balkans reveals ethnic diversity of this region and territorial dispersion of ethnic groups. This implies at the same time great cultural diversity as well as dispersal of various national cultures over the Balkan's states. During the 20th century Serbia and Bulgaria have very complex political and intrastate relations. But in the last 10 years there have been significant improvements in the cross-border cooperation between Serbia and Bulgaria. The results of these improvements are established Euro-regions and implemented cross-border projects between these two countries. Existing Euro-regions between Serbia and Bulgaria created links between various local authorities and made excellent basis for cross-border initiatives and joint projects to promote common interests across the border and cooperation for the common good of the border areas populations. The well managed cultural cross-border cooperation between these two countries will provide a clear view of common features and raise common identity for the region, contribute to tolerance and understanding between people in this area and enable them to overcome the peripheral status of the border region in their countries and improve the living conditions of the population.

  19. Understanding of the Security Cooperation under the CICA Framework from the Evolving Security Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    The complex characteristics and the grim situation of the Asian security in the new period puts construction of a new security structure in Asia on the agenda,and the existing CICA composed of most Asian countries can provide useful help for the Asian security structure construction.The CICA plays a unique role in promoting peace and cooperation in Asia,and in promoting mutual understanding and trust among its member states.Facing the common and comprehensive security challenges in the Asian region,the CICA security concept is also constantly developing and improving.A new Asian security concept advocated by China has become the core content of the CICA security concept,which carries far-reaching significance for pushing Asian countries to boost mutual trust and cooperation,and jointly build a secure and stable environment in the region.Respecting and caring of the security concerns of all Member States,and promoting security and mutual trust through dialogue and cooperation are the CICA main consideration for carrying out security cooperation.The Security cooperation under the future CICA framework should,on the basis of the new security concept,overcome a dilemma for lack of a community of cognition identity,a community of interests,a community of responsibility and a community of shared destiny,actively implement the measures for mutual trust,strengthen mechanisms construction,and make contributions for establishment of a new security structure in Asia.

  20. Secure Multiparty Computation for Cooperative Cyber Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Secure Multiparty Computation for Cooperative Cyber Risk Assessment Kyle Hogan, Noah Luther, Nabil Schear, Emily Shen, Sophia Yakoubov, Arkady...Malacaria. How to spend it: Optimal investment for cyber security . In Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Agents and CyberSecurity...common problem organizations face is determining which security updates to perform and patches to apply to minimize the risk of potential vulnerabilities

  1. The external dimension of the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice: The case of local consular cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mar Fernández Pasarín

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the new millennium, local consular cooperation has become a priority on the European agenda. The new challenges (expressed in terms of security and public order through phenomena such as the increase in migration flows and international terrorism have emphasised the strategic role played by local consular cooperation as a means to improve the integrated management of the EU’s external borders. This article analyses the development and the institutional modalities of this type of cooperation that has been developed outside the borders of the EU, and questions the contribution of same to the construction of an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ within the Union.

  2. Physical Layer Security: Coalitional Games for Distributed Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Saad, Walid; Basar, Tamer; Debbah, Merouane; Hjørungnes, Are

    2009-01-01

    Cooperation between wireless network nodes is a promising technique for improving the physical layer security of wireless transmission, in terms of secrecy capacity, in the presence of multiple eavesdroppers. While existing physical layer security literature answered the question "what are the link-level secrecy capacity gains from cooperation?", this paper attempts to answer the question of "how to achieve those gains in a practical decentralized wireless network and in the presence of a secrecy capacity cost for information exchange?". For this purpose, we model the physical layer security cooperation problem as a coalitional game with non-transferable utility and propose a distributed algorithm for coalition formation. Through the proposed algorithm, the wireless users can autonomously cooperate and self-organize into disjoint independent coalitions, while maximizing their secrecy capacity taking into account the security costs during information exchange. We analyze the resulting coalitional structures, d...

  3. Alternatives of Cross-Border Securities Settlement System in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Yul Chai

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of cross-border securities settlement system is a very important element of regional capital market integration. Despite its importance, relatively few arguments, both theoretical and practical, have been advanced on the subject. This paper aims to examine the alternatives of cross-border securities settlement system in East Asia, and analyse the feasibility and the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative. The paper underlines the need to develop a multi-currency DVP securities settlement system. The conceivable alternatives of East Asia's cross-border securities settlement system can be divided into decentralized system and centralized system. It is possible to consider a large array of institutional settings according to the depository/settlement methods. The comparison of the alternatives is based on economic efficiency, feasibility and institutional location of settlement system. In view of these criteria, it is argued that a 'big-bang' approach toward imperfectly cenralized system is the most desirable alternative.

  4. Physical Layer Security: Coalitional Games for Distributed Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Walid; Zhu, Han; Basar, Tamer; Debbah, Merouane; Hjorungnes, Are

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Cooperation between wireless network nodes is a promising technique for improving the physical layer security of wireless transmission, in terms of secrecy capacity, in the presence of multiple eavesdroppers. While existing physical layer security literature answered the question “what are the link-level secrecy capacity gains from cooperation?”, this paper attempts to answer the question of “how to achieve those gains in a practical decen- tralized wireless network an...

  5. Border Cracks: Approaching Border Security From a Complexity Theory and Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    33 o. Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) ..................................34 viii p. Federal Police (PF...SIU Sensitive Information Unit SOD Special Operations Division SSP Secretaria de Seguridad Publica SWB Southwest Border Initiative SWBICP...www.usatoday.com/news/military/2010-04-06-Mexico_N.htm. 34 o. Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) SSP is part of the Federal Civil Service whose aim is

  6. Sustainable Development Aspects in Cross-Border Cooperation Programmes: The Case of Macedonia and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klodjan Seferaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cross-border area between Albania and Macedonia can be considered as a region with agrarian or industrial-agrarian economy, although the overall picture should take into account significant contrasts within the region, between the two countries, but also between the southern and northern part, and between mountainous areas and lowlands. Agriculture, agribusiness, light industry, mining, energy production and tourism are the main economic sectors, which also have the biggest potential in the cross-border region. Both countries are gaining experience in EU funded cross-border cooperation programmes with other neighbouring countries and with each other. The scope of the research is the evaluation and analysis of the Integrated Pre-accession Assistance (IPA Cross-border Cooperation (CBC Programme Macedonia-Albania 2007-2013 and its sustainable development aspects. The research is trying to assess the impact of the programme since its start in 2007 and the impact of the implemented grants on the sustainable development. The importance of the sustainable development aspect is recognized and is formally included into various national strategic documents, however implementation is often problematic and sustainability aspects need to be examined on a more concrete level. The methodology used was qualitative with research tools such as desk studies of relevant program documentation, strategic and planning documentation and other relevant published materials. The desk review considered well over 40 documents relevant to the program, most of which were shared by the Ministry of European Integration (MoEI and other actors.

  7. Analysis of Current Global Nuclear Safety and Security Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Chong

    2014-01-01

    Last year, global nuclear security and safety cooperation achieved some progress. In terms of nuclear safety, too many flaws are exposed by the current severe situation of the Fukushima in Japan’s new nuclear safety regulation system, and sound the alarm for East Asia countries accelerating the regional nuclear safety cooperation. In terms of nuclear security, since the Seoul Summit in March 2012, global nuclear security cooperation has achieved new successes. IAEA has and would play the central role in pushing forward the international framework and strengthening nuclear security globally. However, there are still some obstacles to overcome in the future, which need international society to enhance communication and common understanding, especially high-level consultations.

  8. East Africa’s Fragmented Security Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s, East Africa has developed what appears to be an impressive security architecture. Katja Lindskov Jacobsen and Johannes Riber Nordby warn, however, that appearances can be deceptive. The region’s security institutions remain too nationalistic and self-interested for their own good....

  9. Border and Transportation Security: Overview of Congressional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-17

    Explosive Trace Detection (ETD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Air Cargo Security...while ensuring that passenger prescreening measures do not violate privacy or civil liberties. Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) and Explosive Trace Detection (ETD

  10. Shared Compromise -- Future US-Mexican Border Security Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    and Canada had better get with it and recognize U.S. security priorities if they wished their burgeoning trade, especially after NAFTA , to continue...improve regional economic performance. Following the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ), to eliminate barriers to trade and...investment between the U.S., Canada , and Mexico, the United States and Mexico were on a path to balance trade and security. For example, from 1996

  11. Cooperative monitoring and its role in regional security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biringer, K.; Olsen, J.; Lincoln, R.; Wehling, F. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Cooperative monitoring systems can play an important part in promoting the implementation of regional cooperative security agreements. These agreements advance the national security interests of the United States in a post Cold War environment. Regional issues as widely varying as nuclear nonproliferation, trade and environmental pollution can be the source of tensions which may escalate to armed conflict which could have global implications. The Office of National Security Policy Analysis at the US Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in seeking ways to promote regional cooperation that can reduce the threats posed by regional conflict. DOE technologies and technical expertise can contribute to developing solutions to a wide variety of these international problems. Much of this DOE expertise has been developed in support of the US nuclear weapons and arms control missions. It is now being made available to other agencies and foreign governments in their search for regional security and cooperation. This report presents two examples of interest to DOE in which monitoring technologies could be employed to promote cooperation through experimentation. The two scenarios include nuclear transparency in Northeast Asia and environmental restoration in the Black Sea. Both offer the potential for the use of technology to promote regional cooperation. The issues associated with both of these monitoring applications are presented along with examples of appropriate monitoring technologies, potential experiments and potential DOE contributions to the scenarios.

  12. Diabetes among Latinos in the Southwestern United States: border health and binational cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Ryan P; Rouff, Mark A; Jauregui-Covarrubias, Lorena

    2014-12-01

    This analysis reviews cooperation between the four border states of the United States of America (Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas) and international partners in Mexico with regard to type 2 diabetes among Latinos. Binational cooperation, academic collaboration, preventative health initiatives, and efforts to improve health care access for the border population are highlighted. This meta-analysis of the literature points out causative factors of the increased type 2 diabetes prevalence among Latinos in the United States; an inverse correlation between diabetes and education and socioeconomic level; contributing factors, including barriers with language, health care payment, transportation, and underestimating diabetes implications; and a lack of social and environmental support for disease management. Medical and indirect costs in socioeconomic terms are also included. Cooperation between the United States and Mexico may be beneficial to promoting further collaborative efforts between these nations, and serve as a template for greater cooperative efforts to mitigate the substantial public health and socioeconomic implications of type 2 diabetes globally.

  13. Managing European Cross Border Cooperation Projects on Sustainability: A Focus on MESP Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Schenone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available International cooperation is a must to achieve the goal of sustainable development, since only through cross border actions’ complex issues like environmental degradation can be faced. Supranational initiatives and shared objectives are the only path for getting a durable and effective green strategy, which transcends boundaries or governments and fosters a common effort for sustainability through networking. The European Neighborhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI aims at reinforcing cooperation between the European Union (EU and partner countries’ regions placed along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. To this extent, MESP (Managing the Environmental Sustainability of Ports for a durable development can be considered as a typical cross border cooperation project, willing to create a sustainable environmental management of port in northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean basin. This has been achieved through the development of specific guidelines towards environmental sustainability and the collection of common tools, methodologies, good practices and innovations focused on pollution reduction that can be replicated in Mediterranean ports and further. This was possible through the creation of a strong cooperation network and long-lasting collaborations among partners and stakeholders such as harbour cities, port authorities, universities, research centres and scientific skills.

  14. Optimal Cooperative Relaying Schemes for Improving Wireless Physical Layer Security

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiangyuan; Weber, Steven

    2010-01-01

    We consider a cooperative wireless network in the presence of one of more eavesdroppers, and exploit node cooperation for achieving physical (PHY) layer based security. Two different cooperation schemes are considered. In the first scheme, cooperating nodes retransmit a weighted version of the source signal in a decode-and-forward (DF) fashion. In the second scheme, while the source is transmitting, cooperating nodes transmit weighted noise to confound the eavesdropper (cooperative jamming (CJ)). We investigate two objectives, i.e., maximization of achievable secrecy rate subject to a total power constraint, and minimization of total power transmit power under a secrecy rate constraint. For the first design objective with a single eavesdropper we obtain expressions for optimal weights under the DF protocol in closed form, and give an algorithm that converges to the optimal solution for the CJ scheme; while for multiple eavesdroppers we give an algorithm for the solution using the DF protocol that is guarantee...

  15. Regionalism, Security and Cooperation in Oceania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    storm damage). Potential second-order consequences include economic loss from these events, declining revenues from tourism , and emigration to escape...bridges, dams, schools, hospitals , sports facilities and government buildings. China also funds commercial projects that can deliver immediate...Cooperation in Oceania Introduction Australia, by dint of geography, trade and investment links, tourism , aid, defense assets and sport, has exercised a

  16. Using Automatic Identification System Technology to Improve Maritime Border Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    18 Dave Dixon et al., Security Modeling for Maritime Port Defense Resource Allocation ( Aiken , SC: Savannah River National Laboratory, 2010), 3...Maritime Port Defense Resource Allocation. Aiken , SC: Savannah River National Laboratory, 2010. Eggers, William D., and John O’Leary. If We Can Put a

  17. Education Issues Raised by S.744: The Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    This brief report summarizes the requirements for undocumented immigrants set forth by the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act (S.744). Assuming that S.744 will move forward in Congress, the report also examines issues having to do with certain language, civics and government, and education/training provisions…

  18. Deterring Cybertrespass and Securing Cyberspace: Lessons from United States Border Control Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    literature about border controls. Drawing on a rich literature, including case studies of successful and un- successful attempts at securing the Southern...ndupress.ndu.edu/ Media /News/NewsArticleView/tabid/7849/ Article/581864/jfq-77-rethinking-the-cyber-domain-and-deterrence. aspx, accessed August 11, 2015. 21

  19. Security Cooperation: An Old Practice for New Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Agency (DSCA) executes these portions of U.S. Security cooperation endeavors, which constitute the preponderance of efforts, both in terms of labor and...As the United States grew physically and economically, so did its security interests. Prior to actual entry into World War I, the U.S. limited its...developed infrastructure, terrorism, organized crime, and insurgent groups such as Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias

  20. The Evolution of European Security: From Confrontation to Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    leading U.S. companies such as Boeing and Lockheed Martin , just to name a few.77 But more robust cooperation is still limited by the member states...Common Security and Defense Policy: Intersecting Trajectories”, 4. 63 Gustav Lindstrom , Enter the EU Battlegroups, (Paris: Institute for Security...Battlegroups, Strategy Research Project (Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, January 22, 2009), 4. 67 Lindstrom , Enter the EU Battlegroups

  1. Cost and effectiveness analysis on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) use at border security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Bahadır.

    2013-06-01

    Drones and Remotely Piloted Vehicles are types of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. UAVs began to be used with the war of Vietnam, they had a great interest when Israel used them in Bekaa Valley Operations of 1982. UAVs have been used by different countries with different aims with the help of emerging technology and investments. In this article, in the context of areas of UAV usage in national security, benefits and disadvantages of UAVs are put forward. Particularly, it has been evaluated on the basis of cost-effectiveness by focusing the use of UAV in the border security. UAVs have been studied by taking cost analysis, procurement and operational costs into consideration. Analysis of effectiveness has been done with illegal passages of people and drugs from flight times of UAVs. Although the procurement cost of the medium-level UAVs is low, its operational costs are high. For this reason, the idea of less costly alternative systems have been revealed for the border security. As the costs are reduced to acceptable level involving national security and border security in future with high-technology products in their structure, it will continue to be used in an increasing proportion.

  2. The European cooperative approach to securing critical information infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Steve

    2011-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of the EU approach to securing critical information infrastructure, as defined in the Action Plan contained in the Commission Communication of March 2009, entitled 'Protecting Europe from large-scale cyber-attacks and disruptions: enhancing preparedness, security and resilience' and further elaborated by the Communication of May 2011 on critical Information infrastructure protection 'Achievements and next steps: towards global cyber-security'. After explaining the need for pan-European cooperation in this area, the CIIP Action Plan is explained in detail. Finally, the current state of progress is summarised together with the proposed next steps.

  3. Applying Penetration Tests on a Highly Secured Cooperative Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Security plays a vital role in the design; development and practical use of the distributed computing environment,for greater availability and access to information in turn imply that distributed systems are more prone to attacks. The need forpractical solutions for secure networked system management is becoming increasingly significant. Any cooperative networkshould be supplied with different security techniques and tools. This paper deals with subjecting a highly secured cooperativenetwork to successive penetration tests. An experimental network is built to represent a typical layout for a cooperativenetwork and it is supplied with a variety of security techniques such as, Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN, Virtual PrivateNetwork (VPN, Intrusion Detection System (IDS, Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA server, Secure ShellHeader (SSH, Access Control List (ACL, WLAN security Techniques and Network Address Translation (NAT. Our testsfocus on the evaluation of the importance of each security technique and the effect of their absence on the security level of thenetwork. This work could assist the future introduction of security evaluation matrices.

  4. Efficient Node Cooperation and Security in MANET using Closeness Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiyakumar C.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By description, a mobile ad hoc network does not stay on any permanent infrastructure; in its place, all networking utilities (e.g., routing, mobility management, etc. are accessed by the nodes themselves in a self-organizing manner. On the other hand, it is rigid to support cooperativeness among the nodes for their own restricted resources that require to be conserved. These scrupulous nodes which are also termed as selfish nodes decline to help other nodes in forwarding packets owing to the anxiety of having resource. Several researches design a new method that aims at attaining confidentiality of the location for an efficient communication. Thus, privacy appears from the mobile network and users gain control over the disclosure of their locations. In this work, we propose closeness mechanism accepted from the assumption of small-world event or also termed as degrees of separation to persuade cooperativeness among nodes in a trusted node’s community. This paper also provides some general idea on how to develop security on the trusted MANET community by adapting security features of trust. The simulation of the proposed Efficient Node Cooperation and Security [ENCS] in MANET work is done for varying topology, node size, attack type and intensity with different pause time settings and the performance evaluations are carried over in terms of node cooperativeness, clustering efficiency, communication overhead and compared with an existing secured key model.

  5. Cooperative Jamming for Secure Communications in MIMO Relay Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Secure communications can be impeded by eavesdroppers in conventional relay systems. This paper proposes cooperative jamming strategies for two-hop relay networks where the eavesdropper can wiretap the relay channels in both hops. In these approaches, the normally inactive nodes in the relay network can be used as cooperative jamming sources to confuse the eavesdropper. Linear precoding schemes are investigated for two scenarios where single or multiple data streams are transmitted via a decode-and-forward (DF) relay, under the assumption that global channel state information (CSI) is available. For the case of single data stream transmission, we derive closed-form jamming beamformers and the corresponding optimal power allocation. Generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD)-based secure relaying schemes are proposed for the transmission of multiple data streams. The optimal power allocation is found for the GSVD relaying scheme via geometric programming. Based on this result, a GSVD-based cooperative jam...

  6. THE RELATION BETWEEN TERRITORIAL COLECTIVITIES IN FRANCE AND THE EUROPEAN UNION. THOUGHTS ON THE CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA BARBOIU-GILIA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available France, one of the founding members of the European Union, is a unitary state from the administrativeterritorial point of view, based on deep centralism. Having territorial collectivities with highly complex structure (communes, departments, regions, sui-generis collectivities and overseas collectivities, France committed itself to cooperation not only between its own administrative structures, but also to cross-border cooperation within the European Union. After showing reluctance to external actions underwent by territorial collectivities, France ended up with acknowledging this right of its territorial collectivities within the «decentralized cooperation», expressly brought under regulation by the Law of 6 February 1992. According to the law, there is no need for any ratification on behalf of the State to allow cooperation between territorial collectivities, within the boundaries of their competence. The Law of 1992 thus authorized the territorial collectivities to close agreements with other collectivities from abroad. Furthermore, the Law of 4 February 1995 allowed several treaties with the border states to be signed, thus creating the SAAR-LOR-LUX region (an European cross-border region that made way for cooperation between Germany, France and Luxembourg. The French legislation also allowed several European districts to be created, acting as local groups for cross-border cooperation, created on the initiative of territorial collectivities. The aim of our study is to identify the main relationship between territorial collectivities in France and EU and to analyze the cooperation instruments used by the French collectivities in order to foster the cross-border cooperation.

  7. The Securitization of Migration: An Analysis of United States Border Security and Migration Policy Toward Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    efforts directed at the border have been superficial in nature, caused by political demand to “take action” without creating an economic disturbance...33 Buzan et al., Security, 25. 14 expand to the Pacific Ocean. Tensions between Mexico and the United States eventually evolved into...docview /508809004?accountid=12702 Woodbury, Richard and Agua Prieta. “Danger And Alarm On A New Alien Gateway.” Time, September 27, 1999. http

  8. Efficient and Secure Information Sharing For Security Personnels: A Role and Cooperation Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Pradhan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate users to interact with and share information without difficulty and faultlessly across various networks and databases nationwide, a secure and trusted information-sharing environment has been recognized as an imperative requirement and to advance homeland security effort. The key incentive following this research is to build a secure and trusted information-sharing approach for governmentdepartments. This paper presents an efficient role and cooperation based information sharing approach for secure exchange of confidential and top secret information amongst security personnels and government departments within the national boundaries using public key cryptography. The devised approach makes use of cryptographic hash function; public key cryptosystem and a unique and complex mapping function for securely exchanging confidential information. Furthermore, the proposed approach facilitates privacy preserving information sharing with probable restrictions based on the rank of the security personnels. The developed role and cooperation based information sharing approach ensures secure and stream-lined information sharing among security personnels and government intelligence departments to avoid threatening activities. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of theproposed information sharing approach.

  9. The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border region of the Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance of the foremost islands and border region in Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district and the surrounding provinces of Kalimantan in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border region of law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline of the Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing and the border region of the Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.

  10. U.S.-Brazil security cooperation and the challenge of technology transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Storer, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Since 2010, the United States and Brazil have made efforts to expand security cooperation between the two countries with the signing of a defense cooperation agreement, a general security of military information agreement, and the establishment of a defense cooperation dialogue. Despite these positive steps, the issue of technology transfer threatens to impede greater U.S.-Brazil security cooperation. Brazilian defense policy identifi...

  11. A Trust-Based Model for Security Cooperating in Vehicular Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available VCC is a computing paradigm which consists of vehicles cooperating with each other to realize a lot of practical applications, such as delivering packages. Security cooperation is a fundamental research topic in Vehicular Cloud Computing (VCC. Because of the existence of malicious vehicles, the security cooperation has become a challenging issue in VCC. In this paper, a trust-based model for security cooperating, named DBTEC, is proposed to promote vehicles’ security cooperation in VCC. DBTEC combines the indirect trust estimation in Public board and the direct trust estimation in Private board to compute the trust value of vehicles when choosing cooperative partners; a trustworthy cooperation path generating scheme is proposed to ensure the safety of cooperation and increase the cooperation completion rates in VCC. Extensive experiments show that our scheme improves the overall cooperation completion rates by 6~7%.

  12. 33 CFR 165.709 - Security Zone; Charleston Harbor, Cooper River, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Cooper River, South Carolina. 165.709 Section 165.709 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.709 Security Zone; Charleston Harbor, Cooper River, South Carolina. (a) Regulated area. The Coast Guard is establishing a fixed security zone on all waters of the Cooper River, bank-to-bank and...

  13. The Design Process of Physical Security as Applied to a U.S. Border Point of Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.G.

    1998-10-26

    This paper describes the design process of physical security as applied to a U.S. Border Port of Entry (PoE). Included in this paper are descriptions of the elements that compose U.S. border security. The physical security design will describe the various elements that make up the process as well as the considerations that must be taken into account when dealing with system integration of those elements. The distinctions between preventing unlawful entry and exit of illegal contraband will be emphasized.

  14. An Analysis on Religious-Ethnic Geopolitics, Security and Development in Border Towns. Case Study: Sistan and Baluchestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSA EBRAHIMZADEH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Borders and border areas require security measures, which are very important to create security on the borders. The paper also analyzes the role of ethnic groups living near borderlines. Iran is an ethnically varied country and distinguishing characteristics of ethnic groups from each other in Iran is particularly concentrated on language, religion and ethnic components. These ethnic groups have been scattered as certain minority groups in border provinces and areas. The presence of Iranian nationals in the Western, Eastern and Northern borders which are contiguous with countries with the same religion and language creates by itself an appropriate context for the occurrence of ethnic crises in border areas and boundary underdevelopment is an another cause for this problem. In addition, the three components, namely religion, ethnicity, and language, should be taken into consideration in adopting policies and strategies to deal with these areas. In Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran, there are effective national strategies taking advantage of the presence and existence of religious and ethnic groups in the border towns, adopting security and development policies taking into account these two issues. They have a deep effect on regional development and national solidarity due to construction activities and infrastructure investments on the one hand and reducing insecurity and trafficking on the other hand.

  15. U.S.-Brazil Security Cooperation and the State Partnership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    C. Security Cooperation with Brazil The U.S. and Brazil have a long and productive history of security cooperation. This appeared to be reaching...For the U.S., it is one of the best methods of gaining influence into a country where other doors may be closed. Brazil as much as any country is...AU/ACSC/MIKAELSEN, D/AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY U.S.- BRAZIL SECURITY COOPERATION AND THE STATE PARTNERSHIP

  16. Borders in Europe: From history to everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcís Bassols

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available

    This article reflects on European borders and their everyday dynamics from a cross-border perspective. The article begins with a discussion of recent events that question current border policies in the European Union, reviews the literature on borders and border territories, and finally moves on to a discussion of the everyday effects of cross-border practices on the inhabitants of border spaces. Occasional reference is made to borders in the Americas to complete the picture of this topic. Although the issue of security is indeed relevant, we focus on the economic and social dimensions of cooperation. Three aspects are essential for border residents who attempt to use the advantages of the territories for their global nature: work, shopping, and place of residence. In conclusion, there has been a tendency toward the softening of borders and greater integration of border zones in the European Union.

  17. The role of the Public Private Partnership (PPP) in Cross Border Cooperation (CBC) as strategic practice in the EU Policies and cooperation tools for 2014-2020

    OpenAIRE

    Lussi, Manoela

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasingly widespread acknowledgement among all active actors in the development co-operation sector that the Public Private Partnership (PPP) can be a new important tool, not only to build important infrastructure (public works) but also to provide services to the citizens at central and local level as well as to have a strategic value in the Cross-Border Co-operation (CBC) in the next future. The European Commission defines PPPs in a rather broad and general way without giv...

  18. 76 FR 61950 - Security Zones, 2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones, 2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation... will be in place to provide the necessary security measures required for the Asia-Pacific Economic... temporary Sec. 165.T14-0800 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T14-0800 Security Zones; 2011 Asia-Pacific...

  19. Pastoralists at War: Violence and Security in the Kenya-Sudan-Uganda Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonah Leff

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of those living in the border region of Kenya, Sudan, and Uganda are pastoralists, whose livelihoods are dictated by the upkeep and size of their herds. Harsh environmental conditions force pastoralists to migrate in search of water and pasturelands during the dry season. With limited access to water and competing rights to land, intertribal conflict arises when pastoralists from one tribe enter the territory of another. The increased availability of small arms in the region from past wars increasingly makes ordinary clashes fatal. Governments in the region have responded with heavy-handed coercive disarmament operations. These have led to distrust and subsequent violent clashes between communities and security providers. This report reviews the scale, consequences of, and responses to the many pastoral conflicts, utilizing methodological tools such as key informant interviews, retrospective analysis, and a thorough review of available literature.

  20. The Design Process of Physical Security as Applied to a U.S. Border Port of Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.G.

    1999-02-22

    This paper details the application of a standard physical security system design process to a US Border Port of Entry (PoE) for vehicle entry/exit. The physical security design methodology is described as well as the physical security similarities to facilities currently at a US Border PoE for vehicles. The physical security design process description includes the various elements that make up the methodologies well as the considerations that must be taken into account when dealing with system integration of those elements. The distinctions between preventing unlawful entry/exit of illegal contraband and personnel are described. The potential to enhance the functions of drug/contraband detection in the Pre-Primary Inspection area through the application of emerging technologies are also addressed.

  1. Security Cooperation: Comparison of Proposed Provisions for the FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Committee’s (SASC’s) markup of the FY2017 NDAA, from which the security cooperation proposals of S. 2943 originate, explained its purpose and...Act for Fiscal Year 2017, markup summary, May 12, 2016. Security Cooperation: Provisions in the FY2017 NDAA Congressional Research Service 5

  2. 77 FR 20369 - Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation Board of Visitors; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Department of the Army Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation Board of Visitors; Meeting... Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation (WHINSEC). Notice of this meeting is required under the Federal...; US Northern Command and US Southern Command as well as receive other information appropriate to...

  3. 76 FR 39076 - Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation Board of Visitors; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Department of the Army Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation Board of Visitors; Meeting... Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation (WHINSEC). Notice of this meeting is required under the Federal... information appropriate to its interests. Date: Tuesday, September 27th, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 4 p.m....

  4. A cooperative model for IS security risk management in distributed environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Nan; Zheng, Chundong

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing cooperation between organizations, the flexible exchange of security information across the allied organizations is critical to effectively manage information systems (IS) security in a distributed environment. In this paper, we develop a cooperative model for IS security risk management in a distributed environment. In the proposed model, the exchange of security information among the interconnected IS under distributed environment is supported by Bayesian networks (BNs). In addition, for an organization's IS, a BN is utilized to represent its security environment and dynamically predict its security risk level, by which the security manager can select an optimal action to safeguard the firm's information resources. The actual case studied illustrates the cooperative model presented in this paper and how it can be exploited to manage the distributed IS security risk effectively.

  5. 33 CFR 165.708 - Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. 165.708 Section 165.708 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. (a... Cooper River. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 1983. (2) All waters within 100 yards of...

  6. Modeling the U.S. Border Patrol Tucson Sector for the Deployment and Operations of Border Security Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    for illicit smuggling of persons and drugs.”50 However, unlike the enforcement efforts in the San Diego and El Paso Sectors, the ABCI initiative...criminally. Therefore, the USBP can prosecute any person involved in human smuggling. The goal in granting this authority to the USBP aims at decreasing... proyectos /coesme/programas/expor ta.asp. Napolitano, Janet. “The National Spotlight is on the Arizona Border.” PHX News.com., November 30, 2005. http

  7. Assessment of the DoD Establishment of the Office of Security Cooperation -- Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    Cooperation, Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management “ Greenbook ”, 30th Edition, January 2010, pp. 1-1 – 1-6. 44...Management “ Greenbook ”, 30th Edition, January 2010, pp. 1-6 – 1-16, except for those items annotated with an asterisk (*) in the title. [Note: Items...Institute of Security Assistance Management Greenbook indicates that other sources for identifying DoD security cooperation programs include the

  8. Power, Profits, and Politics: Energy Security and Cooperation in Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svyatets, Ekaterina

    This study explores varying outcomes of energy cooperation, defined as diplomatic relations, bilateral trade, and investment in oil and natural gas. Tests of theories pertinent to energy security - broadly speaking, realism, liberalism, and domestic politics---reveal that they alone can offer only a narrow and one-sided explanation, not embracing the complexity of energy issues. Nevertheless, using them as a starting point, this study outlined a structured framework that incorporates three variables---economic potential, geopolitical rivalry, and domestic interest groups---that are applied to the cases of U.S.-Russia, U.S.-Azerbaijan, and Russia-Germany energy ties. This study concludes that if the economic potential (defined by geographic proximity and resource availability) is very high, such as in the case of Russia-Germany, states can overcome geopolitical rivalries and historical enmities in favor of energy cooperation. However, if the economic potential is relatively low (because of geographic obstacles or easily available alternative suppliers, as in the cases of U.S.-Russia and U.S.-Azerbaijan), then geopolitics prevails---for example, to bypass Russia or to limit American access to contracts in Russia when U.S.-Russian relations are strained. In all the cases explored here, domestic interest groups have mixed influence: if they are united along energy issues, they usually successfully achieve their energy policy goals, although the impact of these groups often becomes intertwined with state interests. In other situations, when powerful interest groups are divided or focused on non-energy-related issues (such as ethnic priorities), their influence over energy deals is much lower.

  9. The Danish-German police cooperation cross Danish-German land border in Schleswig-/South Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup, Gerd

    patterns of migration. A larger number of Danish bikers, including members of Hell's Angels have for instance in the recent years moved to Schleswig-Holstein. Danish and German police co-operate on combating gang related crime including crime committed by gangs of bikers. However, while Germany allows...... to 20,000 in 2008, thousands of Danes have moved to South Schleswig (Germany) and even more Germans have moved to North Schleswig/South Jutland (Denmark). The intensified cross-border integration includes the majority populations (including the national minorities) as well as ethnic minorities (more...... than 10 percent of the population in the border-region are non-EU citizens) and individuals with access to many resources as well as socially marginalised groups. The Europeanisation processes seem in general to have led to a rise in transnational crime that in large runs along the networks of highways...

  10. Porous Borders : illegal Mining and Drug Trafficking as Latent Threats to Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Isabel Ocampo Rodríguez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transnational crime has become a latent threat to the security of the Colombian State and other countries of the region, calling for strategic actions by the security forces that go beyond the joint coordinated operations, requiring for its capacity and dynamism, the action within a framework of interoperability. In this sense, it provides a descriptive analysis of two major transnational threats affecting some Latin American countries and an approach given by the author on the strategy on how to deal with such challenges. This reflection paper is divided into three phases with a focus on qualitative research and documentary, descriptive and purposeful review. The first phase is an analysis of the evolution of the concept of security and transnational crime, the second, studies the specific case of drug trafficking and illegal mining, and the third one shows the recommendations made in order to demonstrate why should we deal with it in a coordinated manner and within a framework of cooperation and integration between states

  11. U.S.-CHINA RADIOLOGICAL SOURCE SECURITY PROJECT: CONTINUING AND EXPANDING BILATERAL COOPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhixuan; Zhou, Qifu; Yang, Yaoyun; Huang, Chaoyun; Lloyd, James; Williams, Adam; Feldman, Alexander; Streeper, Charles; Pope, Noah G.; Hawk, Mark; Rawl, Rick; Howell, Randy A.; Kennedy, Catherine

    2009-10-07

    The successful radiological security cooperation between the U.S. and China to secure at-risk sites near venues of the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics has led to an expanded bilateral nonproliferation cooperation scope. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration, the Chinese Atomic Energy Authority and the China Ministry of Environmental Protection are continuing joint efforts to secure radiological sources throughout China under the U.S.-China Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technology (PUNT) Agreement. Joint cooperation activities include physical security upgrades of sites with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 1 radiological sources, packaging, recovery, and storage of high activity transuranic and beta gamma sources, and secure transportation practices for the movement of recovered sources. Expansion of cooperation into numerous provinces within China includes the use of integrated training workshops that will demonstrate methodologies and best practices between U.S. and Chinese radiological source security and recovery experts. The fiscal year 2009 expanded scope of cooperation will be conducted similar to the 2008 Olympic cooperation with the Global Threat Reduction Initiative taking the lead for the U.S., PUNT being the umbrella agreement, and Los Alamos, Sandia, and Oak Ridge National Laboratories operating as technical working groups. This paper outlines the accomplishments of the joint implementation and training efforts to date and discusses the possible impact on future U.S./China cooperation.

  12. Transgranichnoe sotrudnichestvo Kaliningradskoj oblasti: problemy i perspektivy [Cross-Border Cooperation in the Kaliningrad region: Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plyukhin Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the accession of Poland and Lithuania to the EU, the nature, forms and content of their border cooperation with the Kaliningrad region have fundamentally changed. There is a tendency towards strengthening the neighborhood policy. The already gained extensive and varied experience of the participation of the Kaliningrad region in the IN-TERREG Programme contributed to the socio-economic development of the region. The new financial tools should be linked to the regional development strategies of the neighboring territories. Efficient use of both Russian and the EU funds will help develop a new technology for regional development of North-West Russia.

