WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooperating organizations state

  1. ITDB Cooperation With International Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    IAEA illicit trafficking database cooperates with many international organizations. Among these organizations are Interpol, Universal Postal Union,and World Customs Organization. Other organizations are Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN-Department of Disarmament Affairs and UN office for Drug and Crime. The cooperation with Interpol involves consultations on issues of training and technical assistance and other matters of common interest.

  2. States, Social Capital and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting...... in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...... or undermine cooperative behavior. In both cases we focus on the important mechanisms by which each one contributes to the development of cooperative behavior and collective goods. We conclude by extending our arguments to a brief analysis of one of the world’s newest and largest collective goods...

  3. State and regional systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials cooperation between international, regional and states safeguards organizations: An evolving issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández Moreno, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation between the IAEA, States and regional organizations is increasingly important to ensure effective accountancy and control of nuclear material in peaceful uses. The IAEA, SAGSI2 and institutions such INMM3 and ESARDA4 have recognized the relevance and the evolving role that SSAC5 and regional organizations play to this aim. In this context, it is important to take steps to ensure the effectiveness of the system and the optimal level of relationship between these organizations so as to maximize the benefits for each party, particularly in those cases where well developed systems exist. Moreover, expansion of nuclear energy requires concerted efforts towards building competence in safeguards in all relevant States. This is also important with respect to other aspects of nonproliferation. In this scenario there is agreement on the need to have effective state organizations that fulfill international safeguards and other security obligations. However, the roles and duties of SSAC and the possible scope of cooperation between the IAEA and SSAC are still under evolution. This paper discusses possible ways and means to build competence in safeguards and how the international community could be more proactive in establishing a framework including the various dimensions of the cooperation in safeguards and other security matters between all parties concerned. The establishment of a forum and a network of interested parties under the auspice of interested organizations could be one mechanism to exchange best practices and experiences. (authors)

  4. Japan's prospects in the Shanghai cooperation organization

    OpenAIRE

    Nurgaliev, Marat

    2009-01-01

    At the present stage, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is arousing great interest in the international community. The leading actors in international relations, such as the U.S., Japan, and the European countries, are keeping a careful watch over the organization's development. The interest of these countries is mainly related to the lack of information about the SCO's actual activity and the organization's real essence. The leaders of the SCO member states constantly assure everyo...

  5. Cooperation of technical support organizations of state nuclear regulatory committee of Ukraine in sip safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikov, V.O.; Kyilochits'ka, T.P.; Bogorins'kij, P.; Vasil'chenko, V.M.; Kondrat'jev, S.M.; Smishlyajeva, S.P.; Troter, D.

    2002-01-01

    The main task of the technical support in the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) licensing process consists in Technical Evaluation of SIP projects and documents submitted by the Licensee to State Nuclear Regulatory Committee to substantiate the safety of Shelter-related work. The goal of this task is to evaluate the submitted materials whether they meet the requirements of nuclear and radiation safety

  6. Development Internal Problems of Shanghay Cooperation Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Y. Kolegova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main internal problems of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Particular attention is paid to the conflict of interests of the participating countries, as well as identifying obstacles to strengthen the organization and increase its influence in the international arena. The international organizations are created by the states to meet mutual problems in the course of interstate relations requiring regular cooperation mechanism. Given the background of the Organization, it is important to emphasize that the main reason for the establishment of the Shanghai organization was the need for the united front against the strengthening of the region at the turn of centuries against dangerous trends of terrorism, extremism, separatism, the growth of organized crime. Despite the conflict of interests and the internal and external development challenges thirteen-year history of evolution of the SCO, to some extent proves its effectiveness, moreover, there are the preconditions for its consistent transition to a more comprehensive organization.

  7. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperator organization. 1220.107 Section 1220.107... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor organization...

  8. Theoretical study on the cooperative exciton dissociation process based on dimensional and hot charge-transfer state effects in an organic photocell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Tomomi; Nakajima, Takahito

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the exciton dissociation process at the donor–acceptor interface in organic photocells. In our previous study, we introduced a local temperature to handle the hot charge-transfer (CT) state and calculated the exciton dissociation probability based on the 1D organic semiconductor model [T. Shimazaki and T. Nakajima, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 12538 (2015)]. Although the hot CT state plays an essential role in exciton dissociations, the probabilities calculated are not high enough to efficiently separate bound electron–hole pairs. This paper focuses on the dimensional (entropy) effect together with the hot CT state effect and shows that cooperative behavior between both effects can improve the exciton dissociation process. In addition, we discuss cooperative effects with site-disorders and external-electric-fields.

  9. Systematic organization of interstate humanitarian cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Korolev; Nikolay Loktev; Irina Slastikhina

    2014-01-01

    International humanitarian cooperation is one of the ways for Russia to propagate its interests abroad and maintain its image of a modern democratic state in front of the world community. The article discloses the multichannel implementation of Russias soft power potential, shows the necessity of a systemic organization of international humanitarian links, proposes the grouping of the implementation mechanisms of Russias potential soft powerinto program and extracurricular blocs.The object of...

  10. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations. The Agreement with the League of Arab States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The text of the Agency's agreement for co-operation with the League of Arab States is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 15 December 1971 pursuant to Article IX

  11. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  12. Co-operation and Self-Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2008-07-01

    structures. This today culminates in global problems such as the ecological crisis, high risk technologies, poverty, unemployment, wars, armed conflicts, terrorism, etc. In order to solve these problems our social systems need re-design in terms of ecological sustainability, alliance technology, participatory economy, participatory democracy, and participatory culture. Participation is an integrated notion that is based on co-operation, selfdetermination, and inclusion in multiple dimensions. A system can be considered as participatory if power in the system is distributed in such a way that all members and concerned individuals can own the system co-operatively and can produce, decide and live in the system co-operatively. Participation is frequently understood in the very narrow sense of concerned people taking somehow part in decision processes. Such an understanding is limited to the political dimension and says nothing about the scope and dimension of participation. There are several dimensions of participation in a social system or in society: producing, owning, consuming (economic dimension, deciding, goal-setting, evaluating (political dimension, forming knowledge/norms/values/images/visions, communicating, networking, self-realizing (cultural dimension. Participation in each of these ten dimensions can be low, medium or high/full. The participation matrix describes the degree of participation in an organization/society with the help of the three dimensions of economy, politics and culture and an analysis of the scope of participation (economic, political, cultural.

  13. Tax cooperation among member states of European Union and Directive on administrative cooperation in the field of taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimovski Aleksandar G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries have possibility to choose between several alternatives for cooperation in international tax matters at global level. They can decide not to cooperate or provide some form of tax cooperation. Because of harmful tax competition among countries and efforts of international organizations, all countries in the world are oblidged to comply with one of multiple alternatives for tax cooperation. Situation in European Union (hereinafter EU is specific. EU is not country or classic international organization. By the reason of its successful functioning, EU has need for tax cooperation. EU has attempted to harmonise tax policies of member states, but member states did not approve that. Only indirect taxes are harmonized on EU level, direct taxes are harmonized only to the point necessarily for functioning of single market. That is why tax cooperation instruments are so important. Object of this paper are procedures and measures, stipulated by the most important instrument in the field of tax cooperation enacted by institutions of EU, its development and status in international tax law. Regulatives and directives in field of tax cooperation in the EU are 'pioneers' in tax matters. EU instruments provide standards which are subsequently accepted by several international organizations - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and United Nations (UN. Our purpose is to present positive and negative aspects of tax cooperation in the EU. In time of crisis efficient tax cooperation provides higher revenues for the member states, on the other hand, taxpayers and tax administrations have increased expenses as result of tax cooperation which are not fairly distributed.

  14. Theory of Regression Apple Professional Cooperation Organization Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang Bin

    2013-01-01

    In view of the enterprise ecological apple manor a variety of problems of existence, put forward to the enterprise management transformation, achieve enterprise, collective, individual integrated operation management and the use of regression mathematical model on apple professional cooperation organization analysis. Through the example, Apple professional economic cooperation organization innovation model of the input output ratio than the rural economic cooperation organization is much high...

  15. International cooperation workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    In pursuant to its 2002 programme of work, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization organized a workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya, from 18 to 20 June 2002. The summary report on the workshop has been provided, covering ways and means of promoting regional cooperation. The list of participants and the programme outline are annexed thereto

  16. International cooperation workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    In pursuant to its 2002 programme of work, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization organized a workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya, from 18 to 20 June 2002. The summary report on the workshop has been provided, covering ways and means of promoting regional cooperation. The list of participants and the programme outline are annexed thereto.

  17. Promoting cooperative federalism through state shared savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Alan

    2013-08-01

    The Affordable Care Act is transforming American federalism and creating strain between the states and the federal government. By expanding the scale of intergovernmental health programs, creating new state requirements, and setting the stage for increased federal fiscal oversight, the act has disturbed an uneasy truce in American federalism. This article outlines a policy proposal designed to harness cooperative federalism, based on the shared state and federal desire to control health care cost growth. The proposal, which borrows features of the Medicare Shared Savings Program, would provide states with an incentive in the form of an increased share of the savings they generate in programs that have federal financial participation, as long as they meet defined performance standards.

  18. Cooperative organic mine avoidance path planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Christopher B.; Piatko, Christine D.; Peterson, Adam V.; Donnald, Creighton R.; Cohen, David

    2005-06-01

    The JHU/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph based and genetic algorithms which quickly produce near-minimum risk paths for complicated fitness functions incorporating risk, path length, ship kinematics, and naval doctrine. The TDA user interface, a Java Swing application that obtains data via Corba interfaces to path planning databases, allows the operator to explore a fusion of historic and in situ mine field data, control the path planner, and display the planning results. To provide a context for the minefield data, the user interface also renders data from the Digital Nautical Chart database, a database created by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency containing charts of the world's ports and coastal regions. This TDA has been developed in conjunction with the COMID (Cooperative Organic Mine Defense) system. This paper presents a description of the algorithms, architecture, and application produced.

  19. Fragility and cooperativity concepts in hydrogen-bonded organic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpouve, N., E-mail: delpouve.nicolas@gmail.com [AMME-LECAP EA 4528 International Laboratory, University of Rouen, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Vuillequez, A.; Saiter, A.; Youssef, B.; Saiter, J.M. [AMME-LECAP EA 4528 International Laboratory, University of Rouen, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2012-09-01

    Molecular dynamics at the glass transition of three lactose/oil glassy systems have been investigated according to the cooperativity and fragility approaches. From Donth's approach, the cooperativity length is estimated by modulated temperature calorimetric measurements. Results reveal that modification of the disaccharide by oil leads to increase the disorder degree in the lactose, the size of the cooperative domains and the fragility index. These particular hydrogen-bonded organic glasses follow the general tendency observed on organic and inorganic polymers: the higher the cooperativity length, the higher the value of the fragility index at T{sub g}.

  20. Fragility and cooperativity concepts in hydrogen-bonded organic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpouve, N.; Vuillequez, A.; Saiter, A.; Youssef, B.; Saiter, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dynamics at the glass transition of three lactose/oil glassy systems have been investigated according to the cooperativity and fragility approaches. From Donth's approach, the cooperativity length is estimated by modulated temperature calorimetric measurements. Results reveal that modification of the disaccharide by oil leads to increase the disorder degree in the lactose, the size of the cooperative domains and the fragility index. These particular hydrogen-bonded organic glasses follow the general tendency observed on organic and inorganic polymers: the higher the cooperativity length, the higher the value of the fragility index at T g .

  1. 76 FR 44592 - Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0010] Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses in Support of... agreement with the World Health Organization. The document published stating that the total funding...

  2. 76 FR 61597 - Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments: DOT Amendments on Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... organization or a Principles and Procedures, or non-profit organization listed in 2 uniform cost accounting CFR... Principles and Procedures, or non-profit organization listed in 2 uniform cost accounting CFR part 230... to applicable cost principles for grants and cooperative agreements with State and Local Governments...

  3. 50 CFR 81.2 - Cooperation with the States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... public participation in designating resident species of fish and wildlife or plants as endangered or... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CONSERVATION OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES OF FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PLANTS-COOPERATION WITH THE STATES § 81.2 Cooperation with the...

  4. 23 CFR 1.3 - Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway... MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.3 Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments... State in all matters relating to, and to enter into, on behalf of the State, all contracts and...

  5. Benefits and organization of cooperative research for fisheries management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, T.R.; Densen, van W.L.T.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on research in the northeastern USA and northwestern Europe, a description is given of how cooperative research is organized and a statement made of how involving fishers in research can contribute to better fisheries management. The focus is on improving stock assessments through the

  6. Matrix organization increases physician, management cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissoneau, R; Williams, F G; Cowley, J L

    1984-04-01

    Because of the development of multihospital systems and the establishment of diagnosis related groups, hospitals increasingly will establish matrix organizations for their corporate structures. St. Luke's Hospital adopted the matrix concept in the mid-1970s, utilizing program administrators for each specialty service or "clinical center of excellence." Such centers have been developed in digestive diseases, cardiovascular and pulmonary medicine, orthopedics and rheumatology, ophthalmology, and behavioral health. The program administrator's functions are diverse: To serve as primary liaison between physicians and the hospital; To project levels of program utilization and patient and physician satisfaction, to identify areas requiring administrative and marketing emphasis, and to develop the program's marketing plan; To develop, implement, and evaluate the program's strategic, operational, and financial plans; To recruit physicians to practice at St. Luke's and to cultivate referrals from outside physicians; To participate in selecting members of all board and medical staff committees relating to the particular specialty area; and To determine the need for new programs within the specialty area and to develop services. As indicated by a medical staff survey, most physicians at St. Luke's believe that the program administrator system has improved communication with the hospital administration, that the program administrator is able to respond effectively to physician requests and problems, and that the quality of patient care has been enhanced. A great majority said they would recommend the system to other hospitals.

  7. 30 CFR 931.30 - State-Federal cooperative agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 7401, et seq., and implementing regulations. 7. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251... INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.30 State-Federal cooperative agreement. The State of New Mexico (State) acting through the Governor and the...

  8. Cooperative catalysis by silica-supported organic functional groups

    OpenAIRE

    Margelefsky, Eric L.; Zeidan, Ryan K.; Davis, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid inorganic–organic materials comprising organic functional groups tethered from silica surfaces are versatile, heterogeneous catalysts. Recent advances have led to the preparation of silica materials containing multiple, different functional groups that can show cooperative catalysis; that is, these functional groups can act together to provide catalytic activity and selectivity superior to what can be obtained from either monofunctional materials or homogeneous catalysts. This tutorial...

  9. 11 CFR 114.7 - Membership organizations, cooperatives, or corporations without capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... organizational structure. (j) A membership organization, including a trade association, cooperative, or... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership organizations, cooperatives, or... CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.7 Membership organizations, cooperatives, or corporations...

  10. New United States policies regarding international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, H.R. Jr.

    1981-10-01

    This paper discusses the United States policy on international nuclear power development in the light of the priorities established by President Reagan in the guidelines for his Administration's nuclear co-operation policy. The aim is to establish a framework allowing for co-operation in peaceful nuclear development while remaining committed to the objective of preventing the further spread of nuclear weapons, in particular by supporting the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the IAEA Safeguards System and the Tlatelolco Treaty (NEA) [fr

  11. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Should the U.S. be Concerned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Cooperation Organization and the Central Asian States, Thesis for Master of Arts in China-U.S. Relations (University of Hawaii at Hilo , December 2007...Clinton reinforced U.S. desires to coordinate with the SCO (among other Asian regional institutions) at a January 2010 conference in Hawaii . 101F102...Hillary Rodham Clinton, Hillary Rodham, “Remarks on Regional Architecture in Asia: Principles and Priorities,” Hawaii , Department of State, January 12

  12. The Self-Organized Archive: SPASE, PDS and Archive Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T. A.; Hughes, J. S.; Roberts, D. A.; Walker, R. J.; Joy, S. P.

    2005-05-01

    Information systems with high quality metadata enable uses and services which often go beyond the original purpose. There are two types of metadata: annotations which are items that comment on or describe the content of a resource and identification attributes which describe the external properties of the resource itself. For example, annotations may indicate which columns are present in a table of data, whereas an identification attribute would indicate source of the table, such as the observatory, instrument, organization, and data type. When the identification attributes are collected and used as the basis of a search engine, a user can constrain on an attribute, the archive can then self-organize around the constraint, presenting the user with a particular view of the archive. In an archive cooperative where each participating data system or archive may have its own metadata standards, providing a multi-system search engine requires that individual archive metadata be mapped to a broad based standard. To explore how cooperative archives can form a larger self-organized archive we will show how the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) data model will allow different systems to create a cooperative and will use Planetary Data System (PDS) plus existing space physics activities as a demonstration.

  13. Rotator side chains trigger cooperative transition for shape and function memory effect in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyunjoong; Dudenko, Dmytro; Zhang, Fengjiao; D'Avino, Gabriele; Ruzié, Christian; Richard, Audrey; Schweicher, Guillaume; Cornil, Jérôme; Beljonne, David; Geerts, Yves; Diao, Ying

    2018-01-18

    Martensitic transition is a solid-state phase transition involving cooperative movement of atoms, mostly studied in metallurgy. The main characteristics are low transition barrier, ultrafast kinetics, and structural reversibility. They are rarely observed in molecular crystals, and hence the origin and mechanism are largely unexplored. Here we report the discovery of martensitic transition in single crystals of two different organic semiconductors. In situ microscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and molecular simulations combined indicate that the rotating bulky side chains trigger cooperative transition. Cooperativity enables shape memory effect in single crystals and function memory effect in thin film transistors. We establish a molecular design rule to trigger martensitic transition in organic semiconductors, showing promise for designing next-generation smart multifunctional materials.

