WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooperation reviewing frameworks

  1. Review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jørgensen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    A review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa (SADC region) which have been funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation.......A review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa (SADC region) which have been funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation....

  2. Parallel Framework for Cooperative Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitică Craus

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the work of an object oriented framework designed to be used in the parallelization of a set of related algorithms. The idea behind the system we are describing is to have a re-usable framework for running several sequential algorithms in a parallel environment. The algorithms that the framework can be used with have several things in common: they have to run in cycles and the work should be possible to be split between several "processing units". The parallel framework uses the message-passing communication paradigm and is organized as a master-slave system. Two applications are presented: an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO parallel algorithm for the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP and an Image Processing (IP parallel algorithm for the Symmetrical Neighborhood Filter (SNF. The implementations of these applications by means of the parallel framework prove to have good performances: approximatively linear speedup and low communication cost.

  3. Strengthening of the Cooperative Framework for ANENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K. W.; Lee, E. J.; Min, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    The Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (ANENT) was established in February 2004 to promote nuclear education and training in Asia. Initially ANENT member countries cooperated with 5 group activities encompassing broad areas. As of 2006, the cooperative framework was strengthened in a way to focus on web-based nuclear education and training for a period of several years to come. In this context, the Nuclear Training Center (NTC) of KAERI has contributed, in particular, to the development of the ANENT web-portal including a cyber platform, and making available relevant courses and materials on the web-portal. This paper discusses details of the strengthened cooperative framework in terms of NTC's effort for realizing web-based education and training through regional networking

  4. A Cooperative Framework for Fireworks Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Shaoqiu; Li, Junzhi; Janecek, Andreas; Tan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a cooperative framework for fireworks algorithm (CoFFWA). A detailed analysis of existing fireworks algorithm (FWA) and its recently developed variants has revealed that (i) the selection strategy lead to the contribution of the firework with the best fitness (core firework) for the optimization overwhelms the contributions of the rest of fireworks (non-core fireworks) in the explosion operator, (ii) the Gaussian mutation operator is not as effective as it is designed to b...

  5. Cooperative newsvendor games : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montrucchio, L.; Norde, H.; Ozen, U.; Scarsini, M.; Slikker, M.; Choi, T.-M.

    2012-01-01

    In this survey, we review some of the main contributions to the cooperative approach of newsvendor situations. We show how newsvendor situations with several retailers can be modeled as a transferable-utility cooperative game and we concentrate on one solution concept: the core. First, we examine

  6. International cooperation in the framework Inter ASUugol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejckova, J

    1982-01-01

    Results are described of the cooperation in 1981 of the USSR, People's Republic of Bulgaria, Bulgarian People's Republic, GDR, Polish People's Republic, Socialist Republic of Romania and CSSR to implement the program ''creation and introduction of ACS in the coal industry.'' The program includes three main trends: 1) general questions of the system of automated control; 2) automated system of economic control; 3) automated control of production and economic activity of the enterprises. In the framework of the first trend, specialists of the USSR, Polish People's Republic and CSSR finished compiling in seven volumes the international terminological dictionary on automation of control and international catalog of the devices for automation. Studies have been completed on the topics ''predicting the development of ACS and main trends for cooperation up to 1990 and 2000,'' and ''systems of information support at different levels of control.'' In the framework of the second trend, each country solves problems of control and different stages of development depending on specific conditions. In the topic ''control of the content, repair and reliability of the equipment of mines, quarries and enrichment plants'' only problems of mines are solved. The module system of data processing makes it possible to have bilateral and multilateral cooperation. In conducting work in the third trend, a solution was found for the problems associated with control of production and production processes in mines, quarries and enrichment plants. In all trends of work techniques and algorithms were compiled and problems were defined for the future period of study.

  7. A Cooperative Framework for Fireworks Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shaoqiu; Li, Junzhi; Janecek, Andreas; Tan, Ying

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a cooperative framework for fireworks algorithm (CoFFWA). A detailed analysis of existing fireworks algorithm (FWA) and its recently developed variants has revealed that ( i) the current selection strategy has the drawback that the contribution of the firework with the best fitness (denoted as core firework) overwhelms the contributions of all other fireworks (non-core fireworks) in the explosion operator, ( ii) the Gaussian mutation operator is not as effective as it is designed to be. To overcome these limitations, the CoFFWA is proposed, which significantly improves the exploitation capability by using an independent selection method and also increases the exploration capability by incorporating a crowdness-avoiding cooperative strategy among the fireworks. Experimental results on the CEC2013 benchmark functions indicate that CoFFWA outperforms the state-of-the-art FWA variants, artificial bee colony, differential evolution, and the standard particle swarm optimization SPSO2007/SPSO2011 in terms of convergence performance.

  8. A versatile framework for cooperative hub network development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.; Dullaert, W.; Hamers, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for cooperative hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for the transshipment of goods is expensive and, therefore, involves considerable risks for cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at

  9. A versatile framework for cooperative hub network development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, Frans; Borm, Peter; Dullaert, Wout; Hamers, Herbert

    This paper introduces a framework for cooperative hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for the transshipment of goods is expensive and, therefore, involves considerable risks for cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at

  10. Chinalco Signed Framework Agreement for Strategic Cooperation with Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Recently,Chinalco and Gansu Provincial People’s Government signed"Framework Agreement for Strategic Cooperation on Reform,Restructuring and Transition Development of Chinalco’s Electrolytic Aluminum Enterprises in Gansu",signifying that the strategic cooperation between Chinalco and Gansu Province had made new substantive progress.

  11. IAEA Director General Comments on Cooperation Framework with Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The following are remarks by the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Yukiya Amano, at a News Conference after he signed a Joint Statement on a Framework for Cooperation with the Islamic Republic of Iran: ''The International Atomic Energy Agency and the Islamic Republic of Iran have just issued the Joint Statement on a Framework for Cooperation. ''Under the Framework, Iran and the IAEA will cooperate further with respect to verification activities to be undertaken by the IAEA to resolve all present and past issues. The practical measures contained in the Annex are substantive measures and will be implemented in three months starting from today. ''This is an important step forward to start with, but much more needs to be done. ''The outstanding issues that are not contained in the Annex to the Framework for Cooperation, including those in my previous reports to the Board of Governors, will be addressed in the subsequent steps under the Framework for Cooperation. ''The IAEA is firmly committed to resolving all outstanding issues through dialogue and cooperation . (IAEA)

  12. Reproductive Health in the Framework of Cooperation for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Lozano

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the way cooperation for development has dealt with sexual and reproductive rights by looking at the following three aspects of the question (with the case of Mexico as an example: the actors confronting one another over theissues under discussion (the international donor agencies and specifically the United Nations; the Vatican and the national churches; and the feminist movement; initiatives taking an empowerment approach; and a realistic, viable perspective on possible ways of establishing North-South cooperation relations.In relation to options on support and financing for reproductive rights projects, the resistance of cooperation agencies to incorporate the issue is analyzed. Then the paper discusses elements of a proposal for adoption of a global strategy, some possible pointsof departure, dilemmas faced by bodies receiving applications, and possible strategies for alliances between bodies in North and South.

  13. Cooperative Robots to Observe Moving Targets: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Rinner, Bernhard; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The deployment of multiple robots for achieving a common goal helps to improve the performance, efficiency, and/or robustness in a variety of tasks. In particular, the observation of moving targets is an important multirobot application that still exhibits numerous open challenges, including the effective coordination of the robots. This paper reviews control techniques for cooperative mobile robots monitoring multiple targets. The simultaneous movement of robots and targets makes this problem particularly interesting, and our review systematically addresses this cooperative multirobot problem for the first time. We classify and critically discuss the control techniques: cooperative multirobot observation of multiple moving targets, cooperative search, acquisition, and track, cooperative tracking, and multirobot pursuit evasion. We also identify the five major elements that characterize this problem, namely, the coordination method, the environment, the target, the robot and its sensor(s). These elements are used to systematically analyze the control techniques. The majority of the studied work is based on simulation and laboratory studies, which may not accurately reflect real-world operational conditions. Importantly, while our systematic analysis is focused on multitarget observation, our proposed classification is useful also for related multirobot applications.

  14. Developments in cooperative learning: review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn M. Gillies

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning, where students work in small groups to accomplish shared goals, is widely recognized as a teaching strategy that promotes learning and socialization among students from kindergarten through college and across different subject domains. It has been used successfully to promote reading and writing achievements, understanding and conceptual development in science classes, problem-solving in mathematics, and higher-order thinking and learning to name just a few. It has been shown to enhance students' willingness to work cooperatively and productively with others with diverse learning and adjustment needs and to enhance intergroup relations with those from culturally and ethnically different backgrounds. It has also been used as a teaching strategy to assist students to manage conflict and to help students identified as bullies learn appropriate interpersonal skills. In fact, it has been argued that cooperative learning experiences are crucial to preventing and alleviating many of the social problems related to children, adolescents, and young adults. There is no doubt that the benefits attributed to cooperative learning are widespread and numerous and it is the apparent success of this approach to learning that has led to it being acclaimed as one of the greatest educational innovations of recent times. The purpose of this paper is not only to review developments in research on cooperative learning but also to examine the factors that mediate and moderate its success. In particular, the review focuses on the types of student and teacher interactions generated and the key role talk plays in developing student thinking and learning, albeit through the expression of contrasting opinions or constructed shared meaning. The intention is to provide additional insights on how teachers can effectively utilize this pedagogical approach to teaching and learning in their classrooms.

  15. The OPRC framework for international cooperation in R ampersand D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, B.

    1992-01-01

    Immediately in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez incident in March 1989, work commenced on developing a new international framework for cooperation in oil pollution preparedness and response. That work culminated in the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-Operation, 1990 or OPRC. My presentation today will discuss the development of this new Convention, the meaning of its provisions, and what opportunities might exist. Long before the Exxon Valdez grounded, the need for countries to offer mutual assistance to each other was recognized by virtually anyone who had been involved in a major pollution event. That a single country could not open-quotes go it aloneclose quotes was an established fact. Oil pollution was recognized as an international problem, especially when an incident occurred in waters marking the boundary between countries or in enclosed bodies of water. But cooperation in oil pollution response was marked by bilateral agreements between neighboring countries, or at most, regional agreements among countries sharing a common shoreline. The Exxon Valdez, as unfortunate an occurrence as it was, acted as the catalyst to change that. The United States, arguably the most prosperous country in the world, could not cope with a spill the size of the Exxon Valdez with the resources it had on hand. Assistance was requested from virtually any government known to have or thought to have oil spill recovery equipment. Like few other incidents before, the Exxon Valdez showed the need for the open-quotes internationalizationclose quotes of oil pollution response beyond the traditional approach

  16. Decentralising Multicell Cooperative Processing: A Novel Robust Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesbert David

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicell cooperative processing (MCP has the potential to boost spectral efficiency and improve fairness of cellular systems. However the typical centralised conception for MCP incurs significant infrastructural overheads which increase the system costs and hinder the practical implementation of MCP. In Frequency Division Duplexing systems each user feeds back its Channel State Information (CSI only to one Base Station (BS. Therefore collaborating BSs need to be interconnected via low-latency backhaul links, and a Control Unit is necessary in order to gather user CSI, perform scheduling, and coordinate transmission. In this paper a new framework is proposed that allows MCP on the downlink while circumventing the aforementioned costly modifications on the existing infrastructure of cellular systems. Each MS feeds back its CSI to all collaborating BSs, and the needed operations of user scheduling and signal processing are performed in a distributed fashion by the involved BSs. Furthermore the proposed framework is shown to be robust against feedback errors when quantized CSI feedback and linear precoding are employed.

  17. Cooperation between referees and authors increases peer review accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T Leek

    Full Text Available Peer review is fundamentally a cooperative process between scientists in a community who agree to review each other's work in an unbiased fashion. Peer review is the foundation for decisions concerning publication in journals, awarding of grants, and academic promotion. Here we perform a laboratory study of open and closed peer review based on an online game. We show that when reviewer behavior was made public under open review, reviewers were rewarded for refereeing and formed significantly more cooperative interactions (13% increase in cooperation, P = 0.018. We also show that referees and authors who participated in cooperative interactions had an 11% higher reviewing accuracy rate (P = 0.016. Our results suggest that increasing cooperation in the peer review process can lead to a decreased risk of reviewing errors.

  18. Development cooperation in water and sanitation: is it based on the human rights framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colin; Heller, Léo

    2017-07-01

    The water and sanitation sector is verifiably receiving increased attention and funding through international development cooperation. Not least because of the way that it affects incentives and institutions in partner countries, development cooperation can have either positive or negative effects on human rights though. The consolidated frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation is becoming linked to the international community's coordinated development efforts, as evidenced notably in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, a review of major funders' official policies for development cooperation in the sector suggests that many only partially endorse the frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation. An observation of development cooperation flows to the sector allows the hypothesis to be advanced that worldwide inequalities in access to these services may be reduced through a full and clear application of the human rights framework in development cooperation activities. The article presents findings of this research and explores key stakes for development cooperation in the water and sanitation sector that are relevant for their ability to either negatively or positively contribute to the realization of human rights. Resumen El sector de agua y saneamiento ha recibido creciente atención y financiación a través de la cooperación internacional para el desarrollo. La cooperación para el desarrollo puede tener efectos tanto positivos cuanto negativos sobre los derechos humanos. El hito que consolida los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento están articulados a esfuerzos de cooperación para el desarrollo promovidos por la comunidad internacional, como se evidencia en la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible. Sin embargo, una revisión de las políticas oficiales de los principales financiadores del sector sugiere que muchos de ellos aprueban solo parcialmente los hitos de los derechos humanos al agua y el

  19. Multi-agent Cooperation in a Planning Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Bos, A.; Tonino, J.F.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2000-01-01

    The promise of multi-agent systems is that multiple agents can solve problems more efficiently than single agents can. In this paper we propose a method to implement cooperation between agents in the planning phase, in order to achive more cost-effective solutions than without cooperation. Two

  20. Class Counts: An Overview and Response to Mr. Cooper's Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Allan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents Allan Ornstein's response to highly respected scholar, Bruce Cooper's review of Ornstein's 2007 book, "Class Counts: Education, Inequality and the Shrinking Middle Class." Here Ornstein attempts to elaborate on a few points that he felt Cooper missed in his review.

  1. A Conceptual Framework for the Cultural Integration of Cooperative Learning: A Thai Primary Mathematics Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Yong; Nuntrakune, Tippawan

    2013-01-01

    The Thailand education reform adopted cooperative learning to improve the quality of education. However, it has been reported that the introduction and maintenance of cooperative learning has been difficult and uncertain because of the cultural differences. The study proposed a conceptual framework developed based on making a connection between…

  2. Strategic interaction between government and central bank in framework of cooperative and non-cooperative games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudinia, D.; Engwerda, Jacob; Esfahani, Rahim Dallali; Dastjerdi, R.B.; Fakhar, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed the strategic interaction between government and central bank in Iranian economy. Using dynamic differential games and Nash equilibrium within cooperative and non-cooperative setting, we try to find the optimal values of debt, deficit and monetary base. The results of

  3. Cooperative Learning: Review of Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from pre-school through to tertiary level and across different subject domains. It involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks--goals and tasks that they would be unable to complete by…

  4. An object-oriented framework for managing cooperating legacy databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balsters, H; de Brock, EO

    2003-01-01

    We describe a general semantic framework for precise specification of so-called database federations. A database federation provides for tight coupling of a collection of heterogeneous legacy databases into a global integrated system. Our approach to database federation is based on the UML/OCL data

  5. Intelligent cooperation: A framework of pedagogic practice in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutkin, Gary; Littleton, Eliza B; Kanter, Steven L

    2018-04-01

    Surgeons who work with trainees must address their learning needs without compromising patient safety. We used a constructivist grounded theory approach to examine videos of five teaching surgeries. Attending surgeons were interviewed afterward while watching cued videos of their cases. Codes were iteratively refined into major themes, and then constructed into a larger framework. We present a novel framework, Intelligent Cooperation, which accounts for the highly adaptive, iterative features of surgical teaching in the operating room. Specifically, we define Intelligent Cooperation as a sequence of coordinated exchanges between attending and trainee that accomplishes small surgical steps while simultaneously uncovering the trainee's learning needs. Intelligent Cooperation requires the attending to accurately determine learning needs, perform real-time needs assessment, provide critical scaffolding, and work with the learner to accomplish the next step in the surgery. This is achieved through intense, coordinated verbal and physical cooperation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chinalco Signed Framework Agreement for Strategic Cooperation with Harbin Municipal Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Last month,Chinalco signed framework agreement for strategic cooperation with Harbin Municipal Government in Harbin Xiong Weiping,Chairman of Chinalco,said that based on the strategic deployment to build world top-class mining company with the highest growth potential,Chinalco was now concentrating all efforts on making strategic transition and structural adjustment,strategic cooperation with the local governments where

  7. An assessment of the sustainable energy investments in the framework of the EU-GCC cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D.; Doukas, Haris; Askounis, Dimitris T.

    2007-01-01

    The cooperation between the European Union (EU) and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) should be broadened, deepened and become more interactive due to GCC states' accession to the Kyoto protocol in 2005. Nowadays, the GCC states start putting climate change and its business opportunities on the top of their priorities' list towards the accomplishment of the sustainable development goals. However, the level of development of sustainable energy investments (renewable energy, CO 2 sequestration and rational use of energy) is low until now in the GCC. For the above reason, the assessment of appropriate investments needs to be taken into account both by the governments in order to design the appropriate framework for supporting them and the project investors to identify the commercially profitable ones. In this framework, the aim of this paper is the identification and assessment of sustainable energy investments in the framework of the EU-GCC co-operation. (author)

  8. Shariah Governance Framework For Islamic Co-Operatives As An Integral Social Insitution In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Issyam Itam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, Islamic cooperatives are recognized as providers of some form of Islamic financial service similar to Islamic Banks and Takaful Operators. An Islamic Co-operative refers to a co-operative conducting activities and businesses based on Shariah principles. Being a non-banking financial institution, its main objective is to enhance social economic welfare of its members. As a form of captive social institution, it enables the less economically privileged members of society to pool resources as a cooperative. Malaysia is spearheading the Islamic banking and finance industry globally by having in place a proper and well-designed legal and regulatory framework for Islamic Financial Institutions, which includes the area of Shariah governance. However, the Shariah governance framework for the Islamic Co-operative in Malaysia is still in its infancy stage. In this paper, this area will be given focus and properly highlighted. Later, comparison will be made with the Shariah governance framework for the Islamic financial institutions. This paper will conclude that the requirements with regard to Shariah governance for the Islamic Co-operative are flexible and not as strict as required for the Islamic financial institutions.

  9. Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Requirements Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurawski, Jason, W; Mace, Kathryn, P

    2016-08-11

    In August 2016 The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) and Colorado State University (CSU) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) located on the campus of Colorado State University. Several key findings highlighting the results from the review were discovered, with benefits to improve the overall scientific process for CIRA and CSU.

  10. A microeconomic-based framework for green cooperative communications

    KAUST Repository

    Bonello, Nicholas

    2011-05-01

    The global concern on environmental issues is placing its mark on all sectors of the society, including of course, the wireless telecommunications industry. In this paper, we develop a microeconomic-based green radio framework in which a network operator shifts some of its responsibilities towards the intended destination to one of these inactive end-users with the specific intention of reducing the transmitted power of its source nodes and the incurred costs. Our results disclose up to 70% energy savings and up to 65% cost savings over the direct transmission benchmarker, when selecting from approximately 50 eligible relays in the scenario portrayed by the UMTS Rel. 99 standard. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. A microeconomic-based framework for green cooperative communications

    KAUST Repository

    Bonello, Nicholas; Aissa, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    The global concern on environmental issues is placing its mark on all sectors of the society, including of course, the wireless telecommunications industry. In this paper, we develop a microeconomic-based green radio framework in which a network operator shifts some of its responsibilities towards the intended destination to one of these inactive end-users with the specific intention of reducing the transmitted power of its source nodes and the incurred costs. Our results disclose up to 70% energy savings and up to 65% cost savings over the direct transmission benchmarker, when selecting from approximately 50 eligible relays in the scenario portrayed by the UMTS Rel. 99 standard. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Preventing external domino accidents : A framework for enhancing cooperation in the Chemical Process Industry (CPI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.; Dullaert, W.; Soudan, K.

    2005-01-01

    Empirical research on major accident safety in the second largest chemical cluster worldwide, the Antwerp port area, supports the design of a meta-technical framework for optimizing external domino prevention. First, the majority of Seveso top tier companies have expressed a willingness to cooperate

  13. A QUANTITATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR EARLY PREDICTION OF COOPERATION IN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ajitha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A Multi-Agent System (MAS is a system composed of multiple interacting intelligent agents. MAS can be used to solve problems that are difficult or impossible for an individual agent to solve. The different characteristics of MAS help in solving highly complex distributed problems. One of the important characteristics of MAS is its cooperative nature. This character helps different agents to interact with each other by exchanging messages. One of the major challenges in MAS is quantifying the cooperation between agents. This paper presents a framework for the quantification of cooperation between agents in MAS. We propose a methodology which helps to quantify the cooperation in the early stages of software development using a UML sequence diagram and a mathematical model. The proposed techniques are illustrated with the help of a case study. The numerical results we got were quite satisfactory.

  14. Cooperation in stochastic inventory models with continuous review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucherie, Richardus J.; Chessa, Michela; Timmer, Judith B.

    Consider multiple companies that continuously review their inventories and face Poisson demand. We study cooperation strategies for these companies and analyse if there exist allocations of the joint cost such that any company has lower costs than on its own; such allocations are called stable cost

  15. Supply chain integration framework using literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Alfalla-Luque, Rafaela; Medina-Lopez, Carmen; Dey, Prasanta K.

    2013-01-01

    Definitions and measures of supply chain integration (SCI) are diverse. More empirical research, with clear definition and appropriate measures are needed. The purpose of this article is to identify dimensions and variables for SCI and develop an integrated framework to facilitate this. A literature review of the relevant academic papers in international journals in Logistics, Supply Chain Management and Operations Management for the period 1995-2009 has been undertaken. This study reveals th...

  16. Current and future role of agreements for cooperation as the framework for international nuclear commerce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, P.N.

    1976-01-01

    An agreement for cooperation in the civil use of atomic energy was established by Congress as the primary vehicle for ensuring that the benefits of cooperation outweigh the risks. The elements and nature of the agreement for cooperation are reviewed in this article. The evolution of some of the more significant provisions of the agreements and the type of activities conducted under them are discussed. The question is raised as to whether or not these agreements for cooperation are strong enough in the light of nations of the world becoming more concerned with the implications of burgeoning nuclear power activities. The question, ''Should these agreements be elevated to the status of treaties.'' is asked also

  17. A General Framework for Reviewing Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    in specific types of situations in the real (extra-lexicographic) world. I propose a basis for a framework that contains an outline of general theoretical and practical principles that underlie the true nature of dictionary reviews, and places the reviews in a lexicographic universe with the dictionary...... and lexicography at its centre. This seems to be in line with the modern understanding of lexicography as a separate academic discipline concerned with the compilation, design, evaluation and use of dictionaries. Moreover, a set of generally applicable principles may lead the discourse community to accept...

  18. A spin transition mechanism for cooperative adsorption in metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Douglas A.; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Oktawiec, Julia; Mason, Jarad A.; Runčevski, Tomče; Xiao, Dianne J.; Darago, Lucy E.; Crocellà, Valentina; Bordiga, Silvia; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2017-10-01

    Cooperative binding, whereby an initial binding event facilitates the uptake of additional substrate molecules, is common in biological systems such as haemoglobin. It was recently shown that porous solids that exhibit cooperative binding have substantial energetic benefits over traditional adsorbents, but few guidelines currently exist for the design of such materials. In principle, metal-organic frameworks that contain coordinatively unsaturated metal centres could act as both selective and cooperative adsorbents if guest binding at one site were to trigger an electronic transformation that subsequently altered the binding properties at neighbouring metal sites. Here we illustrate this concept through the selective adsorption of carbon monoxide (CO) in a series of metal-organic frameworks featuring coordinatively unsaturated iron(II) sites. Functioning via a mechanism by which neighbouring iron(II) sites undergo a spin-state transition above a threshold CO pressure, these materials exhibit large CO separation capacities with only small changes in temperature. The very low regeneration energies that result may enable more efficient Fischer-Tropsch conversions and extraction of CO from industrial waste feeds, which currently underutilize this versatile carbon synthon. The electronic basis for the cooperative adsorption demonstrated here could provide a general strategy for designing efficient and selective adsorbents suitable for various separations.

  19. Intercultural Competence in International Software R&D Cooperation. Toward a Conceptual Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2001-01-01

    As part of a research project on cooperation between software development subcontractors from small countries and foreign customers, the dynamics of intercultural competence are being examined. This paper builds a conceptual bridge by developing a definition of organizational intercultural....... It is envisioned that the presented novel framework could be helpful to software developing subcontractors from small national states who already use the competence terminology in discussions of their firms' capabilities and strategies....

  20. Literature review on recent international activity in cooperative vehicle-highway automation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This literature review supports the report, Recent International Activity in Cooperative VehicleHighway Automation Systems. It : reviews the published literature in English dating from 2007 or later about non-U.S.-based work on cooperative vehicle...

  1. Energy drinks in the Gulf Cooperation Council states: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Alhyas, Layla; El Kashef, Ahmed; AlGhaferi, Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks u...

  2. The multicultural orientation framework: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Don E; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Owen, Jesse; Hook, Joshua N; Rivera, David P; Choe, Elise; Van Tongeren, D R; Worthington, Everett L; Placeres, Vanessa

    2018-03-01

    After several decades of slow progress, researchers are beginning to make advances in linking constructs based on the multicultural competencies tradition-especially those focused on qualities of the therapist-to therapy outcomes. The multicultural orientation framework was developed in response to several trends within the multicultural competencies tradition, with a particular emphasis on integrating the multicultural competencies tradition into research on psychotherapy process. We provide a narrative review of studies that include one of the three constructs (i.e., cultural humility, cultural opportunities, and cultural comfort) articulated by the multicultural orientation framework. Results indicate initial evidence linking multicultural orientation constructs to therapy outcomes (e.g., perceived improvement, racial/ethnic disparities in termination, and therapy alliance). Results also supported the social bond and social oil hypotheses from theorizing on humility. Implications for future research and therapy practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Developing multinational radioactive waste repositories: Infrastructural framework and scenarios of cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    Currently the management of radioactive wastes centres on national strategies for collection, treatment, interim storage and disposal. This tendency to focus exclusively on national strategies reflects the fact that radioactive waste is a sensitive political issue, making cooperation among countries difficult. It is consistent with the accepted principle that a country that enjoys the benefit of nuclear energy, or the utilization of nuclear technology, should also take full responsibility for managing the generated radioactive waste. However, there are countries whose radioactive waste volumes do not easily justify a national repository, and/or countries that do not have the resources or favourable natural conditions for waste disposal to dedicate to a national repository project or would prefer to collaborate in shared initiatives because of their economic advantages. In such cases it may be appropriate for these countries to engage in a multinational collaborative effort to ensure that they have access to a common repository, in order that they can fulfil their responsibilities for their managing wastes safely. In response to requests from several Member States expressing an interest in multinational disposal options, the IAEA produced in 1998 a TECDOC outlining the important factors to be taken into account in the process of realizing such options. These factors include for example, technical (safety), institutional (legal, safeguards), economic (financial) socio-political (public acceptance) and ethical considerations. The present report reviews the work done in the previous study, taking into account developments since its publication as well as current activities in the field of multinational repositories. The report attempts to define the concepts involved in the creation of multinational repositories, to explore the likely scenarios, to examine the conditions for successful implementation, and to point out the benefits and challenges inherent to

  4. US/Japan Cooperation in High Energy Physics. Review of activities, 1988--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-16

    The objective of the Implementing Arrangement was to further the energy programs of both countries by establishing a framework for cooperation in the field of high energy physics, including research, accelerator and detector instrumentation research and development, the fabrication and subsequent use of new experimental devices and facilities, and related joint efforts as may be mutually agreed. Over the years, this cooperation has been very effective and has strengthened the overall collaborative efforts and the understanding between our nations and their citizens. It has demonstrated to the world our ability to work together to attack difficult problems. High Energy Physics goes across national borders; the bond is clearly intellectual and common ground is shared for the benefit of all in a most effective manner. This review covers the activities conducted under the aegis of the US/Japan Committee for Cooperation in High Energy Physics during the past five years (1988--1993). This was the second such US review of the US/Japan cooperative activities; the first was held in 1987.

  5. A framework for service enterprise workflow simulation with multi-agents cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenan; Xu, Wei; Yang, Fujun; Xu, Lida; Jiang, Chuanqun

    2013-11-01

    Process dynamic modelling for service business is the key technique for Service-Oriented information systems and service business management, and the workflow model of business processes is the core part of service systems. Service business workflow simulation is the prevalent approach to be used for analysis of service business process dynamically. Generic method for service business workflow simulation is based on the discrete event queuing theory, which is lack of flexibility and scalability. In this paper, we propose a service workflow-oriented framework for the process simulation of service businesses using multi-agent cooperation to address the above issues. Social rationality of agent is introduced into the proposed framework. Adopting rationality as one social factor for decision-making strategies, a flexible scheduling for activity instances has been implemented. A system prototype has been developed to validate the proposed simulation framework through a business case study.

  6. A Framework of Retailer-Manufacturer Cooperation and Coopetition: Consumer Durable Goods Retailers’ Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework of cooperation and coopetition between retailers and key manufacturers from a perspective of retailers offering consumer durables. Research Design & Methods: In order to answer the research questions semi-structured, in-depth and face-to-face interviews with managers of six SMEs or large retailers operating in Poland and offering consumer durables were carried out. Findings: The empirical studies confirm both cooperation and coopetition between retailers and manufacturers – suppliers of consumer durables depending on, among others, the category of consumer goods and the balance of power between retailers and manufacturers. The scope of cooperation is not too wide, and concerns only some of the value chain processes indicated in the literature. Implications & Recommendations: Conducted studies are exploratory and need to be deepen with the use of quantitative research that will help determine the impact of the balance of power between manufacturers and retailers and the strength of retailer-manufacturer relations on the range / areas and financial and non-financial performance of this cooperation. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying some aspects of retailers’ relations with their key suppliers operating in consumer durables market.

  7. Beyond Public and Private: A Framework for Co-operative Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Neary

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Universities in the UK are increasingly adopting corporate governance structures, a consumerist model of teaching and learning, and have the most expensive tuition fees in the world (McGettigan, 2013; OECD, 2015. This article discusses collaborative research that aimed to develop and define a conceptual framework of knowledge production grounded in co-operative values and principles. The main findings are outlined relating to the key themes of our research: knowledge, democracy, bureaucracy, livelihood, and solidarity. We consider how these five ‘catalytic principles’ relate to three identified routes to co-operative higher education (conversion, dissolution, or creation and argue that such work must be grounded in an adequate critique of labour and property, i.e. the capital relation. We identify both the possible opportunities that the latest higher education reform in the UK affords the co-operative movement as well as the issues that arise from a more marketised and financialised approach to the production of knowledge (HEFCE, 2015. Finally, we suggest ways that the co-operative movement might respond with democratic alternatives that go beyond the distinction of public and private education.

  8. IAEA, EU Senior Officials Review Nuclear-Related Cooperation, Chart Way Ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2014-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and European Union officials met this week for the second annual Senior Officials Meeting to review and further strengthen their nuclear-related cooperation. In the past year, the two institutions have improved collaboration in nuclear safety, security, safeguards and peaceful use of nuclear energy through implementing a number of initiatives. In 2013, new contracts for projects have been signed amounting to approximately 24 million euros. These included an EU Council decision to support IAEA nuclear security and verification activities worth of 8.05 million euros. Furthermore, a Memorandum of Understanding establishing a framework for cooperation to help improve nuclear safety was signed, as well as the Practical Arrangement on technical nuclear security issues. The EU and the IAEA have also worked to explore and identify new areas for cooperation such as using nuclear applications for socio-economic development. The meeting addressed enhanced cooperation in the areas of nuclear safety, nuclear security, nuclear applications, nuclear energy and safeguards. Participants agreed on the following steps, including holding a Senior Officials Meeting planned in early 2015 in the premises of the European Commission in Luxembourg

  9. A Multi-Antenna Framework for Spectrum Reuse Based on Primary-Secondary Cooperation

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Omar

    2008-10-01

    This paper proposes a new framework for spectrum reuse. Existing architectures have centered on secondary users (cognitive radios) that can reliably sense primary users and opportunistically transmit, without directly interacting with the primary system. We present a paradigm in which the primary and secondary systems cooperate, to minimize interference to primary users and provide predictable access for secondary users. Because this architecture gives the primary system full control over spectrum sharing, it could be more favorable in the current economic and political environment. We illustrate a concrete instance of our framework by showing how secondary radios can reuse the entire uplink channel of a cellular network, with only modest changes to the primary infrastructure. ©2008 IEEE.

  10. A Multi-Antenna Framework for Spectrum Reuse Based on Primary-Secondary Cooperation

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Omar; Johnson, Mark; Wild, Ben; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new framework for spectrum reuse. Existing architectures have centered on secondary users (cognitive radios) that can reliably sense primary users and opportunistically transmit, without directly interacting with the primary system. We present a paradigm in which the primary and secondary systems cooperate, to minimize interference to primary users and provide predictable access for secondary users. Because this architecture gives the primary system full control over spectrum sharing, it could be more favorable in the current economic and political environment. We illustrate a concrete instance of our framework by showing how secondary radios can reuse the entire uplink channel of a cellular network, with only modest changes to the primary infrastructure. ©2008 IEEE.

  11. Operating within the legal and ethical framework to gain co-operation when imaging paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey-Lloyd, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced by radiographers when imaging children. Using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs as a framework it presents a logical exploration of the complex issues associated with imaging children and considers the legal and ethical framework alongside the nature of motivation and importance of gaining cooperation of the child and their carer(s). It is evident that a good knowledge of child development, child psychology and distraction techniques would enhance the family experience when attending for imaging examinations. Radiographers must continually familiarise themselves with current legislation affecting their practice and ensure that they continue to provide an optimum service for children and their carer(s). It may be advisable for post-registration courses to be offered to existing practitioners and for the Society and College of Radiographers to consider appointing a professional officer with expertise in paediatric imaging to offer legal advice and to support safe practice

  12. Conceptual frameworks of individual work performance: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Individual work performance is differently conceptualized and operationalized in different disciplines. The aim of the current review was twofold: (1) identifying conceptual frameworks of individual work performance and (2) integrating these to reach a heuristic conceptual framework.

  13. Conceptual frameworks of individual work performance a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Schaufeli, W.B.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Individual work performance is differently conceptualized and operationalized in different disciplines. The aim of the current review was twofold: (1) identifying conceptual frameworks of individual work performance and (2) integrating these to reach a heuristic conceptual framework.

  14. Mental illness research in the Gulf Cooperation Council: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Jason E; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Waterman, Heather

    2016-08-04

    Rapid growth and development in recent decades has seen mental health and mental illness emerge as priority health concerns for the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). As a result, mental health services in the region are being redefined and expanded. However, there is a paucity of local research to guide ongoing service development. Local research is important because service users' experience of mental illness and mental health services are linked to their sociocultural context. In order for service development to be most effective, there is a need for increased understanding of the people who use these services.This article aims to review and synthesize mental health research from the Gulf Cooperation Council. It also seeks to identify gaps in the literature and suggest directions for future research. A scoping framework was used to conduct this review. To identify studies, database searches were undertaken, regional journals were hand-searched, and reference lists of included articles were examined. Empirical studies undertaken in the Gulf Cooperation Council that reported mental health service users' experience of mental illness were included. Framework analysis was used to synthesize results. Fifty-five studies met inclusion criteria and the following themes were identified: service preferences, illness (symptomology, perceived cause, impact), and recovery (traditional healing, family support, religion). Gaps included contradictory findings related to the supportive role of the Arabic extended family and religion, under-representation of women in study samples, and limited attention on illness management outside of the hospital setting.From this review, it is clear that the sociocultural context in the region is linked to service users' experience of mental illness. Future research that aims to fill the identified gaps and develop and test culturally appropriate interventions will aid practice

  15. Controlling Cooperative CO2 Adsorption in Diamine-Appended Mg2(dobpdc) Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegelman, Rebecca L; McDonald, Thomas M; Gonzalez, Miguel I; Martell, Jeffrey D; Milner, Phillip J; Mason, Jarad A; Berger, Adam H; Bhown, Abhoyjit S; Long, Jeffrey R

    2017-08-02

    In the transition to a clean-energy future, CO 2 separations will play a critical role in mitigating current greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating conversion to cleaner-burning and renewable fuels. New materials with high selectivities for CO 2 adsorption, large CO 2 removal capacities, and low regeneration energies are needed to achieve these separations efficiently at scale. Here, we present a detailed investigation of nine diamine-appended variants of the metal-organic framework Mg 2 (dobpdc) (dobpdc 4- = 4,4'-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate) that feature step-shaped CO 2 adsorption isotherms resulting from cooperative and reversible insertion of CO 2 into metal-amine bonds to form ammonium carbamate chains. Small modifications to the diamine structure are found to shift the threshold pressure for cooperative CO 2 adsorption by over 4 orders of magnitude at a given temperature, and the observed trends are rationalized on the basis of crystal structures of the isostructural zinc frameworks obtained from in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. The structure-activity relationships derived from these results can be leveraged to tailor adsorbents to the conditions of a given CO 2 separation process. The unparalleled versatility of these materials, coupled with their high CO 2 capacities and low projected energy costs, highlights their potential as next-generation adsorbents for a wide array of CO 2 separations.

  16. Towards Ubiquitous Peer Review Strategies to Sustain and Enhance a Clinical Knowledge Management Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Roberto A.; Bradshaw, Richard L.; Bigelow, Sharon M.; Hanna, Timothy P.; Fiol, Guilherme Del; Hulse, Nathan C.; Roemer, Lorrie K.; Wilkinson, Steven G.

    2006-01-01

    Widespread cooperation between domain experts and front-line clinicians is a key component of any successful clinical knowledge management framework. Peer review is an established form of cooperation that promotes the dissemination of new knowledge. The authors describe three peer collaboration scenarios that have been implemented using the knowledge management infrastructure available at Intermountain Healthcare. Utilization results illustrating the early adoption patterns of the proposed scenarios are presented and discussed, along with succinct descriptions of planned enhancements and future implementation efforts. PMID:17238422

  17. The good governance and management  of cooperative societies under cooperative values: a didactic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Souza de Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the administrative management of cooperative enterprises, the various cooperative laws establish the need to organize a social-democratic structure formed by all members of society.

  18. Man-Robot Symbiosis: A Framework For Cooperative Intelligence And Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lynne E.; Pin, Francois G.

    1988-10-01

    The man-robot symbiosis concept has the fundamental objective of bridging the gap between fully human-controlled and fully autonomous systems to achieve true man-robot cooperative control and intelligence. Such a system would allow improved speed, accuracy, and efficiency of task execution, while retaining the man in the loop for innovative reasoning and decision-making. The symbiont would have capabilities for supervised and unsupervised learning, allowing an increase of expertise in a wide task domain. This paper describes a robotic system architecture facilitating the symbiotic integration of teleoperative and automated modes of task execution. The architecture reflects a unique blend of many disciplines of artificial intelligence into a working system, including job or mission planning, dynamic task allocation, man-robot communication, automated monitoring, and machine learning. These disciplines are embodied in five major components of the symbiotic framework: the Job Planner, the Dynamic Task Allocator, the Presenter/Interpreter, the Automated Monitor, and the Learning System.

  19. An 802.11k Compliant Framework for Cooperative Handoff in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korakis Thanasis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In IEEE 802.11-based wireless networks, the stations (STAs are associated with the available access points (APs and communicate through them. In traditional handoff schemes, the STAs get information about the active APs in their neighborhood by scanning the available channels and listening to transmitted beacons. This paper proposes an 802.11k compliant framework for cooperative handoff where the STAs are informed about the active APs by exchanging information with neighboring STAs. Besides, the APs share useful information that can be used by the STAs in a handoff process. In this way, we minimize the delay of the scanning procedure. We evaluate the performance of our mechanisms through OPNET simulations. We demonstrate that our scheme reduces the scanning delay up to 92%. Consequently, our system is more capable in meeting the needs of QoS-sensitive applications.

  20. A competency framework for librarians involved in systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney A. Townsend

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: The Systematic Review Competencies Framework provides a standards-based, flexible way for librarians and organizations to identify areas of competence and areas in need of development to build capacity for systematic review integration. The framework can be used to identify or develop appropriate assessment tools and to target skill development opportunities.

  1. Towards a Comprehensive Conceptual Framework of Active Travel Behavior: a Review and Synthesis of Published Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götschi, Thomas; de Nazelle, Audrey; Brand, Christian; Gerike, Regine

    2017-09-01

    This paper reviews the use of conceptual frameworks in research on active travel, such as walking and cycling. Generic framework features and a wide range of contents are identified and synthesized into a comprehensive framework of active travel behavior, as part of the Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches project (PASTA). PASTA is a European multinational, interdisciplinary research project on active travel and health. Along with an exponential growth in active travel research, a growing number of conceptual frameworks has been published since the early 2000s. Earlier frameworks are simpler and emphasize the distinction of environmental vs. individual factors, while more recently several studies have integrated travel behavior theories more thoroughly. Based on the reviewed frameworks and various behavioral theories, we propose the comprehensive PASTA conceptual framework of active travel behavior. We discuss how it can guide future research, such as data collection, data analysis, and modeling of active travel behavior, and present some examples from the PASTA project.

  2. Flexibility Matters: Cooperative Active Sites in Covalent Organic Framework and Threaded Ionic Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Aguila, Briana; Perman, Jason; Nguyen, Nicholas; Ma, Shengqian

    2016-12-07

    The combination of two or more reactive centers working in concert on a substrate to facilitate the reaction is now considered state of the art in catalysis, yet there still remains a tremendous challenge. Few heterogeneous systems of this sort have been exploited, as the active sites spatially separated within the rigid framework are usually difficult to cooperate. It is now shown that this roadblock can be surpassed. The underlying principle of the strategy presented here is the integration of catalytic components with excellent flexibility and porous heterogeneous catalysts, as demonstrated by the placement of linear ionic polymers in close proximity to surface Lewis acid active sites anchored on the walls of a covalent organic framework (COF). Using the cycloaddition of the epoxides and CO 2 as a model reaction, dramatic activity improvements have been achieved for the composite catalysts in relation to the individual catalytic component. Furthermore, they also clearly outperform the benchmark catalytic systems formed by the combination of the molecular organocatalysts and heterogeneous Lewis acid catalysts, while affording additional recyclability. The extraordinary flexibility and enriched concentration of the catalytically active moieties on linear polymers facilitate the concerted catalysis, thus leading to superior catalytic performance. This work therefore uncovers an entirely new strategy for designing bifunctional catalysts with double-activation behavior and opens a new avenue in the design of multicapable systems that mimic biocatalysis.

  3. Energy drinks in the Gulf Cooperation Council states: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhyas, Layla; El Kashef, Ahmed; AlGhaferi, Hamad

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks use were entered in STATA for statistical analysis. Then, these data were used to conduct meta-analysis to estimate the rate of energy drink consumption. Overall, meta-analysis results showed that the estimated rates of energy drinks consumption is 46.9% (95% CIs, 33.2 -66.1; nine studies) with I-square 3.7%. Findings indicated that individuals start to consume energy drinks at approximately 16 years old, and males were found to consume energy drinks more frequently than females. Results from this review carry several recommendations for policy and enforcement, public education and research that can help policy and decision makers to achieve the goal of safer use of energy drinks.

  4. Applying Science: opportunities to inform disease management policy with cooperative research within a One Health framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason K. Blackburn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the current saiga antelope die off in Kazakhstan each represent very real and difficult to manage public or veterinary health crises. They also illustrate the importance of stable and funded surveillance and sound policy for intervention or disease control. While these two events highlight extreme cases of infectious disease (Ebola or (possible environmental exposure (saiga, diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, and plague are all zoonoses that pose risks and present surveillance challenges at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. These four diseases are also considered important actors in the threat of biological terror activities and have a long history as legacy biowarfare pathogens. This paper reviews recent studies done cooperatively between American and institutions within nations of the Former Soviet Union (FSU focused on spatiotemporal, epidemiological, and ecological patterns of these four zoonoses. We examine recent studies and discuss the possible ways in which techniques, including ecological niche modeling, disease risk modeling, and spatio-temporal cluster analysis, can inform disease surveillance, control efforts and impact policy. Our focus is to posit ways to apply science to disease management policy and actual management or mitigation practices. Across these examples, we illustrate the value of cooperative studies that bring together modern geospatial and epidemiological analyses to improve our understanding of the distribution of pathogens and diseases in livestock, wildlife, and humans. For example, ecological niche modeling can provide national level maps of pathogen distributions for surveillance planning, while space-time models can identify the timing and location of significant outbreak events for defining active control strategies. We advocate for the need to bring the results and the researchers from cooperative studies into the meeting rooms where policy is

  5. “Fear or Love Thy Neighbour”? The EU Framework for Promoting Regional Cooperation in the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Babayan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Building on the model of the enlargement policy, the European Union (EU designed the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Eastern Partnership to further promote its norms and principles. One of the goals of its new policies has been to foster regional cooperation among partner countries and their neighbours. This article specifies the EU’s framework for promoting regional cooperation through the aforementioned policies and discusses its potential impact on the example of the South Caucasus republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The South Caucasus has not only been an arena of intraregional conflicts, but has also often been troubled by disputes between its neighbours. This article argues that, due to a lack of proactive and consistent engagement, the EU’s framework risks leaving regional conflicts in the current state of stagnation and without advancement in regional cooperation.

  6. Of Policy Entrepreneurship, bandwagoning and free-riding : EU member states and multilateral cooperation frameworks for Europe's southern neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, T.; Bouris, D.; Olszewska, M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 25 years the EU and NATO have displayed considerable agency and thus influence as far as the development of institutionalised collective cooperation and/or foreign policy frameworks towards Europe’s southern neighbourhood is concerned. Against this backdrop, this article puts EU and

  7. A Review of Telehealth Service Implementation Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezl Van Dyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the potential of telehealth services to increase the quality and accessibility of healthcare, the success rate of such services has been disappointing. The purpose of this paper is to find and compare existing frameworks for the implementation of telehealth services that can contribute to the success rate of future endeavors. After a thorough discussion of these frameworks, this paper outlines the development methodologies in terms of theoretical background, methodology and validation. Finally, the common themes and formats are identified for consideration in future implementation. It was confirmed that a holistic implementation approach is needed, which includes technology, organizational structures, change management, economic feasibility, societal impacts, perceptions, user-friendliness, evaluation and evidence, legislation, policy and governance. Furthermore, there is some scope for scientifically rigorous framework development and validation approaches.

  8. Analytical Frameworks of Cooperative and Cognitive Radio Systems with Practical Considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    for cooperative and cognitive radio systems considering real world scenarios and to make these technologies implementable. In most of the research on cooperative relaying, it has been assumed that the communicating nodes have perfect channel state information

  9. Deconstructing AMO framework: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Marin-Garcia

    2016-09-01

    Originality/value: Our study shed light on some aspects of the AMO framework within the HRM context. Specifically, we aimed to identify whether or not it is possible to confirm the model as it was originally proposed. We also find out which HR practices and measures of performance were considered across investigations, to define a standard approach.

  10. Post Implementation Review Framework and Procedures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This template outlines the Social Security Administration's (SSA) approach to initiating, conducting, and completing Post Implementation Reviews (PIRs). The template...

  11. IAEA Mission Concludes Peer Review of UK's Nuclear Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Senior international nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded a ten-day International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in the United Kingdom (UK). The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission team said in its preliminary findings that the UK had made considerable progress since reviews in 2006 and 2009. It also identified good practices in the country's nuclear regulatory system. In addition to following up previous missions, a key objective was to review the effectiveness of the role of the Office of Nuclear Regulation (ONR), the UK's nuclear regulator, in ensuring the safety of radioactive waste management and decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, and public and environmental exposures, including emergency planning and response. The mission also considered the response of the UK's regulatory regime to the implications of the Fukushima Daichi accident had been timely and effective. Recommendations and suggestions were made to the ONR and the Government aimed at strengthening the effectiveness of the country's regulatory framework and functions in line with IAEA Safety Standards, the control of radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring. 'The staff of ONR is clearly dedicated to their mission to secure the protection of people and society from the hazards of the nuclear industry. I am confident that ONR will use the results of this mission to further enhance their regulatory programs', said Bill Borchardt, mission leader and former Executive Director of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). 'The staff were open and cooperative in their discussions; they provided the fullest practicable assistance, and accepted advice from the Team for continuous improvement in their regulatory work'. ONR's Chief Executive, John Jenkins, said that the full report of the IRRS mission will enhance regulatory effectiveness in the UK

  12. Trust Management Considerations For the Cooperative Infrastructure Defense Framework: Trust Relationships, Evidence, and Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiden, Wendy M.

    2009-12-01

    Cooperative Infrastructure Defense (CID) is a hierarchical, agent-based, adaptive, cyber-security framework designed to collaboratively protect multiple enclaves or organizations participating in a complex infrastructure. CID employs a swarm of lightweight, mobile agents called Sensors designed to roam hosts throughout a security enclave to find indications of anomalies and report them to host-based Sentinels. The Sensors’ findings become pieces of a larger puzzle, which the Sentinel puts together to determine the problem and respond per policy as given by the enclave-level Sergeant agent. Horizontally across multiple enclaves and vertically within each enclave, authentication and access control technologies are necessary but insufficient authorization mechanisms to ensure that CID agents continue to fulfill their roles in a trustworthy manner. Trust management fills the gap, providing mechanisms to detect malicious agents and offering more robust mechanisms for authorization. This paper identifies the trust relationships throughout the CID hierarchy, the types of trust evidence that could be gathered, and the actions that the CID system could take if an entity is determined to be untrustworthy.

  13. The blackboard model - A framework for integrating multiple cooperating expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    The use of an artificial intelligence (AI) architecture known as the blackboard model is examined as a framework for designing and building distributed systems requiring the integration of multiple cooperating expert systems (MCXS). Aerospace vehicles provide many examples of potential systems, ranging from commercial and military aircraft to spacecraft such as satellites, the Space Shuttle, and the Space Station. One such system, free-flying, spaceborne telerobots to be used in construction, servicing, inspection, and repair tasks around NASA's Space Station, is examined. The major difficulties found in designing and integrating the individual expert system components necessary to implement such a robot are outlined. The blackboard model, a general expert system architecture which seems to address many of the problems found in designing and building such a system, is discussed. A progress report on a prototype system under development called DBB (Distributed BlackBoard model) is given. The prototype will act as a testbed for investigating the feasibility, utility, and efficiency of MCXS-based designs developed under the blackboard model.

  14. A cooperative game-theoretic framework for negotiating marine spatial allocation agreements among heterogeneous players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazi, Zacharoula; Lejano, Raul; Maes, Frank; Degraer, Steven

    2017-02-01

    Marine spatial allocation has become, in recent decades, a political flashpoint, fuelled by political power struggles, as well as the continuously increasing demand for marine space by both traditional and emerging marine uses. To effectively address this issue, we develop a decision-making procedure, that facilitates the distribution of disputed areas of specific size among heterogeneous players in a transparent and ethical way, while considering coalitional formations through coexistence. To do this, we model players' alternative strategies and payoffs within a cooperative game-theoretic framework. Depending on whether transferable utility (TU) or non-transferable utility (NTU) is the more appropriate assumption, we illustrate the use of the TU Shapley value and the Lejano's fixed point NTU Shapley value to solve for the ideal allocations. The applicability and effectiveness of the process has been tested in a case study area, the Dogger Bank Special Area of Conservation in the North Sea, which involves three totally or partially conflicting activities, i.e. fishing, nature conservation and wind farm development. The findings demonstrate that the process is capable of providing a unique, fair and equitable division of space Finally, among the two solution concepts proposed the fixed point NTU Shapley value manages to better address the heterogeneity of the players and thus to provide a more socially acceptable allocation that favours the weaker player, while demonstrating the importance of the monetary valuation attributed by each use to the area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sustainable development based energy policy making frameworks, a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyar-Naimi, H.; Vaez-Zadeh, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, in the first step, presents an overview of the origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept and the related policy making frameworks. The frameworks include Pressure–State–Response (PSR), Driving Force–State–Response (DSR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Impact–Response (DPSIR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Effect–Action (DPSEA) and Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA). In this regard, 40 case studies using the reviewed frameworks reported during 1994–2011 are surveyed. Then, their application area and application intensity are investigated. It is concluded that PSR, and DPSEA and DPSEEA have the higher and lower application intensities, respectively. Moreover, using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with a set of criteria, it is shown that PSR and DPSIR have the highest and lowest priorities. Finally, the shortcomings of frameworks applications are discussed. The paper is helpful in selecting appropriate policy making frameworks and presents some hints for future research in the area for developing more comprehensive models especially for sustainable electric energy policy making. - Highlights: ► The origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept is reviewed. ► SD based frameworks (PSR, DSR, DPSIR, DPSEA and DPSEEA) are also reviewed. ► Then, the frameworks application area and intensity in recent years are investigated. ► Finally, the SD concept and the SD based frameworks are criticized. ► It will be helpful for developing more comprehensive energy policy making models.

  16. A review of cooperative and uncooperative spacecraft pose determination techniques for close-proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opromolla, Roberto; Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele

    2017-08-01

    The capability of an active spacecraft to accurately estimate its relative position and attitude (pose) with respect to an active/inactive, artificial/natural space object (target) orbiting in close-proximity is required to carry out various activities like formation flying, on-orbit servicing, active debris removal, and space exploration. According to the specific mission scenario, the pose determination task involves both theoretical and technological challenges related to the search for the most suitable algorithmic solution and sensor architecture, respectively. As regards the latter aspect, electro-optical sensors represent the best option as their use is compatible with mass and power limitation of micro and small satellites, and their measurements can be processed to estimate all the pose parameters. Overall, the degree of complexity of the challenges related to pose determination largely varies depending on the nature of the targets, which may be actively/passively cooperative, uncooperative but known, or uncooperative and unknown space objects. In this respect, while cooperative pose determination has been successfully demonstrated in orbit, the uncooperative case is still under study by universities, research centers, space agencies and private companies. However, in both the cases, the demand for space applications involving relative navigation maneuvers, also in close-proximity, for which pose determination capabilities are mandatory, is significantly increasing. In this framework, a review of state-of-the-art techniques and algorithms developed in the last decades for cooperative and uncooperative pose determination by processing data provided by electro-optical sensors is herein presented. Specifically, their main advantages and drawbacks in terms of achieved performance, computational complexity, and sensitivity to variability of pose and target geometry, are highlighted.

  17. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  18. A Cooperative Copper Metal-Organic Framework-Hydrogel System Improves Wound Healing in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jisheng; Chen, Siyu; Yi, Ji; Zhang, Hao; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2017-01-05

    Chronic non-healing wounds remain a major clinical challenge that would benefit from the development of advanced, regenerative dressings that promote wound closure within a clinically relevant time frame. The use of copper ions has shown promise in wound healing applications possibly by promoting angiogenesis. However, reported treatments that use copper ions require multiple applications of copper salts or oxides to the wound bed, exposing the patient to potentially toxic levels of copper ions and resulting in variable outcomes. Herein we set out to assess whether copper metal organic framework nanoparticles (HKUST-1 NPs) embedded within an antioxidant thermoresponsive citrate-based hydrogel would decrease copper ion toxicity and accelerate wound healing in diabetic mice. HKUST-1 and poly-(polyethyleneglycol citrate-co- N -isopropylacrylamide) (PPCN) were synthesized and characterized. HKUST-1 NP stability in a protein solution with and without embedding them in PPCN hydrogel was determined. Copper ion release, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and in vitro migration processes were measured. Wound closure rates and wound blood perfusion were assessed in vivo using the splinted excisional dermal wound diabetic mouse model. HKUST-1 NP disintegrated in protein solution while HKUST-1 NPs embedded in PPCN (H-HKUST-1) were protected from degradation and copper ions were slowly released. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis due to copper ion release were significantly reduced while dermal cell migration in vitro and wound closure rates in vivo were significantly enhanced. In vivo , H-HKUST-1 induced angiogenesis, collagen deposition, and re-epithelialization during wound healing in diabetic mice. These results suggest that a cooperatively stabilized, copper ion-releasing H-HKUST-1 hydrogel is a promising innovative dressing for the treatment of chronic wounds.