  13. The China Factor in Regional Security Cooperation: The ASEAN Regional Forum and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Gerstl

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that regional security cooperation in South-East Asia, mainly promoted by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN, is a response to China´s economic rise. Although China is not regarded as a military challenge, Beijing’s ascension threatens to undermine the regional balance of power. The emerging insecurities threaten the stability of the regimes whose power is based on output legitimacy. Cooperation, the thesis states, can reduce these uncertainties. Yet, whereas collaboration in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF offers Beijing incentives for the strengthening of its “enlightened” multilateralism, regional cooperation in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO will not change China’s behaviour. The reason is that this cooperation is based on Realpolitik motives. Offensive Realism seems therefore well suited to analyse the Central Asian power relations. Even though the dimension of cooperation has not been included in John Mearsheimer’s approach, this article demonstrates that it can conceptually be integrated into offensive Realism without contradicting its core theses. For this, however, its adherents must accept two assumptions: First, that the domestic political logic – in case of Beijing the output legitimacy of the Communist Party – must be integrated. Second, that there exists no automatism in international politics. Otherwise one would have to speak of the tragic of offensive Realism: Policies, based on this perception, does not offer China sufficient incentives to further pursue multilateralism. ----- In diesem Aufsatz wird argumentiert, dass die regionale sicherheitspolitische Integration in SüdostundNordostasien, primär von der südostasiatischen Staatengemeinschaft ASEAN vorangetrieben, eine Reaktion auf Chinas wirtschaftlichen Aufstieg verkörpert. Dieser droht das regionale Kräftegleichgewicht zu untergraben, wodurch er Unsicherheiten weckt und damit eine Gefahr für die auf Stabilit

  14. Cooperative Wireless Communications and Physical Layer Security : State of the Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohokale, Vandana M.; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2012-01-01

    in the mobile equipment is not feasible due to resource constraints. Cooperative wireless communication (CWC) is the upcoming virtual MIMO technique to combat fading and achieve diversity through user cooperation. Physical layer security (PLS) is the imminent security guarantee for the cooperative communication....... was present there started shouting ”stop, stop the bus”. And the sound finally reached the bus driver and he stopped the bus and the employee could catch it in time. This analogy from everyday realistic life simply depicts the spirit of cooperative wireless communication which utilizes the information...

  15. To Build the Sino-Japanese Security Cooperation Featuring Strategically Mutual Benefit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the past forty years, even with frictions and conflicts, friendship and cooperation remain the main theme in the development of Sino-Japanese relations, which has been especially reflected in the economic domain with significant increase of economic interdependence between the two countries. Nevertheless, no one can deny the fact that the Sino-Japanese security cooperation has far lagged behind their economic cooperation. Therefore, enhancing the cooperation in security area has become a major issue that the Chinese and the Japanese governments have to face up to.

  16. Cooperation of education and science innovation secure economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Kutsenko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigated the impact of cooperation on science education and social economic development, the formation of innovative economy, the basis function which is based on knowledge, reasonable ways to improve this cooperation.

  17. 17 CFR 240.15a-2 - Exemption of certain securities of cooperative apartment houses from section 15(a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain securities of cooperative apartment houses from section 15(a). 240.15a-2 Section 240.15a-2 Commodity and... Securities from Section 15(a) § 240.15a-2 Exemption of certain securities of cooperative apartment...

  18. Nuclear Energy Experiments to the Center for Global Security and Cooperation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This is to serve as verification that the Center 6200 experimental pieces supplied to the Technology Training and Demonstration Area within the Center of Global Security and Cooperation are indeed unclassified unlimited released for viewing.

  19. Cooperation between Russia and the EU in the field of innovative development of tourism: the case of the Lithuania — Poland — Russia cross-border cooperation programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropinova Elena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the key instruments of international cooperation between Russia and the European Union aimed at stimulating innovative development of tourism co-financed by the EU and Russia. The author describes specific projects implemented in the framework of the Lithuania-Poland-Russia cross-border cooperation programme for 2009—2013 in the field of tourism. Special attention is paid to analysing tourism innovations that have emerged as a result of the projects aimed at cooperation and tourism development in the border regions of Russia and the EU countries. A number of projects have been implemented under the supervision and with the participation of the author. The article focuses on the role of innovative types of tourism in the regional development of territories in the case of the Kaliningrad region. The current approaches to defining tourism innovations in Russian and international studies are not comprehensive and do not reflect the essence of innovative processes. Innovative development is often reduced to the introduction of new information technologies, i. e. informatization replaces innovative development. However, it is important to take into account other innovative tools: for instance, interactive network museums in developing innovative tourist attraction objects, e-marketing in introducing innovations in tourist product promotion, programmes of private- public partnership in the field of public regulation and tourism stimulation, etc. These technologies contribute to the transition fr om a certain economic agent, the industry as a whole, or a tourist destination to a fundamentally new level in terms of tourist product presentation and increase of competitiveness. The sources for innovations in tourism are both the providers and consumers of tourist services. In those regions wh ere tourism is considered an economic priority, local authorities and even super-governmental organisations, such as the European Commission (through

  20. Cooperation between Russia and the EU in the field of innovative development of tourism: the case of the Lithuania — Poland — Russia cross-border cooperation programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropinova Elena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the key instruments of international cooperation between Russia and the European Union aimed at stimulating innovative development of tourism co-financed by the EU and Russia. The author describes specific projects implemented in the framework of the Lithuania-Poland-Russia cross-border cooperation programme for 2009—2013 in the field of tourism. Special attention is paid to analysing tourism innovations that have emerged as a result of the projects aimed at cooperation and tourism development in the border regions of Russia and the EU countries. A number of projects have been implemented under the supervision and with the participation of the author. The article focuses on the role of innovative types of tourism in the regional development of territories in the case of the Kaliningrad region. The current approaches to defining tourism innovations in Russian and international studies are not comprehensive and do not reflect the essence of innovative processes. Innovative development is often reduced to the introduction of new information technologies, i. e. informatization replaces innovative development. However, it is important to take into account other innovative tools: for instance, interactive network museums in developing innovative tourist attraction objects, e-marketing in introducing innovations in tourist product promotion, programmes of private- public partnership in the field of public regulation and tourism stimulation, etc. These technologies contribute to the transition fr om a certain economic agent, the industry as a whole, or a tourist destination to a fundamentally new level in terms of tourist product presentation and increase of competitiveness. The sources for innovations in tourism are both the providers and consumers of tourist services. In those regions wh ere tourism is considered an economic priority, local authorities and even super-governmental organisations, such as the European Commission (through

  1. Security Guarantee of Agriculture Industry Based on the Improvement of Legal System of Peasant Specialized Cooperative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current status of several management models of the agriculture industry is introduced,as well as its impacts on industrial security.The management models are mainly the enterprise-like operation model,"enterprise + peasant household" model,small-scale peasants’ operation model,and peasant specialized cooperative model.Functions of peasant specialized cooperative in ensuring the security of agricultural industry are introduced,which are enhancing the industrial security by organization degree,promoting the industrial security by scale economy formed by cooperative organizations,fully utilizing the resources by the factor allocation capability,and ensuring the industrial security by industrial chain improvement.Development predicaments of the peasant specialized cooperative at present are analyzed,such as small scale,poor economic benefits,and non-standard operation.Analysis shows that institutional absence is the main reason causing these predicaments.And suggestions on improving the cooperatives system in the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Peasants Specialized Cooperatives are put forward,in order to better ensure the security of agriculture industry

  2. 77 FR 38339 - Dairyland Power Cooperative, La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor Exemption From Certain Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Dairyland Power Cooperative, La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor Exemption From Certain Security... Dairyland Power Cooperative (DPC). The LACBWR was a nuclear power plant of nominal 50 Mw electrical output... from the regulations in part 73 as it determines are authorized by law and will not endanger life...

  3. Modern aspects of cross-border cooperation on the example of the functioning of Euroregion «Upper Prut»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Hrushko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article the current aspects of cross­border cooperation between regions of Ukraine in the framework of the EU Eastern Partnership and in the frame of «Upper Prut» in particular are discussed. The retrospective of the establishment of cross­border ties of Chernivtsi oblast with the regions of Moldova and Romania and evolution of this cooperation (from Euroregion to implementation of the projects funded by EU programs is given. Also the efficiency of the Joint Operational Programme «Romania­Ukraine­Republic of Moldova 2007­2013» for the Ukrainian side border is analyzed. The research of public opinion on influence of the European integration process and its cross­border cooperation was. It was determined that the CBC projects implementation not only positively affects on the development of the region, but also is an effective mechanism for the formation of public opinion on the movement of Ukraine towards the EU. It is concluded that trans­regional cooperation today is looking for new models of national infrastructures, which includes power systems, transportation and communication network. The development of a common policy on technogenic and ecological safety, prevention of pollution of river basins, and the development of tourism and recreational activities also must be included in such new model. The implementation of joint strategies must be established and have to include the equalization of socio­economic and political development of border regions.

  4. In Harm’s Way: Family Separation, Immigration Enforcement Programs and Security on the US-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Slack

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Consequence Delivery System (CDS is a suite of border and immigration enforcement programs designed to increase the penalties associated with unauthorized migration in order to convince people not to return (Rosenblum 2013. Despite its inauguration in 2011, many aspects of the CDS are not new. CDS does however, mark a shift from the deterrent strategy that, in the 1990s that relied heavily on the dangers of the natural terrain to dissuade unauthorized border crossers, to one that actively punishes, incarcerates, and criminalizes them. This article presents findings from the Migrant Border Crossing Study, a random sample survey of 1,100 recently deported migrants in six cities in Mexico conducted between 2009 and 2012. It examines the demographics and family ties of deportees, their experiences with immigration enforcement practices and programs under the CDS, and how these programs have reshaped contemporary migration and deportation along the US-Mexico border. The article covers programs such as criminal prosecutions of illegal entries under Operation Streamline, and the Alien Transfer and Exit Program (ATEP or lateral repatriation program which returns immigrants to different locations from where they illegally entered. In relationship to these programs, it considers issues of due process and treatment of deportees in US custody. It also examines interior enforcement under Secure Communities, which, during the study period, comprised part of the overarching border security plan, and screened virtually everybody arrested in the United States against immigration databases.The article concludes that these programs do not have a strong deterrent effect. Instead, immigration enforcement has led to a “caging effect” over the past two decades which has disrupted seasonal migration flows, increased familial and social ties to the United States, and decreased the probability of returning to Mexico once in the United States. The development of

  5. In Search of Emerging Polities: Thematic Agendas of Selected European Cross-Border Cooperation Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentin Cojanu; Alexandru Gavris; Raluca Robu

    2016-01-01

    ...) act as de facto emerging polities. The scope of research is limited to the layer of territorial cooperation, namely the policy space or more exactly the thematic agendas of a sample of selected CBCS...

  6. Integration Strategies and Barriers to Co-Operation in Cross-Border Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Povl Adler; Serin, Göran Folke

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of the article is to analyze strategies for cross-border integration in the Øresund Region. The point of departure is that the development of strategies for cross-border integration is dependent on the development on both the general level in the EU and deregulation of economy...... and business on the global level. In this respect, the article points out the importance of market forces and their influence on institutional change. Recent economic crises have put growth center stage at both the national and regional level, and have called for regional development programs on both...... the Swedish and Danish sides of the Sound. The strengths and weaknesses of the Øresund Region’s ‘traditional’ and new institutions as instruments for change are examined. The article identifies and discusses the structures, institutions, and players which are the driving forces in the field between markets...

  7. Osobennosti prigranichnogo sotrudnichestva Varmin'sko-Mazurskogo voevodstva i Kaliningradskoj oblasti v sfere turizma [Cross-border cooperation in tourism between the War-mian-Masurian voivodeship and the Kaliningrad region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batyk Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The border location of the Warmian-Masurian voivodeship and the Kaliningrad region is a prerequisite for active cooperation at different institutional levels. The development of cross-border cooperation between the Kaliningrad region and the Warmian-Masurian voivodeship was launched in 1992, when the first agreements on international cooperation were signed. As of today, a high emphasis is placed on cross-border cooperation between the Warmian-Masurian voivodeship and the Kaliningrad region, which is manifested in a series of partner agreements and contracts. The local border traffic agreement between the Kaliningrad region and selected areas of the Republic of Poland should give an additional impetus for the developmentof the economies, services sectors, and tourism industries of the border territories and facilitate the development of these regions. The article makes an attempt to identify the determinants of cross-border cooperation between the Kaliningrad region and the Warmian-Masurian voivodeship that contribute to the development of tourism between the regions, as well as to outline the barriers to their cooperation. The results of the survey presented in the article indicate that the current activities aimed at the development of cross-border cooperation between the Kaliningrad region and the border regions of Poland are not sufficient. On the basis of the survey the authors identify the major barriers to cross-border cooperation as seen by the regions’ residents and authorities. The removal of these barriers can form the basis for developmental measures to improve the situation.

  8. Assessment of the Office of Security Cooperation-Iraq Mission Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    Management,” ( Greenbook ) 32nd Edition, January 2013, pp. 1-1 – 1-7. 77 AECA, and originally served to provide credit (loans) as an effective...The Management of Security Cooperation, Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management,” ( Greenbook ) 32nd Edition, January 2013, pp. 1-7 – 1-26

  9. Joint malaria surveys lead towards improved cross-border cooperation between Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongvongsa Tiengkham

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam, malaria is still an important health problem and most cases are found in the mountainous, forested border areas where ethnic minority groups live. The objectives of this study were to obtain a better joint understanding of the malaria situation along the border and, on the basis of that, improve malaria control methods through better cooperation between the two countries. Methods Fourteen villages in Savannakhet and 22 villages in Quang Tri were randomly selected within 5 km from the border where a blood survey for microscopic diagnosis (n = 1256 and n = 1803, respectively, household interviews (n = 400, both sides and vector surveys were conducted between August and October 2010. Satellite images were used to examine the forest density around the study villages. Results Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in Laos (5.2% than in Vietnam (1.8% and many other differences were found over the short distance across the border. Bed net coverage was high (> 90% in both Laos and Vietnam but, while in Laos more than 60% of the nets were long-lasting insecticide-treated, Vietnam used indoor residual spraying in this area and the nets were untreated. Anopheles mosquitoes were more abundant in Laos than in Vietnam, especially many Anopheles dirus were captured in indoor light traps while none were collected in Vietnam. The forest cover was higher around the Lao than the Vietnamese villages. After this study routine exchange of malaria surveillance data was institutionalized and for the first time indoor residual spraying was applied in some Lao villages. Conclusions The abundance of indoor-collected An. dirus on the Laos side raises doubts about the effectiveness of a sole reliance on long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in this area. Next to strengthening the early detection, correct diagnosis and prompt, adequate treatment of malaria infections, it is

  10. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...... regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...

  11. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...... regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...

  12. The Physical Layer Security Experiments of Cooperative Communication System with Different Relay Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yishan; Han, Guangyao; Fu, Xiaomei; Xu, Naishen; Jin, Zhigang

    2017-04-06

    Physical layer security is an attractive security mechanism, which exploits the randomness characteristics of wireless transmission channel to achieve security. However, it is hampered by the limitation of the channel condition that the main channel must be better than the eavesdropper channel. To alleviate the limitation, cooperative communication is introduced. Few studies have investigated the physical layer security of the relay transmission model. In this paper, we performed some experiments to evaluate the physical layer security of a cooperative communication system, with a relay operating in decode-and-forward (DF) cooperative mode, selfish and malicious behavior in real non-ideal transmission environment. Security performance is evaluated in terms of the probability of non-zero secrecy capacity. Experiments showed some different results compared to theoretical simulation: (1) to achieve the maximum secrecy capacity, the optimal relay power according to the experiments result is larger than that of ideal theoretical results under both cooperative and selfish behavior relay; (2) the relay in malicious behavior who forwards noise to deteriorate the main channel may deteriorate the eavesdropper channel more seriously than the main channel; (3) the optimal relay positions under cooperative and selfish behavior relay cases are both located near the destination because of non-ideal transmission.

  13. Cooperation between Russia and the EU in the field of innovative development of tourism: the case of the Lithuania — Poland — Russia cross-border cooperation programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropinova Elena

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available stimulating innovative development of tourism co-financed by the EU and Russia. The author describes specific projects implemented in the framework of the Lithuania-Poland-Russia cross-border cooperation programme for 2009—2013 in the field of tourism. Special attention is paid to analysing tourism innovations that have emerged as a result of the projects aimed at cooperation and tourism development in the border regions of Russia and the EU countries. A number of projects have been implemented under the supervision and with the participation of the author. The article focuses on the role of innovative types of tourism in the regional development of territories in the case of the Kaliningrad region. The current approaches to defining tourism innovations in Russian and international studies are not comprehensive and do not reflect the essence of innovative processes. Innovative development is often reduced to the introduction of new information technologies, i. e. informatization replaces innovative development. However, it is important to take into account other innovative tools: for instance, interactive network museums in developing innovative tourist attraction objects, e-marketing in introducing innovations in tourist product promotion, programmes of private- public partnership in the field of public regulation and tourism stimulation, etc. These technologies contribute to the transition fr om a certain economic agent, the industry as a whole, or a tourist destination to a fundamentally new level in terms of tourist product presentation and increase of competitiveness. The sources for innovations in tourism are both the providers and consumers of tourist services. In those regions wh ere tourism is considered an economic priority, local authorities and even super-governmental organisations, such as the European Commission (through different co-financing programmes, can also become innovators.

  14. The U.S. Military and Security Along the U.S. Mexico Border: Evaluation of Its Role in the Post September 11th Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    which militarizes our border with a system which encourages migrants to enter legally and safely through points of entry.”127 Derechos Humanos (Human...SECURITY ALONG THE U.S. MEXICO BORDER: EVALUATION OF ITS ROLE IN THE POST SEPTEMBER 11TH ERA by Benjamin C. Luoma Jr. December 2002 Thesis...The U.S. Military And Security Along the U.S.- Mexico Border: Evaluation of Its Role in the Post September 11 th Era 6. AUTHOR Benjamin C. Luoma

  15. Cooperative Jamming for Physical Layer Security in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohokale, Vandana M.; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2012-01-01

    Interference is generally considered as the redundant and unwanted occurrence in wireless communication. This work proposes a novel cooperative jamming mechanism for scalable networks like Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) which makes use of friendly interference to confuse the eavesdropper...

  16. The Helsinki Process: Negotiating Security and Cooperation in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    transport, promotion of tourism, and eco- nomic and social aspects of migrant labor are other areas recommended for cooperation. Cooperation in the four...were placed in Basket 11, covering a high-level meeting on energy (Poland and the USSR), improvement of the condition of migrant labor (Spain, et al...and, in the wake of Chernobyl, nuclear safety. Initia- tives were also introduced on migrant labor in Europe and the promotion of tourism. Many Eastern

  17. Cooperative Jamming for Physical Layer Security in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohokale, Vandana M.; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2012-01-01

    Interference is generally considered as the redundant and unwanted occurrence in wireless communication. This work proposes a novel cooperative jamming mechanism for scalable networks like Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) which makes use of friendly interference to confuse the eavesdropper...... work as cooperative jamming sources to increase the equivocation of the eavesdropper. In this work, eavesdropper’s equivocation is compared with the main channel in terms of mutual information and secrecy capacity....

  18. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF PROGRAMS FOR THE FINANCING OF CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara BORZA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of European funding shows a great interest for present and, especially, for the future. The common problems of areas implied in the cross-border programs are correlated to socio-economic development of communities. By this paper we propose an analysis, by inventory type, descriptive and qualitative, of implemented projects and of the perspectives for projects in 2014-2020 period. The results of paper consist in identification of solid arguments about the importance and necessity of these programmes and projects.

  19. Frontières, territoire, sécurité, souveraineté (Borders, Territory, Security, Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Bigo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Les savoirs sur la frontière relèvent de diverses disciplines mais, spontanément, la frontière est associée au territoire, à la souveraineté, à l'État, à la sécurité. Cet article vise à rendre compte des approches classiques de la frontière, de ce qui fait leur force et leur unité. Il vise aussi à décoloniser et décloisonner ces savoirs et présente une série d'approches alternatives où la frontière n'est pas l'enveloppe territoriale. La frontière, dans ce cas, ne serait-elle pas la mise en sens rétroactive, dans un monde fluide, des différences de perspectives entre groupes hétérogènes sur la mobilité et son contrôle et la légitimation de ces pratiques ?(Diverse disciplines are involved in the study of borders and border issues include those associated with territory, sovereignty, the state, and security. This article studies the classic approaches to the study of borders and what unites them. It also aims to segregate them and offer a series of alternative approaches, which do not view borders as territorial envelopes. Rather, borders are seen as a reflection, in a fluid world, of the different perspectives of diverse peoples on mobility and the legalization of their practices.

  20. security co-operation in the southern african development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arianne

    A policy analysis whereby one looks at organisational behaviour through the ... The concept is used in many different disciplinary .... making (structures and practices) in order to enhance the region's security authority to make, implement and ...

  1. Auction-based Security Game for Multiuser Cooperative Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An; Cai, Yueming; Yang, Wendong; Cheng, Yunpeng

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we develop an auction-based algorithm to allocate the relay power efficiently to improve the system secrecy rate in a cooperative network, where several source-destination pairs and one cooperative relay are involved. On the one hand, the cooperative relay assists these pairs to transmit under a peak power constraint. On the other hand, the relay is untrusty and is also a passive eavesdropper. The whole auction process is completely distributed and no instantaneous channel state information exchange is needed. We also prove the existence and uniqueness of the Nash Equilibrium (NE) for the proposed power auction game. Moreover, the Pareto optimality is also validated. Simulation results show that our proposed auction-based algorithm can effectively improve the system secrecy rate. Besides, the proposed auction-based algorithm can converge to the unique NE point within a finite number of iterations. More interestingly, we also find that the proposed power auction mechanism is cheat-proof.

  2. Cross-Border Cooperation in the Context of Romania’s Accession to the Treaty of Prüm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora Ioana BĂLAN-RUSU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The conducted research aims at critically examining the provisions of the Prüm Treaty, and therefore the proposal for the adoption of new provisions that would contribute to the improvement of the legislation in the field and increase the police and judicial cooperation. This paper is a continuation of previous research on topics related to judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the European Union. The conclusions and findings highlight the utility of the European legislative act in this area and the need to supplement it with new provisions in order to broaden the jurisdiction of officials of another State on the territory of the host State in joint actions, in order to prevent and combat the cross-border criminality, particularly terrorism. The paper can be helpful to both theoreticians and practitioners, and to all who wish to improve their knowledge in this highly complex domain. The essential contribution of this study refers to the critical examination and the proposals for supplementing and amending the European and internal legislation in this area.

  3. Developing Distance Learning Environments in the Context of Cross-Border Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Fuicu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available By using a plethora of technologies and formats, the distance learning paradigm offers access to education through a large spectrum of subjects which are situated in different geographic areas. This paper presents the successful collaboration between Politehnica University of Timisoara, Romania, and the Technical Faculty "Mihajlo Pupin" of Zrenjanin, Serbia, which offer a low maintenance cooperation model based on a web cast system that allows subjects from both countries to have access to each other’s educational material. The aim of this project is to raise the interest of pupils, students and graduates to the latest information regarding technical content used in the IT industry. The access takes place in real time and from the distance without the necessity of being present in order to receive the information. The obtained results are very encouraging regarding the usage of such a distance learning environment and the further development of such tools and cooperation.

  4. Mission impossible or border security – Practical and effective infection control on air ambulances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kuhn*

    2013-12-01

    These principles have been applied to our air ambulance system based from Lanseria International Airport. By combining preventative and control measures, there has been no breach in our infection control strategies, as evidenced by no growth noted on specific and random swabs even when more and more ”super bugs” are being identified in hospital. As an air ambulance service flying patients from various African countries, we have the responsibility to conduct our own ”Border Security” to keep our hospitals, patients, aircraft and crews clean and safe. In this presentation we will share our ”Border Security” principles and experiences with the audience.

  5. European cooperation in the field of security and defence. International Relation theories perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Czaputowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses various theoretical explanations of the European cooperation in the field of security and defence. According to realist explanations this cooperation was a response to external evolutions in the international system, i.e. changes in polarity and distribution of power. Liberals say that it was rather due to internal factors. Constructivists argue that it was a result of elites’ socialisation, while according to Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory, it was caused by civil servants and military staff at the policy implementation level. The paper argues that external factors underlined by realists were decisive, i.e. America’s decreasing involvement in European security.

  6. The Role of Cultural Diplomacy for Intensifying the Cross Border Cooperation within Danube Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Koev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective of the paper is to highlight the role of cultural diplomacy for strengthening the international cooperation within the Danube macro-region. Prior Work: Some leading points of view in the field of cultural diplomacy serve as a theoretical background of the paper. In order to prove the theses of the research, existing empirical results are discussed and analyzed. Approach: The research uses interdisciplinary approach to conceptualization of cultural diplomacy and applies the methods of observation and systematic analysis and synthesis. Results: The presented empirical data indicate that some measures and actions are needed in the Danube macro-region in order to enhance the culture-based awareness of its citizens and intensify the intercultural cooperation. The establishment of a University Centre for Cultural Diplomacy in the Danube Region (UCDR is presented as a possible tool for the achievement of this goal. Implications: The results of the study can be interesting for public authorities and academics. Value: the promotion of the idea for UCDR is the first of its kind.

  7. Theoretical Aspects of Cross-border Integration-based Economic Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilchak V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author analyses theoretical aspects of border economy in the conditions of modern processes of integration. The author describes the existing schools and concepts of integration stressing the role of government regulation relating to the deformations in the development of the world economic mechanism. Modern studies focus on the evolution of integration processes, which has largely affected the key elements of the world economic mechanism from classical political economy, monopoly regulation. This resulted in monopolistic competition, imperfect competition, and oligopoly – largely, through all fields and poles of economic growth to certain elements of government regulation and social reproduction on the international scale. The author examines the key elements and stages of economic integration. These stages assume a number of consecutive forms: free trade zone, customs union, common market, complete economic integration, and economic union. The article shows that the transition occurs from the lowest to the highest stages — from the processes of integration involving, firstly, trade market and then capital and labour markets to the integration of social sphere. The theoretical aspects of all these transformations can be easily traced in the case of EU integration processes.

  8. Maritime Security Cooperation in the Strait of Malacca

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    of outside intervention and multilateral cooperation in general. To explain this phenomena a brief account of the region’s experiences with outside...carrying crude oil from Iran to Malaysia and on the 12th of the same month there was a triple terrorist bombing in Bali , Indonesia.111 In August 2003...the Jakarta Marriott was bombed and coupled with the bombings in Bali over 200 people were killed making them the worst terrorist acts in the region’s

  9. The ASEAN Political-Security Community: Enhancing Defense Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    meeting that year, they agreed to a broader goal of creating an ASEAN Community, which would have three pillars . One of these would be the ASEAN... pillars . Under APSC, endorsing and enhancing defense cooperation through military engagement is evidence to support the argument that ASEAN has changed...economy. A similar case happened to the West Papua, where its natural resources— copper and gold—had been exploited with little compensation and

  10. Cooperative Security in the Pacific Basin. The 1988 Pacific Symposium,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    real or illusory, auspicious, or portentious. REGIONAL TRANSFORMATION Set against this astrological symbolism, the current security land- scape of...destroy ourselves. The only hope of the world is God’s divine love for His creature-man--the hope that God would not allow man’s follies to destroy His

  11. U.S.-Canadian Border Security: Lessons Learned from Denmarks Experience with the Schengen Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    the two nations and their symbiotic relationship, damage to one may affect the other. Policy alternatives to border management consist of...examines the mortality rate between viruses and bacteria . Keeping material virile to infect with maximum results is one of the most significant

  12. Risk Analysis and Its Role in Securing Waters from the EU External Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache BOCĂNIALĂ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to emphasize the importance of risk analysis to prevent and combat transnational crime, especially trafficking in human beings, illegal migration and smuggling, in all its forms, especially the external maritime borders and inland EU .No least, this tool may have an important role in preventing tragedies in the reduction of casualties.

  13. Towards a more secure border control with 3D face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, C.; Brauckman, M.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.; Deravi, F.; Kevenaar, T.A.M.; Nouak, A.; Seibert, H.; Weber, F.; Suchier, J.-M.

    2012-01-01

    Biometric data have been integrated in all ICAO compliant passports, since the ICAO members started to implement the ePassport standard. The additional use of three-dimensional models promises significant performance enhancements for border control points. By combining the geometry- and texture-chan

  14. Re-Casting the U.S.-Mexico Border Security Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    11  II.  DEFENSIVE BARRIERS, BORDER AGENTS, AND ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION ...17  2.  Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act ...18  3.  Fence Act, 2006...too expensive and has created unintended consequences.2 For example, in 2012 463 illegal immigrants were found dead in the desert; they died trying to

  15. To Enable and Sustain: Pacific Air Forces’ Theater Security Cooperation as a Line of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    ultimately, national priorities in the rebalance to the Asia -Pacific. What January-february 2015 Air & Space Power Joumall 80 \\J VIEWS •1• follows is... promote Asia -Pacific security? Joint Publication S-0, Joint Operation Planning, reveals two ways of conceptualizing a LOO. One way describes the...to a desired end state-regional stability and prosperity. Why Conduct Air -Centric Theater Security Cooperation, and How Does It Promote Regional

  16. Defense Security Cooperation Agency Vision 2020. Update 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    articles, military training, and other defense-related services, by grant, loan, cash sale, or lease , in furtherance of national policies and objectives...Presidential Policy Directive 23 on Security Sector Assistance. D S C A V i s i o n 2 0 2 0 Solutions for America’s Global Partners 7 DSCA...less labor-intensive for USG implementing agencies. Oct 2014 – Dec 2016 d. Explore and develop options for using LOAs to support leases of defense

  17. Department of Defense and Security Cooperation: Improving Prioritization, Authorities, and Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-09

    McNerney, Stuart E. Johnson, Stephanie Pezard, David Stebbins , Renanah Miles, Angela O’Mahony, Chaoling Feng, Tim Oliver, Defense Institution Building... line of work. Today, I will focus on three questions. First, how does the Department of Defense (DoD) prioritize its security cooperation

  18. 77 FR 38338 - Dairyland Power Cooperative; La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor Exemption From Certain Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Dairyland Power Cooperative; La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor Exemption From Certain Security Requirements 1.0 Background The La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor (LACBWR) is owned and was operated by the..., which utilized a forced-circulation, direct-cycle boiling water reactor as its heat source. The plant is...

  19. Secure cooperation of autonomous mobile sensors using an underwater acoustic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiti, Andrea; Calabrò, Vincenzo; Dini, Gianluca; Lo Duca, Angelica; Munafò, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Methodologies and algorithms are presented for the secure cooperation of a team of autonomous mobile underwater sensors, connected through an acoustic communication network, within surveillance and patrolling applications. In particular, the work proposes a cooperative algorithm in which the mobile underwater sensors (installed on Autonomous Underwater Vehicles-AUVs) respond to simple local rules based on the available information to perform the mission and maintain the communication link with the network (behavioral approach). The algorithm is intrinsically robust: with loss of communication among the vehicles the coverage performance (i.e., the mission goal) is degraded but not lost. The ensuing form of graceful degradation provides also a reactive measure against Denial of Service. The cooperative algorithm relies on the fact that the available information from the other sensors, though not necessarily complete, is trustworthy. To ensure trustworthiness, a security suite has been designed, specifically oriented to the underwater scenario, and in particular with the goal of reducing the communication overhead introduced by security in terms of number and size of messages. The paper gives implementation details on the integration between the security suite and the cooperative algorithm and provides statistics on the performance of the system as collected during the UAN project sea trial held in Trondheim, Norway, in May 2011.

  20. Partnering for Environmental Security Cooperation in Central Asia and the Caspian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    geopolitically, geoeconomically , and geostrategically changing world. These are the problems of the 21st century. They are global warming, Partnering for...deal with problems of regional security, economic cooperation, geopolitics, and geoeconomics . I work at the President of Uzbekistan’s Institute of

  1. 75 FR 5287 - Federal Advisory Committee; Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation Board of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... Board of Visitors; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of federal... 102-3.50, the Department of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation Board of Visitors (hereafter referred to as the Board)....

  2. Secure Cooperation of Autonomous Mobile Sensors Using an Underwater Acoustic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Dini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Methodologies and algorithms are presented for the secure cooperation of a team of autonomous mobile underwater sensors, connected through an acoustic communication network, within surveillance and patrolling applications. In particular, the work proposes a cooperative algorithm in which the mobile underwater sensors (installed on Autonomous Underwater Vehicles—AUVs respond to simple local rules based on the available information to perform the mission and maintain the communication link with the network (behavioral approach. The algorithm is intrinsically robust: with loss of communication among the vehicles the coverage performance (i.e., the mission goal is degraded but not lost. The ensuing form of graceful degradation provides also a reactive measure against Denial of Service. The cooperative algorithm relies on the fact that the available information from the other sensors, though not necessarily complete, is trustworthy. To ensure trustworthiness, a security suite has been designed, specifically oriented to the underwater scenario, and in particular with the goal of reducing the communication overhead introduced by security in terms of number and size of messages. The paper gives implementation details on the integration between the security suite and the cooperative algorithm and provides statistics on the performance of the system as collected during the UAN project sea trial held in Trondheim, Norway, in May 2011.

  3. Fighting the Hydra: America’s Southern Border and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    Higher Education of the Middle State Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission... Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional accrediting agency recognized by the...Northern Mexico have had limited success. The city of Ciudad Juarez, which borders El Paso TX, earned the dubious distinction as the most violent city

  4. Asia-Europe cooperation on energy security an overview of options and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, F.; Godement, F.; Yakushiji, T

    2005-07-01

    Asian and European economies are major players on the international energy markets. Because of broad similarities in the energy situation in both regions, and also because of some existing major differences, there is definitely scope for joint discussions and cooperation on energy issues between the countries of the two regions, despite possible competing interests. This document aims at examining the conditions for this possible cooperation, as well as the major incentives and obstacles. After a brief reminder on the notion of energy security, a first section provides a synthesis of the energy situation and outlook in the two regions. The next section focuses more specifically on energy security issues and policies, emphasizing the diversity of strategies followed in the two regions. The last section concludes by sketching possible avenues for cooperation on energy issues between countries of the two regions.

  5. Physical Layer Security with Uncoordinated Helpers Implementing Cooperative Jamming

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Shuangyu; Petropulu, Athina

    2012-01-01

    A wireless communication network is considered, consisting of a source (Alice), a destination (Bob) and an eavesdropper (Eve), each equipped with a single antenna. The communication is assisted by multiple helpers, each equipped with two antennas, which implement cooperative jamming, i.e., transmitting noise to confound Eve. The optimal structure of the jamming noise that maximizes the secrecy rate is derived. A nulling noise scenario is also considered, in which each helper transmits noise that nulls out at Bob. Each helper only requires knowledge of its own link to Bob to determine the noise locally. For the optimally structured noise, global information of all the links is required. Although analysis shows that under the two-antenna per helper scenario the nulling solution is sub-optimal in terms of the achievable secrecy rate, simulations show that the performance difference is rather small, with the inexpensive and easy to implement nulling scheme performing near optimal.

  6. Improved Rate-Equivocation Regions for Secure Cooperative Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Marina, Ninoslav; Poor, H Vincent

    2011-01-01

    A simple four node network in which cooperation improves the information-theoretic secrecy is studied. The channel consists of two senders, a receiver, and an eavesdropper. One or both senders transmit confidential messages to the receiver, while the eavesdropper tries to decode the transmitted message. The main result is the derivation of a newly achievable rate-equivocation region that is shown to be larger than a rate-equivocation region derived by Lai and El Gamal for the relay-eavesdropper channel. When the rate of the helping interferer is zero, the new rate-equivocation region reduces to the capacity-equivocation region over the wire-tap channel, hence, the new achievability scheme can be seen as a generalization of a coding scheme proposed by Csiszar and Korner. This result can naturally be combined with a rate-equivocation region given by Tang et al. (for the interference assisted secret communication), yielding an even larger achievable rate-equivocation region.

  7. Cooperative Security: A New Paradigm For A World Without Nuclear Weapons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Finaud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available If there is a loose consensus on aiming at a world free of nuclear weapons in the future, there are clear oppositions as to the timeframe as well as the means for achieving this goal. The approach to nuclear disarmament followed to date has only yielded limited success because it has been conceived in isolation from global and regional security environments and threat perceptions. A new paradigm should thus be sought in order to reconcile nuclear powers’ security doctrines with global aspirations for a safer world, and ensure that nuclear powers derive their security less from others’ insecurity but from mutually beneficial cooperative security. This should not become a pretext for preserving nuclear weapons for ever. It will on the contrary require parallel tracks addressing the initial motivations for acquiring nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD, in particular in the context of regional conflicts, as well as dealing with the current issues necessarily related to nuclear disarmament (missile defence, weaponization of space, conventional imbalances and future weapon systems. Ultimately, in a globalised nuclear-weapon free world, state security will not require nuclear weapons because it will be inserted into a broader network encompass­ing all aspects of security addressed in cooperative and multilateral approaches.