  14. Cooperation and Conflict: a Law and Economics Analysis of Meta-Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kerk (Maximilian)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOver the second part of the twentieth century inter-firm cooperations have become an increasingly popular phenomenon. These inter-firm cooperations often play out in the form of meta-organizations, which are organizations that are composed of the cooperating organizations. This

  15. Russia and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Some Elements of Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Konarovsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The new geopolitical reality that resulted from the dissolution of the USSR created the conditions for the establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO in 2001. The successful settlement of border issues between Russia and Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan and Tajikistan as well as with China also facilitated the process. With Uzbekistan joining the “Shanghai Five,” a new regional organization emerged. The SCO’s priorities were in the security sphere and the fight against the proliferation of drugs, illegal migration and organized crime, given the requirements of the times and the specific regional situation (including that in Afghanistan. As one of the active founders, Russia has always taken a leading role in the SCO’s organizational, political and legal formation, including setting specific trends and forms of cooperation, taking common measures, and holding events. During its presidency in 2008–2009 and 2014–2015, Moscow made additional efforts to strengthen cooperation among the SCO members in meeting new regional security challenges and to agree on coordinated positions on the key issues on the international and regional agenda. To increase the SCO’s credibility and political significance, Moscow emphasized its expansion, particularly with regard to the Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt. With global political and economic development growing more complicated, in order to revitalize Russia’s role in the SCO it is necessary to strengthen cooperation with China. The strategic character of bilateral relations reaffirmed at the Russian-Chinese summit in the summer of 2016 set a solid foundation.

  16. Organic solid-state lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources, potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. Appeared in the mid 60’s as solid-state alternatives for liquid dye lasers, they recently gained a new dimension after the demonstration of organic semiconductor lasers in the 90's. More recently, new perspectives appeared at the nanoscale, with organic polariton and surface plasmon lasers. After a brief reminder to laser physics, a first chapter exposes what makes organic solid-state organic lasers specific. The laser architectures used in organic lasers are then reviewed, with a state-of-the-art review of the performances of devices with regard to output power, threshold, lifetime, beam quality etc. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments with a special focus on the challenges remaining for achieving direct electrical pumping of organic semiconductor lasers. A last chapter covers the applications of organic solid-state lasers.

  17. Modeling cooperating micro-organisms in antibiotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Gilad; Ingham, Colin; Ariel, Gil

    2017-01-01

    Recent experiments with the bacteria Paenibacillus vortex reveal a remarkable strategy enabling it to cope with antibiotics by cooperating with a different bacterium-Escherichia coli. While P. vortex is a highly effective swarmer, it is sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin. On the other hand, E. coli can degrade ampicillin but is non-motile when grown on high agar percentages. The two bacterial species form a shared colony in which E. coli is transported by P. vortex and E. coli detoxifies the ampicillin. The paper presents a simplified model, consisting of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, describing the development of ring patterns in the shared colony. Our results demonstrate some of the possible cooperative movement strategies bacteria utilize in order to survive harsh conditions. In addition, we explore the behavior of mixed colonies under new conditions such as antibiotic gradients, synchronization between colonies and possible dynamics of a 3-species system including P. vortex, E. coli and a carbon producing algae that provides nutrients under illuminated, nutrient poor conditions. The derived model was able to simulate an asymmetric relationship between two or three micro-organisms where cooperation is required for survival. Computationally, in order to avoid numerical artifacts due to symmetries within the discretizing grid, the model was solved using a second order Vectorizable Random Lattices method, which is developed as a finite volume scheme on a random grid.

  18. Modeling cooperating micro-organisms in antibiotic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Book

    Full Text Available Recent experiments with the bacteria Paenibacillus vortex reveal a remarkable strategy enabling it to cope with antibiotics by cooperating with a different bacterium-Escherichia coli. While P. vortex is a highly effective swarmer, it is sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin. On the other hand, E. coli can degrade ampicillin but is non-motile when grown on high agar percentages. The two bacterial species form a shared colony in which E. coli is transported by P. vortex and E. coli detoxifies the ampicillin. The paper presents a simplified model, consisting of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, describing the development of ring patterns in the shared colony. Our results demonstrate some of the possible cooperative movement strategies bacteria utilize in order to survive harsh conditions. In addition, we explore the behavior of mixed colonies under new conditions such as antibiotic gradients, synchronization between colonies and possible dynamics of a 3-species system including P. vortex, E. coli and a carbon producing algae that provides nutrients under illuminated, nutrient poor conditions. The derived model was able to simulate an asymmetric relationship between two or three micro-organisms where cooperation is required for survival. Computationally, in order to avoid numerical artifacts due to symmetries within the discretizing grid, the model was solved using a second order Vectorizable Random Lattices method, which is developed as a finite volume scheme on a random grid.

  19. Library cooperation among academic libraries in Katsina state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined Library cooperation among academic libraries in Katsina state. Qualitative research method was adopted in carrying out this study. Interview was used as instrument for data collection. The population comprised of 7 Acquisition librarians from the schools understudy. A descriptive method of da ta ...

  20. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  1. States, social capital and cooperation: looking back on 'Governing the Commons'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Anthony

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate or undermine cooperative behavior. In both cases we focus on the important mechanisms by which each one contributes to the development of cooperative behavior and collective goods. We conclude by extending our arguments to a brief analysis of one of the world’s newest and largest collective goods – the Internet.

  2. Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2008-05-16

    We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.

  3. Cooperative Lamb shift and the cooperative decay rate for an initially detuned phased state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedberg, Richard; Manassah, Jamal T.

    2010-01-01

    The cooperative Lamb shift (CLS) is hard to measure because in samples much larger than a resonant wavelength it is much smaller, for an initially prepared resonantly phased state, than the cooperative decay rate (CDR). We show, however, that if the phasing of the initial state is detuned so that the spatial wave vector is k 1 congruent with k 0 ±O((1/R)) (where k 0 =ω 0 /c is the resonant frequency), the CLS grows to 'giant' magnitudes making it comparable to the CDR. Moreover, for certain controlled values of detuning, the initial CDR becomes small so that the dynamical Lamb shift (DLS) can be measured over a considerable period of time.

  4. 77 FR 39320 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Singapore Memorandum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... friendly environmental technology and pollution management techniques; (2) participating in regional... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7943] Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Singapore Memorandum of Intent on Environmental Cooperation AGENCY: Department of State...

  5. Cooperation of Russian and EU technical support organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, M.V.; Kozlov, Vl.V.; Kapralov, E.Yu.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, the fruitful collaboration of the Russian and Western-European technical support organizations (TSOs) is being continued due to the support of the European Commission. There are two main areas of activities. The first one is more of methodological assistance and enhancing RF TSOs capabilities to support Rostekhnadzor decision making process. Experience and knowledge acquired in this area projects increase RF TSOs capabilities regarding a wide spectrum of safety related issues assessment, in particular safety analyses, reactor vessel embrittlement, application of 'leak before break' concept, severe accident and accident management, fire risk evaluation, etc. The second area is focused on licensing related assessments of EC financed on site assistance projects (modernisations). This area projects promote implementation in Russia a licensing process based on a technical dialogue between operator and regulator as well contributes to transfer of Western practice in assessment of NPPs modernization. The improvement of managerial, scientific and technical capabilities of RF TSO experts may be considered as noteworthy and practical result of the TSOs cooperation. The continuation of such modality of RF and EU TSOs cooperation will be a good basis to cope with present and future challenges faced by TSOs in enhancing nuclear safety. (author)

  6. A spin transition mechanism for cooperative adsorption in metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Douglas A.; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Oktawiec, Julia; Mason, Jarad A.; Runčevski, Tomče; Xiao, Dianne J.; Darago, Lucy E.; Crocellà, Valentina; Bordiga, Silvia; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2017-10-01

    Cooperative binding, whereby an initial binding event facilitates the uptake of additional substrate molecules, is common in biological systems such as haemoglobin. It was recently shown that porous solids that exhibit cooperative binding have substantial energetic benefits over traditional adsorbents, but few guidelines currently exist for the design of such materials. In principle, metal-organic frameworks that contain coordinatively unsaturated metal centres could act as both selective and cooperative adsorbents if guest binding at one site were to trigger an electronic transformation that subsequently altered the binding properties at neighbouring metal sites. Here we illustrate this concept through the selective adsorption of carbon monoxide (CO) in a series of metal-organic frameworks featuring coordinatively unsaturated iron(II) sites. Functioning via a mechanism by which neighbouring iron(II) sites undergo a spin-state transition above a threshold CO pressure, these materials exhibit large CO separation capacities with only small changes in temperature. The very low regeneration energies that result may enable more efficient Fischer-Tropsch conversions and extraction of CO from industrial waste feeds, which currently underutilize this versatile carbon synthon. The electronic basis for the cooperative adsorption demonstrated here could provide a general strategy for designing efficient and selective adsorbents suitable for various separations.

  7. Energy drinks in the Gulf Cooperation Council states: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Alhyas, Layla; El Kashef, Ahmed; AlGhaferi, Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks u...

  8. Visit of H.E. Dr Abdolrahim Gavahi, Secretary General, Economic Cooperation Organization, Islamic Republic of Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 01: L.to r. Prof. Galileo Violini, Head, UNESCO Office, Teheran; Mr Jan van der Boon, CERN Director of Administration; H.E. Dr Abdolrahim Gavahi, Secretary General, Economic Cooperation Organization, Islamic Republic of Iran (signing the Guest Book); Dr John Ellis, CERN Adviser for Non-Member State Relations and Dr Behzad Alipour Tehrany Photo 02: Mr Jan van der Boon, CERN Director of Administration (left) and Dr John Ellis, CERN Adviser for Non-Member State Relations (right) on the occasion of the visit of H.E. Dr Abdolrahim Gavahi, Secretary General, Economic Cooperation Organization, Islamic Republic of Iran.

  9. 30 CFR 950.20 - State-Federal Cooperative Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Personnel and Organization 33. The State and the Department shall, consistent with 30 CFR part 745, advise each other of changes in organization, structure, functions, duties and funds of the offices, departments, divisions, and persons within their organizations. Each shall promptly advise the other in...

  10. 78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...] Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development Facility... The STDF is a unique global partnership established by the Food and Agriculture Organization, World... cooperative agreement in fiscal year 2013 (FY 2013) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards and...

  11. Skoda Concern's cooperation with State Machinery Design Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valchar, J.; Kuhn, L.

    1988-01-01

    The main areas are presented of cooperation between the Skoda Plzen Concern and the State Machinery Design Research Institute in Prague-Bechovice. This is mainly the development of steam turbines, from 50 MW turbines to the present 1000 MW saturated steam turbines designed for nuclear power plants. Main attention is centred on conditions of the boiling crisis in the steam turbine circuit, and its consequences. This study is served by the experimental equipment of the institute and its computer. The cooperation of the two institutions in the field of testing and diagnostic equipment is centred on measuring natural oscillations of turbine blades, the diagnostics of vibrations of steam turbines, the measurement of the humidity of saturated steam, optical measurements of the parameters of saturated steam, ultrasound diagnostics and the measurement of turbine blade deformation caused by hydraulic effects. (Z.M.). 8 figs

  12. ORD-State Cooperation is Essential to Help States Address Contemporary Environmental Public Health Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Cascio’s presentation “ORD-State Cooperation is Essential to Help States Address Contemporary Environmental Public Health Challenges” at ORD’s State Coordination Team Meeting will highlight the role that ORD science and technical expertise in helping t...

  13. Is cooperation viable in mobile organisms? Simple Walk Away rule favors the evolution of cooperation in groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktipis, C. Athena

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation through partner choice mechanisms is often thought to involve relatively complex cognitive abilities. Using agent-based simulations I model a simple partner choice rule, the ‘Walk Away’ rule, where individuals stay in groups that provide higher returns (by virtue of having more cooperators), and ‘Walk Away’ from groups providing low returns. Implementing this conditional movement rule in a public goods game leads to a number of interesting findings: 1) cooperators have a selective advantage when thresholds are high, corresponding to low tolerance for defectors, 2) high thresholds lead to high initial rates of movement and low final rates of movement (after selection), and 3) as cooperation is selected, the population undergoes a spatial transition from high migration (and a many small and ephemeral groups) to low migration (and large and stable groups). These results suggest that the very simple ‘Walk Away’ rule of leaving uncooperative groups can favor the evolution of cooperation, and that cooperation can evolve in populations in which individuals are able to move in response to local social conditions. A diverse array of organisms are able to leave degraded physical or social environments. The ubiquitous nature of conditional movement suggests that ‘Walk Away’ dynamics may play an important role in the evolution of social behavior in both cognitively complex and cognitively simple organisms. PMID:21666771

  14. Technical Solution for Improved Safeguards/State Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss an information technology solution to allow the IAEA Safeguards Department to improve cooperation with States. The solution will be a portal or hub to integrate the information, processes, and people between Safeguards and States. It will allow for two-way communication and collaboration between Safeguards staff and State representatives. This paper discusses the information security challenges inherent in building such a system. It proposes technical architectures that might allow the existing integration approach (e.g., encrypted email exchange) to be kept, while expanding it to include modern integration technologies (e.g., web services), as well explorer new collaborative web technologies. It looks at current Safeguards processes and approaches to cooperation and discusses efficiencies that could be achieved through the adoption of this technology solution. Example process areas for improvement include: a) Safeguards Agreements: States are obligated to submit data on their nuclear programme to the IAEA on a periodic basis. Declarations are received through two separate systems using encrypted email. The proposed solution would allow for enhanced exchange of declaration where States can submit any type of declaration using one system. When declarations are received and validated, an acknowledgement would automatically be sent to the State. The solution would provide the Safeguards Department the ability to ask for clarification as well as collaborate on the submitted declarations. Both the question and the response would be recorded in the system. The solution could also integrate tools allowing declarations to be added directly and validated before submission. b) Other areas that could benefit from this solution include declarations from States with small quantities protocol, facility declarations, as well as systems that support extra-budgetary funding (e.g., SPRICS). (author)

  15. 77 FR 9225 - Allegheny Electric Cooperative, Inc., et al. v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Organization of PJM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ...-58-010] Allegheny Electric Cooperative, Inc., et al. v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Organization of PJM States, Inc., et al. v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February... by section 18.17.4 of the Amended and Restated Operating Agreement of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. and...

  16. OECD (Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development) oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    Econometric response surfaces for nine different world oil models are estimated for aggregate oil demand with in the developed countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The estimates are based upon scenario results reported for the 1989-2010 period in a recent model comparison study. The response surface approach provides a parsimonious summary of model responses. It enables one to estimate long-run price elasticities directly rather than to infer such responses from 20-year cross-scenario results. It also shows more directly the significant effect of initial demand conditions (in 1988) on future oil demand growth. Due to the dynamic nature of the oil demand response, past prices exert a strongly positive effect on future oil demands in some models, but little or even negative effect in other models. On the basis of this finding, we urge demand modellers to be much more explicit about what their systems reveal about the extent of disequilibrium embedded in their model's starting oil demand conditions. (author)

  17. 78 FR 49756 - Notification of a Cooperative Agreement Award to the World Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ...: Notification of a sole source Cooperative Agreement Award to the World Health Organization for a grant titled... World Health Organization (WHO) as soon as possible, and any confirmed smallpox case would generate an... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Notification of a Cooperative Agreement Award to the World...

  18. 26 CFR 1.501(e)-1 - Cooperative hospital service organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... operates laundry services for its patron-hospitals. This cooperative organization does not meet the requirements of this paragraph because it performs laundry services not specified in this paragraph. (d) Patron... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cooperative hospital service organizations. 1.501...

  19. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  20. Farmers' Cooperatives in the EU: Policies, Strategies and Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Iliopoulos, C.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of cooperatives for European farmers has often been claimed but empirical studies to support this claim are scarce. This special issue presents a number of articles on the recent development and status of agricultural cooperatives in the European Union, based on original data

  1. The necessity of strengthening the cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations at national, regional, and international levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    The donation of tissues and organs increases significantly when tissue banks and organ transplant organizations work together in the procurement of organs and tissues at donor sources (hospitals, coroners system, organ procurement agencies, and funeral homes, among others). To achieve this important goal, national competent health authorities should considered the establishment of a mechanism that promote the widest possible cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations with hospitals, research medical institutions, universities, and other medical institutions and facilities. One of the issues that can facilitate this cooperation is the establishment of a coding and traceability system that could identify all tissues and organs used in transplant activities carried out in any country. The promotion of national, regional, and international cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations would enable the sharing of relevant information that could be important for medical practice and scientific studies carried out by many countries, particularly for those countries with a weak health care system.