  19. Learning Frameworks for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing and Energy-Efficient Data Protection in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinh Quang Do

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies learning frameworks for energy-efficient data communications in an energy-harvesting cognitive radio network in which secondary users (SUs harvest energy from solar power while opportunistically accessing a licensed channel for data transmission. The SUs perform spectrum sensing individually, and send local decisions about the presence of the primary user (PU on the channel to a fusion center (FC. We first design a new cooperative spectrum-sensing technique based on a convolutional neural network in which the FC uses historical sensing data to train the network for classification problem. The system is assumed to operate in a time-slotted manner. At the beginning of each time slot, the FC uses the current local decisions as input for the trained network to decide whether the PU is active or not in that time slot. In addition, legitimate transmissions can be vulnerable to a hidden eavesdropper, which always passively listens to the communication. Therefore, we further propose a transfer learning actor–critic algorithm for an SU to decide its operation mode to increase the security level under the constraint of limited energy. In this approach, the SU directly interacts with the environment to learn its dynamics (i.e., an arrival of harvested energy; then, the SU can either stay idle to save energy or transmit to the FC secured data that are encrypted using a suitable private-key encryption method to maximize the long-term effective security level of the network. We finally present numerical simulation results under various configurations to evaluate our proposed schemes.

  20. Game Theory-Based Cooperation for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks: Taxonomy, Review, Research Challenges and Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalhatu Muhammed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Exploring and monitoring the underwater world using underwater sensors is drawing a lot of attention these days. In this field cooperation between acoustic sensor nodes has been a critical problem due to the challenging features such as acoustic channel failure (sound signal, long propagation delay of acoustic signal, limited bandwidth and loss of connectivity. There are several proposed methods to improve cooperation between the nodes by incorporating information/game theory in the node’s cooperation. However, there is a need to classify the existing works and demonstrate their performance in addressing the cooperation issue. In this paper, we have conducted a review to investigate various factors affecting cooperation in underwater acoustic sensor networks. We study various cooperation techniques used for underwater acoustic sensor networks from different perspectives, with a concentration on communication reliability, energy consumption, and security and present a taxonomy for underwater cooperation. Moreover, we further review how the game theory can be applied to make the nodes cooperate with each other. We further analyze different cooperative game methods, where their performance on different metrics is compared. Finally, open issues and future research direction in underwater acoustic sensor networks are highlighted.

  1. Game Theory-Based Cooperation for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks: Taxonomy, Review, Research Challenges and Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Dalhatu; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Zareei, Mahdi; Vargas-Rosales, Cesar; Khan, Anwar

    2018-02-01

    Exploring and monitoring the underwater world using underwater sensors is drawing a lot of attention these days. In this field cooperation between acoustic sensor nodes has been a critical problem due to the challenging features such as acoustic channel failure (sound signal), long propagation delay of acoustic signal, limited bandwidth and loss of connectivity. There are several proposed methods to improve cooperation between the nodes by incorporating information/game theory in the node's cooperation. However, there is a need to classify the existing works and demonstrate their performance in addressing the cooperation issue. In this paper, we have conducted a review to investigate various factors affecting cooperation in underwater acoustic sensor networks. We study various cooperation techniques used for underwater acoustic sensor networks from different perspectives, with a concentration on communication reliability, energy consumption, and security and present a taxonomy for underwater cooperation. Moreover, we further review how the game theory can be applied to make the nodes cooperate with each other. We further analyze different cooperative game methods, where their performance on different metrics is compared. Finally, open issues and future research direction in underwater acoustic sensor networks are highlighted.

  2. Game Theory-Based Cooperation for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks: Taxonomy, Review, Research Challenges and Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Dalhatu; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Vargas-Rosales, Cesar; Khan, Anwar

    2018-01-01

    Exploring and monitoring the underwater world using underwater sensors is drawing a lot of attention these days. In this field cooperation between acoustic sensor nodes has been a critical problem due to the challenging features such as acoustic channel failure (sound signal), long propagation delay of acoustic signal, limited bandwidth and loss of connectivity. There are several proposed methods to improve cooperation between the nodes by incorporating information/game theory in the node’s cooperation. However, there is a need to classify the existing works and demonstrate their performance in addressing the cooperation issue. In this paper, we have conducted a review to investigate various factors affecting cooperation in underwater acoustic sensor networks. We study various cooperation techniques used for underwater acoustic sensor networks from different perspectives, with a concentration on communication reliability, energy consumption, and security and present a taxonomy for underwater cooperation. Moreover, we further review how the game theory can be applied to make the nodes cooperate with each other. We further analyze different cooperative game methods, where their performance on different metrics is compared. Finally, open issues and future research direction in underwater acoustic sensor networks are highlighted. PMID:29389874

  3. Review of Cloud Computing and existing Frameworks for Cloud adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Victor; Walters, Robert John; Wills, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a selected review for Cloud Computing and explains the benefits and risks of adopting Cloud Computing in a business environment. Although all the risks identified may be associated with two major Cloud adoption challenges, a framework is required to support organisations as they begin to use Cloud and minimise risks of Cloud adoption. Eleven Cloud Computing frameworks are investigated and a comparison of their strengths and limitations is made; the result of the comparison...

  4. Business model framework applications in health care: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Jens Jacob; Mazzocato, Pamela; Muhammed, Rafiq; Savage, Carl

    2017-11-01

    It has proven to be a challenge for health care organizations to achieve the Triple Aim. In the business literature, business model frameworks have been used to understand how organizations are aligned to achieve their goals. We conducted a systematic literature review with an explanatory synthesis approach to understand how business model frameworks have been applied in health care. We found a large increase in applications of business model frameworks during the last decade. E-health was the most common context of application. We identified six applications of business model frameworks: business model description, financial assessment, classification based on pre-defined typologies, business model analysis, development, and evaluation. Our synthesis suggests that the choice of business model framework and constituent elements should be informed by the intent and context of application. We see a need for harmonization in the choice of elements in order to increase generalizability, simplify application, and help organizations realize the Triple Aim.

  5. Kola peninsula radwaste management in the framework of THE Italian-Russian cooperation agreement for global partnership - 59392

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, Massimiliano; Izmailov, Dmitry; Spadoni, Antonino; Uryvskiy, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    In 2003 a Cooperation Agreement, envisaging a grant of 360 Meuro in 10 years, was signed between Italy and Russia in the framework of the 'so-called' Global Partnership Program. So far, in five years of concrete work, a total of 146 Meuro have been engaged through 33 contracts and 121 Meuro have been already paid. Together with other significant lines of activities the management of waste, presently located at Andreeva Bay site, is surely the most important one, not only for the amount of allocated funds (about the half of available ones) but also for the urgency to solve serious environmental problems linked to the actual unsafe conditions of these waste, both as regards possible incidents or malicious attacks from outside. Volume of Low Level and Intermediate Level (LL/IL) waste at Andreeva Bay site are 17000 tons and 3000 tons, respectively for solid and liquid; moreover is expected, during the next 15 years, the production of additional 33000 tons of liquid and 8000 tons of solid, due to the need of demolishing existing facilities and final closing of the site. As regards radwaste management facilities, the solution defined in OBIN (justification of investment) has been analyzed and critically reviewed. After the completion of a conceptual study, the construction of three facilities (solid and liquid treatment ones and a protective structure for storing on site temporarily conditioned waste) was decided and a contract was assigned in 2010 to Ansaldo Nucleare/AtomStroyExport for the detailed design of the above mentioned facilities, which is expected to be completed in 2012. Some important modifications to the initial time schedule have been taken into account and now the operation of the facilities is expected by 2015, two years before the previous estimate. (authors)

  6. EU Science Diplomacy and Framework Programs as Instruments of STI Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. А. Ibragimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the tools that the EU in interactions with third countries in the field of STI uses. The EU is a pioneer in the use of science and technology in the international arena, the creation of strategic bilateral agreements on science and technology and the conduct of political dialogues at the highest political level (at the country and regional levels. The EU actively uses its foreign policy instruments of influence, including the provision of access to its framework programs to researchers from third countries, as well as scientific diplomacy. The success of these programs and scientific diplomacy shows the effectiveness of the EU as a global actor. In its foreign policy global innovation strategy, the EU proceeds from the premise that no state in the world today can cope independently with modern global challenges such as climate change, migration, terrorism, etc. Therefore, the solution of these issues requires both an expert evaluation from an independent world scientific community, and the perseverance of diplomats and officials of branch ministries of national states capable of conveying the views of their government in international negotiations and defending national interests of the country to find a solution that suits everyone. The EU has the resources to create a "cumulative effect" by developing and applying common norms on the territory of theUnion, analyzing the innovation policies of member states and the possibility of sharing best practices. At the same time, the EU shares its vision of problems, values and priorities with partners and uses the tools of "soft power" (including its smart and normative force and scientific diplomacy in the field of STI. The soft power of the EU in the field of STI lies in the attractiveness of the EU as a research area in which it is possible to conduct modern high-quality international research with the involvement of scientific teams from different countries in both physical

  7. Frameworks to assess health systems governance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyone, Thidar; Smith, Helen; van den Broek, Nynke

    2017-06-01

    Governance of the health system is a relatively new concept and there are gaps in understanding what health system governance is and how it could be assessed. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to describe the concept of governance and the theories underpinning as applied to health systems; and to identify which frameworks are available and have been applied to assess health systems governance. Frameworks were reviewed to understand how the principles of governance might be operationalized at different levels of a health system. Electronic databases and web portals of international institutions concerned with governance were searched for publications in English for the period January 1994 to February 2016. Sixteen frameworks developed to assess governance in the health system were identified and are described. Of these, six frameworks were developed based on theories from new institutional economics; three are primarily informed by political science and public management disciplines; three arise from the development literature and four use multidisciplinary approaches. Only five of the identified frameworks have been applied. These used the principal-agent theory, theory of common pool resources, North's institutional analysis and the cybernetics theory. Governance is a practice, dependent on arrangements set at political or national level, but which needs to be operationalized by individuals at lower levels in the health system; multi-level frameworks acknowledge this. Three frameworks were used to assess governance at all levels of the health system. Health system governance is complex and difficult to assess; the concept of governance originates from different disciplines and is multidimensional. There is a need to validate and apply existing frameworks and share lessons learnt regarding which frameworks work well in which settings. A comprehensive assessment of governance could enable policy makers to prioritize solutions for problems identified

  8. Developing a regulatory framework for the financial, management performance and social reporting systems for co-operatives in developing countries: A case study of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Nieman

    2016-08-01

    Findings: The research performed showed that existing reporting frameworks and practices do not meet the reporting requirements of co-operatives in all aspects because of the different nature of co-operatives as opposed to shareholder-owned entities.

  9. Online Counseling: Reviewing the Literature from a Counseling Psychology Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallen, Michael J.; Vogel, David L.; Rochlen, Aaron B.; Day, Susan X.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the online-counseling literature with an emphasis on current applications and considerations for future research. It focuses on primary themes of counseling psychology including the history of process-outcome research and multiculturalism. It explores current gaps in the literature from a counseling psychology framework,…

  10. Highly Efficient Cooperative Catalysis by Co III (Porphyrin) Pairs in Interpenetrating Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zekai; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Wenbin (UC); (Xiamen)

    2016-12-02

    A series of porous twofold interpenetrated In-CoIII(porphyrin) metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) were constructed by in situ metalation of porphyrin bridging ligands and used as efficient cooperative catalysts for the hydration of terminal alkynes. The twofold interpenetrating structure brings adjacent CoIII(porphyrins) in the two networks parallel to each other with a distance of about 8.8 Å, an ideal distance for the simultaneous activation of both substrates in alkyne hydration reactions. As a result, the In-CoIII(porphyrin) MOFs exhibit much higher (up to 38 times) catalytic activity than either homogeneous catalysts or MOF controls with isolated CoIII(porphyrin) centers, thus highlighting the potential application of MOFs in cooperative catalysis.

  11. A competency framework for librarians involved in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Whitney A; Anderson, Patricia F; Ginier, Emily C; MacEachern, Mark P; Saylor, Kate M; Shipman, Barbara L; Smith, Judith E

    2017-07-01

    The project identified a set of core competencies for librarians who are involved in systematic reviews. A team of seven informationists with broad systematic review experience examined existing systematic review standards, conducted a literature search, and used their own expertise to identify core competencies and skills that are necessary to undertake various roles in systematic review projects. The team identified a total of six competencies for librarian involvement in systematic reviews: "Systematic review foundations," "Process management and communication," "Research methodology," "Comprehensive searching," "Data management," and "Reporting." Within each competency are the associated skills and knowledge pieces (indicators). Competence can be measured using an adaptation of Miller's Pyramid for Clinical Assessment, either through self-assessment or identification of formal assessment instruments. The Systematic Review Competencies Framework provides a standards-based, flexible way for librarians and organizations to identify areas of competence and areas in need of development to build capacity for systematic review integration. The framework can be used to identify or develop appropriate assessment tools and to target skill development opportunities.

  12. Methods for the evaluation of hospital cooperation activities (Systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotter Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital partnerships, mergers and cooperatives are arrangements frequently seen as a means of improving health service delivery. Many of the assumptions used in planning hospital cooperatives are not stated clearly and are often based on limited or poor scientific evidence. Methods This is a protocol for a systematic review, following the Cochrane EPOC methodology. The review aims to document, catalogue and synthesize the existing literature on the reported methods for the evaluation of hospital cooperation activities as well as methods of hospital cooperation. We will search the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and bibliographic databases including PubMed (via NLM, Web of Science, NHS EED, Business Source Premier (via EBSCO and Global Health for publications that report on methods for evaluating hospital cooperatives, strategic partnerships, mergers, alliances, networks and related activities and methods used for such partnerships. The method proposed by the Cochrane EPOC group regarding randomized study designs, controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time series will be followed. In addition, we will also include cohort, case-control studies, and relevant non-comparative publications such as case reports. We will categorize and analyze the review findings according to the study design employed, the study quality (low versus high quality studies and the method reported in the primary studies. We will present the results of studies in tabular form. Discussion Overall, the systematic review aims to identify, assess and synthesize the evidence to underpin hospital cooperation activities as defined in this protocol. As a result, the review will provide an evidence base for partnerships, alliances or other fields of cooperation in a hospital setting. PROSPERO

  13. IAEA and EU Review Progress on Cooperation, Agree on Next Steps at Annual Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Union (EU) reviewed progress achieved in working together on a range of nuclear activities and agreed to further enhance cooperation during their sixth annual Senior Officials Meeting in Vienna. The talks on 8 February at the IAEA’s headquarters provided a forum for exchanging views on strengthening collaboration on nuclear safety, security, safeguards, sustainable development, nuclear energy research and increasing innovation. The two organizations welcomed the fruitful cooperation and progress achieved over the past years. They agreed to deepen cooperation in several areas, particularly in the promotion of nuclear applications for sustainable development.

  14. International cooperative initiatives and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhtiari, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    International cooperative initiatives (ICIs) are multi-country, multi-actor non-state actions that have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The article summarizes the literature on estimates of emission reduction potentials attributed to ICIs. This summary highlights three key ...... efforts under the UNFCCC is uncertain, but believed to be quite large. •The UNFCCC is arguably ill suited to coordinate and strengthen the accountability of international cooperative initiatives.......International cooperative initiatives (ICIs) are multi-country, multi-actor non-state actions that have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The article summarizes the literature on estimates of emission reduction potentials attributed to ICIs. This summary highlights three key...... transparent performance monitoring and reporting mechanisms. The article concludes with two considerations. Firstly, it advocates for the United Nations Environment Programme as one entity that could bring much-needed coordination among ICIs, and between ICIs and national government-led efforts to mitigate...

  15. Review of Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Joseph Coleman III

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 'Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict', presents an empirically grounded rational reconstruction detailing the role that belief in “big gods” (i.e., omniscient, omnipresent, and omnipotent gods has played in the formation of society from a cultural-evolutionary perspective. Ara Norenzayan’s primary thesis is neatly summed up in the title of the book: religion has historically served—and perhaps still serves—as a building block and maintenance system in societies around the world.

  16. OECD-Nuclear Energy Agency. 25 years of international cooperation within the framework of the NEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadie, Klaus B. [OECD, Paris (France). Safety and Regulation

    2015-11-15

    The nuclear atomic association NEA of the OECD, to which 23 western industrial countries belong to, was established 25 years ago (1959) as ''Nuclear Energy Agency'', almost simultaneously with other large international nuclear energy organisations. The NEA undertook special tasks during the international cooperation, which have shifted over time. A special feature today is the cooperation by means of international committees, which are supported by a small own staff of the organisation. The focus points lie within the area of safety and regimentation and on chosen scientific and technical studies.

  17. Solar Energy Potentials and Benefits in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: A Review of Substantial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Abubakar Mas’ud

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the fossil fuel industry has dominated the economy of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries during the last few decades. However, recent developments show that most of the GCC countries plan to increase the share of renewable energy (RE in their future electrical power production. To ensure realistic increase in the share of RE in the production of electricity in the future, firm policies must be laid down with the objective to promote and market the benefit of RE to their citizens. Due to the high-solar radiation in the GCC region, the focus is now on solar energy development. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the progress made on solar energy in the GCC together with the challenges and the way forward. Some of the challenges and barriers hindering the development of RE in the GCC are in the area of technological know-how, policy development, and insufficient application of RE technology integrated in the buildings among others. Areas of improvement include promoting research and development, public/private initiatives, legislation and regulatory framework, solutions to technical issues and exchange of knowledge, scientific advice, and last but not the least is the issue of building integration with RE.

  18. China-Venezuela Space Cooperation Benefits and Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariano Imbert

    2016-01-01

    For the last 10 years,the Venezuelan aerospace industry has been constantly growing,and it is to be expected to continue in the same way in the future.China and its space industry,as the main partner for most of the ongoing Venezuelan space projects from their beginning,has been an important player in their development and may continue acting as one of the most important partners not only for the Venezuelan aerospace industry but also for other Latin-American countries' aerospace industries.ABAE (Bolivarian Agency for Space Activities) together with the related Chinese aerospace companies,with the guidance and help of CGWIC,has been constantly improving its cooperation methods,regarding technical work flows as well as management activities,especially for the latest's space projects under development,namely the CIDE (Venezuelan Design,Assembly,Integration and Testing Center) and VRSS-2 (Venezuelan Remote Sensing Satellite-2) programs.Provided that there is a deeper and stronger cooperation in the future,partnership and friendship of the different scientists,experts and leaders from the space sectors of both countries,will be improved and strengthened for the development of both nations social welfare.

  19. REGIONAL BLACK SEA ARCHITECTURE AND CONSEQUENCES FOR THE REGIONAL COOPERATION FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Homorozean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes considered an asset, other times a liability, the Black Sea started recently to be regarded as a region. However, the Black Sea Region lacks a common vision, often due to the complicated and often inefficient nexus of regional cooperation initiatives. Following the logic of finding regional solutions for regional problems, this paper aims to assess existing institutional and regional initiatives, reflecting on the implications for the success of Black Sea regionalism in creating patterns of sustained and sustainable development and a high degree of actors' involvement.This paper concentrates on two complementary research questions: What is the regional order in the BSR and what does it imply for its future? What is the current contribution of the most significant cooperation initiatives and what are the consequences for regional institutionalism? For the purpose of this paper, I draw on best-practices from other two regions: the Northern Dimension and South- East Asia. Through a comparative perspective, I suggest an analysis of the most important initiatives: BSEC, CDC, Black Sea Synergy, Eastern Partnership, Baku Initiative and the BSF. This paper argues that a possible strategic solution for successful policy development lies in the creation of an integrated regional cooperation package, functioning on the principles of multi-speed and multi-dimensional cooperation in several policy fields, in a context in which the BSR seems to be caught between two paradigms: a European and a Russian-oriented one.

  20. Book review: Euro-Latin American cooperation and relations and South-South cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Agudelo Taborda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed books: Tassara, Carlo Cooperación para el desarrollo, relaciones internacionales y políticas públicas: Teorías y prácticas del diálogo euro-latinoamericano. Ediciones UNAULA, 2013. 302 págs. Marín Aranguren, Erli Margarita y Ro­mero Amaya, María Claudia (eds. Cuando el Sur piensa el Sur: Los giros de la cooperación al desarrollo. Univ. Externado de Colombia, 2013. 362 págs.

  1. International Review of Frameworks for Standard Setting & Labeling Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina Zheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    As appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs reach a broader geographic and product scope, a series of sophisticated and complex technical and economic analyses have been adopted by different countries in the world to support and enhance these growing S&L programs. The initial supporting techno-economic and impact analyses for S&L development make up a defined framework and process for setting and developing appropriate appliance efficiency standards and labeling programs. This report reviews in-depth the existing framework for standards setting and label development in the well-established programs of the U.S., Australia and the EU to identify and evaluate major trends in how and why key analyses are undertaken and to understand major similarities and differences between each of the frameworks.

  2. Systematic reviews of adverse effects: framework for a structured approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As every healthcare intervention carries some risk of harm, clinical decision making needs to be supported by a systematic assessment of the balance of benefit to harm. A systematic review that considers only the favourable outcomes of an intervention, without also assessing the adverse effects, can mislead by introducing a bias favouring the intervention. Much of the current guidance on systematic reviews is directed towards the evaluation of effectiveness; but this differs in important ways from the methods used in assessing the safety and tolerability of an intervention. A detailed discussion of why, how and when to include adverse effects in a systematic review, is required. Methods This discussion paper, which presupposes a basic knowledge of systematic review methodology, was developed by consensus among experienced reviewers, members of the Adverse Effects Subgroup of The Cochrane Collaboration, and supplemented by a consultation of content experts in reviews methodology, as well as those working in drug safety. Results A logical framework for making decisions in reviews that incorporate adverse effects is provided. We explore situations where a comprehensive investigation of adverse effects is warranted and suggest strategies to identify practicable and clinically useful outcomes. The advantages and disadvantages of including observational and experimental study designs are reviewed. The consequences of including separate studies for intended and unintended effects are explained. Detailed advice is given on designing electronic searches for studies with adverse effects data. Reviewers of adverse effects are given general guidance on the assessment of study bias, data collection, analysis, presentation and the interpretation of harms in a systematic review. Conclusion Readers need to be able to recognize how strategic choices made in the review process determine what harms are found, and how the findings may affect

  3. Interfirm cooperation in life-cycle oreinted environmental management: examples and a conceptual framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharfman, Mark P.; Shaft, Teresa; Anex, Robert

    Firms are under pressure to manage their environmental "footprint" throughout the life-cycle of their products. Integral to this is that suppliers and customers become part of the environmental management process through interorganizational collaboration. We present a conceptual framework...

  4. Establishment of the International Nuclear Education/Training and its Cooperation Framework for Nuclear Transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. J.; Han, K. W.; Lee, E. J.

    2009-02-01

    This project covered development and implementation of international nuclear education/training programs, cooperation for nuclear human resource development and education/training. provision of MS and PhD courses for qualified students from developing countries, and strengthening of infrastructure for the nuclear education/training. The WNU one week summer course was held for domestic future generation in nuclear field. NTC operated the ANENT web portal and cyber platform, supported training on their use, and prepared a KAERI-IAEA Practical Arrangement for the promotion of web-base nuclear education/training. For FNCA, an analysis was conducted on the need of nuclear education/training in South East Asian countries. The bilateral cooperation included cooperation with Vietnam. provision of Korean experience for nuclear power personnel from Egypt, and commencing of cooperation with South Africa. Also, NTC participated in GENEP for sharing Korean experience in the nuclear human resource development project. KAERI-UST MA and PhD courses with 3 foreign students started in spring 2008 and implemented. The courses were advance nuclear reactor system engineering, accelerator and nano-beam engineering, and radiation measurement science. 13 international nuclear education/training courses (IAEA, KOICA, RCARO and bilateral) were implemented for 226 foreign trainees. A reference education/training program was developed, which consisted of 15 courses that can be customized to learner levels and project stages of countries in question (e.g. Middle East. Africa). A textbook entitled 'Research Reactor Design, Management and Utilization' was developed presenting Korean experience with research reactors

  5. The International Cooperation on Remote Laboratories in the Framework of Engineering Didactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raivo Sell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the interactive demonstration of remote laboratories conducted with engineering didactics for creating real conditions for teaching and learning engineering has been presented. The article is focusing on international cooperation, offering the wide range of tools and methodology for effective and interactive teaching of embedded systems and mechatronics as well as exploiting latest web technologies, and offering flexibility and freedom for students.

  6. Review of Building Data Frameworks across Countries: Lessons for India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Maithili [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Sangeeta [Alliance for an Energy Efficient Economy, New Delhi (India); Kumar, Satish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singh, Mohini [Synurja, LLC, New Delhi (India)

    2017-07-31

    The report outlines the initial explorations carried out by LBNL on available examples of energy data collection frameworks for buildings. Specifically, this monograph deals with European experience in the buildings sector, the US experience in the commercial buildings sector, and examples of data collection effort in Singapore and China to capture the Asian experience in the commercial sector. The review also provides a summary of the past efforts in India to collect and use commercial building energy data and its strengths and weaknesses. The overall aim of this activity is to help understand the use cases that drive the granularity of data being collected and the range of methodologies adopted for the data collection effort. This review is a key input and reference for developing a data collection framework for India, and also clarifies general thinking on the institutional structure that may be amenable for data collection effort to match the needs and requirements of commercial building sector in India.

  7. The functional power of the CPLP in the framework ok development cooperation in food security and nutrition (FSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Lapão

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries (CPLP, about to celebrate its twenty year of existence, was born to preserve the language and a common cultural heritage and has been gradually strengthening other policy dimensions which have led to increased visibility. The cooperation in the areas of Health and Food and Nutrition Security (SAN is such an example. In fact, the "Food Security and Nutrition Strategy (ESAN-CPLP", adopted in 2011, is a real and operational tool to improve levels of human development in the member states of the CPLP, and is recognized in international fora as an example of good practice by partners such as the European Union, while also being perfectly aligned with the U.N.'s Goals of Sustainable Development. Despite the unique role of the CPLP and its potential functional power in the framework of international cooperation, some threats have emerged, preventing its further affirmation, namely the assertion of a clear political will by the member states. Despite the gap between the present CPLP and the Agostinho da Silva's dream of creating a true Lusophone community, its contemporary role and potential is quite clear, and outstanding are the efforts to establish in its framework the Human Right to Adequate Food.

  8. A Safe Cooperative Framework for Atmospheric Science Missions with Multiple Heterogeneous UAS using Piecewise Bezier Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, S. Bilal; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Choe, Ronald; Cichella, Venanzio; Hovakimyan, Naira; Chandarana, Meghan; Trujillo, Anna; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc; Neilan, James H.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous operation of UAS holds promise for greater productivity of atmospheric science missions. However, several challenges need to be overcome before such missions can be made autonomous. This paper presents a framework for safe autonomous operations of multiple vehicles, particularly suited for atmospheric science missions. The framework revolves around the use of piecewise Bezier curves for trajectory representation, which in conjunction with path-following and time-coordination algorithms, allows for safe coordinated operations of multiple vehicles.

  9. What the Framework Convention on Climate Change Teaches Us About Cooperation on Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Victor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Arild Underdal has been at the center of an important community of scholars studying global environmental governance. Since the 1990s that community, along with many other scholars globally, has offered important insights into the design and management of international institutions that can lead to more effective management of environmental problems. At the same time, diplomats have made multiple attempts to create institutions to manage the dangers of climate change. This essay looks at what has been learned by both communities—scholars and practitioners—as their efforts co-evolved. It appears that despite a wealth of possible insights into making cooperation effective very few of the lessons offered by scholars had much impact during the first two decades of climate change diplomacy. Indeed, basic concepts from cooperation theory and evidence from case studies—many developed in Arild’s orbit—can explain why those two decades achieved very little real cooperation. The new Paris agreement may be changing all that and much better reflects insights from scholars about how to build effective international institutions. Success in the Paris process is far from assured and scholars can contribute a lot more with a more strategic view of when and how they have an impact.

  10. Theoretical frameworks for testing relativistic gravity: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, K. S.; Will, C. M.; Ni, W.

    1971-01-01

    Metric theories of gravity are presented, including the definition of metric theory, evidence for its existence, and response of matter to gravity with test body trajectories, gravitational red shift, and stressed matter responses. Parametrized post-Newtonian framework and interpretations are reviewed. Gamma, beta and gamma, and varied other parameters were measured. Deflection of electromagnetic waves, radar time delay, geodetic gyroscope precession, perihelion shifts, and periodic effects in orbits are among various studies carried out for metric theory experimentation.

  11. Environmental Stewardship: A Conceptual Review and Analytical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J.; Whitty, Tara S.; Finkbeiner, Elena; Pittman, Jeremy; Bassett, Hannah; Gelcich, Stefan; Allison, Edward H.

    2018-04-01

    There has been increasing attention to and investment in local environmental stewardship in conservation and environmental management policies and programs globally. Yet environmental stewardship has not received adequate conceptual attention. Establishing a clear definition and comprehensive analytical framework could strengthen our ability to understand the factors that lead to the success or failure of environmental stewardship in different contexts and how to most effectively support and enable local efforts. Here we propose such a definition and framework. First, we define local environmental stewardship as the actions taken by individuals, groups or networks of actors, with various motivations and levels of capacity, to protect, care for or responsibly use the environment in pursuit of environmental and/or social outcomes in diverse social-ecological contexts. Next, drawing from a review of the environmental stewardship, management and governance literatures, we unpack the elements of this definition to develop an analytical framework that can facilitate research on local environmental stewardship. Finally, we discuss potential interventions and leverage points for promoting or supporting local stewardship and future applications of the framework to guide descriptive, evaluative, prescriptive or systematic analysis of environmental stewardship. Further application of this framework in diverse environmental and social contexts is recommended to refine the elements and develop insights that will guide and improve the outcomes of environmental stewardship initiatives and investments. Ultimately, our aim is to raise the profile of environmental stewardship as a valuable and holistic concept for guiding productive and sustained relationships with the environment.

  12. Environmental Stewardship: A Conceptual Review and Analytical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J; Whitty, Tara S; Finkbeiner, Elena; Pittman, Jeremy; Bassett, Hannah; Gelcich, Stefan; Allison, Edward H

    2018-04-01

    There has been increasing attention to and investment in local environmental stewardship in conservation and environmental management policies and programs globally. Yet environmental stewardship has not received adequate conceptual attention. Establishing a clear definition and comprehensive analytical framework could strengthen our ability to understand the factors that lead to the success or failure of environmental stewardship in different contexts and how to most effectively support and enable local efforts. Here we propose such a definition and framework. First, we define local environmental stewardship as the actions taken by individuals, groups or networks of actors, with various motivations and levels of capacity, to protect, care for or responsibly use the environment in pursuit of environmental and/or social outcomes in diverse social-ecological contexts. Next, drawing from a review of the environmental stewardship, management and governance literatures, we unpack the elements of this definition to develop an analytical framework that can facilitate research on local environmental stewardship. Finally, we discuss potential interventions and leverage points for promoting or supporting local stewardship and future applications of the framework to guide descriptive, evaluative, prescriptive or systematic analysis of environmental stewardship. Further application of this framework in diverse environmental and social contexts is recommended to refine the elements and develop insights that will guide and improve the outcomes of environmental stewardship initiatives and investments. Ultimately, our aim is to raise the profile of environmental stewardship as a valuable and holistic concept for guiding productive and sustained relationships with the environment.

  13. A critical review of legal framework as a factor of coops development: Case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary cooperative movement must rest on the original cooperative principles that were confirmed and modernized by the Congress of International Co-Operative Alliance held in Manchester in 1995. Development of coops legislative framework in Serbia has a long history and presently the matter of cooperatives is governed by the federal Law on Cooperatives adopted in 1996. The text analyzes the extent to which a legislative framework can be an incentive for and/or impediment to cooperatives' operation in Serbia, and what sort of results can be expected from a modernized and improved legal framework. Interview of key players in the coop sector was one of the research methods. Other methods include historical, comparative analysis and case study. The paper includes four parts: a historical and legal background of development of coops in Serbia; b legislative framework; c successful case study and d framework for further development. The paper also analyses cooperatives within the environment of social enterprises and evaluates their role in the social inclusion process.

  14. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms.

  15. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms

  16. A review of IAEA's technical co-operation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samiei, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Technical Co-operation (TC) Programme is part of the Agency's mandate 'to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' The IAEA's role under this Programme is that of a scientific and technical agency making a discrete but significant contribution to sustainable development goals through the transfer of nuclear science and technology. TC is a high impact programme focusing on development needs with about 800 active projects annually with a budget of over $70M, 30% of which is targeted on training and capacity building in over 100 Member States. Since 1970, over 80,000 scientists and specialists from developing countries have been trained in nuclear science and technology and in nuclear power and safety. A number of trends in the world at large will be likely to influence the Agency's TC programme in the next several years: The use of nuclear technologies in developing countries is growing as local infrastructures improve and technology transfer increases, especially among developing countries; Some countries and institutions are becoming more self-reliant as viable markets develop for nuclear technology, based on an increased awareness of their benefits; As facilities age, safe strategies for life extension and for decommissioning are assuming increasing importance, while there is some renewed positive attention to nuclear power in several parts of the world. Concern is increasing related to the potential for malicious acts involving nuclear facilities or unsecured nuclear and other radioactive material. As the nuclear workforce ages, the management of nuclear knowledge is gaining increasing importance, including the need to maintain the safety and security of nuclear installations and their continued reliable operation. It is difficult to forecast precisely how these trends will influence the assistance requested by Member States, but it is already clear that there will be increased

  17. Establishing a Multi-level and All-Round Cooperation Framework: the BRICS Pragmatism and Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Mingshi

    2016-01-01

    during the(G20) Hangzhou Summit, the BRICS leaders informal meeting was held. The top leaders of the 5 countries believe that the prospects and momentum for economic growth in the BRICS member countries are still there, and will continue to serve as an important engine of global economic growth. BRICS members, under the guiding principle of open, equality, inclusiveness, mutual benefit and win-win cooperation, would further strengthen their strategic partnership, and promote the construction of equal and fair international order on the basis of international law.

  18. Review article: A systematic review of emergency department incident classification frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Matthew; McCarthy, Sally

    2017-10-11

    As in any part of the hospital system, safety incidents can occur in the ED. These incidents arguably have a distinct character, as the ED involves unscheduled flows of urgent patients who require disparate services. To aid understanding of safety issues and support risk management of the ED, a comparison of published ED specific incident classification frameworks was performed. A review of emergency medicine, health management and general medical publications, using Ovid SP to interrogate Medline (1976-2016) was undertaken to identify any type of taxonomy or classification-like framework for ED related incidents. These frameworks were then analysed and compared. The review identified 17 publications containing an incident classification framework. Comparison of factors and themes making up the classification constituent elements revealed some commonality, but no overall consistency, nor evolution towards an ideal framework. Inconsistency arises from differences in the evidential basis and design methodology of classifications, with design itself being an inherently subjective process. It was not possible to identify an 'ideal' incident classification framework for ED risk management, and there is significant variation in the selection of categories used by frameworks. The variation in classification could risk an unbalanced emphasis in findings through application of a particular framework. Design of an ED specific, ideal incident classification framework should be informed by a much wider range of theories of how organisations and systems work, in addition to clinical and human factors. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  19. "'It's the Camaraderie': A History of Parent Cooperative Preschools," by Dorothy Hewes. Book Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinitz, Blythe

    2000-01-01

    Reviews Hewes' book on the development of the parent cooperative nursery school movement in its political, sociological, economic, and historical contexts. Notes the success of the organizational model used to analyze the movement and the book's value as a reference work. (JPB)

  20. 75 FR 42742 - Alaska Village Electric Cooperative; Notice of Environmental Site Review and Scoping Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13272-001] Alaska Village Electric Cooperative; Notice of Environmental Site Review and Scoping Meeting July 15, 2010. a. Project No.: 13272-001. b. Name of Project: Old Harbor Hydroelectric Project. c. Location: On Mountain Creek, near the town of Old Harbor, Kodiak Island...

  1. Cooper's Taxonomy of Literature Reviews Applied to Meta-Analyses in Educational Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Theresa Ann; Stallings, William M.

    H. M. Cooper (1988) has developed a taxonomy that classified literature reviews based on six characteristics: (1) focus of attention; (2) goal of the synthesis; (3) perspective on the literature; (4) coverage of the literature; (5) organization of the perspective; and (6) intended audience. One hundred and three meta-analyses identified from the…

  2. Quality Control Review of the PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP FY 2014 Single Audit of Carnegie Mellon University

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    No. DODIG-2016-034 D E C E M B E R 1 7 , 2 0 1 5 Quality Control Review of the PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP FY 2014 Single Audit of Carnegie ...ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA 22350-1500 December 17, 2015 Audit Partner PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP Board of Trustees Carnegie Mellon University Director, Sponsored...Projects Accounting Carnegie Mellon University SUBJECT: Quality Control Review of the PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP FY 2014 Single Audit of Carnegie

  3. PRESENTED AT: TURNOVO, BULGARIA: LANDSCAPE SCIENCES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: A NATO FRAMEWORK FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international pilot study has been developed to explore the possibility of quantifying and assessing environmental condition, processes of land degradation, and subsequent impacts on natural and human resources. The purpose of the study is to foster a framework for scientific...

  4. The ticking time bomb in lifestyle-related diseases among women in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries; review of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashael K. Alshaikh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to review all published systematic reviews on the prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors among women from the Gulf Cooperation Council countries (GCC. This is the first review of other systematic reviews that concentrates on lifestyle related diseases among women in GCC countries only. Method Literature searches were carried out in three electronic databases for all published systematic reviews on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the GCC countries between January 2000 and February 2016. Results Eleven systematic reviews were identified and selected for our review. Common reported risk factors for cardiovascular disease were obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and hypertension. In GCC countries, obesity among the female population ranges from 29 to 45.7%, which is one of the highest rates globally, and it is linked with physical inactivity, ranging from 45 to 98.7%. The prevalence of diabetes is listed as one of the top ten factors globally, and was reported with an average of 21%. Hypertension ranged from 20.9 to 53%. Conclusions The high prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases among women population in GCC is a ticking time bomb and is reaching alarming levels, and require a fundamental social and political changes. These findings highlight the need for comprehensive work among the GCC to strengthen the regulatory framework to decrease and control the prevalence of these factors.

  5. An Online Experimental Framework for Cooperative Relationships With a Real-Time Decision-Making and Rewarding Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiji Suzuki

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates interactions between game theoretical strategies and social relationships in real-time decision-making and rewarding environments. We propose an experimental framework based on techniques of web-based multiplayer online games for this purpose. In our framework, multiple human players, represented as particles in a two-dimensional space of social interactions, can modify their positions and game strategies for the prisoner's dilemma in real time, and receive benefit or cost emerging from both game theoretical and social relationships with neighboring players. We report on experiments with human participants in different conditions of the payoff matrix, which reflects game structures, and the speed of each player, which reflects the ability to change her social relationship. We show that cooperative relationships emerge in real human groups regardless of experimental settings, and show their basic behavioral patterns. We further discuss relationships between behavioral characters of participants in the experiments and their psychological characters to see how their personalities can be reflected in their behavior in such a game theoretical framework, and show that a few psychological characters of participants might reflect their behavioral characters at least in part, but there were variations in these relationships between experimental groups.

  6. IAEA Mission Concludes Peer Review of Slovenia's Nuclear Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Senior international nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded an eight-day International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety at the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA). The team reviewed measures taken to address the recommendations and suggestions made during an earlier Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission conducted in 2011. The IRRS team said in its preliminary findings that Slovenia had made significant progress since the review in 2011. The team identified a good practice in the country's nuclear regulatory system additional to those identified in 2011 and made new recommendations and suggestions to SNSA and the Government to strengthen the effectiveness of the country's regulatory framework in line with IAEA Safety Standards. ''By hosting a follow-up mission, Slovenia demonstrated its commitment to enhance its regulatory programmes, including by implementing the recommendations of the 2011 mission,'' said Petr Krs, mission leader and Vice Chairman of the Czech Republic's State Office for Nuclear Safety. SNSA's Director, Andrej Stritar, welcomed the progress noted by the team, while also emphasizing that the mission highlighted important future nuclear safety challenges for Slovenia. The five-member review team, comprising experts from Belgium, the Czech Republic, France and Romania, as well as four IAEA staff members, conducted the mission at the request of the Slovenian Government from 9 to 16 September 2014. The main observations of the IRRS Review team included the following: SNSA has made significant progress in addressing the findings of the 2011 IRRS mission and has demonstrated commitment to effective implementation of the IRRS programme; The economic situation in Slovenia might in the short and long term affect SNSA's ability to maintain its capacity and competence; and A radioactive waste disposal project is stalled and the licensing

  7. Building a Framework of Global Cooperation Beyond the Economic Performance of Companies in Developing Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitriasari, Dewi; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    We examine the emerging generative force in developing SER (social and environmental reporting) that focuses on the economic performance of companies from developing nations. The focus raises our concern because it suggests that the development of SER is for shareholders and other capital suppliers....... We observe that the focus is in direct contradiction to the original generative force of SER, i.e. stakeholder interests. This leads to the marginalization of other stakeholder groups' interests. In order to shift the focus of developing nations, cooperation between developing nations and SER...... actors to give insights into their cultural values, Foucault's technology of the selfwith its care of one-self introduces the concept of social actors liberation from the history of subjectivity and thereby, to elaborate and transform their self-conception in relation to others' conceptions of identity...

  8. Utilizing an ANP framework for prioritizing effective criteria on performance management in cooperative organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Akhavan Alavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance management plays an essential role on increasing efficiency of business units. It helps find important barriers against a business unit helping us setup better strategies for handling troubles. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find important factors influencing performance management in cooperative organizations. The proposed study uses analytical hierarchy process to rank important factors in three groups of team level, individual and organization levels. The survey is based on receiving feedbacks from decision makers and making a pairwise comparison on measuring the relative importance of each criterion influencing performance management. The results of our survey indicate that setting appropriate standards for performance management is the most important item followed by relationship between organization structure and performance management, performance management based on future events. The other three factors including continuous improvement and updating systems, encouraging employee for change culture and relationship between future outlook and performance management are other important factors.

  9. The Outlook of China-Russia Energy Cooperation in The Light of the Strategic Framework of The Silk Road Economic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhongwei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping initially proposed the building of the Strategic Framework of The Silk Road Economic Belt. Against this background, the involved countries will achieve joint development and co-prosperity by carrying out all-round regional cooperation. As close neighbors, both China and Russia have very important political and economic positions in the world; meanwhile, energy cooperation is one of most significant and influential fields in the China-Russia relationship. This paper tries to analyze some concrete issues in the process of the China-Russia energy cooperation, illustrate the outlook of the cooperation between the two countries in terms of the Silk Road Economic Belt, and finally raise policy references to deepen the China-Russia energy cooperation in the future.

  10. [Political and organizational-legal frameworks for cooperation between countries of the Asia-Pacific region in the field of military medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholikov, I V; Dmitrakovich, D V

    2014-12-01

    A framework for cooperation in the field of military medicine in the Asia-Pacific region is considered. Expert Working Group on Military Medicine in cooperation with the Association of Southeast Asian dialogue partners (including Russia) was formed to discuss the most important issues in the field of military medicine, to share practical experience of military physicians, standardization and unification of medical equipment, medicines, levels and standards of medical services and other issues in order to enhance cooperation of military medical services of the participating countries. From 2014 to 2016, the Russian Federation and the Kingdom of Thailand are co-chairs of the expert group.

  11. Harmonization between a Framework of Multilateral Approaches to Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities and Bilateral Nuclear Cooperation Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Tazaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of primary challenges for ensuring effective and efficient functions of the multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA to nuclear fuel cycle facilities is harmonization between a MNA framework and existing nuclear cooperation agreements (NCA. A method to achieve such harmonization is to construct a MNA framework with robust non-proliferation characteristics, in order to obtain supplier states’, especially the US’s prior consents for non-supplier states’ certain activities including spent fuel reprocessing, plutonium storages and retransfers of plutonium originated in NCAs. Such robust characteristics can be accomplished by MNA member states’ compliances with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Safeguards, regional safeguards agreements, international conventions, guidelines and recommendations on nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear security, safety, and export control. Those provisions are to be incorporated into an MNA founding agreement, as requirements to be MNA members in relation to NCAs. Furthermore, if an MNA facility is, (1 owned and operated jointly by all MNA member states, (2 able to conclude bilateral NCAs with non-MNA/supplier states as a single legal entity representing its all member states like an international organization, and (3 able to obtain necessary prior consents, stable, smooth, and timely supplies of nuclear fuel and services can be assured among MNA member states. In this paper, the authors will set out a general MNA framework and then apply it to a specific example of Europe Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM and then consider its applicability to the Asian region, where an establishment of an MNA framework is expected to be explored.

  12. Developing an Assessment, Monitoring, and Evaluation Framework for U.S. Department of Defense Security Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Eileen  Cronin. They and their OSD and Joint Staff colleagues pro- vided important insights throughout our research. We also recognize the invaluable...independent review of EUCOM’s planning documents. The gray arrows indicate how elements of higher planning strata drive lower elements. The green arrows...activities and events, based on our indepen- dent review of PACOM’s planning documents. The gray arrows indi- 14 Interview with PACOM headquarters official

  13. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2017 year in review postcard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2018-02-08

    This postcard provides details about the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2017 Year in Review, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1438, now available at https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1438. In this report, you will find details about the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) Program relating to its background, fish and wildlife science, students, staffing, vacancies, research funding, outreach and training, science themes, accolades, and professional services. You will see snapshots of CRU projects with information on how results have been or are being applied by cooperators. This is the essence of what we do: science that matters.Throughout the year, keep up with CRU research projects at http://www.coopunits.org.

  14. Analytical Frameworks of Cooperative and Cognitive Radio Systems with Practical Considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    Cooperative and cognitive radio systems have been proposed as a solution to improve the quality-of-service (QoS) and spectrum efficiency of existing communication systems. The objective of this dissertation is to propose and analyze schemes for cooperative and cognitive radio systems considering real world scenarios and to make these technologies implementable. In most of the research on cooperative relaying, it has been assumed that the communicating nodes have perfect channel state information (CSI). However, in reality, this is not the case and the nodes may only have an estimate of the CSI or partial knowledge of the CSI. Thus, in this dissertation, depending on the amount of CSI available, novel receivers are proposed to improve the performance of amplify-and forward relaying. Specifically, new coherent receivers are derived which do not perform channel estimation at the destination by using the received pilot signals directly for decoding. The derived receivers are based on new metrics that use distribution of the channels and the noise to achieve improved symbol-error-rate (SER) performance. The SER performance of the derived receivers is further improved by utilizing the decision history in the receivers. In cases where receivers with low complexity are desired, novel non-coherent receiver which detects the signal without knowledge of CSI is proposed. In addition, new receivers are proposed for the situation when only partial CSI is available at the destination i.e. channel knowledge of either the source-relay link or the relay-destination link but not both, is available. These receivers are termed as `half-coherent receivers\\' since they have channel-state-information of only one of the two links in the system. In practical systems, the CSI at the communicating terminals becomes outdated due to the time varying nature of the channel and results in system performance degradation. In this dissertation, the impact of using outdated CSI for relay selection on

  15. The Energy Charter Treaty and Related Documents. A Legal Framework for International Energy Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Charter Treaty is a unique instrument for the promotion of international cooperation in the energy sector. Following its entry into force on 16 April 1998, the Treaty, together with the related documents contained in this booklet, provides an important legal basis for the creation of an open international energy market. The Charter process includes the countries of the enlarged European Union, Central and Eastern Europe, the Russian Federation, Central Asia and the Caucasus, as well as Japan, Australia and Mongolia. The Treaty remains open for accession by all countries committed to observance of its principles. It is very positive in this regard that states such as China, Iran, South Korea and the countries of ASEAN are taking a close interest in the Charter process, thus opening up the prospect of a further extension of its geographical scope. The primary challenge facing the constituent members of the Energy Charter process in the coming years will be that of ensuring full implementation of the Treaty's commitments. This will entail increased focus on multilateral cooperation over transit, trade, investments, environmental protection and energy efficiency. By continuing to build on its existing work in these areas, the Charter process stands ready to play a key role in translating the aim of a truly open non-discriminatory energy market into reality. This publication reproduces the text of the following documents: Final Act of the European Energy Charter Conference with all Annexes thereto, as opened for signature in Lisbon on 17 December 1994 and corrected by the Protocol of Correction of 2 August 1996; the Chairman's Statement at Adoption Session on 17 December 1994, as reported in the Note from the Secretariat 42/94 CONF 115; the Joint Memorandum of the Delegations of the Russian Federation and the European Communities on Nuclear Trade, as reported in the Note from the Secretariat 42/94 CONF 115; the Concluding Document of the Hague Conference on

  16. Cooperative Extension as a Framework for Health Extension: The Michigan State University Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Jeffrey W; Contreras, Dawn; Eschbach, Cheryl L; Tiret, Holly; Newkirk, Cathy; Carter, Erin; Cronk, Linda

    2017-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act charged the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to create the Primary Care Extension Program, but did not fund this effort. The idea to work through health extension agents to support health care delivery systems was based on the nationally known Cooperative Extension System (CES). Instead of creating new infrastructure in health care, the CES is an ideal vehicle for increasing health-related research and primary care delivery. The CES, a long-standing component of the land-grant university system, features a sustained infrastructure for providing education to communities. The Michigan State University (MSU) Model of Health Extension offers another means of developing a National Primary Care Extension Program that is replicable in part because of the presence of the CES throughout the United States. A partnership between the MSU College of Human Medicine and MSU Extension formed in 2014, emphasizing the promotion and support of human health research. The MSU Model of Health Extension includes the following strategies: building partnerships, preparing MSU Extension educators for participation in research, increasing primary care patient referrals and enrollment in health programs, and exploring innovative funding. Since the formation of the MSU Model of Health Extension, researchers and extension professionals have made 200+ connections, and grants have afforded savings in salary costs. The MSU College of Human Medicine and MSU Extension partnership can serve as a model to promote health partnerships nationwide between CES services within land-grant universities and academic health centers or community-based medical schools.

  17. Framework and Challenges for Initiating Multinational Cooperation for the Development of a Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication is concerned with radioactive waste that requires geological disposal. It discusses the partnership arrangements necessary for the development of a multinational repository for disposal of this waste, but it also emphasizes that countries should not rely solely on a multinational solution and should in addition have coherent national plans for disposal (a dual track strategy). The publication focuses on multinational approaches based on the IAEA scenario for cooperation among countries in joint projects for the establishment of a shared geological repository. It describes the phased approach that would be needed, indicating the decision processes to be undertaken by partners in the multinational project, both within a national context and in the scope of the joint endeavour. It highlights a wide range of legal and institutional aspects, including the contractual obligations among partners, the economic and financial arrangements, liabilities, nuclear security, regulatory and legislative aspects, waste transportation arrangements, and social issues. It also addresses the uncertainties and risks involved in the implementation of a multinational repository

  18. A Framework for Modeling Competitive and Cooperative Computation in Retinal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Díaz, Roberto; de Blasio, Gabriel; Moreno-Díaz, Arminda

    2008-07-01

    The structure of the retina suggests that it should be treated (at least from the computational point of view), as a layered computer. Different retinal cells contribute to the coding of the signals down to ganglion cells. Also, because of the nature of the specialization of some ganglion cells, the structure suggests that all these specialization processes should take place at the inner plexiform layer and they should be of a local character, prior to a global integration and frequency-spike coding by the ganglion cells. The framework we propose consists of a layered computational structure, where outer layers provide essentially with band-pass space-time filtered signals which are progressively delayed, at least for their formal treatment. Specialization is supposed to take place at the inner plexiform layer by the action of spatio-temporal microkernels (acting very locally), and having a centerperiphery space-time structure. The resulting signals are then integrated by the ganglion cells through macrokernels structures. Practically all types of specialization found in different vertebrate retinas, as well as the quasilinear behavior in some higher vertebrates, can be modeled and simulated within this framework. Finally, possible feedback from central structures is considered. Though their relevance to retinal processing is not definitive, it is included here for the sake of completeness, since it is a formal requisite for recursiveness.

  19. Evidence appraisal: a scoping review, conceptual framework, and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Andrew; Venker, Eric; Weng, Chunhua

    2017-11-01

    Critical appraisal of clinical evidence promises to help prevent, detect, and address flaws related to study importance, ethics, validity, applicability, and reporting. These research issues are of growing concern. The purpose of this scoping review is to survey the current literature on evidence appraisal to develop a conceptual framework and an informatics research agenda. We conducted an iterative literature search of Medline for discussion or research on the critical appraisal of clinical evidence. After title and abstract review, 121 articles were included in the analysis. We performed qualitative thematic analysis to describe the evidence appraisal architecture and its issues and opportunities. From this analysis, we derived a conceptual framework and an informatics research agenda. We identified 68 themes in 10 categories. This analysis revealed that the practice of evidence appraisal is quite common but is rarely subjected to documentation, organization, validation, integration, or uptake. This is related to underdeveloped tools, scant incentives, and insufficient acquisition of appraisal data and transformation of the data into usable knowledge. The gaps in acquiring appraisal data, transforming the data into actionable information and knowledge, and ensuring its dissemination and adoption can be addressed with proven informatics approaches. Evidence appraisal faces several challenges, but implementing an informatics research agenda would likely help realize the potential of evidence appraisal for improving the rigor and value of clinical evidence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Future NASA solar system exploration activities: A framework for international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Bevan M.; Ramlose, Terri; Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    The goals and approaches for planetary exploration as defined for the NASA Solar System Exploration Program are discussed. The evolution of the program since the formation of the Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) in 1980 is reviewed and the primary missions comprising the program are described.

  1. IAEA Mission Concludes Peer Review of Pakistan's Nuclear Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    An international team of senior nuclear safety experts today concluded a nine-day International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) mission to review the regulatory framework for the safety of operating nuclear power plants in the United States of America (USA). The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission was a follow-up to the IRRS mission to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) that was conducted in 2010, with the key additional aim of reviewing whether the response of the US regulatory regime to the implications of the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Plant had been timely and effective. The mission team concluded that the recommendations and suggestions made by the 2010 IRRS mission have been taken into account systematically under the NRC's subsequent action plan, with significant progress in many areas and many improvements carried out. One of two recommendations and 19 out of 20 suggestions made by the 2010 IRRS mission have been effectively addressed and can therefore be considered closed. The outstanding recommendation relates to the NRC's review of its Management System, which is in the process of being finalised. The IRRS team also found that the NRC acted promptly and effectively after the Fukushima accident in the interests of public health and safety, and that the report of its Near-Term Task Force represents a sound and ample basis for taking into account the lessons learned from the accident

  2. IAEA Mission Concludes Peer Review of Jordan's Nuclear Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Senior international nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded an 11-day International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Jordan. The mission team said in its preliminary findings that Jordan's nuclear regulator, the Energy and Minerals Regulatory Commission (EMRC), faces challenges because it is a relatively new body that handles a high workload while also working to recruit, train and keep competent staff. The team also noted that a recent merger provided the regulator with more of the resources it needs to perform its duty. The team made recommendations and suggestions to the regulatory body and the Government to help them strengthen the effectiveness of Jordan's regulatory framework and functions in line with IAEA Safety Standards. The main observations of the IRRS Review team comprised the following: The regulatory body, founded in 2007 and merged with other regulators in April 2014 to form EMRC, faces large challenges in terms of its regulatory workload, management system building and staff recruitment and training; The new EMRC structure and revision of the radiation and nuclear safety law represents an important opportunity to strengthen Jordan's radiation and nuclear safety infrastructure; The Government has shown commitment to radiation and nuclear safety through measures including becoming party to international conventions. It could further demonstrate its commitment by adopting a formal national policy and strategy for safety that defines the role of the Minister of Energy in relation to EMRC and protects the independence of regulatory decision-making

  3. A climate analysis using CORDEX simulations in a cooperation framework: the case of Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercogliano, Paola; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Ciervo, Fabio; Montesarchio, Myriam; Zollo, Alessandra Lucia; Villani, Veronica; Barbato, Giuliana; Vendemia, Rosalba; Polato, Raul; Baez, Julian; Pasten, Max

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, changes in climate have entailed variations in surface temperature and precipitation patterns in various countries of the South America, among which Paraguay. Climate change-attributed effects on weather impacts, such as river and urban floods, droughts and heat waves could severely affect the actual conditions of the country. In fact, Paraguay exhibits significant vulnerabilities to climate changes, especially because of its dependence on commodities production (e.g. agriculture, livestock, etc.) and its infrastructural and logistic asset not yet fully formed. In this context, climate change analysis can be an important technical support for practitioners to assist - under uncertainty - national/regional planning, financial resources managing and development (e.g. land-use practices, population growth, economic and community behavior, health, etc.). Moreover, actions in adaptation, disaster risk reduction (DRR), social protection and impacts mitigation may involve high costs if not properly contextualized. The assessment of 21st century climate change and development of whatever response strategies requires climate scenarios at high resolution, including an accurate evaluation of projection uncertainties (i.e. robustness of the analysis). This should ensure adequate insights into the potential impacts of climate change and allow practitioners, usually ill equipped to consider uncertain climate outputs into a broader context (e.g. planning, designing, managing), to make appropriate choices. In the framework of CORDEX initiative, Paraguay is included into the SOUTH-AMERICA-CORDEX one. Three climate simulations over this area are available at the spatial resolution of 0.44° (about 50km), obtained with RCM SMHI-RCA4 (forced by GCMs ICHEC-EC-EARTH and MPI-M-MPI-ESM-LR) and RCM MPI-CSC-REMO2009 (forced by MPI-M-MPI-ESM-LR). Simulations over the 21st century have been performed according with IPCC RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The plausibility of

  4. Policy development for biodiversity offsets: a review of offset frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Bruce A; Kiesecker, Joseph M

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity offsets seek to compensate for residual environmental impacts of planned developments after appropriate steps have been taken to avoid, minimize or restore impacts on site. Offsets are emerging as an increasingly employed mechanism for achieving net environmental benefits, with offset policies being advanced in a wide range of countries (i.e., United States, Australia, Brazil, Colombia, and South Africa). To support policy development for biodiversity offsets, we review a set of major offset policy frameworks-US wetlands mitigation, US conservation banking, EU Natura 2000, Australian offset policies in New South Wales, Victoria, and Western Australia, and Brazilian industrial and forest offsets. We compare how the frameworks define offset policy goals, approach the mitigation process, and address six key issues for implementing offsets: (1) equivalence of project impacts with offset gains; (2) location of the offset relative to the impact site; (3) "additionality" (a new contribution to conservation) and acceptable types of offsets; (4) timing of project impacts versus offset benefits; (5) offset duration and compliance; and (6) "currency" and mitigation replacement ratios. We find substantial policy commonalities that may serve as a sound basis for future development of biodiversity offsets policy. We also identify issues requiring further policy guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; and (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios.