  8. Fuelling Insecurity? Sino-Myanmar Energy Cooperation and Human Security in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botel, Gabriel

    This thesis examines the relationship between energy, development and human security in Sino-Myanmar relations. Rapid economic growth and increased urbanisation have intensified China's industrial and domestic energy consumption, drastically increasing demand and overwhelming national supply capacities. Chinese foreign policy has responded by becoming more active in securing and protecting foreign energy resources and allowing Chinese companies more freedom and opportunities for investment abroad. Consequently, Chinese foreign investment and policies have become increasing sources of scrutiny and debate, typically focusing on their (presumed) intentions and the social, economic, environmental and political impacts they have on the rest of the world. Within this debate, a key issue has been China's engagement with so-called pariah states. China has frequently received substantial international criticism for its unconditional engagement with such countries, often seen as a geopolitical pursuit of strategic national (energy) interests, unconcerned with international opprobrium. In the case of Myanmar, traditional security analyses interpret this as, at best, undermining (Western) international norms and, at worst, posing a direct challenge to international security. However, traditional security analyses rely on state-centric concepts of security, and tend to over-simply Sino-Myanmar relations and the dynamics which inform it. Conversely, implications for human security are overlooked; this is in part because human security remains poorly defined and also because there are questions regarding its utility. However, human security is a critical tool in delineating between state, corporate and 'civilian' interests, and how these cleavages shape the security environment and potential for instability in the region. This thesis takes a closer look at some of the entrenched and changing security dynamics shaping this Sino-Myanmar energy cooperation, drawing on an extensive

  9. Conflict and cooperation in cyberspace the challenge to national security

    CERN Document Server

    Yannakogeorgos, Panayotis A

    2016-01-01

    Facilitated by the exceptional handiwork of the editors, this book significantly advances the effort to achieve common ground in the debates regarding cyberspace. National security and cyber-related professionals will find it equally useful in their work.-Lt. Gen Bob Elder, USAF (Retired)In this wide-ranging anthology that encompasses expert viewpoints from military, civilian, and private sector contributors, the editors seek to provide a broad framework of issues to be considered. Rather than provide definitive answers (all of the contributors readily admit that none exist), the contributors state that in order to attain the right answers, we must first ask the right questions. Over the course of the book, the authors put forth a common set of concerns to frame the issue at hand. ... The authors undertake a study of how to apply cyber law to cyber war, warning that allowing the Intelligence Community and the military to assist in the defense of privately owned networks may lead to legal and political consequ...

  10. Challenge theme 7: Information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

  11. ENTNEA: A concept for enhancing regional atomic energy cooperation for securing nuclear transparency in northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. T. [Korea Institute for Defence Analyses, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    Nuclear energy continues to be a strong and growing component of economic development in Northeast Asia. A broad range of nuclear energy systems already exists across the region and vigorous growth is projected. Associated with these capabilities and plans are various concerns about operational safety, environmental protection, and accumulation of spent fuel and other nuclear materials. We consider cooperative measures that might address these concerns. The confidence building measures suggested here center on the sharing of information to lessen concerns about nuclear activities or to solve technical problems. These activities are encompassed by an Enhanced Nuclear Transparency in Northeast Asia (ENTNEA) concept that would be composed of near-term, information-sharing activities and an eventual regional institution. The near-term activities would address specific concerns and build a tradition of cooperation; examples include radiation measurements for public safety and emergency response, demonstration of safe operations at facilities and in transportation, and material security in the back end of the fuel cycle. Linkages to existing efforts and organizations would be sought to maximize the benefits of cooperation. In the longer term, the new cooperative tradition might evolve into an ENTNEA institution. In institutional form, ENTNEA could combine the near-term activities and new cooperative activities, which might require an institutional basis, for the mutual benefit and security of regional parties. 28 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  12. NOT A MILITARY ALLIANCE——The SCO should continue to implement its founding principles,based on security and economic cooperation,rather than expanding its membership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In reinventing itself, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization should stick to being a regional cooperative organization guided by a new concept and prioritizing security and economic cooperation. Meanwhile, brash expansion of the organization will cause a lot of problems.

  13. Cross-Border Cooperation (CBC in Southern Europe—An Iberian Case Study. The Eurocity Elvas-Badajoz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Alexandre Castanho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiences of cross-border cooperation (CBC, undertaken not only in Europe but throughout the world, have enabled areas to gain greater importance in recent decades at an international level, showing potential for integrative functions and joint development as exemplified by several CBC projects. The present paper assesses the impact of CBC projects by analyzing a protocol established in 2013 between the cities of Elvas and Badajoz, which induced the creation of the Eurocity Elvas-Badajoz. The paper kicks off with a critical review on territorial factors for success in CBC areas, considering the analysis of several case studies throughout Europe. The lessons learned, taken from the analyzed case studies, and the identified territorial success factors were used as assessment points for the investigation of the target study area, the Eurocity ElvasBadajoz. The investigation explores public participation perceptions towards the identification of what changes with respect to standards of life with the CBC project, providing the current state of affairs and identifying where to place efforts in order to reach sustainable development for the region. While being a transition area, it presents several opportunities for growth. These opportunities have not yet been object of analysis and debate with respect to lasting, sustainable successful growth. The present research enables the identification of several territorial factors for success in the study area, such as the connectivity/movement between cities and strong political commitment. From the identified critical factors, it was possible to highlight the importance of public transportation as a priority for achieving success in this CBC project.

  14. «Cross-border Environmental Peace» as the Interaction of Regional Norms and Local Power: Lessons from Cross-Regional Analysis of Water Security Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan Koff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contends that notions of «peace» and «justice» in cross-border water management vary in different world regions. Moreover, it argues that «peace» and «justice» can be explained by analyzing the interaction between «regional» interpretations and implementation of water security norms and local cross-border power structures. «Regional water security» is defined as the normative commitment to provide necessary water resources to communities within world regions. «Power,» which is defined traditionally as «the ability of actors to obtain their objectives despite opposition» is viewed as a function of political entrepreneurialism and opportunity structures. This article derives from a review of the pertinent literatures on «water security» and «water justice,» the two elements of «water peace» as well as scholarship on cross-border water management in different world regions. It discusses water governance within the framework of cross-border politics and comparative regional integration. It also includes analysis of the policy documents and websites of seventeen regional organizations as well as interviews with key actors and local experts on water management in specific cross-border case studies. The article is divided into five sections. Following this introduction, part two examines «water security» and «water justice» in international affairs. Part III then discusses «power» in cross-border water governance debates and addresses the transnational face of water security discussions. Part IV presents a comparative examination of cross-border «water justice» in selected world regions which is followed by theoretical considerations that are addressed in part V, the conclusion. In general, the article emphasizes the need to promote comparative cross-regional research on cross-border water governance in order to examine how «peace,» «security» and «justice» are framed in debates over water resources. 

  15. Notes on Cooperation Between Brazil - Angola Regarding Food Security and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Pires Rocha; José Francisco dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of combating hunger in Brazil and Angola, addressing aspects of cooperation between the two countries as regards the assurance of the Human Right to Adequate Food and Food and Nutrition Security. We conducted desk research reports from international organizations and agencies as well as in official agreements present in the Foreign Ministry website. The discussion is divided into four parts, which involve the historical review of the relationship Brazil - Ango...

  16. The 'ASEAN Way' and regional security cooperation in the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Pek Koon

    2014-01-01

    The ASEAN Way of security cooperation – based on principles of sovereignty, non-intervention, peaceful resolution of conflict, and consultation and consensus decision-making – has maintained intra-ASEAN harmony since the grouping’s formation in 1967. It has also enabled ASEAN to play a central role in regional integration by successfully engaging external major powers in an overlapping regional network of ASEAN-led organizations such as the ASEAN Regional Forum, East Asia Summit and ASEAN Def...

  17. «Goroda-bliznecy»: novaja forma prigranichnogo sotrudnichestva v Baltijskom regione? [Twin cities: a new form of cross-border cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anishenko Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the first attempt in Russian political studies to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the “twin city” movement as a form of cross-border cooperation in the Baltic region. This phenomenon emerged as a result of a global tendency towards more active involvement of municipal units in international cooperation, on the one hand, and aspirations of frontier cities and towns in the Baltic region to solve common problems together, on the other hand. This work is based on a comparative analysis method and a case study methodology. The authors consider four examples (city pairs: Tornio — Haparanda, Valga — Valka, Narva — Ivangorod and Imatra — Svetogorsk. The article specifies the terminological framework used in this field of research. The authors analyse achievements and failures of this type of international inter-municipal cooperation and emphasise that for twin cities it served not only as a means of survival in the difficult situation of the 1990s, but also as an experimental ground for new forms of crossborder cooperation. The authors arrive at the conclusion that this model proves to be promising for further development of integration processes in the Baltic region. This practice can be applied by Russian municipal, regional and federal authorities in promotion of cross-border cooperation not only in the Baltic region, but also in other regions of the country. Thus, influenced by the successful experience of Baltic frontier cities and towns, the Russian city of Nikel and the Norwegian city of Kirkenes decided to adopt this model for further development of their cooperation.

  18. SECURITY CO-OPERATION IN THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY: INSIGHTS FROM THE NEW INSTITUTIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthoni Van Nieuwkerk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the institutional dimensions of security cooperationas it manifests in the Southern African Development Community(SADC. As the quotations above suggest, security co-operation, as part of a biggerproject of regional integration, is not obvious. Indeed, should southern Africansbelieve their politicians when the latter claim that SADC is ‘forging ahead’ on theroad to formal integration? Slabbert is not convinced. Not only academics, but civilsociety increasingly question its raison d’ etre. For many, it is unclear whether orhow SADC provides human security to the people of the region. Instead, SADCmembers’ positions on the key regional challenges (trade, growth and development,security and stability are driven by national interest rather than regional interest – asrealists argue, national interests (a must-have are hard and measurable; regional cooperation(often a nice-to-have is hard to measure. Or should we accept a regionalconsciousness shaped by a shared historical experience – a problematic assumption?

  19. Technical cooperation on nuclear security between the United States and China : review of the past and opportunities for the future.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2011-12-01

    The United States and China are committed to cooperation to address the challenges of the next century. Technical cooperation, building on a long tradition of technical exchange between the two countries, can play an important role. This paper focuses on technical cooperation between the United States and China in the areas of nonproliferation, arms control and other nuclear security topics. It reviews cooperation during the 1990s on nonproliferation and arms control under the U.S.-China Arms Control Exchange, discusses examples of ongoing activities under the Peaceful Uses of Technology Agreement to enhance security of nuclear and radiological material, and suggests opportunities for expanding technical cooperation between the defense nuclear laboratories of both countries to address a broader range of nuclear security topics.

  20. Non-Traditional Security and Cooperation between China and SAARC%非传统安全与中国南盟的合作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉

    2011-01-01

    China and South Asia face similar nontraditional security threats,including food security,energy security,water shortage,and climate change.Common concerns over nontraditional security threats have not only contributed to cooperation between China and South Asia but also constituted challenges to their relationship.Apart from bilateral cooperation which dominates China's relationship with the subcontinent,regional solutions at a multilateral level,i.e.China-SAARC cooperative mechanism,should also be explored.

  1. Patriot War and the Fenian Raids: Case Studies in Border Security on the U.S. Canada Border in the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    remain neutral in the conflict.1 Nearly thirty years later, the U.S.-Canada border was again the scene of conflict during the Fenian Raids. Similar to...War of 1812, arrived on scene under orders from Major General Scott to enforce the Neutrality Act. Colonel Worth seized both schooners in U.S... neutrality law and escorted him from the scene . John Boyle O’Reilly assumed command in O’Neill’s absence; however, he conducted no further attacks that

  2. Worst-Case Cooperative Jamming for Secure Communications in CIoT Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is a significant branch of the ongoing advances in the Internet and mobile communications. Yet, the use of a large number of IoT devices can severely worsen the spectrum scarcity problem. The usable spectrum resources are almost entirely occupied, and thus, the increasing demands of radio access from IoT devices cannot be met. To tackle this problem, the Cognitive Internet of Things (CIoT has been proposed. In a CIoT network, secondary users, i.e., sensors and actuators, can access the licensed spectrum bands provided by licensed primary users (such as cellular telephones. Security is a major concern in CIoT networks. However, the traditional encryption method at upper layers (such as symmetric and asymmetric ciphers may not be suitable for CIoT networks since these networks are composed of low-profile devices. In this paper, we address the security issues in spectrum-leasing-based CIoT networks using physical layer methods. Considering that the CIoT networks are cooperative in nature, we propose to employ cooperative jamming to achieve secure transmission. In our proposed cooperative jamming scheme, a certain secondary user is employed as the helper to harvest energy transmitted by the source and then uses the harvested energy to generate an artificial noise that jams the eavesdropper without interfering with the legitimate receivers. The goal is to minimize the Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR at the eavesdropper subject to the Quality of Service (QoS constraints of the primary traffic and the secondary traffic. We formulate the minimization problem into a two-stage robust optimization problem based on the worst-case Channel State Information of the Eavesdropper (ECSI. By using Semi-Definite Programming (SDP, the optimal solutions of the transmit covariance matrices can be obtained. Moreover, in order to build an incentive mechanism for the secondary users, we propose an auction framework based on the

  3. Cooperation or Security - The Emergence of Space Programs in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroy, A. B.

    Traditionally, Latin America has been labeled a “Third World” region, yet when one examines its various space programs the handle hardly applies. Both Argentina and Brazil received superpower assistance during the early Cold War period to develop indigenous rocketry and space capabilities that continue to evolve today. More recently, other Latin American countries have also taken advantage of the many capabilities that space power provides. However, cooperation and development in Latin America continue to be influenced by politics and security issues, an inescapable aspect of the region's history. These factors combined have had a considerable impact on the emergence of space programs in Latin America.

  4. On the jamming power allocation for secure amplify-and-forward relaying via cooperative jamming

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate secure communications in two-hop wireless relaying networks with one eavesdropper. To prevent the eavesdropper from intercepting the source message, the destination sends an intended jamming noise to the relay, which is referred to as cooperative jamming. This jamming noise helps protecting the source message from being captured reliably at the eavesdropper, while the destination cancels its self-intended noise. According to the channel information available at the destination, we derive three jamming power allocation strategies to minimize the outage probability of the secrecy rate. In addition, we derive analytic results quantifying the jamming power consumption of the proposed allocation methods. © 1983-2012 IEEE.

  5. Canada and Mexico Border Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland SecurityBorder Crossing Ports are points of entry for land modes along the U.S. - Canadian and U.S.- Mexcian borders. The ports of entry are located in 15 states along the...

  6. Modelling of Security Principles Within Car-to-Car Communications in Modern Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Durech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent transportation systems (ITS bring advanced applications that provide innovative services for various transportation modes in the area of traffic control, and enable better awareness for different users. Communication connections between intelligent vehicles with the use of wireless communication standards, so called Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs, require ensuring verification of validity of provided services as well as services related to transmission confidentiality and integrity. The goal of this paper is to analyze secure mechanisms utilised in VANET communication within Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITS with a focus on safety critical applications. The practical part of the contribution is dedicated to modelling of security properties of VANET networks via OPNET Modeler tool extended by the implementation of the OpenSSL library for authentication protocol realisation based on digital signature schemes. The designed models simulate a transmission of authorised alert messages in Car-to-Car communication for several traffic scenarios with recommended Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES. The obtained results of the throughput and delay in the simulated network are compared for secured and no-secured communications in dependence on the selected digital signature schemes and the number of mobile nodes. The OpenSSL library has also been utilised for the comparison of time demandingness of digital signature schemes based on RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman, DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm and ECDSA (Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm for different key-lengths suitable for real time VANET communications for safety-critical applications of C-ITS.

  7. OPNET Modeler Simulation Testing of the New Model Used to Cooperation Between QoS and Security Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Papaj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the performance analysis of the new model, used to integration between QoS and Security, is introduced. OPNET modeler simulation testing of the new model with comparation with the standard model is presented. This new model enables the process of cooperation between QoS and Security in MANET. The introduction how the model is implemented to the simulation OPNET modeler is also showed. Model provides possibilities to integration and cooperation of QoS and security by the cross layer design (CLD with modified security service vector (SSV. An overview of the simulation tested of the new model, comparative study in mobile ad-hoc networks, describe requirements and directions for adapted solutions are presented. Main idea of the testing is to show how QoS and Security related services could be provided simultaneously with using minimal interfering with each service.

  8. 78 FR 31958 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection-007...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ...) carriers who submit information in advance of travel through the Advance Passenger Information System (APIS) (DHS/CBP-005--Advance Passenger Information System (November 18, 2008, (73 FR 68435)); (3) information... Border Protection-007-Border Crossing Information System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, Department of...

  9. Performance Analysis of Physical Layer Security of Opportunistic Scheduling in Multiuser Multirelay Cooperative Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Kyusung; Do, Nhu Tri; An, Beongku

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the physical layer security (PLS) of opportunistic scheduling for uplink scenarios of multiuser multirelay cooperative networks. To this end, we propose a low-complexity, yet comparable secrecy performance source relay selection scheme, called the proposed source relay selection (PSRS) scheme. Specifically, the PSRS scheme first selects the least vulnerable source and then selects the relay that maximizes the system secrecy capacity for the given selected source. Additionally, the maximal ratio combining (MRC) technique and the selection combining (SC) technique are considered at the eavesdropper, respectively. Investigating the system performance in terms of secrecy outage probability (SOP), closed-form expressions of the SOP are derived. The developed analysis is corroborated through Monte Carlo simulation. Numerical results show that the PSRS scheme significantly improves the secure ability of the system compared to that of the random source relay selection scheme, but does not outperform the optimal joint source relay selection (OJSRS) scheme. However, the PSRS scheme drastically reduces the required amount of channel state information (CSI) estimations compared to that required by the OJSRS scheme, specially in dense cooperative networks. PMID:28212286

  10. Performance Analysis of Physical Layer Security of Opportunistic Scheduling in Multiuser Multirelay Cooperative Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyusung Shim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the physical layer security (PLS of opportunistic scheduling for uplink scenarios of multiuser multirelay cooperative networks. To this end, we propose a low-complexity, yet comparable secrecy performance source relay selection scheme, called the proposed source relay selection (PSRS scheme. Specifically, the PSRS scheme first selects the least vulnerable source and then selects the relay that maximizes the system secrecy capacity for the given selected source. Additionally, the maximal ratio combining (MRC technique and the selection combining (SC technique are considered at the eavesdropper, respectively. Investigating the system performance in terms of secrecy outage probability (SOP, closed-form expressions of the SOP are derived. The developed analysis is corroborated through Monte Carlo simulation. Numerical results show that the PSRS scheme significantly improves the secure ability of the system compared to that of the random source relay selection scheme, but does not outperform the optimal joint source relay selection (OJSRS scheme. However, the PSRS scheme drastically reduces the required amount of channel state information (CSI estimations compared to that required by the OJSRS scheme, specially in dense cooperative networks.

  11. Performance Analysis of Physical Layer Security of Opportunistic Scheduling in Multiuser Multirelay Cooperative Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Kyusung; Do, Nhu Tri; An, Beongku

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, we study the physical layer security (PLS) of opportunistic scheduling for uplink scenarios of multiuser multirelay cooperative networks. To this end, we propose a low-complexity, yet comparable secrecy performance source relay selection scheme, called the proposed source relay selection (PSRS) scheme. Specifically, the PSRS scheme first selects the least vulnerable source and then selects the relay that maximizes the system secrecy capacity for the given selected source. Additionally, the maximal ratio combining (MRC) technique and the selection combining (SC) technique are considered at the eavesdropper, respectively. Investigating the system performance in terms of secrecy outage probability (SOP), closed-form expressions of the SOP are derived. The developed analysis is corroborated through Monte Carlo simulation. Numerical results show that the PSRS scheme significantly improves the secure ability of the system compared to that of the random source relay selection scheme, but does not outperform the optimal joint source relay selection (OJSRS) scheme. However, the PSRS scheme drastically reduces the required amount of channel state information (CSI) estimations compared to that required by the OJSRS scheme, specially in dense cooperative networks.

  12. Worst-Case Cooperative Jamming for Secure Communications in CIoT Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Jing, Tao; Ma, Liran; Huo, Yan; Qian, Jin

    2016-03-07

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a significant branch of the ongoing advances in the Internet and mobile communications. The use of a large number of IoT devices makes the spectrum scarcity problem even more serious. The usable spectrum resources are almost entirely occupied, and thus, the increasing radio access demands of IoT devices cannot be met. To tackle this problem, the Cognitive Internet of Things (CIoT) has been proposed. In a CIoT network, secondary users, i.e., sensors and actuators, can access the licensed spectrum bands provided by licensed primary users (such as telephones). Security is a major concern in CIoT networks. However, the traditional encryption method at upper layers (such as symmetric cryptography and asymmetric cryptography) may be compromised in CIoT networks, since these types of networks are heterogeneous. In this paper, we address the security issue in spectrum-leasing-based CIoT networks using physical layer methods. Considering that the CIoT networks are cooperative networks, we propose to employ cooperative jamming to achieve secrecy transmission. In the cooperative jamming scheme, a certain secondary user is employed as the helper to harvest energy transmitted by the source and then uses the harvested energy to generate an artificial noise that jams the eavesdropper without interfering with the legitimate receivers. The goal is to minimize the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) at the eavesdropper subject to the quality of service (QoS) constraints of the primary traffic and the secondary traffic. We formulate the considered minimization problem into a two-stage robust optimization problem based on the worst-case Channel State Information of the Eavesdropper. By using semi-definite programming (SDP), the optimal solutions of the transmit covariance matrices can be obtained. Moreover, in order to build an incentive mechanism for the secondary users, we propose an auction framework based on the cooperative jamming scheme

  13. Security of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems: Standards, Threats Analysis and Cryptographic Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyes Ben Hamida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing number of vehicles on the roads worldwide, road traffic accidents are currently recognized as a major public safety problem. In this context, connected vehicles are considered as the key enabling technology to improve road safety and to foster the emergence of next generation cooperative intelligent transport systems (ITS. Through the use of wireless communication technologies, the deployment of ITS will enable vehicles to autonomously communicate with other nearby vehicles and roadside infrastructures and will open the door for a wide range of novel road safety and driver assistive applications. However, connecting wireless-enabled vehicles to external entities can make ITS applications vulnerable to various security threats, thus impacting the safety of drivers. This article reviews the current research challenges and opportunities related to the development of secure and safe ITS applications. It first explores the architecture and main characteristics of ITS systems and surveys the key enabling standards and projects. Then, various ITS security threats are analyzed and classified, along with their corresponding cryptographic countermeasures. Finally, a detailed ITS safety application case study is analyzed and evaluated in light of the European ETSI TC ITS standard. An experimental test-bed is presented, and several elliptic curve digital signature algorithms (ECDSA are benchmarked for signing and verifying ITS safety messages. To conclude, lessons learned, open research challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  14. SocialRAD: an infrastructure for a secure, cooperative, asynchronous teleradiology system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, João Filho Matos; Motta, Gustavo Henrique Matos Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of teleradiology services has enabled a major advance in the provision of health services to areas with difficult geographical access. However, this potential has also brought with it a number of challenges: the large volume of data, characteristic of imaging tests, and security requirements designed to ensure confidentiality and integrity. Moreover, there is also a number of ethical questions involving the dominant model on the market, whereby this service is outsourced to private companies, and is not directly undertaken by professional radiologists. Therefore, the present paper proposes a cooperative model of teleradiology, where health professionals interact directly with the hospitals providing patient care. This has involved the integration of a wide range of technologies, such as the interconnection models Peer-to-Peer, Cloud Computing, Dynamic DNS, RESTful Web Services, as well as security and interoperability standards, with the aim of promoting a secure, collaborative asynchronous environment. The developed model is currently being used on an experimental basis, providing teleradiology support to cities in the north-eastern hinterland of Brazil, and is fulfilling all expectations.

  15. L'institutionnalisation de la coopération transfrontalière en Europe (Institutionalizing European Trans-Border Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Perrin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available L'institutionnalisation de la coopération transfrontalière en Europe est le produit de l'action combinée des principaux acteurs publics de la gouvernance communautaire à de multiples niveaux : les deux principales organisations européennes – Conseil de l'Europe et Union européenne ; les autorités territoriales et les États. Or, si cette action a eu pour résultat commun l'émergence et la multiplication d'espaces et d'organisations transfrontalières, communément désignées comme « eurorégions », cela ne va pas sans soulever de contradictions, à commencer par celle d'une « institutionnalisation sans institution », alors même que le droit européen ouvre de nouvelles perspectives de structuration juridique pour de telles organisations.(European trans-border cooperation involves institutional cooperation among public authorities at various levels of European governance: the two principal European organizations—the European Counsel and the European Union; the territorial authorities and the member states. However, even as this cooperation has led to the creation of multiple trans-boundary areas and organizations, commonly referred to as “euroregions”, it has resulted in anomalies such as that of “institutionalization without an institution”. And this even as European law provides the legal basis for such organizations.

  16. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-16

    the United States and the EU have established a high-level policy dialogue on border and transport security to discuss issues such as passenger data...level policy dialogue on these issues. Several agreements have also been concluded. In April 2004, the United States and EU signed a customs cooperation

  17. RUSSIA›S COOPERATION WITH THE COUNTRIES OF POST-SOVIET EURASIA IN THE FIELD OF SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Valerievich Bespalov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of collective security remains relevant for the majority of post-Soviet Eurasia since the Soviet collapse to date.. In the article on the basis of diachronic analysis of political processes (the study of the successive in real historical time steps analyzed the formation and development of the legal framework of collective security in the post-Soviet Eurasia in relation to the real political processes in the region, the creation and development of the Treaty on Collective Security Organization, and its prospects.As a result of the military-political cooperation within the CIS has not received a significant development, Russia and its allies were forced to make a bet on the development of relations within the Treaty on Collective Security Organization.There are four areas of the Eurasian security cooperation within the Treaty on Collective Security Organization:1. Creation of a common «military umbrella» protecting the Member States of the Organization of the intrusion, including as a result of support for other-strange powers of local radical opposition. The key role played by the army and the military-industrial complex of Russia as the most powerful country in the military unit.2. The fight against international terrorism within the framework of cooperation between national security services and the Ministry of Interior.3. Prevention of large-scale intrusion of extremists from the territory of the north of Afghanistan.4. The fight against drug trafficking.Work on improving the legal framework of the Treaty on Collective Security Organization should be continued. As one of the future goals of the Organization should highlight the creation of a unified arms market, the deepening of cooperation in the development and production of weapons and other military products.

  18. Cultural Considerations for Security Cooperation Operations in South Sudan: Understanding the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    identified to accomplish the mission of AFRICOM in its fact sheet , three of those objectives can only be realized through security cooperation. Those...papayas, bananas , sweet potatoes, sunflowers, cotton, sesame, cassava, beans, peanuts, cattle, and sheep. Trade: Major trading partner--Sudan...2010, 11. 2 President, National Security Strategy 2010, 3. 3 United States Africa Command, Fact Sheet : United States Africa Command: U.S

  19. The fight against human trafficking in the EU: the challenges to cross-border criminal justice cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirentxu Jordana Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The fight against human trafficking presents a number of challenges to the European Union. The multilateral dimension of the cases complicates the action of national authorities and results in limited, partial manhunts and criminal prosecutions that perpetuate the impunity of these crimes. Faced with this problem, the EU has committed to an integrated approach to investigations, which requires exploration of the potential for criminal justice cooperation, an area in which Eurojust, the EU’s criminal justice cooperation unit, plays an important role.

  20. Cognitive communication and cooperative hetnet coexistence selected advances on spectrum sensing, learning, and security approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Bader, Faouzi

    2014-01-01

    This book, written by experts from universities and major industrial research laboratories, is devoted to the very hot topic of cognitive radio and networking for cooperative coexistence of heterogeneous wireless networks. Selected highly relevant advanced research is presented on spectrum sensing and progress toward the realization of accurate radio environment mapping, biomimetic learning for self-organizing networks, security threats (with a special focus on primary user emulation attack), and cognition as a tool for green next-generation networks. The research activities covered include work undertaken within the framework of the European COST Action IC0902, which is geared towards the definition of a European platform for cognitive radio and networks. Communications engineers, R&D engineers, researchers, and students will all benefit from this complete reference on recent advances in wireless communications and the design and implementation of cognitive radio systems and networks.

  1. Secure Multiuser Communications in Wireless Sensor Networks with TAS and Cooperative Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoqiang Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the secure transmission in wireless sensor networks (WSNs consisting of one multiple-antenna base station (BS, multiple single-antenna legitimate users, one single-antenna eavesdropper and one multiple-antenna cooperative jammer. In an effort to reduce the scheduling complexity and extend the battery lifetime of the sensor nodes, the switch-and-stay combining (SSC scheduling scheme is exploited over the sensor nodes. Meanwhile, transmit antenna selection (TAS is employed at the BS and cooperative jamming (CJ is adopted at the jammer node, aiming at achieving a satisfactory secrecy performance. Moreover, depending on whether the jammer node has the global channel state information (CSI of both the legitimate channel and the eavesdropper’s channel, it explores a zero-forcing beamforming (ZFB scheme or a null-space artificial noise (NAN scheme to confound the eavesdropper while avoiding the interference to the legitimate user. Building on this, we propose two novel hybrid secure transmission schemes, termed TAS-SSC-ZFB and TAS-SSC-NAN, for WSNs. We then derive the exact closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability and the effective secrecy throughput of both schemes to characterize the secrecy performance. Using these closed-form expressions, we further determine the optimal switching threshold and obtain the optimal power allocation factor between the BS and jammer node for both schemes to minimize the secrecy outage probability, while the optimal secrecy rate is decided to maximize the effective secrecy throughput for both schemes. Numerical results are provided to verify the theoretical analysis and illustrate the impact of key system parameters on the secrecy performance.

  2. Secure Multiuser Communications in Wireless Sensor Networks with TAS and Cooperative Jamming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maoqiang; Zhang, Bangning; Huang, Yuzhen; Yang, Nan; Guo, Daoxing; Gao, Bin

    2016-11-12

    In this paper, we investigate the secure transmission in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consisting of one multiple-antenna base station (BS), multiple single-antenna legitimate users, one single-antenna eavesdropper and one multiple-antenna cooperative jammer. In an effort to reduce the scheduling complexity and extend the battery lifetime of the sensor nodes, the switch-and-stay combining (SSC) scheduling scheme is exploited over the sensor nodes. Meanwhile, transmit antenna selection (TAS) is employed at the BS and cooperative jamming (CJ) is adopted at the jammer node, aiming at achieving a satisfactory secrecy performance. Moreover, depending on whether the jammer node has the global channel state information (CSI) of both the legitimate channel and the eavesdropper's channel, it explores a zero-forcing beamforming (ZFB) scheme or a null-space artificial noise (NAN) scheme to confound the eavesdropper while avoiding the interference to the legitimate user. Building on this, we propose two novel hybrid secure transmission schemes, termed TAS-SSC-ZFB and TAS-SSC-NAN, for WSNs. We then derive the exact closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability and the effective secrecy throughput of both schemes to characterize the secrecy performance. Using these closed-form expressions, we further determine the optimal switching threshold and obtain the optimal power allocation factor between the BS and jammer node for both schemes to minimize the secrecy outage probability, while the optimal secrecy rate is decided to maximize the effective secrecy throughput for both schemes. Numerical results are provided to verify the theoretical analysis and illustrate the impact of key system parameters on the secrecy performance.

  3. Transgranichnoe sotrudnichestvo nepravitel'stvennyh organizacij v Pomorskom i Varmin'sko-Mazurskom voevodstvah [Cross-border cooperation between nongovernmental organisations in the Pomeranian and Warmian-Masurian voivodeships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomulka Christina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the issues of cross-border cooperation carried out by agents resident in the Pomeranian and Warmian-Masurian voivodeships. Among such agents there are non-governmental organizations. This article aims to identify the role of NGOs in cross-border cooperation and the predominant fields of their cooperation, as well as to assess their activity in attracting funding from European budgets. The article widely applies the results of surveys of NGOs conducted by the author, compares the results of performance reports submitted by these organisations within international projects, and offers the data presented in relevant publications (Euroregion Baltic documents and Phare CBC reports, Interreg IIIA and, Interreg IIIB, NMF, and Polish-Swiss Cooperation reports, as well as the data of the Central Department of Statistics. The research covers the period from the late 90s to 2012. The article highlights the difficulties agents face in forging and implementing cross-border cooperation, resulting from the mismatching definitions of the tertiary sector in Poland’s neighbour states.

  4. Department of Defense Involvement in Homeland Security: The Militarization of the Southwestern Border in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    U.S. Figur~ 4 illustrates what a particular fence line looks like along the border of San Diego, California and Tijuana , Mexico. In addition to the...Tucson Sector 800,000 -,----------------------- 700,000 -+------ 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 �,000 ° FY1992 Tucson Imperial Beach Station

  5. Shared Identity and Reconciliation: Can a Future Security Framework in Northeast Asia Draw from Experiences of the North Atlantic Security Cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    25 The relationship between Japan and the PRC, in which they see themselves as strategic competitors , exemplifies this situation and underlines the...26 Elena Atanassova- Cornelis and Carmen Amado Mendes, “Dynamics of Japanese and Chinese Security Policies in East...it as a competitor to the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) that was founded only in 1989. In addition, the U.S. opposition to the EAEG also

  6. Secure amplify-and-forward untrusted relaying networks using cooperative jamming and zero-forcing cancelation

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2015-12-03

    In this paper, we investigate secure transmission in untrusted amplify-and-forward half-duplex relaying networks with the help of cooperative jamming at the destination (CJD). Under the assumption of full channel state information (CSI), conventional CJD using self-interference cancelation at the destination is efficient when the untrusted relay has no capability to suppress the jamming signal. However, if the source and destination are equipped with a single antenna and the only untrusted relay is equipped with N multiple antennas, it can remove the jamming signal from the received signal by linear filters and the full multiplexing gain of relaying cannot be achievable with the conventional CJD due to the saturation of the secrecy rate at the high transmit power regime. We propose in this paper new CJD scheme where neither destination nor relay can acquire CSI of relay-destination link. Our proposed scheme utilizes zero-forcing cancelation based on known jamming signals instead of self-interference subtraction, while the untrusted relay cannot suppress the jamming signals due to the lack of CSI. We show that the secrecy rate of the proposed scheme can enjoy a half of multiplexing gain in half-duplex relaying while that of conventional CJD is saturated at high transmit power for N ???2. The impact of channel estimation error at the destination is also investigated to show the robustness of the proposed scheme against strong estimation errors.

  7. Exploring Relay Cooperation for Secure and Reliable Transmission in Two-HopWireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Shen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work considers the problem of secure and reliable information transmission via relay cooperation in two-hop relay wireless networks without the information of both eavesdropper channels and locations. While previous work on this problem mainly studied infinite networks and their asymptotic behavior and scaling law results, this papers focuses on a more practical network with finite number of system nodes and explores the corresponding exact result on the number of eavesdroppers one network can tolerate to ensure desired secrecy and reliability. We first study the scenario where path-loss is equal between all pairs of nodes and consider two transmission protocols there, one adopts an optimal but complex relay selection process with less load balance capacity while the other adopts a random but simple relay selection process with good load balance capacity. Theoretical analysis and numerical results are then provided to determine the maximum number of eavesdroppers one network can tolerate to ensure a desired performance in terms of the secrecy outage probability and transmission outage probability. We further extend our study to the more general scenario where path-loss between each pair of nodes also depends on the distance between them, for which a new transmission protocol with both preferable relay selection and good load balance as well as the corresponding theoretical analysis and numerical results are presented.