  2. Global Organization of Innovation and Cooperability in Brazilian Multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Rezende da Costa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dissipation of innovations is necessary to develop them, as a company on its own does not have all the capabilities that it needs. On the contrary, they are increasingly spread over internal and external contexts, and are not developed in isolation. Most of the time, they depend on interactive, innovative processes in a global context. The aim of this study is to evaluate how the global organizational structure of innovation affects the dynamic capability of cooperation (cooperability in Brazilian multinationals (BMNs. To achieve this goal, we conducted a survey of BMNs, and a final sample of 60 companies answered a structured questionnaire. We performed statistical tests such as Factor Analysis, Cronbach's Alpha, Multiple Regression and Hierarchical Cluster, and cross-analysis of quantitative results that enabled us to create a Cooperability Model, that is, a model of local, international and global development for a dynamic capability of cooperation in BMNs. The results show that technological strengths of foreign subsidiaries and the reverse transfer of their capabilities to the parent company and technology partners affect the dynamics of cooperation in BMNs (inputs and results of cooperability. Furthermore, we detected an inverse relationship between the autonomy of foreign subsidiaries and the dynamic of cooperation in BMNs.

  3. Design and Control of Cooperativity in Spin-Crossover in Metal–Organic Complexes: A Theoretical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrishit Banerjee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metal organic complexes consisting of transition metal centers linked by organic ligands, may show bistability which enables the system to be observed in two different electronic states depending on external condition. One of the spectacular examples of molecular bistability is the spin-crossover phenomena. Spin-Crossover (SCO describes the phenomena in which the transition metal ion in the complex under the influence of external stimuli may show a crossover between a low-spin and high-spin state. For applications in memory devices, it is desirable to make the SCO phenomena cooperative, which may happen with associated hysteresis effect. In this respect, compounds with extended solid state structures containing metal ions connected by organic spacer linkers like linear polymers, coordination network solids are preferred candidates over isolated molecules or molecular assemblies. The microscopic understanding, design and control of mechanism driving cooperativity, however, are challenging. In this review we discuss the recent theoretical progress in this direction.

  4. Enabling Housing Cooperatives: policy lessons from Sweden, India and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapati, Sukumar

    2010-01-01

    Housing cooperatives became active in urban areas in Sweden, India and the United States during the interwar period. Yet, after the second world war, while housing cooperatives grew phenomenally nationwide in Sweden and India, they did not do so in the United States. This article makes a comparative institutional analysis of the evolution of housing cooperatives in these three countries. The analysis reveals that housing cooperatives' relationship with the state and the consequent support structures explain the divergent evolution. Although the relationships between cooperatives and the state evolved over time, they can be characterized as embedded autonomy, overembeddedness and disembeddedness in Sweden, India and the United States respectively. Whereas the consequent support structures for housing cooperatives became well developed in Sweden and India, such structures have been weak in the United States. The article highlights the need for embedded autonomy and the need for supportive structures to enable the growth of housing cooperatives.

  5. The Economic Contribution of North Dakota Cooperatives to the North Dakota State Economy

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperatives are a vital component of the North Dakota economy. Owned by their customers or by privately-held firms, cooperatives provide a variety of goods and services to North Dakota. Based on data provided by the North Dakota Secretary of State, 332 businesses operating in North Dakota identified themselves as cooperatives in 2010; 256 are headquartered in the state. The economic contribution of the North Dakota cooperatives reaches beyond the local communities where they are headquartere...

  6. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    compared to other Allied 17Walter McDougall , Promised Land, Crusader State: The American Encounter with the World Since 1776 (Boston: Mariner Books, 1998...Russia–Georgia War was carried out largely under EU, Organization for Security and Cooperation, and United States leadership. Bush assisted...Operation Unified Protector provided a means for the international community to carry out R2P in order to protect the Libyan population from the

  7. Cooperative Office Education: Its Evolution in the Secondary Schools of the United States from 1900-1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, Audrey Bell

    Using the historical, documentary analysis, and questionnaire methods of research, this study traces the development and evolution of cooperative office education in the secondary schools of the United States from 1900 through 1969. The study was organized under the following topical divisions: (1) Original of Vocational Education, (2) Development…

  8. Public diplomacy and cooperation with non-governmental organizations in the liberal perspective of international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Broś

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of state cooperation with non-governmental organizations in public diplomacy. This has been explored in relation to the liberal perspective in international relations, which very clearly highlights the importance of NGOs as an influential participant in world politics. The article contains an analysis of the international system, categorizes the roles and functions of NGOs in international relations. It shows concepts on contemporary understanding of power and a clear focus on reinforcing and using components of soft power, including public diplomacy, in moden international relations. Methodological aspects are deepened by an analytical layer exploring Civil Society 2.0 Program, what is an example of an effective combination of diplomatic efforts between the state and NGOs to achieve common goals.

  9. Hierarchical self-organization of non-cooperating individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Nepusz

    Full Text Available Hierarchy is one of the most conspicuous features of numerous natural, technological and social systems. The underlying structures are typically complex and their most relevant organizational principle is the ordering of the ties among the units they are made of according to a network displaying hierarchical features. In spite of the abundant presence of hierarchy no quantitative theoretical interpretation of the origins of a multi-level, knowledge-based social network exists. Here we introduce an approach which is capable of reproducing the emergence of a multi-levelled network structure based on the plausible assumption that the individuals (representing the nodes of the network can make the right estimate about the state of their changing environment to a varying degree. Our model accounts for a fundamental feature of knowledge-based organizations: the less capable individuals tend to follow those who are better at solving the problems they all face. We find that relatively simple rules lead to hierarchical self-organization and the specific structures we obtain possess the two, perhaps most important features of complex systems: a simultaneous presence of adaptability and stability. In addition, the performance (success score of the emerging networks is significantly higher than the average expected score of the individuals without letting them copy the decisions of the others. The results of our calculations are in agreement with a related experiment and can be useful from the point of designing the optimal conditions for constructing a given complex social structure as well as understanding the hierarchical organization of such biological structures of major importance as the regulatory pathways or the dynamics of neural networks.

  10. A business process model as a starting point for tight cooperation among organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mysliveček

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing and other kinds of tight cooperation among organizations are more and more necessary for success on all markets (markets of high technology products are particularly influenced. Thus it is important for companies to be able to effectively set up all kinds of cooperation. A business process model (BPM is a suitable starting point for this future cooperation. In this paper the process of setting up such cooperation is outlined, as well as why it is important for business success. 

  11. 42 CFR 455.21 - Cooperation with State Medicaid fraud control units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperation with State Medicaid fraud control units... Detection and Investigation Program § 455.21 Cooperation with State Medicaid fraud control units. In a State with a Medicaid fraud control unit established and certified under subpart C of this part, (a) The...

  12. 78 FR 32362 - Implementation of the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia; Announcement of... Government of the United States of America and the Government of Australia Concerning Defense Trade... Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia,'' published on April 11, 2013...

  13. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The text of the Agency's agreement for co-operation with the Organization of African Unity (OAU) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 26 March 1969

  14. EPA's Role with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) brings together the governments of countries committed to democracy and the market economy from around the world to support sustainable economic growth.

  15. A New Step for ''State-IAEA Cooperation'' Based on the Enhanced Cooperation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, S.Y.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.

    2015-01-01

    Since joining the IAEA comprehensive safeguards agreements, the ROK has made some exemplary case of implementing the IAEA's safeguards policy in a State. It's the results of the ROK Government's persistent effort for nuclear transparency to maintain its peaceful nuclear activities which is indispensible in Korea. The history of the ROK SSAC development can be reflected on the trajectory of the evolution of the IAEA safeguards. The ROK SSAC has achieved technical capabilities required for IAEA safeguards, which was not possible without cooperation programme with the IAEA. The first memorable moment of the ROK-IAEA cooperation is the enhanced cooperation program for the ROK LWRs in 2001, introducing remote monitoring systems and some changes in interim inspections. The next chance for leveling the ROK SSAC up came with IS implementation. Two parties consulted what should be prepared for efficient implementation of IS through seven times working group meetings. The WG put out IS approaches which have been being applied for the ROK nuclear facilities since 2008. The IS implementation, which is based on the state level approach, allowed the ROK SSAC to get opportunities to improve more its technical capabilities about support for IAEA safeguards activities, developing verification devices and safeguards approaches for pyroprocessing related facilities. The IAEA and the ROK are putting strenuous efforts for strengthening safeguards cooperation based on the Enhanced Cooperation Arrangements which was signed in 2012, discussing the SSAC role in IAEA safeguards activities, joint use equipment, etc. Besides, two parties are considering introducing unannounced inspections at LWRs after several rehearsals. In this paper, the implication and importance of State-IAEA cooperation is presented based on the ROK's experience with summarizing the brief history of SSAC development and cooperation with the IAEA. (author)

  16. American Cooperative Schools in Bolivia. The Ball State Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunworth, John

    Four American Cooperative Schools in Bolivia are surveyed in this document in connection with a project to provide inservice development in the form of graduate courses, workshops, and consultantships. The four schools were 1) the American Cooperative School in La Paz, serving children of all nationalities from prekindergarten through grade 12…

  17. IAEA technical co-operation with least developed Member States. Special evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The main purposes of this evaluation were to: Review the overall situation with regard to IAEA technical co-operation with least developed Member States, including specific conditions in nuclear-related activities prevailing in these countries, approaches and practices used by the IAEA in providing assistance to LDCs, and the main results of the co-operation in question. Identify any adjustments to technical co-operation with LDC Member States that may strengthen this activity

  18. The cooperative University of Iowa / Iowa State University MPH program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett-Weddle, Danelle A; Aquilino, Mary L; Roth, James A

    2008-01-01

    Public health is an important component of veterinary medicine. In the last 10 years, there has been growing recognition of the need to increase the number of veterinarians trained in public health. The Center for Food Security and Public Health (CFSPH) at Iowa State University (ISU), College of Veterinary Medicine, received a grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to support veterinarians working at CFSPH while pursuing the Master of Public Health degree. CFSPH and ISU administrators worked with the University of Iowa (UI) College of Public Health to establish three cooperative programs for veterinarians to earn the MPH degree. This article describes how these programs were developed and how they operate. (1) Between 2002 and 2005, CFSPH used funds provided by the CDC to support 15 veterinarians as they worked for CFSPH and toward the MPH degree. As the program grew, distance-education methods such as the Internet, Polycom videoconferencing, and the Iowa Communications Network (ICN) were incorporated. (2) A concurrent DVM/MPH degree is now offered; students can complete both degrees in four years. As of January 2008, three students have received their DVM and MPH degrees and 16 students are enrolled in the program. (3) In June 2007, the UI and ISU launched a distance MPH program for veterinarians working in private practice, industry, and government. Eight veterinarians are participating in the program, which includes two two-week, in-person summer sessions, with the remainder of the coursework taken at a distance via the Internet.

  19. Energy drinks in the Gulf Cooperation Council states: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhyas, Layla; El Kashef, Ahmed; AlGhaferi, Hamad

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks use were entered in STATA for statistical analysis. Then, these data were used to conduct meta-analysis to estimate the rate of energy drink consumption. Overall, meta-analysis results showed that the estimated rates of energy drinks consumption is 46.9% (95% CIs, 33.2 -66.1; nine studies) with I-square 3.7%. Findings indicated that individuals start to consume energy drinks at approximately 16 years old, and males were found to consume energy drinks more frequently than females. Results from this review carry several recommendations for policy and enforcement, public education and research that can help policy and decision makers to achieve the goal of safer use of energy drinks.

  20. Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Paper Tiger or Regional Powerhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    themselves in a better situation to bargain state- to-state, even if at a disadvantage in traditional power categories. The 2004 SCO heads of state...interest: he needs the West for Russia to succeed in a globalising [sic] world.136 Other analysts continue to maintain that the foreign policy of the

  1. Cooperative Learning and the Organization of Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachar, Hanna; Sharan, Shlomo

    1995-01-01

    Describes the interrelationship between school organization and classroom instructional style. Characterizes the bureaucratic and the open systems models of school organization in terms of three major dimensions of school life: administrator, teacher, and student behaviors; work design and tasks; and space-time allocations. The bureaucratic…

  2. Case Writing Projects in Co-Operation with Companies and Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Lars; Asplund, Carl-Johan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the process and evaluation of case writing projects in co-operation with companies and organizations in a course for engineering students. The case writing projects could provide an illustration and example framework for working with companies in constructing cases. Normally cases are constructed for teaching purposes in higher education. However, in order to get closer co-operation and more interest from the companies the authors encouraged the student...

  3. Challenges of the International Criminal Court in the cooperation with the States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Anello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available International cooperation is one of the main pillars on which the performance of the International Criminal Court is based. The experience, in particular, in the situ- ations referred by the Security Council of the United Nations, allows seeing the dif- ficulties derivates from the denial of States to cooperate with the Court. This paper analyzes the causes for which this breach occurs and what measures are proposed to strengthen cooperation with the Court as a precondition for effective action.

  4. Cooperatives and the State: The Case of Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Laforest

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early 2000s, the cooperative movement in Ontario came together in order to lobby its provincial government for active cooperative development support programs. Momentum was building for these types of programs. Already, many provincial governments had implemented active support programs in their jurisdiction. Despite having one of the largest cooperative sectors in Canada, Ontario was lagging behind. This article assesses the progress of the efforts of the Ontario cooperative movement to date. It details how the Ontario cooperative movement developed a sectoral identity for itself and framed its objectives in an effort to strengthen its relationship with the Ontario government. / Le mouvement coopératif en Ontario s'est rassemblé au début des années 2000 afin de faire pression sur le gouvernement provincial pour qu'il développe des programmes de soutient actif pour coopératives. Déjà plusieurs gouvernements provinciaux avaient mis en place de telles politiques. L'Ontario tardait malgré le fait qu'il avait un des plus grands secteurs coopératifs au Canada. Cet article examine le progrès qu'a connu le mouvement coopératif en Ontario dans ses efforts. Il décrit comment le mouvement coopératif a construit une identité sectorielle autour de laquelle il a pu ancrer ses demandes auprès du gouvernement ontarien.

  5. NATO AND CENTRAL ASIAN STATES: THE PROSPECTS OF COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Akmataliyeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cooperation between NATO and Central Asian countries dates back to the 1990s, significant presence of the Alliance in the region is visible throughout the last decade only. The cooperation advanced due to the NATO-led operation in Afghanistan. However, its planned conclusion in 2012 will not lead to the withdrawal of the Alliance from Central Asia. Throughout the last decade NATO developed a network of diversified partnerships with countries of the region. In this process Kazakhstan emerged as its most promising and active partner.

  6. The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization : implications for Northeast Asian regional security co-operation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper identifies opportunities for co-operation on regional development and security in the North Pacific region. The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) was created in 1993 during bilateral negotiations between the United States and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (US-DPRK) over North Korea's alleged nuclear weapons program. The negotiations resulted in an agreement to freeze North Korea's known nuclear weapons program in return for the construction of two proliferation-resistant 100 MWe light water reactors (LWR) in North Korea, and the provision of 500,000 tons of heavy fuel oil per year until the completion of the LWR construction as compensation for lost energy production capacity resulting from the shutting down of North Korea's nuclear reactors. The author described the activities of KEDO and examined its internal dynamics. The unique circumstances that produced the Agreed Framework and KEDO in response to a major international crisis of the nuclear program in the DPRK were also highlighted along with the US-DPRK bilateral agreement and the multilateral institution involving the United States, South Korea, Japan and the European Union. Financial support from Australia and Canada was discussed along with the mechanism for engaging North Korea in regularized interaction and technical cooperation. It was concluded that KEDO's record of successes and failures is mixed. The energy security issue has been identified as an area that could result in conflict among Northeast Asian countries which are increasingly dependent on oil supplies from the Middle East. In response, numerous multilateral financing mechanisms have been developed to promote joint business opportunities that exploit natural gas resources in the Russian Far East to address Japanese, Korean and Chinese energy needs. 35 refs

  7. Reframing cooperation: Challenges in overcoming tensions between professional services and volunteer organizations providing parenting support in immigrant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzoni, E.

    2015-01-01

    Volunteer organizations can potentially partner with mainstream professional services to provide better parenting support to immigrant parents. This qualitative study of cooperation between professional agencies and volunteer organizations known as migrant volunteer and community organizations

  8. 7 CFR 4285.2 - Cooperative agreement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agency to: (a) Conduct marketing research related to agricultural cooperatives. (b) Assist other organizations in conducting marketing research related to agricultural cooperatives. ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Federal-State Research on...

  9. The State of Cooperative Learning in Postsecondary and Professional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Smith, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Modern cooperative learning began in the mid- 1960s (D. W. Johnson & R. Johnson, 1999a). Its use, however, was resisted by advocates of social Darwinism (who believed that students must be taught to survive in a "dog-eat-dog" world) and individualism (who believed in the myth of the "rugged individualist"). Despite the resistance, cooperative…

  10. Potential cooperation in renewable energy between China and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Jun; Sheng, Pengfei; Li, Xuesong; Wang, Xingwu

    2014-01-01

    China and the United States of America (US) are developing renewable energy concurrently. In this paper, we seek the opportunities for potential cooperation between these two countries based on the analysis of annual economic data. A mathematical model has been established to characterize correlations among GDP, carbon dioxide emissions, energy prices and the renewable energy cooperation index. Based on statistical analyses, such cooperation can promote economic development, reduce carbon dioxide emissions, improve the environment and realize green growth. If US monetary and technology resources and Chinese markets are combined, benefits can be mutually gained. - Highlights: • An indicator called “renewable energy cooperation index” is introduced. • A model correlates GDP, CO 2 emission, energy price and the cooperation index. • The cooperation can stimulate economy and reduce CO 2 emission. • Combining US and Chinese resources will be mutually beneficial

  11. 76 FR 21786 - Meetings of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7417] Meetings of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs... of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation... notice that the United States and Peru intend to hold the third meeting of the Sub-Committee on Forest...