  5. A Text-Mining Framework for Supporting Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dingcheng; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Liwei; Sohn, Sunghwan; Shen, Feichen; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-11-01

    Systematic reviews (SRs) involve the identification, appraisal, and synthesis of all relevant studies for focused questions in a structured reproducible manner. High-quality SRs follow strict procedures and require significant resources and time. We investigated advanced text-mining approaches to reduce the burden associated with abstract screening in SRs and provide high-level information summary. A text-mining SR supporting framework consisting of three self-defined semantics-based ranking metrics was proposed, including keyword relevance, indexed-term relevance and topic relevance. Keyword relevance is based on the user-defined keyword list used in the search strategy. Indexed-term relevance is derived from indexed vocabulary developed by domain experts used for indexing journal articles and books. Topic relevance is defined as the semantic similarity among retrieved abstracts in terms of topics generated by latent Dirichlet allocation, a Bayesian-based model for discovering topics. We tested the proposed framework using three published SRs addressing a variety of topics (Mass Media Interventions, Rectal Cancer and Influenza Vaccine). The results showed that when 91.8%, 85.7%, and 49.3% of the abstract screening labor was saved, the recalls were as high as 100% for the three cases; respectively. Relevant studies identified manually showed strong topic similarity through topic analysis, which supported the inclusion of topic analysis as relevance metric. It was demonstrated that advanced text mining approaches can significantly reduce the abstract screening labor of SRs and provide an informative summary of relevant studies.

  6. Critical variables of business failure: a review and classification framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Failure is a phenomenon that ventures face during all stages of the life cycle and requires insight into its causes before it can be reversed. The scientific literature on failure is, however, spread over multiple disciplines. This study’s line of enquiry firstly reviews the documented research (both theoretical and empirical encompassing the phenomenon ‘business failure’ on a multi-disciplinary basis. A conceptual framework is then proposed for categorising variables into four sub-domains namely: signs and prediction; causes and preconditions; recovery; and cognition and learning. Better understanding of the failure phenomenon is achieved. The methodology applied is fundamentally based on grounded theory interpretation with a focus on classifying the identified relevant variables.

  7. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, W.Y.; Chen, J.H.; Kim, D.H.; Simmons, R.B.V.; Surguri, S.

    1985-01-01

    A review has been conducted of a number of multi-national and bilateral arrangements between governments and between utility-sponsored organizations which provide the framework for international cooperation in the field of nuclear safety. These arrangements include the routine exchange operational data, experiences, technical reports and regulatory data, provision of special assistance when requested, collaboration in safety research, and the holding of international conferences and seminars. Areas which may be better suited for cooperation on a regional basis are identified. These areas include: exchange of operational data and experience, sharing of emergency planning information, and collaboration in safety research. Mechanisms to initiate regional cooperation in these areas are suggested

  8. SimBasin: A serious gaming framework for integrated and cooperative decision-making in water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita, H.; Craven, J.; Caggiano, F.; Corzo, G.

    2016-12-01

    An Integrated approach involving extensive stakeholder dialogue is widely advocated in sustainable water management. However, it requires a social learning process in which scientist and stakeholders become aware of the relationship between their own frames of reference and those of others, differences can be dealt with constructively, and shared ideas can be used to facilitate cooperation. Key obstacles in this process are heritage systems, attitudes and processes, factually wrong, incomplete or unshared mental models, and lack of science-policy dialogue (Pahl-Wostl et al., 2005) To overcome these barriers, a space is required which is free of heritage systems, where mental models can be safely and easily compared and corrected, and where scientists and policy-makers can come together. A "serious game" can serve as such a space - Serious games are games or simulations used to achieve an organizational or educational goal, and such games have already been used to facilitate stakeholder cooperation in the water management sector (Rusca et al., 2005). As well as bringing stakeholders together, they can be an accessible interface between scientific models and non-experts. Here we present SimBasin, a multiplayer serious game framework and development engine. The engine allows to easily create a simulated multiplayer basin management game using WEAP water resources modelling software (SEI, 1992-2015), to facilitate the communication of the complex, long term and wide range relationships between hydrologic, climate, and human systems present in river basins, and enable dialogue between policy-makers and scientists. Different games have been created using the Sim-Basin engine and used in various contexts. Here are discussed experiences with stakeholders at a national forum in Bogotá, flood risk management agencies in the lower Magdalena River Basin in Colombia and with water professionals in Bangkok. The experience shows that the game is a useful tool for enabling

  9. Review of Research on Credit Risk Management for Rural Credit Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of rural micro-credit, whether the qagriculture, rural areas and farmersq problems have been effectively solved, whether the credit risk has been effectively controlled, these have become the focus of our attention to the rural economic environment. The main content of this paper contains four aspects: the classification and characteristics of credit risk, the problems and factors of credit risk, the model and evaluation of credit risk, the countermeasures and suggestions of credit risk. This paper reviews the research of credit risk management for rural credit cooperatives from the above four aspects, and makes a brief summary.

  10. Review: Leon N. Cooper's Science and Human Experience: Values, Culture, and the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Gary S

    2015-01-01

    Why are we reviewing a book written by someone who shared in the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physics for work on superconductivity? Because shortly after winning the prize, Leon N. Cooper transitioned into brain research-specifically, the biological basis of memory. He became director of the Brown University Institute for Brain and Neural Systems, whose interdisciplinary program allowed him to integrate research on the brain, physics, and even philosophy. His new book tackles a diverse spectrum of topics and questions, including these: Does science have limits? Where does order come from? Can we understand consciousness?

  11. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of Europeanfreshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has facedsome challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the Europeanmonitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science andsuggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensiveprioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters.The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integratedstrategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approachesto advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic “chemical status”assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historicalburdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessmentof contamination. Solution-oriented m

  12. Technical cooperation on nuclear security between the United States and China : review of the past and opportunities for the future.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2011-12-01

    The United States and China are committed to cooperation to address the challenges of the next century. Technical cooperation, building on a long tradition of technical exchange between the two countries, can play an important role. This paper focuses on technical cooperation between the United States and China in the areas of nonproliferation, arms control and other nuclear security topics. It reviews cooperation during the 1990s on nonproliferation and arms control under the U.S.-China Arms Control Exchange, discusses examples of ongoing activities under the Peaceful Uses of Technology Agreement to enhance security of nuclear and radiological material, and suggests opportunities for expanding technical cooperation between the defense nuclear laboratories of both countries to address a broader range of nuclear security topics.

  13. Cooperation and Competition with Hyperscanning Methods: Review and Future Application to Emotion Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Balconi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation and competition, as two common and opposite examples of interpersonal dynamics, are thought to be reflected by different cognitive, neural, and behavioral patterns. According to the conventional approach, they have been explored by measuring subjects' reactions during individual performance or turn-based interactions in artificial settings, that don't allow on-line, ecological enactment of real-life social exchange. Considering the importance of these factors, and accounting for the complexity of such phenomena, the hyperscanning approach emerged as a multi-subject paradigm since it allows the simultaneous recording of the brain activity from multiple participants interacting. In this view, the present paper aimed at reviewing the most significant work about cooperation and competition by EEG hyperscanning technique, which proved to be a promising tool in capturing the sudden course of social interactions. In detail, the review will consider and group different experimental tasks that have been developed so far: (1 paradigms that used rhythm, music and motor synchronization; (2 card tasks taken from the Game Theory; (3 computerized tasks; and (4 possible real-life applications. Finally, although highlighting the potential contribution of such approach, some important limitations about these paradigms will be elucidated, with a specific focus on the emotional domain.

  14. A Review of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's International Education Surveys: Governance, Human Capital Discourses, and Policy Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara; Volante, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Given the influential role that the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) plays in educational governance, we believe it is timely to provide an in-depth review of its education surveys and their associated human capital discourses. By reviewing and summarizing the OECD's suite of education surveys, this paper identifies the…

  15. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016 year in review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-02-22

    Science and Management.” The workshop was well received and we have been asked to continue the dialogue with a second workshop in 2017. It was evident during the workshop that the CRU is viewed by our cooperators as an important and essential linkage between academia and practitioners. This is testament to the legacy of the CRU Program and the foundation it is built upon. In this Year in Review report, you will find details on staffing, vacancies, research funding, and other pertinent information. You will also see snapshots of CRU projects with information on how results have been or are being applied by cooperators. That is the essence of what we do: science that matters.

  16. Communication dated 10 September 2008 received from the Permanent Mission of Egypt to the Agency concerning the High Level Policy Review Seminar of African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 10 September 2008 from the Permanent Mission of Egypt enclosing the documents of the High Level Policy Review Seminar of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) held in Aswan, Egypt on 28-29 November 2007. The communication, and as requested therein, the enclosures containing the Declaration of Aswan, the Aswan Action Plan and the Profile of the Regional Strategic Cooperative Framework (2008-2013) are circulated herewith for information

  17. Combined use of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Sarah A; Powell, Byron J; Presseau, Justin; Kirk, M Alexis; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Gould, Natalie J; Shea, Christopher M; Weiner, Bryan J; Francis, Jill J; Yu, Yan; Haines, Emily; Damschroder, Laura J

    2017-01-05

    Over 60 implementation frameworks exist. Using multiple frameworks may help researchers to address multiple study purposes, levels, and degrees of theoretical heritage and operationalizability; however, using multiple frameworks may result in unnecessary complexity and redundancy if doing so does not address study needs. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) are both well-operationalized, multi-level implementation determinant frameworks derived from theory. As such, the rationale for using the frameworks in combination (i.e., CFIR + TDF) is unclear. The objective of this systematic review was to elucidate the rationale for using CFIR + TDF by (1) describing studies that have used CFIR + TDF, (2) how they used CFIR + TDF, and (2) their stated rationale for using CFIR + TDF. We undertook a systematic review to identify studies that mentioned both the CFIR and the TDF, were written in English, were peer-reviewed, and reported either a protocol or results of an empirical study in MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, or Google Scholar. We then abstracted data into a matrix and analyzed it qualitatively, identifying salient themes. We identified five protocols and seven completed studies that used CFIR + TDF. CFIR + TDF was applied to studies in several countries, to a range of healthcare interventions, and at multiple intervention phases; used many designs, methods, and units of analysis; and assessed a variety of outcomes. Three studies indicated that using CFIR + TDF addressed multiple study purposes. Six studies indicated that using CFIR + TDF addressed multiple conceptual levels. Four studies did not explicitly state their rationale for using CFIR + TDF. Differences in the purposes that authors of the CFIR (e.g., comprehensive set of implementation determinants) and the TDF (e.g., intervention development) propose help to justify the use of CFIR

  18. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, I.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  19. South-South Cooperation in health professional education: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L du toit

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the literature on the evolution of funding approaches there is criticism of traditional funding strategies and the promotion of inclusive models, such as South-South Cooperation (SSC and triangular models. The latter are felt to have a number of advantages. This article has four broad objectives: (i to present a literature review on the evolution of Southern approaches to development co-operation; (ii to indicate examples of current co-operative programmes in health and health professional education in Africa; (iii to assess the advantages and disadvantages of these models; and (iv to mention some emerging issues in monitoring and evaluation. The Boolean logic approach was used to search for applicable literature within three topic layers. Searches were conducted using PubMed, PLoS and other accessible databases. An initial draft of the article was presented to a group of academics and researchers at the Flemish Inter-University Council (VLIR-UOS-Primafamed annual workshop held in August 2010 in Swaziland. Comments and suggestions from the group were included in later versions of the article. It is important to note that the existence of various funding models implemented by a variety of actors makes it difficult to measure their effects. In health and health professional education, however, SSC and triangular models of aid provide conditions for more effective programming through their focus on participation and long-term involvement. With an eye towards evaluating programmes, a number of salient issues are emerging. The importance of context is highlighted.

  20. Projects and potentialities for Scientific and Technological Cooperation between Mexico and Thailand under the European Union's Seventh Framework Program (FP7: 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Haberleithner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union and Mexico have been cooperating in the field of R&D since the partnership treaty between the Eu and Mexico took effect in 2000. With the Lisbon Strategy put into operation that same year, Europe acknowledged the central role which will be played by knowledge in the economy and society of the future. Accordingly, innovation was emphasized in order to advance mutual efforts to establish innovative research and development projects with Third Countries such as Mexico and Thailand through diverse multilateral framework programs such as the Seventh Framework Program (Fp7. A brief evaluation of the existing projects in Fp7 reveal disposition for intraregional cooperation in spite of the disparities regarding the quantity and extension of projects. Moreover, studied participants share a similar lack of know-how for coordinating projects which is at times crucial for benefiting completely from the program. Potential exists for establishing the necessary links and coordinating points amongst Mexico and Thailand under the given cooperation regional and bilateral mechanisms and the extensive research areas that the program covers. It is these specific potentialities enabled by the Fp7 in both regions that intend to be further researched for their development into multiple and successful projects.

  1. IAEA Team Concludes Peer Review of Greece's Regulatory Framework for Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An international team of senior nuclear safety and radiation protection experts yesterday concluded an 11-day mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Greece. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission, which was conducted at the request of the Government of the Hellenic Republic, noted good practices in the country's nuclear regulatory system and also identified issues for improvement for the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) and the Greek competent authorities. These are aimed at strengthening the effectiveness of the country's regulatory framework and functions in line with IAEA Safety Standards. ''The IRRS team enjoyed excellent cooperation from the GAEC throughout its mission,'' said Tom Ryan, mission leader and Director of Regulations and Information Management at the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. ''The GAEC staff were very open and candid in their discussions and provided the fullest practicable assistance.'' The main observations of the IRRS Review team included: While the Greek Government's commitment to safety is being demonstrated through its actions, the development of a comprehensive national policy and strategy expressed in a consolidated statement would provide a valuable framework and guidance for future actions in terms of safety; and GAEC has effective independence. The Greek government has ensured that GAEC is effectively independent in its safety-related decision-making and that it has functional separation from entities having responsibility or interests that could unduly influence its decision making. Strengths and good practices identified by the IRRS team included: Greece actively participates in the global safety regime including all relevant safety conventions; The nation's radiation monitoring system for the detection of illicit trafficking contributes significantly to identifying potential radiation emergencies due to events within or outside the country

  2. Narrative review of frameworks for translating research evidence into policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milat, Andrew J; Li, Ben

    2017-02-15

    A significant challenge in research translation is that interested parties interpret and apply the associated terms and conceptual frameworks in different ways. The purpose of this review was to: a) examine different research translation frameworks; b) examine the similarities and differences between the frameworks; and c) identify key strengths and weaknesses of the models when they are applied in practice. The review involved a keyword search of PubMed. The search string was (translational research OR knowledge translation OR evidence to practice) AND (framework OR model OR theory) AND (public health OR health promotion OR medicine). Included studies were published in English between January 1990 and December 2014, and described frameworks, models or theories associated with research translation. The final review included 98 papers, and 41 different frameworks and models were identified. The most frequently applied knowledge translation framework in the literature was RE-AIM, followed by the knowledge translation continuum or 'T' models, the Knowledge to Action framework, the PARiHS framework, evidence based public health models, and the stages of research and evaluation model. The models identified in this review stem from different fields, including implementation science, basic and medical sciences, health services research and public health, and propose different but related pathways to closing the research-practice gap.

  3. Narrative review of frameworks for translating research evidence into policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A significant challenge in research translation is that interested parties interpret and apply the associated terms and conceptual frameworks in different ways. The purpose of this review was to: a examine different research translation frameworks; b examine the similarities and differences between the frameworks; and c identify key strengths and weaknesses of the models when they are applied in practice. Methods: The review involved a keyword search of PubMed. The search string was (translational research OR knowledge translation OR evidence to practice AND (framework OR model OR theory AND (public health OR health promotion OR medicine. Included studies were published in English between January 1990 and December 2014, and described frameworks, models or theories associated with research translation. Results: The final review included 98 papers, and 41 different frameworks and models were identified. The most frequently applied knowledge translation framework in the literature was RE-AIM, followed by the knowledge translation continuum or ‘T’ models, the Knowledge to Action framework, the PARiHS framework, evidence based public health models, and the stages of research and evaluation model. Conclusion: The models identified in this review stem from different fields, including implementation science, basic and medical sciences, health services research and public health, and propose different but related pathways to closing the research–practice gap.

  4. Does Quality of Radiation Therapy Predict Outcomes of Multicenter Cooperative Group Trials? A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, Alysa, E-mail: alysa.fairchild@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Straube, William [Advanced Technology Consortium, Imaged-Guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Laurie, Fran [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, Rhode Island (United States); Followill, David [Radiological Physics Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Centre, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Central review of radiation therapy (RT) delivery within multicenter clinical trials was initiated in the early 1970s in the United States. Early quality assurance publications often focused on metrics related to process, logistics, and timing. Our objective was to review the available evidence supporting correlation of RT quality with clinical outcomes within cooperative group trials. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify multicenter studies that described central subjective assessment of RT protocol compliance (quality). Data abstracted included method of central review, definition of deviations, and clinical outcomes. Seventeen multicenter studies (1980-2012) were identified, plus one Patterns of Care Study. Disease sites were hematologic, head and neck, lung, breast, and pancreas. Between 0 and 97% of treatment plans received an overall grade of acceptable. In 7 trials, failure rates were significantly higher after inadequate versus adequate RT. Five of 9 and 2 of 5 trials reported significantly worse overall and progression-free survival after poor-quality RT, respectively. One reported a significant correlation, and 2 reported nonsignificant trends toward increased toxicity with noncompliant RT. Although more data are required, protocol-compliant RT may decrease failure rates and increase overall survival and likely contributes to the ability of collected data to answer the central trial question.

  5. Does Quality of Radiation Therapy Predict Outcomes of Multicenter Cooperative Group Trials? A Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, Alysa; Straube, William; Laurie, Fran; Followill, David

    2013-01-01

    Central review of radiation therapy (RT) delivery within multicenter clinical trials was initiated in the early 1970s in the United States. Early quality assurance publications often focused on metrics related to process, logistics, and timing. Our objective was to review the available evidence supporting correlation of RT quality with clinical outcomes within cooperative group trials. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify multicenter studies that described central subjective assessment of RT protocol compliance (quality). Data abstracted included method of central review, definition of deviations, and clinical outcomes. Seventeen multicenter studies (1980-2012) were identified, plus one Patterns of Care Study. Disease sites were hematologic, head and neck, lung, breast, and pancreas. Between 0 and 97% of treatment plans received an overall grade of acceptable. In 7 trials, failure rates were significantly higher after inadequate versus adequate RT. Five of 9 and 2 of 5 trials reported significantly worse overall and progression-free survival after poor-quality RT, respectively. One reported a significant correlation, and 2 reported nonsignificant trends toward increased toxicity with noncompliant RT. Although more data are required, protocol-compliant RT may decrease failure rates and increase overall survival and likely contributes to the ability of collected data to answer the central trial question

  6. International Expert Team Concludes IAEA Peer Review of Finland's Regulatory Framework for Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    contributing to enhanced safety worldwide through international cooperation. In line with the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, the mission reviewed the regulatory implications for Finland of the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in Japan. The mission found that STUK's immediate- and longer-term response was timely and effective. Although short-term safety issues were not identified, a number of safety improvements have been initiated and STUK performed extremely well in informing the public. The IRRS team identified a number of areas where the overall performance of the regulatory system could be improved, including: - Although STUK operates in practice as an independent regulatory body, the government should strengthen the legislative framework by embedding in law the regulatory body, separate from entities having responsibilities or interests that could unduly influence its decisions; - The Finnish legislative framework should be further developed to cover authorization for facility decommissioning and the waste repository shutdowns; and - STUK can improve the effectiveness of its inspection activities by enhancing the focus of inspection on the most safety-significant areas and developing a formal qualification programme for inspectors. In its preliminary report, the IAEA team's main conclusions have been conveyed to STUK. A final report will be submitted to the Government of Finland in about three months. STUK has informed the team that the final report will be made publicly available. The IAEA encourages nations to invite a follow-up IRRS mission about two years after the mission has been completed. Background The team reviewed the legal and regulatory framework for nuclear safety and addressed all facilities regulated by STUK with the exception of the research reactor FiR 1, which STUK decided to exclude because the operator is shutting it down. This was the 44th IRRS mission conducted by the IAEA. Quick Facts - Finland has four

  7. Hydrogen storage in metal-organic frameworks: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for hydrogen storage have continued to receive intense interest over the past decade. MOFs are a class of organic-inorganic hybrid crystalline materials consisting of metallic moieties that are linked by strong...

  8. A Framework for Rigorously Identifying Research Gaps in Qualitative Literature Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Bloch, Christoph; Kranz, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Identifying research gaps is a fundamental goal of literature reviewing. While it is widely acknowledged that literature reviews should identify research gaps, there are no methodological guidelines for how to identify research gaps in qualitative literature reviews ensuring rigor and replicability....... Our study addresses this gap and proposes a framework that should help scholars in this endeavor without stifling creativity. To develop the framework we thoroughly analyze the state-of-the-art procedure of identifying research gaps in 40 recent literature reviews using a grounded theory approach....... Based on the data, we subsequently derive a framework for identifying research gaps in qualitative literature reviews and demonstrate its application with an example. Our results provide a modus operandi for identifying research gaps, thus enabling scholars to conduct literature reviews more rigorously...

  9. Review for the Korean Health Professionals and International Cooperation Doctors Dispatched to Peru by the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongyoung

    2015-04-01

    South Korea dispatches Korean nationals to partner developing countries as an Official Development Assistance (ODA) project through the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). In the health sector, KOICA dispatches international cooperation doctors (ICDs), nurses, physical therapists, radiologic technologists, nutritionists, medical laboratory technologists, occupational therapists, and dental hygienists. A total of 216 ICDs were dispatched over 19 times from 1995 until 2013. There were 19 areas of specialties among the ICDs. The most common specialty was internal medicine (61/216, 28.2%), the second most common specialty was general surgery (43/216, 19.9%), followed by oriental medicine (27/216, 12.5%), pediatrics (17/216, 7.9%), orthopedics (16/216, 7.4%), family medicine (16/216, 7.4%), and odontology (14/216, 6.5%). The ICDs have worked in 21 countries. KOICA dispatched the highest number of ICDs to Asia (97/216, 44.9%), followed by Africa (50/216, 23.1%), Latin America (34/216, 15.7%), the commonwealth of independent states (31/216, 14.4%), and Oceania (4/216, 1.9%). Nobody was dispatched to the Middle East. A total of 134 KOICA health professionals were dispatched to Peru from 1996 until October 1, 2014. Of these, 19.4% (26/134) were ICDs, 44.8% (60/216) were nurses, 20.1% (27/134) were physical therapists, 6.7% (9/134) were radiologic technologists, 2.2% (3/134) were nutritionists, and 6.7% (9/134) were medical laboratory. ICDs' specialties comprised internal medicine (13/26, 50%), family medicine (8/26, 30.8%), pediatrics (2/26, 7.7%), otorhinolaryngology (1/26, 3.8%), orthopedics (1/26, 3.8%), and oriental medicine (1/26, 3.8%). Most of the dispatched health professionals worked at institutions that were supported by KOICA. For this reason, the proportion of health professionals who worked at public health centers (PHCs) was the highest (58.2%, 78/134) when classified by workplace type. Other KOICA health professionals worked at hospitals

  10. IAEA Team Concludes Peer Review of Sweden's Nuclear Regulatory Framework, 17 February 2012, Stockholm, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An international team of senior nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded a 12-day mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Sweden. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission, which was conducted at the request of Sweden, noted good practices in the country's nuclear regulatory system and also made recommendations and suggestions for the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) and the government. These are aimed at strengthening the effectiveness of the country's regulatory framework and functions in line with IAEA Safety Standards. ''Throughout the mission, the IRRS team received full cooperation from SSM staff in its review of Sweden's regulatory, technical and policy issues,'' said Georg Schwarz, mission leader and Deputy Director General of the Swiss nuclear regulator (ENSI). 'The staff were open and candid in their discussions and provided the fullest practicable assistance', he commented. The main observations of the IRRS Review team included the following: SSM operates as an independent regulator in an open and transparent manner with well-organized regulatory processes; SSM is receptive to feedback and strives to maintain a culture of continuous learning; and Following the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi accident, SSM responded promptly to public demand for information and communicated effectively with the national government, the public and other interested parties. Good practices identified by the IRRS team included, though they are not limited to, the following: The consolidation of the two previous national regulatory authorities into SSM was successful; Overall, SSM's management system is comprehensive and contributes to staff efficiency and effectiveness; The nuclear power plant refurbishment programme as required by SSM enhanced safety; and Sweden's regulatory framework for high-level waste disposal is comprehensive and technically sound. The IRRS Review team identified

  11. Assessment of persistency and bioaccumulation in pesticide registration frameworks within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montforts, Mark H M M

    This article describes the results of a survey conducted in 2003 on methods used by different member countries within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to evaluate persistent and bioaccumulative pesticides. The objectives were to establish the differences in taking

  12. Seed producer cooperatives in the Ethiopian seed sector and their role in seed supply improvement: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sisay, D.T.; Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    The role of seed producer cooperatives (SPCs) in the Ethiopian seed sector and their contribution to seed supply improvement have received attention from researchers, policymakers, and development partners. However, limited work has been done in reviewing and documenting their involvement in the

  13. Solar PV rural electrification and energy-poverty. A review and conceptual framework with reference to Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeng, George Yaw [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasei (Ghana). Technology Consultancy Centre; Evers, Hans-Dieter [Center for Development Research (Bonn University) ZEF, Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Political and Cultural Change

    2009-07-01

    In spite of the intention of governments to increase the use of renewable energy in electricity supply, particularly the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) for energy poverty reduction in rural and peri-urban areas of Africa, there is relatively little information on how solar PV electrification impacts on energy poverty reduction. Therefore, there is a gap in the literature and hence the need for continuous research. Using Ghana as a reference country, the historical trend, donor cooperation and other aspects of solar PV rural electrification are discussed. The paper illustrates the intersectoral linkages of solar PV electrification and indicators on education, health, information acquisition, agriculture and micro-enterprises. It also reviews sustainability related issues including costs and market barriers, subsidies, stakeholders involvement, political and policy implications, which are critical factors for sustainable market development of solar PV and other renewables. Finally, a common framework is developed to provide a basic understanding of how solar PV electrification impacts on energy-poverty. This framework provides a structure of the interrelated concepts and principles relevant to the issues under review. (orig.)

  14. Ethical framework of assistive devices: review and reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Nazanin; Goher, Khaled; Hosseini, Seyed Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    The population of ageing is growing significantly over the world, and there is an emerging demand for better healthcare services and more care centres. Innovations of Information and Communication Technology has resulted in development of various types of assistive robots to fulfil elderly's needs and independency, whilst carrying out daily routine tasks. This makes it vital to have a clear understanding of elderly's needs and expectations from assistive robots. This paper addresses current ethical issues to understand elderly's prime needs. Also, we consider other general ethics with the purpose of applying these theories to form a proper ethics framework. In the ethics framework, the ethical concerns of senior citizens will be prioritized to satisfy elderly's needs and also to diminish related expenses to healthcare services.

  15. Environmental risk analysis for nanomaterials: Review and evaluation of frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Linkov, Igor; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2012-01-01

    to occupational settings with minor environmental considerations, and most have not been thoroughly tested on a wide range of NM. Care should also be taken when selecting the most appropriate risk analysis strategy for a given risk context. Given this, we recommend a multi-faceted approach to assess...... the environmental risks of NM as well as increased applications and testing of the proposed frameworks for different NM....

  16. From Patchwork to Framework: A Review of Title 10 Authorities for Security Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    possess.12 Another lamented the “cocktail” of 12 authorities needed to fund exer- cises, and that it is a “full-time gig ” to figure out how to legally...eligibility through a combination of metrics provided by the World Bank’s List of Economies , the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook, and

  17. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part the are reviewed: Co-operation with IAEA; Participation of the Slovakia on the 41 st session of the General Conference; The comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization; Co-operation with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; co-operation with the European Commission; Fulfillment of obligations resulting from the international contracting documents

  18. International co-operation in safety matters within the framework of the Commission of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.; Balz, W.; Essler, W.; Tolley, B.; Gabolde, J.

    1981-01-01

    European Community (EC) countries realize that their energy demand cannot be met without a nuclear component, which is almost a necessity owing to its major economic advantages. Two typical areas where the Commission has stimulated intense international co-operation are as follows: The first broad area deals with efforts towards a gradual harmonization of regulatory health and safety practices and requirements for reactors of an industrially developed type, more specifically (light) water-cooled reactors. The second area concerns joint research programmes and co-ordination activities in research on nuclear safety (LWRs and LMFBRs). These two broad areas are closely interconnected. Information is also given on the existing network of bilateral and multilateral arrangements for the exchange of information of interest to the EC. In conclusion, some problems are highlighted where improvements could be made or where it seems crucial that increased international co-operation and especially agreement should come about. (author)

  19. Theories, models and frameworks used in capacity building interventions relevant to public health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Kim; Abdi, Samiya; DeCorby, Kara; Mensah, Gloria; Rempel, Benjamin; Manson, Heather

    2017-11-28

    There is limited research on capacity building interventions that include theoretical foundations. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify underlying theories, models and frameworks used to support capacity building interventions relevant to public health practice. The aim is to inform and improve capacity building practices and services offered by public health organizations. Four search strategies were used: 1) electronic database searching; 2) reference lists of included papers; 3) key informant consultation; and 4) grey literature searching. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are outlined with included papers focusing on capacity building, learning plans, professional development plans in combination with tools, resources, processes, procedures, steps, model, framework, guideline, described in a public health or healthcare setting, or non-government, government, or community organizations as they relate to healthcare, and explicitly or implicitly mention a theory, model and/or framework that grounds the type of capacity building approach developed. Quality assessment were performed on all included articles. Data analysis included a process for synthesizing, analyzing and presenting descriptive summaries, categorizing theoretical foundations according to which theory, model and/or framework was used and whether or not the theory, model or framework was implied or explicitly identified. Nineteen articles were included in this review. A total of 28 theories, models and frameworks were identified. Of this number, two theories (Diffusion of Innovations and Transformational Learning), two models (Ecological and Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation) and one framework (Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning) were identified as the most frequently cited. This review identifies specific theories, models and frameworks to support capacity building interventions relevant to public health organizations. It provides public health practitioners

  20. Framework for Sustainability Performance Assessment for Manufacturing Processes- A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K.; Sultan, I.

    2017-07-01

    Manufacturing industries are facing tough competition due to increasing raw material cost and depleting natural resources. There is great pressure on the industry to produce environmental friendly products using environmental friendly processes. To address these issues modern manufacturing industries are focusing on sustainable manufacturing. To develop more sustainable societies, industries need to better understand how to respond to environmental, economic and social challenges. This paper proposed some framework and tools that accelerate the transition towards a sustainable system. The developed framework will be beneficial for sustainability assessment comparing different plans alongside material properties, ultimately helping the manufacturing industries to reduce the carbon emissions and material waste, besides improving energy efficiency. It is expected that this would be highly beneficial for determination of environmental impact of a process at early design stages. Therefore, it would greatly help the manufacturing industries for selection of process plan based on sustainable indices. Overall objective of this paper would have good impact on reducing air emissions and protecting environment. We expect this work to contribute to the development of a standard reference methodology to help further sustainability in the manufacturing sector.

  1. A Conceptual Framework for Systematic Reviews of Research in Educational Leadership and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinger, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for scholars carrying out reviews of research that meet international standards for publication. Design/methodology/approach: This is primarily a conceptual paper focusing on the methodology of conducting systematic reviews of research. However, the paper draws on a database of reviews…

  2. Public health and health promotion capacity at national and regional level: a review of conceptual frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Aluttis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of capacity building for public health has gained much attention during the last decade. National as well as international organizations increasingly focus their efforts on capacity building to improve performance in the health sector. During the past two decades, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been developed which describe relevant dimensions for public health capacity. Notably, these frameworks differ in design and conceptualization. This paper therefore reviews the existing conceptual frameworks and integrates them into one framework, which contains the most relevant dimensions for public health capacity at the country or regional level. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify frameworks addressing public health capacity building at the national or regional level. We content-analysed these frameworks to identify the core dimensions of public health capacity. The dimensions were subsequently synthesized into a set of thematic areas to construct a conceptual framework which describes the most relevant dimensions for capacities at the national or regional level. The systematic review resulted in the identification of seven core domains for public health capacity: resources, organizational structures, workforce, partnerships, leadership and governance, knowledge development and country specific context. Accordingly, these dimensions were used to construct a framework, which describes these core domains more in detail. Our research shows that although there is no generally agreed upon model of public health capacity, a number of key domains for public health and health promotion capacity are consistently recurring in existing frameworks, regardless of their geographical location or thematic area. As only little work on the core concepts of public health capacities has yet taken place, this study adds value to the discourse by identifying these consistencies across existing frameworks and by synthesising

  3. Theoretical review and framework : The roles of controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwelaar, ten J.A. (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades, the position of the business unit controller has grown in importance. This study gives a review of the research behind the two roles, which business unit-controllers can fulfill in business life: the support role and the control role. The support role is associated with

  4. Iberian (South American) Model of Judicial Review: Toward Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klishas, Andrey A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores Latin American countries legislation with the view to identify specific features of South American model of judicial review. The research methodology rests on comparative approach to analyzing national constitutions' provisions and experts' interpretations thereof. The constitutional provisions of Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and…

  5. Guilt in Bereavement : A Review and Conceptual Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jie; Stroebe, Margaret; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Chow, Amy Y. M.

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-four quantitative and 9 qualitative studies are reviewed to indicate current understanding of the nature and impact of guilt in bereavement. This overview suggests that guilt is especially prevalent among some vulnerable subgroups, and it is associated with maladaptive health outcomes. Being

  6. Methods in Entrepreneurship Education Research: A Review and Integrative Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blenker, Per; Trolle Elmholdt, Stine; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe

    2014-01-01

    is fragmented both conceptually and methodologically. Findings suggest that the methods applied in entrepreneurship education research cluster in two groups: 1. quantitative studies of the extent and effect of entrepreneurship education, and 2. qualitative single case studies of different courses and programmes....... It integrates qualitative and quantitative techniques, the use of research teams consisting of insiders (teachers studying their own teaching) and outsiders (research collaborators studying the education) as well as multiple types of data. To gain both in-depth and analytically generalizable studies...... a variety of helpful methods, explore the potential relation between insiders and outsiders in the research process, and discuss how different types of data can be combined. The integrated framework urges researchers to extend investments in methodological efforts and to enhance the in-depth understanding...

  7. A Review of Theoretical Frameworks for Supply Chain Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoo, AC; Tan, LC; Sulaiman, Z.; Zakuan, N.

    2017-06-01

    In a world of fierce competition and business driven by speed to market, good quality and low costs, this environment requires firms to have a source of competitive advantage that is inimitable and non-substitutable. For a supply chain integration (SCI) strategy to achieve sustainable competitive advantage it must be non-substitutable, inimitable, path-dependent and developed over time. Also, an integrated supply chain framework is needed to tie the whole network together in order to reduce perennial supply chain challenges such as functional silos, poor transparency of knowledge and information and the inadequate formation of appropriate customer and supplier relationships. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate the competitive impact of a SCI strategy on firm performance using the theory of Resource-based View (RBV) and relational view.

  8. SKU classification: A literature review and conceptual framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kampen, Tim J.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2012-01-01

    describing the factors that influence SKU classification. Further research could use this framework to develop guidelines for real-life applications. Practical implications: Examples from a variety of industries and general directions are provided thatwhich managers could use to develop their own SKU...... classification. Originality/value: This paper aims to advance the literature on SKU classification from the level of individual examples to a conceptual level and provides directions on how to develop a SKU classification.......Purpose: Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) classifications are widely used in the field of production and operations management. Although many theoretical and practical examples of classifications exist, there are no overviews of the current literature, and general guidelines are lacking with respect...

  9. Using framework-based synthesis for conducting reviews of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Woods, Mary

    2011-04-14

    Framework analysis is a technique used for data analysis in primary qualitative research. Recent years have seen its being adapted to conduct syntheses of qualitative studies. Framework-based synthesis shows considerable promise in addressing applied policy questions. An innovation in the approach, known as 'best fit' framework synthesis, has been published in BMC Medical Research Methodology this month. It involves reviewers in choosing a conceptual model likely to be suitable for the question of the review, and using it as the basis of their initial coding framework. This framework is then modified in response to the evidence reported in the studies in the reviews, so that the final product is a revised framework that may include both modified factors and new factors that were not anticipated in the original model. 'Best fit' framework-based synthesis may be especially suitable in addressing urgent policy questions where the need for a more fully developed synthesis is balanced by the need for a quick answer. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2288/11/29.

  10. Development of a framework to identify research gaps from systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen A; Saldanha, Ian J; McKoy, Naomi A

    2011-12-01

    Our objective was to develop a framework to identify research gaps from systematic reviews. We reviewed the practices of (1) evidence-based practice centers (EPCs), and (2) other organizations that conduct evidence syntheses. We developed and pilot tested a framework for identifying research gaps. Four (33%) EPCs and three (8%) other organizations reported using an explicit framework to determine research gaps. Variations of the PICO (population, intervention, comparison, outcomes) framework were most common. We developed a framework incorporating both the characterization of the gap using PICOS elements (also including setting) and the identification of the reason(s) why the gap exists as (1) insufficient or imprecise information, (2) biased information, (3) inconsistency or unknown consistency, and (4) not the right information. We mapped each of these reasons to concepts from three common evidence-grading systems. Our framework determines from systematic reviews where the current evidence falls short and why or how the evidence falls short. This explicit identification of research gaps will allow systematic reviews to maximally inform the types of questions that need to be addressed and the types of studies needed to address the research gaps. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Conceptual framework on workplace deviance behaviour:A review

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, K.; Murphy, S.E.

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the importance of organizational climate with both destructive and constructive deviance behaviour in different cultural setting with workplace as a common ground. First, we discuss the need for research in workplace deviance especially destructive and constructive deviance behaviour with the review of previous studies from deviance literature. Next, we present the importance of climate and culture with both destructive and constructive deviance by proposing rel...

  12. A study on a strategic participation in a new International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation(IFNEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jae Soo; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Han Myung; Jun, Eun Ju; Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, Dong Hoon; Oh, Keun Bae; Ko, Won ll; Lim, Chae Young

    2011-11-15

    The objective of the study is to analyze the current status and future direction of a new IFNEC, and to establish the national strategy for effective participation in IFNEC. To this end, the contents of this study are to compare former GNEP with a new IFNEC, to analyze the major contents and trend of the IFNEC, to examine the concept of Cradle to Grave (CTG) in nuclear fuel supply, and to establish the national strategy for effective participation in IFNEC including CTG. The result of this study may be used for contribution to strengthening the international nuclear cooperation and to promote the national nuclear activities.

  13. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured the Slovak Republic (SR) obligations with relation to the international agreements and with the SR membership in the IAEA.International co-operation has been ensured on the basis of the bilateral international agreements. With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-operation, the SR fulfilled its financial obligations to this organization in due time and in the full scope. Representing Central and Eastern Europe interest in the Board of Governors, the SR participation in the highest executive in the highest executive authority was finished in 1996.The Board of Governors Vice-chairman position was executed by NRA SR Chairman. 5 national and 6 regional technical co-operation and assistance projects were realized in 1996. 12 organizations participated in these projects and accordingly 104 experts took part in training programmes, scientific visits or as the mission members abroad. Besides, Slovak experts participated at work of technical advisory and consultation groups with the significant assistance. In the framework of IAEA co-operation, the SR was visited by 11 expert missions formed by 28 experts from 19 countries including IAEA. Slovak organizations, namely institutes of the Academy of Sciences, Slovak research centres and universities participated in IAEA scientific and research activities through NRA SR. 15 scientific contracts in total were approved and realized and these contracts are utilized as supplementary financing of the own scientific and research projects. Other international co-operation and regional co-operation activities of the NRA SR in 1996 are reviewed

  14. Guilt in bereavement: a review and conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Stroebe, Margaret; Chan, Cecilia L W; Chow, Amy Y M

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-four quantitative and 9 qualitative studies are reviewed to indicate current understanding of the nature and impact of guilt in bereavement. This overview suggests that guilt is especially prevalent among some vulnerable subgroups, and it is associated with maladaptive health outcomes. Being male, longer bereavement time, and good end-of life experience seem to be associated with less guilt feelings. However, definition ambiguity, measurement difficulties, and cultural insensitivity are evident in studies. Therefore, a multidimensional conceptualization of guilt and a structural model to guide future investigation of this phenomenon in the bereavement context is proposed.

  15. A quarter century of Culture's Consequences: a review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede's cultural values framework

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley L Kirkman; Kevin B Lowe; Cristina B Gibson

    2006-01-01

    Since Geert Hofstede's Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values (Sage, 1980) was published, researchers have utilized Hofstede's cultural values framework in a wide variety of empirical studies. We review 180 studies published in 40 business and psychology journals and two international annual volumes between 1980 and June 2002 to consolidate what is empirically verifiable about Hofstede's cultural values framework. We discuss limitations in the Hofstede-inspir...

  16. Fit of screw-retained fixed implant frameworks fabricated by different methods: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar; Lyons, Karl; Bennani, Vincent; Waddell, Neil; Swain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the published literature investigating the accuracy of fit of fixed implant frameworks fabricated using different materials and methods. A comprehensive electronic search was performed through PubMed (MEDLINE) using Boolean operators to combine key words. The search was limited to articles written in English and published through May 2010. In addition, a manual search through articles and reference lists retrieved from the electronic search and peer-reviewed journals was also conducted. A total of 248 articles were retrieved, and 26 met the specified inclusion criteria for the review. The selected articles assessed the fit of fixed implant frameworks fabricated by different techniques. The investigated fabrication approaches were one-piece casting, sectioning and reconnection, spark erosion with an electric discharge machine, computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM), and framework bonding to prefabricated abutment cylinders. Cast noble metal frameworks have a predictable fit, and additional fit refinement treatment is not indicated in well-controlled conditions. Base metal castings do not provide a satisfactory level of fit unless additional refinement treatment is performed, such as sectioning and laser welding or spark erosion. Spark erosion, framework bonding to prefabricated abutment cylinders, and CAD/CAM have the potential to provide implant frameworks with an excellent fit; CAD/CAM is the most consistent and least technique-sensitive of these methods.

  17. REVIEW KONSEP RESPONSIVE DESIGN DENGAN FRAMEWORK MATERIALIZE PADA WEBSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Novianty

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Responsive web design merupakan sebuah desain website yang dapat menyesuaikan tiap ukuran pada tiap device. Berdasarkan hasil dari beberapa responden menyatakan 62% responden setuju jika beberapa website yang belum mampu menyesuaikan ukuran tampilan web, 54% responden setuju bahwa desain yang responsive mempengaruhi faktor kenyamanan responden, 60% responden setuju bahwa konten utama dan fungsionalitas dari website yang sulit diakses melalui perangkat mobile, 56% responden setuju bahwa tampilan website yang kurang responsive berpengaruh buruk terhadap faktor kenyamanan responden, 52% responden setuju bahwa website yang belum mampu menyesuaikan ukuran pada tiap perangkat mobile. Dari hasil review tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa website yang tidak responsive mempengaruhi ketidak nyamanan para pengguna untuk mengakses informasi melalui website online.

  18. [Academic review of global health approaches: an analytical framework].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro

    2015-09-01

    In order to identify perspectives on global health, this essay analyzes different trends from academia that have enriched global health and international health. A database was constructed with information from the world's leading global health centers. The search covered authors on global diplomacy and global health and was performed in PubMed, LILACS, and Google Scholar with the key words "global health" and "international health". Research and training centers in different countries have taken various academic approaches to global health; various interests and ideological orientations have emerged in relation to the global health concept. Based on the mosaic of global health centers and their positions, the review concludes that the new concept reflects the construction of a paradigm of renewal in international health and global health, the pre-paradigmatic stage of which has still not reached a final version.

  19. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2017 year in review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2018-02-08

    The Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program was involved in a number of notable events during 2017, many concerning our personnel. Dr. Barry Grand left his position as Leader of the Alabama Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit to become the Cooperative Units Program Supervisor for the South, replacing Dr. Kevin Whalen who took over as Supervisor for the West. We welcomed Dr. Sarah Converse who left the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to become Leader of the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. Dr. Amanda Rosenberger joined the Tennessee Cooperative Fishery Research Unit as Assistant Leader, transferring from the Missouri Cooperative Unit. Dr. Scott Carleton left his position as Assistant Unit Leader in New Mexico to become Chief of the Region 2 Migratory Bird Program of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.We said farewell to many colleagues who retired. Their departure is bittersweet as we wish them health, happiness, and wellness in retirement. We will miss their companionship and the extraordinary contributions they have made to the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program and conservation.The Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program has a record high number of vacant scientist positions due to a combination of retirements and base funding short-falls. These issues are affecting our ability to meet cooperator needs. Yet, we remain highly productive. For example, this year we released a report (https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1427) containing abstracts of nearly 600 of our research projects, covering thematic areas ranging from advanced technologies to wildlife diseases. We provided highly competent, trained scientists and natural resource managers for our cooperators’ workforce. We delivered technical training and guidance to professional practitioners. We provided critical information to cooperators for decisions on species status assessments and management of species of greatest conservation need

  20. Open Peer Review: Collective Intelligence as a Framework for Theorizing Approaches to Peer Review in the Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Pack Sheffield

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article takes a moderate approach, balancing suggestions for when open peer review can benefit scholarship in the humanities, while offering important concerns authors and editors must consider before deciding to implement the process. I focus on online commenting functions and how they have been—and can be—used for open peer review to help improve the quality of an author’s scholarly work and change the way publishers go about their peer review processes. While open peer review is not necessarily digital, digital technologies allow for a broader range of participants and faster dissemination of knowledge, which is why this article focuses on online open peer review. Open Peer Review: Collective Intelligence as a Framework for Theorizing Approaches to Peer Review in the Humanities, by Jenna Pack Sheffield

  1. Gender differences in prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, R M; Reeves, M M; Eakin, E G; Owen, N

    2010-05-01

    To systematically review studies documenting the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among men and women in Member States of the Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC; Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates)-countries in which obesity, Type 2 diabetes and related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent. A search was conducted on PubMed and CINAHL using the term 'metabolic syndrome' and the country name of each GCC Member State. The search was limited to studies published in the English language. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and/or International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions. The methodological quality of each study was evaluated based on four criteria: a national-level population sample; equal gender representation; robustness of the sample size; an explicit sampling methodology. PubMed, CINAHL and reference list searches identified nine relevant studies. Only four were considered high quality and found that, for men, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome ranged from 20.7% to 37.2% (ATPIII definition) and from 29.6% to 36.2% (IDF definition); and, for women, from 32.1% to 42.7% (ATPIII definition) and from 36.1% to 45.9% (IDF definition). Overall, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the GCC states is some 10-15% higher than in most developed countries, with generally higher prevalence rates for women. Preventive strategies will require identifying socio-demographic and environmental correlates (particularly those influencing women) and addressing modifiable risk behaviours, including lack of physical activity, prolonged sitting time and dietary intake.

  2. The strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (ET 2020: Which place for archaeological heritage in the lifelong learning context?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Rodríguez, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Strategy objective of turning Europe into a world-leading knowledge-based society, has left the way to the Europe 2020 strategyobjectives of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (ET 2020 establishes that educational and training systems should provide the means for all citizens to realise their potentials, as well as to acquire and develop skills and competencies needed for their employability and foster further learning, active citizenship and inter-cultural dialogue; from a lifelong learning perspective, covering all levels and contexts (including non-formal and informal learning. The aim of this paper is to present the strategic objectives of EU education and training policies and discuss, accordingly, a place for archaeological heritage in school, higher and adult education.

  3. A Unit on "Fahrenheit 451" That Uses Cooperative Learning (Resources and Reviews).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbers, Frances A.

    1991-01-01

    Provides a curriculum unit using the novel "Fahrenheit 451" to provide student-centered activities based on solid pedagogical methodology. Emphasizes value-centered analysis of the novel, comparison of alternative arguments, and integration of cooperative learning activities. (PRA)

  4. Investigation on the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock within the framework of ANDRA/GRS cooperation programme. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chun-Liang [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Armand, Gilles; Conil, Nathalie [French Agence Nationale Pour la Gestion de Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2015-01-15

    An underground repository for disposal of radioactive waste is planned to be constructed in the sedimentary Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous formation (COX) in France /AND 05/. The clay rock exhibits inherent anisotropy with bedding structure, which leads to directional dependences of the rock properties (e.g. mineralogical, physical, mechanical, hydraulic, thermal, etc.) with respect to the bedding planes. For the design of the repository and the assessment of its safety during the operation and post-closure phases it is necessary to characterise and predict the anisotropic properties and processes in the host rock, particularly in the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) near the openings. Within the framework of the bilateral cooperation agreement between the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) and the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), concerning the research activities in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (MHM-URL), a joint research programme was initiated by ANDRA and GRS in 2013 to investigate mechanical anisotropy of the COX clay rock for the purpose of precise characterization, better understanding and reliable prediction of the development of EDZ around the repository. This programme was funded by ANDRA under contract number 059844 and performed by GRS during the time period of November 2013 to December 2014. GRS gratefully acknowledges the financial support from and the fruitful cooperation with ANDRA.

  5. Social exclusion of older persons: a scoping review and conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran; Scharf, Thomas; Keating, Norah

    2017-03-01

    As a concept, social exclusion has considerable potential to explain and respond to disadvantage in later life. However, in the context of ageing populations, the construct remains ambiguous. A disjointed evidence-base, spread across disparate disciplines, compounds the challenge of developing a coherent understanding of exclusion in older age. This article addresses this research deficit by presenting the findings of a two-stage scoping review encompassing seven separate reviews of the international literature pertaining to old-age social exclusion. Stage one involved a review of conceptual frameworks on old-age exclusion, identifying conceptual understandings and key domains of later-life exclusion. Stage two involved scoping reviews on each domain (six in all). Stage one identified six conceptual frameworks on old-age exclusion and six common domains across these frameworks: neighbourhood and community; services, amenities and mobility; social relations; material and financial resources; socio-cultural aspects; and civic participation. International literature concentrated on the first four domains, but indicated a general lack of research knowledge and of theoretical development. Drawing on all seven scoping reviews and a knowledge synthesis, the article presents a new definition and conceptual framework relating to old-age exclusion.

  6. Using the Knowledge to Action Framework in practice: a citation analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Becky; Booth, Andrew; Ilott, Irene; Gerrish, Kate

    2014-11-23

    Conceptual frameworks are recommended as a way of applying theory to enhance implementation efforts. The Knowledge to Action (KTA) Framework was developed in Canada by Graham and colleagues in the 2000s, following a review of 31 planned action theories. The framework has two components: Knowledge Creation and an Action Cycle, each of which comprises multiple phases. This review sought to answer two questions: 'Is the KTA Framework used in practice? And if so, how?' This study is a citation analysis and systematic review. The index citation for the original paper was identified on three databases-Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar-with the facility for citation searching. Limitations of English language and year of publication 2006-June 2013 were set. A taxonomy categorising the continuum of usage was developed. Only studies applying the framework to implementation projects were included. Data were extracted and mapped against each phase of the framework for studies where it was integral to the implementation project. The citation search yielded 1,787 records. A total of 1,057 titles and abstracts were screened. One hundred and forty-six studies described usage to varying degrees, ranging from referenced to integrated. In ten studies, the KTA Framework was integral to the design, delivery and evaluation of the implementation activities. All ten described using the Action Cycle and seven referred to Knowledge Creation. The KTA Framework was enacted in different health care and academic settings with projects targeted at patients, the public, and nursing and allied health professionals. The KTA Framework is being used in practice with varying degrees of completeness. It is frequently cited, with usage ranging from simple attribution via a reference, through informing planning, to making an intellectual contribution. When the framework was integral to knowledge translation, it guided action in idiosyncratic ways and there was theory fidelity. Prevailing wisdom

  7. International Expert Team Concludes IAEA Peer Review of Bulgaria's Regulatory Framework for Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    the notification of nuclear and radiation safety-related events; Provisions established by the BNRA to manage its technical support organisations provide a good basis to use them effectively; The process to establish and keep updated regulations and guidelines is well structured and involves, as necessary, relevant interested parties; The BNRA has a policy of transparency and openness with the public, which covers in an effective manner the provision of information on safety-related events and protective actions during emergencies; and There is a complete national dose registry system that includes provision for comprehensive information gathering, which allows for thorough cause-effect analyses to be performed. The IRRS team identified the following areas where the overall performance of the regulatory system could be enhanced: Demarcation of the respective roles of state authorities in the area of radiation protection safety, and establishment of formal coordination and cooperation of their regulatory functions; BNRA's resources and competence for oversight of future facilities and activities; BNRA's establishment of an integrated management system that contributes to meeting its goals in an efficient manner; BNRA procedures used for the review and assessment process for all facilities and activities; and Inspection processes, including the development and implementation of planned and systematic inspection programmes that cover all facilities and activities, and coordination among different regulatory organisations. A final report will be submitted to the Government of Bulgaria in about three months. The BNRA announced to the mission that the report will be made publicly available. The IAEA encourages nations to invite a follow-up IRRS mission about two years after the initial mission has been completed. Background The team reviewed the legal and regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety, addressing all facilities and activities regulated by BNRA

  8. Effectiveness of cooperative learning compared to competitive or individual situations and its application to technology: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia CAMILLI TRUJILLO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on reviewing significant evidence about cooperative learning in comparison to competitive and individual situations. To do this, we identified the factors that improve or limit its application together with the impact of technology on this methodology. This evidence was the result of 18 meta-analyses made between 1980 and 2010. Meta-analysis is defined as the statistical analysis of a large collection of results that concern a research issue and come from individual studies with the idea of integrating their conclusions. The English and Spanish descriptors used were aprendizaje cooperativo, aprendizaje colaborativo, cooperative learning, collaborative learning and other terms related to meta-analysis such as evidencias significativas, mejores evidencias, integración de resultados, revisión sistemática, síntesis cuantitativa, meta-analysis, bestevidence, integrating findings, systematic integration, systematic review, synthesis. The search was not referred to any particular period of time. The resources and databases reviewed were extracted from the Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, and the list of references given in the meta-analysis. The results show that cooperative learning, as a methodology, is more appropriate than other traditional methodologies. Its application in the new higher education context, as a result of the European Higher Education Area, can open the way for the inclusion of active and innovative teaching methodologies. So, the challenge for the faculty consists on integrating research, innovation and evaluation in their teaching in order to improve educational quality levels. In short, cooperative learning becomes a valuable indicator and a suitable tool to forecast positive results.