  8. Economic Cooperation across the Border within Silk Road Economic Zone Framework%丝绸之路经济带框架下中哈霍尔果斯跨边境区域经济合作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游海丽

    2015-01-01

    the Silk Road Economic Zone strategy is a new concept and initiative of regional cooperation development, Xinjiang is in the Silk Road Economic Zone core area. Huoerguosi is an important fulcrum of the Silk Road Economic Belt.In recent years, the regional economic cooperation in Kazakhstan has showed strong complementarities, and cooperation has great potential. The essence of the Silk Road Economic Zone is to promote border regional cooperation, through the analysis of the Huoerguosi cross border cooperation, and put forward suggestions to strengthen cooperation in Sino -Kazakhstan.%丝绸之路经济带战略构想是一个新的区域合作发展的理念和倡议。新疆处于丝绸之路经济带建设核心区。霍尔果斯与哈萨克斯坦区域经济合作近年来显示出很强的互补性,合作潜力巨大。丝绸之路经济带建设的实质就是促进区域合作,通过分析中哈在霍尔果斯经济合作状况,提出建议强化中哈霍尔果斯跨边界区域经济合作。

  9. Metrics for border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  10. Building Global Partnerships: Cooperative Maritime Security Operations as the Most Effective Fire of 21st Century Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    described in a speech by the Malaysian Minister of Defense Dato Abd Razak, “PACOM has mobile training teams that could assist us in acquiring a number of...Training, and Procedures (TTPs) and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). 20 Dato ’ Sri Mohd Najib Tun Haji Abd Razak. “Enhancing Maritime...Seapower, Washington DC, 2007. Dato ’ Sri Mohd Najib Tun Haji Abd Razak. “Enhancing Maritime Security Cooperation,” Military Technology 29, Iss. 12

  11. A thirsty dragon. Rising Chinese crude oil demand and prospects for multilateral energy security cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causevic, Amar

    2012-07-01

    The Chinese appetite for energy could potentially result in two scenarios. Each of these will systematically be developed and examined in the course of this paper. The pessimistic scenario foresees energy-driven foreign policy placing China in a dangerous confrontation with the U.S., Japan, the EU and India. American, Indian and Chinese navies are already competing across the Indian Ocean, with participants upgrading their naval forces, building deep-sea ports, constructing military bases and forging alliances across the Indian Ocean. They have not yet entered into conflict, but as their naval presence increases, the possibility of an armed clash grows. This scenario represents a 'nightmare option' that could have grave consequences for the entire globe, as the U.S., China, India and two EU members are all states armed with nuclear weapons. Conversely, an opposite scenario can be envisaged. A liberal integrationist perspective offers huge potential for multilateral energy security cooperation. Despite all tensions, China, the West and India are oil importers, and, as consumers, they could work together in fostering common strategies. What is more, their economies are mutually intertwined, and any conflict would bring about fatal collateral damage to the economic well-being of all parties. In short, China and America and potentially India could synchronize approaches to energy issues and address worries about growing global competition for crude oil. Being that as it may, China's further integration into multilateral energy organizations - notably the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) International Energy Agency (IEA) - will not be an easy task. Introduction of the new standards and requirements could be a burden for Chinese economic development. Membership in the IEA would reduce freedom in energy policy-making as it requires intelligencesharing, market liberalization and surrendering a certain degree of national

  12. Challenge theme 7: information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States--Mexican Borderlands--facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

  13. The cooperative monitoring of military forces: An exercise in strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This exercise examines a hypothetical security problem associated with conventional military forces and border security: a surprise attack. The goal of the exercise is to provide an opportunity to think about how cooperative monitoring can be part of regional security. Two hypothetical countries, VOLCANOES and MOUNTAINS, have been created for this exercise based on the US states of Arizona and New Mexico. They were selected for their size and variety of terrain. Hypothetical background information and characteristics of the two countries are provided. An outline of activities is given, including prioritization of security concerns and monitoring of objectives for security concerns. 6 tabs.

  14. 78 FR 57402 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Customs and Border Protection-019 Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    .... 1101, et seq., including 8 U.S.C. 1103, 1225, and 1324; the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant..., AMOSS has users from various DHS components including the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE... to know the information to carry out national security, law enforcement, immigration,...

  15. Security Cooperation Missions in Africa: Is the United States Conducting the Correct Types of Security Cooperation Missions in the African Continent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The East Africa/Horn of Africa region has been a priority area for providing stability and offensive operations against the threat of piracy , al... online -based site is a DoD sponsored institution for strategic security studies, research, and outreach in Africa. The Africa center engages African...illegal trafficking, terrorism, political unrest and weapons proliferation, illicit trafficking and piracy , and instability (USAFRICOM 2014, 10). Illegal

  16. Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Frattasi, Simone; Figueiras, Joao

    2011-01-01

    Conventional software applications are usually operated on a platform similar to the one on which they were developed and tested. Wireless application development, on the other hand, is more challenging because applications are developed on one platform (like UNIX or Windows) and deployed on a to...... - Wireless application programming models - Testing and deploying wireless applications - Applying the Service-Oriented Architecture - Web services for mobile devices - Securing wireless applications and service...

  17. The Military Security Situation in 2015:Security Cooperation Made some Breakthroughs while Turmoil and Conflicts Became somewhat Aggravated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Xiangqing; Zhou Peiqi; Zhang Chi

    2016-01-01

    In 2015 in the face of stability with some chaos in the world,one should not fear its sight being blotted out by floating clouds only if facing the situation with sober-mindedness and detailed analysisThe Global military security situation in2015 was stable as a whole,with obviously increasing uncertainties.Local conflicts and

  18. A model for international border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2008-09-01

    To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.

  19. Modern Piracy and Regional Security Cooperation in the Maritime Domain: The Middle East and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Lotfian, “A Regional Security System in the Persian Gulf,” 111–125. 70 Risa Brooks, “Civil Military Relations in the Middle East,” in The Future Security...resources on assuring internal stability. 262 Risa Brooks, “Civil Military Relations in the Middle...December 2004): 480–505. Brooks, Risa . “Civil Military Relations in the Middle East.” In The Future Security Environment in the Middle East: Conflict

  20. Building Partner Capacity: Inventory of Department of Defense Security Cooperation and Department of State Security Assistance Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-24

    receive exposure to U.S. undergraduate education in a military environment. 10 U.S.C. § 4345, Exchange program with foreign military academies 10...conferences or workshops; personnel exchanges (e.g., embedding advisors into foreign military and security ministries); needs or capability assessments...capabilities. 10 U.S.C. § 2114, Students: selection; status; obligation 25. Foreign Service/Military Academy Semester Abroad Exchanges

  1. Non-Traditional Security Threats in the Border Areas: Terrorism, Piracy, Environmental Degradation in Southeast Asian Maritime Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabova, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    In addition to facilitating peaceful trade and economic development, sovereign territory, territorial waters and international waters are being used by various criminal groups that pose threats to governments, businesses and civilian population in Southeast Asia. Nonstate criminal maritime activities were not receiving appropriate attention as they were overshadowed by traditional military security challenges. Yet more and more frequently, the non-traditional actors challenge lines of communication, jeopardize access to strategic resources, complicate traditional defence tasks, and harm the environment. Understanding the nature of non-traditional threats, and the ways to combat them, requires international legal, historical and political science analysis within a united problem-oriented approach. A fair critique to pure interest, power and knowledge -based theories of regime formation was developed by E.K. Leonard's1, who explained the evolution of the international system from the global governance perspective. The present study is based on the premise that pure nation-state approaches are incapable of providing a theoretical ground for addressing the growing influence of international criminal networks in South East Asia. From an international relations theory perspective, the author of this study agrees with D.Snidal2 that the hegemonic stability theory has "limits" and is insufficient in describing modern challenges to sustainable international security regime, including non-traditional threats, where collective action is more efficient from an interest and capability standpoint. At the same time the author of this study does not share the viewpoint on "marginalization"3 of international law in current international order due to its fragmentation and regionalization4 and "global power shifts"5 . The United Nations, as a global institution at the top of the vertical hierarchy of international legal order, and the EU as an example of "self-contained" regime along

  2. KENYA’S CONSTITUTION AND CHILD TRAFFICKING AS A SECURITY THREAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S. ODHIAMBO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking also referred to as modern-day slavery is seen as a security threat. Traditional security approaches to human trafficking call for analysis of trafficking as a threat to the Kenyan state and to Kenya’s control of its borders. Traditional security analyses of trafficking emphasize border security, migration controls, and international law enforcement cooperation. This article discusses three forms of child trafficking: sexual exploitation, forced labor and child soldiers and argues that the newly promulgated Kenyan constitution in chapter three on citizenship has a provision that can be interpreted as encouraging child trafficking.

  3. Organization for security and co-operation in Europe mission to Georgia / Joe McDonagh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McDonagh, Joe

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne OSCE missiooni tegevusest Gruusias

  4. Organization for security and co-operation in Europe mission to Georgia / Joe McDonagh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McDonagh, Joe

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne OSCE missiooni tegevusest Gruusias

  5. Building Partner Capacity: Key Practices to Effectively Manage Department of Defense Efforts to Promote Security Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    and poverty that impact the security and stability of the region. In recent years, in an effort to better support security and stability in the... Ecuador , Peru, and Venezuela. However, during our 2012 review, we found that the DOD Inspector General cited a number of reasons for not

  6. Children's Food Security and Intakes from School Meals. Final Report. Contractor and Cooperator Report No. 61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamites, Elizabeth; Gordon, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Using 2005 data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment survey, this study examines the contribution of school meals to the food and nutrient intake of children in food-secure, marginally secure, and food-insecure households. The study finds that children from food-insecure and marginally secure…

  7. Border governance in Mozambique : The intersection of international border controls, regional integration and cross-border regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.L.M. Seda (Fulgêncio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractA tension exists between the interests of states in protecting national security through border controls and those of communities in cross-border regions, to whom frequent border crossing is part of daily life – a necessary part of achieving their own wellbeing. The interplay between

  8. Imagined Borders: (UnBounded Spaces of Oil Extraction and Indigenous Sociality in “Post-Neoliberal” Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora E. Lu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze state practices of border-making through an ethnographic focus on Ecuadorian Amazonia and the Waorani, an Indigenous society, who, before sustained contact with the outside world began in 1958, possessed stark spatial and social borders often reinforced through warfare. Following that contact and the creation of various iterations of a legally-demarcated Waorani territory, the spatial and social borders of Waorani culture, based on a common property regime, came into conflict with the borders produced by the state in cooperation with transnational capitalism in the form of the oil industry. We discuss how these shifting borders led to cascading effects on Waorani reciprocity, their relationship to natural resources, sense of security and designation of membership in the community. Finally, we discuss how the leftist Ecuadorian state under President Rafael Correa justifies and facilitates the country’s oil-focused spatial processes through a post-neoliberal discourse.

  9. Research on Police Cooperation among China Mainland, Hong Kong and Macau to Combat Cross-border Cybercrimes%内地与港澳打击跨境网络犯罪警务合作研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹏

    2014-01-01

    内地和港澳之间的跨境网络犯罪主要包括通过网络实施的传统非跨境犯罪、传统跨境犯罪以及新型经济犯罪。这些网络犯罪主要以牟利为主,数额巨大;犯罪形式多样,有组织化;犯罪成本小,打击难度大。为了惩治跨境网络犯罪,内地和港澳警方采取了一系列合作措施并取得了一定成效。但是,由于内地和港澳三地在法律、技术和协作程序方面存在缺陷,三地警务合作仍然面临挑战。深化三地警务合作必须缩小各方的立法差距,增强对网络犯罪的调查、取证技术能力,建立跨境网络犯罪的协查机制。%Cross-border cybercrimes among China mainland , Hong Kong and Macao involve traditional non-cross-border crime , the traditional cross-border crime and new type of economic crime .All of the cybercrimes are mainly implemented on the internet .Working in form of organization , the cybercrimes are high-profit-based crimes and have various forms of crime .It costs the criminals little but it is hard for police to combat them .In order to punish cross-border cybercrimes , the Mainland, Hong Kong and Macau have taken a series of measures for police cooperation and have achieved some results .However , due to the flaws in legislation and technology and lack of adequate collaboration , the police cooperation among Mainland , Hong Kong and Macau still faces challenges . Thus, some measures must be taken to deepen the cooperation among three parties , including filling the legislative gaps, enhancing cybercrimes investigations and forensic technology capabilities as well as establishing cross -border cybercrimes investigation mechanism .

  10. Bureaucracies, communities and networks : interagency cooperation for Homeland Security In Monterey County

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Gerald R.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The federal government has undertaken a massive reorganization in order to create the Department of Homeland Security, and a parallel debate over how to organize homeland security functions has arisen at the State and Local government levels. In a time of severe budget constraints and rapidly changing threats, governments at all levels recognize the need for multiple government agencies, the private sector and nongovernmental organiza...

  11. CMC Participation in the Regional Centre for Strategic Studies (RCSS) Workshop: Defense, Technology and Cooperative Security in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biringer, K.L.; Olsen, J.

    1998-11-01

    As an ongoing part of the collaborative efforts between the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories, the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), staff from the CMC served as faculty in conducting a workshop in Shanghai, China. Sponsor of the workshop was the Regional Centre for Strategic Studies (RCSS) based in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The workshop included participants from throughout South Asia and China. The CMC presented four sessions related to the role of monitoring technologies in promoting regional security and building confidence among nations. Participation in these workshops supports U.S. efforts to further regional cooperation and promote arms control, nonproliferation and other cooperative securily measures and supplements efforts funded by DOE and ACDA over the past four years. The RCSS Shanghai meeting permitted a continued CMC involvement in regionally conducted training for anew generation of leaders in government, the military, and academia throughout South Asia and China. Nuclear issues are clearly a dominant South Asian concern since the nuclear tests of May 1998. However, there remains a strong interest in identifying opportunities for increased trade and reduced tensions in other areas. The RCSS and other regional organizations are enthusiastic about continued CMC involvement in future regional courses.

  12. On the Overall National Security Concept and the Design of the Sino-ASEAN Security Cooperation Mechanism%总体国家安全观与中国-东盟安全合作机制的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜湘; 辛田

    2016-01-01

    当前,东南亚地区安全形势纷繁复杂,中国-东盟现有安全合作机制已无法有效适应现实安全需求的变化。从总体国家安全观的角度看,中国-东盟现有安全合作机制存在诸多问题,主要是缺乏统一的安全观念、内外安全不平衡、缺乏综合性安全合作体系和缺乏共同体意识等。要解决这些安全问题,需要改革和完善中国-东盟安全合作机制。总体国家安全观为中国-东盟安全合作机制的改革和完善提供了新思路,它强调内部安全与外部安全、传统安全与非传统安全、自身安全与共同安全的平衡。改革和完善中国-东盟安全合作机制需要强调这三种安全平衡,并以此为基础,通过增信释疑构建中国-东盟安全合作新机制和中国-东盟安全命运共同体。这需要中国和东盟双方的长期合作与努力。%At present,the security situation in Southeast Asia becomes very complex,and new security issues are emerging,and traditional and non-traditional security issues are intertwined;therefore,all countries’security demands,concepts,strategies in this area have changed.The existing security cooperation mechanism is rendered unable to meet the new security needs of China and of ASEAN.From the perspective of the overall national security concept,there are lots of problems in the existing Sino-ASEAN security cooperation mechanism, including the absence of the unified security concept,the imbalance between internal and external security,and the lack of an integrated security cooperation system and the sense of community.To solve these problems,we must rethink and redesign the Sino-ASENA security cooperation mechanism.The overall national security concept provides a new method for China and ASEAN to redesign the security cooperation mechanism.The overall national security concept emphasizes the balance between internal and external security,traditional and non

  13. International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program : visions and strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Michael; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2011-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.

  14. Research on Cross-Border Cooperation of Clothes and Fashion Based on Maslow's Theory of Hierarchy of Needs: Taking Cross-Border Cooperation of H & M and VERSACE for Example%基于马斯洛需求层次理论的服饰时尚跨界合作研究——以品牌H&M与VERSACE跨界合作为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司晓甜; 郭建南; 朱伟明

    2013-01-01

    2011年秋季,瑞典的快速时尚品牌H&M与意大利顶级奢侈品牌范思哲(VERSACE)进行跨界合作设计的一系列产品,为什么产品一经上市就被消费者抢购一空,这引起作者的思考.问卷研究以瑞典的快速时尚品牌H&M为测试品牌,以光顾和购买H&M产品的年轻目标群体为调查对象.调查分析H&M与奢侈品牌VERSACE跨界合作前后对消费者购买动机差异的影响.结果显示:基于马斯洛需求层次理论,跨界合作后提升消费者需求最显著的为尊重需求和自我实现需求.跨界合作策略可以快速吸引潜在的消费群体,产生新的目标市场,提高企业的销售业绩.%Why were a series of products designed under cross-border cooperation between Swedish fast fashion brand H&M and Italian top luxury brand VERSACE in autumn of 2011 snapped up by consumers once appeared on the market? This causes the thinking of the author. The questionnaire researches takes Swedish fast fashion brand H&M as the test brand and young target groups visiting and purchasing H&M products as respondents. This paper investigates and analyzes the influence of cross-border cooperation of H&M and luxury brand VERSACE on differences of consumers' purchase motive. The result shows that, based on Maslow's theory of hierarchy of needs, the most significant improvement after cross-border cooperation is esteem need and self-actualization need. Cross-border cooperation strategy can rapidly attract potential consumer group, produce a new target market and improve the sales performance of enterprises.

  15. Peace and Security in Africa:Opportunities and Challenges for China-Africa Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry; Smith; Thomas; Wheeler; Bernardo; Mariani

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore some of the security and conflict dimensions of the China-Africa relationship, illustrating what the challenges are, why they are important and what has been done to meet them. Section one provides a brief overview of the different manifestations of conflict and insecurity on the African continent, highlighting that Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) proliferation is a problem that links them all. Section two explores the reasons why China has a stake in the peace and security o...

  16. Border regions as cross-border laboratories for regional and European integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with barriers to regional cross border police cooperation. Leading police officers in the Schleswig-Holstein state police have experienced that the Danish police in recent years has become more reticent in regional cooperation across the border, especially in relation to coopera...

  17. Border regions as cross-border laboratories for regional and European integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with barriers to regional cross border police cooperation. Leading police officers in the Schleswig-Holstein state police have experienced that the Danish police in recent years has become more reticent in regional cooperation across the border, especially in relation...

  18. Lessons from collaborative governance and sociobiology theories for reinforcing sustained cooperation: a government food security case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, L A; Montoya, I; Sánchez González, O D

    2015-07-01

    This research aimed to understand how cooperation and collaboration work in interagency arrangements using a case study of the public management of food security and nutrition in Bogotá, Colombia. This study explored the available scientific literature on Collaborative Governance within the Public Management body of knowledge and the literature on Cooperation from the Sociobiology field. Then, proposals were developed for testing on the ground through an action-research effort that was documented as a case study. Finally, observations were used to test the proposals and some analytical generalizations were developed. To document the case study, several personal interviews, file reviews and normative reviews were conducted to generate a case study database. Collaboration and cooperation concepts within the framework of interagency public management can be understood as a shared desirable outcome that unites different agencies in committing efforts and resources to the accomplishment of a common goal for society, as seen in obtaining food and nutrition security for a specific territory. Collaboration emerges when the following conditions exist and decreases when they are absent: (1) a strong sponsorship that may come from a central government policy or from a distributed interagency consensus; (2) a clear definition of the participating agencies; (3) stability of the staff assigned to the coordination system; and (4) a fitness function for the staff, some mechanism to reward or punish the collaboration level of each individual in the interagency effort. As this research investigated only one case study, the findings must be taken with care and any generalization made from this study needs to be analytical in nature. Additionally, research must be done to accept these results universally. Food security and nutrition efforts are interagency in nature. For collaboration between agencies to emerge, a minimum set of characteristics that were established during the

  19. From Patchwork to Framework: A Review of Title 10 Authorities for Security Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    there is growing recognition of the importance of this domain and that part- ners’ weakness in cyber security is also U.S. weakness given that U.S...train more compre- hensively with friendly foreign forces, requiring only that to the “ maxi - mum extent practicable” training aligns with the mission

  20. The National Guard’s State Partnerships: Security Cooperation and Force Multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    program can flourish. Operations like New Horizon, Beyond New Horizon, and Fuerzas Aliadas Humanitarias are but a few where troops associated with the...regional coordination on issues such as counter-terrorism, security and humanitarian crisis response.39 Figure 4: Another major operation in

  1. Cooperation between social security and employment services: Evaluation of a reform strategy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Since the early 1990s in the Netherlands a process of restructuring social security has been going on. A central element is the introduction of regional Centres of Work and Income, stimulating people living on benefits to return to paid work and making services more client–oriented. In these centres

  2. Cooperation between social security and employment services: Evaluation of a reform strategy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Since the early 1990s in the Netherlands a process of restructuring social security has been going on. A central element is the introduction of regional Centres of Work and Income, stimulating people living on benefits to return to paid work and making services more client–oriented. In these

  3. Cooperative home light: assessment of a security function for the automotive field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapik, Peter; Petit, Jonathan; Kargl, Frank; Schoch, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Crime and feeling of security are omnipresent and can be influenced by lighting conditions. However, lighting improvements are generally concentrated on street lighting. Meanwhile, a vast variety of new technologies, including innovative lighting systems and connected mobility, are entering into the

  4. A Secure and Efficient Communications Architecture for Global Information Grid Users Via Cooperating Space Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-19

    selected from the literature . Each of these proposed architectures improves system scalability and security in different ways. 2.4.3.1 GOTHIC The... Literature Review............................................................................................................8 2.1 Chapter Overview...5 Figure 2 - Global Information Grid Layers [SMC06a]..................................................... 12 Figure 3 - The Gothic

  5. The EU Maritime Security Strategy : Promoting or Absorbing European Defence Cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, the maritime domain has been a pillar of European livelihoods and prosperity through fishing and global trade. In modern times, we have come to depend on maritime transport to keep our economy going. Recently, however, old and new threats have challenged the security of the European

  6. Assessment of a Heuristic Algorithm for Scheduling Theater Security Cooperation Naval Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS ASSESSMENT OF A HEURISTIC ALGORITHM FOR SCHEDULING THEATER SECURITY...blank) 2. REPORT DATE March 2009 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assessment of a Heuristic Algorithm for...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited ASSESSMENT OF A HEURISTIC ALGORITHM FOR SCHEDULING THEATER

  7. Persian Gulf Security: The United States and Oman, The Gulf Cooperation Council, and Western Allied Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Hamud Al Bu Said; Minister of the Sultan’s Affairs. - Fahr ibn Taimur Al Bu Said; Deputy Prime Minister for Security and Defense Affairs. - Sayyid...Cornell University Press, 1980), p’ 777. 3Sydney Nettleton Fisher, The Middle East, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf Inc., 1979), p. 497. 4Ralph H. Magnus

  8. The EU Maritime Security Strategy : Promoting or Absorbing European Defence Cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, the maritime domain has been a pillar of European livelihoods and prosperity through fishing and global trade. In modern times, we have come to depend on maritime transport to keep our economy going. Recently, however, old and new threats have challenged the security of the European U

  9. Analysis of operations and cyber security policies for a system of cooperating Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Tejani, Bankim; Margulies, Jonathan; Hills, Jason L.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Baca, Micheal J.; Weiland, Laura

    2005-12-01

    Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices are installed on electric power transmission lines to stabilize and regulate power flow. Power lines protected by FACTS devices can increase power flow and better respond to contingencies. The University of Missouri Rolla (UMR) is currently working on a multi-year project to examine the potential use of multiple FACTS devices distributed over a large power system region in a cooperative arrangement in which the FACTS devices work together to optimize and stabilize the regional power system. The report describes operational and security challenges that need to be addressed to employ FACTS devices in this way and recommends references, processes, technologies, and policies to address these challenges.

  10. Transmit Power Allocation for Physical Layer Security in Cooperative Multi-Hop Full-Duplex Relay Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Sohn, Illsoo; Kim, Yong-Hwa

    2016-10-17

    In this paper, we consider a transmit power allocation problem for secure transmission in multi-hop decode-and-forward (DF) full-duplex relay (FDR) networks, where multiple FDRs are located at each hop and perform cooperative beamforming to null out the signal at multiple eavesdroppers. For a perfect self-interference cancellation (PSIC) case, where the self-interference signal at each FDR is completely canceled, we derive an optimal power allocation (OPA) strategy using the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions to maximize the achievable secrecy rate under an overall transmit power constraint. In the case where residual self-interferences exist owing to imperfect self-interference cancellation (ISIC), we also propose a transmit power allocation scheme using the geometric programming (GP) method. Numerical results are presented to verify the secrecy rate performance of the proposed power allocation schemes.

  11. Transmit Power Allocation for Physical Layer Security in Cooperative Multi-Hop Full-Duplex Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a transmit power allocation problem for secure transmission in multi-hop decode-and-forward (DF full-duplex relay (FDR networks, where multiple FDRs are located at each hop and perform cooperative beamforming to null out the signal at multiple eavesdroppers. For a perfect self-interference cancellation (PSIC case, where the self-interference signal at each FDR is completely canceled, we derive an optimal power allocation (OPA strategy using the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT conditions to maximize the achievable secrecy rate under an overall transmit power constraint. In the case where residual self-interferences exist owing to imperfect self-interference cancellation (ISIC, we also propose a transmit power allocation scheme using the geometric programming (GP method. Numerical results are presented to verify the secrecy rate performance of the proposed power allocation schemes.

  12. 76 FR 67755 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection DHS/CBP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Border Protection DHS/CBP-003 Credit/Debit Card Data System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS... Data System of Records.'' This system allows U.S. Customs and Border Protection to collect, use, and... Privacy Act protections to all individuals where systems of records maintain information on U.S. citizens...

  13. 跨界合作理念下高职师资队伍建设研究%The Study on the Organization of Teachers' Team in Higher Vocational Schools under the Conception of Cross-border Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书润

    2012-01-01

    通过对近十多年来高职师资队伍建设实践的研究发现,“跨界合作”已经成为引领和指导高职师资队伍建设新理念,提出“跨界合作”理念是在我国社会经济发展方式转型升级、高职教育事业自身不断发展和对高职教育规律深刻认识的背景下逐渐明晰起来的观点,梳理了在“跨界合作”理念的引领和指导下,高职师资队伍建设经历的从“双师型”到“双师素质”再到“双师结构”的各具特色的三个不同发展阶段。%Over a decade, the studies on the practice of the organization of teachers' team in higher vocational schools show that "cross-border cooperation" has become a new conception leading and guiding the organization of teachers' team. The conception of "cross-border cooperation" gradually surfaced with the transformation and upgrade of China's social and economic developing model when higher vocational schools had been developing and the laws of education had been fully learned. This paper elaborates the three different phases of the organiza- tion of teachers' team in higher vocational schools, under the leadership and guidance of "cross-border coopera- tion", from "double qualification" to "the quality of double qualification" and then to "the construction of double qualification".

  14. New Era, New Policy: Cross-Border Education and Sino-Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools in the Eyes of a Fence-Sitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minxuan, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Since World War II, the internationalization of education has experienced a change from a period of political influence to a service trade structure. As the Third International Forum on the Educational Service Trade began, more and more governments accepted the concept of cross-border education. At a time when both opportunities and challenges lay…

  15. Military Cooperation Frameworks: Effective Models to Address Transnational Security Challenges of the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    197* (10) Sri Lanka 204* (12) Oceania American Samoa 22* (6) Australia 117* (11) Cook Islands 19* (4) Fiji 72* (8) Guam 24* (8) Kiribati...evolving security challenges. Issues such as terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, impacts of climate change , and the ever...impacts of climate change , and the ever-growing competition for valuable natural resources are a few of the these challenges. As an integral part

  16. U.S.-Brazil Security Cooperation and the Challenge of Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    direction throughout the process. xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION A. MAJOR RESEARCH QUESTION Since 2010, the United...weapons systems to the Middle East. Regarding the industry’s success in that era, Luis Bitencourt notes: The reason they got that market was mainly due...31. 143 Luis Bitencourt, The Problems of Defence Industrialization for Developing States,” in Arms and Technology Transfers: Security and Economic

  17. International cooperation for food and nutrition security: Systematization of the participatory, contextualized, and intersectoral educational practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene BURLANDY

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study systematized the experience gained with the project Construindo capacidades em segurança alimentar e nutricional no Brasil, Canadá e Angola (2004-2010, Building food and nutrition security skills in Brazil, Canada, and Angola, whose objective was to qualify actions that promote food and nutrition security in the three countries using different educational practices. The activities were organized in the following subprojects: (a online distance learning courses; (b workshops to train managers, government technicians, representatives of civil society organizations, and social subjects who offered to act as a link between communities; and (c local pilot projects. The present study reports this experience. The educational practices implemented in the municipalities of Araçuaí (MG, Juazeiro (BA, and Fortaleza (CE were analyzed based on systematized information in the project reports and activity records (texts and photographs. The analytical reference was based on the concept of food and nutrition education, guided by the fundamentals of Popular Education and Paulo Freire; on the concept of food and nutrition security; and on the following analytical dimensions: participation, contextualization of educational practices, and intersectoriality. The results evidenced how educational practices contributed to the construction of shared concepts of food and nutrition security from an intersectoral and participatory perspective that values the peculiarities of diet in different socioeconomic and cultural contexts, and highlights daily situations and local traditions. They also expose the limits and potentialities of an experience of this magnitude, conducted from an interdisciplinarity perspective and using participatory methods.

  18. Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security between NATO and the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the building of a democratic society and the realisation of its political and economic transformation. It is developing the concept of its national...of common and comprehensive security based on the allggiance to shared values , commitments and norms of behaviour in the interests of all states...transparency in creating and implementing defence policy and military doctrines; • prevention of conflicts and settlement of disputes by peaceful means in

  19. The significance of success criteria for civil-military security cooperation in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The international presence in Kosovo is an example of full international administration. Its most important obligation is arguably to provide a safe and secure environment for all inhabitants, in which they can establish relations and structures for peaceful co-existence with the help of the international community. Both military and civilian agencies (KFOR and UNMIK) and many nations are involved in this project. However, history as well as research in international relations and...

  20. On Social Security Cooperation in China-ASEAN Area%中国—东盟社会保障协作问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊

    2011-01-01

    The regional integration process of China-ASEAN is speeding up,but due to lackage of international cooperation in social security areas,on one hand the possibility of social dumping greatly increases for China-ASEAN countries to strive for capital and market,this even causes trade conflict,on the other hand it is difficult for multinational floating population to gain social security.These problems in the social security will seriously affect China-ASEAN regional cooperation process.This paper explains the prominent problems of social security cooperation in China-ASEAN area,then analyzes the factors that impact on social security cooperation,finally puts forward some suggestions to promote social security cooperation in China-ASEAN area.%中国-东盟区域一体化进程正在加快发展,但是由于缺乏社会保障领域的国际协作,一方面中国-东盟各国之间因争夺资本、市场而出现社会倾销的可能性大大增加,甚至会导致贸易冲突;另一方面该区域内跨国流动人口的社会保障转移、接续难。这些社会保障中的突出问题将严重影响中国-东盟的区域合作的进程。本文阐述了中国-东盟区域合作中突出的社会保障问题,分析了影响中国-东盟社会保障协作的因素,最后提出了促进中国-东盟社会保障协作的建议。

  1. 云南边境旅游安全治理模式与对策研究%The Research of Security Governance Mode and Countermeasures about Border Tourism in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹彤; 明庆忠; 王峰

    2012-01-01

    通过分析云南边境旅游安全问题,阐述了以政府和市场为主导的传统治理模式的优点和不足,针对云南边境旅游安全,提出构建以政府为主导。以市场为辅,强调社区参与的多元化网络治理模式。并针对政府、旅游企业、旅游者和社区不同的参与者提出相应的治理对策和措施。以保证旅游者的安全,实现云南边境地区旅游业健康持续的发展.%January 1, 2010 China - ASEAN Free Trade Area was established, and the southwestern region of Yunnan Province as a "Bridgehead" strategy was proposed, effectively boosting the Yunnan border tourism boom. Yunnan border tourism activities with the rapid development of tourism, which contain inherent in the subject and object of national cultural differences, as well as between countries of different social environment arising from border tourism market order and other security risks increasingly attracted the attention of scholars. By analyzing the safety of border tourism in Yunnan Province, explaining to the government and the traditional market-oriented governance strengths and weaknesses, and for the safety of border tourism in Yunnan, the pa- per suggested building a government-led, market, supplemented by emphasis on community participation in multi-Network governance, and for the government, tourism enterprises, tourist and community participants made different corresponding counter-measures and measures to ensure the safety of tourists, tourism in the border areas of Yunnan to achieve healthy and sustainable development.

  2. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At t...

  3. Secure cooperative spectrum sensing for the cognitive radio network using nonuniform reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad; Koo, Insoo

    2014-01-01

    Both reliable detection of the primary signal in a noisy and fading environment and nullifying the effect of unauthorized users are important tasks in cognitive radio networks. To address these issues, we consider a cooperative spectrum sensing approach where each user is assigned nonuniform reliability based on the sensing performance. Users with poor channel or faulty sensor are assigned low reliability. The nonuniform reliabilities serve as identification tags and are used to isolate users with malicious behavior. We consider a link layer attack similar to the Byzantine attack, which falsifies the spectrum sensing data. Three different strategies are presented in this paper to ignore unreliable and malicious users in the network. Considering only reliable users for global decision improves sensing time and decreases collisions in the control channel. The fusion center uses the degree of reliability as a weighting factor to determine the global decision in scheme I. Schemes II and III consider the unreliability of users, which makes the computations even simpler. The proposed schemes reduce the number of sensing reports and increase the inference accuracy. The advantages of our proposed schemes over conventional cooperative spectrum sensing and the Chair-Varshney optimum rule are demonstrated through simulations.

  4. Goodness-of-fit based secure cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radio network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu-Van, Hiep; Koo, Insoo

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) is a promising technology for improving usage of frequency band. Cognitive radio users (CUs) are allowed to use the bands without interference in operation of licensed users. Reliable sensing information about status of licensed band is a prerequirement for CR network. Cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) is able to offer an improved sensing reliability compared to individual sensing. However, the sensing performance of CSS can be destroyed due to the appearance of some malicious users. In this paper, we propose a goodness-of-fit (GOF) based cooperative spectrum sensing scheme to detect the dissimilarity between sensing information of normal CUs and that of malicious users, and reject their harmful effect to CSS. The empirical CDF will be used in GOF test to determine the measured distance between distributions of observation sample set according to each hypothesis of licensed user signal. Further, the DS theory is used to combine results of multi-GOF tests. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can protect the sensing process against the attack from malicious users.

  5. Power allocation and cooperative jamming for enhancing physical layer security in opportunistic relay networks in the presence of interference

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El-Malek, Ahmed H.

    2017-04-18

    In this paper, the impact of cochannel interference on the secrecy performance of dual-hop decode-and-forward relaying is investigated. In particular, the outage and intercept probabilities are obtained for the opportunistic relay selection (ORS) model in the presence of nonidentical interfering signals under a single/multiple passive eavesdropper(s) attack. Moreover, the proposed work enhances physical layer security performance of ORS model using cooperative jamming (CJ) techniques. Therefore, new closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept and outage probabilities of the CJ-ORS model in the presence of interference over Rayleigh fading channels. Moreover, the analyses are generalized to the case of multiple eavesdroppers where closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept probability. To reveal more insights on the proposed work secrecy performance, asymptotic closed-form expressions for the intercept and outage probabilities are obtained. Using these asymptotic expressions, a power allocation optimization problem is formulated and solved for enhancing the system security. The derived analytical formulas herein are supported by numerical and simulation results to clarify the main contributions of the paper. The results show that, although the cochannel interference increases the system outage probability, it might improve the system secrecy performance. Moreover, the proposed CJ-ORS model is shown to enhance the system secrecy performance compared to ORS model.

  6. Arms Transfer Policies and International Security: the Case of Brazilian-Swedish Co-operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Federico Domínguez Avila

    Full Text Available Abstract This article discusses arms trade policies from an international security perspective. Arms transfers are widely treated as political issues even when economic incentives exist. They affect bilateral and multilateral relations among suppliers, countries receiving the arms, non-state actors, taxpayers, and victims. Following the agreement to build Swedish SAAB Gripen NG fighter jets in Brazil, more may be produced for sale to third countries. This, in turn, calls for a review of Brazil’s arms transfer policy. In this instance, Sweden’s principled arms sales model could serve as a basis for a revised Brazilian arms transfer policy as well.

  7. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At the same time, Polish and Czech enterprises are not sufficiently mobilized to develop cross-border entrepreneurship, although a number of support instruments in this regard have been proposed. Sustainable development of the border should take into account both social and economic aspects. An important research problem therefore becomes determining the possibility of boosting the development of cross-border entrepreneurship on the basis of the existing forms of cross-border cooperation, including cooperation in the social sphere. The aim of this paper is to define the conditions and opportunities for the development of cluster cooperation in the area of cross-border entrepreneurship. The author has attempted to resolve whether the intensity of cross-border cooperation can be a factor which mobilizes companies to develop their cross-border entrepreneurship and whether cross-border entrepreneurship can be further developed within the cluster model.