  12. 78 FR 32529 - Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8339] Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation Commission ACTION: Notice of meetings of the United States-Peru... the United States and Peru intend to hold the fourth meeting of the Environmental Affairs Council (the...

  13. 77 FR 28419 - Meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7873] Meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs... of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation... the United States and Peru intend to hold the fifth meeting of the Sub-Committee on Forest Sector...

  14. 75 FR 78338 - Meeting of the United States-Oman Joint Forum on Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7261] Meeting of the United States-Oman Joint Forum on Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Oman Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Cooperation ACTION: Notice of the meeting of the U.S.-Oman Joint Forum on Environmental Cooperation and...

  15. Present state and future planning on research cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Atsushi

    1997-01-01

    NUCEF is a comprehensive large scale research facility to conduct from critical safety study to study on nuclear fuel cycle back end, and aims to be a kerneled research place by intending its effective application through common application due to colaboration and others. Therefore, NUCEF hopes to promote active research cooperation with various research institutes in or out of Japan and wide development. NUCEF held the 1st International Symposium NUCEF'95 in 1995, to discuss the engineering safety of nuclear fuel recycle facility. Subsequently, NUCEF'98 will hold next year, to intend to promote studies relating to nuclear fuel recycle from an international view. And also, it will intend to promote positively cooperation in response to needs with relating institutes, and private companies as well as to expect some innovative studies to create new techniques through colaboration with universities. (G.K.)

  16. Kazakhstan's Chairmanship of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe: An Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Shirin Akiner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Massive international comment and analysis was devoted to the Kazakhstan's Chairmanship in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE. No previous candidate for this office received such treatment. Kazakhstan's agenda of aims and objectives included important issues. During the year several steps were taken towards implementing Kazakhstan's agenda.

  17. The Cooperative Organization And Rural Passenger Transportation: An Approach to Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stommes, Eileen S.

    The need for passenger transportation is widely recognized by rural communities. Shrinking federal funding has led many communities and human service agencies to experiment with innovative approaches to provide transportation services. One such approach is the use of cooperative organizations to provide needed services. A study conducted by the…

  18. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-02-07

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency.

  19. Architecture for self-organizing, co-operative and robust building automation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernier, F.; Ploennigs, J.; Pesch, D.; Lesecq, S.; Basten, T.; Boubekeur, M.; Denteneer, T.J.J.; Oltmanns, F.; Lehmann, M.; Mai, Linh Tuan; Mc Gibney, A.; Rea, S.; Pacull, F.; Guyon-Gardeux, C.; Ducreux, L.F.; Thior, S.; Hendriks, M.; Verriet, J.H.; Fedor, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the architecture for self-organizing, co-operative and robust Building Automation Systems (BAS) proposed by the EC funded FP7 SCUBA1 project. We describe the current situation in monitoring and control systems and outline the typical stakeholders involved in the

  20. Architecture for self-organizing, co-operative and robust Building Automation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernier, F.; Ploennigs, J.; Pesch, D.; Lesecq, S.; Basten, T.; Boubekeur, M.; Denteneer, D.; Oltmanns, F.; Bonnard, F.; Lehmann, M.; Mai, T.L.; McGibney, A.; Rea, S.; Pacull, F.; Guyon-Gardeux, C.; Ducreux, L.F.; Thior, S.; Hendriks, M.; Verriet, J.; Fedor, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the architecture for self-organizing, co-operative and robust Building Automation Systems (BAS) proposed by the EC funded FP7 SCUBA1 project. We describe the current situation in monitoring and control systems and outline the typical stakeholders involved in the

  1. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency

  2. An Audit Learning Experience: A Pilot Project through Cooperation with a Third Sector Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Richard; Willett, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a critical evaluation of a pilot cooperative education project conducted with a charitable organization in the UK. An action research approach was adopted. Final level students who are studying auditing have had the opportunity to apply the knowledge and skills they are developing through their studies to a real-life situation in the…

  3. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency [es

  4. 30 CFR 948.30 - State-Federal Cooperative Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Organization DNR and the Secretary shall, consistent with 30 CFR part 745, advise each other of changes in the organization, structure, functions, duties, and funds of the offices, departments, divisions, and persons within their organizations which could affect administration and enforcement of this Agreement. Each...

  5. 30 CFR 934.30 - State-Federal Cooperative Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Organization The Commission and the Secretary shall, consistent with 30 CFR part 745, advise each other of changes in the organization, structure, functions, duties, and funds of the offices, departments, divisions, and persons within their organizations which could affect administration and enforcement of this...

  6. Effects Of Membership Of Cooperative Organisations And Determinants On Farmer-Members Income In Rural Anambra State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkechi Cordelia Ojiagu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined the effect of membership of cooperative societies on the economic activities of farmers as well as the determinants of their income in rural Nigeria focusing on Anambra State. Data from 2506 members selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling were analyzed. The study found among others that members incomes are dependent upon their socio-economic profile such as age marital status and membership or otherwise of cooperative societies education cooperative marketing credit gender and business expertise. Also respondents depend largely on farming related activities for generation of income in the study area. Furthermore it was found that the major challenge of the farmer-members is inadequate fund poor education and illiteracy among most members conflict among members and lack of access to farm input. The Nigerian government is advised to formulate policies that will incorporate information from the local level that can support planning implementation and evaluation of programmes that can enhance farmers income this however will influence the pattern of agricultural growth in ways that can change income level of rural farmers to grow fast. The study recommends that cooperatives should intensify their education of members to gain more benefits and that government non-governmental organizations and international development agencies should show interest in supervising and providing development support to Farmers Cooperative Societies in rural Nigeria.

  7. Sniffing the mood for cooperation: Personality and odor induced affective states effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchlewska Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores situational and dispositional underpinnings of cooperative behavior. According to psychological research, cooperation is strongly related to affective states (Forgas, 1998 and personality dimensions (Volk, Thöni, & Ruigrok, 2011. In an experimental study we examined the conditions under which people cooperate with each other. The dispositional traits of co-workers (personality, the contribution to a collaborative effort, and a situational factor – ambient odor condition were taken into consideration. A one-way ANOVA revealed that compared to a malodorous condition, both the pleasant odor condition and the natural odor condition showed higher rates of cooperation. Further analysis indicated that only malodors influenced affective states which in turn determined social decisions. Although we found effects for the participants’ agreeableness and the coworker’s contribution to a joint work, they appeared to play a less critical role than affective states induced by the experimental odor conditions tested here.

  8. Flexibility Matters: Cooperative Active Sites in Covalent Organic Framework and Threaded Ionic Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Aguila, Briana; Perman, Jason; Nguyen, Nicholas; Ma, Shengqian

    2016-12-07

    The combination of two or more reactive centers working in concert on a substrate to facilitate the reaction is now considered state of the art in catalysis, yet there still remains a tremendous challenge. Few heterogeneous systems of this sort have been exploited, as the active sites spatially separated within the rigid framework are usually difficult to cooperate. It is now shown that this roadblock can be surpassed. The underlying principle of the strategy presented here is the integration of catalytic components with excellent flexibility and porous heterogeneous catalysts, as demonstrated by the placement of linear ionic polymers in close proximity to surface Lewis acid active sites anchored on the walls of a covalent organic framework (COF). Using the cycloaddition of the epoxides and CO 2 as a model reaction, dramatic activity improvements have been achieved for the composite catalysts in relation to the individual catalytic component. Furthermore, they also clearly outperform the benchmark catalytic systems formed by the combination of the molecular organocatalysts and heterogeneous Lewis acid catalysts, while affording additional recyclability. The extraordinary flexibility and enriched concentration of the catalytically active moieties on linear polymers facilitate the concerted catalysis, thus leading to superior catalytic performance. This work therefore uncovers an entirely new strategy for designing bifunctional catalysts with double-activation behavior and opens a new avenue in the design of multicapable systems that mimic biocatalysis.

  9. State Employee Assistance Programs: Organization and Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Donna R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study conducted to determine how many state governments had established employee assistance programs (EAPs). Results concerned how state EAPs are organized, services provided, cost of programs, what dollars or productive benefits were calculated, and what problems have been encountered by state EAPs. (CT)

  10. Cooperation-Controlled Learning for Explicit Class Structure in Self-Organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Ryotaro

    2014-01-01

    We attempt to demonstrate the effectiveness of multiple points of view toward neural networks. By restricting ourselves to two points of view of a neuron, we propose a new type of information-theoretic method called “cooperation-controlled learning.” In this method, individual and collective neurons are distinguished from one another, and we suppose that the characteristics of individual and collective neurons are different. To implement individual and collective neurons, we prepare two networks, namely, cooperative and uncooperative networks. The roles of these networks and the roles of individual and collective neurons are controlled by the cooperation parameter. As the parameter is increased, the role of cooperative networks becomes more important in learning, and the characteristics of collective neurons become more dominant. On the other hand, when the parameter is small, individual neurons play a more important role. We applied the method to the automobile and housing data from the machine learning database and examined whether explicit class boundaries could be obtained. Experimental results showed that cooperation-controlled learning, in particular taking into account information on input units, could be used to produce clearer class structure than conventional self-organizing maps. PMID:25309950

  11. Cooperation-Controlled Learning for Explicit Class Structure in Self-Organizing Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryotaro Kamimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to demonstrate the effectiveness of multiple points of view toward neural networks. By restricting ourselves to two points of view of a neuron, we propose a new type of information-theoretic method called “cooperation-controlled learning.” In this method, individual and collective neurons are distinguished from one another, and we suppose that the characteristics of individual and collective neurons are different. To implement individual and collective neurons, we prepare two networks, namely, cooperative and uncooperative networks. The roles of these networks and the roles of individual and collective neurons are controlled by the cooperation parameter. As the parameter is increased, the role of cooperative networks becomes more important in learning, and the characteristics of collective neurons become more dominant. On the other hand, when the parameter is small, individual neurons play a more important role. We applied the method to the automobile and housing data from the machine learning database and examined whether explicit class boundaries could be obtained. Experimental results showed that cooperation-controlled learning, in particular taking into account information on input units, could be used to produce clearer class structure than conventional self-organizing maps.

  12. Multi-agent cooperation rescue algorithm based on influence degree and state prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanbin; Ma, Guangfu; Wang, Linlin; Xi, Pengxue

    2018-04-01

    Aiming at the multi-agent cooperative rescue in disaster, a multi-agent cooperative rescue algorithm based on impact degree and state prediction is proposed. Firstly, based on the influence of the information in the scene on the collaborative task, the influence degree function is used to filter the information. Secondly, using the selected information to predict the state of the system and Agent behavior. Finally, according to the result of the forecast, the cooperative behavior of Agent is guided and improved the efficiency of individual collaboration. The simulation results show that this algorithm can effectively solve the cooperative rescue problem of multi-agent and ensure the efficient completion of the task.

  13. Relationships between state owned enterprises and western oil companies : from contracts to cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, B.

    1994-01-01

    The ''cooperation'' term has become one of the most ambiguous in everyday life. A first step is to make a distinction between simple contractual agreements and more demanding cooperation relationships. On the history of relations between state owned enterprises and western oil companies, that leads us to the three following periods : 1) from 1970 to 1985 contractual agreements are defined under the nationalization requirements, 2) from 1982 to 1994 new contracts are tested, 3) in the end of the 1990's decade perspectives and stakes of cooperation are discussed in a world of a commercial growing interdependence. (Author). 23 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. Cooperative Networks: Altruism, Group Solidarity, Reciprocity, and Sanctioning in Ugandan Producer Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia

    2015-09-01

    Repeated interaction and social networks are commonly considered viable solutions to collective action problems. This article identifies and systematically measures four general mechanisms--that is, generalized altruism, group solidarity, reciprocity, and the threat of sanctioning--and tests which of them brings about cooperation in the context of Ugandan producer organizations. Using an innovative methodological framework that combines "lab-in-the-field" experiments with survey interviews and complete social networks data, the article goes beyond the assessment of a relationship between social networks and collective outcomes to study the mechanisms that favor cooperative behavior. The article first establishes a positive relationship between position in the network structure and propensity to cooperate in the producer organization and then uses farmers' behavior in dictator and public goods games to test different mechanisms that may account for such a relationship. Results show that cooperation is induced by patterns of reciprocity that emerge through repeated interaction rather than other-regarding preferences like altruism or group solidarity.

  15. Indonesia's Relations with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulyono, Imam E

    2008-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, the diplomatic, military and economic gap between China, Russia and the rest of SCO members is very wide and has created suspicion that the SCO is only a Sino-Russian led alliance against U.S...

  16. Framework for Naval Cooperation between Vietnam and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    the Vietnam-United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership...United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership Agreement signed...Economic Zone FTA Free Trade Agreement GDP Gross Domestic Product IMET International Military Education and Training MIA Missing in Action

  17. 30 CFR 936.30 - State-Federal Cooperative Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agency with jurisdiction over the proposed surface coal mining and reclamation operation. Article XI... Section 936.30 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OKLAHOMA § 936.30 State...

  18. Egypt--United States cooperative energy assessment: report on preliminary discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Egyptian and U.S. Government representatives met in Cairo during the period of February 14-22, 1978 to discuss a cooperative Egypt-U.S. assessment of the energy demand and supply options available to Egypt. This report summarizes those preliminary discussions. The discussions accomplished the following: the background and objectives of the U.S. initiative for a cooperative energy assessment with Egypt were explained; Egyptian electric energy activities and their priorities were presented; methods under consideration for the systematic identification and assessment of energy options available to Egypt were explained; the cooperation of Egyptian energy resource and planning organizations was assured; and arrangements to carry out the cooperative assessment were planned.

  19. Development of cooperation of the CIS member states in the peaceful use of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, A.Ye.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Cooperation platform: Attraction of potential investors; Promotion of national goods and services; Pursuit of national and commercial interests. The Commission of the CIS Member States for the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy is a nuclear cooperation body and the CIS intergovernmental coordinating and advisory authority. The Commission of the CIS Member States for the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy coordinates and expands the spheres of cooperation. Members of the Commission- state-appointed heads of the authorized CIS member state bodies in the peaceful use of atomic energy; Secretariat is the working body of the Commission. Expert work groups formed within the CIS members States Commission: On the status of the draft Agreement on Coordination of Interstate Relations in the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy in the CIS Territory; On the establishment of the CIS regional center for advanced training of medical physicists; Formation of an integrated system for the maintenance of safety of the nuclear research facilities. Issues of establishing the Coalition of the CIS Nuclear Research reactors; Formation of mechanisms for the convergence of the CIS member states legal and technical regulations in the peaceful use of atomic energy; Adaptation and introduction in the CIS members states of international standards in the field of using industrial radiation technologies and ensuring radiation safety; Basic forms of the CIS cooperation in ensuring economic security of projects for the peaceful use of atomic energy; Establishment of a system for the management of intellectual assets of the CIS members states; On the use of tele medical technologies of Ros atom State Cooperation- FMBA-MEPHI in diagnosis of oncologic diseases; Development of the major components of the Concept of Ensuring Nuclear, radiation and Radio ecological; Policy of the CIS Member States in the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy; Joint implementation of the project to establish and implement a program of

  20. Why mussels stick together: spatial self-organization affects the evolution of cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, M.; Weissing, F.J.; van de Koppel, J.

    2017-01-01

    Cooperation with neighbours may be crucial for the persistence of populations instressful environments. Yet, cooperation is often not evolutionarily stable, since noncooperativeindividuals can reap the benefits of cooperation without having to pay the costsassociated with cooperation. Here we show

  1. Canada-United States-Mexico Trilateral Cooperation on Childhood Obesity Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rabadán-Diehl

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Childhood obesity is an important public health problem that affects countries in the Americas. In 2014, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO Member States agreed on a Plan of Action for the Prevention of Obesity in Children and Adolescents in an effort to address the impact of this disorder in the Americas region. The interventions laid out in this regional plan are multi-faceted and require multi-sectoral partnerships. Building on a strong history of successful trilateral collaboration, Canada, Mexico, and the United States formed a partnership to address the growing epidemic of childhood obesity in the North American region. This collaborative effort, known as the Trilateral Cooperation on Childhood Obesity Initiative, is the first initiative in the region to address chronic noncommunicable diseases by bringing together technical and policy experts, with strong leadership and support from the secretaries and ministers of health. The Initiative’s goals include increasing levels of physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior through 1 increased social mobilization and citizen engagement, 2 community- based outreach, and 3 changes to the built (man-made environment. This article describes the background and development process of the Initiative; specific goals, activities, and actions achieved to date; and opportunities and next steps. This information may be useful for those forming other partnerships designed to address childhood obesity or other complex public health challenges in the region.

  2. Identities of states in international organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ramses A.; Dekker, I.F.; Dekker, Ige F.