  9. Scoping review identifies significant number of knowledge translation theories, models and frameworks with limited use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strifler, Lisa; Cardoso, Roberta; McGowan, Jessie; Cogo, Elise; Nincic, Vera; Khan, Paul A; Scott, Alistair; Ghassemi, Marco; MacDonald, Heather; Lai, Yonda; Treister, Victoria; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E

    2018-04-13

    To conduct a scoping review of knowledge translation (KT) theories, models and frameworks that have been used to guide dissemination or implementation of evidence-based interventions targeted to prevention and/or management of cancer or other chronic diseases. We used a comprehensive multistage search process from 2000-2016, which included traditional bibliographic database searching, searching using names of theories, models and frameworks, and cited reference searching. Two reviewers independently screened the literature and abstracted data. We found 596 studies reporting on the use of 159 KT theories, models or frameworks. A majority (87%) of the identified theories, models or frameworks were used in five or fewer studies, with 60% used once. The theories, models and frameworks were most commonly used to inform planning/design, implementation and evaluation activities, and least commonly used to inform dissemination and sustainability/scalability activities. Twenty-six were used across the full implementation spectrum (from planning/design to sustainability/scalability) either within or across studies. All were used for at least individual-level behavior change, while 48% were used for organization-level, 33% for community-level and 17% for system-level change. We found a significant number of KT theories, models and frameworks with a limited evidence base describing their use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Professional Development and Use of Digital Technologies by Science Teachers: a Review of Theoretical Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Geraldo W. Rocha; Rodrigues, António M.; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto

    2018-03-01

    This article aims to characterise the research on science teachers' professional development programs that support the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and the main trends concerning the theoretical frameworks (theoretical foundation, literature review or background) that underpin these studies. Through a systematic review of the literature, 76 articles were found and divided into two axes on training science teachers and the use of digital technologies with their categories. The first axis (characterisation of articles) presents the category key features that characterise the articles selected (major subjects, training and actions for the professional development and major ICT tools and digital resources). The second axis (trends of theoretical frameworks) has three categories organised in theoretical frameworks that emphasise the following: (a) the digital technologies, (b) prospects of curricular renewal and (c) cognitive processes. It also characterised a group of articles with theoretical frameworks that contain multiple elements without deepening them or that even lack a theoretical framework that supports the studies. In this review, we found that many professional development programs for teachers still use inadequate strategies for bringing about change in teacher practices. New professional development proposals are emerging with the objective of minimising such difficulties and this analysis could be a helpful tool to restructure those proposals.

  11. The Cooperativity of Fe3O4 and Metal-Organic Framework as Multifunctional Nanocomposites for Laser Desorption Ionization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chung-Wei; Lirio, Stephen; Shih, Yung-Han; Liu, Wan-Ling; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2018-05-10

    We report a novel and facile strategy for developing a water stable magnetic metal organic framework nanocomposite (Fe3O4@MOF), in which a Keggin polyoxometalate, phosphotungstic acid (HPW), was encapsulated within the MOF framework via one-pot synthesis method. The combination of HPW-embedded MOF and Fe3O4 endowed the composite with high surface area, strong UV absorption, good hydrophilicity, and enhanced water stability. With these unique properties, the Fe3O4@MOF embedded HPW were served as adsorbent as well as matrix for (surface-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry) SALDI-MS analysis of polar and non-polar compounds. The synergistic effect of Fe3O4 and MOF showed an interference-free background at low mass region than the pristine MOF or Fe3O4 counterpart. This simple approach can be used as new platform in developing magnetic MOF composites without the time consuming and labor-intensive preparation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Holiday review. Snappy answers to stupid questions: an evidence-based framework for responding to peer-review feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Daniel; Hoffman, Steven J

    2009-12-08

    Authors are inundated with feedback from peer reviewers. Although this feedback is usually helpful, it can also be incomprehensible, rude or plain silly. Inspired by Al Jaffe's classic comic from Mad Magazine, we sought to develop an evidenced-based framework for providing "snappy answers to stupid questions," in the hope of aiding emerging academics in responding appropriately to feedback from peer review. We solicited, categorized and analyzed examples of silly feedback from peer reviewers using the grounded theory qualitative research paradigm from 50 key informants. The informants represented 15 different professions, 33 institutions and 11 countries (i.e., Australia, Barbados, Canada, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and USA). We developed a Scale of Silliness (SOS) and a Scale of Belligerence (SOB) to facilitate the assessment of inadequate peer-review feedback and guide users in preparing suitable responses to it. The SOB score is tempered by users' current mood, as captured by the Mood Reflective Index (MRI), and dictates the Appropriate Degree of Response (ADR) for the particular situation. Designed using the highest quality of (most easily accessible anecdotal) evidence available, this framework may fill a significant gap in the research literature by helping emerging academics respond to silly feedback from peer reviewers. Although use of the framework to its full extent may have negative consequences (e.g., loss of promotion), its therapeutic value cannot be understated.

  13. Estimation for aerial detection effectiveness with cooperation efficiency factors of early-warning aircraft in early-warning detection SoS under BSC framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Hu, Xiaofeng; He, Xiaoyuan; Guo, Rui; Li, Kaiming; Yang, Lu

    2017-11-01

    In the military field, the performance evaluation of early-warning aircraft deployment or construction is always an important problem needing to be explored. As an effective approach of enterprise management and performance evaluation, Balanced Score Card (BSC) attracts more and more attentions and is studied more and more widely all over the world. It can also bring feasible ideas and technical approaches for studying the issue of the performance evaluation of the deployment or construction of early-warning aircraft which is the important component in early-warning detection system of systems (SoS). Therefore, the deep explored researches are carried out based on the previously research works. On the basis of the characteristics of space exploration and aerial detection effectiveness of early-warning detection SoS and the cardinal principle of BSC are analyzed simply, and the performance evaluation framework of the deployment or construction of early-warning aircraft is given, under this framework, aimed at the evaluation issue of aerial detection effectiveness of early-warning detection SoS with the cooperation efficiency factors of the early-warning aircraft and other land based radars, the evaluation indexes are further designed and the relative evaluation model is further established, especially the evaluation radar chart being also drawn to obtain the evaluation results from a direct sight angle. Finally, some practical computer simulations are launched to prove the validity and feasibility of the research thinking and technologic approaches which are proposed in the paper.

  14. Memory and the Self in Autism: A Review and Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Sophie E.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews research on (a) autobiographical episodic and semantic memory, (b) the self-reference effect, (c) memory for the actions of self versus other (the self-enactment effect), and (d) non-autobiographical episodic memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and provides a theoretical framework to account for the bidirectional…

  15. Physical Activity Research in Intellectual Disability: A Scoping Review Using the Behavioral Epidemiological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, E. Andrew; Dixon-Ibarra, Alicia; Hauck, Janet L.

    2018-01-01

    Through a scoping review, the current state of physical activity research in people with intellectual disability was examined. A search of publications between 2000 and 2014 retrieved 362 articles that met inclusion criteria. Eligible studies were coded according to the Behavioral Epidemiological Framework. Of the articles identified, 48% examined…

  16. Application of Resource Description Framework to Personalise Learning: Systematic Review and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevsikova, Tatjana; Berniukevicius, Andrius; Kurilovas, Eugenijus

    2017-01-01

    The paper is aimed to present a methodology of learning personalisation based on applying Resource Description Framework (RDF) standard model. Research results are two-fold: first, the results of systematic literature review on Linked Data, RDF "subject-predicate-object" triples, and Web Ontology Language (OWL) application in education…

  17. Book Review: Cooper, John F. Taiwan Nation-State or Province? Boulder: Westview Press, 2009. 288 PP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardian Bakhtiar Rivai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe about my analysis of Cooper (2009 perspective in how we understand Taiwan as identity. There are two perspective that to see Taiwan in recent day. First of all, for nation who believe One China Policy, they assume that Taiwan is a province of People Republic of China which is Taiwan is part of Beijing government. Secondly, for nation who do not believe it, they assume that Taiwan is independence identity, a nation identity, and also sovereign country which is separated from mainland China influences. In this discourse about how we understand Taiwan,  this article is going to review from John F. Cooper which is in his book, Taiwan: nation state or province?. This book not only discuss how we can see Taiwan, however, how Taiwan in the future in political dynamic especially after US president Donald Trump who intent to support Taiwan as independence identity. 

  18. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  19. Use of mobile devices in nursing student-nurse teacher cooperation during the clinical practicum: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandell-Laine, Camilla; Stolt, Minna; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Saarikoski, Mikko

    2015-03-01

    To identify and appraise study findings on the use of mobile devices, in particular for what purposes and how, in nursing student-nurse teacher cooperation during the clinical practicum. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed/Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and ERIC for primary empirical studies published in English. An integrative literature review was undertaken. Quality appraisal of the included studies was conducted using design-specific standardized checklists. Studies were thematically analyzed. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, eleven studies were included in the review. Weaknesses in designs, samples, questionnaires and results, compromised comparison and/or generalization of the findings of the studies. Three main themes were identified: (1) features of mobile devices (2) utility of mobile devices and (3) barriers to the use of mobile devices. Problems of connectivity were the main challenges reported in the use of mobile devices. Participants used mobile devices primarily as reference tools, but less frequently as tools for reflection, assessment or cooperation during the clinical practicum. Interest in mobile device use during the clinical practicum was reported, but training and ongoing support are needed. As only a small number of eligible primary empirical studies were found, it is not possible to draw firm conclusions on the results. In the future, rigorous primary empirical studies are needed to explore the potential of mobile devices in providing a supplementary pedagogical method in nursing student-nurse teacher cooperation during the clinical practicum. Robust study designs, including experimental ones, are clearly needed to assess the effectiveness of mobile devices in nursing student-nurse teacher cooperation during the clinical practicum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Toward Global Drought Early Warning Capability - Expanding International Cooperation for the Development of a Framework for Monitoring and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Will; Sheffield, Justin; Stefanski, Robert; Cripe, Douglas; Pulwarty, Roger; Vogt, Jurgen V.; Heim, Richard R., Jr.; Brewer, Michael J.; Svoboda, Mark; Westerhoff, Rogier; hide

    2013-01-01

    Drought has had a significant impact on civilization throughout history in terms of reductions in agricultural productivity, potable water supply, and economic activity, and in extreme cases this has led to famine. Every continent has semiarid areas, which are especially vulnerable to drought. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has noted that average annual river runoff and water availability are projected to decrease by 10 percent-13 percent over some dry and semiarid regions in mid and low latitudes, increasing the frequency, intensity, and duration of drought, along with its associated impacts. The sheer magnitude of the problem demands efforts to reduce vulnerability to drought by moving away from the reactive, crisis management approach of the past toward a more proactive, risk management approach that is centered on reducing vulnerability to drought as much as possible while providing early warning of evolving drought conditions and possible impacts. Many countries, unfortunately, do not have adequate resources to provide early warning, but require outside support to provide the necessary early warning information for risk management. Furthermore, in an interconnected world, the need for information on a global scale is crucial for understanding the prospect of declines in agricultural productivity and associated impacts on food prices, food security, and potential for civil conflict. This paper highlights the recent progress made toward a Global Drought Early Warning Monitoring Framework (GDEWF), an underlying partnership and framework, along with its Global Drought Early Warning System (GDEWS), which is its interoperable information system, and the organizations that have begun working together to make it a reality. The GDEWF aims to improve existing regional and national drought monitoring and forecasting capabilities by adding a global component, facilitating continental monitoring and forecasting (where lacking), and improving these tools at

  1. Temporal discounting in life cycle assessment: A critical review and theoretical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Chris; Wang, Endong; Zhai, Qiang; Yang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Temporal homogeneity of inventory data is one of the major problems in life cycle assessment (LCA). Addressing temporal homogeneity of life cycle inventory data is important in reducing the uncertainties and improving the reliability of LCA results. This paper attempts to present a critical review and discussion on the fundamental issues of temporal homogeneity in conventional LCA and propose a theoretical framework for temporal discounting in LCA. Theoretical perspectives for temporal discounting in life cycle inventory analysis are discussed first based on the key elements of a scientific mechanism for temporal discounting. Then generic procedures for performing temporal discounting in LCA is derived and proposed based on the nature of the LCA method and the identified key elements of a scientific temporal discounting method. A five-step framework is proposed and reported in details based on the technical methods and procedures needed to perform a temporal discounting in life cycle inventory analysis. Challenges and possible solutions are also identified and discussed for the technical procedure and scientific accomplishment of each step within the framework. - Highlights: • A critical review for temporal homogeneity problem of life cycle inventory data • A theoretical framework for performing temporal discounting on inventory data • Methods provided to accomplish each step of the temporal discounting framework

  2. Can Cooperative Learning Achieve the Four Learning Outcomes of Physical Education? A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Ashley; Goodyear, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Physical learning, cognitive learning, social learning, and affective learning are positioned as the legitimate learning outcomes of physical education. It has been argued that these four learning outcomes go toward facilitating students' engagement with the physically active life (Bailey et al., 2009; Kirk, 2013). With Cooperative Learning…

  3. Applying psychological frameworks of behaviour change to improve healthcare worker hand hygiene: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigley, J A; Corace, K; Hargadon, D P; Yu, D; MacDonald, T; Fabrigar, L; Garber, G

    2015-11-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in preventing transmission of healthcare-associated infections, compliance rates are suboptimal. Hand hygiene is a complex behaviour and psychological frameworks are promising tools to influence healthcare worker (HCW) behaviour. (i) To review the effectiveness of interventions based on psychological theories of behaviour change to improve HCW hand hygiene compliance; (ii) to determine which frameworks have been used to predict HCW hand hygiene compliance. Multiple databases and reference lists of included studies were searched for studies that applied psychological theories to improve and/or predict HCW hand hygiene. All steps in selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers. The search yielded 918 citations; seven met eligibility criteria. Four studies evaluated hand hygiene interventions based on psychological frameworks. Interventions were informed by goal setting, control theory, operant learning, positive reinforcement, change theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the transtheoretical model. Three predictive studies employed the theory of planned behaviour, the transtheoretical model, and the theoretical domains framework. Interventions to improve hand hygiene adherence demonstrated efficacy but studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. For many studies, it was unclear how theories of behaviour change were used to inform the interventions. Predictive studies had mixed results. Behaviour change theory is a promising tool for improving hand hygiene; however, these theories have not been extensively examined. Our review reveals a significant gap in the literature and indicates possible avenues for novel research. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. What is health systems responsiveness? Review of existing knowledge and proposed conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Kane, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    Responsiveness is a key objective of national health systems. Responsive health systems anticipate and adapt to existing and future health needs, thus contributing to better health outcomes. Of all the health systems objectives, responsiveness is the least studied, which perhaps reflects lack of comprehensive frameworks that go beyond the normative characteristics of responsive services. This paper contributes to a growing, yet limited, knowledge on this topic. Herewith, we review the current frameworks for understanding health systems responsiveness and drawing on these, as well as key frameworks from the wider public services literature, propose a comprehensive conceptual framework for health systems responsiveness. This paper should be of interest to different stakeholders who are engaged in analysing and improving health systems responsiveness. Our review shows that existing knowledge on health systems responsiveness can be extended along the three areas. First, responsiveness entails an actual experience of people’s interaction with their health system, which confirms or disconfirms their initial expectations of the system. Second, the experience of interaction is shaped by both the people and the health systems sides of this interaction. Third, different influences shape people’s interaction with their health system, ultimately affecting their resultant experiences. Therefore, recognition of both people and health systems sides of interaction and their key determinants would enhance the conceptualisations of responsiveness. Our proposed framework builds on, and advances, the core frameworks in the health systems literature. It positions the experience of interaction between people and health system as the centrepiece and recognises the determinants of responsiveness experience both from the health systems (eg, actors, processes) and the people (eg, initial expectations) sides. While we hope to trigger further thinking on the conceptualisation of health

  5. What is health systems responsiveness? Review of existing knowledge and proposed conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Kane, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    Responsiveness is a key objective of national health systems. Responsive health systems anticipate and adapt to existing and future health needs, thus contributing to better health outcomes. Of all the health systems objectives, responsiveness is the least studied, which perhaps reflects lack of comprehensive frameworks that go beyond the normative characteristics of responsive services. This paper contributes to a growing, yet limited, knowledge on this topic. Herewith, we review the current frameworks for understanding health systems responsiveness and drawing on these, as well as key frameworks from the wider public services literature, propose a comprehensive conceptual framework for health systems responsiveness. This paper should be of interest to different stakeholders who are engaged in analysing and improving health systems responsiveness. Our review shows that existing knowledge on health systems responsiveness can be extended along the three areas. First, responsiveness entails an actual experience of people's interaction with their health system, which confirms or disconfirms their initial expectations of the system. Second, the experience of interaction is shaped by both the people and the health systems sides of this interaction. Third, different influences shape people's interaction with their health system, ultimately affecting their resultant experiences. Therefore, recognition of both people and health systems sides of interaction and their key determinants would enhance the conceptualisations of responsiveness. Our proposed framework builds on, and advances, the core frameworks in the health systems literature. It positions the experience of interaction between people and health system as the centrepiece and recognises the determinants of responsiveness experience both from the health systems (eg, actors, processes) and the people (eg, initial expectations) sides. While we hope to trigger further thinking on the conceptualisation of health system

  6. Episodic Laryngeal Breathing Disorders: Literature Review and Proposal of Preliminary Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shembel, Adrianna C; Sandage, Mary J; Verdolini Abbott, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this literature review were (1) to identify and assess frameworks for clinical characterization of episodic laryngeal breathing disorders (ELBD) and their subtypes, (2) to integrate concepts from these frameworks into a novel theoretical paradigm, and (3) to provide a preliminary algorithm to classify clinical features of ELBD for future study of its clinical manifestations and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. This is a literature review. Peer-reviewed literature from 1983 to 2015 pertaining to models for ELBD was searched using Pubmed, Ovid, Proquest, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar. Theoretical models for ELBD were identified, evaluated, and integrated into a novel comprehensive framework. Consensus across three salient models provided a working definition and inclusionary criteria for ELBD within the new framework. Inconsistencies and discrepancies within the models provided an analytic platform for future research. Comparison among three conceptual models-(1) Irritable larynx syndrome, (2) Dichotomous triggers, and (3) Periodic occurrence of laryngeal obstruction-showed that the models uniformly consider ELBD to involve episodic laryngeal obstruction causing dyspnea. The models differed in their description of source of dyspnea, in their inclusion of corollary behaviors, in their inclusion of other laryngeal-based behaviors (eg, cough), and types of triggers. The proposed integrated theoretical framework for ELBD provides a preliminary systematic platform for the identification of key clinical feature patterns indicative of ELBD and associated clinical subgroups. This algorithmic paradigm should evolve with better understanding of this spectrum of disorders and its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence-based Frameworks for Teaching and Learning in Classical Singing Training: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Laura; Madill, Catherine J; McCabe, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The study systematically reviews evidence-based frameworks for teaching and learning of classical singing training. This is a systematic review. A systematic literature search of 15 electronic databases following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Eligibility criteria included type of publication, participant characteristics, intervention, and report of outcomes. Quality rating scales were applied to support assessment of the included literature. Data analysis was conducted using meta-aggregation. Nine papers met the inclusion criteria. No complete evidence-based teaching and learning framework was found. Thematic content analysis showed that studies either (1) identified teaching practices in one-to-one lessons, (2) identified student learning strategies in one-to-one lessons or personal practice sessions, and (3) implemented a tool to enhance one specific area of teaching and learning in lessons. The included studies showed that research in music education is not always specific to musical genre or instrumental group, with four of the nine studies including participant teachers and students of classical voice training only. The overall methodological quality ratings were low. Research in classical singing training has not yet developed an evidence-based framework for classical singing training. This review has found that introductory information on teaching and learning practices has been provided, and tools have been suggested for use in the evaluation of the teaching-learning process. High-quality methodological research designs are needed. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Conceptualising paediatric health disparities: a metanarrative systematic review and unified conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Wang, Zhen; Finney Rutten, Lila J; van Ryn, Michelle; Griffin, Joan M; Murad, M Hassan; Asiedu, Gladys B; Egginton, Jason S; Beebe, Timothy J

    2017-08-04

    There exists a paucity of work in the development and testing of theoretical models specific to childhood health disparities even though they have been linked to the prevalence of adult health disparities including high rates of chronic disease. We conducted a systematic review and thematic analysis of existing models of health disparities specific to children to inform development of a unified conceptual framework. We systematically reviewed articles reporting theoretical or explanatory models of disparities on a range of outcomes related to child health. We searched Ovid Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus (database inception to 9 July 2015). A metanarrative approach guided the analysis process. A total of 48 studies presenting 48 models were included. This systematic review found multiple models but no consensus on one approach. However, we did discover a fair amount of overlap, such that the 48 models reviewed converged into the unified conceptual framework. The majority of models included factors in three domains: individual characteristics and behaviours (88%), healthcare providers and systems (63%), and environment/community (56%), . Only 38% of models included factors in the health and public policies domain. A disease-agnostic unified conceptual framework may inform integration of existing knowledge of child health disparities and guide future research. This multilevel framework can focus attention among clinical, basic and social science research on the relationships between policy, social factors, health systems and the physical environment that impact children's health outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Acceptability of healthcare interventions: an overview of reviews and development of a theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Mandeep; Cartwright, Martin; Francis, Jill J

    2017-01-26

    It is increasingly acknowledged that 'acceptability' should be considered when designing, evaluating and implementing healthcare interventions. However, the published literature offers little guidance on how to define or assess acceptability. The purpose of this study was to develop a multi-construct theoretical framework of acceptability of healthcare interventions that can be applied to assess prospective (i.e. anticipated) and retrospective (i.e. experienced) acceptability from the perspective of intervention delivers and recipients. Two methods were used to select the component constructs of acceptability. 1) An overview of reviews was conducted to identify systematic reviews that claim to define, theorise or measure acceptability of healthcare interventions. 2) Principles of inductive and deductive reasoning were applied to theorise the concept of acceptability and develop a theoretical framework. Steps included (1) defining acceptability; (2) describing its properties and scope and (3) identifying component constructs and empirical indicators. From the 43 reviews included in the overview, none explicitly theorised or defined acceptability. Measures used to assess acceptability focused on behaviour (e.g. dropout rates) (23 reviews), affect (i.e. feelings) (5 reviews), cognition (i.e. perceptions) (7 reviews) or a combination of these (8 reviews). From the methods described above we propose a definition: Acceptability is a multi-faceted construct that reflects the extent to which people delivering or receiving a healthcare intervention consider it to be appropriate, based on anticipated or experienced cognitive and emotional responses to the intervention. The theoretical framework of acceptability (TFA) consists of seven component constructs: affective attitude, burden, perceived effectiveness, ethicality, intervention coherence, opportunity costs, and self-efficacy. Despite frequent claims that healthcare interventions have assessed acceptability, it is

  10. Mutual cooperation with Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orstein, Roberto M.

    1998-01-01

    The history of the nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Argentina is outlined in the framework of the changing political circumstances. Reference is made to the agreements between both countries and to its implementation

  11. Review of the International Council of Nurses (ICN) Framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Alison; Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Gebbie, Kristine

    2016-12-01

    The International Council of Nurses (ICN; Geneva, Switzerland) and the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM; Madison, Wisconsin USA) joined together in 2014 to review the use of the ICN Framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies. The existing ICN Framework (version 1.10; dated 2009) formed the starting point for this review. The key target audiences for this process were members of the disaster nursing community concerned with pre-service education for professional nursing and the continuing education of practicing professional nurses. To minimize risk in the disaster nursing practice, competencies have been identified as the foundation of evidence-based practice and standard development. A Steering Committee was established by the WADEM Nursing Section to discuss how to initiate a review of the ICN Framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies. The Steering Committee then worked via email to develop a survey to send out to disaster/emergency groups that may have nurse members who work/respond in disasters. Thirty-five invitations were sent out with 20 responses (57%) received. Ninety-five percent of respondents knew of the ICN Framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies, with the majority accessing these competencies via the Internet. The majority of those who responded said that they make use of the ICN Framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies with the most common use being for educational purposes. Education was done at a local, national, and international level. The competencies were held in high esteem and valued by these organizations as the cornerstone of their disaster education, and also were used for the continued professional development of disaster nursing. However, respondents stated that five years on from their development, the competencies also should include the psychosocial elements of nurses caring for themselves and their colleagues. Additionally, further studies should explore if there are other areas related to the

  12. Narratives of community engagement: a systematic review-derived conceptual framework for public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Ginny; Thomas, James; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Jamal, Farah; Oliver, Sandy; Kavanagh, Josephine

    2017-12-11

    Government policy increasingly supports engaging communities to promote health. It is critical to consider whether such strategies are effective, for whom, and under what circumstances. However, 'community engagement' is defined in diverse ways and employed for different reasons. Considering the theory and context we developed a conceptual framework which informs understanding about what makes an effective (or ineffective) community engagement intervention. We conducted a systematic review of community engagement in public health interventions using: stakeholder involvement; searching, screening, appraisal and coding of research literature; and iterative thematic syntheses and meta-analysis. A conceptual framework of community engagement was refined, following interactions between the framework and each review stage. From 335 included reports, three products emerged: (1) two strong theoretical 'meta-narratives': one, concerning the theory and practice of empowerment/engagement as an independent objective; and a more utilitarian perspective optimally configuring health services to achieve defined outcomes. These informed (2) models that were operationalized in subsequent meta-analysis. Both refined (3) the final conceptual framework. This identified multiple dimensions by which community engagement interventions may differ. Diverse combinations of intervention purpose, theory and implementation were noted, including: ways of defining communities and health needs; initial motivations for community engagement; types of participation; conditions and actions necessary for engagement; and potential issues influencing impact. Some dimensions consistently co-occurred, leading to three overarching models of effective engagement which either: utilised peer-led delivery; employed varying degrees of collaboration between communities and health services; or built on empowerment philosophies. Our conceptual framework and models are useful tools for considering appropriate and

  13. A proposed framework for the systematic review and integrated assessment (SYRINA) of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenberg, Laura N.; Agerstrand, Marlene; Beronius, Anna

    2016-01-01

    of evidence (epidemiology, wildlife, laboratory animal, in vitro, and in silico data) that are relevant in assessing EDCs.Methods: We have developed a framework for the systematic review and integrated assessment (SYRINA) of EDC studies. The framework was designed for use with the International Program......Background: The issue of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is receiving wide attention from both the scientific and regulatory communities. Recent analyses of the EDC literature have been criticized for failing to use transparent and objective approaches to draw conclusions about the strength...... of evidence linking EDC exposures to adverse health or environmental outcomes. Systematic review methodologies are ideal for addressing this issue as they provide transparent and consistent approaches to study selection and evaluation. Objective methods are needed for integrating the multiple streams...

  14. Guest Induced Strong Cooperative One- and Two-Step Spin Transitions in Highly Porous Iron(II) Hofmann-Type Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro-López, Lucı A; Valverde-Muñoz, Francisco Javier; Seredyuk, Maksym; Muñoz, M Carmen; Haukka, Matti; Real, José Antonio

    2017-06-19

    The synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic, calorimetric, and Mössbauer studies of a series of new Hofmann-type spin crossover (SCO) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is reported. The new SCO-MOFs arise from self-assembly of Fe II , bis(4-pyridyl)butadiyne (bpb), and [Ag(CN) 2 ] - or [M II (CN) 4 ] 2- (M II = Ni, Pd). Interpenetration of four identical 3D networks with α-Po topology are obtained for {Fe(bpb)[Ag I (CN) 2 ] 2 } due to the length of the rod-like bismonodentate bpb and [Ag(CN) 2 ] - ligands. The four networks are tightly packed and organized in two subsets orthogonally interpenetrated, while the networks in each subset display parallel interpenetration. This nonporous material undergoes a very incomplete SCO, which is rationalized from its intricate structure. In contrast, the single network Hofmann-type MOFs {Fe(bpb)[M II (CN) 4 ]}·nGuest (M II = Ni, Pd) feature enhanced porosity and display complete one-step or two-step cooperative SCO behaviors when the pores are filled with two molecules of nitrobenzene or naphthalene that interact strongly with the pyridyl and cyano moieties of the bpb ligands via π-π stacking. The lack of these guest molecules favors stabilization of the high-spin state in the whole range of temperatures. However, application of hydrostatic pressure induces one- and two-step SCO.

  15. QoS frameworks for Multimedia Traffic in Mobile Adhoc Networks: A Comparative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Soni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available MANETs (Mobile Adhoc Networks has gained an increased interest by the research community. Regular intelligent exchanges of multimedia will be typical in MANET, though the extended motivation on QoS (Quality of Service. However, various properties of the discussed QoS framework are provisioned for QoS as a challenging concern. Providing QoS provisioning is, to a great degree, challenging in MANETs in view of bouncing correspondences, center point movability and nonattendance of central coordination. Thus, most of the research has focused on giving QoS guarantees in MANETs coordinating traditions. Though huge numbers of QoS coordinating procedures have been proposed in composing, focusing on different QoS estimations yet none of the prescribed or discussed frameworks achieves a universal course of action. There exist several genuine necessary research areas of focus such as QoS metric assurance and cost limit layout, source level scheduling framework and QoS coordinating. In this paper, working and connecting of various QoS frameworks for MANETs is investigated throughout several veritable focus areas of research. After a comparative review, it is concluded that there is still a good scope of research for proposing a QoS framework for MANETs which could have cross-layer advantages, resource reservation, connection admission control, multi-constrained QoS parameters, hard QoS assurance, proactive routing advantages etc.

  16. Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity

  17. Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calnan Mike W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their

  18. A review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie; Phebe Asantewaa Owusu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework is done to create awareness of the strategic planning and energy policies of Ghana’s energy sector that will serve as an informative tool for both local and foreign investors, help in national decision-making for the efficient development and utilization of energy resources. The review of Ghana’s energy sector policy is to answer the question, what has been done so far? And what is the way forward...

  19. Organizational Health Literacy: Review of Theories, Frameworks, Guides, and Implementation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, Luc; Bouchard, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Organizational health literacy is described as an organization-wide effort to transform organization and delivery of care and services to make it easier for people to navigate, understand, and use information and services to take care of their health. Several health literacy guides have been developed to assist healthcare organizations with this effort, but their content has not been systematically reviewed to understand the scope and practical implications of this transformation. The objective of this study was to review (1) theories and frameworks that inform the concept of organizational health literacy, (2) the attributes of organizational health literacy as described in the guides, (3) the evidence for the effectiveness of the guides, and (4) the barriers and facilitators to implementing organizational health literacy. Drawing on a metanarrative review method, 48 publications were reviewed, of which 15 dealt with the theories and operational frameworks, 20 presented health literacy guides, and 13 addressed guided implementation of organizational health literacy. Seven theories and 9 operational frameworks have been identified. Six health literacy dimensions and 9 quality-improvement characteristics were reviewed for each health literacy guide. Evidence about the effectiveness of health literacy guides is limited at this time, but experiences with the guides were positive. Thirteen key barriers (conceived also as facilitators) were identified. Further development of organizational health literacy requires a strong and a clear connection between its vision and operationalization as an implementation strategy to patient-centered care. For many organizations, becoming health literate will require multiple, simultaneous, and radical changes. Organizational health literacy has to make sense from clinical and financial perspectives in order for organizations to embark on such transformative journey. PMID:29569968

  20. Organizational Health Literacy: Review of Theories, Frameworks, Guides, and Implementation Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanova, Elina; Bonneville, Luc; Bouchard, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Organizational health literacy is described as an organization-wide effort to transform organization and delivery of care and services to make it easier for people to navigate, understand, and use information and services to take care of their health. Several health literacy guides have been developed to assist healthcare organizations with this effort, but their content has not been systematically reviewed to understand the scope and practical implications of this transformation. The objective of this study was to review (1) theories and frameworks that inform the concept of organizational health literacy, (2) the attributes of organizational health literacy as described in the guides, (3) the evidence for the effectiveness of the guides, and (4) the barriers and facilitators to implementing organizational health literacy. Drawing on a metanarrative review method, 48 publications were reviewed, of which 15 dealt with the theories and operational frameworks, 20 presented health literacy guides, and 13 addressed guided implementation of organizational health literacy. Seven theories and 9 operational frameworks have been identified. Six health literacy dimensions and 9 quality-improvement characteristics were reviewed for each health literacy guide. Evidence about the effectiveness of health literacy guides is limited at this time, but experiences with the guides were positive. Thirteen key barriers (conceived also as facilitators) were identified. Further development of organizational health literacy requires a strong and a clear connection between its vision and operationalization as an implementation strategy to patient-centered care. For many organizations, becoming health literate will require multiple, simultaneous, and radical changes. Organizational health literacy has to make sense from clinical and financial perspectives in order for organizations to embark on such transformative journey.

  1. What is access to radiation therapy? A conceptual framework and review of influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Puma; Stockler, Martin R; Milross, Christopher G

    2016-02-01

    Optimal radiation therapy (RT) utilisation rates (RURs) have been defined for various cancer indications through extensive work in Australia and overseas. These benchmarks remain unrealised. The gap between optimal RUR and actual RUR has been attributed to inadequacies in 'RT access'. We aimed to develop a conceptual framework for the consideration of 'RT access' by examining the literature for existing constructs and translating it to the context of RT services. We further aimed to use this framework to identify and examine factors influencing 'RT access'. Existing models of health care access were reviewed and used to develop a multi-dimensional conceptual framework for 'RT access'. A review of the literature was then conducted to identify factors reported to affect RT access and utilisation. The electronic databases searched, the host platform and date range of the databases searched were Ovid MEDLINE, 1946 to October 2014 and PsycINFO via OvidSP,1806 to October 2014. The framework developed demonstrates that 'RT access' encompasses opportunity for RT as well as the translation of this opportunity to RT utilisation. Opportunity for RT includes availability, affordability, adequacy (quality) and acceptability of RT services. Several factors at the consumer, referrer and RT service levels affect the translation of this opportunity for RT to actual RT utilisation. 'Access' is a term that is widely used in the context of health service related research, planning and political discussions. It is a multi-faceted concept with many descriptions. We propose a conceptual framework for the consideration of 'RT access' so that factors affecting RT access and utilisation may be identified and examined. Understanding these factors, and quantifying them where possible, will allow objective evaluation of their impact on RT utilisation and guide implementation of strategies to modify their effects.

  2. Value-based reimbursement decisions for orphan drugs: a scoping review and decision framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulden, Mike; Stafinski, Tania; Menon, Devidas; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    The rate of development of new orphan drugs continues to grow. As a result, reimbursing orphan drugs on an exceptional basis is increasingly difficult to sustain from a health system perspective. An understanding of the value that societies attach to providing orphan drugs at the expense of other health technologies is now recognised as an important input to policy debates. The aim of this work was to scope the social value arguments that have been advanced relating to the reimbursement of orphan drugs, and to locate these within a coherent decision-making framework to aid reimbursement decisions in the presence of limited healthcare resources. A scoping review of the peer reviewed and grey literature was undertaken, consisting of seven phases: (1) identifying the research question; (2) searching for relevant studies; (3) selecting studies; (4) charting, extracting and tabulating data; (5) analyzing data; (6) consulting relevant experts; and (7) presenting results. The points within decision processes where the identified value arguments would be incorporated were then located. This mapping was used to construct a framework characterising the distinct role of each value in informing decision making. The scoping review identified 19 candidate decision factors, most of which can be characterised as either value-bearing or 'opportunity cost'-determining, and also a number of value propositions and pertinent sources of preference information. We were able to synthesize these into a coherent decision-making framework. Our framework may be used to structure policy discussions and to aid transparency about the values underlying reimbursement decisions for orphan drugs. These values ought to be consistently applied to all technologies and populations affected by the decision.

  3. An Indicator-Based Framework to Evaluate Sustainability of Farming Systems: Review of Applications in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Vazzana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability at the farm level. Policymakers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This study proposes an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems. Main features of the indicators’ framework are the relevance given to different spatial scales (farm, site and field, production and pedo-climatic factors, and a holistic view of the agro-ecosystem. The framework has been conceived to tackle different purposes ranging from detailed scientific analyses to farm-level management systems and cross-compliance. Agro-environmental indicators can be calculated, simulated with models or directly measured with different levels of detail proportionally to the aims of the evaluation exercise. The framework is organised in a number of environmental and production systems and sub-systems. For each system environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. A review of applications of the framework in Tuscany, Italy, since 1991 is presented. Applications range from prototyping farming systems, to integrated farm ecological-economic modelling, comparisons between organic, integrated and conventional farming systems, farm eco-management voluntary audit schemes and cross-compliance. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed against generic requirements of information systems and operational issues.

  4. Evolution of international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, Bertrand

    1978-01-01

    The various stages of the history of the International Cooperation in nuclear matters are reviewed: isolationism period at the end of the war with the anglosaxon monopoly; opening period with the 1955 Geneva Conference and the creation of organisms within the framework of Euratom (the six European countries), of OCED (NEA) and of UNO (IAEA); industrial realizations period with Euratom research centres (Ispra, Geel, Karlsruhe and Petten) and the NEA enterprises (Halden, Dragon project, Eurochemic). The international industrial accords in the domains of exploitation and uranium enrichment are recalled and the program for the international evaluating of the fuel cycle (INFCE) is mentioned [fr

  5. A Framework of Sustainable Service Supply Chain Management: A Literature Review and Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interdisciplinary research of supply chains and sustainability has received extensive, yet gradual, attention; when compared to the rapid economic growth of the service industry, however, sustainable supply chain management has not been systematically explored yet. It has not only great theoretical significance, but also positive practical significance to provide a framework for the operation of a sustainable service supply chain from a sustainable development point of view. Based on the triple bottom line (TBL, we have analyzed related sustainable supply chain management research between 2006 and 2015, reviewed papers involving two or three bottom lines as well, and then introduced some classical frameworks for manufacturing supply chain management and service supply chain management. Afterward, by analyzing the differences between the manufacturing and service industries, we propose a framework of sustainable service supply chain management (SSSCM. Based on the impacts of sustainable development TBL on service supply chain participants, we have finally made a framework for sustainable operation facing triads service supply chain and proposed a future research agenda.

  6. International Expert Team Concludes IAEA Peer Review of Poland's Regulatory Framework for Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: International safety experts last week concluded a two-week International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Poland. In its preliminary report, the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission team found that Poland's nuclear regulator, Panstwowa Agencja Atomistyki (PAA), has a clear commitment to safety, a high level of transparency, competent staff and leadership, and a good recognition of challenges ahead related to Poland's efforts to develop nuclear power. ''Poland's regulatory framework and the work of PAA give high confidence of strong radiation protection for the Polish people. Further, there has been significant progress in the development of Poland's regulatory framework in preparation for the challenge of regulating nuclear power,'' said team leader Robert Lewis, a senior executive in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The mission was conducted at the request of the Government of Poland from 15-25 April. The team was made up of 11 regulatory experts from Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, the Republic of Korea, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States, as well as five IAEA staff members. The IRRS review team was very thorough in its review, and we welcome its advice on how to continue to improve our programmes to protect people and the environment , said Janusz Wlodarski, President of PAA. The team interviewed members of PAA and officials from various ministries, as well as key players in the Polish safety framework. Such IRRS missions are peer reviews based on IAEA Safety Standards, not inspections or audits. Among its main observations the IRRS review team identified the following good practices: Applying the considerable experience of PAA's senior management to regulatory issues; The introduction of changes to Poland's laws and regulations following broad public consultation at an early stage in

  7. Review of the Norwegian-Russian Cooperation on Safety Projects at Kola and Leningrad Nuclear Power Plants 2005 - 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, H.; Tishakov, P.

    2010-11-01

    In this report, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) has reviewed the Norwegian funded projects on nuclear safety performed in the period 2005-2009 under the Norwegian Action Plan. NRPA has evaluated the progress of eight projects implemented by the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) at Kola Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) and Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (LNPP). NRPA has visited the plants, inspected delivered equipment and discussed the projects implementation with relevant personnel at the plants. One of NRPA findings is that the equipment has been delivered to KNPP and LNPP, it is in regular use by competent personnel, and the equipment contributes to safety of both plants. Furthermore, the cooperation between three main project partners - IFE, LNPP and KNPP, seems to be very productive. NRPA's main conclusion is therefore that the projects have been implemented as described in IFE's project reports and that the goals are met. Furthermore, this report reviews safety levels at the KNPP and LNPP. Safety parameters at the plants indicate that the safety level has been significantly improved since early 1990s when the cooperation between Norway and Russia was initiated. Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) values and number of INES (International Nuclear Event Scale) events, two internationally acknowledged safety parameters, indicate that the safety level has been much improved since the early 1990s when the cooperation between Norway and Russia started. Although it is clear that the Norwegian-funded projects have contributed positively to this development it is difficult to quantify the contribution. Moreover, the report also reviews the planned life-time of and the decommissioning plans for the reactors at KNPP and LNPP. Construction of new LNPP reactors has started and it is estimated that they will be operational in 2013- 2015. The license of the oldest reactor at LNPP expires in 2018 and if the new reactors are in operation by that time, it is

  8. Review of Recent US Value Frameworks-A Health Economics Approach: An ISPOR Special Task Force Report [6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, Richard J; Neumann, Peter J; Garrison, Louis P; Ramsey, Scott D

    2018-02-01

    The sixth section of our Special Task Force (STF) report reviews and comments on recent US-oriented value assessment frameworks, specifically those published by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, the Institute for Clinical and Economic Research, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. We review published commentaries that address the validity, reliability, and conceptual underpinnings of these frameworks. We find common themes of critique regarding the strengths and limitations across frameworks. Particular shortcomings of some frameworks pose greater threats to their face validity and utility compared with others. The most significant limitations include lack of clear perspective (e.g., patient vs. health plan) and poor transparency in accounting for costs and benefits. We then review how each framework adheres to core STF recommendations, with particular emphasis on whether the framework can be used to support coverage decisions by health insurers, and whether it adheres to core principles of cost-effectiveness analysis. The Institute for Clinical and Economic Research framework most closely adheres to core STF recommendations. Others have significant limitations that vary widely from framework to framework. We also review how the frameworks follow STF recommendations for addressing potentially relevant issues beyond cost-effectiveness analysis - for example, equity in resource allocation and patient heterogeneity. Finally, we review whether and how each framework uses value thresholds and addresses affordability concerns. We conclude with suggestions for further research, particularly in the areas of testing the measurement and use of novel elements of value and deliberative processes. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Patients' perceptions and experiences of cardiovascular disease and diabetes prevention programmes: A systematic review and framework synthesis using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rachel L; Holland, Carol; Pattison, Helen M; Cooke, Richard

    2016-05-01

    This review provides a worked example of 'best fit' framework synthesis using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) of health psychology theories as an a priori framework in the synthesis of qualitative evidence. Framework synthesis works best with 'policy urgent' questions. The review question selected was: what are patients' experiences of prevention programmes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes? The significance of these conditions is clear: CVD claims more deaths worldwide than any other; diabetes is a risk factor for CVD and leading cause of death. A systematic review and framework synthesis were conducted. This novel method for synthesizing qualitative evidence aims to make health psychology theory accessible to implementation science and advance the application of qualitative research findings in evidence-based healthcare. Findings from 14 original studies were coded deductively into the TDF and subsequently an inductive thematic analysis was conducted. Synthesized findings produced six themes relating to: knowledge, beliefs, cues to (in)action, social influences, role and identity, and context. A conceptual model was generated illustrating combinations of factors that produce cues to (in)action. This model demonstrated interrelationships between individual (beliefs and knowledge) and societal (social influences, role and identity, context) factors. Several intervention points were highlighted where factors could be manipulated to produce favourable cues to action. However, a lack of transparency of behavioural components of published interventions needs to be corrected and further evaluations of acceptability in relation to patient experience are required. Further work is needed to test the comprehensiveness of the TDF as an a priori framework for 'policy urgent' questions using 'best fit' framework synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. From a literature review to a multi-perspective framework for reverse logistics barriers and drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Bouzon, Marina

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of stricter environmental regulations and the growing environmental consciousness of customers have forced industries to start thinking about environmental operations management with the help of reverse logistics application. In this process, influential factors such as drivers...... and barriers have to be examined, and stakeholders’ different perspectives on RL implementation and development should also be considered. This paper presents a multi-perspective framework for reverse logistics implementation using the lens of stakeholder theory. The multiple stakeholders’ perspective...... framework was developed based upon a structured literature review process. Fifty-four papers concerning these topical areas were thoroughly assessed and classified according to their structural dimensions and analytical categories. Two extensive lists of 37 drivers and 36 barriers, categorized and analyzed...

  11. Framework for selecting best practices in public health: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Ng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based public health has commonly relied on findings from empirical studies, or research-based evidence. However, this paper advocates that practice-based evidence derived from programmes implemented in real-life settings is likely to be a more suitable source of evidence for inspiring and guiding public health programmes. Selection of best practices from the array of implemented programmes is one way of generating such practice-based evidence. Yet the lack of consensus on the definition and criteria for practice-based evidence and best practices has limited their application in public health so far. To address the gap in literature on practice-based evidence, this paper hence proposes measures of success for public health interventions by developing an evaluation framework for selection of best practices. The proposed framework was synthesised from a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on existing evaluation frameworks for public health programmes as well as processes employed by health-related organisations when selecting best practices. A best practice is firstly defined as an intervention that has shown evidence of effectiveness in a particular setting and is likely to be replicable to other situations. Regardless of the area of public health, interventions should be evaluated by their context, process and outcomes. A best practice should hence meet most, if not all, of eight identified evaluation criteria: relevance, community participation, stakeholder collaboration, ethical soundness, replicability, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability. Ultimately, a standardised framework for selection of best practices will improve the usefulness and credibility of practice-based evidence in informing evidence-based public health interventions.

  12. 77 FR 56202 - Notification of an External Peer Review Meeting for the Draft Framework for Human Health Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Meeting for the Draft Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making AGENCY: U.S... panel of experts to review the draft document, Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform... for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making will be held on October 9, 2012, from 9:00...

  13. A University-Industry Cooperation Model for Small and Medium Enterprises: The Case of Chengdu KEDA Optoelectronic Technology Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shanzhong; Ferreira, Fernando A. F.; Zheng, He

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we develop a firm-dominated incremental cooperation model. Following the critical review of current literature and various cooperation models, we identified a number of strengths and shortcomings that form the basis for our framework. The objective of our theoretical model is to contribute to overcome the existing gap within…

  14. Technical skills assessment toolbox: a review using the unitary framework of validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Iman; Manji, Farouq; Park, Yoon Soo; Juul, Dorthea; Ott, Michael; Harris, Ilene; Farrell, Timothy M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a technical skills assessment toolbox for 35 basic and advanced skills/procedures that comprise the American College of Surgeons (ACS)/Association of Program Directors in Surgery (APDS) surgical skills curriculum and to provide a critical appraisal of the included tools, using contemporary framework of validity. Competency-based training has become the predominant model in surgical education and assessment of performance is an essential component. Assessment methods must produce valid results to accurately determine the level of competency. A search was performed, using PubMed and Google Scholar, to identify tools that have been developed for assessment of the targeted technical skills. A total of 23 assessment tools for the 35 ACS/APDS skills modules were identified. Some tools, such as Operative Performance Rating System (OSATS) and Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OPRS), have been tested for more than 1 procedure. Therefore, 30 modules had at least 1 assessment tool, with some common surgical procedures being addressed by several tools. Five modules had none. Only 3 studies used Messick's framework to design their validity studies. The remaining studies used an outdated framework on the basis of "types of validity." When analyzed using the contemporary framework, few of these studies demonstrated validity for content, internal structure, and relationship to other variables. This study provides an assessment toolbox for common surgical skills/procedures. Our review shows that few authors have used the contemporary unitary concept of validity for development of their assessment tools. As we progress toward competency-based training, future studies should provide evidence for various sources of validity using the contemporary framework.

  15. Assessing the impact of healthcare research: A systematic review of methodological frameworks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cruz Rivera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, researchers need to demonstrate the impact of their research to their sponsors, funders, and fellow academics. However, the most appropriate way of measuring the impact of healthcare research is subject to debate. We aimed to identify the existing methodological frameworks used to measure healthcare research impact and to summarise the common themes and metrics in an impact matrix.Two independent investigators systematically searched the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL+, the Health Management Information Consortium, and the Journal of Research Evaluation from inception until May 2017 for publications that presented a methodological framework for research impact. We then summarised the common concepts and themes across methodological frameworks and identified the metrics used to evaluate differing forms of impact. Twenty-four unique methodological frameworks were identified, addressing 5 broad categories of impact: (1 'primary research-related impact', (2 'influence on policy making', (3 'health and health systems impact', (4 'health-related and societal impact', and (5 'broader economic impact'. These categories were subdivided into 16 common impact subgroups. Authors of the included publications proposed 80 different metrics aimed at measuring impact in these areas. The main limitation of the study was the potential exclusion of relevant articles, as a consequence of the poor indexing of the databases searched.The measurement of research impact is an essential exercise to help direct the allocation of limited research resources, to maximise research benefit, and to help minimise research waste. This review provides a collective summary of existing methodological frameworks for research impact, which funders may use to inform the measurement of research impact and researchers may use to inform

  16. Framework for Selecting Best Practices in Public Health: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Eileen; de Colombani, Pierpaolo

    2015-11-17

    Evidence-based public health has commonly relied on findings from empirical studies, or research-based evidence. However, this paper advocates that practice-based evidence derived from programmes implemented in real-life settings is likely to be a more suitable source of evidence for inspiring and guiding public health programmes. Selection of best practices from the array of implemented programmes is one way of generating such practice-based evidence. Yet the lack of consensus on the definition and criteria for practice-based evidence and best practices has limited their application in public health so far. To address the gap in literature on practice-based evidence, this paper hence proposes measures of success for public health interventions by developing an evaluation framework for selection of best practices. The proposed framework was synthesised from a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on existing evaluation frameworks for public health programmes as well as processes employed by health-related organisations when selecting best practices. A best practice is firstly defined as an intervention that has shown evidence of effectiveness in a particular setting and is likely to be replicable to other situations. Regardless of the area of public health, interventions should be evaluated by their context, process and outcomes. A best practice should hence meet most, if not all, of eight identified evaluation criteria: relevance, community participation, stakeholder collaboration, ethical soundness, replicability, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability. Ultimately, a standardised framework for selection of best practices will improve the usefulness and credibility of practice-based evidence in informing evidence-based public health interventions. Significance for public healthBest practices are a valuable source of practice-based evidence on effective public health interventions implemented in real-life settings. Yet, despite the

  17. Factors affecting recruitment into depression trials: Systematic review, meta-synthesis and conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Morley, Adwoa; Young, Bridget; Waheed, Waquas; Small, Nicola; Bower, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Depression is common and clinical trials are crucial for evaluating treatments. Difficulties in recruiting participants into depression trials are well-documented, yet no study has examined the factors affecting recruitment. This review aims to identify the factors affecting recruitment into depression trials and to develop a conceptual framework through systematic assessment of published qualitative research. Systematic review and meta-synthesis of published qualitative studies. Meta-synthesis involves a synthesis of themes across a number of qualitative studies to produce findings that are "greater than the sum of the parts". ASSIA, CINAHL, Embase, Medline and PsychInfo were searched up to April 2013. Reference lists of included studies, key publications and relevant reviews were also searched. Quality appraisal adopted the "prompts for appraising qualitative research". 7977 citations were identified, and 15 studies were included. Findings indicate that the decision to enter a depression trial is made by patients and gatekeepers based on the patient׳s health state at the time of being approached to participate; on their attitude towards the research and trial interventions; and on the extent to which patients become engaged with the trial. Our conceptual framework highlights that the decision to participate by both the patient and the gatekeeper involves a judgement between risk and reward. Only English language publications were included in this review. Findings from this review have implications for the design of interventions to improve recruitment into depression trials. Such interventions may aim to diminish the perceived risks and increase the perceived rewards of participation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Physics of Plutonium Fuels - A Review of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, Kevin; Delpech, Marc; Sartori, Enrico

    2000-01-01

    In 1993, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency first convened the Working Group on the Physics of Plutonium Recycle (WPPR) (now renamed the Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles). Since its inception, the WPPR (whose task has now been expanded to include innovative fuel cycles) has published six volumes of detailed results from analyses of plutonium fuel in pressurized water reactors and fast reactors. A seventh volume on the physics of plutonium fuel in boiling water reactors is in preparation. The analyses have been mostly in the form of theoretical benchmark exercises for situations beyond current experience, for which multinational contributions provide a basis for comparison of diverse calculational methods and nuclear data libraries. The overall activities of the WPPR are reviewed and summarized

  19. Choosing the cooperative option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, G. (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (United States))

    1999-06-01

    Cooperatives do not ask to be exempted from the law. They do ask that laws and regulations be designed to allow them to meet the needs of their consumer-owners in accordance with cooperative principles, at a time that the marginal consumers being abandoned by for-profit utilities may be ready to gravitate toward cooperatives. The cooperative principles are worth reviewing because they explain the focus on the consumer and the cooperative concept of service: cooperatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership; cooperatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting policies and making decisions, the elected representatives are accountable to the membership; members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative; cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members, if they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy; cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives, they inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of cooperation; cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strength the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures; and while focusing on member needs, cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING FINANCIAL CONSUMERS’ PRIVATE PENSION PLAN DECISIONS: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK PROPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Elif Aydın

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to propose a framework related to financial consumers’ private pension plan decisions. Specifically, we review the factors affecting consumers’ participation, contribution and asset allocation decisions regarding private pensions. The factors discussed include situational and dispositional factors, personality, motivation, financial literacy, and external influences. Based on this survey of literature, we develop a number of propositions, which are expected to benefit individual retirement planners and pension institutions in gaining a better understanding of retirement saving decisions.

  1. Evaluation Of Investments In Science, Technology And Innovation: Applying Scientific and Technical Human Capital Framework For Assessment of Doctoral Students In Cooperative Research Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonchuk, Olena

    This dissertation builds on an alternative framework for evaluation of science, technology and innovation (STI) outcomes - the scientific & technical (S&T) human capital which was developed by Bozeman, Dietz and Gaughan (2001). At its core, this framework looks beyond simple economic and publication metrics and instead focuses on scientists' social capital. The premise of the framework is that science does not happen in vacuum and that resources embedded in scientists' social networks are important and enduring outcomes of the scientific process that were not being captured by traditional metrics. This dissertation examines social capital of science and engineering (S&E) graduate students, an underrepresented group of stakeholders in STI evaluations. S&E graduate students are unique for several reasons. In comparison with students in other disciplines, S&E graduate students have a greater proportion of international students; are widely employed by industry in numbers exceeded only by business graduates. And, most importantly, S&E graduates pursue education in fields that contribute the most to the US innovation capacity. This dissertation introduces a multidimensional measure of social capital based on the network theory of social capital proposed by Nan Lin (1999). According to Lin, social capital consists of three components: availability of resources and social embeddedness in one's network and mobilization of these resources. In order to address these elements, the dissertation employs two studies that focus on different components of social capital. Study 1 looks at accessibility of resources in students' social networks and whether students would be likely to mobilize them by using a proxy measure of norms and values about collaborations. The study also addresses the effect of social capital on students' experiences and outcomes, specifically, on their satisfaction and perceived career preparedness. The researcher investigates the mechanisms that explain

  2. Thermal-Hydraulic Research Review and Cooperation Outcome for Light Water Reactor Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, Wang Kee; Shin, Chang Hwan; Lee, Chan; Chun, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chi Young [Pukyong Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The fuel assembly for pressurized water reactor (PWR) consists of fuel rod bundle, spacer grid and bottom/top end fittings. The cooling water in high pressure and temperature is introduced in lower plenum of reactor core and directed to upper plenum through the subchannel which is formed between the fuel rods. The main thermalhydraulic performance parameters for the PWR fuel are pressure drop and critical heat flux in normal operating condition, and quenching time in accident condition. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing an advanced PWR fuel, dual-cooled annular fuel and accident tolerant fuel for the enhancement of fuel performance and the localization. For the key thermal-hydraulic technology development of PWR fuel, the KAERI LWR fuel team has conducted the experiments for pressure drop, turbulent flow mixing and heat transfer, critical heat flux(CHF) and quenching. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was also performed to predict flow and heat transfer in fuel assembly including the spent fuel assembly in dry cask for interim repository. In addition, the research cooperation with university and nuclear fuel company was also carried out to develop a basic thermalhydraulic technology and the commercialization.