  8. Sovereign Challenge Conference (6th). Borders & Security: Similarities, Differences and Shared Affinities. Held in El Paso, Texas on November 7-10, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    will remain to determine what information should be shared, with whom, and when. The degree of shar- ing that will take place is inversely ...protection and to isolate threats in order to survive and develop. The cell model implies osmosis , allowing flows to take place across the borders and the...the osmosis or flows across the borders between nations. Discussion Group Green The group began its discussions by identifying the threats to their

  9. Regional Joint Border Commands: A Pathway to Improving Collaboration and Effectiveness for Border Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Police xii SBI Secure Border Initiative SES Senior Executive Service SSP Secretaria de Seguridad Publica TSA Transportation Security...also been involvement from the Mexican law enforcement agency, Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) on the southwest border (CBP, 2009; ICE, 2009, p. 5

  10. Secure Grid Services for Cooperative Work in Medicine and Life Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbecker, Anette; Falkner, Jürgen

    MediGRID provides a grid infrastructure to solve challenging problems in medical and life sciences by enhancing the productivity and by enabling locationindependent, interdisciplinary collaboration. The usage of grid technology has enabled the development of new application and services for research in medical and life sciences. In order to enlarge the range of services and to get a broader range of users sustainable business models are needed. In Services@MediGRID methods for monitoring, accounting, and billing which fulfilled the high security demands within medicine and life sciences will be developed. Also different requirements of academic and industrial grid customers are considered in order to establish the sustainable business models for grid computing.

  11. Counterterrorism and Potential Constructive Cooperation Between China and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LE,RONGRONG

    2003-02-01

    Terrorism is a scourge common to the international community and its threat to world peace and stability is severe and imminent. This paper evaluates the campaign against terrorism and the possible modalities of constructive cooperation between China and the United States in this fight. Technical cooperation can enhance Sino-U.S. security capabilities for dealing with the terrorist threat. This paper identifies specific bilateral cooperative activities that may benefit common interests. Focusing on protecting people, facilities, and infrastructure, Sino-U.S. cooperation may introduce protective technologies and training, including means of boosting port and border security, and detecting explosives or nuclear materials. Cooperation will not only enhance the global counterterrorism campaign, but also form a sound foundation for constructive and cooperative relations between the two countries.

  12. 跨境电子商务生态安全立法问题研究%Legislation of Ecological Security in Cross-border E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晓丹

    2015-01-01

    4只箭毒蛙被快递进境事件又一次给我国的生物安全治理敲响了警钟.新市场或者新交易路线的开发对引进物种有积极的影响,贸易额的增长增加了外来物种在当地传播和建立种群的可能性.随着跨境电子商务的高速发展,异域另类宠物交易有了非常便利的渠道,网络将其源源不断输入我国境内.作为外来物种,异域另类宠物有可能加剧我国外来物种入侵的威胁和隐患,从而危害我国生物多样性和生态安全.而我国目前外来物种入侵相关立法并不完善,多年来我国都无法摆脱遭受外来物种入侵最严重国家之一的头衔,新问题的出现无疑会加剧情况的恶化.对此,我国应升级现有控制手段为立体防御体系,尽早系统化立法,防患未然.%The news about 4 poison arrow frogs' entering our country by courier sounded alarm bells to our biosafety manage-ment again.Development of new market and new transaction channel has positive effect on introduction of species.With the high-speed development of cross-border e-commerce,the transaction of"exotic pets"becomes easier."Exotic pets"are sent to our country via internet.As alien species,"exotic pets" may intensify threatening and hidden danger of alien species' inva-sion in our country;furthermore, they do harm to our biodiversity and ecological security.However, our laws and regulations about alien species invasion are not enough, because our country is still one of the most serious countries which have suffered from invasive species.The new problems will aggravate the deteriorating situation undoubtedly.Given this, we should develop present control manners to a stereoscopic defense system.Sooner legislation will be good for preventing trouble before it happens.

  13. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  14. Focusing on the Education in the Border Areas and Building Safety Barriers---A Survey Report of the Educational Security of the Border County Hin Yunnan%云南H县边境教育安全现状调研报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌; 卢梦鸽

    2015-01-01

    Educational security is a part of national security that should not be ignored , and the educational security in border areas is an important part of educational security . In order to reveal the real situation of the educational security in border areas and the existing problems , a three‐month investigation was conducted in several border counties in Yunnan province . Results show that great development has been made in the compulsory education in border areas in our country ;the sense of national identity and cultural identity is high among students and parents ;there still exist such problems as insufficient importance attached to the education of national identity , seperation of school education from the reality in border areas , low education quality , and neglection of the negative influence of the neighbouring countries' education . Therefore , the education in the border areas should base on its location and the multi‐ethnic cultural characteristics , strengthen the national identity , the Chinese cultural identity , optimize its structure , improve its quality , enhance its cohesive power and improve the degree of educational security .%教育安全是国家安全不容忽视的一部分,而边境教育的安全则是教育安全的一个重要组成部分。为客观把握边境教育安全的状况、存在的问题,课题组先后对云南省多个边境县市开展了为期近3个月的调研。结果表明:我国边境地区的义务教育事业取得了较大的发展,学生、家长对国家、民族、文化的认同度较高,但是仍存在着对国家认同教育重视不够、学校教育脱离边疆实际、办学质量不高以及忽视相邻国家教育发展对我国边境地区教育产生负面作用等影响边境教育安全的显性和隐性的因素。因此,教育需进一步贴近边境地区区位及多民族文化特色,强化国家认同、中华文化多元一体认同、优化结构、提高质量、增强

  15. 跨界旅游区合作的特征及影响机制研究%The Characteristics and Impact Mechanism of Region Cooperation in Cross-border Tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨效忠; 张捷; 彭敏

    2011-01-01

    跨界旅游区旅游发展潜力大而问题复杂、矛盾突出,是一种特殊类型的旅游地,成为区域旅游发展研究的新焦点。从空间属性、功能属性、供需属性、边界属性、合作内容、组织属性等方面总结出跨界旅游区合作的6个特征。以中国山岳型跨界旅游区大别山天堂寨为例,揭示跨界旅游区合作影响机制是一个由宏观、中观和微观3个层面的影响因子交互作用而形成的复杂循环反馈系统。其中宏观影响因子涉及区域层面,包括区域经济因素、区域社会文化因素、区域制度因素和区域区位因素等,中观因子涉及组织层面,包括组织价值和文化、组织机构、组织历史、组织制度和组织网络等,微观因子涉及利益主体个体层面,包括利益主体的价值观、专业知识背景、个性特征以及对景区发展和环境保护的感知、态度和行为等。%Cross-border tourism region is a special type of tourist destination which has large tourism development potential, complexity of problem and obvious contradiction. Now it becomes a new research focal point in regional tourism development. The study sums up the six characteristics of cross-border tourism region Cooperation based on its space attribute, functional attribute, supply and demand attribute, the content of cooperation, border attitude, and organizational attribute. And taking Tiantangzhai of Dabie Mountain, a mountainous resort cross-border tourist region in China, as an example, this study reveals that the influence mechanism of cross-border tourism region cooperation is a complex feedback system with an interaction among macro, medium and micro factors. The macro-view impact factor is the regional level, including regional economic factors, regional sociocultural factors, regional institutional factors and regional location factors. The medium-view factors is the organizational level, including organizational

  16. U.S. Border Patrol Fiscal Year Statistics Southwest border sector deaths - FY 1998 through FY 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Southwest Border Sectors include: Del Rio, El Centro, El Paso, Laredo, Rio Grande Valley, San Diego, Tucson, Yuma Southwest Border Deaths By Fiscal Year (Oct. 1st...

  17. 红河边疆民族地区政府国际经济合作职能定位研究%A Positioning Research on the International Economic Cooperation Function for the Honghe Border Ethnic Region Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李发; 李继云; 孙良涛

    2014-01-01

    It is of great significance for the Honghe border ethnic region government to define its function position on the international economic cooperation. The important theoretical base for its positioning is the new border governance theory. The realistic foundation of the positioning is CPC’s policies on border regions and ethnic minority regions, and CPC's opening-up strategy and the status of Honghe region in the current strategic system. The most basic principle for the positioning is conducive to the development, prosperity and stability of the border ethnic region, and to meet the needs of long-term strategies and scientific development. The main directions for the positioning include the direction of role and function positioning and the direction of thinking positioning. In connection with the existing problems, the main initiatives to realize the positioned thinking are to strengthen cooperation, strengthen the construction of infrastructure and port facilities, strengthen internal nurturing of cooperative advantages, and to strengthen policies expansion and leadership. This paper emphasizes the need to emancipate thoughts, clear the thinking of "promote cooperation by cooperation”and “promote stability by cooperation”, implement actively the cultivation and utilization of the interactive mechanism of"promote development by openness”and"promote openness by development".%红河边疆民族地区政府国际经济合作职能定位有着重大意义。定位的重要理论依据是新边疆治理理论。定位的现实依据是党的边疆地区和民族地区政策、党的对外开放战略及红河地区在当前战略体系中的地位。定位的最基本原则是有利于边疆民族地区的发展繁荣和稳定,要符合长期战略需要和科学发展的需要。定位的主要方向包括了角色功能定位方向和思维定位方向。针对现存问题,实现定位思路的主要举措是加强合作,加强基础设施和口岸

  18. Opportunities and risks of cross-border cooperation of regions of the southern macroregion of Russia and regions of the South-East of Ukraine in the conditions of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Mitrofanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In article the political and economic innovations connected with the transformation of the region "Donbass" in the context of decrease of the risks caused by a military-political and economic conflict in Ukraine are investigated. On the basis of creative synthesis of theoretical and practical approaches of studying the evolution of nonlinear economic systems and the formation of megaregions, and also the analysis of the geopolitical situation developing on the world scene between Russia, the USA and China provisions are developed according to which the region "Donbass" can be considered as "a critical point" of the European regionalization. Authors believe that the important strategic prospect of border cooperation of Russia and Ukraine is connected with the formation of a cross-border agglomeration "Nizhnedonbassky" and "Verkhnedonbassky" the creation of which consists in realization of the linking function between Nizhnedonbassky, Volga region, Moscow and Petersburg transport corridors. One of the condition of social and economic stabilization in the subjects of the foreign Caspian and the Black Sea zones is the realization of geotransit capacity of the region "Donbass" with the formation of a geotransit architecture of its economy. Strategically realization of the processes of an international city formation is possible either on the basis of federal principles or by a geopolitical split of the territory of the region “Donbass” on the line Kharkov – Donetsk – Lugansk with a bent to Russia.

  19. Collaborating Across Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatten, Amy

    Physicists transcend national boundaries, ethnic differences, and scientific disciplines to address globally shared problems and questions. This talk will highlight how scientists have collaborated across borders - both geographic and scientific - to achieve ground-breaking discoveries through international scientific cooperation. The speaker also will address how international collaborations will be even more crucial for addressing future challenges faced by the physics community, such as building large-scale research facilities, strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries, fostering ''science for diplomacy'' in times of political tensions and other critical issues.

  20. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    in two border regions between Niger, Nigeria, and Benin. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find that decentralized networks are well adapted to the various uncertainties induced by long-distance trade. We also find that long-distance trade relies both on the trust...... and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. Studying the spatial structure of trade networks, we find that in those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region...

  1. 略论跨界民族接触合作权的基本问题%On the Fundamental Issues of Trans-border Ethnic Contact and Cooperation Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘玉塑

    2014-01-01

    跨界民族接触合作权属于国际法律权利的范畴,主要包括经济、文化、社会、环境领域的接触合作权,其实现条件取决于国际和平与安全以及国际组织、相关国家之间的协作配合,并且必须遵循国际法的基本原则和依法应当承担的国际人权义务。%Trans-border ethnic contact and cooperation rights belong to the realm of international legal rights concerning economy,culture,society and environment.The realization of the rights depend on world peace,international cooperation between governmental and non-governmental organizations,the ob-servance of the principles of international laws,and the bearing of international human rights.

  2. 76 FR 67751 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, DHS/CBP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Border Protection, DHS/CBP-009--Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA) System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: In accordance...

  3. International Cooperation of Cyber Security and Its Value to China%国际网络安全合作及对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛培影

    2012-01-01

    In the context of globalization and with the wide application and rapid development of cyber information tech- nology, cyber information security has become a new focus of attention for many countries. Non-traditional security issues, such as cyber warfare, cyber terrorism and cyber crime, demand global cooperation due to their transnational character, com- plexity, and destructiveness. Cooperation of international cyber security will inevitably prevail. It has become a realistic prob- lem all countries are facing to tackle the challenges and difficulties in the cooperation. For China, a great power in information industry, to better participate in the cooperation of international cyber security will contribute positively to the protection of state interests and the construction of international regime.%在全球化的背景下,随着网络信息技术的广泛应用与快速发展,各国将对安全的关注转向了网络信息领域。网络战、网络恐怖主义、网络犯罪等非传统安全问题,因其跨国性、复合性、破坏性等特点,需要各国开展合作共同应对。国际网络安全合作已经成为一种必然趋势,应对合作中的挑战与难题成为各国面临的现实问题。如何有效使用网络外交方式维护本国国家利益、努力参与国际网络安全合作以及国际机制建设,对于作为信息大国的中国来说,具有积极的意义。

  4. An implementation of a security infrastructure compliant with the Italian Personal Data Protection Code in a web-based cooperative work system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccher, Claudio; Eccher, Lorenzo; Izzo, Umberto

    2005-01-01

    In this poster we describe the security solutions implemented in a web-based cooperative work frame-work for managing heart failure patients among different health care professionals involved in the care process. The solution, developed in close collaboration with the Law Department of the University of Trento, is compliant with the new Italian Personal Data Protection Code, issued in 2003, that regulates also the storing and processing of health data.

  5. Changing European borders: from separation to interface? An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Nelles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue is to address the evolution of European borders from a comparative perspective. This collection of papers spans a wide variety of topics in the realm of borderland studies. Although each engages with a single empirical or theoretical case collectively they identify nuances relevant to the theoretical elaboration of borders, and particularly contribute to the field of sub-national cross-border cooperation. In the course of its analysis each paper contributes to a broader understanding of the definition of cross-border regions; identifies a set of barriers to cooperation in these contexts; explores the role of identities on cooperation and of the role of borders in constructing those identities; and reflects on the socio-political meanings and uses of these international boundaries. This introduction discusses theoretical significance of these contributions to major debates in the study of borders and border regions.

  6. CROSS-BORDER PROJECTS – MEANS FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ALONG THE ROMANIAN-HUNGARIAN BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Maria BÂTEA (BOTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the linkage between establishing crossborder relations and tourism development by focusing on ten tourism projects implemented under Hungary-Romania Cross-Border Co-operation Programme (2007-2013. The study area comprises the two neighbouring counties of Satu Mare and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, the border connecting two areas characterised by social and economic similarities. Building on a solid foundation, as the first Hungarian-Romanian cross-border initiatives were launched nearly two decades ago, the two counties work together towards the shared aim of developing business infrastructure, cross-border trade, culture and tourism. The present study examines the relevance of cross-border projects viewed from the perspective of sustainable tourism development in two peripheral counties featuring similar resources. Moreover, the investigation is based on consultation of project documents, reports and promotional materials, against the theoretical framework of cross-border cooperation and regional development.

  7. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  8. Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  9. Border poetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Lundberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The language of poetry is a language of inquiry, not the language of a genre. Poetry has the capacity of entering those zones known as borderlands, where you meet strange things and foreign people. In this poetic world view, the border is not an edge along the fringe of lands, societies and experiences, but rather their very middle – and their in-between. The structures of language are social structures in which meanings and intentions are already in place, always fighting for power and dominance, with rhetorical figures and more violent weapons.

  10. 中国-东盟社会保障协作问题研究%Research on China-ASEAN Social Security Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 安立波

    2011-01-01

    中国-东盟区域一体化进程正在加快发展,但是由于缺乏社会保障领域的国际协作,一方面中国-东盟各国之间因争夺资本、市场而出现社会倾销的可能性大大增加,甚至会导致贸易冲突;另一方面该区域内跨国流动人口的社会保障转移、接续难。这些社会保障中的突出问题将严重影响中国-东盟区域合作的进程。需通过双边、多边协议促进社会保障协作、确定基本社会福利标准、发展劳务派遣、逐步推进跨国流动人员社会保障的转移和接续等措施,有重点、有步骤地推进中国-东盟社会保障协作。%The process of China-ASEAN regional integration is speeding up. However, due to the lack of international cooperation in the field of social security, two major problems emerged as follows: On one side, the possibilities of dumping will be increasing among China-ASEAN countries because of capital and the market competition, probably leading to trade conflicts. On the other side, the difficulties of transferring social security among transnational flows of people within China and ASEAN will surely have a negative impact on China- ASEAN regional cooperation. We must push forward the China-ASEAN Social Security Cooperation by setting fundamental standards for social security, developing labor service dispatching, improving the transferring of social security among China-ASEAN, etc.through bilateral and multilateral agreements to promote social security cooperation.

  11. 78 FR 35044 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland...: 1651-0110. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of Homeland...

  12. 75 FR 266 - Customs and Border Protection's Bond Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...] [FR Doc No: E9-30920] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Bureau of Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Parts 101, 113, and 133 [Docket No. USCBP-2006-0013] RIN 1505-AB54 Customs and Border Protection's Bond Program AGENCIES: Customs and Border Protection, Department of...

  13. 77 FR 1497 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing Vessels and Certificate of Use AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and Rulings, Office...

  14. Red Crescent and its effect on the geography security on eastern borders (comparative study of social abnormalities during 1383-89

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh allah Shahbahrami

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: drugs have some multidimensional effects on people and their lives. People who live in eastern provinces are at the risk of getting addicted and abnormal. Afghanistan is and has been the main problem for Iran. Method: this research has been done by library method and for this many books and articles have been read. The determined time was about 6 years. Findings: drugs have direct effects on life of people. Border cities are under the unkind effects of drugs and its relevant things. Conclusion: authorities must pay too much attention to drugs and eastern provinces

  15. 77 FR 38076 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... petroleum and petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes, in...

  16. 76 FR 65207 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: General notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 641 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, (19 U.S.C. 1641) and the U.S. Customs...

  17. 77 FR 59206 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Foreign Assembler's Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 60-day... November 26, 2012, to be assured of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to U.S....

  18. 澜沧江-湄公河合作机制与跨境安全治理%The Lancang-Mekong Cooperation Framework and Transboundary Security Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢光盛; 张励

    2016-01-01

    跨境安全问题是影响中国与缅甸、泰国、老挝、柬埔寨、越南5个下湄公河国家政治经济合作的关键因素,同时也是关系澜沧江—湄公河次区域合作水平能否冲破瓶颈的重要条件。现有的大湄公河次区域经济合作、东盟—湄公河流域开发合作机制、湄公河委员会等多边机制对于跨境安全问题捉襟见肘、应对不力。2015年11月中国提出的澜沧江—湄公河合作机制正式建立,其合作内容涵盖政治安全、经济和可持续发展、社会人文3个重点领域。因此,该机制的建立为解决次区域内跨界安全问题、深化区域合作提供了新的机遇,也为中国展现其国际秩序建设能力提供了新的平台和渠道。本文先就澜沧江—湄公河合作机制下跨境安全治理的相关概念、研究现状进行分析,接着探讨澜沧江—湄公河次区域内的跨境安全问题、根源与影响,最后指出通过夯实中国与下湄公河国家的互信基础,构建跨境安全治理的合作平台,发挥中国在跨境安全治理中的建设性作用,发挥次国家政府的能动作用,处理好与域外国家和其他合作机制的竞合关系,开展跨境安全治理的早期收获等路径来发挥澜沧江—湄公河机制的跨境安全治理作用,有效应对澜沧江—湄公河次区域的跨境安全问题。%The transboundary security issues are the key to the political and economic cooperation between China and the Lower Mekong Countries, namely, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. They are also fundamental for breaking bottleneck in the level of cooperation in the Lanccang-Mekong subregion. These existing the Great Mekong Subre-gion Economic Cooperation, ASEAN Mekong Basin Development Cooperation and the Mekong River Commission cannot be powerful enough when dealing with the transboundary security issues. The Lancang-Mekong Cooperation Framework came up with by

  19. Security Policy at Road’s End? The Roles of Sweden and Finland in the Nordic-Baltic Defence Cooperation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnerstig Mike

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses a number of questions related to Nordic and to an extent also Nordic-Baltic defence cooperation. First of all, how far has Nordic and Nordic-Baltic defence cooperation come today? Secondly, what are the differences in the approaches of Sweden and Finland when it comes to defence cooperation, especially regarding NATO, in the Nordic-Baltic area? As a first analytical result, it is apparent that the rhetorical standing of the Nordic and Nordic-Baltic defence cooperation process is greater than its real achievements, especially in terms of defence integration. Secondly, it seems also to be clear that the defence and security policy debates of Sweden and Finland are quite different. Some problems identified in the debates within the two countries, respectively, are very similar although the suggested solutions vary very remarkably. Regarding the key issue of NATO membership, the developments of the last few years suggest that the Swedish political establishment, as well as the general public, might be closer to a substantial discussion of NATO membership than their Finnish equivalents.

  20. Imagining and Imaging Borders: Understanding Borderlands for Global Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, V.

    2013-11-01

    Borders are increasingly complex human responses and social constructions in a world where globalizing forces confront basic human concerns for security and certainty. In an effort to provide a background to assess research directions for imaging borders, this paper explores what we know about borders, and what we do not know well about borders. Borders in globalization are the meeting points of globalizing forces of security, trade and migration flows with emerging technologies, self determination and regionalization around the world. We need to know more about how: self determination fuels secessions and new borders; borders result from complex rather than simple policy and governance issues; borders depend on the political clout of borderland communities; market and migration flows impact borders; and borders are always in motion. The paper shows how these organizing principles underlie the basic themes of border governance, flows, culture, history, security and sustainability. Finally, the paper offers two brief illustrations of border imaging to link this presentation to the following discussion of the workshop.

  1. Beyond Borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Asian nations seek cooperation in the face of the financial crisis As the global financial crisis continues to spread worldwide, its impact on the member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the ASEAN Plus Three countries-China, Japan and South Korea-is deepening, according to a semi-annual report recently released by the East Asian Economic News of the World Bank Faced with slumping exports and other challenges, Asian countries have come up with huge bailout packages in an effort to minimize the economic damage.

  2. The Future of Swiss Foreign and Security Policy: Increasing International Cooperation is the Key to National Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Cooperation in Europe PARP Planning and Review Process PfP Partnership for Peace PRT Provincial Reconstruction Team SALT Strategic Arms Limitation...certain sectorial disagreements. Third, the Swiss should not overplay their call for special treatment. Wherever possible, bilateralism must be based...strategies, especially in civil-military cooperation,3 and envisages a EU grand strategy.4 This overarching plan is supposed to define the goals

  3. War Games of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Collective Security Treaty Organization : Drills on the Move!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de M.

    2016-01-01

    The SCO is a political, economic, and security organization that started its security policy in arms control and subsequently developed war games. Conversely, the CSTO is a military alliance with collective armed forces. The military exercises of the CSTO are focused on conventional warfare, peaceke

  4. [Health on the borders: access to and demands on the Brazilian National Health System by foreigners and non-resident Brazilians in cities along the border with MERCOSUR countries from the perspective of municipal health secretaries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Ligia; Guimarães, Luisa; Nogueira, Vera Maria Ribeiro; Lobato, Lenaura de Vasconcelos Costa; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira

    2007-01-01

    In the context of forming common markets, border areas require special attention, since they anticipate the effects of integration processes. Along borders, different political, monetary, security, and social systems coexist; the intensification of flows resulting from integration raises challenges for the health systems, requiring specific policies focused on guaranteeing the right to health. This article presents the results of a study on the conditions for access to (and demands for) health services in the MERCOSUR border cities. A survey was performed with municipal health secretaries in the 69 Brazilian cities in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, and Mato Grosso do Sul that border on the other MERCOSUR countries. The study attempted to identify the services demanded by the border population, mechanisms used for access, flows between services and systems, response strategies, and local agreements. Initiatives for cooperation between Brazilian and foreign local administrators were identified in nearly half of the municipalities and can orient the formulation of guidelines for border situations, allowing improvement in comprehensive access to health care.

  5. 78 FR 15962 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Customs and Border Protection-DHS/CBP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    .... Social Security Numbers (as volunteered by sole proprietors as their tax identification number); Internal... of lading; audits--internal & external; proof of background checks; contractual obligations; via a... 44 U.S.C. 2904 and 2906. D. To an agency or organization for the purpose of performing audit...

  6. Cause for Concern: A Mixed-Methods Study of Campus Safety and Security Practices in United States-Mexico Border Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ryan Clevis

    2014-01-01

    Campus safety has been a source of concern since the 1990s. However, in 2007, the tragedy at the Virginia Polytechnic and State University sent a sense of alarm through many institutions of higher education. Immediately following this tragedy, institutions across the country began to evaluate and question their safety and security practices. While…

  7. Competitiveness of the Economies of Border Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Yuri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of competitiveness of border regions as subjects of the Russian Federation having specific characteristics. The authors focus on the stages, during which border regions build their competitiveness, as well as analyse certain indices characterizing it. They examine the role of these regions in the development of international trade and economic relations, cross-border cooperation and international integration, taking the North-west federal district and the Republic of Karelia as a case-study. The article describes the mechanisms of building and increasing competitiveness of border regions in today’s Russia both in general and, particularly, in the Republic of Karelia as a border region of the North-west federal district.

  8. Corruption, Insecurity and Border control in Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    In Niger, building more border offices has proven insufficient to tackle the spread of smuggling, drug trade and circulation of jihadists in the Sahel. Instead, everyday petty corruption makes border control ineffective and, while apparently benign, this has severe consequences in contexts...... of volatile security. In this policy brief, Eric Hahonou argues that without complementary activities, the multiplication of border offices could even expand opportunities for corruption. Instead, security policy should focus on creating a culture of effectiveness including systematic and regular staff...... meetings, reporting, law implementation and sanctions as well as new modalities to reward border guards and other state agents. Because corruption is, to a large extent, embedded in the social norms of the users of public service in Niger, sensitisation among transporters, passengers and traders is crucial....

  9. WINNING HEARTS AND MINDS IN THE NAMIBIAN BORDER WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieneke Eloff de Visser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available During the Namibian border war, South African counterinsurgency doctrine acknowledged the importance of securing the allegiance and cooperation of the population. This article demonstrates that, in the operational zone, the responsibility of winning the hearts and minds of the Namibian people largely fell to the SADF (South African Defence Force. Although the SADF dedicated considerable resources to this task, these efforts were often at cross-purposes with those of institutions in the political, police and administrative domains. In addition, there was a lack of unity and purpose within the SADF. This article argues that lack of unity between and within the different domains undermined the effort at winning the hearts and minds of the Namibian population, and must at least partly have contributed to SWAPO´s victory in the 1989 elections.

  10. Regional Cooperation Efforts in the Mekong River Basin: Mitigating river-related security threats and promoting regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schmeier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of international rivers is often perceived as leading to conflicts or even water wars. However, as the development of the Mekong River shows, cooperation has not only prevailed in the last decades, but River Basin Organizations (RBOs, established to mitigate river-related conflicts and/or develop the river basin, have also contributed to the emergence of more general cooperation structures, mainly by creating spill-over effects in other issue-areas, bringing cooperation to policy fields beyond the river itself. This article assesses the contribution of the Mekong River Commission (MRC and the Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS to the sustainable development of the Mekong Region as well as to the promotion of regional cooperation in mainland South-East Asia in general. --- Die Entwicklung grenzüberschreitender Flüsse wird oft mit Konflikten oder gar Kriegen um Wasser assoziiert. Wie jedoch die Entwicklung im Mekong-Becken zeigt, waren die vergangenen Jahrzehnte nicht nur von Kooperation gezeichnet, sondern Flussbeckenorganisationen konnten außerdem dazu beitragen, weitreichendere Kooperationsstrukturen zu entwickeln, die sich auf andere Politikfelder ausdehnen. Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich mit dem Beitrag der Mekong River Commission (MRC und der Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung in der Mekong Region sowie zur Förderung allgemeiner regionaler Kooperation im Festländischen Südostasien.

  11. 77 FR 34068 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Secure Content...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Content Storage Association, LLC Notice is hereby given that, on May 3, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of...''), the Secure Content Storage Association, LLC (``SCSA'') has filed written notifications simultaneously... facilitate the distribution, use and sale of digital content while allowing content owners to prevent...

  12. “中巴经济走廊”建设及其跨境非传统安全治理%The Construction of the “China-Pakistan Economic Corridor” and its Cross-border Non-traditional Security Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢贵平

    2016-01-01

    The construction of the“China-Pakistan Economic Corridor” is an important part of China’s“One Belt One Road Initiative” strategic concept. It is of great significance to solve China’s economic development problems, safeguard na-tional economic security, promote the rapid development of the western China and maintain the stability of border area, es-tablish the land-based safe energy channel to dispel the worries of the energy security. It can help to accelerate the moderni-zation and secularization of China’s western border areas and related countries and regions, eradicate the breeding ground of the international “three forces”, dispel America and other hegemonic countries’ containment with oriental wisdom and en-hance China’s international influence, and so on. However, we should also keep the sober mind of various kinds of non-tra-ditional security threats brought by the construction of the CPEC, such as the terrorism, the geopolitical game of great pow-ers, the political and economic risks and the clashes of different cultures. The two countries, both China and Pakistan, need to make joint efforts with their neighboring countries even the international community to cooperate together. Thus it can be beneficial to construct the CPEC smoothly and lay the foundation for China’s “One Belt One Road Initiative”.%“中巴经济走廊”建设是中国“一带一路”战略构想的重要组成部分,对于破解中国经济发展难题、维护国家经济安全、促进西部地区快速发展、维护边疆稳定、建立陆上安全通道以消解能源安全之虑、推动中国西部边疆地区乃至相关国家和地区现代化、世俗化,消除国际“三股势力”滋生土壤,以东方智慧消解美国等霸权国家的围堵、遏制,提升中国国际影响等,具有重要意义。但是我们也必须清醒地认识到,中巴经济走廊建设也面临着恐怖主义、大国地缘政治博弈、政治、

  13. 粮食安全视域下的湖南粮食专业合作社发展研究%Discussion on the Development of Grain Cooperative Organizations in Views of Food Security in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹惠斌

    2012-01-01

    The connotation of food security includes total safety, structural safety, quality security, price security, ecological security and industrial security. Learning from the experience of foreign grain cooperatives to ensure food security, development of the food professional cooperatives in China helps to promote marketization, scalization, intensification and modernization of food production, which is the fundamental way to solve the issue of food security in China. The development of food professional cooperatives in Hunan, which is China's major grain producing areas, is faced with small -scale, poor land transfer, short chain, weakness of water conservancy infrastructure and financing difficulties, and needs to take appropriate measures to resolve and play a positive role in ensuring national food security of food professional cooperatives.%粮食安全的内涵包括总量安全、结构安全、质量安全、价格安全、生态安全和产业安全。借鉴国外粮食合作社保障粮食安全的经验,我国发展粮食专业合作社有利于促进粮食生产的市场化、规模化、集约化和现代化,是解决我国粮食安全问题的根本出路。湖南作为我国粮食主产区,其粮食专业合作社的发展面临着规模小、土地流转不畅、产业链短、农田水利基础设施薄弱及融资难等问题,需要采取相应措施加以解决以发挥粮食专业合作社在确保国家粮食安全中的积极作用。

  14. Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-16

    1980). 120 Mexican Government Press Release, “Crecimiento con Calidad : El Presidente Vicente Fox encabezará la cena de gala de la XI Cumbre Anual...particular class of cases to be of great public import , it is not unprecedented for it to require prompt review in the highest court of the land. As...development and deployment activity in the BSFIT account. However, it is important to note that other items, such as the deployment of cameras and

  15. Cyberspace security: How to develop a security strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Raggad, Bel G

    2007-01-01

    Despite all visible dividers, the Internet is getting us closer and closer, but with a great price. Our security is the price. The internatl. community is fully aware of the urgent need to secure the cyberspace as you see the multiplication of security standards and national schemes interpreting them beyond borders: ISO 15408, ISO 17799, and ISO 27001. Even though some countries, incl. the Security Big Six (SB6), are equipped with their security books and may feel relatively safe; this remains a wrong sense of security as long as they share their networks with entities of less security. The standards impose security best practices and system specifications for the development of information security management systems. Partners beyond borders have to be secure as this is only possible if all entities connected to the partnership remain secure. Unfortunately, there is no way to verify the continuous security of partners without periodic security auditing and certification, and members who do not comply should ...

  16. 东南亚航运通道安全合作机制研究%Research on ShiPPing ChanneL Security CooPeration Mechanism of Southeast Asia Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞儿; 左志维; 冯桂

    2015-01-01

    东南亚航运通道是国家能源等运输的关键路径,其利益攸关方形成了众多的安全合作机制。已有文献对安全合作机制的必要性、有效性和可行性进行了充分阐释,但对其困难性未有全面研究。为此,以马六甲海峡为例,从航运通道安全的定义和内涵入手,介绍现有的安全合作机制,并应用建构主义理论和新制度经济学方法探讨了合作机制的形成、集体行动的困境以及制度变迁的原因和趋势,提出新的安全合作机制。%The shipping channel of Malacca Strait is a critical path for energy transport. Stakeholders in the context of Southeast Asian shipping channel accomplish numerous security cooperation mechanism. Existing literatures explained a lot on the need for security cooperation mechanisms,effectiveness and feasibility,but its difficulty is not a comprehensive study. The Malacca Strait is taken as an example,starting from definition and connotation of shipping channel security,to describe existing security cooper_ation mechanisms. Constructivist theory and new institutional economics approach are applied to explore the formation of coopera_tive mechanisms,collective action dilemma and causes and trends of institutional change,and to promote a new security coopera_tion mechanism.

  17. 76 FR 57751 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Northern Border...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... activities supporting the homeland security mission of CBP focused on applying alternative approaches to... terrorist and criminal threats, CBP plans to implement a diversified approach to border security over the... Border Security Program. CBP will seek public input on these studies and will use them in agency...

  18. Border Crossings (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing Ports (NTAD 2015) are points of entry for land modes along the U.S. - Canadian and U.S.- Mexcian borders. The ports of entry are located in 15 states...

  19. Secure Cooperative Spectrum Sensing via a Novel User-Classification Scheme in Cognitive Radios for Future Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Future communication networks would be required to deliver data on a far greater scale than is known to us today, thus mandating the maximal utilization of the available radio spectrum using cognitive radios. In this paper, we have proposed a novel cooperative spectrum sensing approach for cognitive radios. In cooperative spectrum sensing, the fusion center relies on reports of the cognitive users to make a global decision. The global decision is obtained by assigning weights to the reports received from cognitive users. Computation of such weights requires prior information of the probability of detection and the probability of false alarms, which are not readily available in real scenarios. Further, the cognitive users are divided into reliable and unreliable categories based on their weighted energy by using some empirical threshold. In this paper, we propose a method to classify the cognitive users into reliable, neutral and unreliable categories without using any pre-defined or empirically-obtained threshold. Moreover, the computation of weights does not require the detection, or false alarm probabilities, or an estimate of these probabilities. Reliable cognitive users are assigned the highest weights; neutral cognitive users are assigned medium weights (less than the reliable and higher than the unreliable cognitive users’ weights; and unreliable users are assigned the least weights. We show the performance improvement of our proposed method through simulations by comparing it with the conventional cooperative spectrum sensing scheme through different metrics, like receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and mean square error. For clarity, we also show the effect of malicious users on detection probability and false alarm probability individually through simulations.

  20. Borders, Corridors, and Economics: The Keys to Stopping Cross Border Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    aspect of their organization. According to the book La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications for U.S. Mexican Security, La Familia came onto the scene in...La Familia recruits out of over a dozen rehabilitation clinics they operate. Once a potential recruit is clean they begin their training. The...Rep. Connie. Enhanced Border Security Act. Washington D.C., 2011. Grayson, George W. La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications For U.S.-Mexican Security

  1. 我国周边跨界油气管道运营安全威胁及对策%The Security Threats Faced by Cross-border Oil and Gas Pipeline Operations around China and the Countermea―sures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晨曦

    2015-01-01

    Four major onshore oil and gas transportation corridors have formed around China, including China-Central Asia natural gas pipeline (ABC line), China-Russia oil pipeline, China-Kaza-khstan oil pipeline and China-Myanmar oil and gas pipeline, and China-Russia natural gas pipeline at the east section and Chi-na-Central Asia natural gas pipeline (D line) are under construc-tion. The security of pipeline operations includes supplying and maintaining reasonable transportation costs and the implementa-tion of projects under construction. Its influencing factors include politics and diplomacy, security, economy, international laws, technology, natural geography and so on. We should eliminate the one-way dependence on transit countries, establish pipeline e-mergency maintenance mechanism, carry out preventative diplo-matic activities, and include pipeline security into regional coop-eration framework.%我国周边已形成中国-中亚天然气管道(ABC线)、中俄石油管道、中哈石油管道、中缅油气管道四大陆上油气运输通道,并在建中俄东段天然气管道和中国-中亚天然气管道(D线).管道运营安全包括稳定供应、维护合理运输成本和在建项目实施.其影响因素包括政治与外交、安全、经济、国际条法、技术及自然地理等.我国应改变对过境国单向依赖,建立管道应急维修机制,开展预防性外交,并将管道安全纳入区域合作框架.