    2015-01-01

    In academic debates on the responsibility of international organizations and their member States the different identities of States play a crucial role. However, apart from the difficulty to clearly separate ‘State’ and ‘member State’ identities, it is even more complex to distinguish between the

  3. 30 CFR 926.30 - State-Federal cooperative agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application and communications regarding all decisions and determinations with respect to the PAP or transfer... pursuant to 30 CFR 740.4(c)(2), with respect to post-mining land use and to any special requirements... Policy Act (MEPA); (2) Preparation of a State decision package, which includes written findings...

  4. Research Use by Cooperative Extension Educators in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Chen, Emily K.; Pillemer, Karl; Meador, Rhoda H.

    2013-01-01

    A Web-based survey of 388 off-campus Cornell Extension educators in New York State examined their attitudes toward research, sources of research-based information, knowledge and beliefs about evidence-based programs, and involvement in research activities. Strong consensus emerged that research is central and that educators are capable of reading…

  5. 30 CFR 944.30 - State-Federal Cooperative Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OSMRE's Western Field Operations office will work with DOGM to estimate the amount the Federal... applicable Federal laws may be specified in working agreements between OSMRE and the State, with the... Policy Act (NEPA), this Agreement, and other applicable Federal laws. The Secretary will carry out these...

  6. European Research Reloaded : Cooperation and Integration Among Europeanized States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ron; Haverland, Markus

    2006-01-01

    European integration has had an ever deepening impact on the member states. The first wave of research concerned the process of institution building and policy developments at the European Union (EU) level. The second wave, on Europeanization used the resulting integration as an explanatory factor

  7. International cooperation during radiological emergencies. NRC program guidance for the provision of technical advice to foreign counterpart organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senseney, R.

    1986-04-01

    This report defines the scope, application, and limits of the technical cooperation the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) would provide, upon request, to a foreign regulatory agency in a nuclear emergency. It outlines the basis for such cooperation, offers a model written agreement, and describes recent cases of NRC assistance. It also identifies non-NRC sources of emergency advisory assistance available to foreign organizations

  8. Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh concerning Education, Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh concerning Education, Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics

  9. Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

  10. Cooperative and submolecular dissipation mechanisms of sliding friction in complex organic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Daniel B; Gray, Tomoko O; Overney, René M

    2008-08-21

    Energy dissipation in single asperity sliding friction was directly linked to submolecular modes of mobility by intrinsic friction analysis, involving time-temperature superposition along with thermodynamic stress and reaction rate models. Thereby, polystyrene served as a representative tribological sample for organic and amorphous complex systems. This study reveals the significance of surface and subsurface (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-) relaxational modes, which couple under appropriate external conditions (load, temperature, and rate) with shear induced disturbances, and thus gives rise to material specific frictional dissipation. At low pressures and temperatures below the glass transition point, the phenyl pendant side groups of polystyrene, known for their preferential orientation at the free surface, were noticed to be the primary channel for dissipation of kinetic sliding-energy. While this process was found to be truly enthalpic (activation energy of 8 kcalmol), energy dissipation was shown to possess both enthalpic and cooperative entropic contributions above the loading capacity of the surface phenyl groups (9.9 kcalmol) or above the glass transition. Apparent Arrhenius activation energies of frictional dissipation of 22 and 90 kcalmol, respectively, and cooperative contributions up to 80% were found. As such, this study highlights issues critical to organic lubricant design, i.e., the intrinsic enthalpic activation barriers of mobile linker groups, the evaluation of cooperative mobility phenomena, and critical tribological parameters to access or avoid coupling between shear disturbances and molecular actuators.

  11. Active Learning and Cooperative Learning in the Organic Chemistry Lecture Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Donald R.

    1999-08-01

    Faculty in the physical sciences are one of the academic groups least receptive to the use of active learning strategies and cooperative learning in their classrooms. This is particularly so in traditional lecture classes. It is the objective of this paper to show how effective these techniques can be in improving student performance in classes. The use of active learning strategies and cooperative learning groups in my organic chemistry lecture classes has increased the overall pass rate in my classes by an astounding 20-30% over the traditional lecture mode. This has been accomplished without any reduction in "standards". The actual methods employed are presented as well as a discussion of how I came to radically change the way I teach my classes.

  12. Cooperation Agreement. The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8

  13. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8 [fr

  14. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8

  15. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8 [es

  16. Interregional Cooperation Within Integration Processes in the Union State of Russia and Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Agarunovich Abramov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with interregional cooperation of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus in the spheres of trade, investment, industrial cooperation, education, science, culture, medicine and travel industry as a part of forming of The Eurasian Economic Space. Basing of the analysis of Russian and Belarusian regions’ experience the authors reveal the main problems of such cooperation. For example, it is shown that the major obstacle to making contacts between regions of the Union State is imperfection of federative and unitary structure, so there’s a need to enhance the role of supranational institutions and mechanisms for determining the interregional policy. It is proved that current contacts are geographically diversified. The authors give their recommendations to develop foundations for cooperation in innovative sector of economy. Identified prospects of development of interregional cooperation can be applied to the activities of legislative and executive authorities of the Union State as well as governmental bodies of Russian and Belarusian regions for maximizing their investment potential

  17. Diabetes among Latinos in the Southwestern United States: border health and binational cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P. Casey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This analysis reviews cooperation between the four border states of the United States of America (Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas and international partners in Mexico with regard to type 2 diabetes among Latinos. Binational cooperation, academic collaboration, preventative health initiatives, and efforts to improve health care access for the border population are highlighted. This meta-analysis of the literature points out causative factors of the increased type 2 diabetes prevalence among Latinos in the United States; an inverse correlation between diabetes and education and socioeconomic level; contributing factors, including barriers with language, health care payment, transportation, and underestimating diabetes implications; and a lack of social and environmental support for disease management. Medical and indirect costs in socioeconomic terms are also included. Cooperation between the United States and Mexico may be beneficial to promoting further collaborative efforts between these nations, and serve as a template for greater cooperative efforts to mitigate the substantial public health and socioeconomic implications of type 2 diabetes globally.

  18. Using the Elements of Cooperative Learning in School Band Classes in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitener, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to answer the question of how we might use the elements of cooperative learning in school band classes in the United States. Current school band programs use age-old traditions that overemphasize group and individual competitiveness, stress large ensemble performance at the expense of all other activities, are…

  19. Attitude of Students towards Cooperative Learning in Some Selected Secondary Schools in Nasarawa State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amedu, Odagboyi Isaiah; Gudi, Kreni Comfort

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the attitude of students toward the cooperative learning approach. A quasiexperimental design was used for the study. The sample was made of 179 SS 1 students drawn from three public secondary schools in Nasarawa state. The Jigsaw Attitude Questionnaire (JAQ) was adapted from Koprowski and Perigo (2000) and was…

  20. 77 FR 17569 - United States-Canada Regulatory Cooperation Council (RCC)-Transportation-Dangerous Goods Working...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... identified in the Joint Action Plan, the Transportation--Dangerous Goods Working Group led by senior...)-- Transportation--Dangerous Goods Working Group AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...--Dangerous Goods Working Group, of the United States-Canada Regulatory Cooperation Council (RCC). Comments...

  1. Optimal Monetary Policy Cooperation through State-Independent Contracts with Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    Simple state-independent monetary institutions are shown to secure optimal cooperative policies in a stochastic, linear-quadratic two-country world with international policy spill-overs and national credibility problems. Institutions characterize delegation to independent central bankers facing...... quadratic performance related contracts punishing or rewarding deviations from primary and intermediate policy targets...

  2. WIPP: Lessons learned for state/DOE consultation and cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    WIPP is intended to be a repository for permanent disposal of 6,200,000 cu ft of transuranic waste generated from the nation's defense programs. The waste is not fixed, up to 1% can be respirable and it is stored in conventional 17-C Type A Carbon steel drums with a design life of 20 years. (Storage began in 1970). The waste form is not fused in an insoluble glass matrix and there is no commitment by DOE for getters. The question arises of the need and desirability to perform experiments with high level wastes at WIPP. The original purpose in the Oct 1980 WIPP FIES stated ''...the experiments are not so much concerned with the WIPP itself, as they are with planning future high level waste repositories. They are to answer technical questions about the disposal of high level waste in bedded salt and to provide a valid demonstration of the concepts involved.'' The purpose of this paper is to provide information for RH TRU disposal and to generate scientific knowledge that may be helpful to others and not to demonstrate high level waste disposal

  3. Why mussels stick together : spatial self-organization affects the evolution of cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, Monique; Weissing, Franz J; van de Koppel, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Cooperation with neighbours may be crucial for the persistence of populations in stressful environments. Yet, cooperation is often not evolutionarily stable, since non-cooperative individuals can reap the benefits of cooperation without having to pay the costs associated with cooperation. Here we

  4. Utilizing an ANP framework for prioritizing effective criteria on performance management in cooperative organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Akhavan Alavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance management plays an essential role on increasing efficiency of business units. It helps find important barriers against a business unit helping us setup better strategies for handling troubles. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find important factors influencing performance management in cooperative organizations. The proposed study uses analytical hierarchy process to rank important factors in three groups of team level, individual and organization levels. The survey is based on receiving feedbacks from decision makers and making a pairwise comparison on measuring the relative importance of each criterion influencing performance management. The results of our survey indicate that setting appropriate standards for performance management is the most important item followed by relationship between organization structure and performance management, performance management based on future events. The other three factors including continuous improvement and updating systems, encouraging employee for change culture and relationship between future outlook and performance management are other important factors.

  5. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations; Texte des Accords de Cooperation Conclus entre L'Agence et des Organisations Intergouvernementales Regionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-02-07

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency [French] Le present document reproduit le texte des accords de cooperation que l'Agence a conclus avec les organisations intergouvernementales regionales enumerees ci-apres, ainsi que celui des protocoles validant lesdits accords. Le texte de ces instruments, classes dans l'ordre chronologique de leur entree en vigueur, est communique, pour information, a tous les Membres de l'Agence.

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES' IN FUNDING PROCESSING MILLS IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adinya, I.B; Odey S.O.; Oniah M.O; Umeh G.N; Agiopu, B.F; Ogbonna ,K.I.

    2008-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the role of agricultural co-operative societies as institutional source of finance to processing mills in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from a random sample of 150 respondents in the study area by means of structured questionnaire. The first stage involved random selection of fifteen local government areas from eighteen local government areas in Cross River State. This was followed by random selection of one village in each of the fifteen l...

  7. International Cooperation of Izmail State University for Humanities in 2015-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Kapliienko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the state and perspectives of international cooperation of Izmail State University for Humanities with academic partners abroad. Special attention is given to the participation of the University in European research networks for educational and curricula quality promotion, as well as to improvement of academic staff professional qualification in view of social and regional needs for sustainable economic and social development.

  8. Cooperation in carbon source degradation shapes spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on hydrated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecon, Robin; Or, Dani

    2017-03-06

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural microbial communities exhibit a high level of spatial organization at the micrometric scale that facilitate ecological interactions and support biogeochemical cycles. Microbial patterns are difficult to study definitively in natural environments due to complex biodiversity, observability and variable physicochemical factors. Here, we examine how trophic dependencies give rise to self-organized spatial patterns of a well-defined bacterial consortium grown on hydrated surfaces. The model consortium consisted of two Pseudomonas putida mutant strains that can fully degrade the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene. We demonstrated that obligate cooperation in toluene degradation (cooperative mutualism) favored convergence of 1:1 partner ratio and strong intermixing at the microscale (10-100 μm). In contrast, competition for benzoate, a compound degraded independently by both strains, led to distinct segregation patterns. Emergence of a persistent spatial pattern has been predicted for surface attached microbial activity in liquid films that mediate diffusive exchanges while permitting limited cell movement (colony expansion). This study of a simple microbial consortium offers mechanistic glimpses into the rules governing the assembly and functioning of complex sessile communities, and points to general principles of spatial organization with potential applications for natural and engineered microbial systems.

  9. Cooperative loading of multisite receptors with lanthanide containers: an approach for organized luminescent metallopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Lucille; Guénée, Laure; Besnard, Céline; Eliseeva, Svetlana V; Petoud, Stéphane; Piguet, Claude

    2018-01-14

    Metal-containing (bio)organic polymers are materials of continuously increasing importance for applications in energy storage and conversion, drug delivery, shape-memory items, supported catalysts, organic conductors and smart photonic devices. The embodiment of luminescent components provides a revolution in lighting and signaling with the ever-increasing development of polymeric light-emitting devices. Despite the unique properties expected from the introduction of optically and magnetically active lanthanides into organic polymers, the deficient control of the metal loading currently limits their design to empirical and poorly reproducible materials. We show here that the synthetic efforts required for producing soluble multi-site host systems L k are largely overcome by the virtue of reversible thermodynamics for mastering the metal loading with the help of only two parameters: (1) the affinity of the luminescent lanthanide container for a single binding site and (2) the cooperative effect which modulates the successive fixation of metallic units to adjacent sites. When unsymmetrical perfluorobenzene-trifluoroacetylacetonate co-ligands (pbta - ) are selected for balancing the charge of the trivalent lanthanide cations, Ln 3+ , in six-coordinate [Ln(pbta) 3 ] containers, the explored anti-cooperative complexation processes induce nearest-neighbor intermetallic interactions twice as large as thermal energy at room temperature ( RT = 2.5 kJ mol -1 ). These values have no precedent when using standard symmetrical containers and they pave the way for programming metal alternation in luminescent lanthanidopolymers.

  10. Transitions towards sustainable agriculture: the organic apiculture niche in an Argentinean cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Vila Seoane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that it is possible to transform innovation pathways in natural-resource-based industries towards more sustainable ones. In particular, it employs the socio-technical transitions framework to understand the structural barriers that the industrial agricultural system puts to COOPSOL, an Argentinean cooperative project of organic apiculture. The article is based on qualitative data that systematize, on the one hand, the pressures for continuity and change in the agricultural system. On the other hand, the data reveal the main perceptions of COOPSOL´s actors about the existing structural limits.

  11. Exponentially Enhanced Light-Matter Interaction, Cooperativities, and Steady-State Entanglement Using Parametric Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Miranowicz, Adam; Li, Peng-Bo; Lü, Xin-You; You, J. Q.; Nori, Franco

    2018-03-01

    We propose an experimentally feasible method for enhancing the atom-field coupling as well as the ratio between this coupling and dissipation (i.e., cooperativity) in an optical cavity. It exploits optical parametric amplification to exponentially enhance the atom-cavity interaction and, hence, the cooperativity of the system, with the squeezing-induced noise being completely eliminated. Consequently, the atom-cavity system can be driven from the weak-coupling regime to the strong-coupling regime for modest squeezing parameters, and even can achieve an effective cooperativity much larger than 100. Based on this, we further demonstrate the generation of steady-state nearly maximal quantum entanglement. The resulting entanglement infidelity (which quantifies the deviation of the actual state from a maximally entangled state) is exponentially smaller than the lower bound on the infidelities obtained in other dissipative entanglement preparations without applying squeezing. In principle, we can make an arbitrarily small infidelity. Our generic method for enhancing atom-cavity interaction and cooperativities can be implemented in a wide range of physical systems, and it can provide diverse applications for quantum information processing.

  12. Cooperation dynamics of generalized reciprocity in state-based social dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkoski, Viktor; Utkovski, Zoran; Basnarkov, Lasko; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2018-05-01

    We introduce a framework for studying social dilemmas in networked societies where individuals follow a simple state-based behavioral mechanism based on generalized reciprocity, which is rooted in the principle "help anyone if helped by someone." Within this general framework, which applies to a wide range of social dilemmas including, among others, public goods, donation, and snowdrift games, we study the cooperation dynamics on a variety of complex network examples. By interpreting the studied model through the lenses of nonlinear dynamical systems, we show that cooperation through generalized reciprocity always emerges as the unique attractor in which the overall level of cooperation is maximized, while simultaneously exploitation of the participating individuals is prevented. The analysis elucidates the role of the network structure, here captured by a local centrality measure which uniquely quantifies the propensity of the network structure to cooperation by dictating the degree of cooperation displayed both at the microscopic and macroscopic level. We demonstrate the applicability of the analysis on a practical example by considering an interaction structure that couples a donation process with a public goods game.

  13. Money laundering in the convention on combating bribery of foreign public officials in international business transactions of the organization for cooperation and development (OECD)

    OpenAIRE

    Notari Bonini Notari; Rogério Gesta Leal

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the phenomenon of corruption and money laundering and how they are being addressed this issue under the Convention on Combating Public Officials Corruption Foreigners in Transactions Organization of International Trade for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the formulation of public policies for Combating Corruption and Money Laundering, by the Brazilian State. The Money Laundering is a species of corrupting practices, so that this type of illicit und...

  14. South Korean Development Cooperation in Africa: The Legacy of a Developmental State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kalinowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how the legacy of the South Korean developmental state influences the way the country conducts its development cooperation (DC policies. We argue that institutions of the developmental state remain instrumental in structuring South Korea’s cooperation with the developing world. Two country case studies of South Korean DC and investment projects in Mozambique and Rwanda show that state initiative and a strong state–business partnership are defining elements of South Korean DC. At the same time, both cases show substantial differences when it comes to type of project, type of state–business partnership in the South Korean approach, degree of project ownership by the recipient country, and quality of governance in the recipient countries.

  15. Relations of Central Asia with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Collective Security Treaty Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de M.