  3. Conceptualizing body dissatisfaction in eating disorders within a self-discrepancy framework: a review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Elin L; Gaspar, Monika E; DiTore, Rebecca; Piers, Amani D; Schaumberg, Katherine

    2018-02-09

    Body dissatisfaction, the negative subjective evaluation of one's body, is associated with many negative psychological and physical health consequences. One conceptualization of body dissatisfaction includes an experience of discrepancy between perceived actual and ideal body shapes. This paper reviews the literature on three facets of body dissatisfaction from the framework of self-discrepancy theory: perceptions of current weight, ideal body weight, and the relative importance of conforming to ideals. We review components of body dissatisfaction among healthy individuals and eating-disordered individuals. We also address the conceptualization's relationship among body dissatisfaction, weight history, and dieting to expand the impact of body dissatisfaction research and to provide more information on the nature and treatment of eating disorders.

  4. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  5. A Review of Frameworks for Developing Environmental Health Indicators for Climate Change and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambling, Tammy; Weinstein, Philip; Slaney, David

    2011-01-01

    The role climate change may play in altering human health, particularly in the emergence and spread of diseases, is an evolving area of research. It is important to understand this relationship because it will compound the already significant burden of diseases on national economies and public health. Authorities need to be able to assess, anticipate, and monitor human health vulnerability to climate change, in order to plan for, or implement action to avoid these eventualities. Environmental health indicators (EHIs) provide a tool to assess, monitor, and quantify human health vulnerability, to aid in the design and targeting of interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. Our aim was to identify the most suitable framework for developing EHIs to measure and monitor the impacts of climate change on human health and inform the development of interventions. Using published literature we reviewed the attributes of 11 frameworks. We identified the Driving force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework as the most suitable one for developing EHIs for climate change and health. We propose the use of EHIs as a valuable tool to assess, quantify, and monitor human health vulnerability, design and target interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. In this paper, we lay the groundwork for the future development of EHIs as a multidisciplinary approach to link existing environmental and epidemiological data and networks. Analysis of such data will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the relationship between climate change and human health. PMID:21845162

  6. Institutional framework for integrated Pharmaceutical Benefits Management: results from a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Roman Hermanowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this paper, we emphasised that effective management of health plans beneficiaries access to reimbursed medicines requires proper institutional set-up. The main objective was to identify and recommend an institutional framework of integrated pharmaceutical care providing effective, safe and equitable access to medicines. Method: The institutional framework of drug policy was derived on the basis of publications obtained by systematic reviews. A comparative analysis concerning adaptation of coordinated pharmaceutical care services in the USA, the UK, Poland, Italy, Denmark and Germany was performed. Results: While most European Union Member States promote the implementation of selected e-Health tools, like e-Prescribing, these efforts do not necessarily implement an integrated package. There is no single agent who would manage an insured patients’ access to medicines and health care in a coordinated manner, thereby increasing the efficiency and safety of drug policy. More attention should be paid by European Union Member States as to how to integrate various e-Health tools to enhance benefits to both individuals and societies. One solution could be to implement an integrated “pharmacy benefit management” model, which is well established in the USA and Canada and provides an integrated package of cost-containment methods, implemented within a transparent institutional framework and powered by strong motivation of the agent.

  7. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: A review of imagery measures and a guiding framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David G.; Deeprose, Catherine; Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M.A.; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Holmes, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Mental imagery is an under-explored field in clinical psychology research but presents a topic of potential interest and relevance across many clinical disorders, including social phobia, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is currently a lack of a guiding framework from which clinicians may select the domains or associated measures most likely to be of appropriate use in mental imagery research. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach and present a review of studies across experimental psychology and clinical psychology in order to highlight the key domains and measures most likely to be of relevance. This includes a consideration of methods for experimentally assessing the generation, maintenance, inspection and transformation of mental images; as well as subjective measures of characteristics such as image vividness and clarity. We present a guiding framework in which we propose that cognitive, subjective and clinical aspects of imagery should be explored in future research. The guiding framework aims to assist researchers in the selection of measures for assessing those aspects of mental imagery that are of most relevance to clinical psychology. We propose that a greater understanding of the role of mental imagery in clinical disorders will help drive forward advances in both theory and treatment. PMID:23123567

  8. From a Systematic Literature Review to a Classification Framework: Sustainability Integration in Fashion Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Karaosman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability management in global fashion operations is an area of growing concern. This can be seen by the number of research articles and industrial reports published. To establish a further debate, this study pursues two objectives. Firstly, it provides a systematic literature review pertaining to environmental and social sustainability management in fashion operations by encompassing 38 research articles indexed in Scopus from 2006 to 2016. Secondly, it presents a classification framework in which sustainability practices are categorized according to a three-dimensional concurrent engineering framework by focusing on product, process and supply chain levels. Results address that the breakdown of environmental and social sustainability practices identified in earlier research is not homogenous. For instance, some critical social aspects such as human rights are not widely covered in production processes. Similarly, serious environmental aspects such as biodiversity are not entirely focused on at the chain level. Last, this study concludes with a framework illustrating strategic priorities to be taken to advance sustainability in fashion operations.

  9. Stress, Cognition, and Human Performance: A Literature Review and Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    The following literature review addresses the effects of various stressors on cognition. While attempting to be as inclusive as possible, the review focuses its examination on the relationships between cognitive appraisal, attention, memory, and stress as they relate to information processing and human performance. The review begins with an overview of constructs and theoretical perspectives followed by an examination of effects across attention, memory, perceptual-motor functions, judgment and decision making, putative stressors such as workload, thermals, noise, and fatigue and closes with a discussion of moderating variables and related topics. In summation of the review, a conceptual framework for cognitive process under stress has been assembled. As one might imagine, the research literature that addresses stress, theories governing its effects on human performance, and experimental evidence that supports these notions is large and diverse. In attempting to organize and synthesize this body of work, I was guided by several earlier efforts (Bourne & Yaroush, 2003; Driskell, Mullen, Johnson, Hughes, & Batchelor, 1992; Driskell & Salas, 1996; Haridcock & Desmond, 2001; Stokes & Kite, 1994). These authors should be credited with accomplishing the monumental task of providing focused reviews in this area and their collective efforts laid the foundation for this present review. Similarly, the format of this review has been designed in accordance with these previous exemplars. However, each of these previous efforts either simply reported general findings, without sufficient experimental illustration, or narrowed their scope of investigation to the extent that the breadth of such findings remained hidden from the reader. Moreover, none of these examinations yielded an architecture that adequately describes or explains the inter-relations between information processing elements under stress conditions.

  10. IAEA Mission Concludes Peer Review of Viet Nam's Radiation and Nuclear Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Senior international nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded a 10-day International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) mission to review how Viet Nam's regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety has incorporated recommendations and suggestions from an earlier review, conducted in 2009. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) follow-up mission, requested by the Viet Nam Agency for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (VARANS), also reviewed the development of the regulatory safety infrastructure to support Viet Nam's nuclear power programme. The eight-member team comprised senior regulatory experts from Canada, France, Pakistan, Slovenia, United Arab Emirates and the United States of America, as well as three IAEA staff members. The IRRS team said in its preliminary assessment that Viet Nam had made progress since 2009, but that some key recommendations still needed to be addressed. Particular strengths identified by the team included: The commitment of VARANS staff to develop legislation and regulations in the field of nuclear and radiation safety; VARANS' efforts to implement practices that are in line with IAEA Safety Standards and internationally recognized good practices; A willingness to receive feedback regarding the efforts to establish and implement a regulation programme; and Progress made in developing the regulatory framework to support the introduction of nuclear power. The team identified the following areas as high-priority steps to further strengthen radiation and nuclear safety in Viet Nam: The effective independence of the regulatory decision-making process needs to be urgently addressed; Additional resources are needed to regulate existing radiation facilities and activities, as well as the country's research reactor; Efforts to increase the capacity of VARANS to regulate the developing nuclear power programme should continue; The draft Master Plan for the Development of Nuclear Power Infrastructure should be finalized

  11. Transboundary cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, D.

    2006-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants near national borders requires a close bilateral co-operation to cope with accidents having off-site radiological impacts. For example in 1978 such an agreement was signed by the German and Swiss government. The accident at the Chernobyl NPP changed the international co-operation in the framework of international consequence management. International conventions were agreed to insure a timely notification and international assistance in case of an accident with transboundary effects. In order to fulfill these conventions several procedures were introduced. In addition, bilateral agreements were signed also with countries which are not operating nuclear power plants near national borders. Since then no accident took place that would have required any notification. However, following the experience the expectations to these networks have changed considerably and hence sustainable development is required to cope with new challenges such as long term consequences management, new radiological threats, faster international assistance, media and public concerns, and technical evolution of communications systems. (author)

  12. 77 FR 2325 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Jail Resource Management: Review and Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... desk for pickup. Faxed or emailed applications will not be accepted; however, electronic applications... meeting will last up to one half day and will be conducted via Web conferencing. Initial curriculum review... signature in blue ink. Electronic submissions will be accepted only via www.grants.gov . The narrative...

  13. Scoping review: national monitoring frameworks for social determinants of health and health equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Pedrana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The strategic importance of monitoring social determinants of health (SDH and health equity and inequity has been a central focus in global discussions around the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on SDH and the Millennium Development Goals. This study is part of the World Health Organization (WHO equity-oriented analysis of linkages between health and other sectors (EQuAL project, which aims to define a framework for monitoring SDH and health equity. Objectives: This review provides a global summary and analysis of the domains and indicators that have been used in recent studies covering the SDH. These studies are considered here within the context of indicators proposed by the WHO EQuAL project. The objectives are as follows: to describe the range of international and national studies and the types of indicators most frequently used; report how they are used in causal explanation of the SDH; and identify key priorities and challenges reported in current research for national monitoring of the SDH. Design: We conducted a scoping review of published SDH studies in the PubMed® database to obtain evidence of socio-economic indicators. We evaluated, selected, and extracted data from national scale studies published from 2004 to 2014. The research included papers published in English, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results: The final sample consisted of 96 articles. SDH monitoring is well reported in the scientific literature independent of the economic level of the country and magnitude of deprivation in population groups. The research methods were mostly quantitative and many papers used multilevel and multivariable statistical analyses and indexes to measure health inequalities and SDH. In addition to the usual economic indicators, a high number of socio-economic indicators were used. The indicators covered a broad range of social dimensions, which were given consideration within and across different social groups. Many

  14. Understanding effects in reviews of implementation interventions using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Elizabeth A; Presseau, Justin; Eccles, Martin P

    2015-06-17

    Behavioural theory can be used to better understand the effects of behaviour change interventions targeting healthcare professional behaviour to improve quality of care. However, the explicit use of theory is rarely reported despite interventions inevitably involving at least an implicit idea of what factors to target to implement change. There is a quality of care gap in the post-fracture investigation (bone mineral density (BMD) scanning) and management (bisphosphonate prescription) of patients at risk of osteoporosis. We aimed to use the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) within a systematic review of interventions to improve quality of care in post-fracture investigation. Our objectives were to explore which theoretical factors the interventions in the review may have been targeting and how this might be related to the size of the effect on rates of BMD scanning and osteoporosis treatment with bisphosphonate medication. A behavioural scientist and a clinician independently coded TDF domains in intervention and control groups. Quantitative analyses explored the relationship between intervention effect size and total number of domains targeted, and as number of different domains targeted. Nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (10 interventions) were analysed. The five theoretical domains most frequently coded as being targeted by the interventions in the review included "memory, attention and decision processes", "knowledge", "environmental context and resources", "social influences" and "beliefs about consequences". Each intervention targeted a combination of at least four of these five domains. Analyses identified an inverse relationship between both number of times and number of different domains coded and the effect size for BMD scanning but not for bisphosphonate prescription, suggesting that the more domains the intervention targeted, the lower the observed effect size. When explicit use of theory to inform interventions is absent, it is possible to

  15. Scoping review: national monitoring frameworks for social determinants of health and health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrana, Leo; Pamponet, Marina; Walker, Ruth; Costa, Federico; Rasella, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The strategic importance of monitoring social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity and inequity has been a central focus in global discussions around the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on SDH and the Millennium Development Goals. This study is part of the World Health Organization (WHO) equity-oriented analysis of linkages between health and other sectors (EQuAL) project, which aims to define a framework for monitoring SDH and health equity. This review provides a global summary and analysis of the domains and indicators that have been used in recent studies covering the SDH. These studies are considered here within the context of indicators proposed by the WHO EQuAL project. The objectives are as follows: to describe the range of international and national studies and the types of indicators most frequently used; report how they are used in causal explanation of the SDH; and identify key priorities and challenges reported in current research for national monitoring of the SDH. We conducted a scoping review of published SDH studies in the PubMed(®) database to obtain evidence of socio-economic indicators. We evaluated, selected, and extracted data from national scale studies published from 2004 to 2014. The research included papers published in English, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. The final sample consisted of 96 articles. SDH monitoring is well reported in the scientific literature independent of the economic level of the country and magnitude of deprivation in population groups. The research methods were mostly quantitative and many papers used multilevel and multivariable statistical analyses and indexes to measure health inequalities and SDH. In addition to the usual economic indicators, a high number of socio-economic indicators were used. The indicators covered a broad range of social dimensions, which were given consideration within and across different social groups. Many indicators included in the WHO EQuAL framework were not

  16. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  17. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Fan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including "what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?" and "what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?" Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  18. The World Health Organization's Health Promoting Schools framework: a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Rebecca; Bonell, Christopher; Jones, Hayley; Pouliou, Theodora; Murphy, Simon; Waters, Elizabeth; Komro, Kelli; Gibbs, Lisa; Magnus, Daniel; Campbell, Rona

    2015-02-12

    Healthy children achieve better educational outcomes which, in turn, are associated with improved health later in life. The World Health Organization's Health Promoting Schools (HPS) framework is a holistic approach to promoting health and educational attainment in school. The effectiveness of this approach has not yet been rigorously reviewed. We searched 20 health, education and social science databases, and trials registries and relevant websites in 2011 and 2013. We included cluster randomised controlled trials. Participants were children and young people aged four to 18 years attending schools/colleges. HPS interventions had to include the following three elements: input into the curriculum; changes to the school's ethos or environment; and engagement with families and/or local communities. Two reviewers identified relevant trials, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We grouped studies according to the health topic(s) targeted. Where data permitted, we performed random-effects meta-analyses. We identified 67 eligible trials tackling a range of health issues. Few studies included any academic/attendance outcomes. We found positive average intervention effects for: body mass index (BMI), physical activity, physical fitness, fruit and vegetable intake, tobacco use, and being bullied. Intervention effects were generally small. On average across studies, we found little evidence of effectiveness for zBMI (BMI, standardized for age and gender), and no evidence for fat intake, alcohol use, drug use, mental health, violence and bullying others. It was not possible to meta-analyse data on other health outcomes due to lack of data. Methodological limitations were identified including reliance on self-reported data, lack of long-term follow-up, and high attrition rates. This Cochrane review has found the WHO HPS framework is effective at improving some aspects of student health. The effects are small but potentially important at a population level.

  19. Reducing discretionary food and beverage intake in early childhood: a systematic review within an ecological framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brittany J; Hendrie, Gilly A; Golley, Rebecca K

    2016-06-01

    To systematically review the literature and map published studies on 4-8-year-olds' intake of discretionary choices against an ecological framework (ANalysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity; ANGELO). Articles were identified through database searches (PubMed, PyscINFO®, Web of Science) in February and March 2014 and hand-searching reference lists. Studies were assessed for methodological quality and mapped against the ANGELO framework by environment size (macro and micro setting) and type (physical, economic, policy and socio-cultural influences). Studies were conducted in the USA (n 18), Australia (n 6), the UK (n 3), the Netherlands (n 3), Belgium (n 1), Germany (n 1) and Turkey (n 1). Children aged 4-8 years, or parents/other caregivers. Thirty-three studies met the review criteria (observational n 23, interventions n 10). Home was the most frequently studied setting (67 % of exposures/strategies), with the majority of these studies targeting family policy-type influences (e.g. child feeding practices, television regulation). Few studies were undertaken in government (5·5 %) or community (11 %) settings, or examined economic-type influences (0 %). Of the intervention studies only four were categorised as effective. The present review is novel in its focus on mapping observational and intervention studies across a range of settings. It highlights the urgent need for high-quality research to inform interventions that directly tackle the factors influencing children's excess intake of discretionary choices. Interventions that assist in optimising a range of environmental influences will enhance the impact of future public health interventions to improve child diet quality.

  20. International Nuclear Safety Experts Conclude IAEA Peer Review of Swiss Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts today completed a two-week International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review of the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in Switzerland. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission noted good practices in the Swiss system and also made recommendations for the nation's nuclear regulatory authority, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). ''Our team developed a good impression of the independent Swiss regulator - ENSI - and the team considered that ENSI deserves particular credit for its actions to improve Swiss safety capability following this year's nuclear accident in Japan,'' said IRRS Team Leader Jean-Christophe Niel of France. The mission's scope covered the Swiss nuclear regulatory framework for all types of nuclear-related activities regulated by ENSI. The mission was conducted from 20 November to 2 December, mainly at ENSI headquarters in Brugg. The team held extensive discussions with ENSI staff and visited many Swiss nuclear facilities. IRRS missions are peer reviews, not inspections or audits, and are conducted at the request of host nations. For the Swiss review, the IAEA assembled a team of 19 international experts from 14 countries. The experts came from Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Republic of Korea, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ''The findings of the IRRS mission will help us to further improve our work. That is part of our safety culture,'' said ENSI Director General Hans Wanner. ''As Switzerland argued at international nuclear safety meetings this year for a strengthening of the international monitoring of nuclear power, we will take action to fulfil the recommendations.'' The IRRS team highlighted several good practices of the Swiss regulatory system, including the following: ENSI requires Swiss nuclear operators to back-fit their facilities by continuously upgrading

  1. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  2. Exploring conceptual and theoretical frameworks for nurse practitioner education: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rosemary; Godfrey, Christina M; Sears, Kim; Medves, Jennifer; Ross-White, Amanda; Lambert, Natalie

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this review is to examine conceptual and/or theoretical frameworks that are relevant to nurse practitioner education.The specific review question is: What conceptual and/or theoretical frameworks are available that are relevant to the structuring of nurse practitioner education? The use of conceptual and theoretical frameworks to organize the educational curriculum of nursing programs is essential to protect and preserve the focus and clarity of nursing's distinct contribution to health care. Conceptual frameworks of nursing provide a means to look at nursing in relationship to external factors, thereby assigning meaning to the practice. Graduate level nursing education in the preparation of Nurse Practitioners (NPs) specifically and Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) in general, is significantly compromised by the tendency to conceptualize the learning in these complex programs as being primarily related to skills-based tasks and competencies alone. According to Baumann, advanced nursing education must focus on the uniqueness of the NP position, in contrast to other health care professions. To do this, Baumann suggests using a conceptual nursing model and nursing theory as opposed to a strictly biomedical model. This allows NPs to interpret information in a way that differs from the strict biomedical model, providing opportunities for the NPs to be truly present in the lives of their patients.Canadian Nurse Practitioner (NP) practice competency documents are based primarily on the Canadian Nurses Association (CNA) Nurse Practitioner (NP) Core Competency Framework. This document defines the core set of entry-level competencies required for all NPs to practice in all Canadian jurisdictions, settings and client populations. The Core Competencies in the CNA NP Framework are organized within four main categories: professional role, responsibility and accountability; health assessment and diagnosis; therapeutic management; and health promotion and

  3. Nuclear cooperation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cooperation agreements are reviewed in tabular form, especially agreements with developing countries. The reporting countries are the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, Australia, Japan, and France. A separate EURATOM list is annexed

  4. A Unified Framework for Creating Domain Dependent Polarity Lexicons from User Generated Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Asghar

    Full Text Available The exponential increase in the explosion of Web-based user generated reviews has resulted in the emergence of Opinion Mining (OM applications for analyzing the users' opinions toward products, services, and policies. The polarity lexicons often play a pivotal role in the OM, indicating the positivity and negativity of a term along with the numeric score. However, the commonly available domain independent lexicons are not an optimal choice for all of the domains within the OM applications. The aforementioned is due to the fact that the polarity of a term changes from one domain to other and such lexicons do not contain the correct polarity of a term for every domain. In this work, we focus on the problem of adapting a domain dependent polarity lexicon from set of labeled user reviews and domain independent lexicon to propose a unified learning framework based on the information theory concepts that can assign the terms with correct polarity (+ive, -ive scores. The benchmarking on three datasets (car, hotel, and drug reviews shows that our approach improves the performance of the polarity classification by achieving higher accuracy. Moreover, using the derived domain dependent lexicon changed the polarity of terms, and the experimental results show that our approach is more effective than the base line methods.

  5. Maternity Leave Access and Health: A Systematic Narrative Review and Conceptual Framework Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Ellie; Baird, Sarah; Bingenheimer, Jeffrey Bart; Markus, Anne Rossier

    2016-06-01

    Background Maternity leave is integral to postpartum maternal and child health, providing necessary time to heal and bond following birth. However, the relationship between maternity leave and health outcomes has not been formally and comprehensively assessed to guide public health research and policy in this area. This review aims to address this gap by investigating both the correlates of maternity leave utilization in the US and the related health benefits for mother and child. Methods We searched the peer-reviewed scholarly literature using six databases for the years 1990 to early 2015 and identified 37 studies to be included in the review. We extracted key data for each of the included studies and assessed study quality using the "Weight of the Evidence" approach. Results The literature generally confirms a positive, though limited correlation between maternity leave coverage and utilization. Likewise, longer maternity leaves are associated with improved breastfeeding intentions and rates of initiation, duration and predominance as well as improved maternal mental health and early childhood outcomes. However, the literature points to important disparities in access to maternity leave that carry over into health outcomes, such as breastfeeding. Synthesis We present a conceptual framework synthesizing what is known to date related to maternity leave access and health outcomes.

  6. Culturally Targeted Strategies for Diabetes Prevention in Minority Populations: A Systematic Review and Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagisetty, Pooja A.; Priyadarshini, Shubadra; Terrell, Stephanie; Hamati, Mary; Landgraf, Jessica; Chopra, Vineet; Heisler, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to (a) assess the effectiveness of culturally tailored diabetes prevention interventions in minority populations and (b) develop a novel framework to characterize four key domains of culturally tailored interventions. Prevention strategies specifically tailored to the culture of ethnic minority patients may help reduce the incidence of diabetes. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL for English-language, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-experimental (QE) trials testing culturally tailored interventions to prevent diabetes in minority populations. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Inductive thematic analysis was used to develop a framework with four domains (FiLLM: Facilitating [i.e., delivering] Interventions through Language, Location and Message). The framework was used to assess the overall effectiveness of culturally tailored interventions. Results Thirty-four trials met eligibility criteria. Twelve studies were randomized controlled trials, and 22 were quasi-experimental trials. Twenty-five out of 34 studies (74%) that used cultural tailoring demonstrated significantly improved Hemoglobin A1C, fasting glucose, and/or weight loss. Of the 25 successful interventions, 21 (84%) incorporated at least three culturally targeted domains. Seven studies used all four domains and were all successful. The least utilized domain was delivery (4/34) of the intervention’s key educational message. Conclusions Culturally tailoring interventions across the four domains of facilitators, language, location, and messaging can be effective in improving risk factors for progression to diabetes among ethnic minority groups. Future studies should evaluate how specific tailoring approaches work compared to usual care as well as comparative effectiveness of each tailoring domain. Registration (PROSPERO registration: CRD42015016914) PMID:28118127

  7. Protocol: developing a conceptual framework of patient mediated knowledge translation, systematic review using a realist approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Légaré, France; Brouwers, Melissa C; Webster, Fiona; Wiljer, David; Badley, Elizabeth; Straus, Sharon

    2011-03-22

    Patient involvement in healthcare represents the means by which to achieve a healthcare system that is responsive to patient needs and values. Characterization and evaluation of strategies for involving patients in their healthcare may benefit from a knowledge translation (KT) approach. The purpose of this knowledge synthesis is to develop a conceptual framework for patient-mediated KT interventions. A preliminary conceptual framework for patient-mediated KT interventions was compiled to describe intended purpose, recipients, delivery context, intervention, and outcomes. A realist review will be conducted in consultation with stakeholders from the arthritis and cancer fields to explore how these interventions work, for whom, and in what contexts. To identify patient-mediated KT interventions in these fields, we will search MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE from 1995 to 2010; scan references of all eligible studies; and examine five years of tables of contents for journals likely to publish quantitative or qualitative studies that focus on developing, implementing, or evaluating patient-mediated KT interventions. Screening and data collection will be performed independently by two individuals. The conceptual framework of patient-mediated KT options and outcomes could be used by healthcare providers, managers, educationalists, patient advocates, and policy makers to guide program planning, service delivery, and quality improvement and by us and other researchers to evaluate existing interventions or develop new interventions. By raising awareness of options for involving patients in improving their own care, outcomes based on using a KT approach may lead to greater patient-centred care delivery and improved healthcare outcomes.

  8. Protocol: developing a conceptual framework of patient mediated knowledge translation, systematic review using a realist approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiljer David

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient involvement in healthcare represents the means by which to achieve a healthcare system that is responsive to patient needs and values. Characterization and evaluation of strategies for involving patients in their healthcare may benefit from a knowledge translation (KT approach. The purpose of this knowledge synthesis is to develop a conceptual framework for patient-mediated KT interventions. Methods A preliminary conceptual framework for patient-mediated KT interventions was compiled to describe intended purpose, recipients, delivery context, intervention, and outcomes. A realist review will be conducted in consultation with stakeholders from the arthritis and cancer fields to explore how these interventions work, for whom, and in what contexts. To identify patient-mediated KT interventions in these fields, we will search MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE from 1995 to 2010; scan references of all eligible studies; and examine five years of tables of contents for journals likely to publish quantitative or qualitative studies that focus on developing, implementing, or evaluating patient-mediated KT interventions. Screening and data collection will be performed independently by two individuals. Conclusions The conceptual framework of patient-mediated KT options and outcomes could be used by healthcare providers, managers, educationalists, patient advocates, and policy makers to guide program planning, service delivery, and quality improvement and by us and other researchers to evaluate existing interventions or develop new interventions. By raising awareness of options for involving patients in improving their own care, outcomes based on using a KT approach may lead to greater patient-centred care delivery and improved healthcare outcomes.

  9. Protocol: developing a conceptual framework of patient mediated knowledge translation, systematic review using a realist approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Patient involvement in healthcare represents the means by which to achieve a healthcare system that is responsive to patient needs and values. Characterization and evaluation of strategies for involving patients in their healthcare may benefit from a knowledge translation (KT) approach. The purpose of this knowledge synthesis is to develop a conceptual framework for patient-mediated KT interventions. Methods A preliminary conceptual framework for patient-mediated KT interventions was compiled to describe intended purpose, recipients, delivery context, intervention, and outcomes. A realist review will be conducted in consultation with stakeholders from the arthritis and cancer fields to explore how these interventions work, for whom, and in what contexts. To identify patient-mediated KT interventions in these fields, we will search MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE from 1995 to 2010; scan references of all eligible studies; and examine five years of tables of contents for journals likely to publish quantitative or qualitative studies that focus on developing, implementing, or evaluating patient-mediated KT interventions. Screening and data collection will be performed independently by two individuals. Conclusions The conceptual framework of patient-mediated KT options and outcomes could be used by healthcare providers, managers, educationalists, patient advocates, and policy makers to guide program planning, service delivery, and quality improvement and by us and other researchers to evaluate existing interventions or develop new interventions. By raising awareness of options for involving patients in improving their own care, outcomes based on using a KT approach may lead to greater patient-centred care delivery and improved healthcare outcomes. PMID:21426573

  10. Consequences of oil spills: a review and framework for informing planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Chang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As oil transportation worldwide continues to increase, many communities are at risk of oil spill disasters and must anticipate and prepare for them. Factors that influence oil spill consequences are myriad and range from the biophysical to the social. We provide a summary literature review and overview framework to help communities systematically consider the factors and linkages that would influence consequences of a potential oil spill. The focus is on spills from oil tanker accidents. Drawing primarily on empirical studies of previous oil spill disasters, we focused on several main domains of interest: the oil spill itself, disaster management, the physical marine environment, marine biology, human health, economy, and policy. Key variables that influence the severity of consequences are identified, and significant interactions between variables are delineated. The framework can be used to clarify the complexity of oil spill impacts, identify lessons that may be transferable from other oil spill disasters, develop scenarios for planning, and inform risk analysis and policy debates in localities that are seeking to understand and reduce their vulnerability to potential spill disasters. As a case study, the framework is used to consider potential oil spills and consequences in Vancouver, Canada. Major increases in oil tanker traffic are anticipated in this region, creating urgent new demands for risk information, disaster management planning, and policy responses. The case study identifies particular conditions that distinguish the Vancouver context from other historic events; in particular, proximity to a densely populated urban area, the type of oil being transported, financial compensation schemes, and local economic structure. Drawing lessons from other oil spill disasters is important but should be undertaken with recognition of these key differences. Some types of impacts that have been relatively inconsequential in previous events may be

  11. Understanding HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder in South Africa: a review and conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Charles

    2011-06-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have attempted to measure the prevalence of HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic review of the literature identified eight relevant studies that put current estimates of the prevalence of HIV-related PTSD between 4.2% and 40%. Even the lower estimates suggest that PTSD in response to the trauma of being diagnosed and living with HIV is a significant mental health burden. However, a conceptual framework to advance our understanding of the prevalence and phenomenology of HIV-related PTSD is lacking. This article argues that the Ehlers & Clark (2000) cognitive model of PTSD provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding HIV-related PTSD in South Africa. The model emphasises the role of trauma appraisals in the development and maintenance of PTSD, which can also be usefully applied to some of the other psychological disorders associated with HIV infection. The model appears to fit some of the important research findings, and it offers insights into the relationships between HIV-related PTSD and other psychological disorders, HIV stigma, the high prevalence of non-HIV traumatic events, occasional problems with the delivery of antiretroviral drugs in the South African public health service, the unpredictable course of HIV illness, and the quality of HIV testing and counselling. Implications for individual treatment strategies and broader public health interventions are briefly discussed.

  12. A Step-by-Step Framework on Discrete Events Simulation in Emergency Department; A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mahsa; Moftian, Nazila; Rezaei-Hachesu, Peyman; Samad-Soltani, Taha

    2017-04-01

    To systematically review the current literature of simulation in healthcare including the structured steps in the emergency healthcare sector by proposing a framework for simulation in the emergency department. For the purpose of collecting the data, PubMed and ACM databases were used between the years 2003 and 2013. The inclusion criteria were to select English-written articles available in full text with the closest objectives from among a total of 54 articles retrieved from the databases. Subsequently, 11 articles were selected for further analysis. The studies focused on the reduction of waiting time and patient stay, optimization of resources allocation, creation of crisis and maximum demand scenarios, identification of overcrowding bottlenecks, investigation of the impact of other systems on the existing system, and improvement of the system operations and functions. Subsequently, 10 simulation steps were derived from the relevant studies after an expert's evaluation. The 10-steps approach proposed on the basis of the selected studies provides simulation and planning specialists with a structured method for both analyzing problems and choosing best-case scenarios. Moreover, following this framework systematically enables the development of design processes as well as software implementation of simulation problems.

  13. Domestic water service delivery indicators and frameworks for monitoring, evaluation, policy and planning: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Georgia L; Moriarty, Patrick; Fonseca, Catarina; Bartram, Jamie

    2013-10-11

    Monitoring of water services informs policy and planning for national governments and the international community. Currently, the international monitoring system measures the type of drinking water source that households use. There have been calls for improved monitoring systems over several decades, some advocating use of multiple indicators. We review the literature on water service indicators and frameworks with a view to informing debate on their relevance to national and international monitoring. We describe the evidence concerning the relevance of each identified indicator to public health, economic development and human rights. We analyze the benefits and challenges of using these indicators separately and combined in an index as tools for planning, monitoring, and evaluating water services. We find substantial evidence on the importance of each commonly recommended indicator--service type, safety, quantity, accessibility, reliability or continuity of service, equity, and affordability. Several frameworks have been proposed that give structure to the relationships among individual indicators and some combine multiple indicator scores into a single index but few have been rigorously tested. More research is needed to understand if employing a composite metric of indicators is advantageous and how each indicator might be scored and scaled.

  14. Domestic Water Service Delivery Indicators and Frameworks for Monitoring, Evaluation, Policy and Planning: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Bartram

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of water services informs policy and planning for national governments and the international community. Currently, the international monitoring system measures the type of drinking water source that households use. There have been calls for improved monitoring systems over several decades, some advocating use of multiple indicators. We review the literature on water service indicators and frameworks with a view to informing debate on their relevance to national and international monitoring. We describe the evidence concerning the relevance of each identified indicator to public health, economic development and human rights. We analyze the benefits and challenges of using these indicators separately and combined in an index as tools for planning, monitoring, and evaluating water services. We find substantial evidence on the importance of each commonly recommended indicator—service type, safety, quantity, accessibility, reliability or continuity of service, equity, and affordability. Several frameworks have been proposed that give structure to the relationships among individual indicators and some combine multiple indicator scores into a single index but few have been rigorously tested. More research is needed to understand if employing a composite metric of indicators is advantageous and how each indicator might be scored and scaled.

  15. Applying the Balanced Scorecard approach in teaching hospitals: a literature review and conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Annarita; Cardamone, Emma; Cavallaro, Giusy; Mauro, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Teaching hospitals (THs) simultaneously serve three different roles: offering medical treatment, teaching future doctors and promoting research. The international literature recognises such organisations as 'peaks of excellence' and highlights their economic function in the health system. In addition, the literature describes the urgent need to manage the complex dynamics and inefficiency issues that threaten the survival of teaching hospitals worldwide. In this context, traditional performance measurement systems that focus only on accounting and financial measures appear to be inadequate. Given that THs are highly specific and complex, a multidimensional system of performance measurement, such as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC), may be more appropriate because of the multitude of stakeholders, each of whom seek a specific type of accountability. The aim of the paper was twofold: (i) to review the literature on the BSC and its applications in teaching hospitals and (ii) to propose a scorecard framework that is suitable for assessing the performance of THs and serving as a guide for scholars and practitioners. In addition, this research will contribute to the ongoing debate on performance evaluation systems by suggesting a revised BSC framework and proposing specific performance indicators for THs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Development Impetus for TESOL Practitioners: A Review of the Literature AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ANDRAGOGICAL FRAMEWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Jones Richter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review of the literature acknowledges and describes current states of training amongst professional members of the global English language learning industry. Particular attention is given to the design and implementation of professional development programs for English language instructors in order to inform the harvest of qualitative data from an Action Research project at Kyungpook National University in Daegu, South Korea. Three brief case studies of Jordan, Colombia and South Korea serve to ground research inquires across world regions. Findings suggest a need for stronger in-service professional development training programs, more culturally-responsive programmatic orientations, and more formalized training curricula. Finally, this paper articulates recommendations for developing an improved andragogical framework which may then be adopted across schools and cultures.

  17. Review of Legislation and Regulatory Framework in Ukraine with Regard to Environmental Radiation Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, Wolfgang; Batandjieva, Borislava; Nasvit, Oleg; German, Olga

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this review is to compare the current legal basis and regulatory framework in Ukraine to the relevant international safety requirements and to identify shortcomings, such as deficiencies and internal contradictions. However, no assessment of its practical implementation is made beyond the aspects related to environmental radiation monitoring. The report focuses on 13 areas present in the in the Ukrainian legislation and regulatory framework: R-1 Radiation monitoring R-2 Definition of responsibilities R-3 Normal situations R-4 Emergencies R-5 Long-term monitoring R-6 Intervention in cases of lasting exposure R-7 Use of monitoring data R-8 Record keeping R-9 Reporting to the regulatory authority R-10 Public information R-11 Human and financial resources R-12 Transboundary aspects R-13 Quality assurance. For each topic a description of the current situation and an evaluation is carried out. Ranking is then supplied supported by its evaluation. In brief these categories are: A: The national legal and regulatory documents are harmonised in substance with the international safety requirements; B: Substantial differences exist between the national and international requirements which should be addressed with the view to harmonise the legislation; C: Substantial deficiencies exist in the legal and/or regulatory bases which results in no or at least partial compliance with international safety requirements. P: In addition practical issues are also provided to indicates where practical implementation of the legislation and regulatory basis is not adequate in all respects. This report then presents main observations and conclusions of the review. On this basis, the report derives general suggestions for improvement of the legal and regulatory bases. These should be considered by the Ukrainian Government and the regulatory authorities within an action plan to improve the legal basis for radiological monitoring of the environment and to facilitate its implementation

  18. Review of Legislation and Regulatory Framework in Ukraine with Regard to Environmental Radiation Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldammer, Wolfgang; Batandjieva, Borislava (Private Consultants (Ukraine)); Nasvit, Oleg (National Security and Defence Council of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)); German, Olga (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this review is to compare the current legal basis and regulatory framework in Ukraine to the relevant international safety requirements and to identify shortcomings, such as deficiencies and internal contradictions. However, no assessment of its practical implementation is made beyond the aspects related to environmental radiation monitoring. The report focuses on 13 areas present in the in the Ukrainian legislation and regulatory framework: R-1 Radiation monitoring R-2 Definition of responsibilities R-3 Normal situations R-4 Emergencies R-5 Long-term monitoring R-6 Intervention in cases of lasting exposure R-7 Use of monitoring data R-8 Record keeping R-9 Reporting to the regulatory authority R-10 Public information R-11 Human and financial resources R-12 Transboundary aspects R-13 Quality assurance. For each topic a description of the current situation and an evaluation is carried out. Ranking is then supplied supported by its evaluation. In brief these categories are: A: The national legal and regulatory documents are harmonised in substance with the international safety requirements; B: Substantial differences exist between the national and international requirements which should be addressed with the view to harmonise the legislation; C: Substantial deficiencies exist in the legal and/or regulatory bases which results in no or at least partial compliance with international safety requirements. P: In addition practical issues are also provided to indicates where practical implementation of the legislation and regulatory basis is not adequate in all respects. This report then presents main observations and conclusions of the review. On this basis, the report derives general suggestions for improvement of the legal and regulatory bases. These should be considered by the Ukrainian Government and the regulatory authorities within an action plan to improve the legal basis for radiological monitoring of the environment and to facilitate its implementation

  19. A review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework is done to create awareness of the strategic planning and energy policies of Ghana’s energy sector that will serve as an informative tool for both local and foreign investors, help in national decision-making for the efficient development and utilization of energy resources. The review of Ghana’s energy sector policy is to answer the question, what has been done so far? And what is the way forward? The future research in Ghana cannot progress without consulting the past. In order to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all, Ghana has begun expanding her economy with the growing Ghanaian population as a way to meet the SDG (1, which seeks to end poverty and improve well-being. There are a number of intervention strategies by Ghana’s Energy sector which provides new, high-quality, and cost-competitive energy services to poor people and communities, thus alleviating poverty. Ghana’s Energy sector has initiated the National Electrification Scheme, a Self-Help Electrification Program, a National Off-grid Rural Electrification Program, and a Renewable Energy Development Program (REDP. The REDP aims to: assess the availability of renewable energy resources, examine the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of promising renewable energy technologies, ensure the efficient production and use of the Ghana’s renewable energy resources, and develop an information base that facilitates the establishment of a planning framework for the rational development and the use of the Ghana’s renewable energy resources.

  20. Cooperating for assisting intelligently operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezillon, P.; Cases, E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule

    1995-01-01

    We are in the process of an intelligent cooperative system in a nuclear plant application. The system must cooperate with an operator who accomplishes a task of supervision of a real-world process. We point out in the paper that a cooperation between a cooperative system and an operator has two modes: a waking state and a participating state. During the waking state, the system observes the operator's behavior and the consequences on the process. During the participation state, the cooperative system builds jointly with the user a solution to the problem. In our approach, the cooperation depends on the system capabilities to explain, to incrementally acquire knowledge and to make explicit the context of the cooperation. We develop these ideas in the framework of the design of the cooperative system in the nuclear plant. (authors). 22 refs., 1 fig

  1. IPUMS International: A review and future prospects of a unique global statistical cooperation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Alphonse L

    2016-01-01

    At the invitation of the University of Minnesota Population Center (MPC) the author carried out an assessment of the IPUMS International integrated census microdata programme during January - March 2016. The terms of reference included the assessment of the measures taken by the MPC to safe guard the security of the microdata, the quality and adequacy of services provided, characteristics of users and satisfaction with IPUMS, use of available microdata, support to participating developing country National Statistical Offices (NSOs) and adequacy of a proposed Remote Data Center (RDC). The conclusions of the review are that IPUMS International is a unique, flexible, successful and secure programme for managing access to anonymized, harmonised and integrated microdata to academic users and policy makers. While currently the user base is predominantly in developed countries, steps are being taken to expand usage by researchers world-wide. The physical, methodological and technical arrangements for safeguarding the security and confidentiality of the data files are excellent; the possibilities of breaches are minimal. Data users have very positive opinions of the quality of the data, scope of services and expertise of staff but desire more detailed, up-to-date microdata. NSOs rate IPUMS International and its services positively but request advanced methodological training for staff and regular information on the use of their country's data. IPUMS International planned activities are presented and their contributions to census methodology are highlighted.

  2. Biodiversity as a multidimensional construct: a review, framework and case study of herbivory's impact on plant biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naeem, S.; Prager, Case; Weeks, Brian

    2016-01-01

    on understory plant cover at Black Rock Forest, New York. Using three biodiversity dimensions (taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity) to explore our framework, we found that herbivory alters biodiversity's multidimensional influence on plant cover; an effect not observable through a unidimensional...... approach. Although our review, framework and case study illustrate the advantages of multidimensional over unidimensional approaches, they also illustrate the statistical and empirical challenges such work entails. Meeting these challenges, however, where data and resources permit, will be important if we...

  3. Intergenerational Transmission of Self-Regulation: A Multidisciplinary Review and Integrative Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J.; Burt, Nicole M.; Edwards, Erin S.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2014-01-01

    This review examines mechanisms contributing to the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation. To provide an integrated account of how self-regulation is transmitted across generations, we draw from over 75 years of accumulated evidence, spanning case studies to experimental approaches, in literatures covering developmental, social, and clinical psychology, and criminology, physiology, genetics, and human and animal neuroscience (among others). First, we present a taxonomy of what self-regulation is and then examine how it develops – overviews that guide the main foci of the review. Next, studies supporting an association between parent and child self-regulation are reviewed. Subsequently, literature that considers potential social mechanisms of transmission, specifically parenting behavior, inter-parental (i.e., marital) relationship behaviors, and broader rearing influences (e.g., household chaos) are considered. Finally, literature providing evidence that prenatal programming may be the starting point of the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation is covered, along with key findings from the behavioral and molecular genetics literatures. To integrate these literatures, we introduce the Self-Regulation Intergenerational Transmission Model, a framework that brings together prenatal, social, and neurobiological mechanisms (spanning endocrine, neural, and genetic levels, including gene-environment interplay and epigenetic processes) to explain the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation. This model also incorporates potential transactional processes between generations (e.g., children’s self-regulation and parent-child interaction dynamics that may affect parents’ self-regulation) that further influence intergenerational processes. In pointing the way forward, we note key future directions and ways to address limitations in existing work throughout the review and in closing. We also conclude by noting several implications for

  4. A critical review of frameworks used for evaluating reliability and relevance of (eco)toxicity data: Perspectives for an integrated eco-human decision-making framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, N; Ciffroy, P

    2016-10-01

    Considerable efforts have been invested so far to evaluate and rank the quality and relevance of (eco)toxicity data for their use in regulatory risk assessment to assess chemical hazards. Many frameworks have been developed to improve robustness and transparency in the evaluation of reliability and relevance of individual tests, but these frameworks typically focus on either environmental risk assessment (ERA) or human health risk assessment (HHRA), and there is little cross talk between them. There is a need to develop a common approach that would support a more consistent, transparent and robust evaluation and weighting of the evidence across ERA and HHRA. This paper explores the applicability of existing Data Quality Assessment (DQA) frameworks for integrating environmental toxicity hazard data into human health assessments and vice versa. We performed a comparative analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of eleven frameworks for evaluating reliability and/or relevance of toxicity and ecotoxicity hazard data. We found that a frequent shortcoming is the lack of a clear separation between reliability and relevance criteria. A further gaps and needs analysis revealed that none of the reviewed frameworks satisfy the needs of a common eco-human DQA system. Based on our analysis, some key characteristics, perspectives and recommendations are identified and discussed for building a common DQA system as part of a future integrated eco-human decision-making framework. This work lays the basis for developing a common DQA system to support the further development and promotion of Integrated Risk Assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Validity of instruments to measure physical activity may be questionable due to a lack of conceptual frameworks: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Guidance documents for the development and validation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) advise the use of conceptual frameworks, which outline the structure of the concept that a PRO aims to measure. It is unknown whether currently available PROs are based on conceptual frameworks. This study, which was limited to a specific case, had the following aims: (i) to identify conceptual frameworks of physical activity in chronic respiratory patients or similar populations (chronic heart disease patients or the elderly) and (ii) to assess whether the development and validation of PROs to measure physical activity in these populations were based on a conceptual framework of physical activity. Methods Two systematic reviews were conducted through searches of the Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cinahl databases prior to January 2010. Results In the first review, only 2 out of 581 references pertaining to physical activity in the defined populations provided a conceptual framework of physical activity in COPD patients. In the second review, out of 103 studies developing PROs to measure physical activity or related constructs, none were based on a conceptual framework of physical activity. Conclusions These findings raise concerns about how the large body of evidence from studies that use physical activity PRO instruments should be evaluated by health care providers, guideline developers, and regulatory agencies. PMID:21967887

  6. A Systematic Review Exploring the Social Cognitive Theory of Self-Regulation as a Framework for Chronic Health Condition Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougas, Michelle E; Hayden, Jill A; McGrath, Patrick J; Huguet, Anna; Rozario, Sharlene

    2015-01-01

    Theory is often recommended as a framework for guiding hypothesized mechanisms of treatment effect. However, there is limited guidance about how to use theory in intervention development. We conducted a systematic review to provide an exemplar review evaluating the extent to which use of theory is identified and incorporated within existing interventions. We searched electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and EMBASE from inception to May 2014. We searched clinicaltrials.gov for registered protocols, reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and included studies, and conducted a citation search in Web of Science. We included peer-reviewed publications of interventions that referenced the social cognitive theory of self-regulation as a framework for interventions to manage chronic health conditions. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility. We contacted all authors of included studies for information detailing intervention content. We describe how often theory mechanisms were addressed by interventions, and report intervention characteristics used to address theory. Of 202 articles that reported using the social cognitive theory of self-regulation, 52% failed to incorporate self-monitoring, a main theory component, and were therefore excluded. We included 35 interventions that adequately used the theory framework. Intervention characteristics were often poorly reported in peer-reviewed publications, 21 of 35 interventions incorporated characteristics that addressed each of the main theory components. Each intervention addressed, on average, six of eight self-monitoring mechanisms, two of five self-judgement mechanisms, and one of three self-evaluation mechanisms. The self-monitoring mechanisms 'Feedback' and 'Consistency' were addressed by all interventions, whereas the self-evaluation mechanisms 'Self-incentives' and 'External rewards' were addressed by six and four interventions, respectively. The present review establishes that

  7. International Expert Team Concludes IAEA Peer Review of Slovakia's Regulatory Framework for Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An international team of senior nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded an 11-day mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in Slovakia. At the request of the Slovak Government, the IAEA assembled a team of 12 senior regulatory experts from 12 nations to conduct the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission involving the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD SR). The international experts also met officials from the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic (UVZ SR) regarding the regulation of occupational radiation protection in nuclear facilities. The mission is a peer review based on the IAEA Safety Standards. Marta Ziakova, Chairperson of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Slovak Republic, declared that ''The IRRS mission has a great value for the future development and orientation of the UJD SR.'' ''Slovakia has established a regulatory framework for nuclear safety which is in line with international standards and practice,'' said Mission Team Leader Andrej Stritar, Director of the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration. The main observations of the IRRS Review team included: UJD SR operates with independence and transparency; UJD SR has developed and implemented a systematic training approach to meet its competence needs; and in response to the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, UJD SR has reacted and communicated to interested parties, including the public. The good practices identified by the IRRS Review Team include: UJD SR has a comprehensive and well-formalized strategic approach to informing and consulting interested parties; UJD SR has developed and implemented a structured approach to training and developing its staff; and Detailed legal requirements provide a solid basis for on-site and off-site response in nuclear emergencies coordinated with local authorities. The IRRS Review team identified areas for further improvement and believes

  8. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  9. Physician Burnout and Well-Being: A Systematic Review and Framework for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, David A

    2017-06-01

    Physician burnout in the United States has reached epidemic proportions and is rising rapidly, although burnout in other occupations is stable. Its negative impact is far reaching and includes harm to the burned-out physician, as well as patients, coworkers, family members, close friends, and healthcare organizations. The purpose of this review is to provide an accurate, current summary of what is known about physician burnout and to develop a framework to reverse its current negative impact, decrease its prevalence, and implement effective organizational and personal interventions. I completed a comprehensive MEDLINE search of the medical literature from January 1, 2000, through December 28, 2016, related to medical student and physician burnout, stress, depression, suicide ideation, suicide, resiliency, wellness, and well-being. In addition, I selectively reviewed secondary articles, books addressing the relevant issues, and oral presentations at national professional meetings since 2013. Healthcare organizations within the United States were studied. The literature review is presented in 5 sections covering the basics of defining and measuring burnout; its impact, incidence, and causes; and interventions and remediation strategies. All US medical students, physicians in training, and practicing physicians are at significant risk of burnout. Its prevalence now exceeds 50%. Burnout is the unintended net result of multiple, highly disruptive changes in society at large, the medical profession, and the healthcare system. Both individual and organizational strategies have been only partially successful in mitigating burnout and in developing resiliency and well-being among physicians. Two highly effective strategies are aligning personal and organizational values and enabling physicians to devote 20% of their work activities to the part of their medical practice that is especially meaningful to them. More research is needed.

  10. Reconciling agriculture and stream restoration in Europe: A review relating to the EU Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flávio, H M; Ferreira, P; Formigo, N; Svendsen, J C

    2017-10-15

    Agriculture is widespread across the EU and has caused considerable impacts on freshwater ecosystems. To revert the degradation caused to streams and rivers, research and restoration efforts have been developed to recover ecosystem functions and services, with the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) playing a significant role in strengthening the progress. Analysing recent peer-reviewed European literature (2009-2016), this review explores 1) the conflicts and difficulties faced when restoring agriculturally impacted streams, 2) the aspects relevant to effectively reconcile agricultural land uses and healthy riverine ecosystems and 3) the effects and potential shortcomings of the first WFD management cycle. Our analysis reveals significant progress in restoration efforts, but it also demonstrates an urgent need for a higher number and detail of restoration projects reported in the peer-reviewed literature. The first WFD cycle ended in 2015 without reaching the goal of good ecological status in many European water-bodies. Addressing limitations reported in recent papers, including difficulties in stakeholder integration and importance of small headwater streams, is crucial. Analysing recent developments on stakeholder engagement through structured participatory processes will likely reduce perception discrepancies and increase stakeholder interest during the next WFD planning cycle. Despite an overall dominance of nutrient-related research, studies are spreading across many important topics (e.g. stakeholder management, land use conflicts, climate change effects), which may play an important role in guiding future policy. Our recommendations are important for the second WFD cycle because they 1) help secure the development and dissemination of science-based restoration strategies and 2) provide guidance for future research needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Review of PSR framework and development of a DPSIR model to assess greenhouse effect in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Fen; Kuo, Jeff; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2011-06-01

    In dealing with the complex issues of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and climate change mitigation, many interrelated factors such as cost, level of technology development, supply and demand of energy, structure of industry, and expenditures on research and development exist. Using indicators to monitor environmental impacts and evaluate the efficacies of policies and regulations has been practiced for a long time, and it can serve as a useful tool for decision making and for comparison between different countries. Although numerous indicators have been developed for relevant subjects, integrated approaches that consider individual changes, dynamic interaction, and multi-dimensions of indicators are scarce. This paper aimed to develop a Driving Force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework to assess the problems. This DPSIR model is mainly related to energy consumption, environmental impacts, and policy responses. The objectives of the paper were: (1) conduct a literature review on the indicators that have been used in GHG-related studies; (2) develop a DPSIR model that incorporates GHG-related indicators and evaluate their relationships using a cause-effect chain of GHG emission; and (3) develop a calculative method that can be used to explain the dynamic correlation among the interdependent indicators. Taiwan is a significant source of global GHG emissions. A case study, using the developed framework and Taiwan's actual data of the past two decades, was conducted. The results indicate that regulatory strategies for pollution control are inadequate in terms of ensuring environmental quality, and the nature does not have the capability to revert the impacts from the existing level of pollution.

  12. Exploring multifunctional agriculture. A review of conceptual approaches and prospects for an integrative transitional framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renting, H; Rossing, W A H; Groot, J C J; Van der Ploeg, J D; Laurent, C; Perraud, D; Stobbelaar, D J; Van Ittersum, M K

    2009-05-01

    In the last decade the multifunctional agriculture (MFA) concept has emerged as a key notion in scientific and policy debates on the future of agriculture and rural development. Broadly speaking, MFA refers to the fact that agricultural activity beyond its role of producing food and fibre may also have several other functions such as renewable natural resources management, landscape and biodiversity conservation and contribution to the socio-economic viability of rural areas. The use of the concept can be traced to a number of wider societal and political transformation processes, which have influenced scientific and policy approaches in different ways amongst countries and disciplines. This paper critically discusses various existing research approaches to MFA, both from natural and social sciences. To this aim different strands of literature are classified according to their focus on specific governance mechanisms and levels of analysis into four main categories of research approaches (market regulation, land-use approaches, actor-oriented and public regulation approaches). For each category an overview of the state-of-the-art of research is given and an assessment is made of its strengths and weaknesses. The review demonstrates that the multifunctionality concept has attracted a wealth of scientific contributions, which have considerably improved our understanding of key aspects of MFA. At the same time approaches in the four categories have remained fragmented and each has limitations to understand MFA in all its complexity due to inherent constraints of applied conceptualizations and associated disciplinary backgrounds. To go beyond these limitations, we contend, new meta-level frameworks of analysis are to be developed that enable a more integrated approach. The paper concludes by presenting the main lines of an integrative, transitional framework for the study of MFA, which analyses multifunctional agriculture against the background of wider societal change

  13. Subsidizing R&D cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.

    2001-01-01

    A framework is developed with which the implementation of two commonly used R&D-stimulating policies can be evaluated: providing R&D subsidies and sustaining the formation of R&D cooperatives. Subsidized R&D cooperatives can also be analyzed. The analysis shows that providing R&D subsidies is more

  14. Supply chain risk management enablers - A framework development through systematic review of the literature from 2000 to 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kilubi, I.; Haasis, H.-D.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper delivers a robust and systematic literature review (SLR) on supply chain risk management (SCRM) with the purpose to a) review and analyse the literature concerning definitions and research methodologies applied, to b) develop a classificatory framework which clusters existing enablers on SCRM, and to c) examine the linkage between SCRM and performance. The findings reveal that not only is SCRM loosely defined, but that there are various fragmented supply chain risks enablers...

  15. A Comparison of Traditional and Newly Emerging Forms of Cooperative Capitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, David G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares the traditional forms of capitalization used by American co-ops to newly emerging forms. It is based on an in-depth review of several case co-ops. A broad framework is provided that may be beneficial in more extensive studies of capitalization practices of cooperatives and similar organizations. It is divided into three parts. Part One outlines the alternative capitalization forms being used by cooperatives and their antecedents, where conversions to other structures and f...