  2. Migrant Farmworkers in the United States. Implementation of the Helsinki Accords. Briefings of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (July 20, 1992; October 9, 1992; February 19, 1993; March 1, 1993; April 8, 1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, Washington, DC.

    The Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) monitors and encourages human rights compliance by signatories of the Helsinki Final Act of 1975. Language pertaining to migrant workers is found in all major CSCE documents, and the examination of migrant farmworker issues represents part of the Commission's ongoing review of U.S.…

  3. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING EUROJUST'S CONTRIBUTION IN FIGHTING CROSS-BORDER CRIME IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion, MIHALCEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of the European Union enshrined in 67 alin.(1 (ex-art. 61 TCE and ex-art. 29 TUE of the consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union is to create a common European space of security and justice without internal frontiers, in which to ensure the free movement of people, corralated with appropriate measures on external border controls , asylum , immigration, and crime prevention and combating. This is a long term goal that requires active cooperation of Member States and multiple efforts by EU institutions. The institutional functioning practice has shown that the clasic forms of judicial cooperation do not have the ability to complete this objective and that is necessary to create specialized structures. In this context the First European institutional structure was established in 2002, a specialized agency of the European Union, named Eurojust, with the main objective to promote and improve coordination and cooperation between the judicial authorities of the Member States in the fight against serious cross-border crime affecting the European Union. Tasks of Eurojust and relations with other European bodies, particularly the Council and Commission are established by Decision 2002/187 / JHA amended by Decision 2009/426 / JHA Council of 16 December 2008 It is exercised by College Eurojust or through its national members.

  4. 75 FR 70937 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of Robinson International (USA) Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... been approved to gauge and accredited to test petroleum and petroleum products for customs purposes,...

  5. Integrated control of the South African border environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taute, BJE

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available security, trade and tourism. Control of the border environment is inherently a multi-departmental responsibility, requiring extensive communication and coordination across departments, agencies and provinces, and covering the whole of the South African...

  6. 75 FR 36663 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border Protection (COAC) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Committee on Commercial Operations of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (COAC) will meet Thursday, July...

  7. 75 FR 63847 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border Protection (COAC) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Committee on Commercial Operations of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (COAC) will meet on November...

  8. 75 FR 6214 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border Protection (COAC) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Committee on Commercial Operations of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (COAC) will meet on February...

  9. 75 FR 37823 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border Protection (COAC) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Committee on Commercial Operations of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (COAC) will meet on...

  10. 77 FR 76504 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Doc No: 2012-31280] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection [Docket No. USCBP-2012-0046] Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border Protection (COAC) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security...

  11. 76 FR 9808 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of Saybolt LP, as a Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of Saybolt LP, as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION... Services, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Suite 1500N, Washington,...

  12. Hungary-Ukraine energy cooperation and its contribution to the security of supply in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, P.

    2007-07-01

    The European Union (EU) will be increasingly dependant upon non-EU primary energy resources as domestic resources are depleted. Ukraine can play a pivotal role in future supply to the EU through its neighbor Hungary. Ukraine is the largest country in the world by volume of gas transit. Through its pipeline, the transit gas deliveries amount annually to 140 billion m{sup 3}, including 120 billion m{sup 3} to countries of Central and Western Europe. The country also has an under-utilized 750 kV electricity transmission line that reaches into Hungary. These assets make Eastern Hungary a key location for a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT). A plant of this type would be able to provide electricity generation for the Central Eastern Europe (CEE) region. The heat generated by the plant could also be used in local industrial and agricultural production, thereby providing an additional impetus for regional development initiatives. Hungary is open for foreign investment from the West, but also from investors in the Ukraine and Russia. The construction of the CCGT plant and the related regional development is a great opportunity to strengthen the cooperation of Ukraine, the EU and Hungary for the common benefit of the entire region. (auth)

  13. Managing US-Mexico "border health": an organizational field approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Dogrul, Julie

    2006-12-01

    During World War II Mexican and US health professionals and organizations constructed a transnational organizational field to manage the border's public health problems. Despite barriers to inter-organizational cooperation, including disparate administrative structures and North-South stratification, the field's transnational approach to health on the border has continued for 60 years. Using archival data to track changes in the number and types of organizations, this article argues that the field practitioners call "border health" reconfigured during the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) decade from an era of loosely organized professionals to a specialized bureaucracies era. This change brought new vitality to border health, with transnational ties increasing and diversifying, but has not weakened entrenched cross-border inequalities. The organizational history of the US-Mexico border health field demonstrates how macro-politics and inter-organizational stratification shape transnational public health problems.

  14. The Nature and Functions of European Political Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The political border limits a state’s territory and symbolizes the extent of a state’s power and ownership. Borders give integrity to the inner state territory which they enclose (the role of establishing national integrity and at the same time form an outer boundary segregating the state territory from the surrounding politicial entities (the segregation role. European borders are old and reflect the political history of an old continent. The last major border changes happened after World War II. Over the centuries borders were merely lines separating one territory from another. Such borders were understood as »frontiers«. Forming an effective barrier against enemies was the overriding function of borders. Many borders were fortified and further enhanced by means of various defensive systems. In the second half of the 20th century the character of political borders changed. They became a contact area between countries, nations and cultures. Contemporary European borders reflect the colourful history of an old continent. They are predominantely functional markers: they represent the political and juridical delimitation of territories, they mark economic barriers and show their defensive nature and reveal the extent of cultural contact. As a result of European integration processes, the nature of political borders has changed: instead of division, their integration role is brought to the fore. A united Europe is nevertheless still not a borderless Europe! The borders within the »Schengen-area« have retained their political and administrative functions, it is just that the customs and security checks at the borders have been removed. During the period of European integration, borderlines were stabilized in accordance with the 1974 Helsinki Agreement. But despite this we can still observe ongoing changes to state borders, particularly in areas of conflict such as the Balkan peninsula. It seems after all that the process of demarcation

  15. Borders, Violence, Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER DE LUCAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between violence, law and borders by analyzing both the violence at the borders and the violence of the borders. In both cases, the author states that violence exerted by means of law, as well as migratory and asylum policies, threaten the universal human rights of the most vulnerable people and cannot be seen as exercising the legitimate monopoly of force, resulting in the destruction of the Rule of Law.

  16. Security Guarantee of Agriculture Industry Based on the Improvement of Cooperative Legal Institution%基于完善农民专业合作社法律制度的农业产业安全保障

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文骄; 任大鹏

    2011-01-01

    对我国当前几种农业经营模式对产业安全的影响进行了分析,重点介绍了农民专业合作社在保障农业产业安全中的作用,主要有:组织化程度提高对产业安全的促进作用;通过合作社组织形成规模经济对产业安全的推动作用;合作社要素配置能力可以实现资源的充分利用;通过合作社完善产业链条从而保障产业安全.分析了目前我国农民专业合作社的发展困境:组织规模小、经济效益不高、组织运行不规范,表明制度缺失是造成困境的主要原因,提出了完善中关于联合社制度的建议,以期更好地保障农业产业安全.%Current status of several management models of the agriculture industry is introduced, as well as its impacts on industrial security. The management models are mainly the enterprise - like operation model, "enterprise + peasant household" model, small-scale peasants' operation model, and peasant specialized cooperative model. Functions of peasant specialized cooperative in ensuring the security of agriculture industry are introduced, which are enhancing the industrial security by organization degree, promoting the industrial security by scale economy formed by cooperative organizations, fully utilizing the resources by the factor allocation capability, and ensuring the industrial security by industrial chain improvement. Development predicaments of the peasant specialized cooperative at present are analyzed, such as small scale, poor economic benefits, and non-standard operation. Analysis shows that institutional absence is the main reason causing these predicaments. And suggestions on improving the cooperatives system in the law of the People's Republic of China on Peasants Specialized Cooperatives are put forward, in order to better ensure the security of agriculture industry

  17. Expeditionary Border Security Operations: Eliminating the Seams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    Makarenko , “Transnational crime and its evolving links to terrorism and instability,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, (November 2001) 22. 18 Hicks and...Trans Sahel (TS) region in Africa to determine the threat from what Tamara Makarenko calls the Crime-Terror-Continuum (CTC). The important aspect of the...28 Williams and Savona, 37. 29 Tamara Makarenko , “The Crime-Terror Continuum: Tracing the Interplay between Transnational Organized Crime and

  18. Border Security: A Conceptual Model of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    De Weijer associates dynamic social behaviors as a principle characteristic. Capra associates interdependencies. Gell-Mann associates feedback...for agents at the next level; a hierarchical perspective.15 Capra disagrees, and is careful to note that no building blocks exist in systems. Living...systems, Capra explains, are nodes of networks within networks, at all varying levels of the system, which, in turn, interact with other systems

  19. Border Security: The San Diego Fence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-23

    sector is located north of Tijuana and Tecate, Mexican cities with a combined population of 2 million people, and features no natural barriers to entry...more marked in the areas where fencing was constructed within San Diego sector. The USBP’s Imperial Beach and Chula Vista stations saw their...effects on (1) the Tijuana River National Estuarine Research and Reserve; (2) state and federally listed threatened and endangered species; (3) lands

  20. Russia's nuclear weapons dilemma: A cooperative approach to international security in the 1990s. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuchte, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    Although the threat of an East/West confrontation has diminished, additional concerns have been raised by new and unforeseen dangers to European and global security. Both the Russian Federation and the West want to mitigate the potential dangers arising from rapidly disintegrating control of a nuclear arsenal scattered throughout the former Soviet republics. These concerns have sparked a wide range of Western responses, most notably the U.S. decision to assist Russia with the construction of a nuclear weapons storage facility near the Siberian city of Tomsk 7. By assessing the threat of nuclear proliferation and the United State's interaction with the Russian Federation in resolving this nuclear dilemma, one can gain some measure of confidence about Moscow's reliability as a partner in nuclear arms control, disarmament, and in staunching proliferation. This paper concludes by comparing the emergent framework of international cooperation between Russia and the United States to the traditional Realpolitik balance of power policies that characterized the Cold War. The conclusion notes that the international community has started to adopt a more global view toward problem solving, but that obstacles still exist that can either slow such progress or cause a return to more traditional attitudes as seen during the Cold War. Because of this uncertainty, we must continue to press forward with new ideas and discard Cold War prejudices.

  1. Security in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    of volatile security. In this policy brief, Eric Hahonou argues that without complementary activities, the multiplication of border offices could even expand opportunities for corruption. Instead, security policy should focus on creating a culture of effectiveness including systematic and regular staff...

  2. Metodika ocenki prigranichnoj specializacii mezhregional'nyh vzaimodejstvij prigranichnyh regionov i rezul'taty pilotnoj ocenki [Cross-border Specialization of Interregional Interaction: Applying New Assessment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border cooperation as a type of interregional interaction is becoming a significant factor in the development of border regions. It can be viewed as a result of intensification of cross-border contacts and greater economic openness of cross-border regions. Thus, the roots of current development are quite easy to pinpoint. However, assessment of the impact of cross-border cooperation on the development of border regions appears to be a research challenge. In this paper, we offer an approach to the assessment of the role of cross-border cooperation in the system of interregional interaction between border regions. We present a system of indices to describe cross-border specialization of interregional interaction in certain fields, namely investment, international trade, tourism, and migration. Cross-border specialization determines the role of cross-border cooperation in regional external relations. The empiric data we have gathered is used to develop and implement a pilot assessment of cross-border specialization of interregional relations which are characteristic of the border regions of the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation. The article offers cross-border specialization indices for each border region of the Northwestern Federal District. With their help, we were able to identify the spheres of interaction with the highest degree of cross-border specialization, and in particular foreign investment and business activities with the participation of foreign capital.

  3. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    Using social network analysis, this paper studies the structure of trade networks that developed across West African borders. The first part aims to understand the centralization of cross-border trade networks. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find that dec......Using social network analysis, this paper studies the structure of trade networks that developed across West African borders. The first part aims to understand the centralization of cross-border trade networks. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find...... developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. In the second part, we study the spatial structure of trade networks and the influence of national borders on the development of social ties. The paper shows that the spatial form of trade networks is constrained by the historical...

  4. Identifying and characterizing transboundary aquifers along the Mexico-US border: An initial assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rosario; Lopez, Victoria; Eckstein, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The transboundary nature of water dividing Mexico and the United States (U.S.) transforms the entire border region into an instrument of cooperation, a source of conflict, a national security issue, and an environmental concern. Reasonable data collection and research analysis have been conducted for surface waters by joint governmental institutions and non-governmental bodies. However, with the exception of the U.S. Transboundary Assessment Act Program (TAAP) (focusing on the Hueco Bolson, Mesilla Bolson, San Pedro and Santa Cruz aquifers), there is no comparable research, institutional development, or assessment of transboundary groundwater issues on the frontier. Moreover, data collection and methodologies vary between the two countries, there is no broadly accepted definition of the transboundary nature of an aquifer, and available legal and policy frameworks are constrained by non-hydrological considerations. Hence, there is a conceptual and institutional void regarding transboundary groundwater resources between Mexico and the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to bridge this void and characterize transboundary aquifers on the Mexico-US border. It reviews existing international frameworks for identifying hydrological and social criteria that characterize an aquifer as transboundary. It then assesses data from both countries to propose where and which aquifers could be considered transboundary. Finally, the paper proposes an agenda for assessing Mexico-US transboundary aquifers as a means for improving groundwater management in the border region.

  5. Arctic Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Nils

    2013-01-01

    of the general security situation and to identify both the explicit and the implicit agendas of the primary state actors. The region contains all the ingredients for confrontation and conflict but the economical potential for all the parties concerned creates a general interest in dialogue and cooperation...

  6. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  7. Physical Layer Security for Cooperative Communication Network Using Stackelberg Game%协作通信中基于斯塔科尔伯格博弈的物理层安全分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨

    2012-01-01

    物理层安全不是利用传统的密钥加密,而是利用信道的传输特性使得合法的通信双方实现安全传输的方法.无线协作通信中节点行为对物理层安全的影响是至关重要的.本文应用斯塔科尔伯格博弈模型研究节点之间的利益,在中继自私的协作放大转发网络中,得到网络中节点之间的效用平衡的最优解存在条件,并提出一种分布式算法,找到网络平衡下的最优安全性能解.%Physical layer security is to make the network node to transmit the data in security and to maximize the security capaci-ty, instead of relaying on the traditional encryption methods. The node behavior's influence is crucial on physical layer security in cooperative wireless communication. The paper proposes a buyer/seller (Stackelberg) game over the cooperative wireless com-munication to study the utility function between nodes. In the amplify-forward cooperative network where the relay node is selfish, the equilibrium and the optimal security capacity is got. To analyze the game outcome, a distributed algorithm to find the optimal solution is constructed.

  8. 中俄应在稳定东北亚安全秩序上加强战略协作%China Should Strengthen Security Cooperation in Stabilizing the Security Order of Northeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海运

    2013-01-01

    Northeast Asia has close economic relations with China. It has a great influence upon China’s economy and it is a priority and frontier area where Russia carries out its strategies of marching into the Asia-Pacific region and its east region development. The peaceful rise of China and Russia is facing an increasingly serious security challenge:the United States“returns to Asia”and curbs the rise of China and Russia;Japanese right-wing forces grow in strengthen and their ambition for local hegemony swells;the nuclear crisis in N. Korea will possibly heats up at any time and the situation of the Korean Peninsula will possibly become instable at all times. As the partners of all-round strategic cooperation, China and Russia share common interests and common obligations in upholding the security and stability of Northeast Asia. Therefore, China and Russia should jointly deal with the strengthening of the military alliance between the United States and Japan, jointly uphold the austerity of a historical conclusion of the Second World War and jointly build a new pattern of security mechanism of Northeast Asia so as to protect the stability of the existing security order of Northeast Asia.%  东北亚与中国经济联系紧密,对中国经济影响突出。东北亚地区也是俄罗斯实施进军亚太、东部开发战略的重点前出地区。中国与俄罗斯的和平崛起在东北亚地区正面临日益严峻的安全挑战:美国“重返亚洲”,遏制中俄崛起;日本右翼势力壮大,地区霸权野心膨胀;朝核危机随时可能升温,半岛局势随时可能失稳。中俄作为“全面战略协作伙伴”,在维护东北亚地区安全稳定问题上利益与共、责任与共。因此,中俄应通过共同应对美日军事同盟的强化、共同维护二战历史结论的严肃性、共同架构新型东北亚安全机制,以维护东北亚现行安全秩序的稳定。

  9. ASEAN energy cooperation an increasingly daunting challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, F.

    2009-07-01

    energy appears to be an ideal area for cooperation: given the characteristics of these economies, and in particular their shared concerns with energy security, it seems logical for them to push for resource sharing and interconnecting so as to enhance security. Energy cooperation has indeed been on ASEAN's agenda for a long time and the recent rise in oil prices has no doubt rekindled interest in cooperative initiatives in the energy sector. However, an oft-heard criticism about ASEAN is that it tends to be often long on good intentions and relatively short on actions. The objective of the present paper is two-fold, first to survey and assess critically ASEAN's achievements in the area of energy cooperation, and secondly to examine the future prospects, as well as the limitations of further cooperation. In this context, the appropriate scope for further cooperation, in particular its extension beyond the borders of ASEAN, needs to be examined. The paper is organized in two parts. The first part provides a brief overview of the energy situation in ASEAN. The second part assesses the various cooperative initiatives undertaken by ASEAN and examines the opportunities and challenges associated with the extension of energy cooperation beyond the borders of ASEAN. (author)

  10. Regional Disparities along the Romanian-Hungarian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EGON NAGY

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the actual state and condition of territorial inequalities at the Romanian-Hungarian border region, which shows - at present - an evident advantage of the Hungarian side, from the point of view of complex socio-economical aspects. This advantage is especially outstanding for the Hungarian side in the field of infrastructural supply (drinking water, natural gas, and public sewage networks, but it is valid for some characteristics of human capital, too, (above all, with regard to the illiteracy rate and the proportion of highly skilled persons with bachelor degree. Despite these difficulties, these inequalities are not insurmountable and should not affect efficient cross-border cooperation between the two countries. This regional inventory facilitates the evaluation of the starting-point of this kind of cooperation and also depicts some aspects of the interregional cooperation of the four counties north of the Romanian-Hungarian border region which belong to the Carpathian Euroregion.

  11. The physical layer security performance of wireless network based on Cooperation%利用协作技术实现无线通信物理层安全的方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大维; 付晓梅; 张立

    2011-01-01

    The physical layer security performance uses the fading and noise of wireless network, to make the main channel secure communication,according to secrecy singal equivocation of main channel larger than the equivocation of wiretap channel. Adopting Decode and Forward may help secure communication in main channel even wiretap channel is better than main channel. Recent research just focuses main channel secure when the relay decodes received data correctly,regardless of the relay channels secure. A dynamic cooperative strategy is designed to forward the received data or Cooperative Jamming signal to achieve the relay channels secure on the premise of secure communication in main channel. In addition,nested code and cooperative jamming secure are discussed.%物理层安全技术是利用无线信道的衰落和噪声,使合法接收者获得保密信息的疑义度大于窃听者得到的保密信息的疑义度,实现安全传输.利用中继解码转发协作技术可以在窃听信道好于合法信道条件时,帮助主信道实现安全传输.现有研究只是考虑了中继解码正确转发的主信道安全性,而忽略了中继信道的安全性.本文研究了中继解码正确和不正确两种情形,满足主信道安全传输前提下的中继信道的安全性能,提出一种中继动态地选择转发接收到的数据或是发送协作拥塞以实现物理层安全的方法,并探讨了利用巢状码和随机拥塞码的安全性能.

  12. Border cells versus border-like cells: are they alike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driouich, Azeddine; Durand, Caroline; Cannesan, Marc-Antoine; Percoco, Giuseppe; Vicré-Gibouin, Maité

    2010-09-01

    Roots of many plants are known to produce large numbers of 'border' cells that play a central role in root protection and the interaction of the root with the rhizosphere. Unlike border cells, border-like cells were described only recently in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassicaceae species and very little is known about the functional properties of border-like cells as compared with 'classical' border cells. To stimulate discussion and future research on this topic, the function of border cells and the way border-like cells are organized, maintained, and possibly involved in plant protection is discussed here.

  13. Cross border relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    the borders in the context of modernity such as will also be discussed. In the backdrop of polarisation of populations into us and them, still there are increasing trends towards intermarriage, which challenge the idea of who belongs together and earlier taboos against such mixing. The symposia will explore...... dynamics of these relations - in the intimate partnerships, friendships across the borders, children of mixed parentage...

  14. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    the borders long before the politicians supported and pushed for further cooperation. Energy efficiency was addressed by a portfolio of activities ranging from knowledge-sharing, public campaigns, labelling and standardisation of products. The need to address environmental degradation was inspired by the UN...... officials. With the consolidation of Nordic Energy Research in 1999, the cooperation benefitted from having an institution that exclusively could focus on Nordic energy policy issues and deliver research-based decision support to decision makers in the Nordic energy sector....

  15. The Catalytic Factor of the Sino-Japanese Security Dilemma: The New 1997 Defense Guidelines for U.S.-Japan Defense Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    79 Francis Fukuyama and Kongdan Oh, The U.S.-Japan Security Relationship after the Cold War (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1993...8. 80 Fukuyama and Oh, The U.S.-Japan Security Relationship after the Cold War, 12. 81 Japan Defense Agency, Defense of Japan 1992, 51. 30...security strategy. 82 Fukuyama and Oh, The U.S.-Japan Security Relationship after the Cold War, 13

  16. Secure Borders: An Arrival Zone Counterdrug National Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    46; Amparo Trejo, “Mexican Drug Lords Seeking New Cartel: Sources Detail Meeting of 5 Major Groups,” The Washington Post, 9 April 2001, sec. A, p...Hezbollah, Feds Say." Harrisburg (PA) Patriot News , 2 September 2002, sec. A1, p.1. Trejo, Amparo . “Mexican Drug Lords Seeking New Cartel

  17. EUROPEAN UNION INITIATIVES IN TACKLING MIGRATION AND ORGANIZED CRIME AT ITS NEW EASTERN BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Pop

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The EU migration strategy in relation to its new eastern neighbours has started to take shape. Among other things, it includes: applying the Global Approach to Migration to the eastern regions neighbouring the EU; securing the necessary funding for migration management through the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI and the Thematic Programme for the cooperation with third countries in the areas of migration and asylum; promoting mobility partnerships and circular migration; concluding short-term visa facilitation and readmission agreements; and opening the first Common Visa Application Centre in the capital city of the Republic of Moldova. In addition, the EU has improved its regional focus by the help of the Black Sea Synergy European Commission Communication and extended for 2008-2009 the mandate of its Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM, which is set to tackling irregular migration, drugs and cigarettes smuggling, and stolen cars and guns trafficking.

  18. Mitigating the Exploitation of U.S. Borders by Jihadists and Criminal Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Steinmetz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the events of September 11, 2001, the U.S. Government began improving security in large population centers and near potential highvalue terrorist targets. Included in these efforts was the development of a more robust border security program, with an emphasis on reducing the threat of terrorist infiltration at America's borders. However, nearly a decade after 9/11, terrorism and organized crime continue to pose significant threats to the United States. As many of these threats emanate from other nations, improved border security helps mitigate these threats. This article summarizes known terrorist activity along the U.S. northern and southern borders, and highlights the threat of organized crime in the southwest border region. Furthermore, it analyzes current border security efforts and identifies key deficiencies in the system. Finally, it provides a tool kit for future border security endeavors that center on developing a larger but more coordinated and nimble border security force, driven by intelligence, and supported by proven technologies and tactical infrastructure.

  19. SOME ASPECTS OF THE REGIONAL COOPERATION IN THE BALKANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Gospodinova Grozeva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 21st century, the political role of the state borders in the Balkans has changed. Gradually they began to transform from barriers into zones of bilateral and multilateral cooperation. The common European integration includes the creation and development of Euro-regions. Within the context of reorganization of the new European space, geopolitical importance of South-East Europe has significantly upgraded. This fact reflects on the interests of the international community in security and development of this region. Despite that the Balkans constitute an indispensable part of the European continent, their incorporation into the new European architecture has been particularly difficult and problematic. They emerge as the most volatile and least integrated European region. There are significant variations among the countries concerning their territory, number of population, as well as the rate of the economic changes. The main forms of regional cooperation should be concentrated on the domains of transport, energy and communication infrastructure, trade and economic cooperation, environment and security. From this point of view, the economic growth and increase of living standard are the most important problems for all Balkan countries.

  20. Securities and banking: bridges and walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between banking and securities activities in the light of financial market developments (securitisation, institutionalization of investment, emergence of complex financial instruments, conglomeration and consolidation, with particular reference to Europe. The enhanced links between banking and securitiesbusinesses have generated increased and new risks to financial institutions. However, banks' stability remains crucial for the stability of the financial system as a whole, because of their unique role as provider of liquidity. The paper also addresses the implications of the banking-securities combination for regulatory and supervisory arrangements. The exporting of prudential requirements traditional in banking (such as capital ratios into the securities field, and the importing of securities regulation (such as transparency requirements into the banking sector, can be deemed mutually beneficial. As regards supervision, there is a need to monitor the continued effectiveness of the current framework. This entails strengthening co-operation both at the national level and on a cross-border basis among sectoral supervisors in the micro-prudential field, and between them and central banks in the macro-prudential field.

  1. Terrorists, Geopolitics and Kenya’s Proposed Border Wall with Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon John Cannon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Addressing border security appears to be a plausible approach for states that suffer from terrorism. Kenya’s border wall is to keep terrorists out of Kenya. Utilizing a comparative approach, this paper explores the efficacy of border walls, particularly Kenya’s wall with Somalia. Findings show that walls rarely accomplish stated goals and have unintended consequences. In Kenya’s case, it may reignite border disputes and separate communities. The success of Kenya’s border wall is low given the high levels of corruption and the fact that walls have been demonstrated to only be as good as the people who guard them.

  2. Borders, Risks, Exclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Muller

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the border is evaluated as a fold of power relations in which sovereign capacity and competence is marshaled in the furtherance of illiberal practices. Drawing from interview data of officials in various agencies engaged in the US-Canada and particularly the Windsor-Detroit corridor, the argument is made that the border is a site for both negative and positive power, for insertion and subtraction, and that surveillance and compliance regimes are ‘run’ not so much in the furtherance of a precautionary or preemptive end-state, but as intermediate values that are sufficiently malleable by an invigorated sovereign, expressed in the residue of discretion in and between the many border agencies.

  3. Transboundary aquifers along the Canada–USA border: Science, policy and social issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rivera, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Study region: Canada–USA border. Study focus: Since 2005, Canada has followed international developments in transboundary groundwater issues in cooperation with its southern neighbor the United States (USA...

  4. The role of the regions in border dynamics in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiderio Fernández Manjón

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the role that the regions have played during this past half century, and which they continue to play now, in the changes that are occurring along the borders between European states and in the webs of interests that are woven as a consequence ofthis evolution. The mapping of borderlines associated with people endowed with singularities is a delicate, complex task, as demonstrated by several paradigmatic examples: the creation of new borders (Flanders and the profound modification of historical orders (the canton of Jura. The difficulty may lie in approval processes and in the appropriate conjugation of interests of other peoples and minorities existing within them. There are several Europeaninstitutions which are contributing to deeply modifying the imaginary of international borders. On the one hand, the Council of Europe, which fosters, among other things, cross-border cooperation and inter-regional cooperation. Secondly, the European Union institutions havetaken many ideas from the Council of Europe and made them their own: the Committee of the Regions and cross-border cooperation. In addition, these institutions force the unitary states to establish a territorial division taking into account the income levels of the population.

  5. 新外交视域下我国社会保险国际合作的发展路径%Development Path of Social Security's International Cooperation in Our Country under the View of New Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶璐

    2015-01-01

    As an important part of the new economic diplomacy strategy, the international cooperation of social security helps to promote the long-term development of labor migration. With the rapid development of international business, the con-traction of social security between our country and others' is increasingly highlights; this article focuses on the main problems which is slower process in international cooperation, simplification of the insurance project and the disappointed implementation effect. And put forward corresponding recommendations on the basis of detailed analysis of the cause, such as making full use of economic leverage, and perfecting the relevant laws and regulations, in order to promote further development of the interna-tional cooperation of social security in our country.%作为新经济外交战略的重要组成部分,社会保险国际合作有助于促进劳动力境外就业的长远发展。随着我国对外经济合作的快速发展,我国社会保险与其他国家的矛盾日益凸显,我国社会保险国际合作存在进程缓慢、合作的险种单一且执行效果差的问题,必须充分利用经济杠杆、完善相关法律法规,以推动我国社会保险国际合作向纵深发展。

  6. Cross border relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    in which they were born. These movements also imply human relationships across the borders in different contexts with various cultural, psychological consequences. Relationships of members of migrant groups with each other, and also with the host community have important implications on the health and well......-being of not just the migrant population, but also the host communities. These relationships represent the microcosm of societal and cultural integration and cohesion at the broader levels. Studies of how and how well migrants, especially youth handle migration indicate transformations in paradigms as both...... dynamics of these relations - in the intimate partnerships, friendships across the borders, children of mixed parentage...

  7. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  8. Security Policy and Developments in Central Asia : Security Documents Compared with Security Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the security policy of the Central Asian (CA) states, by comparing theory (security documents) with practice (the actual security challenges). The lack of CA regional (security) cooperation and authoritarian rule puts political and economic stability at stake. The internal and

  9. Security Policy and Developments in Central Asia : Security Documents Compared with Security Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the security policy of the Central Asian (CA) states, by comparing theory (security documents) with practice (the actual security challenges). The lack of CA regional (security) cooperation and authoritarian rule puts political and economic stability at stake. The internal and

  10. Cross-border regional innovation system integration: An analytical framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi; Williams, Allan

    2017-01-01

    The importance of inter-regional cooperation and innovation are widely accepted in the development rhetoric of the European Union. The highlighted importance of both themes in the context of borderlands has recently led to the coining of a new concept, cross-border regional innovation system....... However, little attention has been given to the empirical analysis of the concept. This paper suggests a framework for empirically validating the concept by examining the levels of integration between cross-border regions. The outcome is a proposed framework can be operationalized by measurable indicators...... of cross-border cooperation in a regional innovation system setting. The framework was further tested with illustrative empirical cases that demonstrate its feasibility....

  11. Modelling cross-border regional network for innovative development

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Tumbas; Predrag Matkovic; Marton Sakal

    2013-01-01

    The article provides detailed presentations of entities and functions of the Cross-border Regional network for innovative development, the manner and methods of its functioning, and its significance for enhancing university-industry cooperation in innovative development. Special attention was devoted to proper implementation of the Triple Helix concept in the development of an innovative network.

  12. Modelling cross-border regional network for innovative development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Tumbas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article provides detailed presentations of entities and functions of the Cross-border Regional network for innovative development, the manner and methods of its functioning, and its significance for enhancing university-industry cooperation in innovative development. Special attention was devoted to proper implementation of the Triple Helix concept in the development of an innovative network.

  13. 77 FR 25488 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Federally Integrated Communications System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Federally Integrated Communications... Coast Guard is announcing its intent to enter into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement... Register (73 FR 3316). Cooperative Research and Development Agreements Cooperative Research and...

  14. From Borders to Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2009-01-01

    upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped.  This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...

  15. Biometric Borders and Counterterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    34Transforming Travel and Border Controls: Checkpoints in the Open Society," Government Information Quarterly 22, no. 4 (01 October 2005), 594-625, http...the Open Society." Government Information Quarterly 22, no. 4 (1 October 2005): 594– 625. Hsu, Spencer S. "U.S. Preparing to Drop Tracking of

  16. Borders of Discourse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Janni Berthou

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to discuss a fundamentally different approach to discourse analysis by using a pragmatic point of departure for understanding use of language. Using an empirical example from a construction project it is discussed how material as well as societal dimensions of collaboration...... functions as borders for transformations of discourse – and these dimensions are most often intertwined...

  17. Crossing borders for creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Jacobs; Ewan Lentjes

    2012-01-01

    The Organza project was proud to present "Crossing Borders for Creativity". This publication is a reflective record of the Organza project. The second chapter examines What Organza was all about. It is a concise analysis of the process, starting from the regional profile descriptions, it points at

  18. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...

  19. The role of tourism in the development of border regions in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID Lóránt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the changes of regimes in Central Europe, research into border regions has been increasingly adverted. However, various suggestions of researchers came into light on the definition and role of borders. Prior to the changes of regimes, the development of cross-border tourism was counterworked by administrative tools resulting in settlements in border regions becoming peripheral. Negative effects emerged mostly at border sections demarcated between countries either not able to join (for some reason or not willing to gain access to the European Union and certain member states (occurring at the Ukrainian, Serbian, Belarusian and, in some cases, the Croatian border. In the field of cross-border cooperation, within the tourism industry, a west-to-east and north-to-south gradient can be detected that, by the present logic, can be explained by the changes of economic circumstances and the succession of European Union accession.

  20. Environmental Threats to Security, Stability, and U.S. Interests in Southern Africa: Opportunity Knocks - Time for a Comprehensive Region Defense Environmental International Cooperation and Environmental Security Assistance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    the satisfaction of all stakeholders”).9 The 2000 Mozambique floods, for instance, originated in cross-border shared basins where poor disaster...analysis of ecological , socio-economic, and demographic factors the Council identified southern Africa as a potential climate change hotspot where...top 10 worldwide for victims killed or affected per 100,000 inhabitants: Malawi 37,376; Zambia 10,666; Mozambique 7,461.16 Mozambique has also been

  1. Perspectives of the social and economic cooperation among the SCO member states in condition of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisher Fayzievich Rasulev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the main directions of the social and economic cooperation among SCO member states in trade, economic and investment spheres, and transport-communication potential of the region. On the example of The Republic of Uzbekistan, it is discussed the priorities of thesocial and economic development, such as the modernization of industry and competitiveness, theincrease of investment, the development of the transport system, as well as the project of a free industrial economic zone in the context of the SCO member states. The author shows that the equal and mutually beneficial cooperation in the SCO framework in various areas of economic cooperation has to be developed, which in fact confirms the expectations of its role as a key element of strengthening of the economic security and stability, and the harmonization of the integration processes in the region. Also, the articleexamines thelegal framework of cooperation in the SCO framework, such as the Treaty on thelong-term friendship and cooperation of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, which establishes the principles of sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability of the borders of the SCO countries, peaceful resolution of differences and disputes, as well as mutual respect for the choice of the path of political, economic, social and cultural development, according to national circumstances of each state.

  2. POLISH-RUSSIAN COOPERATION OF POMORSKIE PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina GOMULKA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Russian Cooperation of Pomorskie Province commenced in 1999 and was based on the intergovernmental agreements. The new agreement, executed between the authorities of the Pomeranian Province and Kaliningrad Oblast in 2002, provided for cooperation in many areas. The contacts between the partners were dominated by economic cooperation. The Polish–Russian cooperation stopped with Polish accession to the Schengen zone. Cooperation resumed when in 2011 and agreement on small cross-border traffic was signed and then ratified in 2012. 

  3. Healthy Border 2020 Embassy Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission launched the Healthy Border 2020 at the Mexican Embassy in the United States on June 24, 2015. This new initiative aims to strengthening what was accomplished on the previous plan of action entitled Healthy Border 2010.