    2017-01-01

    Comparing the influence of and relationship of Central Asia with the major regional bodies, the SCO is an advantageous organization for the economic development of Central Asia, since it is an opportune podium for doing business, especially with China, with a guarantee that Moscow nor Beijing will

  16. Perturbed cooperative-state feedback strategy for model predictive networked control of interconnected systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tri; Ha, Q P

    2018-01-01

    A perturbed cooperative-state feedback (PSF) strategy is presented for the control of interconnected systems in this paper. The subsystems of an interconnected system can exchange data via the communication network that has multiple connection topologies. The PSF strategy can resolve both issues, the sensor data losses and the communication network breaks, thanks to the two components of the control including a cooperative-state feedback and a perturbation variable, e.g., u i =K ij x j +w i . The PSF is implemented in a decentralized model predictive control scheme with a stability constraint and a non-monotonic storage function (ΔV(x(k))≥0), derived from the dissipative systems theory. Numerical simulation for the automatic generation control problem in power systems is studied to illustrate the effectiveness of the presented PSF strategy. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 78 FR 49757 - Notification of an Expansion to the Cooperative Agreement Award to the World Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... Award to the World Health Organization AGENCY: Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority... requires notification to World Health Organization (WHO) as soon as possible, and any confirmed smallpox... Services (HHS). ACTION: Notification of an expansion to the Cooperative Agreement Award to the World Health...

  18. International medical cooperation project for State of Libya using international medical tourism system in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    奥寺, 敬; 坂本, 美重

    2013-01-01

    International medical cooperation project for State of Libya is reported. The concept of this project is to treat Libyan injured people using international medical tourism system in Thailand. Management of patient, including evaluation, domestic and international transportation arrangement of hospital, is supported by Normeca International Co., Ltd, (Pattaya, Thailand). Treatment of Libyan patient in two international hospitals (Bangpakok 9 Hospital and Navamin 9 Hopsital) in Bangkok was succ...

  19. Enhancing Cooperativity in Bifunctional Acid–Pd Catalysts with Carboxylic Acid-Functionalized Organic Monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coan, Patrick D. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado—Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, United States; Ellis, Lucas D. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado—Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, United States; Griffin, Michael B. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Schwartz, Daniel K. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado—Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, United States; Medlin, J. Will [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado—Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, United States

    2018-03-01

    Cooperative catalysts containing a combination of noble metal hydrogenation sites and Bronsted acid sites are critical for many reactions, including the deoxygenation (DO) of biomass-derived oxygenates in the upgrading of pyrolysis oil. One route toward the design of cooperative catalysts is to tether two different catalytically active functions so that they are in close proximity while avoiding undesirable interactions that can block active sites. Here, we deposited carboxylic acid (CA)-functionalized organophosphonate monolayers onto Al2O3-supported Pd nanoparticle catalysts to prepare bifunctional catalysts containing both Bronsted acid and metal sites. Modification with phosphonic acids (PAs) improved activity and selectivity for gas-phase DO reactions, but the degree of improvement was highly sensitive to both the presence and positioning of the CA group, suggesting a significant contribution from both the PA and CA sites. Short spacer lengths of 1-2 methylene groups between the phosphonate head and CA tail were found to yield the best DO rates and selectivities, whereas longer chains performed similarly to self-assembled monolayers having alkyl tails. Results from a combination of density functional theory and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that the enhanced catalyst performance on the optimally positioned CAs was due to the generation of strong acid sites on the Al2O3 support adjacent to the metal. Furthermore, the high activity of these sites was found to result from a hydrogen-bonded cyclic structure involving cooperativity between the phosphonate head group and CA tail function. More broadly, these results indicate that functional groups tethered to supports via organic ligands can influence catalytic chemistry on metal nanoparticles.

  20. Does cooperativity influence the lifetime of the photo-induced HS state?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letard, Jean-Francois; Costa, Jose Sanchez; Marcen, Silvia; Carbonera, Chiara; Desplanches, Cedric; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Daro, Nathalie; Guionneau, Philippe; Ader, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    We have first recalled the T(LIESST) procedure which consists to determine the temperature above which the photo-magnetic effect is erased. In addition we have selected to series of iron(II) spin crossover complexes, the [Fe(PM-L) 2 (NCS) 2 ] and [Fe(bpp) 2 ]X 2 ·nH 2 O families, to analyse the influence of the cooperativity on the stability of the photo-induced HS state. Some of these complexes exhibit gradual thermal spin crossover behaviours while some others undergo an abrupt thermal transition, with and without hysteresis. Interestingly, whatever the cooperativity effect on the thermal spin crossover transition, the lifetime of the metastable state of all these derivates remains governed by the T(LIESST) = T 0 - 0.31 T 1/2 relation. Finally, we have investigated the magnetic and the photomagnetic properties of a [Fe(bpp) 2 ]-Nafion film. Once more the role of the cooperativity on the stability of the photoinduced HS state appears minor. Conversely, the influence of the nature and the geometry of the inner coordination sphere appears preponderant

  1. Developing Digital Dashboard Management for Learning System Dynamic Cooperative Simulation Behavior of Indonesia. (Study on Cooperative Information Organization in the Ministry of Cooperatives and SME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eni, Yuli; Aryanto, Rudy

    2014-03-01

    There are problems being experienced by the Ministry of cooperatives and SME (Small and Medium Enterprise) including the length of time in the decision by the Government to establish a policy that should be taken for local cooperatives across the province of Indonesia. The decision-making process is still analyzed manually, so that sometimes the decisions taken are also less appropriate, effective and efficient. The second problem is the lack of monitoring data cooperative process province that is too much, making it difficult for the analysis of dynamic information to be useful. Therefore the authors want to fix the system that runs by using digital dashboard management system supported by the modeling of system dynamics. In addition, the author also did the design of a system that can support the system. Design of this system is aimed to ease the experts, head, and the government to decide (DSS - Decision Support System) accurately effectively and efficiently, because in the system are raised alternative simulation in a description of the decision to be taken and the result from the decision. The system is expected to be designed dan simulated can ease and expedite the decision making. The design of dynamic digital dashboard management conducted by method of OOAD (Objects Oriented Analysis and Design) complete with UML notation.

  2. Controlling Cooperative CO2 Adsorption in Diamine-Appended Mg2(dobpdc) Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegelman, Rebecca L; McDonald, Thomas M; Gonzalez, Miguel I; Martell, Jeffrey D; Milner, Phillip J; Mason, Jarad A; Berger, Adam H; Bhown, Abhoyjit S; Long, Jeffrey R

    2017-08-02

    In the transition to a clean-energy future, CO 2 separations will play a critical role in mitigating current greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating conversion to cleaner-burning and renewable fuels. New materials with high selectivities for CO 2 adsorption, large CO 2 removal capacities, and low regeneration energies are needed to achieve these separations efficiently at scale. Here, we present a detailed investigation of nine diamine-appended variants of the metal-organic framework Mg 2 (dobpdc) (dobpdc 4- = 4,4'-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate) that feature step-shaped CO 2 adsorption isotherms resulting from cooperative and reversible insertion of CO 2 into metal-amine bonds to form ammonium carbamate chains. Small modifications to the diamine structure are found to shift the threshold pressure for cooperative CO 2 adsorption by over 4 orders of magnitude at a given temperature, and the observed trends are rationalized on the basis of crystal structures of the isostructural zinc frameworks obtained from in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. The structure-activity relationships derived from these results can be leveraged to tailor adsorbents to the conditions of a given CO 2 separation process. The unparalleled versatility of these materials, coupled with their high CO 2 capacities and low projected energy costs, highlights their potential as next-generation adsorbents for a wide array of CO 2 separations.

  3. 'Co-operation and Communism cannot work side by side': Organized Consumers and the Early Cold War in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Peter

    2018-04-02

    This article contributes to a better understanding of labour anti-communism in Britain through an exploration of the evolution of ideas and attitudes within the co-operative movement during the early Cold War. It demonstrates that the period witnessed an increasingly rigid separation of co-operation from communism and argues that this separation made it harder for activists within the co-operative movement to imagine a total or utopian alternative to capitalism. Drawing particularly on a close reading of the co-operative press as well as other sources, the study is divided into three main parts. The first section discusses sympathy among co-operators for the achievements of the Soviet Union, which increased during the war against fascism. The article then moves on to consider the continuing dialogue between British co-operators and their counterparts in European communist states and how international tensions shaped co-operators' views. The final major section explores the hardening of attitude towards communism after Marshall Aid was declared in June 1947, and underlines the role played by figures such as A. V. Alexander and Jack Bailey who worked with the Information Research Department at the Foreign Office to spread anti-communism within the movement. The conclusion reflects, more speculatively, on what implications this shift may have had for the medium and long-term decline of co-operation and the hegemony of capitalist consumerism post-war.

  4. Cooperative earthquake research between the United States and the People's Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, D.P.; Johnson, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes cooperative research by scientists of the US and the People's Republic of China (PRC) which has resulted in important new findings concerning the fundamental characteristics of earthquakes and new insight into mitigating earthquake hazards. There have been over 35 projects cooperatively sponsored by the Earthquake Studies Protocol in the past 5 years. The projects are organized into seven annexes, including investigations in earthquake prediction, intraplate faults and earthquakes, earthquake engineering and hazards investigation, deep crustal structure, rock mechanics, seismology, and data exchange. Operational earthquake prediction experiments are currently being developed at two primary sites: western Yunnan Province near the town of Xiaguan, where there are several active faults, and the northeast China plain, where the devastating 1976 Tangshan earthquake occurred.

  5. Cooperative single-photon subradiant states in a three-dimensional atomic array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jen, H.H., E-mail: sappyjen@gmail.com

    2016-11-15

    We propose a complete superradiant and subradiant states that can be manipulated and prepared in a three-dimensional atomic array. These subradiant states can be realized by absorbing a single photon and imprinting the spatially-dependent phases on the atomic system. We find that the collective decay rates and associated cooperative Lamb shifts are highly dependent on the phases we manage to imprint, and the subradiant state of long lifetime can be found for various lattice spacings and atom numbers. We also investigate both optically thin and thick atomic arrays, which can serve for systematic studies of super- and sub-radiance. Our proposal offers an alternative scheme for quantum memory of light in a three-dimensional array of two-level atoms, which is applicable and potentially advantageous in quantum information processing. - Highlights: • Cooperative single-photon subradiant states in a three-dimensional atomic array. • Subradiant state manipulation via spatially-increasing phase imprinting. • Quantum storage of light in the subradiant state in two-level atoms.

  6. Cooperation of CMEA member states in the field of the manufacture and use of stable isotopes and compounds thus labelled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertel, G.; Ewald, G.

    1977-01-01

    The contribution presents a survey of scientific-technical cooperation of CMEA member states in the field of stable isotopes, it deals with the specialization of stable isotope production and compounds thus labelled, and gives the prospects for further development of this cooperation. (HK) [de

  7. Bound states and Cooper pairs of molecules in 2D optical lattices bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho-Guardian, A.; Dominguez-Castro, G.A.; Paredes, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    We investigate the formation of Cooper pairs, bound dimers and the dimer-dimer elastic scattering of ultracold dipolar Fermi molecules confined in a 2D optical lattice bilayer configuration. While the energy and their associated bound states are determined in a variational way, the correlated two-molecule pair is addressed as in the original Cooper formulation. We demonstrate that the 2D lattice confinement favors the formation of zero center mass momentum bound states. Regarding the Cooper pairs binding energy, this depends on the molecule populations in each layer. Maximum binding energies occur for non-zero (zero) pair momentum when the Fermi system is polarized (unpolarized). We find an analytic expression for the dimer-dimer effective interaction in the deep BEC regime. The present analysis represents a route for addressing the BCS-BEC crossover in dipolar Fermi gases confined in 2D optical lattices within the current experimental panorama. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Coherent electron - hole state and femtosecond cooperative emission in bulk GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, Petr P; Kan, H; Ohta, H; Hiruma, T

    2002-01-01

    The conditions for obtaining a collective coherent electron - hole state in semiconductors are discussed. The results of the experimental study of the regime of cooperative recombination of high-density electrons and holes (more than 3 x 10 18 cm -3 ) in bulk GaAs at room temperature are presented. It is shown that the collective pairing of electrons and holes and their condensation cause the formation of a short-living coherent electron - hole BCS-like state, which exhibits radiative recombination in the form of high-power femtosecond optical pulses. It is experimentally demonstrated that almost all of the electrons and holes available are condensed at the very bottoms of the bands and are at the cooperative state. The average lifetime of this state is measured to be of about 300 fs. The dependences of the order parameter (the energy gap of the spectrum of electrons and holes) and the Fermi energy of the coherent BCS state on the electron - hole concentration are obtained. (special issue devoted to the 80th anniversary of academician n g basov's birth)

  9. Approach to inter-business cooperation: An analysis from the Mérida State Pharmacies, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Peñaloza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Facing a globalized competition, high set prices, fast technological diffusion, short-term cycle of products and an increased innovation, new business trends point to a competitive dynamics, where cooperation among companies play a significant role, which seems to be consolidated even at the extent of PyMEs. Since the end of the 80’s new business trends point to a competitive dynamic, where the cooperation among companies play a significant role. From this point of view, this exploratory and descriptive research is undertaken; whose subjects of study are drugstores from the Libertador Municipality of Mérida State. For the purposes of this research, 80 drugstores owners were interviewed, concluding that such association leads to improve the competitive conditions with no reduction in job sources.

  10. Experience with WASP and MAED among IAEA Member States participating in the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The report includes the proceedings and papers presented during the workshop on the experience with WASP/MAED computer programs among IAEA Member States participating in the regional co-operative agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region, organized by the IAEA and held in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) between 5-9 December 1988. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 14 papers presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Technical cooperation on nuclear security between the United States and China : review of the past and opportunities for the future.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2011-12-01

    The United States and China are committed to cooperation to address the challenges of the next century. Technical cooperation, building on a long tradition of technical exchange between the two countries, can play an important role. This paper focuses on technical cooperation between the United States and China in the areas of nonproliferation, arms control and other nuclear security topics. It reviews cooperation during the 1990s on nonproliferation and arms control under the U.S.-China Arms Control Exchange, discusses examples of ongoing activities under the Peaceful Uses of Technology Agreement to enhance security of nuclear and radiological material, and suggests opportunities for expanding technical cooperation between the defense nuclear laboratories of both countries to address a broader range of nuclear security topics.

  12. Approaches for increasing the cooperation between Member States and IAEA under SSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rheem, Karp-Soon; Park, Wan-Sou; Kim, Byung-Koo

    1997-01-01

    With introduction of the Strengthened Safeguards System (SSS), both the IAEA and Member States are concerned about the limited resources to carry out the SSS activity and the potential increase of additional cost and burdens. Even though the IAEA has recently prepared a procedure of the generalized New Partnership Approach (NPA), its wider application to the general Member States is difficult at the present time. For the generalized NPA necessitates that SSACs of the Member States have sufficient technical capability in safeguards to carry out the necessary activities. Unfortunately a few Member States seem to be qualified to have the sufficient technical capability that the IAEA desires. In this topic, a new approach to increase the cooperation between Member States and IAEA under SSS is proposed such that effective supports can be provided to all of its Member States that are not technically competent in terms of safeguards experience. This is realized by so called 'tunneling effort', meaning that desired goals are accomplished by efforts from both Member States and the IAEA. The Member States having high technical competence in safeguards provide technical assistance to the Member States that are not competent until they attain to a certain level in technical capability, while the IAEA provides the guidelines, and coordinates the process. The formal introduction of the Quality Control concept to the safeguards management is proposed as well so as to efficiently reduce burdens from the implementation of the SSS. (author)

  13. Self-organized control in cooperative robots using a pattern formation principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starke, Jens; Ellsaesser, Carmen; Fukuda, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    Self-organized modular approaches proved in nature to be robust and optimal and are a promising strategy to control future concepts of flexible and modular manufacturing processes. We show how this can be applied to a model of flexible manufacturing based on time-dependent robot-target assignment problems where robot teams have to serve manufacturing targets such that an objective function is optimized. Feasibility of the self-organized solutions can be guaranteed even for unpredictable situations like sudden changes in the demands or breakdowns of robots. As example an uncrewed space mission is visualized in a simulation where robots build a space station. - Highlights: → Adapting a pattern formation principle to control cooperative robots in a robust way. → Flexible manufacturing systems are modelled by time-dependent assignment problems. → Coupled selection equations guarantee feasibility of solutions. → Solution structure (permutations) is not destroyed by inhomogeneous growth rates. → Example of an uncrewed space mission shows effectivity and robustness.

  14. EU — Russia energy cooperation: major development trends and the present state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova Tatyana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of EU — Russia energy relations through the lens of the evolution of three parameters: the political agenda (the Energy Dialogue, the institutional structure, and the legal modalities. The identification of these three aspects for assessing the evolution of EU — Russia energy relations is the novelty in the author’s approach. This study aims to identify the previous stages and assess the current state of EU — Russia energy dialogue, since they set out conditions for energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region. This research is based on a political and legal analysis of various documents and employs various international relations theories (including integration theories. The article demonstrates that the EU nd Russia have made a transition to the integration agenda manifested in the Energy Dialogue (its current goal is the creation of a common European energy market. The author describes the process of gradual consolidation of transgovernmental and transnational institutions, which leads to depoliticization of cooperation and mutual socialization of the partners. Finally, legal discussions on the development of common rules have become more constructive. In sum, the current situation in EU — Russia energy relations is favourable and positively affects cooperation in the Baltic Sea region.