  16. Theoretical framework and methodological development of common subjective health outcome measures in osteoarthritis: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Marie

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Subjective measures involving clinician ratings or patient self-assessments have become recognised as an important tool for the assessment of health outcome. The value of a health outcome measure is usually assessed by a psychometric evaluation of its reliability, validity and responsiveness. However, psychometric testing involves an accumulation of evidence and has recognised limitations. It has been suggested that an evaluation of how well a measure has been developed would be a useful additional criteria in assessing the value of a measure. This paper explored the theoretical background and methodological development of subjective health status measures commonly used in osteoarthritis research. Fourteen subjective health outcome measures commonly used in osteoarthritis research were examined. Each measure was explored on the basis of their i theoretical framework (was there a definition of what was being assessed and was it part of a theoretical model? and ii methodological development (what was the scaling strategy, how were the items generated and reduced, what was the response format and what was the scoring method?. Only the AIMS, SF-36 and WHOQOL defined what they were assessing (i.e. the construct of interest and no measure assessed was part of a theoretical model. None of the clinician report measures appeared to have implemented a scaling procedure or described the rationale for the items selected or scoring system. Of the patient self-report measures, the AIMS, MPQ, OXFORD, SF-36, WHOQOL and WOMAC appeared to follow a standard psychometric scaling method. The DRP and EuroQol used alternative scaling methods. The review highlighted the general lack of theoretical framework for both clinician report and patient self-report measures. This review also drew attention to the wide variation in the methodological development of commonly used measures in OA. While, in general the patient self-report measures had good methodological

  17. Ten-year study of municipal utilities. Review and forecast. Cooperations are getting ever more important; Zehn Jahre Stadtwerkestudie. Ein Rueck- und Ausblick. Kooperationen werden noch wichtiger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, Helmut [Ernst und Young GmbH Wirtschaftspruefungsgesellschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-08-20

    Since 2003 Ernst and Young, in cooperation with the BDEW (Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V., German Association of Energy and Water Utilities), have been carrying out annual enquiries among leading managers of municipal and regional utilities in Germany. The focus is on current issues of the power supply sector and the economic situation of the organizations under investigation. This contribution presents a review and a look into the future.

  18. 77 FR 44613 - Notice of Availability of the External Review Draft of Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ...., Washington, DC. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone... policy, it also emphasizes the importance of scientific review and public involvement. The Framework...

  19. Improving artificial breeding of cattle in Africa. Guidelines and recommendations. A manual prepared under the framework of an IAEA technical cooperation regional AFRA project on increasing and improving milk and meat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    cattle farmers and to arrive at a consensus on what can be considered 'best practice' in the countries represented. It was concluded that: (a) methods of keeping records, their analysis and use for evaluating genetic merit and fertility of AI bulls require improvement in most AFRA Member States; (b) the technical aspects of providing N-PD and related services to farmers based on progesterone assay have been clarified in many Member States; (c) the modalities and logistics of practical application under the different conditions in countries need to be further developed; and (d) there is a clear need for guidelines that can be used for improvement and harmonization of currently used technical procedures for AI in the Member States. Participants of the meeting developed a framework for the guidelines, formulated the first draft of the manual and identified the additional work necessary for its completion. The manual was subsequently compiled and the second draft was circulated to all AFRA national project coordinators for comments and suggestions for improvement. It was finally discussed at a Project Review, Coordination and Planning Meeting held in Addis Ababa in March 2002 and further material incorporated as required. This manual combines the outputs from the three meetings referred to above, and is the result of collaboration between the contributors listed at the end of the publication

  20. A review and framework for understanding the potential impact of poor solid waste management on health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Mberu, Blessing

    2016-01-01

    The increase in solid waste generated per capita in Africa has not been accompanied by a commensurate growth in the capacity and funding to manage it. It is reported that less than 30% of urban waste in developing countries is collected and disposed appropriately. The implications of poorly managed waste on health are numerous and depend on the nature of the waste, individuals exposed, duration of exposure and availability of interventions for those exposed. To present a framework for understanding the linkages between poor solid waste management, exposure and associated adverse health outcomes. The framework will aid understanding of the relationships, interlinkages and identification of the potential points for intervention. Development of the framework was informed by a review of literature on solid waste management policies, practices and its impact on health in developing countries. A configurative synthesis of literature was applied to develop the framework. Several iterations of the framework were reviewed by experts in the field. Each linkage and outcomes are described in detail as outputs of this study. The resulting framework identifies groups of people at a heightened risk of exposure and the potential health consequences. Using the iceberg metaphor, the framework illustrates the pathways and potential burden of ill-health related to solid waste that is hidden but rapidly unfolding with our inaction. The existing evidence on the linkage between poor solid waste management and adverse health outcomes calls to action by all stakeholders in understanding, prioritizing, and addressing the issue of solid waste in our midst to ensure that our environment and health are preserved. A resulting framework developed in this study presents a clearer picture of the linkages between poor solid waste management and could guide research, policy and action.

  1. Systematic methodological review: developing a framework for a qualitative semi-structured interview guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Hanna; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Johnson, Martin; Kangasniemi, Mari

    2016-12-01

    To produce a framework for the development of a qualitative semi-structured interview guide. Rigorous data collection procedures fundamentally influence the results of studies. The semi-structured interview is a common data collection method, but methodological research on the development of a semi-structured interview guide is sparse. Systematic methodological review. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science for methodological papers on semi-structured interview guides from October 2004-September 2014. Having examined 2,703 titles and abstracts and 21 full texts, we finally selected 10 papers. We analysed the data using the qualitative content analysis method. Our analysis resulted in new synthesized knowledge on the development of a semi-structured interview guide, including five phases: (1) identifying the prerequisites for using semi-structured interviews; (2) retrieving and using previous knowledge; (3) formulating the preliminary semi-structured interview guide; (4) pilot testing the guide; and (5) presenting the complete semi-structured interview guide. Rigorous development of a qualitative semi-structured interview guide contributes to the objectivity and trustworthiness of studies and makes the results more plausible. Researchers should consider using this five-step process to develop a semi-structured interview guide and justify the decisions made during it. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A REVIEW OF BALANCED SCORECARD FRAMEWORK IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION (HEIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmi Fadhl Al-Hosaini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to investigate the effectives of the BSC in organisations. It is observed that many organisations adopt different perspectives suitable for their functions in line with their vison, mission and strategic themes. Some reseachers have highlighted its relevance to Higher Education institutions. However, previous studies have not defined wich perspectives are most relevant for public HEIs, which are not for profit by nature. Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs are involved in routine processes of providing tertiary education in colleges, universities, and institutes including both undergraduate and postgraduate programmes, vocational and education training. One of the aims of HEIs is to achieve results in terms of products and services for the customers and other stake holders. In this paper, we review recent studies in top journals using the Balanced Scorecard Framework in HEIs. The paper identifies the relenvant perspectives for HEIs and presents its contextual analysis. When implemented, this can be used to monitor their performance and enable them to adjust to emerging challenges that come as a result of implementing key strategies.

  3. Snappy answers to stupid questions: an evidence-based framework for responding to peer-review feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Daniel; Hoffman, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Authors are inundated with feedback from peer reviewers. Although this feedback is usually helpful, it can also be incomprehensible, rude or plain silly. Inspired by Al Jaffe’s classic comic from Mad Magazine, we sought to develop an evidenced-based framework for providing “snappy answers to stupid questions,” in the hope of aiding emerging academics in responding appropriately to feedback from peer review. Methods We solicited, categorized and analyzed examples of silly feedback from peer reviewers using the grounded theory qualitative research paradigm from 50 key informants. The informants represented 15 different professions, 33 institutions and 11 countries (i.e., Australia, Barbados, Canada, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and USA). Results We developed a Scale of Silliness (SOS) and a Scale of Belligerence (SOB) to facilitate the assessment of inadequate peer-review feedback and guide users in preparing suitable responses to it. The SOB score is tempered by users’ current mood, as captured by the Mood Reflective Index (MRI), and dictates the Appropriate Degree of Response (ADR) for the particular situation. Conclusion Designed using the highest quality of (most easily accessible anecdotal) evidence available, this framework may fill a significant gap in the research literature by helping emerging academics respond to silly feedback from peer reviewers. Although use of the framework to its full extent may have negative consequences (e.g., loss of promotion), its therapeutic value cannot be understated. PMID:19969574

  4. Regional cooperation based on multilateral international agreements in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcic, I.

    1996-01-01

    Multilateral international agreements have defined the framework of behavior and cooperation in various fields and aspects of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Thus, obligations have been defined in the following areas: nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, physical protection of nuclear material, liability for nuclear damage, nuclear safety, early notification about a nuclear accident and assistance in case of nuclear accident. Obligations regarding radioactive waste management should be defined soon. This paper gives a review of obligations from particular agreements with a special emphasis on those which are being realized through mutual cooperation of concerned countries and are important for safe use of nuclear energy. (author)

  5. Petroleum prospects and the need for international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, C.

    1991-01-01

    A review of the world energy situation prior to the Persian Gulf War of 1990-91 shows that periods of oil price instability have distorted the decision-making process. During periods of high prices, investments were made in uneconomic energy sources and in periods of low prices few investments were made at all. To create a rational investment climate, international cooperation between consumers and producers of petroleum is essential. Such cooperation in the form of a forum could help to stabilize prices and assure that the economic decisions needed to meet future demand would be made in a secure framework. (author). 3 refs

  6. What makes a doctor a scholar: a systematic review and content analysis of outcome frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautz, Stefanie C; Hautz, Wolf E; Feufel, Markus A; Spies, Claudia D

    2016-04-22

    Many national outcome frameworks (OF) call for a sound scholarship education and scholarly behaviour of physicians. Educators however are known to interpret the scholar role in markedly different ways and at least one major initiative to unify several national outcome frameworks failed to agree on a common definition of the scholar role. Both circumstances currently limit the development of educational and assessment strategies specific for the scholar role. Given increasing physician mobility together with the global perspective inherent in a doctor's role as a scholar, we were interested in what different OFs define as the scholar role and attempted to identify communalities and differences between them. We conducted a systematic review for OF in medical education in PubMed and google. After in- and exclusion processes, we extracted all content listed under the scholar role (if present) and categorized it based on Boyer's established model of scholarship. Next, we extracted all content related to scholarship from OFs not explicitly defining a scholar role and used it to validate the categories resulting from step one. From 1816 search results, we identified 13 eligible OFs, seven of which explicitly specified a scholar role. The outcomes only partly map onto Boyer's definition of scholarship: Discovery, Integration, Application, and Teaching. We adapted and validated a model extending this definition to contain Common Basics (partly overlapping with Integration and Teaching), Clinical Application (specifying Application), Research (Discovery and partly Integration), Teaching and Education (partly overlapping with Teaching) and Lifelong Learning (no equivalent in Boyer's model). Whereas almost all OFs cover Common Basics, Clinical Application, and Lifelong Learning, fewer and less specific outcomes relate to Research or Teaching. The need to adapt existing models of scholarship may result from the changing demands directed at medical scholars. The considerable

  7. Biodiversity as a multidimensional construct: a review, framework and case study of herbivory's impact on plant biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, S.; Prager, Case; Weeks, Brian; Varga, Alex; Flynn, Dan F. B.; Griffin, Kevin; Muscarella, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Wood, Stephen; Schuster, William

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity is inherently multidimensional, encompassing taxonomic, functional, phylogenetic, genetic, landscape and many other elements of variability of life on the Earth. However, this fundamental principle of multidimensionality is rarely applied in research aimed at understanding biodiversity's value to ecosystem functions and the services they provide. This oversight means that our current understanding of the ecological and environmental consequences of biodiversity loss is limited primarily to what unidimensional studies have revealed. To address this issue, we review the literature, develop a conceptual framework for multidimensional biodiversity research based on this review and provide a case study to explore the framework. Our case study specifically examines how herbivory by whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) alters the multidimensional influence of biodiversity on understory plant cover at Black Rock Forest, New York. Using three biodiversity dimensions (taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity) to explore our framework, we found that herbivory alters biodiversity's multidimensional influence on plant cover; an effect not observable through a unidimensional approach. Although our review, framework and case study illustrate the advantages of multidimensional over unidimensional approaches, they also illustrate the statistical and empirical challenges such work entails. Meeting these challenges, however, where data and resources permit, will be important if we are to better understand and manage the consequences we face as biodiversity continues to decline in the foreseeable future. PMID:27928041

  8. Biodiversity as a multidimensional construct: a review, framework and case study of herbivory's impact on plant biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, S; Prager, Case; Weeks, Brian; Varga, Alex; Flynn, Dan F B; Griffin, Kevin; Muscarella, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Wood, Stephen; Schuster, William

    2016-12-14

    Biodiversity is inherently multidimensional, encompassing taxonomic, functional, phylogenetic, genetic, landscape and many other elements of variability of life on the Earth. However, this fundamental principle of multidimensionality is rarely applied in research aimed at understanding biodiversity's value to ecosystem functions and the services they provide. This oversight means that our current understanding of the ecological and environmental consequences of biodiversity loss is limited primarily to what unidimensional studies have revealed. To address this issue, we review the literature, develop a conceptual framework for multidimensional biodiversity research based on this review and provide a case study to explore the framework. Our case study specifically examines how herbivory by whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) alters the multidimensional influence of biodiversity on understory plant cover at Black Rock Forest, New York. Using three biodiversity dimensions (taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity) to explore our framework, we found that herbivory alters biodiversity's multidimensional influence on plant cover; an effect not observable through a unidimensional approach. Although our review, framework and case study illustrate the advantages of multidimensional over unidimensional approaches, they also illustrate the statistical and empirical challenges such work entails. Meeting these challenges, however, where data and resources permit, will be important if we are to better understand and manage the consequences we face as biodiversity continues to decline in the foreseeable future. © 2016 The Authors.

  9. Applying a Developmental Framework to the Self-Regulatory Difficulties of Young Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Natasha; Petrenko, Christie L M

    2018-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can be associated with significant difficulties in self-regulatory abilities. As such, interventions have been developed that focus on improving varying aspects of self-regulation for this population. The application of a multilevel theoretical framework that describes the development of self-regulation during early childhood could further advance the field. First, this framework could assist in elucidating mechanisms in the trajectories of early adjustment problems in this population and, second, informing the development of more precise assessment and interventions for those affected by PAE. The aims of the current review were to provide an overview of the self-regulatory framework proposed by Calkins and colleagues (e.g., Calkins, 2007; Calkins and Fox, 2002); examine the self-regulatory difficulties that are commonly experienced during infancy (i.e., 0 to 2 years) and early childhood (i.e., 3 to 8 years) in children with PAE in the context of the developmental framework; and describe how the framework can inform the development of future assessment and intervention provision for young children with PAE. The application of a developmental framework, such as proposed by Calkins and colleagues, allows for a systematic and theoretically driven approach to assessment and intervention programs for young children with PAE. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. A framework for production of systematic review based briefings to support evidence-informed decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Duncan; Wilson, Paul

    2012-07-09

    We have developed a framework for translating existing sources of synthesized and quality-assessed evidence, primarily systematic reviews, into actionable messages in the form of short accessible briefings. The service aims to address real-life problems in response to requests from decision-makers.Development of the framework was based on a scoping review of existing resources and our initial experience with two briefing topics, including models of service provision for young people with eating disorders. We also drew on previous experience in dissemination research and practice. Where appropriate, we made use of the SUPporting POlicy relevant Reviews and Trials (SUPPORT) tools for evidence-informed policymaking. To produce a product that it is fit for this purpose it has been necessary to go beyond a traditional summary of the available evidence relating to effectiveness. Briefings have, therefore, included consideration of cost effectiveness, local applicability, implications relating to local service delivery, budgets, implementation and equity. Our first evidence briefings produced under this framework cover diagnostic endoscopy by specialist nurses and integrated care pathways in mental healthcare settings. The framework will enable researchers to present and contextualize evidence from systematic reviews and other sources of synthesized and quality-assessed evidence. The approach is designed to address the wide range of questions of interest to decision-makers, especially those commissioning services or managing service delivery and organization in primary or secondary care. Evaluation of the use and usefulness of the evidence briefings we produce is an integral part of the framework and will help to fill a gap in the literature.

  11. A framework for production of systematic review based briefings to support evidence-informed decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambers Duncan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed a framework for translating existing sources of synthesized and quality-assessed evidence, primarily systematic reviews, into actionable messages in the form of short accessible briefings. The service aims to address real-life problems in response to requests from decision-makers. Development of the framework was based on a scoping review of existing resources and our initial experience with two briefing topics, including models of service provision for young people with eating disorders. We also drew on previous experience in dissemination research and practice. Where appropriate, we made use of the SUPporting POlicy relevant Reviews and Trials (SUPPORT tools for evidence-informed policymaking. Findings To produce a product that it is fit for this purpose it has been necessary to go beyond a traditional summary of the available evidence relating to effectiveness. Briefings have, therefore, included consideration of cost effectiveness, local applicability, implications relating to local service delivery, budgets, implementation and equity. Our first evidence briefings produced under this framework cover diagnostic endoscopy by specialist nurses and integrated care pathways in mental healthcare settings. Conclusions The framework will enable researchers to present and contextualize evidence from systematic reviews and other sources of synthesized and quality-assessed evidence. The approach is designed to address the wide range of questions of interest to decision-makers, especially those commissioning services or managing service delivery and organization in primary or secondary care. Evaluation of the use and usefulness of the evidence briefings we produce is an integral part of the framework and will help to fill a gap in the literature.

  12. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  13. A Systematic Review Exploring the Social Cognitive Theory of Self-Regulation as a Framework for Chronic Health Condition Interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Tougas

    Full Text Available Theory is often recommended as a framework for guiding hypothesized mechanisms of treatment effect. However, there is limited guidance about how to use theory in intervention development.We conducted a systematic review to provide an exemplar review evaluating the extent to which use of theory is identified and incorporated within existing interventions. We searched electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and EMBASE from inception to May 2014. We searched clinicaltrials.gov for registered protocols, reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and included studies, and conducted a citation search in Web of Science. We included peer-reviewed publications of interventions that referenced the social cognitive theory of self-regulation as a framework for interventions to manage chronic health conditions. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility. We contacted all authors of included studies for information detailing intervention content. We describe how often theory mechanisms were addressed by interventions, and report intervention characteristics used to address theory.Of 202 articles that reported using the social cognitive theory of self-regulation, 52% failed to incorporate self-monitoring, a main theory component, and were therefore excluded. We included 35 interventions that adequately used the theory framework. Intervention characteristics were often poorly reported in peer-reviewed publications, 21 of 35 interventions incorporated characteristics that addressed each of the main theory components. Each intervention addressed, on average, six of eight self-monitoring mechanisms, two of five self-judgement mechanisms, and one of three self-evaluation mechanisms. The self-monitoring mechanisms 'Feedback' and 'Consistency' were addressed by all interventions, whereas the self-evaluation mechanisms 'Self-incentives' and 'External rewards' were addressed by six and four interventions, respectively. The present review

  14. The legislative and regulatory framework governing herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, Mitchel Otieno; Ochola, Francis Okumu; Onyango, Allan Odhiambo; Mbaria, James Mucunu; Gakuya, Daniel Waweru; Kanja, Laetitia Wakonyu; Kiama, Stephen Gitahi; Onyango, Mary Atieno

    2017-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is an integral component of primary healthcare in Kenya. This is because the infrastructural health setup in the country is inadequate in catering for all the medical needs of the population. This particularly holds true in the rural areas where many rural folk rely on products of herbal origin to offset their healthcare needs. More often than not these products are an elaborate cacophony of several different substances of biological origin and thus need personnel adept in their preparation. Sadly, due to loopholes in legislation and regulation, quacks have a field day in the practice. Moreover, the process of planting, harvesting, preparation and storage of herbs and related products dictates that a significant number of people will ultimately be involved in the whole process. This is likely to set the stage for manipulation and compromise of the safety, quality and efficacy of these products. This state of affairs appears unabated especially in the context of the current legal and regulatory framework governing herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya. Not only are these laws inadequate, they are shrouded in ambiguity, open to interpretation and the authorities mandated to implement them often end up performing duplicate roles. The aim of this review is to critique the legal and regulatory provisions governing herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya. In conclusion, laws and regulations meant to control herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya are wanting. Clear and definitive legislation on herbal medicine use and practice coupled with effective implementation by mandated institutions will go a long way in inspiring confidence to all stakeholders of herbal medicine. PMID:29629018

  15. The legislative and regulatory framework governing herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, Mitchel Otieno; Ochola, Francis Okumu; Onyango, Allan Odhiambo; Mbaria, James Mucunu; Gakuya, Daniel Waweru; Kanja, Laetitia Wakonyu; Kiama, Stephen Gitahi; Onyango, Mary Atieno

    2017-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is an integral component of primary healthcare in Kenya. This is because the infrastructural health setup in the country is inadequate in catering for all the medical needs of the population. This particularly holds true in the rural areas where many rural folk rely on products of herbal origin to offset their healthcare needs. More often than not these products are an elaborate cacophony of several different substances of biological origin and thus need personnel adept in their preparation. Sadly, due to loopholes in legislation and regulation, quacks have a field day in the practice. Moreover, the process of planting, harvesting, preparation and storage of herbs and related products dictates that a significant number of people will ultimately be involved in the whole process. This is likely to set the stage for manipulation and compromise of the safety, quality and efficacy of these products. This state of affairs appears unabated especially in the context of the current legal and regulatory framework governing herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya. Not only are these laws inadequate, they are shrouded in ambiguity, open to interpretation and the authorities mandated to implement them often end up performing duplicate roles. The aim of this review is to critique the legal and regulatory provisions governing herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya. In conclusion, laws and regulations meant to control herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya are wanting. Clear and definitive legislation on herbal medicine use and practice coupled with effective implementation by mandated institutions will go a long way in inspiring confidence to all stakeholders of herbal medicine.

  16. [Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkadze, N

    2013-02-01

    The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (№4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places.

  17. When do people cooperate? The neuroeconomics of prosocial decision making

    OpenAIRE

    DECLERCK, Carolyn H.; BOONE, Christophe; EMONDS, Griet

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the roots of prosocial behavior is an interdisciplinary research endeavor that has generated an abundance of empirical data across many disciplines. This review integrates research findings from different fields into a theoretical framework that can account for when prosocial behavior is likely to occur. Specifically, we propose that the motivation to cooperate is generated by the reward system in the brain (extending from striatum to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex), and tha...

  18. Review of Lean Construction Conference Proceedings and Relationship to the Toyota Production System Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gideon Francois

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to align the International Group of Lean Construction (IGLC) conference proceedings against the Toyota Production System (TPS) to determine how well research themes in construction studies align with the TPS framework. Factories around the world that have implemented the TPS framework have experienced impressive…

  19. Strengthening Clean Energy Technology Cooperation under the UNFCCC: Steps toward Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, R.; de Coninck, H.; Dhar, S.; Hansen, U.; McLaren, J.; Painuly, J.

    2010-08-01

    Development of a comprehensive and effective global clean technology cooperation framework will require years of experimenting and evaluation with new instruments and institutional arrangements before it is clear what works on which scale and in which region or country. In presenting concrete examples, this paper aims to set the first step in that process by highlighting successful models and innovative approaches that can inform efforts to ramp up clean energy technology cooperation. This paper reviews current mechanisms and international frameworks for global cooperation on clean energy technologies, both within and outside of the UNFCCC, and provides selected concrete options for scaling up global cooperation on clean energy technology RD&D, enabling environment, and financing.

  20. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  1. The World Health Organization?s Health Promoting Schools framework: a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Langford, Rebecca; Bonell, Christopher; Jones, Hayley; Pouliou, Theodora; Murphy, Simon; Waters, Elizabeth; Komro, Kelli; Gibbs, Lisa; Magnus, Daniel; Campbell, Rona

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healthy children achieve better educational outcomes which, in turn, are associated with improved health later in life. The World Health Organization's Health Promoting Schools (HPS) framework is a holistic approach to promoting health and educational attainment in school. The effectiveness of this approach has not yet been rigorously reviewed. METHODS: We searched 20 health, education and social science databases, and trials registries and relevant websites in 2011 and 2013. We i...

  2. PLANNING AND COORDINATION OF ACTIVITIES SUPPORTING THE RUSSIAN SYSTEM OF CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS AT ROSATOM FACILITIES IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE U.S.-RUSSIAN COOPERATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SVIRIDOVA, V.V.; ERASTOV, V.V.; ISAEV, N.V.; ROMANOV, V.A.; RUDENKO, V.S.; SVIRIDOV, A.S.; TITOV, G.V.; JENSEN, B.; NEYMOTIN, L.; SANDERS, J.

    2005-01-01

    The MC and A Equipment and Methodological Support Strategic Plan (MEMS SP) for implementing modern MC and A equipment and methodologies at Rosatom facilities has been developed within the framework of the U.S.-Russian MPC and A Program. This plan developed by the Rosatom's Russian MC and A Equipment and Methodologies (MEM) Working Group and is coordinated by that group with support and coordination provided by the MC and A Measurements Project, Office of National Infrastructure and Sustainability, US DOE. Implementation of different tasks of the MEMS Strategic Plan is coordinated by Rosatom and US-DOE in cooperation with different U.S.-Russian MC and A-related working groups and joint site project teams. This cooperation allows to obtain and analyze information about problems, current needs and successes at Rosatom facilities and facilitates solution of the problems, satisfying the facilities' needs and effective exchange of expertise and lessons learned. The objective of the MEMS Strategic Plan is to enhance effectiveness of activities implementing modern equipment and methodologies in the Russian State MC and A system. These activities are conducted within the joint Russian-US MPC and A program aiming at reduction of possibility for theft or diversion of nuclear materials and enhancement of control of nuclear materials

  3. [Marxism as a theoretical and methodological framework in collective health: implications for systematic review and synthesis of evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Cassia Baldini; Campos, Celia Maria Sivalli; Yonekura, Tatiana

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we discuss the integration in systematic reviews of research developed from a Marxist perspective of knowledge production and their results as evidence in healthcare. The study objectives are to review the assumptions of dialectical and historical materialism (DHM) and discuss the implications of dialectics for a literature review and the synthesis of evidence. DHM is a powerful framework for knowledge generation and transformation of policies and practices in healthcare. It assumes that social contradictions underlie the health-disease process, the fundamental theoretical construction in the field of collective health. Currently, we observe a considerable influence of the critical paradigm, of Marxist origin, in the construction of knowledge in health. Studies based on this critical paradigm incorporate complex methods, which are inherent to the guidelines of dialect, to identify the object and arrive at results that constitute evidence in healthcare. Systematic reviews should address the methodological difficulties associated with entirely integrating these results to healthcare.

  4. On Innovation, Instability, and Growth. A Review and an Interpretative Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Pammolli Fabio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I refer to and summarize the main findings of the stochastic benchmark developed together with S. Buldyrev, M. Riccaboni, and H.E. Stanley to analyze business firms growth and corporate dynamics. The framework encompasses the Gibrat's Law of Proportionate Effect and the growth process originally described by Herbert A. Simon as particular instances. The framework generates testable propositions along four different dimensions: i) firm size distribution, ii) the distribution of f...

  5. Protocol: developing a conceptual framework of patient mediated knowledge translation, systematic review using a realist approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wiljer David; Webster Fiona; Brouwers Melissa C; Légaré France; Gagliardi Anna R; Badley Elizabeth; Straus Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Patient involvement in healthcare represents the means by which to achieve a healthcare system that is responsive to patient needs and values. Characterization and evaluation of strategies for involving patients in their healthcare may benefit from a knowledge translation (KT) approach. The purpose of this knowledge synthesis is to develop a conceptual framework for patient-mediated KT interventions. Methods A preliminary conceptual framework for patient-mediated KT interv...

  6. Factors that influence cooperation in networks for innovation and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Stoyanov, Slavi; Sloep, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Networked cooperation fails if the available partnerships remain opaque. A literature review and Delphi study uncovered the elements of a fruitful partnership. They relate to personality, diversity, cooperation, and management. Innovation networks and learning networks share the same cooperative

  7. Supply chain risk management enablers - A framework development through systematic review of the literature from 2000 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilubi, I.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper delivers a robust and systematic literature review (SLR on supply chain risk management (SCRM with the purpose to a review and analyse the literature concerning definitions and research methodologies applied, to b develop a classificatory framework which clusters existing enablers on SCRM, and to c examine the linkage between SCRM and performance. The findings reveal that not only is SCRM loosely defined, but that there are various fragmented supply chain risks enablers and that there is a strong need for a clear terminology for its building enablers. In addition to that, the review points to a lack of empirical confirmation concerning the connection between SCRM and performance. This paper contributes an overview of 80 peer-reviewed journal articles on SCRM from 2000 to the beginning of 2015. We offer an overarching definition of SCRM, synthesise and assemble the numerous enablers into preventive and responsive strategies by means of a conceptual framework. Moreover, indicating the social network theory (SNT as a potential theoretical foundation for SCRM, we further contribute to the supply chain management (SCM literature by providing propositions that guide future research.

  8. New Cooperation Modes: An Opportunity for Polish Biotechnological Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Puslecki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews new cooperation forms between companies, referring to the latest data from the asap (the Association of Strategic Alliance Professionals. Potential cooperation between companies, universities and research institutes in the field of biotechnology in Poland based on a model of open innovation alliances are presented. Biopharmaceutical companies are looking for new and innovative paths of development. They try to implement new strategies to transfer their research processes to a higher level. To achieve this, biopharmaceutical companies often use open innovation model as an additional tool for developing new products. Thanks to the cooperation with universities in the framework of open innovation alliances, they can significantly reduce the risk, the cost of research, and most of all, through joint work with academic researchers on identifying disease mechanisms and on development of new drugs, they are able to create improved and appropriate medical therapy for patients.

  9. Private animal health and welfare standards in quality assurance programmes: a review and proposed framework for critical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S J; Hanlon, A; Marchewka, J; Boyle, L

    2017-06-24

    In recent years, 'private standards' in animal health and welfare have become increasingly common, and are often incorporated into quality assurance (QA) programmes. Here, we present an overview of the use of private animal health and welfare standards in QA programmes, and propose a generic framework to facilitate critical programme review. Private standards are being developed in direct response to consumer demand for QA, and offer an opportunity for product differentiation and a means to drive consumer choice. Nonetheless, a range of concerns have been raised, relating to the credibility of these standards, their potential as a discriminatory barrier to trade, the multiplicity of private standards that have been developed, the lack of consumer input and compliance costs. There is a need for greater scrutiny of private standards and of associated QA programmes. We propose a framework to clarify the primary programme goal(s) and measureable outputs relevant to animal health and welfare, the primary programme beneficiaries and to determine whether the programme is effective, efficient and transparent. This paper provides a theoretical overview, noting that this framework could be used as a tool directly for programme evaluation, or as a tool to assist with programme development and review. British Veterinary Association.

  10. Influence of a sampling review process for radiation oncology quality assurance in cooperative group clinical trials -- results of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Linda A.; Krall, John M.; Curran, Walter J.; Leibel, Steven A.; Cox, James D.

    1995-01-01

    The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) designed a random sampling process and observed its influence upon radiotherapy review mechanisms in cooperative group clinical trials. The method of sampling cases for review was modeled from sampling techniques commonly used in pharmaceutical quality assurance programs, and applied to the initial (on-study) review of protocol cases. 'In control' (IC) status is defined for a given facility as the ability to meet minimum compliance standards. Upon achieving IC status, activation of the sampling process was linked to the rate of continued patient accrual for each participating institution in a given protocol. The sampling design specified that ≥ 30% cases not in compliance would be detected with 80% power. A total of 458 cases was analyzed for initial review findings in four RTOG Phase III protocols. Initial review findings were compared with retrospective (final) review results. Of the 458 cases analyzed, 370 underwent initial review at on-study, while 88 did not require review as they were enrolled from institutions that had demonstrated protocol compliance. In the group that had both initial and final review, (345(370)) (93%) were found to have followed the protocol or had a minor variation. Of the exempted cases, (79(88)) (90%) were found to be per protocol or a minor variant. The sampling process proved itself to be cost-effective and resulted in a noticeable reduction in the workload, thus providing an improved approach to resource allocation for the group. Continued evaluation of the sampling mechanism is appropriate as study designs and participants vary over time, and as more data become available to study. Further investigation of individual protocol compliance is appropriate to identify problems specific to new trial investigations

  11. Monetary Cooperation in East Asia: Major Issues and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai-Won Ryou

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian currency crisis in 1997 and the launch of the euro in 1999 made the possibility and desirability of introducing a regional currency union in East Asia a point of debate. At present, the empirical findings and policy implications of previous studies are mixed. We are still in need of theoretical and empirical studies that capture the salient features of East Asia, and give us reliable recommendations for incentive structures, configurations and policy instruments in monetary cooperation in its various stages. This paper aims to review major conceptual and empirical issues relevant to monetary cooperation in East Asia, including proposals for a regional cooperative framework for exchange rate stability or forming a currency union in the region. East Asian countries have no experience with any type of monetary cooperation and all we have are hypothetical predictions. Nevertheless, East Asian countries may be on the brink of an historical evolution to economic and monetary integration, as Europe was half a century ago. The progressive integration of markets in East Asia has conferred a commonality of economic interest upon the countries in the region. As the economic structures of East Asian countries converge with one another through closer ties of trade, investment and finance, the necessity for monetary cooperation will be more likely to emerge in the future. Monetary cooperation in East Asia will be a long process. East Asian countries should make efforts to build collective institutions in the beginning.

  12. The landscape of fear conceptual framework: definition and review of current applications and misuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny S. Bleicher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes of Fear (LOF, the spatially explicit distribution of perceived predation risk as seen by a population, is increasingly cited in ecological literature and has become a frequently used “buzz-word”. With the increase in popularity, it became necessary to clarify the definition for the term, suggest boundaries and propose a common framework for its use. The LOF, as a progeny of the “ecology of fear” conceptual framework, defines fear as the strategic manifestation of the cost-benefit analysis of food and safety tradeoffs. In addition to direct predation risk, the LOF is affected by individuals’ energetic-state, inter- and intra-specific competition and is constrained by the evolutionary history of each species. Herein, based on current applications of the LOF conceptual framework, I suggest the future research in this framework will be directed towards: (1 finding applied management uses as a trait defining a population’s habitat-use and habitat-suitability; (2 studying multi-dimensional distribution of risk-assessment through time and space; (3 studying variability between individuals within a population; (4 measuring eco-neurological implications of risk as a feature of environmental heterogeneity and (5 expanding temporal and spatial scales of empirical studies.

  13. Contextualization of Nature of Science within the Socioscientific Issues Framework: A Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisan, Dilek; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the importance of contextualization of Nature of Science (NOS) within the Socioscientific Issues (SSI) framework, because of the importance to science education. The emphasis on advancing scientific literacy is contingent upon a robust understanding and appreciation of NOS, as well as the acquisition of…

  14. Teacher Competencies for the Implementation of Collaborative Learning in the Classroom: A Framework and Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaendler, Celia; Wiedmann, Michael; Rummel, Nikol; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This article describes teacher competencies for implementing collaborative learning in the classroom. Research has shown that the effectiveness of collaborative learning largely depends on the quality of student interaction. We therefore focus on what a "teacher" can do to foster student interaction. First, we present a framework that…

  15. Formulation, construction and analysis of kinetic models of metabolism: A review of modelling frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saa, Pedro A.; Nielsen, Lars K.

    2017-01-01

    Kinetic models are critical to predict the dynamic behaviour of metabolic networks. Mechanistic kinetic models for large networks remain uncommon due to the difficulty of fitting their parameters. Recent modelling frameworks promise new ways to overcome this obstacle while retaining predictive ca...

  16. What predicts intention-behavior discordance? A review of the action control framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhodes, R.E.; de Bruijn, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The physical activity intention-behavior gap is a focus of considerable research. The purpose of this article is to overview contemporary evidence for predictors of this intention-behavior discordance using the action control framework developed in our laboratories. We propose the hypothesis that

  17. "Index for Inclusion": A Framework for School Review in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborno, Nadera Emran; Gaad, Eman

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the "Index for Inclusion", developed by Booth and Ainscow, as a framework for investigating inclusive provision in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), introduced through the "School for All" initiative. The study, by Nadera Emran Alborno of the American University in Dubai and Eman Gaad of the British University in…

  18. A Review of the Impacts of Different Approaches for Diabetes Prevention and a Framework for Making Investment Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Alva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper selectively reviews the economic research on individual (i.e., diabetes prevention programs and financial rewards for weight loss and population-wide based diabetes prevention interventions (such as food taxes, nutritional labeling, and worksite wellness programs that demonstrate a direct reduction in diabetes incidence or improvements in diabetes risk factors such as weight, glucose or glycated hemoglobin. The paper suggests a framework to guide decision makers on how to use the available evidence to determine the optimal allocation of resources across population-wide and individual-based interventions. This framework should also assist in the discussion of what parameters are needed from research to inform decision-making on what might be the optimal mix of strategies to reduce diabetes prevalence.

  19. A Review of the Impacts of Different Approaches for Diabetes Prevention and a Framework for Making Investment Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Maria L

    2018-03-15

    This paper selectively reviews the economic research on individual (i.e., diabetes prevention programs and financial rewards for weight loss) and population-wide based diabetes prevention interventions (such as food taxes, nutritional labeling, and worksite wellness programs) that demonstrate a direct reduction in diabetes incidence or improvements in diabetes risk factors such as weight, glucose or glycated hemoglobin. The paper suggests a framework to guide decision makers on how to use the available evidence to determine the optimal allocation of resources across population-wide and individual-based interventions. This framework should also assist in the discussion of what parameters are needed from research to inform decision-making on what might be the optimal mix of strategies to reduce diabetes prevalence.

  20. Overcoming structural constraints to patient utilization of electronic medical records: a critical review and proposal for an evaluation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Warren J; Leonard, Kevin J

    2004-01-01

    There are constraints embedded in medical record structure that limit use by patients in self-directed disease management. Through systematic review of the literature from a critical perspective, four characteristics that either enhance or mitigate the influence of medical record structure on patient utilization of an electronic patient record (EPR) system have been identified: environmental pressures, physician centeredness, collaborative organizational culture, and patient centeredness. An evaluation framework is proposed for use when considering adaptation of existing EPR systems for online patient access. Exemplars of patient-accessible EPR systems from the literature are evaluated utilizing the framework. From this study, it appears that traditional information system research and development methods may not wholly capture many pertinent social issues that arise when expanding access of EPR systems to patients. Critically rooted methods such as action research can directly inform development strategies so that these systems may positively influence health outcomes.

  1. Pre-conceptual study on the review framework for the radiation shielding safety of the PWR spent fuel cask interim storage in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byeong-Soo; Jeong, Jae-Hak; Jeong, Chan-Woo

    2006-01-01

    In Korea, 20 nuclear power plants are in operation and lots of spent fuels are on the onsite storage. The onsite storage capacity in Korea is supposed to be full around at the year of 2016 and interim storage facilities could be considered to be constructed before 2016. A review framework to evaluate the radiation shielding safety of the interim storage facilities is developed in this study. It includes acceptance criteria, review procedures and activities of independent analyses. A case study is performed to apply the review framework. Modeling the review reference storage, evaluating the source terms and calculating the photon fluxes are performed. It is shown that the application of the review framework could satisfy the regulatory demand that would arise in the near future in the review area of the radiation shielding safety of the interim storage in Korea. (author)

  2. The Agency's technical co-operation programme in the Islamic Republic of Iran 1982-1995 country programme evaluation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This evaluation of the country programme in Iran was requested by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The main reasons for the evaluation were the desire to determine the results of the Agency's TC programme in Iran since 1982 (the post-revolution period) and how they are being utilized, and to identify specific areas for future co-operation. The evaluation included a two-week field mission during November/December 1995, integrated by three outside experts and one Agency staff member. Figs, tabs

  3. A Critical Review of the Use of Wenger's Community of Practice (CoP) Theoretical Framework in Online and Blended Learning Research, 2000-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sedef Uzuner; Hayes, Suzanne; Shea, Peter

    2017-01-01

    After presenting a brief overview of the key elements that underpin Etienne Wenger's communities of practice (CoP) theoretical framework, one of the most widely cited and influential conceptions of social learning, this paper reviews extant empirical work grounded in this framework to investigate online/blended learning in higher education and in…

  4. How equitable is vocational rehabilitation in Sweden? A review of evidence on the implementation of a national policy framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstrom, Bo; Nylen, Lotta; Clayton, Stephen; Whitehead, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Under the national framework law in Sweden, all eligible people should have equal chances of receiving vocational rehabilitation. We aimed to review the evidence on (1) whether access to vocational rehabilitation is equitable in practice and (2) whether the outcomes vary for different groups in the population. Systematic review of studies in Sweden that reported diagnostic or socio-demographic characteristics of people offered or taking up rehabilitation programmes and outcomes of such programmes for different diagnostic and socio-demographic groups. Searches of 11 relevant electronic databases, 15 organisational websites, citation searching and contact with experts in the field, for the period 1990-2009. A total of 11 studies were included in the final review, six of which addressed review question (1) and seven addressed review question (2). All the six observational studies of access reported biased selection into vocational rehabilitation: greater likelihood for men, younger people, those with longer-term sick leave, those with lower income, employed rather than unemployed people and those with musculoskeletal and mental disorders or alcohol abuse. Having had a rehabilitation investigation also increased the likelihood of receiving vocational rehabilitation. Differential outcome of rehabilitation was reported in seven studies: outcomes were better for men, younger people, employed individuals, those with shorter sick leave and those with higher income. Selection into vocational rehabilitation was perceived as important for successful outcomes, but success also depended on the state of the local labour market. There is evidence of socio-demographic differences in access to and outcomes of vocational rehabilitation in Sweden, even though the national framework law is meant to apply to everyone. Few studies have deliberately measured differential access or outcomes, and there is a need for this kind of equity analysis of population-wide policies. Studies

  5. Activity Theory as a Theoretical Framework for Health Self-Quantification: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Manal; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2016-05-27

    Self-quantification (SQ) is a way of working in which, by using tracking tools, people aim to collect, manage, and reflect on personal health data to gain a better understanding of their own body, health behavior, and interaction with the world around them. However, health SQ lacks a formal framework for describing the self-quantifiers' activities and their contextual components or constructs to pursue these health related goals. Establishing such framework is important because it is the first step to operationalize health SQ fully. This may in turn help to achieve the aims of health professionals and researchers who seek to make or study changes in the self-quantifiers' health systematically. The aim of this study was to review studies on health SQ in order to answer the following questions: What are the general features of the work and the particular activities that self-quantifiers perform to achieve their health objectives? What constructs of health SQ have been identified in the scientific literature? How have these studies described such constructs? How would it be possible to model these constructs theoretically to characterize the work of health SQ? A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted. A total of 26 empirical studies were included. The content of these studies was thematically analyzed using Activity Theory as an organizing framework. The literature provided varying descriptions of health SQ as data-driven and objective-oriented work mediated by SQ tools. From the literature, we identified two types of SQ work: work on data (ie, data management activities) and work with data (ie, health management activities). Using Activity Theory, these activities could be characterized into 6 constructs: users, tracking tools, health objectives, division of work, community or group setting, and SQ plan and rules. We could not find a reference to any single study that accounted for all these activities and constructs of health SQ activity. A

  6. International cooperation in the field of radiation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shoichi

    1993-01-01

    Bilateral and multilateral research cooperations have been implemented at TRCRE, JAERI, producing favourable results in the field of radiation application. Frameworks and some achievements are described and the significance of the international cooperation is discussed. (Author)

  7. The introduction of local air quality management in the United Kingdom: A review and theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, J. W. S.; Lindley, S. J.; Watson, A. F. R.; Conlan, D. E.

    In the light of recent episodes of poor air quality in many of the U.K.'s major urban areas, concern has been expressed regarding the apparent inability of existing air quality control procedures to effectively tackle contemporary scenarios. As a result of this, a new philosophy for air quality control has been sought which can provide a solid basis for the preservation and future improvement of air quality. It is proposed that a suitable mechanism for this would be found through the adoption of an integrated and holistic local air quality management approach. This paper will present and discuss a theoretical framework for the application of local air quality management in the U.K. and investigate the potential of the Environment Act (1995) to provide such a framework.

  8. A Review of Perspectives on Frameworks for Ethical Theories in Public Service Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoram Sing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the dynamic and changing interwoven and intertwined internal and external environments impacting on public service life, establishing and promoting a proper ethical foundation in public service life, has in itself emerged as a profound and daunting challenge, a worldwide phenomenon. The role of frameworks for ethical theories  –  such as teleological, deontological, virtue-based, and learning and growth, is crucial to dealing with this challenge. It is the view of the author that a keen grasp and application of the various frameworks, as well as their various components, could project their viewing and that of their components, not in isolation, but in an interconnected and intertwined manner. This could enhance the clarification of ethical and moral alternatives, as well as facilitate the spreading and diffusion of techniques for ethical reasoning and moral awareness, throughout public service life.

  9. Collaborative Procurement within Enterprise Networks: A Literature Review, a Reference Framework and a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnazzo, Luca; Taticchi, Paolo; Bidini, Gianni; Sameh, Mohamed

    Collaboration among companies is nowadays a success leverage from those involved, especially for SMEs. The networking advantages are several and among them, reducing costs is a critical one. Costs reduction due to the possibility of Collaborative Procurement (CP) among partners is one of the most important achievements in a network. While the literature available offers good bases for managing single contractor procurement issues, little research addresses the case of CP within Enterprise Networks (ENs). This paper explore the mentioned issue and proposes a general framework for managing CP in ENs, those with the Virtual Development Office (VDO) structure. The findings from the application of the framework proposed in an Italian network are highlighted so as to provide preliminary results and drive future research.

  10. A proposed framework for the systematic review and integrated assessment (SYRINA) of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenberg, Laura N.; Agerstrand, Marlene; Beronius, Anna

    2016-01-01

    and evaluate each stream of evidence; 6) Integrate evidence across all streams; 7) Draw conclusions, make recommendations, and evaluate uncertainties. The proposed method is tailored to the IPCS/WHO definition of an EDC but offers flexibility for use in the context of other definitions of EDCs.......Conclusions: When using the SYRINA framework, the overall objective is to provide the evidence base needed to support decision making, including any action to avoid/minimise potential adverse effects of exposures. This framework allows for the evaluation and synthesis of evidence from multiple evidence streams...... on Chemical Safety (IPCS) and World Health Organization (WHO) definition of an EDC, which requires appraisal of evidence regarding 1) association between exposure and an adverse effect, 2) association between exposure and endocrine disrupting activity, and 3) a plausible link between the adverse effect...

  11. Antecedents and consequences of market orientation in universities: Literature review and conceptual framework

    OpenAIRE

    Asaad, Y; Cohen, G; Melewar, T C

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in marketing theory have resulted in the conceptualisation of the market orientation construct in different cultural and industrial settings. However, there is little research investigating the applicability of market orientation in the higher education context. Building on the existing literature on market orientation and higher education marketing, the authors propose a theoretical framework of market orientation from a higher education management perspective. The frame...

  12. A systematic review and development of a classification framework for factors associated with missing patient-reported outcome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael J; Mercieca-Bebber, Rebecca; King, Madeleine; Calvert, Melanie; Richardson, Harriet; Brundage, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Missing patient-reported outcome data can lead to biased results, to loss of power to detect between-treatment differences, and to research waste. Awareness of factors may help researchers reduce missing patient-reported outcome data through study design and trial processes. The aim was to construct a Classification Framework of factors associated with missing patient-reported outcome data in the context of comparative studies. The first step in this process was informed by a systematic review. Two databases (MEDLINE and CINAHL) were searched from inception to March 2015 for English articles. Inclusion criteria were (a) relevant to patient-reported outcomes, (b) discussed missing data or compliance in prospective medical studies, and (c) examined predictors or causes of missing data, including reasons identified in actual trial datasets and reported on cover sheets. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts. Discrepancies were discussed with the research team prior to finalizing the list of eligible papers. In completing the systematic review, four particular challenges to synthesizing the extracted information were identified. To address these challenges, operational principles were established by consensus to guide the development of the Classification Framework. A total of 6027 records were screened. In all, 100 papers were eligible and included in the review. Of these, 57% focused on cancer, 23% did not specify disease, and 20% reported for patients with a variety of non-cancer conditions. In total, 40% of the papers offered a descriptive analysis of possible factors associated with missing data, but some papers used other methods. In total, 663 excerpts of text (units), each describing a factor associated with missing patient-reported outcome data, were extracted verbatim. Redundant units were identified and sequestered. Similar units were grouped, and an iterative process of consensus among the investigators was used to reduce these units to a

  13. 76 FR 80966 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Jail as Part of County Government: Review and Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... as Part of County Government include (1) the jail's role in the local criminal justice system, (2... familiar with the current lesson plans, presentation slides, participant manual, and other training... curriculum review. Curriculum review meeting with NIC staff: After becoming familiar with the curriculum, the...

  14. Recent Trends in Monitoring of European Water Framework Directive Priority Substances Using Micro-Sensors: A 2007–2009 Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses from a critical perspective the development of new sensors for the measurement of priority pollutants targeted in the E.U. Water Framework Directive. Significant advances are reported in the paper and their advantages and limitations are also discussed. Future perspectives in this area are also pointed out in the conclusions. This review covers publications appeared since December 2006 (the publication date of the Swift report. Among priority substances, sensors for monitoring the four WFD metals represent 81% of published papers. None of analyzed publications present a micro-sensor totally validated in laboratory, ready for tests under real conditions in the field. The researches are mainly focused on the sensing part of the micro-sensors. Nevertheless, the main factor limiting micro-sensor applications in the environment is the ruggedness of the receptor towards environmental conditions. This point constitutes the first technological obstacle to be overcome for any long-term field tests.

  15. Towards a Conceptual Framework of Sustainable Business Model Innovation in the Agri-Food Sector: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Barth

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to increase our understanding of sustainable business model innovation in the agri-food sector in terms of its theoretical and practical approaches for sustainability and their degree of complexity and maturity. The paper is based on a systematic literature review of 570 journal articles on business models and business model innovation published between 1990 and 2014. Of these articles, only 21 have business model innovation as their main focus. The review shows that research interest in the agri-food sector has increased in these years. The paper proposes a conceptual framework for sustainable business model innovation in the agri-food sector that can be used to meet the challenges encountered in taking a sustainability perspective.

  16. A Review and Framework for Categorizing Current Research and Development in Health Related Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyseen, A K; Nøhr, C; Sørensen, E M; Gudes, O; Geraghty, E M; Shaw, N T; Bivona-Tellez, C

    2014-08-15

    The application of GIS in health science has increased over the last decade and new innovative application areas have emerged. This study reviews the literature and builds a framework to provide a conceptual overview of the domain, and to promote strategic planning for further research of GIS in health. The framework is based on literature from the library databases Scopus and Web of Science. The articles were identified based on keywords and initially selected for further study based on titles and abstracts. A grounded theory-inspired method was applied to categorize the selected articles in main focus areas. Subsequent frequency analysis was performed on the identified articles in areas of infectious and non-infectious diseases and continent of origin. A total of 865 articles were included. Four conceptual domains within GIS in health sciences comprise the framework: spatial analysis of disease, spatial analysis of health service planning, public health, health technologies and tools. Frequency analysis by disease status and location show that malaria and schistosomiasis are the most commonly analyzed infectious diseases where cancer and asthma are the most frequently analyzed non-infectious diseases. Across categories, articles from North America predominate, and in the category of spatial analysis of diseases an equal number of studies concern Asia. Spatial analysis of diseases and health service planning are well-established research areas. The development of future technologies and new application areas for GIS and data-gathering technologies such as GPS, smartphones, remote sensing etc. will be nudging the research in GIS and health.

  17. Connecting Competences and Pedagogical Approaches for Sustainable Development in Higher Education: A Literature Review and Framework Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lozano

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research into and practice of Higher Education for Sustainable Development (HESD have been increasing during the last two decades. These have focused on providing sustainability education to future generations of professionals. In this context, there has been considerable progress in the incorporation of SD in universities’ curricula. Most of these efforts have focussed on the design and delivery of sustainability-oriented competences. Some peer-reviewed articles have proposed different pedagogical approaches to better deliver SD in these courses; however, there has been limited research on the connection between how courses are delivered (pedagogical approaches and how they may affect sustainability competences. This paper analyses competences and pedagogical approaches, using hermeneutics to connect these in a framework based on twelve competences and twelve pedagogical approaches found in the literature. The framework connects the course aims to delivery in HESD by highlighting the connections between pedagogical approaches and competences in a matrix structure. The framework is aimed at helping educators in creating and updating their courses to provide a more complete, holistic, and systemic sustainability education to future leaders, decision makers, educators, and change agents. To better develop mind-sets and actions of future generations, we must provide students with a complete set of sustainability competences.

  18. A Qualitative Review of Literature on Peer Review of Teaching in Higher Education: An Application of the SWOT Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan; Chie, Qiu Ting; Abraham, Mathew; Raj, Sony Jalarajan; Beh, Loo-See

    2014-01-01

    The issues of professional accountability, faculty member development, and enhancing higher education quality in universities are gaining importance. A strategy that could increase personal control over teaching practices in addition to improving professional development among faculty members is peer review of teaching (PRT). Five themes that are…

  19. Interorganizational Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    Administrative Services Officer , Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs, Office of the Chief Financial Officer , Office of the Chief ...Nations. • Clarifies the role of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Transition Initiatives and its relationship...Centralize interorganizational cooperation within the command group. Under this model, the chief of staff or a special staff officer within the command

  20. Evaluation of the suitability of root cause analysis frameworks for the investigation of community-acquired pressure ulcers: a systematic review and documentary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Caroline; Drennan, Vari M

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the suitability of root cause analysis frameworks for the investigation of community-acquired pressure ulcers. The objective was to identify the extent to which these frameworks take account of the setting where the ulcer originated as being the person's home rather than a hospital setting. Pressure ulcers involving full-thickness skin loss are increasingly being regarded as indicators of nursing patient safety failure, requiring investigation using root cause analysis frameworks. Evidence suggests that root cause analysis frameworks developed in hospital settings ignore the unique dimensions of risk in home healthcare settings. A systematic literature review and documentary analysis of frameworks used to investigate community-acquired grade three and four pressure ulcers by home nursing services in England. No published papers were identified for inclusion in the review. Fifteen patient safety investigative frameworks were collected and analysed. Twelve of the retrieved frameworks were intended for the investigation of community-acquired pressure ulcers; seven of which took account of the setting where the ulcer originated as being the patient's home. This study provides evidence to suggest that many of the root cause analysis frameworks used to investigate community-acquired pressure ulcers in England are unsuitable for this purpose. This study provides researchers and practitioners with evidence of the need to develop appropriate home nursing root cause analysis frameworks to investigate community-acquired pressure ulcers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Reviewing the health of software ecosystems – a conceptual framework proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    The health of a software ecosystem is an indication of how well the ecosystem is functioning. The measurement of health can point to issues that need to be addressed in the ecosystem and areas for the ecosystem to improve. However, the software ecosystem field lacks an applicable way to measure a...... influenced by theories from natural ecosystems and open source, (ii) identify two areas where software ecosystems differ from business and natural ecosystems, and (iii) propose a conceptual framework for defining and measuring the health of software ecosystems....

  2. Reconciling agriculture and stream restoration in Europe: A review relating to the EU Water Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flavio, Hugo; Ferreira, P.; Formigo, N.

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture is widespread across the EU and has caused considerable impacts on freshwater ecosystems. To revert the degradation caused to streams and rivers, research and restoration efforts have been developed to recover ecosystem functions and services, with the European Water Framework Directive.......g. stakeholder management, land use conflicts, climate change effects), which may play an important role in guiding future policy. Our recommendations are important for the second WFD cycle because they 1) help secure the development and dissemination of science-based restoration strategies and 2) provide...

  3. A Policy-Based Framework for Preserving Confidentiality in BYOD Environments: A Review of Information Security Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalee Vorakulpipat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, many organizations allow their employees to bring their own smartphones or tablets to work and to access the corporate network, which is known as a bring your own device (BYOD. However, many such companies overlook potential security risks concerning privacy and confidentiality. This paper provides a review of existing literature concerning the preservation of privacy and confidentiality, with a focus on recent trends in the use of BYOD. This review spans a large spectrum of information security research, ranging from management (risk and policy to technical aspects of privacy and confidentiality in BYOD. Furthermore, this study proposes a policy-based framework for preserving data confidentiality in BYOD. This framework considers a number of aspects of information security and corresponding techniques, such as policy, location privacy, centralized control, cryptography, and operating system level security, which have been omitted in previous studies. The main contribution is to investigate recent trends concerning the preservation of confidentiality in BYOD from the perspective of information security and to analyze the critical and comprehensive factors needed to strengthen data privacy in BYOD. Finally, this paper provides a foundation for developing the concept of preserving confidentiality in BYOD and describes the key technical and organizational challenges faced by BYOD-friendly organizations.