  4. Nuclear installations in the baltic sea region and the stake holders cooperation: a crucial step towards energy security, environmental sustainability and political stability in the region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, M.; Mandere, N.; Olsson, L. [Lund Univ., Centre for Sustainability Studies (LUCSUS) (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    Radiation hazards are trans-boundary. The prevention of accidents must be managed locally. But the awareness, preparedness, and the responsibilities in the case of emergencies must be managed at the local and regional level, and must rely on close interaction between the local and regional levels. The Baltic Sea Region contains over 40 nuclear reactors contributing to energy security, but also posing a potential threat to human, environmental, and political security. The aim of this paper is to integrate the four fields of security: health, environment, energy, and political by analysing awareness, preparedness responsibility and decision making related to nuclear installations. With increasing political, economical, cultural and physical (in term of energy infrastructure) integration, the region needs to take a comprehensive approach to create adequate structure for managing risks and thereby promote security. (authors)

  5. The financing of cooperative businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ispizua

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Concern for adequate funding, both at birth and consolidation of the cooperative enterprise, has been, is and will be a constant concern in the cooperative world. So, have emerged in the legal field, a number of financial instruments of various kinds: as equity securities or special interests that seek to cover traditional financing gaps.

  6. Development of Indonesia-Papua New Guinea border, Muara Tami District, Jayapura City through agropolitan concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagiyo, A.; Dwiproborini, F.; Sari, N.

    2017-06-01

    The border of RI-PNG Muara Tami district is located on the eastern part of Jayapura city, which has agricultural potential. The past paradigm put the border as the backyard caused underdevelopment in border RI-PNG Muara Tami district, so that needed acceleration development through agropolitan concept. The purpose of the research is to define the aspect of physical, social, economic and border security to support agropolitan concept in border RI-PNG Muara Tami district. The analytical research method are border interactionan analysis, border security analysis, land capability analysis, land availability analysis, schallogram analysis, institutional analysis, leading comodity analysis (LQ and Growth Share), agribusiness linkage system analysis, accessibility analysis and A’WOT analysis. The result shown that mobilization from PNG to Muara Tami district could increase the economic opportunities with agricultural based. Border security of RI-PNG Muara Tami district is vulnerable, yet still condusive to mobilization. There is 12.977,94 Ha potensial land for agricultural (20,93%). There are six leading commodities to developed are rice, watermelon, banana, coconut, areca nut and cocoa. The border of RI-PNG Muara Tami district is ready enough to support agropolitan concept, but still have problems in social and economy aspect.

  7. Secure portal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee

    2007-09-01

    There is a need in security systems to rapidly and accurately grant access of authorized personnel to a secure facility while denying access to unauthorized personnel. In many cases this role is filled by security personnel, which can be very costly. Systems that can perform this role autonomously without sacrificing accuracy or speed of throughput are very appealing. To address the issue of autonomous facility access through the use of technology, the idea of a ''secure portal'' is introduced. A secure portal is a defined zone where state-of-the-art technology can be implemented to grant secure area access or to allow special privileges for an individual. Biometric technologies are of interest because they are generally more difficult to defeat than technologies such as badge swipe and keypad entry. The biometric technologies selected for this concept were facial and gait recognition. They were chosen since they require less user cooperation than other biometrics such as fingerprint, iris, and hand geometry and because they have the most potential for flexibility in deployment. The secure portal concept could be implemented within the boundaries of an entry area to a facility. As a person is approaching a badge and/or PIN portal, face and gait information can be gathered and processed. The biometric information could be fused for verification against the information that is gathered from the badge. This paper discusses a facial recognition technology that was developed for the purposes of providing high verification probabilities with low false alarm rates, which would be required of an autonomous entry control system. In particular, a 3-D facial recognition approach using Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis is described. Gait recognition technology, based on Hidden Markov Models has been explored, but those results are not included in this paper. Fusion approaches for combining the results of the biometrics would be the next step in realizing

  8. Distance, Borders, and Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skillicorn, David; Walther, Olivier; Zheng, Quan

    is a combination of the physical geography of the target environment, and the mental and physical cost of following a seemingly random pattern of attacks. Focusing on the distance and time between attacks and taking into consideration the transaction costs that state boundaries impose, we wish to understand what......” of North and West Africa that depicts the permeability to violence. A better understanding of how location, time, and borders condition attacks enables planning, prepositioning, and response....

  9. Measuring Illegal Border Crossing Between Ports of Entry: An Assessment of Four Promising Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    substantive contributions to this document. ix Abbreviations CBP U.S. Customs and Border Protection DHS U.S. Department of Homeland Security EMIF Encuesta ...migrants in northern Mexican border communities called Encuesta sobre Migración en la Frontera Norte de México (EMIF), which is collected at

  10. 76 FR 2917 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... (CBP Form I-68). This is a proposed extension of an information collection that was previously approved... Landing Permit. OMB Number: 1651-0108. Form Number: CBP Form I-68. Abstract: The Canadian Border...

  11. U.S. Customs and Border Protection Import Trade Trends - FY 2010, Year-End Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — U.S. Customs and Border Protection is pleased to present the Import Trade Trends Report. This report is produced semiannually and features graphical analysis and...

  12. U.S. Customs and Border Protection Import Trade Trends - FY 2011, Year-End Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — U.S. Customs and Border Protection is pleased to present the Import Trade Trends Report. This report is produced semiannually and features graphical analysis and...

  13. U.S. Customs and Border Protection Import Trade Trends -FY2012, Year-End Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — U.S. Customs and Border Protection is pleased to present the Import Trade Trends Report. This report is produced semiannually and features graphical analysis and...

  14. Languaging the Borders of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Kramsch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging from a discomfort with the blind spots encountered within and across theorizations of language and space in the field of human geography, in this article, we argue for “making space” for conceptualizations that speak from and through the everyday territories of migrants in Europe today. Inspired by a range of writers thinking postcolonially and multi/trans-lingually, the authors draw on their own embodied migrant experience to argue for re-envisioning Europe’s borders through multiple languaging practices. “Languaging”, in this view, takes linguistic practices in a migrant context as an inherently prosthetic activity, whereby any dominant, national host language is inevitably subject to the subterranean rumblings of all the languages a migrant brings with her on her global journeys. Conceived as being saturated with prosthetic “absence(s”, migrant languaging practices rework cultural geography’s bounded, inward-looking, and security-fixated understanding of the language/territory nexus, the better to open a vital space for re-envisioning language’s everyday territories as sites for translational solidarity and becoming.

  15. Russia and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Some Elements of Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Konarovsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The new geopolitical reality that resulted from the dissolution of the USSR created the conditions for the establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO in 2001. The successful settlement of border issues between Russia and Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan and Tajikistan as well as with China also facilitated the process. With Uzbekistan joining the “Shanghai Five,” a new regional organization emerged. The SCO’s priorities were in the security sphere and the fight against the proliferation of drugs, illegal migration and organized crime, given the requirements of the times and the specific regional situation (including that in Afghanistan. As one of the active founders, Russia has always taken a leading role in the SCO’s organizational, political and legal formation, including setting specific trends and forms of cooperation, taking common measures, and holding events. During its presidency in 2008–2009 and 2014–2015, Moscow made additional efforts to strengthen cooperation among the SCO members in meeting new regional security challenges and to agree on coordinated positions on the key issues on the international and regional agenda. To increase the SCO’s credibility and political significance, Moscow emphasized its expansion, particularly with regard to the Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt. With global political and economic development growing more complicated, in order to revitalize Russia’s role in the SCO it is necessary to strengthen cooperation with China. The strategic character of bilateral relations reaffirmed at the Russian-Chinese summit in the summer of 2016 set a solid foundation.

  16. Cross-border delivery of public services : How useful are EGTCs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaansoo, Annika; Groenendijk, Nico

    2014-01-01

    The European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC) is a European legal instrument designed to facilitate and promote cross-border, transnational and interregional cooperation. It was introduced in 2006 to enable public authorities of various Member States to team up and deliver joint services,

  17. Crossing borders : een kader voor het tot ontwikkeling brengen van grensoverschrijdende samenwerking in watermanagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, van der Jan

    2011-01-01

    Cross-border cooperation as referred to in this research may have different underlying motives. Depending on the motive, there usually is an organisation or a person who feels responsible, or is made responsible for the development of the cooperation. In pursuance of the terminology and current prac

  18. Energy Security and Climate Change in the European Union,China and Latin American Relationships:Major Challenges and Areas of International Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria; Cristina; Silva; Parejas

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses the subject in both ecological and political perspectives based on a most comprehensive,authoritative and updated bibliography.Hence,Latin America and the Caribbean(LAC) is as much diversified as there are sub-regions and regional organizations in geopolitical and geo-economical terms and often dialectic regarding energy security,climate change and LAC ties with Europeans and China and so is the tripartite relations with the rest of the world so far as energy security and climate cha...

  19. Illegal Indo -Burmese Immigration with the Perspective of Traditional Border Security%传统边界安全视角下的印缅非法移民问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦健锋; 杨谨瑜

    2016-01-01

    印度和缅甸独立以来,两国间虽未出现过大规模的移民潮,但非法越境而居的现象却很平常。这种非法移民有着与传统移民不同的特点,它与国内政治环境及边界地区历史、地理环境密切相关,难民既是非法移民的主体又同反政府活动或民族自治运动有着牵连。印缅非法移民及其带来的后续问题,干扰了印缅双边关系的发展。在对待两国非法移民问题上,印度和缅甸采取了有别于传统方法的策略,并由此对两国关系和边境局势产生了影响。%Large -scale immigration has never occurred between India and Myanmar since they declared their independences.Howev-er,the phenomenon that people from both counties illegally immigrated to the other and lived there is common.Illegal immigration has different features from the traditional immigration.It is closely related to domestic political circumstances as well as history and geogra-phy environment of border areas.Most of the refugees are the illegal immigrants and deeply implicated in anti -government activities and national autonomy movements.Illegal immigration and its aftermath have disturbed the development of the Indo -Burmese relation-ship.In dealing with the issue,India and Myanmar adopted the strategies different from the traditional ones,which have influences on the bilateral relationships and border situation.

  20. Atmospheric Science Without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan

    2016-04-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  1. Cardiology without borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Wolk

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cardiovascular disease takes place in a border-free world. The challenge at the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and anywhere else in the world is to hold patient care above the artificial barriers raised by geopolitical issues. Fundamentally, the goal of ACC members or of any cardiology societies in the world is to provide excellent patient care. Cardiovascular disease is essentially the same throughout the world. Where there are minor variations among individuals, as clinicians we find priceless opportunity to learn. Expanding- rather contracting -our experience base helps us as individuals to realize our best potential as practitioners.

  2. The Fight against Terrorism and Cross-Border Crime in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora-Ioana BĂLAN-RUSU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Providing an area of freedom, security and justice, an objective assumed by the European Union can only be achieved under conditions that ensure an improvement of judicial cooperation activity in criminal matters. The Council Framework Decision 2008/615/JHA of 23 June 2008 is the framework normative act that rules the Member States' cooperation in the fight against terrorism and cross-border crime. This paper is a review of the European legislative act, with critical remarks and it represents the sequel of these types of examinations, previously published. The research results consist of the presentation of some critical observations regarding the skills of the agents operating in the territory of another Member State rather than in the country from where they come, terms of keeping the data that regards people, the need to take in the records the judicial persons and the need for establishing separate accounts that would regard the natural and legal persons from other countries that are not members of the European Union. The relevant conclusions highlight the usefulness of European legislative act as a whole and the need to complete it with new provisions. The work is useful both for theorists and practitioners in the field, the essential contribution consisting of the formulation of critical remarks and sustained proposals de lege ferenda.

  3. 77 FR 52753 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2012 East Coast Trade Symposium: “Expanding 21st Century...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2012 East Coast Trade Symposium: ``Expanding 21st Century Global Partnerships'' AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...

  4. UNESCO Without Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was established in 1945 with twin aims: to rebuild various institutions of the world destroyed by war, and to promote international understanding and peaceful cooperation among nations. Based on empirical and historica...... impact. The book will also appeal to practitioners, especially those who conduct research on or work in post-conflict societies....

  5. Straddling the border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    militarized international disputes with neighbouring Malaysia in the early 1960s, and in subsequent military co-operative ‘anti-communist’ ‘counter-insurgency’ efforts by the two states in the late 1960–1970s. This paper brings together facets of national belonging and citizenship within a borderland context...

  6. Fascism without Borders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salvador, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    ... Wissenschaftsförderung and Freie Universität Berlin, offered important insights into various aspects of the study of transnational fascism and diverse forms of connections and co-operation between fascist movements and regimes in Europe between 1918 and 1945...

  7. A Voice of the US Southwestern Border: The 2012 “We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future” Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah McC. Heyman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 2012, a diverse group of US residents living near the US-Mexico border met in El Paso, Texas for a conference entitled, We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future.  This paper describes a vision for the US-Mexico border by diverse border residents that is at odds with the widespread view of the border as a threat to the United States. These border residents viewed their region as a set of human communities with rights, capacities, and valuable insights and knowledge. They embraced an alternative vision of border enforcement that would focus on “quality” (dangerous entrants and contraband over “quantity” (mass migration enforcement.  They called for investments in the functionality and security of ports of entry, rather than in between ports of entry.  They noted the low crime rate in US border cities, and examined how policies of not mixing local law enforcement with federal immigration enforcement contributed to this achievement. They saw the border region as the key transportation and brokerage zone of the emerging, integrated North American economy. In their view, the bilingual, bicultural, and binational skills that characterize border residents form part of a wider border culture that embraces diversity and engenders creativity. Under this vision the border region is not an empty enforcement zone, but is part of the national community and its residents should enjoy the same constitutional and human rights as other US residents. The conference participants emphasized the necessity and value of accountability and oversight of central government enforcement operations, and the need for border communities to participate in federal decision-making that affects their lives. 

  8. 以情报为先导的边境安全与跨境合作——以欧盟、东南欧为例%Intelligence -led Border Security and Transnational Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐桂红

    2012-01-01

    At present, the organized crime becomes more and more ridden. How to efficiently fight against and pre- vent crime is a problem with which all the countries are faced. The fast development of technology has provided the criminals with technical support in committing crimes, which makes it difficult to track down them. Crime activities, particular transnational crimes have brought potential safety hazards to every nation. One of the main tasks of the concerned bodies is to make use of the limited intelligence to crack down the criminals, but due to the confidentiality of the intelligence, the competent institutions would not like to share it with others. However, the practice of the EU and the Southeast European Co - operative Initiative have shed light on how to share intelligence with other countries on condition that this sharing does not do harm to the interest of each country.%在有组织犯罪日益猖獗的今天,如何有效打击、预防犯罪的发生是各国都面临的严峻问题。科学技术的发展也使犯罪分子获得了技术上的支持,使得各国在追踪犯罪分子方面变得更为艰难。犯罪活动,特别是跨境犯罪给世界各国的边境安全带来了诸多隐患。如何利用有限的情报高效的打击跨境犯罪,以实现边境安全是有关机构工作的主要任务之一。由于情报的机密性,各国主管机构不愿将其与他人共享,从而使得国家间的情报共享壁垒重重。而欧盟各国以及东南欧合作中心的实践给了各执法机构诸多启示。这些启示说明,在不影响国家利益的前提下,实现情报共享,进而实现以情报为先导的边境安全与跨境合作是可能的。

  9. Divided we fall … or rise? Tajikistan–Kyrgyzstan border dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matveeva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Kyrgyzstan–Tajikistan border remains one of the last undefined frontiers in the Commonwealth of Independent States, where the governments are reluctant to act against the wishes of their border communities and force delimitation solutions that may cause social protests. Uncertainty of territorial arrangements persists; however, the era of commonality and interdependence may be at its end due to the establishment of a border as a means of spatial control. Border drawing reflects the divergent development trajectories of the new states, seeking to break out of an interdependence pattern. Borderlands’ interactions become more conflictual. Generation change and a loss of common language work to widen the inter-communal gap. Ethnicity and identity factors grew in significance as association with the nation-states increased, and a border expresses a symbol of nationhood in this paradigm. Crucially, a border justifies a security regime, reinforced by international assistance policies, to project power over the territory. Actions of security structures cause grievances but also signify a protective arm of the state, a role that the border communities appreciate, themselves acting as a collective border guard and projecting their fears of encroachment onto the borders. The expansion of the Eurasian Economic Union became a new factor that could have served to alleviate the pressure to divide territory and assets, but this could work only if two countries joined it at the same period. With this option unavailable, a territorial impasse has been reached.

  10. State borders in ETRS89 coordinates – reality or fiction ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Poláček

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Common unique ETRS89 coordinates of the state boundaries are crucial for cross-border data harmonization for international projects. In the frame of European Location Framework (ELF project Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre (ČÚZK cooperates with Poland on egde-matching on the state border. During the preliminary phase of the project was some difficulty identified. If the state boundary is measured and administered in the national coordinate system, the accuracy of the transformation into the ETRS89 is influenced by discrepancies of the local trigonometric network, which results in two slightly different state boundaries. Final solution for Europe – international treaties on the state borders based on the ETRS89 coordinates – is necessary, but it will take years.

  11. Trans-European transport network and cross-border governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the implementation of trans-European transport corridors in the EU and the influence it has on governance within EU member-states. It considers the implementation of such a scheme in the context of cross-border cooperation and discusses the system of governance necessary...... for coordinating knowledge, efforts and solutions across several national systems. In order to understand this governance setting, one needs to understand the specific quality of transnational governance in the EU, which is neither purely international nor federally integrated. The transport corridor between Malmö...... and Hamburg is taken as a case for discussion. Cross-border governance is analyzed within a multi-level policy network approach including actors from supranational, national and subnational levels, in order to determine the existence of a policy network across the borders. The main finding is a depiction...

  12. Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education: Where Do We Strand? OECD Education Working Papers, No. 70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Lancrin, Stephan; Pfotenhauer, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    The "Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education" were developed and adopted to support and encourage international cooperation and enhance the understanding of the importance of quality provision in cross-border higher education. The purposes of the "Guidelines" are to protect students and other…

  13. Harmonisation of securities law : custody and transfer of securities in European private law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Haentjens

    2007-01-01

    The settlement of a cross-border securities transaction is riskier and eleven times more expensive than the settlement of a purely domestic transaction. This dramatic discrepancy is mainly due to differences in national securities laws. Matthias Haentjens argues that national systems of securities l

  14. International Business: cooperation within networks

    OpenAIRE

    Van Delft, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Internationalisation is the expansion of a firms operations to foreign markets and includes not only import and export but also foreign direct investments and international cooperation. Today’s globalising economy has resulted in a growing number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) undertaking international activities. Internationalisation has been shown to be very beneficial for firms. Cross-border activities are an important means through which SMEs are able to create value, generate gro...

  15. Paired Border Towns or TwinCities from Finland and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riitta Kosonen; Xu Feng; Erja Kettunen

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses cross-border cooperation at the level of urban socio-economic systems.Worldwide,cross-border urban cooperation has in several cases produced socio-economic and political coherence supported by various joint programs and efforts.However,the degree of coherence varies and seldom creates socio-economically and politically tightly integrated "TwinCities" where the state border becomes highly transparent or obscure.Focusing on Finland and China,our aim is to identify whether the selected border towns represent coherent TwinCities or a more loose type of "paired border towns".The study uses an empirical examination of three Finnish towns (Helsinki,Tomio,Imatra) and their neighboring towns in Estonia,Sweden,and Russia as a benchmark.Then,a comparative study is made regarding three Chinese eross-border cities facing Russia,Vietnam and Kazakhstan.We highlight the differences in cross-border integration from the viewpoint of shared public sector programs,cross-border enterprise relocation and networking,and integrated social sector in terms of labor market,education and shopping area.

  16. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  17. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re......-enter Karen state in Eastern Burma as humanitarians, providing medical, educational resources and help to document human rights violations and do advocacy work. In addition, local missionaries and faith-based groups also use the corridor to spread the word of God. I argue that Karen humanitarian community......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  18. Borders in Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Toshmakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Libraries are fundamental institutions for the life under socialism in Bulgaria (1944-1989. They provide studies and readings for big part of society. This is time when television was very rare in Bulgarian homes and the newspapers were totally controlled by Communist party. This way a library served as the main source of information. Seemingly ordinary cultural centers, they become a powerful tool in the hands of the communist state. They are the ones who are actively worked to impose new socialist thinking trough setting limits on access to readers and therefore control the flow of information. The aim of this article is to trace the influence of restricted by communist censorship institution Glavlit literature. Or to put it another way – what was the role of censorship in the process of establishment of borders created by prohibited access to scientific information.

  19. Food security vs. nutrition security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, K R

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the status of food security versus nutrition security in India. Food security is defined as the availability and the access of food to all people; whereas nutrition security demands the intake of a wide range of foods which provides the essential needed nutrients. It is estimated that the average dietary intake in India is 2280 calories. In 9 major states, the average was less than 2400 calories, suggesting poverty. In a 1988-90 survey, only 10% of the children, and about 50% of the adults, were considered to have a normal nutritional status. The rest suffered from different levels of Chronic Energy Deficiency. In addition, contradictions have also developed within policies in India that seek to address these issues. Recognizing that agriculture is the key to poverty eradication, India recently drafted the Agriculture Policy. The Policy focuses on rain-fed farming, unemployment, and malnutrition in rural areas, revitalizing the cooperatives, and increasing the involvement of nongovernmental organizations. However, there are certain issues of concern in the Policy with the most damaging aspect seen in the promotion of existing inequalities in the rural sector.

  20. Border mythology: Turner and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Brenna B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity has been creating spaces, new boundaries and borders, as metaphysical, mythological and symbolic marks of physical and imaginary territories. Modern space and its borders are metaphors, boundaries that are created, walls that rise to identify with some and categorize others. In this short paper we want to approach the problem of the transformation of the idea of border (geographical, cultural, symbolic, etc., for a reflection on the transformations of that civilized obsession called border. The border has always been a reference in facing the identities, names, symbols, different imaginary: it is more confrontational line between two otherness. From the previous framework, we reflect on Turnerian mythology, as we believe that behind the creation of the imagination of the northern border is the mythical vision of the American frontier as ideological canon that explains and confirms the presence of the white race in a border re–made in the image and likeness of the “American Dream”. Frederick Turner’s reflection on the role of the frontier in American history is not only the study of the importance of progress towards the West but –even more so, is the analysis of meaning that had the American frontier as a historical process that ended in 1893, as Turner said, but rather extended into the twentieth century and continues to constantly shaping the process of territorialization of the border.

  1. The Formation, Internal Contradiction and Cooperation Mode of Cross Border Audit Supervision Deadlock Between China and The US%中美跨境审计监管僵局的形成、内在矛盾与可能的合作模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晟

    2015-01-01

    The US government insists on the "long arm jurisdiction" principle, requiring that Chinese accounting firms who provide audit services for USA listed Corporations must be scrutinized; while Chinese government adheres to the "completely trust" principle, refusing to transfer the jurisdiction. From Muddy Water shorted China's stocks and resulted in the crisis of China's stocks in 2010, till 2014 the SEC suspended China Branches of Big 4 accounting firms' audit qualification in the USA, the cross-border auditing supervision has gradually come to a deadlock. This paper points out that the inherent contradictions between China and the United States, which exists in the legal system, the principle of sovereignty and cooperation demand, are the essential reasons for regulatory cooperation coming to a deadlock. Suggestions include: establishing effective transfer channel of audit papers for USA regulators; speeding up the audit supervision reform, struggling for the mutual trust regulatory approval of USA; and to Chinese corporations listed overseas, reducing the listing threshold, and at the same time strengthening supervision.%美国政府坚持“长臂管辖”原则,要求对为美国上市公司提供审计服务的中国会计师事务所进行审查;而中国政府则坚持“完全信任”原则,拒绝让渡管辖权。从2010年浑水公司做空“中概股”导致“中概股”危机,到2014年SEC暂停“四大”中国分所的在美审计资格,中美跨境审计监管逐渐陷入僵局。通过分析发现,中美两国在法律制度、主权原则及合作需求等方面所存在的内在矛盾,是监管合作陷入僵局的本质原因。相应的建议包括:为美国监管机构设立有效的审计底稿调取通道;加快审计监管改革,争取获得美方的互信委托监管认可;对我国企业的海外上市,在降低上市门槛的同时加强监管。

  2. Basic Analysis on The Establishment of Sport Organization for Disabled People from the Perspective of Cross -border Cooperation in Communities,Colleges and Families%“高校-社区-家庭”跨界合作模式残疾人体育组织建设的探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆贝; 张钦福

    2016-01-01

    In order to better promote the development of the mass sports for the disabled people,it is necessary to establish sports organizations for the disabled.This article which uses the literature study,on -the -spot investigation,and interview to establish the sport organization for the disabled from the perspective of cross -bordercooperation in communities,colleges and families.In the organization,the community is as a platform, University is as the backbone while the family is as the basis.The research finds that communities,universities and familieshave their own worries from the point of view of their interests when this kind of sports organizations is established.Although it is true,the realization of cross -border cooperation among them is imperative.%为更好推进残疾人群众体育的发展,残疾人体育组织的建立势在必行。文章采用文献资料法、实地考察法、访谈法,旨在从社区、高校和家庭的跨界合作的角度出发,以社区为平台,以高校为骨干力量,以家庭为基础,建立新型残疾人体育组织。经研究发现,建立该类型体育组织,社区、高校和家庭三方从其利益角度来看虽都存在诸多顾虑,但实现三者的跨界合作势在必行。

  3. Environmental cohesion across the Hungarian-Croatian border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varjú Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental cohesion (as a new EU paradigm for a place-based interpretation of environmental justice has a clear connection to territorial cohesion. Based on this idea, advantages for people can include an equitable distribution of environmental protection and access to environmental services. In non-EU countries regional environmental cohesion is used as an instrument to accelerate accession to the EU and it may be manifested as a declaration of environmental diplomacy. Environmental cohesion across a border can be identified as soon as two regions - alongside the border - start to cooperate in order to improve environmental conditions and to ensure equal access to natural resources and environmental services. After a literature review environmental cohesion is evaluated in multidimensional way, using empirical quantitative and qualitative data and a two-pillar based methodological approach. The Croatian-Hungarian border area was closed for a long time. As a result, developments avoided the area, on the other, natural resources remained mainly untouched. However, the two countries have had different approaches towards the area, while, Croatia made efforts to build another water power plant, Hungary intended to preserve and extend a Natural Park. This contradiction remained until the accession process of Croatia. Finally the disagreement between the two countries was moderated by a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve that was created alongside the border in 2015. The post-2010 period has been characterised by an increasing number of environmental-related cooperations.

  4. Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the cooperative learning as a teaching method in a second language learning class. It mainly talks about the background, foundation, features, definitions, components, goals, advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning. And as the encounter of the disadvantages in cooperative learning, this paper also proposes some strategies.

  5. Geographical, Sociological and Metaphysical Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Choza Armenta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During the different ages of history and prehistory, borders have possessed different kinds of natures. Sometimes they did not exist, at other times they have been very diffuse, while at others they have been impassable. There were no borders in the Paleolithic age, or during Greece’s Heroic Age. It was not until the creation of the city-states and the empires that borders began to be consolidated. Territorial demarcations were not very strict during the Middle Ages, either. It was in the modern age that borders acquired an impassable nature, following the birth of the modern State, and they began to weaken with the crisis of the modern State that began in the 20th century. Thus, the author claims, the construction of borders is not a fundamentally political-administrative event. Instead, it seems to be primarily a phenomenon of a cultural nature and, more specifically, of a metaphysical nature.

  6. Secure and interoperable communication infrastructures for PPDR organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Wilmuth; Marques, Hugo; Pereira, Luis; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Brouwer, Frank; Bouwers, Bert; Politis, Ilias; Lykourgiotis, Asimakis; Ladas, Alexandros; Adigun, Olayinka; Jelenc, David

    2016-05-01

    The growing number of events affecting public safety and security (PS&S) on a regional scale with potential to grow up to large scale cross border disasters puts an increased pressure on agencies and organisation responsible for PS&S. In order to respond timely and in an adequate manner to such events, Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR) organisations need to cooperate, align their procedures and activities, share the needed information and be interoperable. Existing PPDR/PMR technologies such as TETRA, TETRAPOL or P25, do not currently provide broadband capability nor is expected such technologies to be upgraded in the future. This presents a major limitation in supporting new services and information flows. Furthermore, there is no known standard that addresses interoperability of these technologies. In this contribution the design of a next generation communication infrastructure for PPDR organisations which fulfills the requirements of secure and seamless end-to-end communication and interoperable information exchange within the deployed communication networks is presented. Based on Enterprise Architecture of PPDR organisations, a next generation PPDR network that is backward compatible with legacy communication technologies is designed and implemented, capable of providing security, privacy, seamless mobility, QoS and reliability support for mission-critical Private Mobile Radio (PMR) voice and broadband data services. The designed solution provides a robust, reliable, and secure mobile broadband communications system for a wide variety of PMR applications and services on PPDR broadband networks, including the ability of inter-system, interagency and cross-border operations with emphasis on interoperability between users in PMR and LTE.

  7. Human Security Agendas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Ⅰ.IntroductionThe need for governments and international organisations to gain a better understanding of "security" is ever more urgent.For example in the conflict in Libya in early 2011,many security dilemmas were visible:the protection of Libyan civilians,the security of the regime,whether and how the UN or NATO should intervene,whether Europe would be threatened with a massive refugee flow,how to protect or evacuate foreign citizens (including Chinese),how to secure food and medical supplies in the midst of armed conflict.Such events may be termed "complex emergencies" which often raise legal, military and humanitarian issues simultaneously.International law and practice do not provide clear guidelines on such situations,and responses can be random,contingent on a variety of factors.Traditional concepts of security,for example protection of national borders,are certainly still relevant and legally enforceable,but more sophisticated concepts are needed to respond to security dilemmas in today's globalised world.Human security as a concept was first developed within the UN system in the 1990s,and set out,for example,in Human Security Now [1] The first section of this paper tracks the development of Human Security discourse,and also examines the broadening of the "security"concept in recent years.The second section reports on institutions with a specific interest in Human Security,for example within the UN system and in universities.The third section acknowledges some critiques of the Human Security paradigm.The last section reports on new directions that may enrich the Human Security agenda.

  8. Cross-Border Higher Education Institutions in Mainland China : A developmental perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Mei; Li, Shengbing

    2015-01-01

    Cross-border higher education institutions are considered a main way to fulfill the educational internalization in Mainland China; to some extent they represent the attitude of entering the international market. In this paper, the history, status quo, and future of Chinese-foreign cooperatively-run schools are analyzed and discussed. Cross-border higher education institutions in Mainland China have experienced the process from accidental and disorder to a systematic and quality orientation.

  9. International Environment: Environmental Infrastructure Needs in the U.S.-Mexican Border Region Remain Unmet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    potential access to the U.S. job market. The availability of jobs with maquiladoras -companies located in Mexico’s northern border region that use imported...cooperation dating back to the late-1970s. As border 5The Mexican government initiated the maquiladora program in 1965 to attract labor-intensive...industries to Mexico. Mexican law allows maquiladoras to bring materials into Mexico without paying import duties, provided they use these materials to make

  10. Interoperability, Trust Based Information Sharing Protocol and Security: Digital Government Key Issues

    CERN Document Server

    Headayetullah, Md; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2306

    2010-01-01

    Improved interoperability between public and private organizations is of key significance to make digital government newest triumphant. Digital Government interoperability, information sharing protocol and security are measured the key issue for achieving a refined stage of digital government. Flawless interoperability is essential to share the information between diverse and merely dispersed organisations in several network environments by using computer based tools. Digital government must ensure security for its information systems, including computers and networks for providing better service to the citizens. Governments around the world are increasingly revolving to information sharing and integration for solving problems in programs and policy areas. Evils of global worry such as syndrome discovery and manage, terror campaign, immigration and border control, prohibited drug trafficking, and more demand information sharing, harmonization and cooperation amid government agencies within a country and acros...

  11. Towards the cyber security paradigm of ehealth: Resilience and design aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamäki, Jyri; Pirinen, Rauno

    2017-06-01

    Digital technologies have significantly changed the role of healthcare clients in seeking and receiving medical help, as well as brought up more cooperative policy issues in healthcare cross-border services. Citizens continue to take a more co-creative role in decisions about their own healthcare, and new technologies can enable and facilitate this emergent trend. In this study, healthcare services have been intended as a critical societal sector and therefore healthcare systems are focused on as critical infrastructures that ought to be protected from all types of fears, including cyber security threats and attacks. Despite continual progress in the systemic risk management of cyber domain, it is clear that anticipation and prevention of all possible types of attack and malfunction are not achievable for current or future cyber infrastructures. This study focuses on the investigation of a cyber security paradigm, adaptive systems and sense of resilience in a healthcare critical information infrastructure.

  12. Crossing borders via mental bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Dirk

    The project studies cross-border regional integration in Europe drawing on the example of the emerging Danish-German Femern Belt Region. It focuses on cross-border networking within public administration as part of regional integra- tion. My central question is how national-cultural differences...... influence coopera- tion, coordination and collaboration in administrative cross-border networks. In this connection the project asks after the perception of regional integration seen from the different national backgrounds. The research concentrates on the group of decision makers within the field of public...

  13. Firemen without borders

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Fire knows no borders and neither should the tools for fighting it. It was with this aim in mind that delegates from 14 different countries came to CERN at the beginning of April to take part in the twentieth of a series of twice-yearly international conferences organised by the Federation of European Union Fire Officer Associations (FEU). This latest conference allowed participants to keep abreast of new developments with a view to improving the safety techniques used in their own countries. The first in the series was held in Tampere, Finland, in 1994. The FEU network's objective is to harmonise safety policies and modernise the fire-fighting programme. In particular, it aims to develop an international system for testing hotels' fire alarm systems and to improve language learning in all countries' fire-fighting services. "We want authorities throughout Europe to be aware of the importance of a good joint fire-prevention policy in order to avoid catastrophes such as the fire that destroyed Madrid's Winds...

  14. Distance, Borders, and Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skillicorn, David; Walther, Olivier; Zheng, Quan

    This paper explores the spatial and temporal diffusion of political violence in North and West Africa. It does so by endeavoring to represent the mental landscape that lives in the back of a group leader’s mind as he contemplates strategic targeting. We assume that this representation is a combin......This paper explores the spatial and temporal diffusion of political violence in North and West Africa. It does so by endeavoring to represent the mental landscape that lives in the back of a group leader’s mind as he contemplates strategic targeting. We assume that this representation...... constrains a group leader to attack at a location other than the one that would seem to yield the greatest overt payoff. By its very nature, the research problem defies the collection of a full set of structural data. Instead, we leverage functional data from the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data......” of North and West Africa that depicts the permeability to violence. A better understanding of how location, time, and borders condition attacks enables planning, prepositioning, and response....

  15. Titoli e attività bancaria: ponti e mura (Securities and Banking: Bridges and Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between banking and securities activities in the light of financial market developments (securitisation, institutionalization of investment, emergence of complex financial instruments, conglomeration and consolidation, with particular reference to Europe. The enhanced links between banking and securities businesses have generated increased and new risks to financial institutions. However, banks' stability remains crucial for the stability of the financial system as a whole, because of their unique role as provider of liquidity. The paper also addresses the implications of the banking-securities combination for regulatory and supervisory arrangements. The exporting of prudential requirements traditional in banking (such as capital ratios into the securities field, and the importing of securities regulation (such as transparency requirements into the banking sector, can be deemed mutually beneficial. As regards supervision, there is a need to monitor the continued effectiveness of the current framework. This entails strengthening co-operation both at the national level and on a cross-border basis among sectoral supervisors in the micro-prudential field, and between them and central banks in the macro-prudential field.  JEL Codes: G21, G28, G10Keywords: Bank, Banking, Financial Institution, Financial Market, Securities

  16. Konkurentosposobnost' jekonomiki prigranichnyh regionov [Competitiveness of the Economies of Border Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Yuri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of competitiveness of border regions as subjects of the Russian Federation having specific characteristics. The authors focus on the stages, during which border regions build their competitiveness, as well as analyse certain indices characterizing it. They examine the role of these regions in the development of international trade and economic relations, cross-border cooperation and international integration, taking the North-west federal district and the Republic of Karelia as a case-study. The article describes the mechanisms of building and increasing competitiveness of border regions in today’s Russia both in general and, particularly, in the Republic of Karelia as a border region of the North-west federal district.

  17. EU Security Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jianjun

    2007-01-01

    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) comprises an important part of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The aim of ESDP is to strengthen the EU's external ability to act through the development of civilian and military capabilities for international conflict prevention and crisis management. In December 2003, the EU adopted its first European Security Strategy (ESS). Ever since then, the implementation of the ESS has been regarded as one of the biggest challenges for the EU in CFSP/ESDP matters. Although much progress has been made in its independent security and defence-building process, EU still faces serious problems and difficulties in this policy area. This paper tries to examine these recent developments, assess their impacts in regional-global security, and analyze existing problems and future trends. Finally, the author also examines EU-China engagements in recent years and explores possibilities for their future cooperation in the area of international security.