  15. Reallocation of water in the state of New Mexico based on cooperative game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi Rad, M.

    2011-12-01

    Water allocation models often aim to maximize net benefits in the river basin based on the water rights, thus there is no motivation to use water efficiently by the users with lower marginal value for water. Water markets not only could help increase the net benefits over the basin but also will encourage the stakeholders to save the water and use it in transfer markets and increase their income. This issue can be viewed as a game in which stakeholders can play non-cooperatively and try to increase their own benefits using the amount of water assigned to them or they could cooperate and make coalitions in order to increase the total benefits in the coalition and the whole basin. The aim of this study is to reallocate the water based on cooperation among different stakeholders, namely agricultural, municipal and industrial and environmental, in the Upper Rio Grande river basin in the state of New Mexico in order to increase efficiency, sustainability and equity of water distribution in the basin using different game theory schemes such as Nucleolus and the Shapley Value.

  16. Patent filing strategies: perspectives from the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Nevin Jacob

    2016-07-01

    The protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights has become one of the most contentious issues in global commerce. Much of the traditional growth and development of countries in the Middle East over the past 30 years or so has come from oil and gas revenues. The main areas that have been covered in this article are: synopsis of patenting system in each country, the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf patent filing system, patentability subject matter, prosecution of patent application, opposition and/or invalidation action(s) and issues that need to be resolved for an effective patent regime.

  17. Status of Radon Related Activities in Member States Participating in Technical Cooperation Projects in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This publication summarizes the status of radon programmes at the start of 2014 in the Member States in Europe participating in the IAEA technical cooperation project on establishing enhanced approaches to the control of public exposure to radon. The current status was determined from responses to a questionnaire covering the following elements of a national radon action plan: policies and strategies; radon measurement surveys; establishment of reference levels; managing radon in existing buildings and in future buildings; education and training of professionals; and public awareness initiatives.

  18. 76 FR 54235 - Supplement to the FY2010 Single-Source Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ...''. BARDA currently funds the development of vaccine manufacturing capacity in ten developing and emerging-economy countries worldwide via a cooperative agreement with the World Health Organization (WHO). The... Research and Development Authority was developed and has been operational [[Page 54236

  19. Assessment of persistency and bioaccumulation in pesticide registration frameworks within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montforts, Mark H M M

    This article describes the results of a survey conducted in 2003 on methods used by different member countries within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to evaluate persistent and bioaccumulative pesticides. The objectives were to establish the differences in taking

  20. International Cooperation Among States in Globalized Era: The Decline of State Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Koesrianti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the national sovereignty and regionalism in the context of the membership of a state into regional economic organisations. It concludes that in nowadays-shrinking world the traditional concept of sovereignty is less relevant since states have suffered a loss in their sovereignty. It found that member states of regional economic organisations have to cede a degree of sovereignty, such as in the EU. This phenomenon however is not the case for NAFTA and AFTA.

  1. The World Bank and Fragile States: Dynamics of Cooperation and Aid Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomatin A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The eradication of extreme poverty in fragile states is one of the central problems of global governance at the present time. Development of these states is hindered by instability, weak public and social institutions or ongoing conflicts and violence. The World Bank is a key partner of fragile states, which account for almost a third of the world’s population. This article is a continuation of research exploring the evolution of conceptual and practical approaches by the World Bank to cooperation with fragile states. Its methodology is based on a multilevel analysis of the securitization of foreign aid as proposed by J. Lind and J. Howell of the London School of Economics. The main focus of this examination is on the dynamics of the change of scale and structure of the World Bank’s aid to fragile states in comparison with global armed trends of providing aid to fragile states as well. This article concludes that statements about the priority of the Bank’s work in fragile states have not yet been realized in practice. The Bank remains committed to the standard approach to working with this group of recipients, which involves serious risks. The World Bank leans toward supporting projects in fragile states which increases volatility and reduces aid predictability. This trend undermines the development potentials of recipient states. Attention is drawn to political factors influencing aid flows to fragile states and particularly to the tendency of increasing the share of aid provided to fragile states through multi donor trust funds rather than through the mechanisms of the International Development Association (IDA. This trend indicates that the Bank is no longer a central point of aid distribution to the recipients, pointing to the lack of trust of donor states in the existing mechanisms and rules of aid distribution. It also reveals the expanding role of donors’ strategic interests in the process of choosing recipients of World Bank aid.

  2. Organic mixed farms in the landscape of a brook valley. How can a co-operative of organic farms contribute to ecological and aesthetic qualities of a landscape?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.

    1997-01-01

    Under which conditions would an organic mixed farm co-operative contribute to the aesthetic and ecological quality of the landscape? The orientation of people in space and time is considered an important aspect of aesthetic quality. To facilitate orientation in space and time a landscape should

  3. UNO contribution to attract energy investments in transition economy countries in cooperation with international organizations, banks, and the business community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groza, L.

    1996-01-01

    Limited financial resources hamper the ability of transition economy countries to take advantage of recent technological progress in energy production, distribution, and consumption. Increased cooperation within and outside the UN system imposed new approaches and action programs to identify financing channels in view of implementing the economic development projects. Since the CNE'94 round table discussions on the role of the UN Economic Commission for Europe in energy cooperation for sustainable development and assistance for transition economy countries, new actions initiated by UN are supported by international organizations, banks, and the business community. The paper is based on recent UN documents, data, and information after six years of reforms. (author). 14 refs

  4. Greed and Fear in Network Reciprocity: Implications for Cooperation among Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, James A.; Leal, Diego F.; Felps, Will; Jones, Thomas M.; Berman, Shawn L.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive interdisciplinary literatures have built on the seminal spatial dilemmas model, which depicts the evolution of cooperation on regular lattices, with strategies propagating locally by relative fitness. In this model agents may cooperate with neighbors, paying an individual cost to enhance their collective welfare, or they may exploit cooperative neighbors and diminish collective welfare. Recent research has extended the model in numerous ways, incorporating behavioral noise, implementing other network topologies or adaptive networks, and employing alternative dynamics of replication. Although the underlying dilemma arises from two distinct dimensions—the gains for exploiting cooperative partners (Greed) and the cost of cooperating with exploitative partners (Fear)–most work following from the spatial dilemmas model has argued or assumed that the dilemma can be represented with a single parameter: This research has typically examined Greed or Fear in isolation, or a composite such as the K-index of Cooperation or the ratio of the benefit to cost of cooperation. We challenge this claim on theoretical grounds—showing that embedding interaction in networks generally leads Greed and Fear to have divergent, interactive, and highly nonlinear effects on cooperation at the macro level, even when individuals respond identically to Greed and Fear. Using computational experiments, we characterize both dynamic local behavior and long run outcomes across regions of this space. We also simulate interventions to investigate changes of Greed and Fear over time, showing how model behavior changes asymmetrically as boundaries in payoff space are crossed, leading some interventions to have irreversible effects on cooperation. We then replicate our experiments on inter-organizational network data derived from links through shared directors among 2,400 large US corporations, thus demonstrating our findings for Greed and Fear on a naturally-occurring network. In closing

  5. The society for gastrointestinal intervention. Are we, as an organization of disparate disciplines, cooperative or competitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarek, Richard A

    2010-09-01

    cure. Cooperative, not competitive. The potential for competition between disciplines comes in mundane situations and clinical settings that have historically been "owned" by a single discipline. On the one hand, placement of PEGS and PEJs, initially done endoscopically, can be done with equal facility and occasional failure, by endoscopists and interventional radiologists, reserving failed attempts for minimally invasive surgery. What resources are utilized with these three methods? Are there advantages to defining the mucosa of the gut lumen in all, or even a subset of patients? By way of contrast, acute cholecystectomy tubes in high surgical risk patients have usually been the domain of the radiologist, although I described transcystic duct gallbladder decompression endoscopically 2½ decades ago. With the advent of new devices delivered under EUS control, the gallbladder will now be readily accessible endoscopically. What does this mean both for the acutely ill patient without a window to approach their gallbladder radiologically? Will this play a bit part and a cooperative technique to expand our therapeutic armamentarium or will it become competitive therapeutically not only for IR but for minimally invasive surgeons? The same may be said for EUS's ability to inject genes, caustics, or chemo-therapeutic agents into organs adjacent to the lumen. What is the role of TNFerade injection into unresectable pancreatic cancers and the role of absolute alcohol or Taxitol to treat cystic neoplasms of the pancreas? The real issue of competition or cooperation between the disciplines comes when treating patients with unresectable and obstructing GI neoplasms, from my perspective. The latter may occur almost anywhere in the GI tract but, of course, are more commonly noted proximally (esophagus, stomach, duodenum) and distally (left colon) as well as proximal and distal biliary obstructions. Recognizing that the occasional mid-small bowel and many proximal colon lesions are

  6. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  7. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part the are reviewed: Co-operation with IAEA; Participation of the Slovakia on the 41 st session of the General Conference; The comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization; Co-operation with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; co-operation with the European Commission; Fulfillment of obligations resulting from the international contracting documents

  8. A Cooperative Copper Metal-Organic Framework-Hydrogel System Improves Wound Healing in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jisheng; Chen, Siyu; Yi, Ji; Zhang, Hao; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2017-01-05

    Chronic non-healing wounds remain a major clinical challenge that would benefit from the development of advanced, regenerative dressings that promote wound closure within a clinically relevant time frame. The use of copper ions has shown promise in wound healing applications possibly by promoting angiogenesis. However, reported treatments that use copper ions require multiple applications of copper salts or oxides to the wound bed, exposing the patient to potentially toxic levels of copper ions and resulting in variable outcomes. Herein we set out to assess whether copper metal organic framework nanoparticles (HKUST-1 NPs) embedded within an antioxidant thermoresponsive citrate-based hydrogel would decrease copper ion toxicity and accelerate wound healing in diabetic mice. HKUST-1 and poly-(polyethyleneglycol citrate-co- N -isopropylacrylamide) (PPCN) were synthesized and characterized. HKUST-1 NP stability in a protein solution with and without embedding them in PPCN hydrogel was determined. Copper ion release, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and in vitro migration processes were measured. Wound closure rates and wound blood perfusion were assessed in vivo using the splinted excisional dermal wound diabetic mouse model. HKUST-1 NP disintegrated in protein solution while HKUST-1 NPs embedded in PPCN (H-HKUST-1) were protected from degradation and copper ions were slowly released. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis due to copper ion release were significantly reduced while dermal cell migration in vitro and wound closure rates in vivo were significantly enhanced. In vivo , H-HKUST-1 induced angiogenesis, collagen deposition, and re-epithelialization during wound healing in diabetic mice. These results suggest that a cooperatively stabilized, copper ion-releasing H-HKUST-1 hydrogel is a promising innovative dressing for the treatment of chronic wounds.

  9. Cooperative Wireless Communications and Physical Layer Security : State of the Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohokale, Vandana M.; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2012-01-01

    in the mobile equipment is not feasible due to resource constraints. Cooperative wireless communication (CWC) is the upcoming virtual MIMO technique to combat fading and achieve diversity through user cooperation. Physical layer security (PLS) is the imminent security guarantee for the cooperative communication....

  10. 7 CFR 1484.20 - How can my organization apply to the Cooperator program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that it is accepting applications for participation in the Cooperator program for a specified marketing... performance of competing suppliers, expected changes in demand, etc.; (ii) The long-term strategy that will be...

  11. Organization for security and co-operation in Europe mission to Georgia / Joe McDonagh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McDonagh, Joe

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne OSCE missiooni tegevusest Gruusias

  12. Lessons from a cooperative, bacterial-animal association: the Vibrio fischeri-Euprymna scolopes light organ symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, E G

    1996-01-01

    Although the study of microbe-host interactions has been traditionally dominated by an interest in pathogenic associations, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of cooperative symbiotic interactions in the biology of many bacteria and their animal and plant hosts. This review examines a model system for the study of such symbioses, the light organ association between the bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes and the marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Specifically, the initiation, establishment, and persistence of the benign bacterial infection of the juvenile host light organ are described, as are efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying this specific colonization program. Using molecular genetic techniques, mutant strains of V. fischeri have been constructed that are defective at specific stages of the development of the association. Some of the lessons that these mutants have begun to teach us about the complex and long-term nature of this cooperative venture are summarized.

  13. Analysis of the process of communicational informational monthly of a São Paulo State interior region cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Correa Bernardes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The information is an essential element for decision-making. In the environmental organizations, have access to information becomes crucial to remain competitive conditions in an increasingly global market. For farmers, access to the media to provide them with data to enable a more secure decision-making is fundamental. In this sense, the organizations, associations, governments and private companies lay hold of communication tools that can equip your audience information. In the specific case of this study, we sought to analyze the information content developed by a Cooperative inside of São Paulo. The methodological approach of this research followed the exploratory and descriptive research supported by content analysis, using both Nvivo® software. It was noted, that the present communication barriers in this study have a potential exclusion of features and can harm. particularly, a significant portion of the cooperative members belonging to family farming, since these also included among the public of the cooperative.

  14. "Cooperative collapse" of the denatured state revealed through Clausius-Clapeyron analysis of protein denaturation phase diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Alexander; Machha, Venkata R; Rösgen, Jörg; Auton, Matthew

    2018-02-19

    Protein phase diagrams have a unique potential to identify the presence of additional thermodynamic states even when non-2-state character is not readily apparent from the experimental observables used to follow protein unfolding transitions. Two-state analysis of the von Willebrand factor A3 domain has previously revealed a discrepancy in the calorimetric enthalpy obtained from thermal unfolding transitions as compared with Gibbs-Helmholtz analysis of free energies obtained from the Linear Extrapolation Method (Tischer and Auton, Prot Sci 2013; 22(9):1147-60). We resolve this thermodynamic conundrum using a Clausius-Clapeyron analysis of the urea-temperature phase diagram that defines how ΔH and the urea m-value interconvert through the slope of c m versus T, (∂cm/∂T)=ΔH/(mT). This relationship permits the calculation of ΔH at low temperature from m-values obtained through iso-thermal urea denaturation and high temperature m-values from ΔH obtained through iso-urea thermal denaturation. Application of this equation uncovers sigmoid transitions in both cooperativity parameters as temperature is increased. Such residual thermal cooperativity of ΔH and the m-value confirms the presence of an additional state which is verified to result from a cooperative phase transition between urea-expanded and thermally-compact denatured states. Comparison of the equilibria between expanded and compact denatured ensembles of disulfide-intact and carboxyamidated A3 domains reveals that introducing a single disulfide crosslink does not affect the presence of the additional denatured state. It does, however, make a small thermodynamically favorable free energy (∼-13 ± 1 kJ/mol) contribution to the cooperative denatured state collapse transition as temperature is raised and urea concentration is lowered. The thermodynamics of this "cooperative collapse" of the denatured state retain significant compensations between the enthalpy and entropy contributions to the overall

  15. Conference Report: "Knowledge Organization in Cooperative Learning and Working Environments". 8th Conference of the International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO), German Chapter

    OpenAIRE

    Doris A. Ohnesorge; H. Peter Ohly

    2003-01-01

    The report gives an overview of a conference that recognized and focused upon the fundamentals of knowledge organization as well asked questions and offered solutions for practice. The primary emphasis was given to the application of cooperative learning and working environments. The special value of this conference was the focus of the presentations and detailed discussions on current topics in the information sciences. Although the spectrum ranged from scientific to organizational environme...

  16. Rationalizing Cooperation: Moroccan Craft, Politics, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Claire

    2018-01-01

    State attempts to rationalize Moroccan craft education reflect the ambivalent status of traditional knowledge in a modern economy. Female artisans, recently organized as a cooperative, navigate this ambivalence in a weaving "theory" class and in their "occupation" of the cooperative structure itself. During performances of…

  17. Medical devices and the Middle East: market, regulation, and reimbursement in Gulf Cooperation Council states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard JJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jason J Howard Division of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Department of Surgery, Sidra Medical and Research Center, Doha, Qatar Abstract: With some of the richest economies in the world, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC is undergoing rapid growth not only in its population but also in health care expenditure. Despite the GCC's abundance of hydrocarbon-based wealth, the drivers of the medical device industry in the GCC are still in flux, with gains yet to be made in areas of infrastructure, regulation, and reimbursement. However, the regional disease burden, expanding health insurance penetration, increasing privatization, and a desire to attract skilled expatriate health care providers have led to favorable conditions for the medical device market in the GCC. The purpose of this article is to investigate the current state of the GCC medical device industry, with respect to market, regulation, and reimbursement, paying special attention to the three largest medical device markets: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. The GCC would seem to represent fertile ground for the development of medical technologies, especially those in line with the regional health priorities of the respective member states. Keywords: medical devices, regulation, reimbursement, Middle East 

  18. Medical devices and the Middle East: market, regulation, and reimbursement in Gulf Cooperation Council states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jason J

    2014-01-01

    With some of the richest economies in the world, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is undergoing rapid growth not only in its population but also in health care expenditure. Despite the GCC's abundance of hydrocarbon-based wealth, the drivers of the medical device industry in the GCC are still in flux, with gains yet to be made in areas of infrastructure, regulation, and reimbursement. However, the regional disease burden, expanding health insurance penetration, increasing privatization, and a desire to attract skilled expatriate health care providers have led to favorable conditions for the medical device market in the GCC. The purpose of this article is to investigate the current state of the GCC medical device industry, with respect to market, regulation, and reimbursement, paying special attention to the three largest medical device markets: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. The GCC would seem to represent fertile ground for the development of medical technologies, especially those in line with the regional health priorities of the respective member states.