  4. A general framework and review of scatter correction methods in cone beam CT. Part 2: Scatter estimation approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehrnschopf and, Ernst-Peter; Klingenbeck, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The main components of scatter correction procedures are scatter estimation and a scatter compensation algorithm. This paper completes a previous paper where a general framework for scatter compensation was presented under the prerequisite that a scatter estimation method is already available. In the current paper, the authors give a systematic review of the variety of scatter estimation approaches. Scatter estimation methods are based on measurements, mathematical-physical models, or combinations of both. For completeness they present an overview of measurement-based methods, but the main topic is the theoretically more demanding models, as analytical, Monte-Carlo, and hybrid models. Further classifications are 3D image-based and 2D projection-based approaches. The authors present a system-theoretic framework, which allows to proceed top-down from a general 3D formulation, by successive approximations, to efficient 2D approaches. A widely useful method is the beam-scatter-kernel superposition approach. Together with the review of standard methods, the authors discuss their limitations and how to take into account the issues of object dependency, spatial variance, deformation of scatter kernels, external and internal absorbers. Open questions for further investigations are indicated. Finally, the authors refer on some special issues and applications, such as bow-tie filter, offset detector, truncated data, and dual-source CT.

  5. Understanding suicide risk within the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Catherine R; Kleiman, Evan M; Cha, Christine B; Deming, Charlene A; Franklin, Joseph C; Nock, Matthew K

    2018-01-01

    The field is in need of novel and transdiagnostic risk factors for suicide. The National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) provides a framework that may help advance research on suicidal behavior. We conducted a meta-analytic review of existing prospective risk and protective factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors (ideation, attempts, and deaths) that fall within one of the five RDoC domains or relate to a prominent suicide theory. Predictors were selected from a database of 4,082 prospective risk and protective factors for suicide outcomes. A total of 460 predictors met inclusion criteria for this meta-analytic review and most examined risk (vs. protective) factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The overall effect of risk factors was statistically significant, but relatively small, in predicting suicide ideation (weighted mean odds ratio: wOR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.59-1.87), suicide attempt (wOR = 1.66 [1.57-1.76), and suicide death (wOR = 1.41 [1.24-1.60]). Across all suicide outcomes, most risk factors related to the Negative Valence Systems domain, although effect sizes were of similar magnitude across RDoC domains. This study demonstrated that the RDoC framework provides a novel and promising approach to suicide research; however, relatively few studies of suicidal behavior fit within this framework. Future studies must go beyond the "usual suspects" of suicide risk factors (e.g., mental disorders, sociodemographics) to understand the processes that combine to lead to this deadly outcome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A predictive framework and review of the ecological impacts of exotic plant invasions on reptiles and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Leigh J; Murray, Brad R

    2011-05-01

    The invasive spread of exotic plants in native vegetation can pose serious threats to native faunal assemblages. This is of particular concern for reptiles and amphibians because they form a significant component of the world's vertebrate fauna, play a pivotal role in ecosystem functioning and are often neglected in biodiversity research. A framework to predict how exotic plant invasion will affect reptile and amphibian assemblages is imperative for conservation, management and the identification of research priorities. Here, we present a new predictive framework that integrates three mechanistic models. These models are based on exotic plant invasion altering: (1) habitat structure; (2) herbivory and predator-prey interactions; (3) the reproductive success of reptile and amphibian species and assemblages. We present a series of testable predictions from these models that arise from the interplay over time among three exotic plant traits (growth form, area of coverage, taxonomic distinctiveness) and six traits of reptiles and amphibians (body size, lifespan, home range size, habitat specialisation, diet, reproductive strategy). A literature review provided robust empirical evidence of exotic plant impacts on reptiles and amphibians from each of the three model mechanisms. Evidence relating to the role of body size and diet was less clear-cut, indicating the need for further research. The literature provided limited empirical support for many of the other model predictions. This was not, however, because findings contradicted our model predictions but because research in this area is sparse. In particular, the small number of studies specifically examining the effects of exotic plants on amphibians highlights the pressing need for quantitative research in this area. There is enormous scope for detailed empirical investigation of interactions between exotic plants and reptile and amphibian species and assemblages. The framework presented here and further testing of

  7. An Evidence Framework for Off-Patent Pharmaceutical Review (EFOR) for Health Technology Assessment in Emerging Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixner, Diana; Kaló, Zoltán; Maniadakis, Nikos; Kim, Kyoo; Wijaya, Kalman

    2018-03-29

    This article introduces an Evidence Framework for Off-Patent Pharmaceutical Review (EFOR), which establishes value-based criteria in a template that manufacturers use to provide evidence showing how their products meet those criteria. Health authorities in emerging markets can then use the evidence presented in the EFOR to evaluate off-patent pharmaceuticals (OPPs) in a consistent, transparent, and evidence-based manner to support policy decisions, including pricing, reimbursement, formulary listing, and drug procurement. A literature search found no multi-criteria evidence framework for evaluating OPPs in emerging markets. An International Outcomes Research Board (IORB) of academia and industry experts conducted extensive research, meetings, and workshops to define high-priority criteria to incorporate into an evidence-based health technology assessment (HTA) tool using the multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) technique. The resulting framework was further tailored for country-specific needs in workshops in three emerging countries (Kazakhstan, Vietnam, and Indonesia). The IORB defined nine criteria four categories (Product, Manufacturing, Service, and Value Assessment), which OPP manufacturers can use to provide evidence for reimbursement and health policy decision making. Then the IORB developed the EFOR as a base case document, which can be adapted and used as a template by health authorities in emerging countries. Emerging countries have a significant need for an HTA tool that balances affordability with accurate evidence showing the value differentiation of OPPs. The value attributes in this setting often are different from those in developed markets, which emphasize new products and have high regulation and manufacturing standards. The EFOR is an easy-to-use, adaptable framework that emerging countries can use to increase the consistency, transparency, and effectiveness of drug decision making. The open source EFOR is available as Supplemental Materials

  8. Toward the sustainability of health interventions implemented in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwelunmor, Juliet; Blackstone, Sarah; Veira, Dorice; Nwaozuru, Ucheoma; Airhihenbuwa, Collins; Munodawafa, Davison; Kalipeni, Ezekiel; Jutal, Antar; Shelley, Donna; Ogedegebe, Gbenga

    2016-03-23

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is facing a double burden of disease with a rising prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) while the burden of communicable diseases (CDs) remains high. Despite these challenges, there remains a significant need to understand how or under what conditions health interventions implemented in sub-Saharan Africa are sustained. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of empirical literature to explore how health interventions implemented in SSA are sustained. We searched MEDLINE, Biological Abstracts, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, SCIELO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for available research investigating the sustainability of health interventions implemented in sub-Saharan Africa. We also used narrative synthesis to examine factors whether positive or negative that may influence the sustainability of health interventions in the region. The search identified 1819 citations, and following removal of duplicates and our inclusion/exclusion criteria, only 41 papers were eligible for inclusion in the review. Twenty-six countries were represented in this review, with Kenya and Nigeria having the most representation of available studies examining sustainability. Study dates ranged from 1996 to 2015. Of note, majority of these studies (30 %) were published in 2014. The most common framework utilized was the sustainability framework, which was discussed in four of the studies. Nineteen out of 41 studies (46 %) reported sustainability outcomes focused on communicable diseases, with HIV and AIDS represented in majority of the studies, followed by malaria. Only 21 out of 41 studies had clear definitions of sustainability. Community ownership and mobilization were recognized by many of the reviewed studies as crucial facilitators for intervention sustainability, both early on and after intervention implementation, while social and ecological conditions as well as societal upheavals were barriers that influenced the sustainment

  9. A Review and Conceptual Framework for Integrating Leadership into Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The purpose of this review is to assess leadership education and practice in athletic training. Leadership is a critical component of athletic training and health care. Leadership research in athletic training is dramatically behind other health care professions. Objective: To develop a model for integrating leadership behavior and…

  10. Review on processing of metal-organic framework (MOF) materials towards system integration for hydrogen storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available materials to form part of a practical hydrogen storage system, knowledge of the ‘processing’ techniques to improve the properties of the powders is essential. However, the processing routes of MOF materials towards system integration are rarely reviewed...

  11. A conceptual framework for ERP benefit classification: Results of a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckartz, S.M.; Daneva, Maia; Wieringa, Roelf J.; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed literature review on enterprise resource planning (ERP) benefits, carried out according to the guidelines by Webster et al. (2002). The identified benefits are mapped onto previously identified benefit categories. Based on this mapping a list of

  12. Financial incentives to promote active travel: an evidence review and economic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2012-12-01

    Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between "nudging," which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. The literature review identified studies published between January 1997 and January 2012 of financial incentives relating to any mode of travel in which the impact on active travel, physical activity, or obesity levels was reported. It encompassed macroenvironmental schemes, such as gasoline taxes, and microenvironmental schemes, such as employer-subsidized bicycles. Five relevant reviews and 20 primary studies (of which nine were not included in the reviews) were identified. The results show that more-robust evidence is required if policymakers are to maximize the health impact of fiscal policy relating to transport schemes of this kind. Drawing on a literature review and insights from the SLOTH (sleep, leisure, occupation, transportation, and home-based activities) time-budget model, this paper argues that financial incentives may have a larger role in promoting walking and cycling than is acknowledged generally. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Digital health innovation ecosystems: From systematic literature review to conceptual framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Iyawa, GE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available innovation ecosystem as part of a larger study. A systematic literature review was conducted on four academic databases: ACM, ScienceDirect, IEEE Xplore and SpringerLink. Due to the dearth in initial search results, the search was broadened to include non...

  14. Resource-efficient supply chains: a research framework, literature review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matopoulos, A.; Barros, A.C.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The study aims to define a research agenda for creating resource-efficient supply chains (RESCs) by identifying and analysing their key characteristics as well as future research opportunities. Design/methodology/approach – We follow a systematic review method to analyse the literature and

  15. Education Policy Implementation: A Literature Review and Proposed Framework. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 162

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennet, Romane; Pont, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    This literature review focuses on education policy implementation, its definition, processes and determinants. It aims to clarify what implementing policies involve in complex education systems to support policy work, building on the literature and country examples. An introduction delves into the reasons behind the need to update the concept of…

  16. Integrating teamwork, clinician occupational well-being and patient safety - development of a conceptual framework based on a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welp, Annalena; Manser, Tanja

    2016-07-19

    There is growing evidence that teamwork in hospitals is related to both patient outcomes and clinician occupational well-being. Furthermore, clinician well-being is associated with patient safety. Despite considerable research activity, few studies include all three concepts, and their interrelations have not yet been investigated systematically. To advance our understanding of these potentially complex interrelations we propose an integrative framework taking into account current evidence and research gaps identified in a systematic review. We conducted a literature search in six major databases (Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, Psyndex, ScienceDirect, and Web of Knowledge). Inclusion criteria were: peer reviewed papers published between January 2000 and June 2015 investigating a statistical relationship between at least two of the three concepts; teamwork, patient safety, and clinician occupational well-being in hospital settings, including practicing nurses and physicians. We assessed methodological quality using a standardized rating system and qualitatively appraised and extracted relevant data, such as instruments, analyses and outcomes. The 98 studies included in this review were highly diverse regarding quality, methodology and outcomes. We found support for the existence of independent associations between teamwork, clinician occupational well-being and patient safety. However, we identified several conceptual and methodological limitations. The main barrier to advancing our understanding of the causal relationships between teamwork, clinician well-being and patient safety is the lack of an integrative, theory-based, and methodologically thorough approach investigating the three concepts simultaneously and longitudinally. Based on psychological theory and our findings, we developed an integrative framework that addresses these limitations and proposes mechanisms by which these concepts might be linked. Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the

  17. Ethics in nursing: A systematic review of the framework of evidence perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Erman

    2017-01-01

    To determine the current state of knowledge on nursing and ethics and to assess the knowledge and experience based on the evidence in this regard. Although ethics is at the center of the nursing profession and the ethical issues affecting nurses are given much importance, few studies have focused on professional ethics in nursing. In this respect, ethics has become a concept that contains controversial and ambiguous situations. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guide, a basic search algorithm, was taken. Cochrane, PubMed, CINAHL Complete, PsycINFO, and ULAKBIM from 2012 to 2016. Following a systematic search strategy, all papers were assessed in relation to inclusion criteria and type of study. When sufficient information was not available in the title and summary of the works, the necessary data were evaluated in full texts. This review was completed with 27 articles meeting the research criteria. The evaluation identified six themes: (1) ethics and nursing, (2) ethical difficulties/ethical dilemmas and nursing, (3) ethical competence and nursing, (4) professional ethics and nursing, (5) ethics, education, and nursing, and (6) ethics in health research. As a result of the review, a synthesis of high evidence-level research relating to nursing ethics was obtained. The emphasis was on the importance of further research and education so that the ethical aspects of nursing can be better understood throughout the studies. Nursing researchers' level of evidence on ethics and their orientation to high research design will shed light on uncertain and controversial aspects of the subject. Ethical consideration: Since this was a systematic review, no ethical approval was required. There is no conflict of interest in this literature review.

  18. A Comprehensive Review on Adaptability of Network Forensics Frameworks for Mobile Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Network forensics enables investigation and identification of network attacks through the retrieved digital content. The proliferation of smartphones and the cost-effective universal data access through cloud has made Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC a congenital target for network attacks. However, confines in carrying out forensics in MCC is interrelated with the autonomous cloud hosting companies and their policies for restricted access to the digital content in the back-end cloud platforms. It implies that existing Network Forensic Frameworks (NFFs have limited impact in the MCC paradigm. To this end, we qualitatively analyze the adaptability of existing NFFs when applied to the MCC. Explicitly, the fundamental mechanisms of NFFs are highlighted and then analyzed using the most relevant parameters. A classification is proposed to help understand the anatomy of existing NFFs. Subsequently, a comparison is given that explores the functional similarities and deviations among NFFs. The paper concludes by discussing research challenges for progressive network forensics in MCC.

  19. A comprehensive review on adaptability of network forensics frameworks for mobile cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suleman; Shiraz, Muhammad; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Gani, Abdullah; Han, Qi; Rahman, Zulkanain Bin Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Network forensics enables investigation and identification of network attacks through the retrieved digital content. The proliferation of smartphones and the cost-effective universal data access through cloud has made Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) a congenital target for network attacks. However, confines in carrying out forensics in MCC is interrelated with the autonomous cloud hosting companies and their policies for restricted access to the digital content in the back-end cloud platforms. It implies that existing Network Forensic Frameworks (NFFs) have limited impact in the MCC paradigm. To this end, we qualitatively analyze the adaptability of existing NFFs when applied to the MCC. Explicitly, the fundamental mechanisms of NFFs are highlighted and then analyzed using the most relevant parameters. A classification is proposed to help understand the anatomy of existing NFFs. Subsequently, a comparison is given that explores the functional similarities and deviations among NFFs. The paper concludes by discussing research challenges for progressive network forensics in MCC.

  20. A Comprehensive Review on Adaptability of Network Forensics Frameworks for Mobile Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid; Han, Qi; Bin Abdul Rahman, Zulkanain

    2014-01-01

    Network forensics enables investigation and identification of network attacks through the retrieved digital content. The proliferation of smartphones and the cost-effective universal data access through cloud has made Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) a congenital target for network attacks. However, confines in carrying out forensics in MCC is interrelated with the autonomous cloud hosting companies and their policies for restricted access to the digital content in the back-end cloud platforms. It implies that existing Network Forensic Frameworks (NFFs) have limited impact in the MCC paradigm. To this end, we qualitatively analyze the adaptability of existing NFFs when applied to the MCC. Explicitly, the fundamental mechanisms of NFFs are highlighted and then analyzed using the most relevant parameters. A classification is proposed to help understand the anatomy of existing NFFs. Subsequently, a comparison is given that explores the functional similarities and deviations among NFFs. The paper concludes by discussing research challenges for progressive network forensics in MCC. PMID:25097880

  1. Governance of Virtual Communities: A Literature Review and a Conceptual Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Salomo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    of participation architecture, control, open source license, ownership and appropriation of intellectual property, communication patterns, goal setting, decision-making, role of trust, etc. However, research areas in the extant literature on the governance of virtual communities are rather scattered. There has yet...... no systematic approach towards a clear definition of governance in virtual communities and our knowledge on what key governance mechanisms are and how they differ in various types of virtual communities is very much limited to date. A lack of holistic framework on this issue prevents scholars from fully...... understanding the functions of governance in virtual communities, which in turn also rends difficulties to probe the performance of virtual communities. For these reasons, the purposes of this paper is to: (1) propose a working definition of the governance in virtual communities based on the extant literature...

  2. AFRA: Supporting regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) provides a framework for African Member States to intensify their collaboration through programmes and projects focused on the specific shared needs of its members. It is a formal intergovernmental agreement which entered into force in 1990. In the context of AFRA, Regional Designated Centres for training and education in radiation protection (RDCs) are established African institutions able to provide services, such as training of highly qualified specialists or instructors needed at the national level and also to facilitate exchange of experience and information through networks of services operating in the field

  3. Cooperative Engineering as a Joint Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffredo-Le Brun, Sophie; Morellato, Mireille; Sensevy, Gérard; Quilio, Serge

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes some elements of a specific kind of design-based research, cooperative engineering. In the first part of the paper, we argue that cooperative engineering can be analyzed through a joint action framework. We first present some conceptual tools that the Joint Action Theory in Didactics proposes in order to understand didactic…

  4. Movements of older adults during exergaming interventions that are associated with the Systems Framework for Postural Control: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmosybayat, Robin; Baker, Katherine; Godfrey, Alan; Caplan, Nick; Barry, Gill

    2018-05-01

    One in three older adults fall annually, in part due to impairments in the physiological systems that make up the postural control (PC) system. Exercise, particularly balance training, helps to prevent deterioration and even to improve outcomes in the PC system. Exergaming (exercise-gaming) is interactive computer gaming whereby an individual moves the body in response to onscreen cues in a playful format. Exergaming is an alternative method to standard practice for improving PC outcomes, which has been shown to reduce the risk of falling. Exergaming has received research attention, yet the intervention is still in its infancy. There could be benefit in exploring the movements trained with respect to a framework known for identifying underlying deficits in the PC system, the Systems Framework for Postural Control (SFPC). This may help target areas for improvement in balance training using exergames and shed light on the impact for fall prevention. A literature search was therefore conducted across six databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed, ISI, SPORTdiscus and Science Direct) using a range of search terms and combinations relating to exergaming, balance, exercise, falls and elderly. Quality assessment was conducted using the PEDro Scale and a custom-made quality assessment tool. Movements were rated by two reviewers based on the 9 operational definitions of the SFPC. Eighteen publications were included in the analysis, with a mean PEDro score of 5.6 (1.5). Overall, 4.99 (1.27) of the 9 operational definitions of the SFPC are trained in exergaming interventions. Exergaming does encourage individuals to stand up (3), lean while standing (4), move upper limbs and turn heads (6) and dual-task while standing (9), to some extent move the body forwards, backwards and sideways (1), and coordinate movements (2) but hardly at all to kick, hop, jump or walk (7), or to force a postural reaction from a physical force to the individual (5) and it does not mimic actual changes in

  5. The equity dimension in evaluations of the quality and outcomes framework: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckxstaens, Pauline; Smedt, Delphine De; Maeseneer, Jan De; Annemans, Lieven; Willems, Sara

    2011-08-31

    Pay-for-performance systems raise concerns regarding inequity in health care because providers might select patients for whom targets can easily be reached. This paper aims to describe the evolution of pre-existing (in)equity in health care in the period after the introduction of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) in the UK and to describe (in)equities in exception reporting. In this evaluation, a theory-based framework conceptualising equity in terms of equal access, equal treatment and equal treatment outcomes for people in equal need is used to guide the work. A systematic MEDLINE and Econlit search identified 317 studies. Of these, 290 were excluded because they were not related to the evaluation of QOF, they lacked an equity dimension in the evaluation, their qualitative research focused on experiences or on the nature of the consultation, or unsuitable methodology was used to pronounce upon equity after the introduction of QOF. None of the publications (n = 27) assessed equity in access to health care. Concerning equity in treatment and (intermediate) treatment outcomes, overall quality scores generally improved. For the majority of the observed indicators, all citizens benefit from this improvement, yet the extent to which different patient groups benefit tends to vary and to be highly dependent on the type and complexity of the indicator(s) under study, the observed patient group(s) and the characteristics of the study. In general, the introduction of QOF was favourable for the aged and for males. Total QOF scores did not seem to vary according to ethnicity. For deprivation, small but significant residual differences were observed after the introduction of QOF favouring less deprived groups. These differences are mainly due to differences at the practice level. The variance in exception reporting according to gender and socio-economic position is low. Although QOF seems not to be socially selective at first glance, this does not mean QOF does not

  6. The equity dimension in evaluations of the quality and outcomes framework: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemans Lieven

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pay-for-performance systems raise concerns regarding inequity in health care because providers might select patients for whom targets can easily be reached. This paper aims to describe the evolution of pre-existing (inequity in health care in the period after the introduction of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF in the UK and to describe (inequities in exception reporting. In this evaluation, a theory-based framework conceptualising equity in terms of equal access, equal treatment and equal treatment outcomes for people in equal need is used to guide the work. Methods A systematic MEDLINE and Econlit search identified 317 studies. Of these, 290 were excluded because they were not related to the evaluation of QOF, they lacked an equity dimension in the evaluation, their qualitative research focused on experiences or on the nature of the consultation, or unsuitable methodology was used to pronounce upon equity after the introduction of QOF. Results None of the publications (n = 27 assessed equity in access to health care. Concerning equity in treatment and (intermediate treatment outcomes, overall quality scores generally improved. For the majority of the observed indicators, all citizens benefit from this improvement, yet the extent to which different patient groups benefit tends to vary and to be highly dependent on the type and complexity of the indicator(s under study, the observed patient group(s and the characteristics of the study. In general, the introduction of QOF was favourable for the aged and for males. Total QOF scores did not seem to vary according to ethnicity. For deprivation, small but significant residual differences were observed after the introduction of QOF favouring less deprived groups. These differences are mainly due to differences at the practice level. The variance in exception reporting according to gender and socio-economic position is low. Conclusions Although QOF seems not to be socially

  7. A Science Framework for Connecticut River Watershed Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Stephen; Nicolson, Craig; Russell-Robinson, Susan L.; Mecray, Ellen L.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This document outlines a research framework for water resource managers and land-use planners in the four-state Connecticut River Watershed (CRW). It specifically focuses on developing the decision-support tools and data needed by managers in the watershed. The purpose of the Science Framework is to identify critical research issues and information required to better equip managers to make decisions on desirable changes in the CRW. This Science Framework is the result of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the University of Massachusetts at Amherst (UMass-Amherst), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). The cooperative project was guided by a Science Steering Committee (SC) and included several focus groups, a 70-person workshop in September 2004, and an open collaborative process by which the workshop outcomes were synthesized, written up, and then progressively refined through peer review. This document is the product of that collaborative process.

  8. POSITIONING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS KEY SUCCESS FACTOR IN THE GROWTH OF COOPERATIVES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeop Hussin Bidin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic and business challenges in the new millennium have shaped the manner cooperative movement in Malaysia charts its future outlook. After almost 82 years, a national policy was launched by the Government on January 2004 to assist in the comprehensive development of the cooperative movement. The National CooperativePolicy (NCP will ensure that the huge resources of the cooperatives can be harnessed to generate and contribute to the economic growth of the country. However, in the light of many issues such as weak structure and the absence of good corporate governance in some cooperatives, the present Cooperative Act 1993 is being reviewed and several new provisions would be added to increase supervision, monitoring and enforcement against existing cooperatives in alaysia. It is quite imperative that by regulating the operation of cooperatives will require also the managing of intellectual and human capital assets that exist in the movement. Through establishing a framework and terms of reference such that fundamental elements of knowledge management can be instilled areprerequisites to developing innovativeness in this growing economic sector. The sharing of knowledge among the cooperatives will eventually produce better and more educated human resources that are able to experience greater control over the works and the administration of their quality working life. Structural analysis of the cooperative movement indicates the significant influence of knowledge management in sustaining its future growth given the timely introduction of the NCP. Thus, measures taken to underline this influence will also be addressed to represent the cooperative movement's readiness to face economic and business challenges in Malaysia.

  9. Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.

  10. A Review and Framework for Categorizing Current Research and Development in Health Related Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøhr, C.; Sørensen, E. M.; Gudes, O.; Geraghty, E. M.; Shaw, N. T.; Bivona-Tellez, C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The application of GIS in health science has increased over the last decade and new innovative application areas have emerged. This study reviews the literature and builds a framework to provide a conceptual overview of the domain, and to promote strategic planning for further research of GIS in health. Method The framework is based on literature from the library databases Scopus and Web of Science. The articles were identified based on keywords and initially selected for further study based on titles and abstracts. A grounded theory-inspired method was applied to categorize the selected articles in main focus areas. Subsequent frequency analysis was performed on the identified articles in areas of infectious and non-infectious diseases and continent of origin. Results A total of 865 articles were included. Four conceptual domains within GIS in health sciences comprise the framework: spatial analysis of disease, spatial analysis of health service planning, public health, health technologies and tools. Frequency analysis by disease status and location show that malaria and schistosomiasis are the most commonly analyzed infectious diseases where cancer and asthma are the most frequently analyzed non-infectious diseases. Across categories, articles from North America predominate, and in the category of spatial analysis of diseases an equal number of studies concern Asia. Conclusion Spatial analysis of diseases and health service planning are well-established research areas. The development of future technologies and new application areas for GIS and data-gathering technologies such as GPS, smartphones, remote sensing etc. will be nudging the research in GIS and health. PMID:25123730

  11. Non-IID Recommender Systems: A Review and Framework of Recommendation Paradigm Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longbing Cao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available While recommendation plays an increasingly critical role in our living, study, work, and entertainment, the recommendations we receive are often for irrelevant, duplicate, or uninteresting products and services. A critical reason for such bad recommendations lies in the intrinsic assumption that recommended users and items are independent and identically distributed (IID in existing theories and systems. Another phenomenon is that, while tremendous efforts have been made to model specific aspects of users or items, the overall user and item characteristics and their non-IIDness have been overlooked. In this paper, the non-IID nature and characteristics of recommendation are discussed, followed by the non-IID theoretical framework in order to build a deep and comprehensive understanding of the intrinsic nature of recommendation problems, from the perspective of both couplings and heterogeneity. This non-IID recommendation research triggers the paradigm shift from IID to non-IID recommendation research and can hopefully deliver informed, relevant, personalized, and actionable recommendations. It creates exciting new directions and fundamental solutions to address various complexities including cold-start, sparse data-based, cross-domain, group-based, and shilling attack-related issues.

  12. Towards a more holistic sustainability assessment framework for agro-bioenergy systems — A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arodudu, Oludunsin; Helming, Katharina; Wiggering, Hubert; Voinov, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    The use of life cycle assessment (LCA) as a sustainability assessment tool for agro-bioenergy system usually has an industrial agriculture bias. Furthermore, LCA generally has often been criticized for being a decision maker tool which may not consider decision takers perceptions. They are lacking in spatial and temporal depth, and unable to assess sufficiently some environmental impact categories such as biodiversity, land use etc. and most economic and social impact categories, e.g. food security, water security, energy security. This study explored tools, methodologies and frameworks that can be deployed individually, as well as in combination with each other for bridging these methodological gaps in application to agro-bioenergy systems. Integrating agronomic options, e.g. alternative farm power, tillage, seed sowing options, fertilizer, pesticide, irrigation into the boundaries of LCAs for agro-bioenergy systems will not only provide an alternative agro-ecological perspective to previous LCAs, but will also lead to the derivation of indicators for assessment of some social and economic impact categories. Deploying life cycle thinking approaches such as energy return on energy invested-EROEI, human appropriation of net primary production-HANPP, net greenhouse gas or carbon balance-NCB, water footprint individually and in combination with each other will also lead to further derivation of indicators suitable for assessing relevant environmental, social and economic impact categories. Also, applying spatio-temporal simulation models has a potential for improving the spatial and temporal depths of LCA analysis.

  13. Towards a more holistic sustainability assessment framework for agro-bioenergy systems — A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arodudu, Oludunsin, E-mail: Oludunsin.Arodudu@zalf.de [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Eberswalder Straße 84, 15374 Müncheberg (Germany); Potsdam University, Institute of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Karl-Liebknecht-Straße 24-25, 14476 Potsdam, Golm (Germany); Helming, Katharina [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Eberswalder Straße 84, 15374 Müncheberg (Germany); Faculty of Landscape Management and Nature Conservation, University for Sustainable Development (HNEE), Schickler Strasse 5, 16225 Eberswalde (Germany); Wiggering, Hubert [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Eberswalder Straße 84, 15374 Müncheberg (Germany); Potsdam University, Institute of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Karl-Liebknecht-Straße 24-25, 14476 Potsdam, Golm (Germany); Voinov, Alexey [ITC, Faculty of Geoinformation and Earth Observation, University of Twente, Hengelosestraat 99, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2017-01-15

    The use of life cycle assessment (LCA) as a sustainability assessment tool for agro-bioenergy system usually has an industrial agriculture bias. Furthermore, LCA generally has often been criticized for being a decision maker tool which may not consider decision takers perceptions. They are lacking in spatial and temporal depth, and unable to assess sufficiently some environmental impact categories such as biodiversity, land use etc. and most economic and social impact categories, e.g. food security, water security, energy security. This study explored tools, methodologies and frameworks that can be deployed individually, as well as in combination with each other for bridging these methodological gaps in application to agro-bioenergy systems. Integrating agronomic options, e.g. alternative farm power, tillage, seed sowing options, fertilizer, pesticide, irrigation into the boundaries of LCAs for agro-bioenergy systems will not only provide an alternative agro-ecological perspective to previous LCAs, but will also lead to the derivation of indicators for assessment of some social and economic impact categories. Deploying life cycle thinking approaches such as energy return on energy invested-EROEI, human appropriation of net primary production-HANPP, net greenhouse gas or carbon balance-NCB, water footprint individually and in combination with each other will also lead to further derivation of indicators suitable for assessing relevant environmental, social and economic impact categories. Also, applying spatio-temporal simulation models has a potential for improving the spatial and temporal depths of LCA analysis.

  14. US/Japan cooperation in high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the Implementing Arrangement was to further the energy programs of both countries by establishing a framework for cooperation in the field of high energy physics, including research, accelerator and detector instrumentation research and development, the fabrication and subsequent use of new experimental devices and facilities, and related joint efforts as may be mutually agreed. Over the years, this cooperation has been very effective and has strengthened the overall collaborative efforts and the understanding between our nations and their citizens. It has demonstrated to the world our ability to work together to attack difficult problems. High Energy Physics goes across national borders; the bond is clearly intellectual and common ground is shared for the benefit of all in a most effective manner. This review covers the activities conducted under the aegis of the US/Japan Committee for Cooperation in High Energy Physics during the past five years (1988-1993). This was the second such US review of the US/Japan cooperative activities; the first was held in 1987.

  15. Systematic thematic review of e-health research in the Gulf Cooperation Council (Arabian Gulf): Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alan S; Turjoman, Rebal; Shaheen, Yanal; Al Sayyed, Farah; Hwang, Mu Ji; Malick, Faryal

    2017-05-01

    Introduction The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC or 'Arabian Gulf'), comprising Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates, is a political organization sharing a common history and culture. All GCC nations have made substantial investments in telecommunications and electronic health infrastructure since 2000. Methods We conducted a literature search in English and Arabic on peer-reviewed e-health research up to December 2014 originating in the GCC. The objective was to retrieve all research on e-health in the GCC and to categorize and analyse it qualitatively to reveal the current state of e-health research and development in the region. Inclusion criteria included peer-reviewed articles, books, book chapters, conference papers and graduate theses written on e-health in the GCC. Blogs, health websites and non-peer-reviewed literature were excluded. Results Three hundred and six articles were retrieved, categorized and analysed qualitatively to reveal the state of e-health research in the GCC. Both country-specific and GCC-wide major themes were identified using NVivo 10.0 qualitative software and summarized. The most common type of study was an overview (35.0%), with common study designs of case studies (26.8%) and descriptive articles (46.4%). Significant themes were: prospective national benefits from e-health, implementation and satisfaction with electronic health records, online technologies in medical education, innovative systems (case studies), and information security and personal health information. Discussion This is the first comprehensive analytical literature review of e-health in the GCC. Important research gaps were identified: few cost-benefit analyses, controlled interventional studies, or research targeting gender and religious issues were retrieved.

  16. Breastfeeding Duration and the Theory of Planned Behavior and Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Framework: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Christine Y K; Lok, Kris Y W; Tarrant, Marie

    2018-03-01

    Introduction Numerous studies have shown that the constructs of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy (BSE) Framework can effectively identify relationships between maternal psychosocial factors and breastfeeding initiation. However, the ability of these theories to predict breastfeeding duration has not been adequately analyzed. The aim of the review was to examine the utility of the constructs of TRA/TPB and BSE to predict breastfeeding duration. Methods We conducted a literature search using Pubmed (1980-May 2015), Medline (1966-May 2015), CINAHL (1980-May 2015), EMBASE (1980-May 2015) and PsycINFO (1980-May 2015). We selected studies that were observational studies without randomization or blinding, using TRA, TPB or BSE as the framework for analysis. Only studies reporting on breastfeeding duration were included. Results Thirty studies were selected, which include four using TRA, 10 using TPB, 15 using BSE and one using a combination of TPB and BSE. Maternal intention and breastfeeding self-efficacy were found to be important predictors of breastfeeding duration. Inconsistent findings were found in assessing the relationship between maternal attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavior control and breastfeeding duration. Discussion The inadequacy of these constructs in explaining breastfeeding duration indicates a need to further explore the role of maternal self-determination in breastfeeding behavior.

  17. Simulation training: a systematic review of simulation in arthroscopy and proposal of a new competency-based training framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Charison; Khajuria, Ankur; Gupte, Chinmay

    2014-01-01

    Traditional orthopaedic training has followed an apprenticeship model whereby trainees enhance their skills by operating under guidance. However the introduction of limitations on training hours and shorter training programmes mean that alternative training strategies are required. To perform a literature review on simulation training in arthroscopy and devise a framework that structures different simulation techniques that could be used in arthroscopic training. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Databases were performed. Search terms included "virtual reality OR simulator OR simulation" and "arthroscopy OR arthroscopic". 14 studies evaluating simulators in knee, shoulder and hip arthroplasty were included. The majority of the studies demonstrated construct and transference validity but only one showed concurrent validity. More studies are required to assess its potential as a training and assessment tool, skills transference between simulators and to determine the extent of skills decay from prolonged delays in training. We also devised a "ladder of arthroscopic simulation" that provides a competency-based framework to implement different simulation strategies. The incorporation of simulation into an orthopaedic curriculum will depend on a coordinated approach between many bodies. But the successful integration of simulators in other areas of surgery supports a possible role for simulation in advancing orthopaedic education. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Definition of a process standardization framework for a scientific journal based on a literature review and its performance objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Campos Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study that aimed to establish a framework to standardize the process of a scientific journal. It has a team that performs operational routines regulated by standards (external and patterns (internal and external. The high turnover rate of the supportive team has generated information loss and increased service variability. The research started from the assumption that the process standardization (which includes the formalization could be a way to reduce this secondary effect. Standardization techniques were identified through a literature review of the main national and international databases of journals and congresses. The identified standardization techniques were analyzed considering the number of times they appeared in the papers analyzed and performance objectives proposed by Slack et al. (2009. As result of this research, a framework was obtained for the standardization of processes adapted to the needs of the journal studied. The model is feasible to be used more widely, given its structural similarity to the one proposed by Campos (2004, a Brazilian model that is a reference in the field.

  19. A review of legal framework applicable for the management of healthcare waste and current management practices in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haylamicheal, Israel Deneke; Desalegne, Solomon Akalu

    2012-06-01

    The management of healthcare waste (HCW) requires special attention due to the risk posed by the presence of hazardous waste. The first step towards this is the issuance of national legislation complemented by policy documents, regulations and technical guidelines. In Ethiopia there is no specific legislation for healthcare waste management (HCWM). However, there are various legislations which may provide a legal framework for the management of HCW. This review assesses the various legislations that are relevant to HCWM. It also looks into the institutional arrangements put in place and waste management practices that prevail in the country. It was found that, although the existing legislations have provisions that may provide a legal framework for the management of HCW in Ethiopia, they are not comprehensive and lack specificity in terms of defining hazardous HCW and its categories; in indicating legal obligations of healthcare facilities (HCFs) in handling, transporting, treating and disposing HCW, and record keeping and reporting. There is overlapping of mandates and lackof co-ordination among various government institutions that are responsible for HCWM. The HCWM practices also do not conform to the principles of waste management in general and HCWM in particular. Thus, to better manage HCW in Ethiopia, a specific and comprehensive legislation and policy document on HCWM with clear designation of responsibilities to various stakeholders should be issued immediately. Moreover, training and awareness raising activities on proper HCWM should be undertaken targeting medical staffs, HCF administrators, waste handlers, policy and decision makers and the general public.

  20. The Relational Impact of Multiple Sclerosis: An Integrative Review of the Literature Using a Cognitive Analytic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell Jones, Joanna; Walsh, Sue; Isaac, Claire

    2017-12-01

    This integrative literature review uses cognitive analytic therapy (CAT) theory to examine the impact of a chronic illness, multiple sclerosis (MS), on relationships and mental health. Electronic searches were conducted in six medical and social science databases. Thirty-eight articles met inclusion criteria, and also satisfied quality criteria. Articles revealed that MS-related demands change care needs and alter relationships. Using a CAT framework, the MS literature was analysed, and five key patterns of relating to oneself and to others were identified. A diagrammatic formulation is proposed that interconnects these patterns with wellbeing and suggests potential "exits" to improve mental health, for example, assisting families to minimise overprotection. Application of CAT analysis to the literature clarifies relational processes that may affect mental health among individuals with MS, which hopefully will inform how services assist in reducing unhelpful patterns and improve coping. Further investigation of the identified patterns is needed.

  1. Synchrony in Psychotherapy: A Review and an Integrative Framework for the Therapeutic Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, Sander L.; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    During psychotherapy, patient and therapist tend to spontaneously synchronize their vocal pitch, bodily movements, and even their physiological processes. In the present article, we consider how this pervasive phenomenon may shed new light on the therapeutic relationship– or alliance– and its role within psychotherapy. We first review clinical research on the alliance and the multidisciplinary area of interpersonal synchrony. We then integrate both literatures in the Interpersonal Synchrony (In-Sync) model of psychotherapy. According to the model, the alliance is grounded in the coupling of patient and therapist’s brains. Because brains do not interact directly, movement synchrony may help to establish inter-brain coupling. Inter-brain coupling may provide patient and therapist with access to another’s internal states, which facilitates common understanding and emotional sharing. Over time, these interpersonal exchanges may improve patients’ emotion-regulatory capacities and related therapeutic outcomes. We discuss the empirical assessment of interpersonal synchrony and review preliminary research on synchrony in psychotherapy. Finally, we summarize our main conclusions and consider the broader implications of viewing psychotherapy as the product of two interacting brains. PMID:27378968

  2. Synchrony in Psychotherapy: A Review and an Integrative Framework for the Therapeutic Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, Sander L; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    During psychotherapy, patient and therapist tend to spontaneously synchronize their vocal pitch, bodily movements, and even their physiological processes. In the present article, we consider how this pervasive phenomenon may shed new light on the therapeutic relationship- or alliance- and its role within psychotherapy. We first review clinical research on the alliance and the multidisciplinary area of interpersonal synchrony. We then integrate both literatures in the Interpersonal Synchrony (In-Sync) model of psychotherapy. According to the model, the alliance is grounded in the coupling of patient and therapist's brains. Because brains do not interact directly, movement synchrony may help to establish inter-brain coupling. Inter-brain coupling may provide patient and therapist with access to another's internal states, which facilitates common understanding and emotional sharing. Over time, these interpersonal exchanges may improve patients' emotion-regulatory capacities and related therapeutic outcomes. We discuss the empirical assessment of interpersonal synchrony and review preliminary research on synchrony in psychotherapy. Finally, we summarize our main conclusions and consider the broader implications of viewing psychotherapy as the product of two interacting brains.

  3. Strategies and policies deteriorate occupational health situation in India: A review based on social determinant framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Asish Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Overwhelming evidence shows that hazardous work, working conditions, and environment fail to maintain homeostasis results in death or severe disability. Up to the 1980s, governments did not pay major attention to occupational health in developing countries, including India. The Bhopal Gas Tragedy, in 1984, was the turning point in the history of health and safety in India. It was time for the government to think deeply and review the existing legislative measures, for the upliftment of the occupational health situation in India. However, all the services remain grossly underutilized because of inadequate strategies, policies, and the lack of a proper monitoring mechanism, for occupational workers. The present study reviews the fact that Inaction or Destruction of Demands, Use of Power, Appeal to the existing bias of the system, and Exportation and Flexibility of the workers are some of the main reasons for the alarming situation of the Occupational Health Policy (OHP) in India. The existing and traditional condition of the laborers before and after independence is also highlighted in this article. Finally the threats are identified and options are provided to improve the health conditions of the workers.

  4. How best to structure interdisciplinary primary care teams: the study protocol for a systematic review with narrative framework synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wranik, W Dominika; Hayden, Jill A; Price, Sheri; Parker, Robin M N; Haydt, Susan M; Edwards, Jeanette M; Suter, Esther; Katz, Alan; Gambold, Liesl L; Levy, Adrian R

    2016-10-04

    Western publicly funded health care systems increasingly rely on interdisciplinary teams to support primary care delivery and management of chronic conditions. This knowledge synthesis focuses on what is known in the academic and grey literature about optimal structural characteristics of teams. Its goal is to assess which factors contribute to the effective functioning of interdisciplinary primary care teams and improved health system outcomes, with specific focus on (i) team structure contribution to team process, (ii) team process contribution to primary care goals, and (iii) team structure contribution to primary care goals. The systematic search of academic literature focuses on four chronic conditions and co-morbidities. Within this scope, qualitative and quantitative studies that assess the effects of team characteristics (funding, governance, organization) on care process and patient outcomes will be searched. Electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PAIS, Web of Science) will be searched systematically. Online web-based searches will be supported by the Grey Matters Tool. Studies will be included, if they report on interdisciplinary primary care in publicly funded Western health systems, and address the relationships between team structure, process, and/or patient outcomes. Studies will be selected in a three-stage screening process (title/abstract/full text) by two independent reviewers in each stage. Study quality will be assessed using the Mixed Methods Assessment Tool. An a priori framework will be applied to data extraction, and a narrative framework approach is used for the synthesis. Using an integrated knowledge translation approach, an electronic decision support tool will be developed for decision makers. It will be searchable along two axes of inquiry: (i) what primary care goals are supported by specific team characteristics and (ii) how should teams be structured to support specific primary care goals? The results of this evidence

  5. Theoretical domains framework to assess barriers to change for planning health care quality interventions: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavianpour, Mirkaber; Sarmast, Hamideh Helen; Kissoon, Niranjan; Collet, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical domains framework (TDF) provides an integrative model for assessing barriers to behavioral changes in order to suggest interventions for improvement in behavior and ultimately outcomes. However, there are other tools that are used to assess barriers. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of concordance between domains and constructs identified in two versions of the TDF including original (2005) and refined version (2012) and independent studies of other tools. We searched six databases for articles that studied barriers to health-related behavior changes of health care professionals or the general public. We reviewed quantitative papers published in English which included their questionnaires in the article. A table including the TDF domains of both original and refined versions and related constructs was developed to serve as a reference to describe the barriers assessed in the independent studies; descriptive statistics were used to express the results. Out of 552 papers retrieved, 50 were eligible to review. The barrier domains explored in these articles belonged to two to eleven domains of the refined TDF. Eighteen articles (36%) used constructs outside of the refined version. The spectrum of barrier constructs of the original TDF was broader and could meet the domains studied in 48 studies (96%). Barriers in domains of "environmental context and resources", "beliefs about consequences", and "social influences" were the most frequently explored in 42 (84%), 37 (74%), and 33 (66%) of the 50 articles, respectively. Both refined and original TDFs cataloged barriers measured by the other studies that did not use TDF as their framework. However, the original version of TDF explored a broader spectrum of barriers than the refined version. From this perspective, the original version of the TDF seems to be a more comprehensive tool for assessing barriers in practice.

  6. Towards a framework for analyzing determinants of performance of community health workers in malaria prevention and control: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipukuma, Helen Mwiinga; Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Jacobs, Choolwe; Chongwe, Gershom; Chola, Mumbi; Halwiindi, Hikabasa; Zgambo, Jessy; Michelo, Charles

    2018-05-08

    Community health workers (CHWs) are an important human resource in improving coverage of and success to interventions aimed at reducing malaria incidence. Evidence suggests that the performance of CHWs in malaria programs varies in different contexts. However, comprehensive frameworks, based on systematic reviews, to guide the analysis of determinants of performance of CHWs in malaria prevention and control programs are lacking. We systematically searched Google Scholar, Science Direct, and PubMed including reference lists that had English language publications. We included 16 full text articles that evaluated CHW performance in malaria control. Search terms were used and studies that had performance as an outcome of interest attributed to community-based interventions done by CHWs were included. Sixteen studies were included in the final review and were mostly on malaria Rapid Diagnosis and Treatment, as well as adherence to referral guidelines. Factors determining performance and effective implementation of CHW malaria programs included health system factors such as nature of training of CHWs; type of supervision including feedback process; availability of stocks, supplies, and job aids; nature of work environment and reporting systems; availability of financial resources and transport systems; types of remuneration; health staff confidence in CHWs; and workload. In addition, community dynamics such as nature of community connectedness and support from the community and utilization of services by the community also influenced performance. Furthermore, community health worker characteristics such marital status, sex, and CHW confidence levels also shaped CHW performance. Effectively analyzing and promoting the performance of CHWs in malaria prevention and control programs may require adopting a framework that considers health systems and community factors as well as community health worker characteristics.

  7. Does outcome feedback make you a better emergency physician? A systematic review and research framework proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Curtis F; Schachter, Howard; Stewart, Aviva T; McGowan, Jessie

    2009-11-01

    The organization of emergency medical care limits the ability of emergency physicians to know the outcomes of most of their patients after the patients leave the emergency department. This lack of outcome feedback may hinder the practice of emergency medicine (EM) by preventing "calibration" of the decision tools of practitioners. We sought to determine what is currently known about outcome feedback in EM, including its incidence, impact and modifiers. We searched the following databases: PreMEDLINE, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, DARE, Health Technology Assessment Database and AMED. We performed manual searches on abstract databases, reference lists, various health information and research websites, and nonindexed journals. Selection entailed a 2-step screening pro cess to exclude articles not pertaining to outcome feedback in EM. Our search yielded 1128 bibliographic records, from which screening identified 7 relevant reports: 5 surveys, 1 system level evaluation and 1 intervention trial. All studies were found to have "inadequate" or "unable to assess" reporting and study quality. Systems for outcome feedback to EM residents have been increasingly available since 1984, though they are perceived to be inadequate. Commonly used mechanisms for outcome feedback include automatic routing of discharge summaries, case conferences for admitted patients and telephone calls to patients or families for discharged patients. With respect to attending emergency physicians, no conclusions or clinical recommendations can be made given the level of available evidence. The potential importance of outcome feedback remains, at this time, underevaluated. We propose a research framework, and hypothesize that increasing outcome feedback would increase emergency physician diagnostic accuracy, therapeutic outcomes, clinical efficiency and job satisfaction. Future research in this area should include surveys and focus groups, as well as simulated or real-world intervention

  8. Regional and Global Monetary Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Lamberte; Peter J. Morgan

    2012-01-01

    The increasing occurrence of national, regional, and global financial crises, together with their rising costs and complexity, have increased calls for greater regional and global monetary cooperation. This is particularly necessary in light of volatile capital flow movements that can quickly transmit crisis developments in individual countries to other countries around the world. Global financial safety nets (GFSNs) are one important area for monetary cooperation. This paper reviews the c...

  9. The Preliminary Review for the Cross-Cutting Issues in the US Nuclear Regulatory Inspection Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Jung, Dae Wook [Future and Challenges Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nam Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    The research for the development of risk-informed and performance-based regulatory inspection is ongoing in KINS. In the USNRC, the cross-cutting issue is one of the main components the risk-informed and performance-based regulatory inspection process as shown in figure 1, which is named as ROP (Reactor Oversight Process). The following three cross-cutting areas implicitly affect all of the safety cornerstones in ROP. In this study, the preliminary review for the inspection practices of cross-cutting issues in the US and Korean safety regulatory system were performed. The elements of the cross-cutting issues were recently modified to emphasize the importance of safety culture, and the graded approach was applied for the inspection of cross-cutting issues in USNRC. The graded approach for the inspection of cross-cutting issues will be also needed to Korean safety regulatory system in the future.

  10. The Preliminary Review for the Cross-Cutting Issues in the US Nuclear Regulatory Inspection Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Jung, Dae Wook; Cho, Nam Chul

    2008-01-01

    The research for the development of risk-informed and performance-based regulatory inspection is ongoing in KINS. In the USNRC, the cross-cutting issue is one of the main components the risk-informed and performance-based regulatory inspection process as shown in figure 1, which is named as ROP (Reactor Oversight Process). The following three cross-cutting areas implicitly affect all of the safety cornerstones in ROP. In this study, the preliminary review for the inspection practices of cross-cutting issues in the US and Korean safety regulatory system were performed. The elements of the cross-cutting issues were recently modified to emphasize the importance of safety culture, and the graded approach was applied for the inspection of cross-cutting issues in USNRC. The graded approach for the inspection of cross-cutting issues will be also needed to Korean safety regulatory system in the future

  11. Disentangling Fun and Enjoyment in Exergames Using an Expanded Design, Play, Experience Framework: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellecker, Robin; Lyons, Elizabeth J; Baranowski, Tom

    2013-06-01

    With exergames (as with physical activity in general), more intense and longer-duration game play should accrue more health benefits. Exergames, however, appear to be played for relatively short durations, often at medium or lower intensities. Ostensibly games are played for fun or enjoyment. Enhancing the fun or enjoyment experienced during exergame play should enhance the intensity and duration of physical activity, and thereby the health benefits. Research, reviewed herein, indicates fun and/or enjoyment in games are inherently laden with psychosocial, physiological, and embodiment substrates. Physical activity may also have separate or closely related psychosocial, physiological, and embodiment enjoyment substrates. Research is needed to integrate these levels of experience and to identify the game mechanics that enhance, and even maximize, the fun or enjoyment experienced in exergames, to thereby increase the health benefit.

  12. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a Framework for Understanding the Association between Motor Skills and Internalizing Problems: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Oreste Mancini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor motor skills have been shown to be associated with a range of psychosocial issues, including internalizing problems (anxiety and depression. While well-documented empirically, our understanding of why this relationship occurs remains theoretically underdeveloped. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis by Cairney, Rigoli, and Piek (2013 provides a promising framework that seeks to explain the association between motor skills and internalizing problems, specifically in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD. The framework posits that poor motor skills predispose the development of internalizing problems via interactions with intermediary environmental stressors. At the time the model was proposed, limited direct evidence was available to support or refute the framework. Several studies and developments related to the framework have since been published. This mini-review seeks to provide an up-to-date overview of recent developments related to the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis. We briefly discuss the past research that led to its development, before moving to studies that have investigated the framework since it was proposed. While originally developed within the context of DCD in childhood, recent developments have found support for the model in community samples. Through the reviewed literature, this article provides support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a promising theoretical framework that explains the psychosocial correlates across the broader spectrum of motor ability. This evidence promotes the external validity of the framework for use across the broader spectrum of motor ability. However, given its recent conceptualisation, ongoing evaluation of the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis is recommended.

  13. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the States of the co-operation council for the Arab States of the Gulf: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Alhyas

    Full Text Available The recent and ongoing worldwide expansion in prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM is a considerable risk to individuals, health systems and economies. The increase in prevalence has been particularly marked in the states of the Co-operation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC, and these trends are set to continue. We aimed to systematically review the current prevalence of T2DM within these states, and also within particular sub-populations.We identified 27 published studies for review. Studies were identified by systematic database searches. Medline and Embase were searched using terms such as diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent, hyperglycemia, prevalence, epidemiology and Gulf States. Our search also included scanning reference lists, contacting experts and hand-searching key journals. Studies were judged against pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and where suitable for inclusion, data extraction and quality assessment was achieved using a specifically-designed tool. All studies where prevalence of diabetes was investigated were eligible for inclusion. The inclusion criteria required that the study population be of a GCC country, but otherwise all ages, sexes and ethnicities were included, resident and migrant populations, urban and rural, of all socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. No limitations on publication type, publication status, study design or language of publication were imposed. However, we did not include secondary reports of data, such as review articles without novel data synthesis.The prevalence of T2DM is an increasing problem for all GCC states. They may therefore benefit to a relatively high degree from co-ordinated implementation of broadly consistent management strategies. Further study of prevalence in children and in national versus expatriate populations would also be useful.

  14. Physical activity and the environment: conceptual review and framework for intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, Jenna; Guell, Cornelia; Prins, Rick; Ogilvie, David

    2017-11-15

    Changing the physical environment is one way to promote physical activity and improve health, but evidence on intervention effectiveness is mixed. The theoretical perspectives and conceptual issues discussed or used in evaluative studies and related literature may contribute to these inconsistencies. We aimed to advance the intervention research agenda by systematically searching for and synthesising the literature pertaining to these wider conceptual issues. We searched for editorials, commentaries, reviews, or primary qualitative or quantitative studies in multiple disciplines by electronic searches of key databases (MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process, Web of Science, Cochrane Reviews, ProQuest for dissertations, Health Evidence, EPPI-Centre, TRID and NICE) and snowballing. We extracted theoretical and conceptual material and used thematic analysis in an in-depth, configurative narrative approach to synthesis. Our initial searches identified 2760 potential sources from fields including public health, sociology, behavioural science and transport, of which 104 were included. By first separating out and then drawing together this material, we produced a synthesis that identified five high-level conceptual themes: one concerning outcomes (physical activity as a behaviour and a socially embedded practice), one concerning exposures (environmental interventions as structural changes) and three concerning how interventions bring about their effects (the importance of social and physical context; (un) observable mechanisms linking interventions and changes in physical activity; and interventions as events in complex systems). These themes are inter-related but have rarely been considered together in the disparate literatures. Drawing on these insights, we present a more generalisable way of thinking about how environmental interventions work which could be used in future evaluation studies. Environmental and policy interventions are socially embedded and operate within a

  15. Games and Diabetes: A Review Investigating Theoretical Frameworks, Evaluation Methodologies, and Opportunities for Design Grounded in Learning Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazem, Shaimaa; Webster, Mary; Holmes, Wayne; Wolf, Motje

    2015-09-02

    Here we review 18 articles that describe the design and evaluation of 1 or more games for diabetes from technical, methodological, and theoretical perspectives. We undertook searches covering the period 2010 to May 2015 in the ACM, IEEE, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, and Google Scholar online databases using the keywords "children," "computer games," "diabetes," "games," "type 1," and "type 2" in various Boolean combinations. The review sets out to establish, for future research, an understanding of the current landscape of digital games designed for children with diabetes. We briefly explored the use and impact of well-established learning theories in such games. The most frequently mentioned theoretical frameworks were social cognitive theory and social constructivism. Due to the limitations of the reported evaluation methodologies, little evidence was found to support the strong promise of games for diabetes. Furthermore, we could not establish a relation between design features and the game outcomes. We argue that an in-depth discussion about the extent to which learning theories could and should be manifested in the design decisions is required. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  16. Understanding recall rates in screening mammography: A conceptual framework review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Norsuddin, N.; Reed, W.; Mello-Thoms, C.; Lewis, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Recall rates are one of the performance measures used to evaluate the effectiveness of mammography screening programs. There is conflicting evidence regarding the link between recall rates and cancer detection rates and a variety of differing recall rates exist between countries and readers. This variability in recall rates may have important clinical and economic implications such as unnecessary follow-up procedures, additional costs to the health care system and psychological effects for the women themselves associated with false-positive mammograms results. In order to reduce the impact of false positive recall rates in screening mammography, it is essential for all multidisciplinary health care providers, especially those in medical imaging, to fully understand the factors that may contribute and affect recall rates. The multifactorial nature of recall rates is explored in this paper through the construction of a conceptual map based on a review of the current literature. - Highlights: • Recall rates vary across countries and readers and for initial and subsequent screens. • Falsely recalling women has important clinical, cost and psycho-social implications. • Imaging technology, readers' expertise and patient presentation affect recall rates. • Higher recall rates do not translate into improved sensitivity at higher thresholds. • Multidisciplinary approaches to reduce recall rates may improve women experiences.