  18. Judicial Cooperation Based On a European Evidence Warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Laura Pamfil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of a better judicial cooperation between European Union Member States is aconstant preoccupation of the Council of Europe, taking into consideration that the European Union has setitself the objective of maintaining and developing an area of freedom, security and justice. The achievementof this objective is only possible if among EU Member States there is a high level of confidence and a mutualrecognition of the decisions issued by the competent judicial authorities. The European arrest warrant was thefirst concrete measure in the field of criminal law implementing the principle of mutual recognition which theEuropean Council referred to as cornerstone of judicial cooperation. It was followed by other measuresdesigned to create the legal framework of the judicial cooperation; some of these measures concerns the fightagainst corruption, terrorism, cross-border criminality, racism and xenophobia while others are applicable inany case, such as the order of freezing the property and the evidence. On 18 December 2008, a newinstrument was created in order to improve the judicial cooperation between the Member States: the Europeanevidence warrant. Its purpose is to assure the obtaining of the objects, documents and data which may be usedas evidence in proceedings in criminal matters in issuing State, from another Member State. So, the aim ofthis Framework Decision is to complete the provision of the Decision on the execution of orders freezingproperty and evidence which is not talking about the transfer of the evidence after the freezing.Romania, like the other European Union Member States must transpose the provision of this Decision in thenational law by 19 January 2011. That is why we would like to analyse the procedures and the safeguardsprovided by this Decision and to show the way we see the European evidence warrant settled in ourlegislation.

  19. 75 FR 19654 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs-Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-8632] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) AGENCY: U.S. Customs...; extension of an existing information collection: 1651-0077. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection...

  20. Public health and terrorism preparedness: cross-border issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Debra; Leitheiser, Aggie; Atchison, Christopher; Larson, Susan; Homzik, Cassandra

    2005-01-01

    On December 15, 2003, the Centers for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Minnesota and the University of Iowa convened the "Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues Roundtable." The purpose of the roundtable was to gather public health professionals and government agency representatives at the state, provincial, and local levels to identify unmet cross-border emergency preparedness and response needs and develop strategies for addressing these needs. Representatives from six state and local public health departments and three provincial governments were invited to identify cross-border needs and issues using a nominal group process. The result of the roundtable was identification of the needs considered most important and most doable across all the focus groups. The need to collaborate on and exchange plans and protocols among agencies was identified as most important and most doable across all groups. Development of contact protocols and creation and maintenance of a contact database was also considered important and doable for a majority of groups. Other needs ranked important across the majority of groups included specific isolation and quarantine protocols for multi-state responses; a system for rapid and secure exchange of information; specific protocols for sharing human resources across borders, including emergency credentials for physicians and health care workers; and a specific protocol to coordinate Strategic National Stockpile mechanisms across border communities.

  1. Local Border Traffic as a Form of Visa Liberalisation and Territorial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of visa liberalisation between Russia and the European Union, which constitutes a key aspect of the parties’ diplomatic cooperation. This work sets out to identify the main results of Russia/EU cooperation. The authors have conducted a brief historical analysis of this area of relations. The visa “regionalisation” is considered in the context of identifying the key actors of the EU — Russia negotiations: the Kaliningrad region, Germany, Poland, and Lithuania. In their analysis, the authors rely mostly on primary sources: intergovernmental agreements on simplified border traffic, border-crossing statistics for the Kaliningrad region in the framework of the local border traffic, expert interviews, and related analytic reports. Specifically, local border traffic is viewed as the most effective form of interaction in the field of visa regime simplification and border territory development. An assessment of the positions of key negotiators shows that local border traffic between the Kaliningrad region of Russia and the Polish border voivodeships is a success, which stresses the need for a prompt transition to a visa-free regime with the EU.

  2. Local Border Traffic as a Form of Visa Liberalisation and Territorial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin G.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of visa liberalisation between Russia and the European Union, which constitutes a key aspect of the parties’ diplomatic cooperation. This work sets out to identify the main results of Russia/EU cooperation. The authors have conducted a brief historical analysis of this area of relations. The visa “regionalisation” is considered in the context of identifying the key actors of the EU — Russia negotiations: the Kaliningrad region, Germany, Poland, and Lithuania. In their analysis, the authors rely mostly on primary sources: intergovernmental agreements on simplified border traffic, border-crossing statistics for the Kaliningrad region in the framework of the local border traffic, expert interviews, and related analytic reports. Specifically, local border traffic is viewed as the most effective form of interaction in the field of visa regime simplification and border territory development. An assessment of the positions of key negotiators shows that local border traffic between the Kaliningrad region of Russia and the Polish border voivodeships is a success, which stresses the need for a prompt transition to a visa-free regime with the EU.

  3. Drug Violence Along the Southwest Border: Another American Punitive Expedition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    TERMS Merida, Cartels, NAFTA , OAS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...32 KEY TERMS: Merida, Cartels, NAFTA , OAS CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified Since 2005, the drug-related violence along the border with Mexico...changing in the fight to control the most lucrative routes to the U.S and Canada . Another development is that drug traffickers are also expanding their

  4. Martime Security: Ferry Security Measures Have Been Implemented, but Evaluating Existing Studies Could Further Enhance Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    vessels—vessels capable of carrying 500 or more passengers. The first report focused on cruise ship and cruise ship facility security and was issued in...April 2010.4 The report found that while governmental agencies, cruise ship operators, and other maritime security stakeholders have taken...border security—should consider obtaining additional information about cruise ship passengers to enhance its screening process. This report focuses

  5. Multi-TSO cross border balancing mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorens, Maria Luisa; Moreno, Laura; Fuente, Jose Ignacio de la; Junco, Paula; Arenillas, Jorge [Red Electrica de Espana (REE) S.A.U., Madrid (Spain). Operation Markets Dept.; Pereira, Pedro [REN - Servicos, S.A., Lisbon (Portugal). Gabinete Mercado e Liquidacoes; Chabanne, Colas [RTE Reseau de Transport d' Electricite, Paris (France). Markets Dept.; Apoyan, Lalake; Barbieri, Galileo [RTE Reseau de Transport d' Electricite, Paris (France). Cross-Border Market Design

    2012-07-01

    The balancing market integration has been highlighted as a necessary step to reach the European Union goal for the development of an effective, competitive single market for electricity across Europe. In this paper it is described the work done by RTE, REE and REN regarding the design of a non-discriminatory, efficient and reliable multi-TSO Cross Border Balancing Mechanism at regional level, extendible to other control areas. The implementation of this multi-TSO Cross Border Balancing Mechanism will aim at increasing the operational security, enhancing the Liquidity and Competition of balancing markets, facilitating the integration of energy produced by Renewable Energy Sources while optimizing the use of Interconnection capacities. With this mechanism, the three TSOs will be able to exchange to each other balancing energy through the available interconnection capacities after the last intraday market sessions. This mechanism will be based on a common IT platform where TSOs will share their available surplus of reserves and communicate their balancing needs. The available interconnection capacities will be taken into account in an automatic and centralized way. Two main options are investigated regarding the allocation method: on the one hand, the first come first served approach (FCFS), on the other hand, the ''social welfare'' optimization approach. (orig.)

  6. The impacts of the opening of the border bettveen Czechia and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Maier

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discussed changes in the structure und quantity of transborder flows belween Czechia and Bavaria since the lifiing of the “Iron Curtain “ in 1989. In 1989 2.3 million passangers crossed the border, in 1992 over 35 million people have crossed it. In addition to tourist visits (shoping andsightseeing business travel has a steep incline. Cooperations among factories close to the border take place. An even more intensified cooperation is hiudered by the fact that theneighbouring countries are unawere of the language and culture of each other.

  7. Usability in Public Services and Border Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirelli, Giuliano

    The paper starts with a brief overview of the scale of disability and associated challenges and puts them in the context of the public policy on disability. It then analyses the usability challenges in public services and border control, including the issues of accessibility, safety and communication. These need to be addressed in future policy proposals, to provide the best assistance by new technologies to elderly people and people with disabilities, avoiding creating new barriers due to incorrect or incomplete initial conception. With increasing flux of novel security technology in mass transportation systems, and particularly the use of biometric identification in airports, the challenge of usability is recognized. This paper analyses these issues in the context of users with disability in an idealized process of Simplifying Passenger Travel (SPT).

  8. Cooperatives, Economic Democratization and Rural Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Muradian, Roldan; Schuurman, Jur

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural cooperatives and producer organisations are institutional innovations, which have the potential to reduce poverty and improve food security. This book presents a raft of international case studies, from developing and transition countries, to analyse the internal and external challenges

  9. 论数据主权--基于虚拟空间博弈与合作的考察%On Data Security---An Examination of Game and Cooperation in Cyberspace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙南翔; 张晓君

    2015-01-01

    With the development of communication and network technologies,such as Internet,cloud com-puting,and the Internet of Things,cross-boundary flow and storage of data become more convenient.In the era of big data,national data security is facing more severe challenges.Data sovereignty will become the theoretical foundation of national administration of data and data-related technologies,facilities and service providers.In practice,unfortunately,the spontaneous game between nations results in a multi-ju-risdictional conflict and chaotic national security dilemma.With the purpose of solving the dilemma,the in-ternational community should focus on data sovereignty with the concepts of participation and cooperation. Specifically,data jurisdiction should be based on territorial jurisdiction and personal jurisdiction.All coun-tries around the world take collective actions to confront criminal actions in cyberspace in order to realize common security and development.%随着互联网、云计算、物联网等通讯和网络技术的发展,数据跨境流动和储存更加日常化和便捷化。在大数据时代,国家数据安全面临更为严峻的挑战。数据主权将成为各国对数据及相关技术、设施、服务商进行管辖的理论基础。实践中,国家间的自发博弈形成了多重管辖权冲突和国家安全困境的无秩序状态。欲破解无秩序困境,国际社会应回归数据主权的合作参与性,以对数据的属地管辖和属人管辖为原则,对虚拟空间共有物实施共管,并对虚拟空间犯罪采取集体行动,以确保全人类共同的安全和发展。

  10. Successful international cooperation : The influence of cultural similarity, strategic differences, and international experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven, JP; van der Zee, KI

    2002-01-01

    Cooperation between companies increasingly exceeds national borders. In the present study 78 international cooperation cases were examined. It was shown that similarity in national and corporate culture is associated with successful cooperation. On the other hand, with respect to corporate strategy,

  11. In Defense of the Southern Borders of Russia and Allied Countries (the Russian Foreign Military Bases on the Black Sea-Caspian Arc of Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Afanasenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available December 25, 2014, President Vladimir Putin approved a new version of the military doctrine of the Russian Federation, which reflects manifested threat to Russia and its allies because the situation in Ukraine, especially in its south-east, in the Donets Basin; the events in Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan; issues of interaction and cooperation with Abkhazia, South Ossetia, with the CSTO member countries, the BRICS. An important role in the strengthening of the southern borders of the security operate military bases and facilities of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, located in Transnistria, the Caucasus, Syria and Central Asia. Characteristics of these bases and their value in the Black Sea-Caspian arc of tension given in this article.

  12. Traveling the Terror Highway: Infiltration of Terror Operatives across the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    recruits in public mosques and restaurants , elders and peers later led them to secret meetings at private residences in the Minneapolis area. Here...attractive to terror operatives seeking a pathway into the U.S.172 The perception of lax asylum laws combined with a low numbers of border security...for agents working on the border, but also advocated an increase in agents proficient in Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, 91 Korean , Farsi, and

  13. Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides an overview of EPA's homeland security roles and responsibilities, and links to specific homeland security issues: water security, research, emergency response, recovery, and waste management.

  14. International Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  15. 19 CFR 122.181 - Definition of Customs security area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of Customs security area. 122.181 Section 122.181 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Access to Customs Security Areas § 122.181 Definition...

  16. Jointly Maintain Peace, Cooperation and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao; Tao

    2015-01-01

    A Speech at China-Mongolia-Russia Trilateral Civil Dialogue&the; International Peace and Security and Promoting Cooperation:the Ulan Bator Meeting Participated by China,Russia and MongoliaI am very happy meeting with Mongolian and Russian friends in beautiful Ulan Bator to jointly discuss peace issues,work on cooperation strategies,and promote development policies.

  17. 33 CFR 117.925 - Cooper River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River. 117.925 Section 117.925 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.925 Cooper River. The draw of the...

  18. 33 CFR 117.713 - Cooper River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River. 117.713 Section 117.713 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.713 Cooper River. (a) The drawspans for...

  19. "拓展亚洲国际河流跨境水与生态安全合作"国际学术研讨会在大理召开%International Workshop on "Expanding Trans-boundary Cooperation for Water and Environment Security in Asia's International Rivers"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katri Makkonen; 赵歆

    2006-01-01

    @@ The International Workshop on "Expanding Transboundary Cooperation for Water and Environment Security in Asia's International Rivers" was held on December 10-14, 2005, Dali, Yunnan, China. It was organized by Tsinghua University, the World Bank Institute (WBI), the United Nations University (UNU) and Asian International Rivers Center (AIRC). A total of over 60 scholars from the USA, Canada, Australia, Finland, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, India, Sri Lanka, Iran and China participated in this workshop. The topics include seeking reasonable utilization and sustainable conflict resolutions related to transboundary water resources, and transboundary eco-security maintenance; expanding cooperation between Asia and the rest of the world on international river issues, identifying potential opportunities; and possibility of a common research agenda for addressing environment changes in Mekong River Basin.

  20. Titoli e attività bancaria: ponti e mura (Securities and Banking: Bridges and Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between banking and securities activities in the light of financial market developments (securitisation, institutionalization of investment, emergence of complex financial instruments, conglomeration and consolidation, with particular reference to Europe. The enhanced links between banking and securities businesses have generated increased and new risks to financial institutions. However, banks' stability remains crucial for the stability of the financial system as a whole, because of their unique role as provider of liquidity. The paper also addresses the implications of the banking-securities combination for regulatory and supervisory arrangements. The exporting of prudential requirements traditional in banking (such as capital ratios into the securities field, and the importing of securities regulation (such as transparency requirements into the banking sector, can be deemed mutually beneficial. As regards supervision, there is a need to monitor the continued effectiveness of the current framework. This entails strengthening co-operation both at the national level and on a cross-border basis among sectoral supervisors in the micro-prudential field, and between them and central banks in the macro-prudential field.

  1. INTEROPERABILITY, TRUST BASED INFORMATION SHARING PROTOCOL AND SECURITY: DIGITAL GOVERNMENT KEY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Headayetullah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved interoperability between public and private organizations is of key significance to make digitalgovernment newest triumphant. Digital Government interoperability, information sharing protocol andsecurity are measured the key issue for achieving a refined stage of digital government. Flawlessinteroperability is essential to share the information between diverse and merely dispersed organisationsin several network environments by using computer based tools. Digital government must ensure securityfor its information systems, including computers and networks for providing better service to the citizens.Governments around the world are increasingly revolving to information sharing and integration forsolving problems in programs and policy areas. Evils of global worry such as syndrome discovery andmanage, terror campaign, immigration and border control, prohibited drug trafficking, and more demandinformation sharing, harmonization and cooperation amid government agencies within a country andacross national borders. A number of daunting challenges survive to the progress of an efficientinformation sharing protocol. A secure and trusted information-sharing protocol is required to enableusers to interact and share information easily and perfectly across many diverse networks and databasesglobally. This article presents (1 literature review of digital government security and interoperabilityand, (2 key research issue trust based information sharing protocol for seamless interoperability amongdiverse government organizations or agencies around the world. While trust-based information access iswell studied in the literature, presented secure information sharing technologies and protocols cannotoffer enough incentives for government agencies to share information amid them without harming theirown national interest. To overcome the drawbacks of the exiting technology, an innovative and proficienttrust-based security protocol is proposed in this

  2. The 'border within': inhabiting the border in Trieste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialasiewicz, L.; Minca, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we look to the Italian border city of Trieste-at various points in its past, a cosmopolitan port, Austria's urbs europeissima, but also a battleground for competing understandings of territoriality, identity, and belonging and a paragon of the violent application of an ethnoterritorial

  3. Economic integration and cross-border economic organizations: The case of San Diego-Tijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Mendoza Cota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic integration between the United States and Mexico has affected the economic, political and social relations in the border region. The paper seeks to relate the increasing economic integration and business cycles of the economies of San Diego and Tijuana to the development of both national and binational economic organizations in the border region. The methodology of analysis uses both statistical estimations of the economic integration of San Diego and Tijuana and semi-structured interviews of economic organizations to analyze the increasing economic integration and the role and achievements of the cross-border economic organizations. The results showed that cross-border cooperation is predominately controlled by federal and state governments on both sides of the border. However, the main achievements of cross-border economic cooperation have been accomplished by local private organizations. The perspective of further local economic development greatly depends on both the possibility of increased involvement of federal governments and the growing encouragement of regional organizations.

  4. CROSS-BORDER COLLABORATION IN ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION IN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela DIACONU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The entrepreneurship, as an integral part of education, is now widely accepted worldwide. Entrepreneurial education is considered today as a holistic and inclusive process and not just a component of education in business. The activity of developing the entrepreneurial spirit organized on new principles must be seen by the universities as the foundation of successful fulfillment of university’s mission in contributing to social and economic development. This paper's main purpose is to identify a number of solutions on how they can ensure through cross-border cooperation the development of entrepreneurial skills within the universities through learning experiences contexts. In this regard, the paper proposes a model of entrepreneurial project which takes the form of simulated enterprise developed by the University of Pitesti, and a number of solutions for this project to be developed and implemented through cross-border cooperation, in accordance with the strategies and principles promoted by European Commission and European Parliament, which stresses the importance of developing through international cooperation of innovative methods that go beyond the traditional frame in which, currently, are formed the competencies and the educational process is performed. Thus, the proposed model can be expanded and implemented "in the mirror" and internationally by building partnerships between countries, universities and economic agents from those countries with real benefits for all parties involved through valuing the national specificities.

  5. Beyond Kargil: The technology of peace in India-Pakistan border relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir-Kheli, S.; Biringer, K.L.

    2000-01-12

    The potential for cooperation between India and Pakistan is substantial. Topics as widely varying as national security, the environment and trade hold the potential for improved bilateral relations. This paper looks at a few areas in which monitoring technology could contribute to enhancing cooperative border agreements between the two nations. The goal of the paper is not to provide prescriptive solutions to regional problems, but to expand the number of options being considered for improving Indian-Pakistan relations. Many of the impediments to bilateral progress are a result of a history of conflict and mistrust. By utilizing technical monitoring and inspections, each side can begin to replace suspicion and doubt with knowledge and information useful in making informed political, economic and military decisions. At the same time, technical monitoring and inspections can build confidence through common interactions. India and Pakistan have pledged to resolve their disputes, including Kashmir, through dialogue. Implementation of that pledge is influenced by a number of factors, including changes in the political systems and the fortunes of the leadership. Events of the past year and a half have severely tested these two governments' ability to move forward along a constructive and positive path. Testing of new missile systems both preceded and followed testing of nuclear weapons in May 1998. Both countries disregarded subsequent international displeasure as they proceeded to openly declare their respective nuclear capability. Their brief engagement with each other in February 1999 and movement toward a rapprochement diluted international condemnation of their nuclear activity. Within a recent period of nine months however, progress in the dialogue has been stalled first by the Pakistani move in Kashmir in May 1999, then by the Indian election in the summer of 1999 and most recently by the military coup in Pakistan.

  6. THE INCREASE OF NORTHEAST ASIAN REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION AND ITS IMPACT ON REGIONAL INTEGRATION INDEX: FOCUS ON THE PETROLEUM SECTOR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sang-Hee Jeong; Ki-Sik Hwang; Hyun-Jung Kim

    2009-01-01

    ... stages of cooperation if energy security cooperation occurs in Northeast Asia. It analyzes the fluctuations in the regional integration index during the progress of the early stages of energy cooperation in Northeast Asia...

  7. Building cooperation through health initiatives: an Arab and Israeli case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skinner Harvey A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ongoing conflict in the Middle East poses a major threat to health and security. A project screening Arab and Israeli newborns for hearing loss provided an opportunity to evaluate ways for building cooperation. The aims of this study were to: a examine what attracted Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian participants to the project, b describe challenges they faced, and c draw lessons learned for guiding cross-border health initiatives. Methods A case study method was used involving 12 key informants stratified by country (3 Israeli, 3 Jordanian, 3 Palestinian, 3 Canadian. In-depth interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using an inductive qualitative approach to derive key themes. Results Major reasons for getting involved included: concern over an important health problem, curiosity about neighbors and opportunities for professional advancement. Participants were attracted to prospects for opening the dialogue, building relationships and facilitating cooperation in the region. The political situation was a major challenge that delayed implementation of the project and placed participants under social pressure. Among lessons learned, fostering personal relationships was viewed as critical for success of this initiative. Conclusion Arab and Israeli health professionals were prepared to get involved for two types of reasons: a Project Level: opportunity to address a significant health issue (e.g. congenital hearing loss while enhancing their professional careers, and b Meta Level: concern about taking positive steps for building cooperation in the region. We invite discussion about roles that health professionals can play in building "cooperation networks" for underpinning health security, conflict resolution and global health promotion.

  8. Numbers Matter: Post-2014 Afghan National Security Force End Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Afghan Border Police ( ABP ), and the Afghan National Civil Order Police (ANCOP).16 Two other Afghan security organizations, which did not factor...Air Force (AAF), Afghan Border Police ( ABP ), and Afghan Uniform Police (AUP), is also a significant challenge to the legitimacy of the ANSF with the

  9. Who makes the (new) metropolis? Cross-border coalition and urban development in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Savini

    2012-01-01

    In fragmented agglomerations, urban development in peripheral areas tends to express the hegemony of the core city over its suburbs. However, this paper demonstrates that, despite deep-rooted political conflicts, intermunicipal cooperation can still take place in the context of cross-border developm

  10. Automatic Intruder Combat System: A way to Smart Border Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushyant Kumar Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Security and safeguard of international borders have always been a dominant issue for every nation. A large part of a nation’s budget is provided to its defense system. Besides wars, illegal intrusion in terms of terrorism is a critical matter that causes severe harm to nation’s property. In India’s perspective, border patrolling by Border Security Forces (BSF has already been practiced from a long time for surveillance. The patrolling parties are equipped with high-end surveillance equipments but yet an alternative to the ply of huge manpower and that too in harsh environmental conditions hasn’t been in existence. An automatic mechanism for smart surveillance and combat is proposed in this paper as a solution to the above-discussed problems. Smart surveillance requires automatic intrusion detection in the surveillance video, which is achieved by using optical flow information as motion features for intruder/human in the scene. The use of optical flow in the proposed smart surveillance makes it robust and more accurate. Use of a simple horizontal feature for fence detection makes system simple and faster to work in real-time. System is also designed to respond against the activities of intruders, of which auto combat is one kind of response.

  11. Toward a New Trilateral Strategic Security Relationship: United States, Canada, and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Kilroy, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "perimeter defense" has come back into vogue recently, with regard to security strategies for North America. The United States' concern primarily with the terrorist threat to its homeland subsequent to September 11, 2001 (9/11 is generating this discussion with its immediate neighbors of Mexico and Canada (and to some extent some Caribbean nations—the "third border". The concept is simply that by pushing defenses out to the "perimeter" nations, then security will be enhanced, since the United States visions itself as more vulnerable to international terrorism than its neighbors. However, Canada and Mexico have not been very happy about the perimeter defined by Washington since 9/11. These nations have sought to define the trilateral relationship beyond just discussions of terrorism to include natural disasters and international organized crime as a component of a broader trilateral agenda. Eight years later these three nations continue to look for some convergence of security interests, although there remains a degree of tension and hesitancy towards achieving a "common security agenda" in the Western Hemisphere.This article examines the concept of "perimeter defense" within the context of the new security challenges that the United States, Mexico, and Canada face today. Questions to be addressed in the article include: Do all these nations share the same "threat" perception? Where exactly is the "perimeter?" What security arrangements have been tried in the past? What are the prospects for the future for increased security cooperation? The main focus of this article is at the sub-regional level in North America and whether a new "trilateral" strategic security relationship between the United States, Canada, and Mexico can emerge in North America.

  12. [Malaria in the triple border region between Brazil, Colombia and Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiter, Paulo César; Franco, Vivian da Cruz; Gracie, Renata; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    This article aims to analyze the malaria surveillance situation on the triple border between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. This was a qualitative study using questionnaires in the border towns in 2011. The results were analyzed with the SWOT matrix methodology, pointing to significant differences between the malaria surveillance systems along the border. Weaknesses included lack of linkage between actors, lack of trained personnel, high turnover in teams, and lack of malaria specialists in the local hospitals. The study also showed lack of knowledge on malaria and its prevention in the local population. The strengths are the inclusion of new institutional actors, improvement of professional training, distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets, and possibilities for complementary action between surveillance systems through cooperation between health teams on the border. Malaria control can only be successful if the region is dealt with as a whole.

  13. Intelligence-Driven Border Security: A Promethean View of U.S. Border Patrol Intelligence Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    their own past judgments. • Intelligence consumers tend to underestimate the true value of intelligence analysis.16 The Chapter II comprises a...mirror imaging, which is along the same family tree as ethnocentrism .70 The 1962 Cuban missile crisis and the 1973 Egyptian/Middle East conflict are...Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Intelligence. McLaughlin relates that in his experience, he has encountered two types of intelligence consumers : those

  14. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  15. NAFTA, public health, and environmental issues in border states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, A. [Texas Office of the Attorney General, Austin, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    During the last decade, the ties that draw countries together both economically and environmentally have become increasingly apparent. This was clearly exposed in the recent debate over the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and in recent decisions interpreting the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Environmental aspects of other international treaties have also come under close scrutiny. This article examines the effects NAFTA and its companion, the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation, may have on public health and environmental regulation in border states.

  16. International Energy Security Indicators and Turkey’s Energy Security Risk Score

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Energy security has been a priority for many countries. What makes energy security that important is; its bilateral relationship with economic, political, social, environmental sustainability and military issues. As an inevitable consequence of globalization cooperation in the field has been a must and it is required international energy security indicators to make energy security risk evaluations in order to establish adequate policies. The aim of the study is to review energy security withi...

  17. United States Border Security and Reserve Component Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-15

    goods, cargo, animals , and plants entering the country. The policy combines the three previously separate functions of immigration, customs, and animal ...terrorism, narco-trafficking, alien smuggling, and weapons of mass destruction. According to U.S. Army Colonel Paul Disney , Director of Operations...Paul R. Disney , USA Director of Operations Joint Task Force North Before the House Armed Services Committee; 1 August 2006; available from http

  18. U.S. Southwest Border Security: An Operational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    are well positioned to profit from illicit trafficking, according to law enforcement reporting. For example, Barrio Azteca – the Texas prison gang...prison gang Barrio Azteca represents an example of a U.S. criminal gang that has been subsumed within a Mexico-based TCO. This criminal gang now serves...

  19. Finding the right technology solutions to secure our borders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, CP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Venter-2015.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1509 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Venter-2015.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Finding the right technology solutions... • Real-life field conditions • Simulated events Maritime Scenario • Maritime and Harbour Protection in Saldanha area • Refugee Influx, Intertidal Poaching, Vessel Interception • Specific “Injects” – plausible events simulated • Various...

  20. Border Security: Is it Achievable on the Rio Grande?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    the outposts along the Rio Grande River.13 A raid by Francisco “ Pancho ” Villa into New Mexico precipitated the Mexican Expedition by General John...J. “Blackjack” Pershing into Mexico to capture Villa . The Pancho Villa expedition, referred to colloquially as the "Punitive Expedition," was a...military operation conducted by the United States Army against the paramilitary forces of insurgent Villa from 1916 to 1917. This effort was in

  1. Providing for the Common Defense: Securing the Southwest Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Agua Prieta Mexico.56 Shifting illegal immigration patterns and drug trafficking routes from easily accessible city based routes through Tijauna/San...23 Brian Michael Jenkins, Countering Al Qaeda, ( Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 2002), p. 28. 24 MacDonald, “Mexico, the United States and the...York Times. June 18, 2000. Jenkins, Brian Micheal. Countering Al Qaeda. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 2002. Jordan, Mary. “Smuggling People is

  2. Securing the Northern Maritime Border Through Maritime Domain Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    of radars and optical and infrared cameras on the Lake Ontario shore. Athena integrated these sensors with tracking beacons, AIS, and weather data...2. Project Athena —Raytheon ...............................................................61 F. CONVERGENCE OF MODELS...61 Figure 7. Project Athena (Source: USBP unclassified briefing slide

  3. The New Wild West: Military Support in Border Security Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    the northern city of San Luis Potosi. Agent 3 Jaime Zapata was killed and his partner, Agent Victor Avila, was shot twice in the leg during the...was a case of mistaken identity. The Zetas had intended to ambush a rival cartel member who drove an SUV similar to the one that Agents Zapata and...

  4. 75 FR 22151 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    .... Maritime Labor. International and Inter-modal Supply Chain. Maritime Hazardous Materials Handling/Shipping... infrastructure; Promoting international cooperation and multilateral solutions to maritime security...

  5. Regional Military Security Cooperation in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Forward for North American Integration by Dr. Stephen Blank, Dr. Stephanie Golob, and Dr. Guy Stanley is a Pace University, Lubin School of Business...States are “the countries that ring the Gap – Mexico, Brazil, South Africa, Morocco, Algeria, Greece, Turkey, Pakistan, Thailand, Malaysia , the... vernacular regarding globalization, I will examine the impact of globalization on the world in terms of population, natural resources, and connectivity

  6. Promoting International Cooperation on Nuclear Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Page; O; Stoutland

    2014-01-01

    <正>If terrorists can obtain a sufficient quantity of weapons usable nuclear material,they could design,construct and detonate a nuclear bomb.The consequences of such a catastrophe would reverberate around the globe,with thousands of casualties,disruptions to economic markets,long-term implications for public health and the environment,and risks to civil liberties-not to mention the staggering cost of any response.

  7. North American Security Cooperation: Prospects for Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    2005, 2). Seventy percent of Mexico’s investment came from the United States ( Krauze 2005, 1). Eighty percent of the overall Canadian and Mexican...Inc., 2001. Kohn, Richard H. “Out of Control: The Crisis in Civil-Military Relations.” The National Interest, (spring 1994): 29-40. Krauze

  8. Assessing Security Cooperation as a Preventive Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Army War College. 6 Jane Crichton , “U.S., Colombian Armies Begin Staff Talks,” news article, Army.mil, March 21, 2012. 7 Thomas S. Szayna, Adam... Crichton , Jane, “U.S., Colombian Armies Begin Staff Talks,” news article, Army. mil, March 21, 2012. As of May 29, 2013: http://www.army.mil

  9. Security Cooperation and Deterrence in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    York: The Penguin Press, 2011), chap. 1, under “Introduction,” Kindle eBook , Loc 163. 136 Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ian E. Rinehart, North Korea: U.S...America’s Armed Forces in an Age of Austerity, chap. 1, under “Introduction,” Kindle eBook , Loc 134. 149 Ibid, Loc 2267. 150 Ibid, Loc 163. 45

  10. Cross-Border Exposures and Financial Contagion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Elahi, M.A.; Penas, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated financial markets provide opportunities for expansion and improved risk sharing, but also pose threats of contagion risk through cross-border exposures. This paper examines cross-border contagion risk over the period 1999-2006. To that purpose we use aggregate cross-border exposures of

  11. Recent trends in cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Ralph; van Horen, Neeltje; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter identifies a number of recent trends in European cross-border banking. The authors first distinguish between two main modes of international banking: cross-border versus multinational banking. Cross-border banking occurs when a bank in country A lends directly to a borrower in country

  12. SECURITY MECHANISM FOR MANETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASIR ABDELGADIR MOHAMED

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Be short of well-defined networks boundaries, shared medium, collaborative services, and dynamic nature, all are representing some of the key characteristics that distinguish mobile ad hoc networks from the conventional ones. Besides, each node is a possible part of the essential support infrastructure, cooperate with each other to make basic communication services available. Forwarding packets or participating in routing process, either of each can directly affect the network security state. Nevertheless, ad hoc networks are suspectable to the same vulnerabilities and prone to the same types of failures as conventional networks. Even though immune-inspired approaches aren’t essentially new to the research domain, the percentage of applying immune features in solving security problems fluctuates. In this paper, security approach based on both immunity and multi-agent paradigm is presented. Distributability, second response, and self recovery, are the hallmarks of the proposed security model which put a consideration on high nodes mobility.

  13. Old Borders and New Bordering Capabilities: Cities as Frontier Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sassen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global city is a new frontier zone. Deregulation, privatization, and new fiscal and monetary policies create the formal instruments to construct their equivalent of the old military “fort”. The city is also a strategic frontier zone for those who lack power, and allows the making of informal politics. At the same time the border is a mix of regimes, marked by protections and opportunities for corporations and high-level professionals, and implies confinement, capture and detention for migrants. The essay discusses the transformation of the city in a frontier zone and analyses the separation between the capabilities entailed by territoriality and the geographic territory tout court. The analysis focuses on the effects of neoliberal policies that, far from making this a borderless world, have actually multiplied the bordered spaces that allow firms and markets to move across conventional borders. Cities are therefore one of the key sites where new neoliberal norms are made and where new identities emerge.

  14. The role of optics in secure credentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Terri L.

    2006-02-01

    The global need for secure ID credentials has grown rapidly over the last few years. This is evident both in government and commercial sectors. Governmental programs include national ID card programs, permanent resident cards for noncitizens, biometric visas or border crossing cards, foreign worker ID programs and secure vehicle registration programs. The commercial need for secure credentials includes secure banking and financial services, security and access control systems and digital healthcare record cards. All of these programs necessitate the use of multiple tamper and counterfeit resistant features for credential authentication and cardholder verification. It is generally accepted that a secure credential should include a combination of overt, covert and forensic security features. The LaserCard optical memory card is a proven example of a secure credential that uses a variety of optical features to enhance its counterfeit resistance and reliability. This paper will review those features and how they interact to create a better credential.

  15. Beyond Our Borders? Public Resistance to Global Genomic Data Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Mary A; Cook-Deegan, Robert; McGuire, Amy L

    2016-11-01

    Prospects have never seemed better for a truly global approach to science to improve human health, with leaders of national initiatives laying out their vision of a worldwide network of related projects. An extensive literature addresses obstacles to global genomic data sharing, yet a series of public polls suggests that the scientific community may be overlooking a significant barrier: potential public resistance to data sharing across national borders. In several large United States surveys, university researchers in other countries were deemed the least acceptable group of data users, and a just-completed US survey found a marked increase in privacy and security concerns related to data access by non-US researchers. Furthermore, diminished support for sharing beyond national borders is not unique to the US, although the limited data from outside the US suggest variation across countries as well as demographic groups. Possible sources of resistance include apprehension about privacy and security protections. Strategies for building public support include making the affirmative case for global data sharing, addressing privacy, security, and other legitimate concerns, and investigating public concerns in greater depth.

  16. ENHANCING COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China and Japan can cooperate on a wide scope of issues, such as the organization of the Beijing Olympic Games next year and aid to Africa,said Ide Keiji, Minister of Public Relations, Press, Culture, Education and Sports and Spokesperson of the Embassy

  17. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  18. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  19. Development of the model of protected cross-border information interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyashev, R. G.; Nyssanbayeva, S. E.; Begimbayeva, Ye. Y.

    2016-08-01

    This article investigates a proposed model of cross-border exchange and information security in the cross-border interaction in the integration system. A structural scheme of protected cross-border information exchange is proposed. Cross-border interaction of sides for information exchange in the integrated system is provided by the creation and use of the integration segment and national segments. The main tasks of a trusted third party are formulated. The model of sides' interaction scheme of the integration system using the integration gateway is presented. In this paper, a model of modified nonconventional digital signature system based on the scheme of the Digital Signature Algorithm and nonpositional polynomial number systems (NPNs) are described. Application of NPNs allows creating effective cryptographic systems of high reliability, which enables the confidentiality, authentication, integrity of stored and transmitted information.

  20. Languaging the Borders of Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Kramsch; Kolar Aparna; Huda Degu

    2015-01-01

    Emerging from a discomfort with the blind spots encountered within and across theorizations of language and space in the field of human geography, in this article, we argue for “making space” for conceptualizations that speak from and through the everyday territories of migrants in Europe today. Inspired by a range of writers thinking postcolonially and multi/trans-lingually, the authors draw on their own embodied migrant experience to argue for re-envisioning Europe’s borders through multipl...