  17. Social exclusion, caste & health: a review based on the social determinants framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, K R

    2007-10-01

    Poverty and social exclusion are important socio-economic variables which are often taken for granted while considering ill-health effects. Social exclusion mainly refers to the inability of our society to keep all groups and individuals within reach of what we expect as society to realize their full potential. Marginalization of certain groups or classes occurs in most societies including developed countries and perhaps it is more pronounced in underdeveloped countries. In the Indian context, caste may be considered broadly as a proxy for socio-economic status and poverty. In the identification of the poor, scheduled caste and scheduled tribes and in some cases the other backward castes are considered as socially disadvantaged groups and such groups have a higher probability of living under adverse conditions and poverty. The health status and utilization patterns of such groups give an indication of their social exclusion as well as an idea of the linkages between poverty and health. In this review, we examined broad linkages between caste and some select health/health utilization indicators. We examined data on prevalence of anaemia, treatment of diarrhoea, infant mortality rate, utilization of maternal health care and childhood vaccinations among different caste groups in India. The data based on the National Family Health Survey II (NFHS II) highlight considerable caste differentials in health. The linkages between caste and some health indicators show that poverty is a complex issue which needs to be addressed with a multi-dimensional paradigm. Minimizing the suffering from poverty and ill-health necessitates recognizing the complexity and adopting a perspective such as holistic epidemiology which can challenge pure technocentric approaches to achieve health status.

  18. Challenges with access to healthcare from the perspective of patients living with HIV: a scoping review & framework synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Shabnam; Hurd, Jillian; Marshall, Zack; Maybank, Allison; Hesselbarth, Lydia; Hurley, Oliver; Farrell, Alison; Kendall, Claire E; Rourke, Sean B; Becker, Marissa; Johnston, Sharon; Lundrigan, Phil; Rosenes, Ron; Bibeau, Christine; Liddy, Clare

    2018-08-01

    Accessing healthcare can be difficult but the barriers multiply for people living with HIV (PLHIV). To improve access and the health of PLHIV, we must consider their perspectives and use them to inform standard practice. A better understanding of the current literature related to healthcare access from the perspective of PLHIV, can help to identify evidence gaps and highlight research priorities and opportunities. To identify relevant peer-reviewed publications, search strategies were employed. Electronic and grey literature databases were explored. Articles were screened based on their title and abstract and those that met the screening criteria, were reviewed in full. Data analysis was conducted using a collaborative approach that included knowledge user consultation. Initial concepts were extracted, summarized and through framework synthesis, developed into emerging and final themes. From 20,678 articles, 326 articles met the initial screening criteria and 64 were reviewed in full. The final themes identified, in order of most to least frequent were: Acceptability, Availability, Accessibility, Affordability, Other Barriers, Communication, Satisfaction, Accommodation, Preferences and Equity in Access. The most frequently discussed concepts related to negative interactions with staff, followed by long wait times, limited household resources or inability to pay fees, and fear of one's serostatus being disclosed. Knowledge users were in agreement with the categorization of initial concepts and final themes; however, some gaps in the literature were identified. Specific changes are critical to improving access to healthcare for PLHIV. These include improving availability by ensuring staff and healthcare professionals have proper training, cultivating acceptability and reducing stigma through improving HIV awareness, increasing accessibility through increased HIV information for PLHIV and improved dissemination of this information to increase patient knowledge and

  19. Systematic Review of Traumatic Brain Injuries in Baseball and Softball: A Framework for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusimano, Michael D; Zhu, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are an important public health challenge. The classification of baseball and softball as low contact sports and their association with extremity injuries cause individuals to overlook the risk of TBI in baseball and softball. To summarize our knowledge of the epidemiology and risk factors of TBIs associated with baseball and softball with an aim to better design and implement preventive strategies. A search algorithm containing keywords that were synonymous to the terms "TBI," "baseball" was applied to the following nine databases: MEDLINE, Scopus, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Healthstar, PsychINFO, AMED, Cochrane library. Cited reference lists of identified articles were also consulted yielding a total of eighty-eight articles for full review. The search was concluded on November 14, 2016. The level of evidence was evaluated according to the guidelines from Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement. Twenty-nine articles published between 2000 and 2016 met the criteria for analysis. Collectively, they examined the years 1982-2015 and identified 242,731 baseball-and softball-related TBIs. The most explored outcome of TBI was concussion. The average injury rate per 1,000 athletic exposures was 0.13 (range 0.03-0.46). The most common mechanism of injury was being struck by bat for younger players and being struck by ball for older athletes (adolescent and beyond). Rates of TBI were on average 4.17 times greater in games compared to practices. Females were on average 2.04 times more likely to sustain a TBI than males. Severity of TBIs varied considerably from mild and returning to the field on the same day, to immediate death. Generally, there is poor compliance with helmet use and return-to-play post-concussion guidelines. An increase TBI rates was observed over time. Multifaceted preventive strategies must be implemented to reduce the frequency and burden of these injuries. It is difficult to compare the

  20. Systematic Review of Traumatic Brain Injuries in Baseball and Softball: A Framework for Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cusimano

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTraumatic brain injuries (TBIs are an important public health challenge. The classification of baseball and softball as low contact sports and their association with extremity injuries cause individuals to overlook the risk of TBI in baseball and softball.PurposeTo summarize our knowledge of the epidemiology and risk factors of TBIs associated with baseball and softball with an aim to better design and implement preventive strategies.MethodsA search algorithm containing keywords that were synonymous to the terms “TBI,” “baseball” was applied to the following nine databases: MEDLINE, Scopus, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Healthstar, PsychINFO, AMED, Cochrane library. Cited reference lists of identified articles were also consulted yielding a total of eighty-eight articles for full review. The search was concluded on November 14, 2016. The level of evidence was evaluated according to the guidelines from Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement.ResultsTwenty-nine articles published between 2000 and 2016 met the criteria for analysis. Collectively, they examined the years 1982–2015 and identified 242,731 baseball-and softball-related TBIs. The most explored outcome of TBI was concussion. The average injury rate per 1,000 athletic exposures was 0.13 (range 0.03–0.46. The most common mechanism of injury was being struck by bat for younger players and being struck by ball for older athletes (adolescent and beyond. Rates of TBI were on average 4.17 times greater in games compared to practices. Females were on average 2.04 times more likely to sustain a TBI than males. Severity of TBIs varied considerably from mild and returning to the field on the same day, to immediate death. Generally, there is poor compliance with helmet use and return-to-play post-concussion guidelines. An increase TBI rates was observed over time. Multifaceted preventive strategies must be implemented to reduce the frequency and

  1. When do people cooperate? The neuroeconomics of prosocial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, Carolyn H; Boone, Christophe; Emonds, Griet

    2013-02-01

    Understanding the roots of prosocial behavior is an interdisciplinary research endeavor that has generated an abundance of empirical data across many disciplines. This review integrates research findings from different fields into a novel theoretical framework that can account for when prosocial behavior is likely to occur. Specifically, we propose that the motivation to cooperate (or not), generated by the reward system in the brain (extending from the striatum to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex), is modulated by two neural networks: a cognitive control system (centered on the lateral prefrontal cortex) that processes extrinsic cooperative incentives, and/or a social cognition system (including the temporo-parietal junction, the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala) that processes trust and/or threat signals. The independent modulatory influence of incentives and trust on the decision to cooperate is substantiated by a growing body of neuroimaging data and reconciles the apparent paradox between economic versus social rationality in the literature, suggesting that we are in fact wired for both. Furthermore, the theoretical framework can account for substantial behavioral heterogeneity in prosocial behavior. Based on the existing data, we postulate that self-regarding individuals (who are more likely to adopt an economically rational strategy) are more responsive to extrinsic cooperative incentives and therefore rely relatively more on cognitive control to make (un)cooperative decisions, whereas other-regarding individuals (who are more likely to adopt a socially rational strategy) are more sensitive to trust signals to avoid betrayal and recruit relatively more brain activity in the social cognition system. Several additional hypotheses with respect to the neural roots of social preferences are derived from the model and suggested for future research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. China-Africa: New Directions of Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L V Ponomarenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the policy of fifth generation of Chinese leadership with regard to African states. The article deals with the concept of “Chinese Dream”, which was first declared in Africa, an innovative model of international cooperation in the framework of the formation of “economic zone of the Silk Road”. The authors reveal three basic directions of cooperation - political, economic and humanitarian cooperation. Political cooperation is characterized by the activation of mutual visits at the highest level, the interaction in the framework of the UN General Assembly, participation in UN peacekeeping operations. Economic cooperation is characterized by the activation of bilateral trade, the transition to a “modernized version of” investment cooperation, implementation of the strategy of “going abroad” of Chinese products, imports of natural resources from Africa, creating jobs for the local population, financing of infrastructure projects, the transfer of labor-intensive industries in Africa. Humanitarian cooperation includes training program for Africa, the implementation of the Sino-African programs, technology partnerships, research and exchange, and the China-Africa Forum “Think Tank”. Cooperation in health care also plays an important role. The authors note that the new Chinese leadership declares transition to an upgraded version of the Sino-African cooperation.

  3. Cooperation and deception in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katie; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2017-08-01

    Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates. In experimental food competitions, primates flexibly manipulate group-mates' behavior to tactically deceive them. Deception can infiltrate cooperative interactions, such as when one takes an unfair share of meat after a coordinated hunt. In order to counter competition of this sort, primates maintain cooperation through partner choice, partner control, and third party punishment. Yet humans appear to stand alone in their ability to understand others' beliefs, which allows us not only to deceive others with the explicit intent to create a false belief, but it also allows us to put ourselves in others' shoes to determine when cheaters need to be punished, even if we are not directly disadvantaged by the cheater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Retrospective Review of Watershed Characteristics and a Framework for Future Research in the Sarasota Bay Watershed, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, George R.; Harrison, Arnell S.; Alderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sarasota Bay Estuary Program conducted a retrospective review of characteristics of the Sarasota Bay watershed in west-central Florida. This report describes watershed characteristics, surface- and ground-water processes, and the environmental setting of the Sarasota Bay watershed. Population growth during the last 50 years is transforming the Sarasota Bay watershed from rural and agriculture to urban and suburban. The transition has resulted in land-use changes that influence surface- and ground-water processes in the watershed. Increased impervious cover decreases recharge to ground water and increases overland runoff and the pollutants carried in the runoff. Soil compaction resulting from agriculture, construction, and recreation activities also decreases recharge to ground water. Conventional approaches to stormwater runoff have involved conveyances and large storage areas. Low-impact development approaches, designed to provide recharge near the precipitation point-of-contact, are being used increasingly in the watershed. Simple pollutant loading models applied to the Sarasota Bay watershed have focused on large-scale processes and pollutant loads determined from empirical values and mean event concentrations. Complex watershed models and more intensive data-collection programs can provide the level of information needed to quantify (1) the effects of lot-scale land practices on runoff, storage, and ground-water recharge, (2) dry and wet season flux of nutrients through atmospheric deposition, (3) changes in partitioning of water and contaminants as urbanization alters predevelopment rainfall-runoff relations, and (4) linkages between watershed models and lot-scale models to evaluate the effect of small-scale changes over the entire Sarasota Bay watershed. As urbanization in the Sarasota Bay watershed continues, focused research on water-resources issues can provide information needed by water

  5. Dynamics of Interagency Cooperation Process at Provincial Reconstruction Team in Operations ISAF and Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    products to review what is known already about the interagency cooperation process at PRT level in operations Enduring Freedom and ISAF. The...Patricia Thomson, A Framework for Success: International Intervention in Societies Emerging from Conflict, Leashing the Dogs of War U.S. Institute...in detail in Chapter 4, the authors reported the experiences of PRTs manned by Canada, Germany, Italy, Lithuania , UK and USA. Four sections cover the

  6. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a Framework for Understanding the Association Between Motor Skills and Internalizing Problems: A Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Vincent O.; Rigoli, Daniela; Cairney, John; Roberts, Lynne D.; Piek, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills have been shown to be associated with a range of psychosocial issues, including internalizing problems (anxiety and depression). While well-documented empirically, our understanding of why this relationship occurs remains theoretically underdeveloped. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis by Cairney et al. (2013) provides a promising framework that seeks to explain the association between motor skills and internalizing problems, specifically in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The framework posits that poor motor skills predispose the development of internalizing problems via interactions with intermediary environmental stressors. At the time the model was proposed, limited direct evidence was available to support or refute the framework. Several studies and developments related to the framework have since been published. This mini-review seeks to provide an up-to-date overview of recent developments related to the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis. We briefly discuss the past research that led to its development, before moving to studies that have investigated the framework since it was proposed. While originally developed within the context of DCD in childhood, recent developments have found support for the model in community samples. Through the reviewed literature, this article provides support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a promising theoretical framework that explains the psychosocial correlates across the broader spectrum of motor ability. However, given its recent conceptualization, ongoing evaluation of the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis is recommended. PMID:26941690

  7. The conceptual framework and assessment methodology for the systematic reviews of community-based interventions for the prevention and control of infectious diseases of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews of community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP). We adapted the conceptual framework from the 3ie work on the 'Community-Based Intervention Packages for Preventing Maternal Morbidity and Mortality and Improving Neonatal Outcomes' to aid in the analyzing of the existing CBIs for IDoP. The conceptual framework revolves around objectives, inputs, processes, outputs, outcomes, and impacts showing the theoretical linkages between the delivery of the interventions targeting these diseases through various community delivery platforms and the consequent health impacts. We also describe the methodology undertaken to conduct the systematic reviews and the meta-analyses.

  8. Systematic Review of Smoking Initiation among Asian Adolescents, 20052015: Utilizing the Frameworks of Triadic Influence and Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talip, Tajidah; Murang, Zaidah; Kifli, Nurolaini; Naing, Lin

    2016-01-01

    A recent WHO data report on mortality attributable to tobacco use including cigarette smoking indicated a very high burden of deaths in Asia and that people often initiate smoking as early as young adolescents. The objectives of this study were to systematically review peerreviewed articles on cigarette smoking initiation among Asian adolescents and to develop a conceptual model of factors influencing smoking initiation by integrating all relevant factors based on existing data. Following a PRISMA guideline, a systematic review of articles published between 2005 and June 2015 was conducted using 5 databases on cigarette smoking initiation among adolescents (aged 1019 years) living in Asia. We summarized the main findings of each study according to our research questions and data that emerged during the data extraction process. Analysis and categorization were based on the TTI and TPB models and classification of factors extracted from the study, were as follows: personal factors, social factors, broader environmental factors, mediators, and intention to initiate smoking and smoking behavior. Of 1,227 identified studies, only 20 were included in this review. Our findings found that the mean age of cigarette smoking initiation ranged from 10 to 14 years and those who are more likely to initiate smoking are male, older adolescents, adolescents with low parental SES, individuals with low parental monitoring, low parental education level and having no discussion on smoking at home, those living in public housing and those exhibiting healthrisk behavior. Our study also revealed that the risk of smoking initiation increased when they are exposed to smokers, influenced by peers, exposed to tobacco advertisements, receive pocket money, have lack of knowledge about smoking, have poor school performance, have a family conflict and have psychological problems. The conceptual model developed demonstrated complex networks of factors influencing initiation. This systematic review

  9. Pulmonary rehabilitation referral and participation are commonly influenced by environment, knowledge, and beliefs about consequences: a systematic review using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narelle S Cox

    2017-04-01

    Trial registration: PROSPERO CRD42015015976. [Cox NS, Oliveira CC, Lahham A, Holland AE (2017 Pulmonary rehabilitation referral and participation are commonly influenced by environment, knowledge, and beliefs about consequences: a systematic review using the Theoretical Domains Framework. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 84–93

  10. "Because I Am Worth It" : A Theoretical Framework and Empirical Review of a Justification-Based Account of Self-Regulation Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Witt Huberts, Jessie C.; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D

    Self-regulation failure is often explained as being overwhelmed by impulse. The present article proposes a novel pathway, presenting a theoretical framework and empirical review of a justification-based account of self-regulation failure. With justification we refer to making excuses for one's

  11. Coach development programmes to improve interpersonal coach behaviours: a systematic review using the re-aim framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M Blair; McGuckin, Matthew; Gainforth, Heather L; Bruner, Mark W; Côté, Jean

    2015-07-01

    Although evidence supports the effectiveness of interpersonal Coach Development Programmes (CDPs), which are designed to foster coach-athlete relationships, an intervention's impact is shaped by numerous factors over and above effectiveness. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the extent that published articles describing interpersonal CDP trials reported on indicators of internal and external validity, as conceptualised in the RE-AIM framework (ie, Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance). The search strategy was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines, involving a database search and supplemental manual search of key articles and journals. After initial screening, the full-text search strategy involved identifying articles describing CDP trials and then selecting a specific subgroup of articles involving interpersonal CDP trials and excluding ineligible articles. Resulting trials were coded using a 47-item sport coaching adaptation of the RE-AIM coding sheet. 17 published articles met eligibility criteria, representing 10 distinct CDP trials. After attaining coder agreement, global ratings of RE-AIM indicators within interpersonal CDP trials ranged from the low to moderate quality. Whereas indicators of effectiveness and implementation were reported to some extent across all studies, maintenance within sport organisations and a number of specific indicators from across dimensions were rarely reported. These findings inform the future design and evaluation of CDPs that have the potential to be adopted in numerous settings and reach athletes and coaches who can most benefit. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Just-in-Time Feedback in Diet and Physical Activity Interventions: Systematic Review and Practical Design Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembre, Susan M; Liao, Yue; Robertson, Michael C; Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Kerr, Jacqueline; Haffey, Meghan E; Burnett, Taylor; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Hicklen, Rachel S

    2018-03-22

    The integration of body-worn sensors with mobile devices presents a tremendous opportunity to improve just-in-time behavioral interventions by enhancing bidirectional communication between investigators and their participants. This approach can be used to deliver supportive feedback at critical moments to optimize the attainment of health behavior goals. The goals of this systematic review were to summarize data on the content characteristics of feedback messaging used in diet and physical activity (PA) interventions and to develop a practical framework for designing just-in-time feedback for behavioral interventions. Interventions that included just-in-time feedback on PA, sedentary behavior, or dietary intake were eligible for inclusion. Feedback content and efficacy data were synthesized descriptively. The review included 31 studies (15/31, 48%, targeting PA or sedentary behavior only; 13/31, 42%, targeting diet and PA; and 3/31, 10%, targeting diet only). All studies used just-in-time feedback, 30 (97%, 30/31) used personalized feedback, and 24 (78%, 24/31) used goal-oriented feedback, but only 5 (16%, 5/31) used actionable feedback. Of the 9 studies that tested the efficacy of providing feedback to promote behavior change, 4 reported significant improvements in health behavior. In 3 of these 4 studies, feedback was continuously available, goal-oriented, or actionable. Feedback that was continuously available, personalized, and actionable relative to a known behavioral objective was prominent in intervention studies with significant behavior change outcomes. Future research should determine whether all or some of these characteristics are needed to optimize the effect of feedback in just-in-time interventions. ©Susan M Schembre, Yue Liao, Michael C Robertson, Genevieve Fridlund Dunton, Jacqueline Kerr, Meghan E Haffey, Taylor Burnett, Karen Basen-Engquist, Rachel S Hicklen. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http

  13. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    in the five countries and discuss its implications. The present paper synthesizes possible ‘blind spots’ in the national policy, legal or administrative water governance frameworks with reference to the identified types of water-related conflictive and cooperative situations identified during the inventories.......In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disordered eating behaviour: A systematic review and a framework for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisari, Panagiota; Dourish, Colin T; Higgs, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Preliminary findings suggest that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be associated with disordered eating behaviour, but whether there is sufficient evidence to suggest an association between ADHD and specific types of disordered eating behaviour is unclear. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether specific features associated with ADHD are differentially associated with disordered eating behaviour. A systematic review of seventy-five studies was conducted to evaluate the potential association between ADHD symptomatology and disordered eating behaviour and to provide an estimate of the strength of evidence for any association. Overall, a moderate strength of evidence exists for a positive association between ADHD and disordered eating and with specific types of disordered-eating behaviour, in particular, overeating behaviour. There is consistent evidence that impulsivity symptoms of ADHD are positively associated with overeating and bulimia nervosa and more limited evidence for an association between hyperactivity symptoms and restrictive eating in males but not females. Further research is required to assess the potential direction of the relationship between ADHD and disordered eating, the underlying mechanisms and the role of specific ADHD symptoms in the development and/or maintenance of disordered eating behaviour. We propose a framework that could be used to guide the design of future studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. BORDERLINE AND CLASSIFICATION IN THE COMMUNITY REGULATORY FRAMEWORK FOR MEDICAL DEVICES – BRIEF REVIEW ON SOME DENTISTRY PRODUCTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Lyapina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Defining a given product as a medical device and interpretation of the application of the classification rules fall within the competence of the competent authorities of the Member States where the product is on the market. Different interpretations of Community legislation occur, and, can put public health at risk and distort the internal market. Borderline cases are considered to be those cases where it is not clear from the outset whether a given product is a medical device, an in vitro diagnostic medical device, an active implantable medical device or not. Classification cases can be described as those cases where there exists a difficulty in the uniform application of the classification rules as laid down in the Medical Devices Directive (MDD, or where for a given device, depending on interpretation of the rules, different classifications can occur. The aim of the present work is to make a brief review on discussion on classification in the community regulatory framework for medical devices of some dentistry products.

  16. Review on the worldwide regulatory framework for biosimilars focusing on the Mexican case as an emerging market in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Cabrera, Ricardo; Mena-Pérez, Sandra Carolina; Bondani-Guasti, Augusto; García-Arrazola, Roeb

    2013-12-01

    The global biopharmaceutical market is worth over $100 billion USD. Nearly 90% of these products will lose their patent in the next ten years, leading to the commercialization of their subsequent versions, known as 'biosimilars'. Biosimilars are much more complex molecules than chemically synthesized generics in terms of size, structure, stability, microheterogeneity, manufacture, etc. Therefore, a specific regulatory framework is needed in order to demonstrate their comparability with innovative products, as well as their quality, safety and efficacy. The EU published the first regulatory pathway in 2005 and has approved 14 biosimilars. Mexico has recently developed a clear regulatory pathway for these products. Their legal basis was established in Article 222 Bis of General Law of Health in 2009, clear specifications in the Regulation for Health Goods in 2011, and further requirements in the Mexican Official Norm NOM-EM-001-SSA1-2012. The aim of this review is to summarize the regulatory pathways for biosimilars in the world with a special focus on Mexican experience, so as contribute to the development of regulations in other countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Building a Conceptual Framework to Study the Effect of HIV Stigma-Reduction Intervention Strategies on HIV Test Uptake: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Subash; Hannes, Karin; Cargo, Margaret; Buve, Anne; Aro, Arja R; Mathei, Catharina

    A scoping review of grey and peer-reviewed literature was conducted to develop a conceptual framework to illustrate mechanisms involved in reducing HIV stigma and increasing HIV test uptake. We followed a three-step approach to exploring the literature: developing concepts, organizing and categorizing concepts, and synthesizing concepts into a framework. The framework contains four types of intervention strategies: awareness creation, influencing normative behavior, providing support, and developing regulatory laws. The awareness creation strategy generally improves knowledge and the influencing normative behavior strategy changes stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors, and subsequently, increases HIV test uptake. Providing support and development of regulatory law strategies changes actual stigmatizing behaviors of the people, and subsequently, increases HIV test uptake. The framework further outlines that the mechanisms described are influenced by the interaction of various social-contextual and individual factors. The framework sheds new light on the effects of HIV stigma-reduction intervention strategies and HIV test uptake. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Accident precursors, near misses, and warning signs: Critical review and formal definitions within the framework of Discrete Event Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, Joseph H.; Saltmarsh, Elizabeth A.; Favarò, Francesca M.; Brevault, Loïc

    2013-01-01

    An important consideration in safety analysis and accident prevention is the identification of and response to accident precursors. These off-nominal events are opportunities to recognize potential accident pathogens, identify overlooked accident sequences, and make technical and organizational decisions to address them before further escalation can occur. When handled properly, the identification of precursors provides an opportunity to interrupt an accident sequence from unfolding; when ignored or missed, precursors may only provide tragic proof after the fact that an accident was preventable. In this work, we first provide a critical review of the concept of precursor, and we highlight important features that ought to be distinguished whenever accident precursors are discussed. We address for example the notion of ex-ante and ex-post precursors, identified for postulated and instantiated (occurred) accident sequences respectively, and we discuss the feature of transferability of precursors. We then develop a formal (mathematical) definition of accident precursors as truncated accident sequences within the modeling framework of Discrete Event Systems. Additionally, we examine the related notions of “accident pathogens” as static or lurking adverse conditions that can contribute to or aggravate an accident, as well as “near misses”, “warning signs” and the novel concept of “accident pathway”. While these terms are within the same linguistic neighborhood as “accident precursors”, we argue that there are subtle but important differences between them and recommend that they not be used interchangeably for the sake of accuracy and clarity of communication within the risk and safety community. We also propose venues for developing quantitative importance measures for accident precursors, similar to component importance measures in reliability engineering. Our objective is to establish a common understanding and clear delineation of these terms, and

  19. Dark sides of the proposed Framework Convention on Global Health's many virtues: A systematic review and critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2013-06-14

    The costs of any proposal for new international law must be fully evaluated and compared with benefits and competing alternatives to ensure adoption will not create more problems than solutions. A systematic review of the research literature was conducted to categorize and assess limitations and unintended negative consequences associated with the proposed Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH). A critical analysis then interpreted these findings using economic, ethical, legal, and political science perspectives. Of the 442 documents retrieved, nine met the inclusion criteria. Collectively, these documents highlighted that an FCGH could duplicate other efforts, lack feasibility, and have questionable impact. The critical analysis reveals that negative consequences can result from the FCGH's proposed form of international law and proposed functions of influencing national budgets, realizing health rights and resetting global governance for health. These include the direct costs of international law, opportunity costs, reducing political dialogue by legalizing political interactions, petrifying principles that may have only contemporary relevance, imposing foreign values on less powerful countries, forcing externally defined goals on countries, prioritizing individual rights over population-wide well-being, further complicating global governance for health, weakening the World Health Organization (WHO), reducing participation opportunities for non-state actors, and offering sub-optimal solutions for global health challenges. Four options for revising the FCGH proposal are developed to address its weaknesses and strengthen its potential for impact. These include: 1) abandoning international law as the primary commitment mechanism and instead pursuing agreement towards a less formal "framework for global health"; 2) seeking fundamental constitutional reform of WHO to address gaps in global governance for health; 3) mobilizing for a separate political platform

  20. A project in support of international nuclear cooperation activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeongkong; Kim, Myungro; Choi, Pyunghoon; Kim, Kyungpyo; Jung, Sunghyon; Park, Jiyeon; Eom, Jaesik; Kim, Wangkeun; Chung, Byungsun

    2011-12-15

    This study contains the work undertaken to promote multilateral cooperation within the framework of international nuclear related organizations and regional cooperative agreements and the relevant forums, to enhance bilateral cooperation with foreign nuclear related research institutes as well as to promote cooperation through the exchange of foreign scientists. As for multilateral cooperation, activities for promoting cooperation within the IAEA and regional cooperative frameworks are introduced. Regarding bilateral cooperation, activities for concluding arrangements and MOUs with foreign research institutes and for participation in joint nuclear coordinating committee meetings between Korea and other countries are presented. For promoting personnel exchanges, activities for inviting and utilizing foreign scientists and mutual discussions with foreign experts, who have visited KAERI, are also described. Continuous efforts to contributing towards the international community through utilizing Korea's experience gained in the process of technical self-reliance and development of human resources are needed. Also efforts to establish the foundation of international cooperation and to make inroad into overseas nuclear markets for export of our nuclear technologies should be made. Meanwhile in the bilateral cooperation, we need to beef up cooperation with U. S. A. and Canada through the joint committee for the joint export to third countries. It is expected that this study would be utilized as a basic material for the international cooperation of nuclear energy, especially for the KAERI's international cooperation in an effective way.

  1. IAEA and EC to Strengthen Cooperation in Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency and the European Commission today signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Nuclear Safety, establishing a framework for cooperation to help improve nuclear safety in Europe. The Memorandum, signed by IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano and the European Commissioner for Energy, Guenther Oettinger, is the first concrete result of an enhanced dialogue between the IAEA and the EU, launched in January 2013 at their first Senior Officials Meeting in Brussels. Cooperation has been rapidly growing in recent years between the IAEA and the EU, which, together with its Member States, is one of the biggest donors to the IAEA, both in financial terms and in provision of technical expertise. Cooperation in the field of nuclear safeguards is already well-established and formalised, but in other areas it is less structured. ''The EU is one of our most important partners, providing practical and financial assistance, as well as expertise, in many areas of our work,'' Mr. Amano said. ''This Memorandum of Understanding is further evidence that EU countries take very seriously the need to strengthen nuclear safety in the aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi accident.'' Mr. Oettinger highlighted that such intensified cooperation is important to ensure that nuclear energy is produced safely all over the world. He added that the EU nuclear stress tests set a global benchmark and contribute to the IAEA's Action Plan on Nuclear Safety , which was endorsed unanimously by the IAEA's Member States in September 2011. ''Under the new Memorandum, all this experience will be made available to the international community. I hope that the European safety approach leads to a global initiative,'' said the Commissioner. The Memorandum creates an enhanced framework for planning and reviewing various forms of cooperation in nuclear safety, such as expert peer reviews and strengthening emergency preparedness and response capabilities. It will allow both

  2. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with these...

  3. Effective Communication between Preservice and Cooperating Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, Ji Ji; Moore, Jenifer; Smajic, Almir

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews research on communication between preservice and cooperating teachers during a teacher internship. The research reveals that poor communication between preservice teachers and cooperating teachers can cause barriers to planning lessons, feedback, and teaching experiences. Additionally, research indicates that…

  4. Effect of training and structured medication review on medication appropriateness in nursing home residents and on cooperation between health care professionals: the InTherAKT study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlknecht, Angelika; Nestler, Nadja; Bauer, Ulrike; Schüßler, Nadine; Schuler, Jochen; Scharer, Sebastian; Becker, Ralf; Waltering, Isabel; Hempel, Georg; Schwalbe, Oliver; Flamm, Maria; Osterbrink, Jürgen

    2017-01-18

    Pharmacotherapy in residents of nursing homes is critical due to the special vulnerability of this population. Medical care and interprofessional communication in nursing homes are often uncoordinated. As a consequence, polypharmacy and inappropriate medication use are common and may lead to hospitalizations and health hazards. The aim of this study is to optimize communication between the involved professional groups by specific training and by establishing a structured medication review process, and to improve medication appropriateness and patient-relevant health outcomes for residents of nursing homes. The trial is designed as single-arm study. It involves 300 nursing home residents aged ≥ 65 years and the members of the different professional groups practising in nursing home care (15-20 general practitioners, nurses, pharmacists). The intervention consists of interprofessional education on safe medication use in geriatric patients, and a systematic interprofessional therapy check (recording, reviewing and adapting the medication of the participating residents by means of a specific online platform). The intervention period is divided into two phases; total project period is 3 years. Primary outcome measure is the change in medication appropriateness according to the Medication Appropriateness Index. Secondary outcomes are cognitive performance, occurrence of delirium, agitation, tendency of falls, total number of drugs, number of potentially dangerous drug-drug interactions and appropriateness of recorded analgesic therapy regimens according to the Medication Appropriateness Index. Data are collected at t 0 (before the start of the intervention), t 1 (after the first intervention period) and t 2 (after the second intervention period). Cooperation and communication between the professional groups are investigated twice by qualitative interviews. The project aims to establish a structured system for monitoring of drug therapy in nursing home residents

  5. The Pan-University Network for Global Health: framework for collaboration and review of global health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, M S; BeLue, R; Oni, T; Wittwer-Backofen, U; Deobagkar, D; Onya, H; Samuels, T A; Matthews, S A; Stone, C; Airhihenbuwa, C

    2016-04-21

    In the current United Nations efforts to plan for post 2015-Millennium Development Goals, global partnership to address non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has become a critical goal to effectively respond to the complex global challenges of which inequity in health remains a persistent challenge. Building capacity in terms of well-equipped local researchers and service providers is a key to bridging the inequity in global health. Launched by Penn State University in 2014, the Pan University Network for Global Health responds to this need by bridging researchers at more than 10 universities across the globe. In this paper we outline our framework for international and interdisciplinary collaboration, as well the rationale for our research areas, including a review of these two themes. After its initial meeting, the network has established two central thematic priorities: 1) urbanization and health and 2) the intersection of infectious diseases and NCDs. The urban population in the global south will nearly double in 25 years (approx. 2 billion today to over 3.5 billion by 2040). Urban population growth will have a direct impact on global health, and this growth will be burdened with uneven development and the persistence of urban spatial inequality, including health disparities. The NCD burden, which includes conditions such as hypertension, stroke, and diabetes, is outstripping infectious disease in countries in the global south that are considered to be disproportionately burdened by infectious diseases. Addressing these two priorities demands an interdisciplinary and multi-institutional model to stimulate innovation and synergy that will influence the overall framing of research questions as well as the integration and coordination of research.

  6. Development of a theoretical framework of factors affecting patient safety incident reporting: a theoretical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Stephanie; Hull, Louise; Soukup, Tayana; Mayer, Erik; Athanasiou, Thanos; Sevdalis, Nick; Darzi, Ara

    2017-12-27

    The development and implementation of incident reporting systems within healthcare continues to be a fundamental strategy to reduce preventable patient harm and improve the quality and safety of healthcare. We sought to identify factors contributing to patient safety incident reporting. To facilitate improvements in incident reporting, a theoretical framework, encompassing factors that act as barriers and enablers ofreporting, was developed. Embase, Ovid MEDLINE(R) and PsycINFO were searched to identify relevant articles published between January 1980 and May 2014. A comprehensive search strategy including MeSH terms and keywords was developed to identify relevant articles. Data were extracted by three independent researchers; to ensure the accuracy of data extraction, all studies eligible for inclusion were rescreened by two reviewers. The literature search identified 3049 potentially eligible articles; of these, 110 articles, including >29 726 participants, met the inclusion criteria. In total, 748 barriers were identified (frequency count) across the 110 articles. In comparison, 372 facilitators to incident reporting and 118 negative cases were identified. The top two barriers cited were fear of adverse consequences (161, representing 21.52% of barriers) and process and systems of reporting (110, representing 14.71% of barriers). In comparison, the top two facilitators were organisational (97, representing 26.08% of facilitators) and process and systems of reporting (75, representing 20.16% of facilitators). A wide range of factors contributing to engagement in incident reporting exist. Efforts that address the current tendency to under-report must consider the full range of factors in order to develop interventions as well as a strategic policy approach for improvement. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Development of a theoretical framework of factors affecting patient safety incident reporting: a theoretical review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Louise; Soukup, Tayana; Mayer, Erik; Athanasiou, Thanos; Sevdalis, Nick; Darzi, Ara

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The development and implementation of incident reporting systems within healthcare continues to be a fundamental strategy to reduce preventable patient harm and improve the quality and safety of healthcare. We sought to identify factors contributing to patient safety incident reporting. Design To facilitate improvements in incident reporting, a theoretical framework, encompassing factors that act as barriers and enablers ofreporting, was developed. Embase, Ovid MEDLINE(R) and PsycINFO were searched to identify relevant articles published between January 1980 and May 2014. A comprehensive search strategy including MeSH terms and keywords was developed to identify relevant articles. Data were extracted by three independent researchers; to ensure the accuracy of data extraction, all studies eligible for inclusion were rescreened by two reviewers. Results The literature search identified 3049 potentially eligible articles; of these, 110 articles, including >29 726 participants, met the inclusion criteria. In total, 748 barriers were identified (frequency count) across the 110 articles. In comparison, 372 facilitators to incident reporting and 118 negative cases were identified. The top two barriers cited were fear of adverse consequences (161, representing 21.52% of barriers) and process and systems of reporting (110, representing 14.71% of barriers). In comparison, the top two facilitators were organisational (97, representing 26.08% of facilitators) and process and systems of reporting (75, representing 20.16% of facilitators). Conclusion A wide range of factors contributing to engagement in incident reporting exist. Efforts that address the current tendency to under-report must consider the full range of factors in order to develop interventions as well as a strategic policy approach for improvement. PMID:29284714

  8. Model performance evaluation (validation and calibration) in model-based studies of therapeutic interventions for cardiovascular diseases : a review and suggested reporting framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Ali Afzali, Hossein; Gray, Jodi; Karnon, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Decision analytic models play an increasingly important role in the economic evaluation of health technologies. Given uncertainties around the assumptions used to develop such models, several guidelines have been published to identify and assess 'best practice' in the model development process, including general modelling approach (e.g., time horizon), model structure, input data and model performance evaluation. This paper focuses on model performance evaluation. In the absence of a sufficient level of detail around model performance evaluation, concerns regarding the accuracy of model outputs, and hence the credibility of such models, are frequently raised. Following presentation of its components, a review of the application and reporting of model performance evaluation is presented. Taking cardiovascular disease as an illustrative example, the review investigates the use of face validity, internal validity, external validity, and cross model validity. As a part of the performance evaluation process, model calibration is also discussed and its use in applied studies investigated. The review found that the application and reporting of model performance evaluation across 81 studies of treatment for cardiovascular disease was variable. Cross-model validation was reported in 55 % of the reviewed studies, though the level of detail provided varied considerably. We found that very few studies documented other types of validity, and only 6 % of the reviewed articles reported a calibration process. Considering the above findings, we propose a comprehensive model performance evaluation framework (checklist), informed by a review of best-practice guidelines. This framework provides a basis for more accurate and consistent documentation of model performance evaluation. This will improve the peer review process and the comparability of modelling studies. Recognising the fundamental role of decision analytic models in informing public funding decisions, the proposed

  9. Analytics4Action Evaluation Framework: A Review of Evidence-Based Learning Analytics Interventions at the Open University UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Boroowa, Avinash; Cross, Simon; Kubiak, Chris; Mayles, Kevin; Murphy, Sam

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop an evidence-based framework for learning analytics whereby stakeholders can manage, evaluate, and make decisions about which types of interventions work well and under which conditions. In this article, we will work towards developing a foundation of an Analytics4Action Evaluation Framework (A4AEF) that is…

  10. TIMSS Advanced 2015 and Advanced Placement Calculus & Physics. A Framework Analysis. Research in Review 2016-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Christopher; Jones, Lee; Webb, David C.; Grover, Ryan; Di Giacomo, F. Tony; Marino, Katherine Adele

    2016-01-01

    This report will determine to what degree the AP Physics 1 and 2 and AP Calculus AB and BC frameworks are aligned with the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced Physics and Mathematics frameworks. This will enable an exploration of any differences in content coverage and levels of complexity, and will set the stage…

  11. Cooperative and networking strategies in small business

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, João

    2017-01-01

    The book aims to collect the most recent research and best practices in the cooperative and networking small business field identifying new theoretical models and describing the relationship between cooperation and networks in the small business strategy context. It examines different concepts and analytical techniques better understand the links between cooperative strategies and networks in small business. It also studies the existing economic conditions of network and strategic implications to small business from the point of view of their internal and external consistency. Cooperation and networks is a fashionable topic. It is receiving increasing attention in popular management publications, as well as specialized academic journals. Cooperation between firms and industries is a means of leveraging and aggregating knowledge also generating direct benefits in terms of innovation, productivity and competitiveness. Various options and decisions made within the framework of strategic alliances may be identifi...

  12. Selfishness and Cooperation: Challenge for Social Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szocik Konrad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation is a great challenge for natural selection. Some scholars assume that cooperation could not evolve within the framework of natural selection. It is undeniable that natural selection, at least at the individual level, favors selfishness and defectors. Nonetheless, this selfish tendency does not necessarily imply that cooperation could not evolve by means of natural selection. In this paper, we specifically acknowledge certain basic challenges for the evolution of the human ability to cooperate at the level of large groups. In this paper, we discuss topics like the human ability for “supercooperation,” the importance of repetition and reputation, and Multilevel Selection Theory as the basic mechanisms of evolution of cooperation.

  13. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...... can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort....

  14. Some aspects of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera A, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    The present work deals with some aspects of International cooperation which are directly related with Science and Technology in general, but which have total validity in Nuclear Science and Technology. It is meant particularly for Latin-American countries as a whole. Some ideas meant to review the factors that act on the development of Science and Technology are briefly developed; the number of positive achievements reached in Sc. and T.; is recounted; the problems to be overcome in Sc. and T. are numbered and, finally, some propositions for increasing international cooperation in Science and Technology are exposed. (Author)

  15. Analysis of Business Revenue Residual Sharing System in Cooperatives in Indonesia on Islamic Law Review: A case study at KSU Mitra Bersama in Palu City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidin Djafar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explain profit sharing system in Mitra Bersama Cooperative in the Overview of Islamic Law. To achieve this objective, this research uses descriptive qualitative method by employing three data collecting techniques i.e. observation, interview, as well as documentation. The data of this research are obtained from the Chairman, the Secretary and the Employees of the Multipurpose Cooperative (KSU Mitra Bersama. The results showed that the distribution of Business revenue Residual (SHU, at Mitra Bersama Cooperative, amounted to 5% which was distributed to all members of the cooperative in December. This sharing system displays no injustice and extortion disadvantageous to the cooperative’s members.  It performs an open management system and shares the profits and losses to its members according to the prevailing regulations already known by all shareholders. We concluded that the system of the Business Revenue Residual (SHU sharing at this Multipurpose Cooperative is permissible in Islam. Therefore, the results of this study can be used as a good model for Business Revenue Residual (SHU sharing system which conforms to Islamic Law.

  16. Cooperative learning in 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century brings four important challenges in which cooperation plays a central role: (1 a rapidly increasing global interdependence that will result in increasing local diversity as well as more frequent and intense conflicts, (2 the increasing number of democracies throughout the world, (3 the need for creative entrepreneurs, and (4 the growing importance of interpersonal relationships that affect the development of personal identity. The tools for meeting these challenges include cooperative learning. In this article the nature of cooperative learning will be reviewed, the underlying theory of social interdependence will be discussed, and the results of the research on cooperative learning will be briefly reviewed. The way in which cooperative learning contributes to meeting the four challenges will then be discussed.

  17. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...

  18. Literature review on skills development frameworks for small and medium-sized contractors in the green building sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlungwana, Sihle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available on skills development frameworks for small and medium-sized contractors in the green building sector Sihle Dlungwana Senior Researcher, CSIR Built Environment Unit Introduction In 2011 the Department of Public Works adopted a Green Building... of their characteristics. Thematic analysis was used to analyse a number of articles in order to develop an appropriate framework for supporting future skills development programmes and tools for the green building sector. Defining a green contractor Generally...

  19. When Reputation Enforces Evolutionary Cooperation in Unreliable MANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Changbing; Li, Ang; Li, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    In self-organized mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), network functions rely on cooperation of self-interested nodes, where a challenge is to enforce their mutual cooperation. In this paper, we study cooperative packet forwarding in a one-hop unreliable channel which results from loss of packets and noisy observation of transmissions. We propose an indirect reciprocity framework based on evolutionary game theory, and enforce cooperation of packet forwarding strategies in both structured and unstructured MANETs. Furthermore, we analyze the evolutionary dynamics of cooperative strategies and derive the threshold of benefit-to-cost ratio to guarantee the convergence of cooperation. The numerical simulations verify that the proposed evolutionary game theoretic solution enforces cooperation when the benefit-to-cost ratio of the altruistic exceeds the critical condition. In addition, the network throughput performance of our proposed strategy in structured MANETs is measured, which is in close agreement with that of the full cooperative strategy.

  20. How to promote the regional cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Masayuki [International Affairs and Safeguards Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    The Tenth International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia was held in Tokyo on March 10, 1999. Representatives participated from Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam as well as IAEA as an observer. The countries reflected on the positive achievements of the past ten years and affirmed the major goals for the future, the major theme of the meeting being the evolution of the framework. Some typical cooperative activities have result in: (a) new varieties of plants with greater productivity under a range of environmental conditions (b) development and adoptions of improved analytical procedures to track air pollution in major cities where the identification of the major sources will facilitate remediation measures (c) coordinated trials for radiation therapy of cervical cancer and the development of rigorous protocols (d) training of staff in research reactor operation and in the use of research reactors for the study of new materials. The participating countries have committed to reviewing the six existing sub-categories, namely (1) utilization of research reactors, (2,3) application of radiation and radioisotope in the agriculture and the medical fields, (4) public acceptance of nuclear energy, (5) radioactive waste management, and (6) nuclear safety culture. To share knowledge on human resources development within the region and to consider measures for the further development of human resources in relevant fields, a seminar for human resources development, sponsored by Japan, will be held in Japan. The conference will be renamed as (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) beginning with the next conference. The Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia will be held in Japan and in a participating country other than Japan in alternating years. To enhance the regional nuclear cooperation activities under this framework, each participating country will register a Coordinator and Project Leaders to facilitate

  1. How to promote the regional cooperation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    The Tenth International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia was held in Tokyo on March 10, 1999. Representatives participated from Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam as well as IAEA as an observer. The countries reflected on the positive achievements of the past ten years and affirmed the major goals for the future, the major theme of the meeting being the evolution of the framework. Some typical cooperative activities have result in: (a) new varieties of plants with greater productivity under a range of environmental conditions (b) development and adoptions of improved analytical procedures to track air pollution in major cities where the identification of the major sources will facilitate remediation measures (c) coordinated trials for radiation therapy of cervical cancer and the development of rigorous protocols (d) training of staff in research reactor operation and in the use of research reactors for the study of new materials. The participating countries have committed to reviewing the six existing sub-categories, namely (1) utilization of research reactors, (2,3) application of radiation and radioisotope in the agriculture and the medical fields, (4) public acceptance of nuclear energy, (5) radioactive waste management, and (6) nuclear safety culture. To share knowledge on human resources development within the region and to consider measures for the further development of human resources in relevant fields, a seminar for human resources development, sponsored by Japan, will be held in Japan. The conference will be renamed as (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) beginning with the next conference. The Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia will be held in Japan and in a participating country other than Japan in alternating years. To enhance the regional nuclear cooperation activities under this framework, each participating country will register a Coordinator and Project Leaders to facilitate

  2. Literature review and desk scan : task 2 of preparing a possible Oregon road map for connected vehicle/cooperative systems deployment scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this project was to lay the groundwork for Oregon to be prepared to lead in the : implementation of a connected vehicle/cooperative systems transportation portfolio, and/or to avoid being caught by : surprise as developments in this area ...

  3. ‘Joined together there is power, sister’: Re-viewing feminist work from the London Film-makers’ Co-operative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Mayer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 'From Reel to Real' season of programmes, the first retrospective of women filmmakers' work from the London Film-makers' Co-operative, curated by Maud Jacquin with Tate Modern and LUX, bring together three generations of filmmakers, and highlight the transmission of a political aesthetics that is both theoretically-informed and embodied.

  4. Research Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1981-01-01

    Research Reviewed: "Global Modeling After Its First Decade"; "Monthly Food Price Forecasts"; "Costs of Marketing Slaughter Cattle: Computerized versus Conventional Auction Systems"; "Survival Strategies for Agricultural Cooperatives"

  5. Can we decide which outcomes should be measured in every clinical trial? A scoping review of the existing conceptual frameworks and processes to develop core outcome sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idzerda, Leanne; Rader, Tamara; Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten

    2014-05-01

    The usefulness of randomized control trials to advance clinical care depends upon the outcomes reported, but disagreement on the choice of outcome measures has resulted in inconsistency and the potential for reporting bias. One solution to this problem is the development of a core outcome set: a minimum set of outcome measures deemed critical for clinical decision making. Within rheumatology the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) initiative has pioneered the development of core outcome sets since 1992. As the number of diseases addressed by OMERACT has increased and its experience in formulating core sets has grown, clarification and update of the conceptual framework and formulation of a more explicit process of area/domain core set development has become necessary. As part of the update process of the OMERACT Filter criteria to version 2, a literature review was undertaken to compare and contrast the OMERACT conceptual framework with others within and outside rheumatology. A scoping search was undertaken to examine the extent, range, and nature of conceptual frameworks for core set outcome selection in health. We searched the following resources: Cochrane Library Methods Group Register; Medline; Embase; PsycInfo; Environmental Studies and Policy Collection; and ABI/INFORM Global. We also conducted a targeted Google search. Five conceptual frameworks were identified: the WHO tripartite definition of health; the 5 Ds (discomfort, disability, drug toxicity, dollar cost, and death); the International Classification of Functioning (ICF); PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement System); and the Outcomes Hierarchy. Of these, only the 5 Ds and ICF frameworks have been systematically applied in core set development. Outside the area of rheumatology, several core sets were identified; these had been developed through a limited range of consensus-based methods with varying degrees of methodological rigor. None applied a framework to ensure content validity of

  6. A worked example of "best fit" framework synthesis: a systematic review of views concerning the taking of some potential chemopreventive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christopher; Booth, Andrew; Cooper, Katy

    2011-03-16

    A variety of different approaches to the synthesis of qualitative data are advocated in the literature. The aim of this paper is to describe the application of a pragmatic method of qualitative evidence synthesis and the lessons learned from adopting this "best fit" framework synthesis approach. An evaluation of framework synthesis as an approach to the qualitative systematic review of evidence exploring the views of adults to the taking of potential agents within the context of the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Twenty papers from North America, Australia, the UK and Europe met the criteria for inclusion. Fourteen themes were identified a priori from a related, existing conceptual model identified in the literature, which were then used to code the extracted data. Further analysis resulted in the generation of a more sophisticated model with additional themes. The synthesis required a combination of secondary framework and thematic analysis approaches and was conducted within a health technology assessment timeframe. The novel and pragmatic "best fit" approach to framework synthesis developed and described here was found to be fit for purpose. Future research should seek to test further this approach to qualitative data synthesis.

  7. Emergence of cooperation in non-scale-free networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yichao; Aziz-Alaoui, M A; Bertelle, Cyrille; Zhou, Shi; Wang, Wenting

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory is one of the key paradigms behind many scientific disciplines from science to engineering. Previous studies proposed a strategy updating mechanism, which successfully demonstrated that the scale-free network can provide a framework for the emergence of cooperation. Instead, individuals in random graphs and small-world networks do not favor cooperation under this updating rule. However, a recent empirical result shows the heterogeneous networks do not promote cooperation when humans play a prisoner’s dilemma. In this paper, we propose a strategy updating rule with payoff memory. We observe that the random graphs and small-world networks can provide even better frameworks for cooperation than the scale-free networks in this scenario. Our observations suggest that the degree heterogeneity may be neither a sufficient condition nor a necessary condition for the widespread cooperation in complex networks. Also, the topological structures are not sufficed to determine the level of cooperation in complex networks. (paper)

  8. Cooperation, trust and confidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, T.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Urze, P.C.G.D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental complexity may strain cooperative relationships, both within and beyond organizations, for two reasons. First, when complexity implies uncertainty the predictability of change disappears. Secondly, change may and often will entail different estimates of the cooperating partners on the

  9. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  10. Small groups and long memories promote cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2016-06-01

    Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action in multi-player public-goods games, in which players have arbitrarily long memories of prior rounds of play and can react to their experience in an arbitrary way. We construct a coordinate system for memory-m strategies in iterated n-player games that permits us to characterize all cooperative strategies that resist invasion by any mutant strategy, and stabilize cooperative behavior. We show that, especially when groups are small, longer-memory strategies make cooperation easier to evolve, by increasing the number of ways to stabilize cooperation. We also explore the co-evolution of behavior and memory. We find that even when memory has a cost, longer-memory strategies often evolve, which in turn drives the evolution of cooperation, even when the benefits for cooperation are low.

  11. Cooperatives as Entrants

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Sexton; Terri A. Sexton

    1987-01-01

    A potential shortcoming of game-theoretic models in industrial organization is their failure to consider consumers as players. We introduce a customer coalition --- a cooperative -- as a potential entrant and compare the cooperative entry threat with that posed by the usual for-profit entrant. We identify four fundamental distinctions between cooperative and for-profit entrants and demonstrate that the strategic interplay between a cooperative and an incumbent firm may differ markedly from th...

  12. Inertia in Cooperative Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Jerker

    1997-01-01

    Which organization model is appropriate for a cooperative enterprise depends on the prerequisites in its business environment. When conditions are changing, the firm must adapt itself. The entry of Sweden, Finland, and Austria into the European Union led to radical changes for agricultural cooperation, especially for Swedish cooperatives since agricultural policy was not allowed a transitional period. After two years, Swedish cooperatives have still not adapted their organization model despit...

  13. TAxonomy of Self-reported Sedentary behaviour Tools (TASST) framework for development, comparison and evaluation of self-report tools: content analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, P M; Coulter, E H; Fitzsimons, C F; Skelton, D A; Chastin, Sfm

    2017-04-08

    Sedentary behaviour (SB) has distinct deleterious health outcomes, yet there is no consensus on best practice for measurement. This study aimed to identify the optimal self-report tool for population surveillance of SB, using a systematic framework. A framework, TAxonomy of Self-reported Sedentary behaviour Tools (TASST), consisting of four domains (type of assessment, recall period, temporal unit and assessment period), was developed based on a systematic inventory of existing tools. The inventory was achieved through a systematic review of studies reporting SB and tracing back to the original description. A systematic review of the accuracy and sensitivity to change of these tools was then mapped against TASST domains. Systematic searches were conducted via EBSCO, reference lists and expert opinion. The inventory included tools measuring SB in adults that could be self-completed at one sitting, and excluded tools measuring SB in specific populations or contexts. The systematic review included studies reporting on the accuracy against an objective measure of SB and/or sensitivity to change of a tool in the inventory. The systematic review initially identified 32 distinct tools (141 questions), which were used to develop the TASST framework. Twenty-two studies evaluated accuracy and/or sensitivity to change representing only eight taxa. Assessing SB as a sum of behaviours and using a previous day recall were the most promising features of existing tools. Accuracy was poor for all existing tools, with underestimation and overestimation of SB. There was a lack of evidence about sensitivity to change. Despite the limited evidence, mapping existing SB tools onto the TASST framework has enabled informed recommendations to be made about the most promising features for a surveillance tool, identified aspects on which future research and development of SB surveillance tools should focus. International prospective register of systematic reviews (PROPSPERO)/CRD42014009851

  14. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brack, Werner; Dulio, Valeria; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Allan, Ian; Altenburger, Rolf; Brinkmann, Markus; Bunke, Dirk; Burgess, Robert M.; Cousins, Ian; Escher, Beate I.; Hernández, Félix J.; Hewitt, L.M.; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Kase, Robert; Klauer, Bernd; Lindim, Claudia; Herráez, David López; Miège, Cécil; Munthe, John; O'Toole, Simon; Posthuma, Leo; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Sengl, Manfred; Smedes, Foppe; Meent, van de Dik; Brink, van den Paul J.; Gils, van Jos; Wezel, van Annemarie P.; Vethaak, A.D.; Vermeirssen, Etienne; Ohe, von der Peter C.; Vrana, Branislav

    2017-01-01

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protecting it from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for

  15. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages. Proceedings of the final review meeting of an IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    Inadequate nutrition is one of the major constraints limiting livestock production in African countries. The ruminants in the smallholder sector depend on natural pasture and fibrous crop residues for their survival, growth, reproduction and production. Since quality and quantity of the natural pasture vary with season, animals dependent on it are subjected to nutritional stress in the dry season when feed resources are senesced and in short supply leading to decreased animal productivity. The main objective of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project 11-17 (RAF/5/041) was the improvement of ruminant livestock production in AFRA Member States. It had two main components: (a) the development and dissemination of cost-effective and sustainable feed supplementation packages which are based on locally available feed resources; and (b) establishment of the 'Self-coating Radioimmunoassay' technique for measuring progesterone in the milk and blood of ruminants. The project has developed a number of feed supplementation packages using feed resources available on-farm and by-products from agro-industrial processes. The packages involve the use of multi-nutrient blocks containing molasses and urea or poultry litter, ensilage of fibrous crop residues with poultry litter, leguminous fodder, mineral blocks etc. These packages have been evaluated on-station and on-farm to assess their potential to enhance productivity of ruminants. The cost-benefit ratio for feeding supplementation packages has been established. As a result of their use, income of the farmers has been shown to increase substantially. Needless to say, the scientists, agricultural extension officers, policy makers and the governments must work hand-in-hand to capitalize on this and ensure wider application and extension of the packages, and develop strategies for sustaining them. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone has been used in this project mainly for the assessment of ovarian activity in order to

  16. What is a cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  17. Cooperation between Norwegian and Russian Regulatory Authorities: NRPA and Rostechnadzor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority has been cooperating with the Federal Environmental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service, Rostechnadzor, on the upgrading of the regulatory framework for the safe decommissioning and disposal of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. (Author)

  18. International cooperation in the field of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busekist, O. von