  19. Cooperative Extension as a Framework for Health Extension: The Michigan State University Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Jeffrey W; Contreras, Dawn; Eschbach, Cheryl L; Tiret, Holly; Newkirk, Cathy; Carter, Erin; Cronk, Linda

    2017-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act charged the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to create the Primary Care Extension Program, but did not fund this effort. The idea to work through health extension agents to support health care delivery systems was based on the nationally known Cooperative Extension System (CES). Instead of creating new infrastructure in health care, the CES is an ideal vehicle for increasing health-related research and primary care delivery. The CES, a long-standing component of the land-grant university system, features a sustained infrastructure for providing education to communities. The Michigan State University (MSU) Model of Health Extension offers another means of developing a National Primary Care Extension Program that is replicable in part because of the presence of the CES throughout the United States. A partnership between the MSU College of Human Medicine and MSU Extension formed in 2014, emphasizing the promotion and support of human health research. The MSU Model of Health Extension includes the following strategies: building partnerships, preparing MSU Extension educators for participation in research, increasing primary care patient referrals and enrollment in health programs, and exploring innovative funding. Since the formation of the MSU Model of Health Extension, researchers and extension professionals have made 200+ connections, and grants have afforded savings in salary costs. The MSU College of Human Medicine and MSU Extension partnership can serve as a model to promote health partnerships nationwide between CES services within land-grant universities and academic health centers or community-based medical schools.

  20. A COMPARISON OF ASTRONOMY IN 15 MEMBER COUNTRIES OF THE ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERKRUIT, PC

    1994-01-01

    Various data are collected for 15 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) that have to do with the practising of astronomy: (1) using the report of the Astronomy expert meeting of the Megascience Forum of the OECD, the level of astronomy funding, size of

  1. Managing conflict in Dutch organizations: A test of the relevance of DeutschUs cooperation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Tjosvold, D.

    1997-01-01

    Deutsch's theory of cooperative and competitive conflict may be usefully extended to Dutch people. Results of LISREL analyses on data collected from interviews of Dutch employees in 2 companies indicate that competitive goals interfered with the open, constructive discussion of opposing views.

  2. Organized network for supporting the amateur-scientist co-operation in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, V.; Haukka, H.; Oksanen, A.; Hentunen, V.-P.

    2014-04-01

    PROAM network is a working group of Ursa Astronomical Association [1] for supporting Finnish amateur astronomers participating to co-operation projects between professional and amateur astronomers. The network relays the information on projects, maintains professional contacts and arranges training on technical skills for research work.

  3. Highly Efficient Cooperative Catalysis by Co III (Porphyrin) Pairs in Interpenetrating Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zekai; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Wenbin (UC); (Xiamen)

    2016-12-02

    A series of porous twofold interpenetrated In-CoIII(porphyrin) metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) were constructed by in situ metalation of porphyrin bridging ligands and used as efficient cooperative catalysts for the hydration of terminal alkynes. The twofold interpenetrating structure brings adjacent CoIII(porphyrins) in the two networks parallel to each other with a distance of about 8.8 Å, an ideal distance for the simultaneous activation of both substrates in alkyne hydration reactions. As a result, the In-CoIII(porphyrin) MOFs exhibit much higher (up to 38 times) catalytic activity than either homogeneous catalysts or MOF controls with isolated CoIII(porphyrin) centers, thus highlighting the potential application of MOFs in cooperative catalysis.

  4. 75 FR 4440 - Meeting of the Working group on Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Morocco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... decision making. Ongoing work includes: Assistance to Morocco on enhanced compliance with the Convention on... participation in environmental decision-making and enforcement. For more information, interested parties are... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6885] Meeting of the Working group on Environmental Cooperation...

  5. 77 FR 16591 - Implementation of the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... the amount of $25,000,000 or more, or for defense articles and defense services sold under a contract... Australia will be published later in the year once that treaty enters into force. Additionally, the... Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty between the United States and Australia, and to identify, via a...

  6. 76 FR 28019 - Gregory R. Swecker, Beverly F. Swecker v. Midland Power Cooperative, State of Iowa; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-39-000] Gregory R. Swecker, Beverly F. Swecker v. Midland Power Cooperative, State of Iowa; Notice of Complaint Take notice... 1978 (PURPA),\\1\\ Gregory R. Swecker and Beverly F. Swecker (Complainants) filed a petition requesting...

  7. Quasiparticle density of states in a half metal in the presence of odd-frequency Cooper pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asano, Yasuhiro; Yokoyama, Takehito; Tanaka, Yukio; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch

    2008-01-01

    We study the local density of states in a half metal sandwiched by the two superconductors. The spin-flip scattering at the junction interface opens the Josephson channels of the odd-frequency spin-triplet s-wave Cooper pairs. The penetration of the odd-frequency pairs enhances the quasiparticle

  8. Scientific and Technical Cooperation Between National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and Kyiv City State Administration: Cautious Optimism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahorodniy, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of scientific and technical cooperation between National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and Kyiv City State Administration is summarized. Brief description of innovative projects approved for implementation in 2015 on the introduction of the elaborations of the institutions of NAS of Ukraine into the urban economy is presented.

  9. Administrative strategies on the new fiscal regime in cooperative societies of production and services in the state of Tamaulipas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Balderas Mora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Current economic activities, place Production Cooperative Societies and Services, as an alternative to creating jobs, contributing to the creation of production chains and the increase in profitability and liquidity of such organizations, whereas are integrated by individuals with common interests based on principles of solidarity, self-help and mutual aid, in order to meet individual and collective needs as established in the General Law of Cooperative Societies in force. Article 194 of the Law on Income Tax provides that Production Cooperative Societies, which are constituted  only by partners, individuals, to calculate the income tax to them for the activities performed, rather than implement the provisions of title II of this Act, may apply the provisions of Section I of Chapter II of Title IV thereof. The creation of these businesses contributes to the economic development of its members and the community in which they are established, so in search of productive actions, we must not lose sight except for compliance without the inherent tax liabilities these organizations, and today play an important role from the perspective  of the social security and tax regulations. According to the tax rules in 2014, Chapter VII of Cooperative Production Societies, where the ease of paying income tax is set is established.

  10. Creating a Culture of Sustainability using Mission Statements of Cooperative Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraslinda Abdul Aris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mission statements are recognized as effective strategic management tools that influence firms’ performance. The evolution of a culture of sustainability begins with a mission statement that strikes a balance between financial performance and social commitments. The clear articulation of sustainability as part of the firm’s mission, values, goals, and strategy are key factors in fostering sustainability focused culture. This study illustrates the fundamental tenets of the culture of organizational sustainability model proposed by Galpin, Whitttington, and Bell (2015 using selected cooperatives in Malaysia. The contents of the mission statements were then analyze using the nine elements model by Pearce and David (1987 in findings its relations to and the existence of sustainability culture within the cooperatives. Findings from the study confirm building an organizational infrastructure that fosters a culture of sustainability results in positive employee and organizational-level sustainability performance. A reference was made to Bank Rakyat, one of the leading cooperative-based banking in the country for its outstanding performance.

  11. Canada-United States-Mexico Trilateral Cooperation on Childhood Obesity Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadán-Diehl, Cristina; Safdie, Margarita; Rodin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Childhood obesity is an important public health problem that affects countries in the Americas. In 2014, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Member States agreed on a Plan of Action for the Prevention of Obesity in Children and Adolescents in an effort to address the impact of this disorder in the Americas region. The interventions laid out in this regional plan are multi-faceted and require multi-sectoral partnerships. Building on a strong history of successful trilateral collaboration, Canada, Mexico, and the United States formed a partnership to address the growing epidemic of childhood obesity in the North American region. This collaborative effort, known as the Trilateral Cooperation on Childhood Obesity Initiative, is the first initiative in the region to address chronic noncommunicable diseases by bringing together technical and policy experts, with strong leadership and support from the secretaries and ministers of health. The Initiative's goals include increasing levels of physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior through 1) increased social mobilization and citizen engagement, 2) community- based outreach, and 3) changes to the built (man-made) environment. This article describes the background and development process of the Initiative; specific goals, activities, and actions achieved to date; and opportunities and next steps. This information may be useful for those forming other partnerships designed to address childhood obesity or other complex public health challenges in the region. RESUMEN La obesidad infantil es un problema de salud pública importante que afecta a los países de las Américas. En el 2014, los Estados Miembros de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) acordaron un Plan de acción para la prevención de la obesidad en la niñez y la adolescencia con el fin de hacer frente a las repercusiones de este trastorno en la Región de las Américas. Las intervenciones que componen este plan regional son multifacéticas y

  12. A cooperative agreement for research on radioactive waste management between the United States Department of Energy and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Levich, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) have a history of more than ten years of bilateral cooperation in the management of high level radioactive waste. In 1982, the USDOE and AECL executed a five year information-exchange agreement, for open-quotes Cooperation in Radioactive Waste Managementclose quotes. Since that time, this bilateral umbrella agreement has been renewed twice and the third renewal is currently being processed. International cooperation in high level radioactive waste management is highly beneficial to all concerned. Each nation involved in high level waste disposal has a single coordinated program for developing, testing, and evaluating approaches, hardware, and techniques for high level waste disposal. Thus there is limited opportunity for researchers in each country to exchange views regarding disposal technology with experienced researchers external to their own program, and to share research and development activities. The international arena, however, provides a host of organizations who have similar responsibilities and therefore similar interests and needs

  13. 77 FR 57567 - Single Source Cooperative Agreement Award for World Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... Organization AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and... Organization for a grant titled: ``Smallpox Research Oversight Activities: WHO Advisory Committee on Variola... notification to World Health Organization (WHO) as soon as possible, and any confirmed smallpox case would...

  14. On agent cooperation : the relevance of cognitive plausibility for multiagent simulation models of organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, J.

    2001-01-01

    Human organizations and computational multiagent systems both are social systems because they are both made up of a large number of interacting parts. Since human organizations are arrangements of distributed real intelligence, any DAI model is in some sense a model of an organization. This

  15. On agent cooperation : The relevance of cognitive plausibility for multiagent simulation models of organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, J. van den

    2001-01-01

    Human organizations and computational multiagent systems both are social systems because they are both made up of a large number of interacting parts. Since human organizations are arrangements of distributed real intelligence, any DAI model is in some sense a model of an organization. This

  16. Combating Terrorism: How Prepared Are State and Local Response Organizations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Lois M; Mariano, Louis T; Pace, Jennifer E; Cotton, Sarah K; Steinberg, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Since the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, state and local governments and response organizations have focused attention on preparing for and responding to acts of domestic terrorism...

  17. Reality Checks: The state of civil society organizations in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reality Checks: The state of civil society organizations in Ethiopia. ... limit the space for CSOs working on human rights and governance and it is legitimate and ... This paper contains contextualized arguments based on empirical data as reality ...

  18. Money laundering in the convention on combating bribery of foreign public officials in international business transactions of the organization for cooperation and development (OECD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notari Bonini Notari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the phenomenon of corruption and money laundering and how they are being addressed this issue under the Convention on Combating Public Officials Corruption Foreigners in Transactions Organization of International Trade for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD and the formulation of public policies for Combating Corruption and Money Laundering, by the Brazilian State. The Money Laundering is a species of corrupting practices, so that this type of illicit undertakes the realization of fundamental rights, social rights, economic criminal law, the democratic rule of law affecting, directly, public policy tax as a result of the commission of unlawful acts and offenses linked to issues of an economic nature, such as bribery, fraud, tax evasion, bribery, money laundering, drug trafficking, arms linked indirectly, to organized crime. Whereas the article is a bibliographic nature, it will be used as the method of approach to be adopted in its deductive development, with general assumption arguments (major premise for particular arguments (minor premise; while the procedure is analytical. Key words: Public Policy Tax, Money Laundering, Corruption of Foreign Public Officials, economic, illegalities. Money Laundering CRIME UNDER THE CONVENTION ON THE FIGHT AGAINST CORRUPTION OF FOREIGN public employee in the business operations of the International Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD This article AIMS to analyze the phenomenon of corruption and money laundering and how it is addressing this issue under the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Economic Development (OECD and the formulation of public policies for the Fight against Corruption and Money Laundering, by the Brazilian government. Money laundering is a kind of corrupt practices, so this type of crime committed with the

  19. Cooperation, trust and confidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, T.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Urze, P.C.G.D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental complexity may strain cooperative relationships, both within and beyond organizations, for two reasons. First, when complexity implies uncertainty the predictability of change disappears. Secondly, change may and often will entail different estimates of the cooperating partners on the

  20. Predicting SOA from organic nitrates in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic nitrates have been identified as an important component of ambient aerosol in the Southeast United States. In this work, we use the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to explore the relationship between gas-phase production of organic nitrates and their subsequ...

  1. Inertia in Cooperative Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Jerker

    1997-01-01

    Which organization model is appropriate for a cooperative enterprise depends on the prerequisites in its business environment. When conditions are changing, the firm must adapt itself. The entry of Sweden, Finland, and Austria into the European Union led to radical changes for agricultural cooperation, especially for Swedish cooperatives since agricultural policy was not allowed a transitional period. After two years, Swedish cooperatives have still not adapted their organization model despit...

  2. Cooperation of the member states of the SEV in the field of energy, fuel and raw material resources, and the problems of developing of new sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapol' i, L

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of the agreement concerning the creation of a combined organization for conducting geological prospecting operations for petroleum and gas in the Baltic Sea in the area of the continental shelf and the floor of the territorial waters of the signatory states of East Germany, Poland, and the USSR, which was signed in 1975, the Petrolbaltik organization ws created. A long time program of cooperation in the areas of energy, fuel, and raw materials foresees that the SEV member states will carry out prospective scientific developments on the use of new sources of energy, including solar, wind, chemical and geothermal forms of energy. Forty-seven scientific and technical organization of the SEV member states are working under the leadership of the Coordination center concerning the problem, ''New methods on the use of coal,'' on the industrial use of the by-products of hte extraction and enrichment of coal, the methods of their coking, and their liquefaction and gasification. The technique of producing alumina and cement from the ash of energy systems, working on coal, as well as from coal heaps is being successfully applied in Hungary.

  3. STATE CONTROL OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS: INITIAL STAGE OF ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sakovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper considers  the initial stage of organization and development of the first State control organ of the independent Belarus – Control Chamber of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of scientific grounds of control theory of economic systems. Scientific and methodologically considered organizational and coordination approaches to the activity of the Control Chamber have promoted to  higher intensity and efficiency of financial and economic control in the initial period of the activity of new control organ and  the activity of all control organs of the Republic has taken systemized and perfectly oriented character. Such approaches have made it possible to stabilize macro-economic situation in the Republic and strengthen its economic security. The Control Chamber through highly-qualified personal, created and practically introduced methodological principles of control activity, international cooperation experience and finally high efficiency of practical control activity has made its historical contribution in formation of fundamentals of  the State Control in Belarus.13th of March 1992 is the day when the Law “About Control Chamber of the Republic of Belarus” has been enacted by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Belarus and this day is to considered as the Day of State Control foundation in the Republic of Belarus.  

  4. Surface states in thin versus thick organic quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Hanamura, E.

    1995-08-01

    Surface states are studied in dependence on thickness or organic quantum wells within the nearest layer approximation. It is shown that there is a material-dependent critical thickness. Structures, that have thickness thinner or thicker than the critical one, exhibit qualitatively different characteristics of surface states. Criteria for existence and sign rules for location of energy levels of surface states are established which are general and contain the results of the previous works as particular cases. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs

  5. Cooperation in carbon source degradation shapes spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on hydrated surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tecon, Robin; Or, Dani

    2017-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural microbial communities exhibit a high level of spatial organization at the micrometric scale that facilitate ecological interactions and support biogeochemical cycles. Microbial patterns are difficult to study definitively in natural environments due to complex biodiversity, observability and variable physicochemical factors. Here, we examine how trophic dependencies give rise to self-organized spatial patterns of a well-defined bacterial consortium grow...

  6. Cooperative control for self-organizing microgrids and game strategies for optimal dispatch of distributed renewable generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maknouninejad, Ali; Lin, Wei; Harno, Hendra G.; Qu, Zhihua; Simaan, Marwan A. [University of Central Florida, Department of EECS, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2012-03-15

    The small size, extensively dispersed and decentralized, and high penetration level of renewable energy sources in the future smart grids make the application of conventional optimal power flow (OPF) neither practical nor economical. In this paper, a practical approach is proposed to realize high penetration of distributed generators (DGs) by organizing them in some groups within a microgrid and dispatching the generated power aggregately. Each group may have virtual leaders which define the power policy of the group, and all other DGs cooperatively follow that policy. A fair utilization ratio is defined and will be introduced to the group by the virtual leaders. The utilization ratio indicates what percentage of the available power each DG has to feed to the grid, and this ratio will also be propagated within the group using cooperative control. As such, a smartgrid may treat microgrids as individually dispatchable loads or generators. Meanwhile, the interaction between each microgrid and the main grid can be formulated as a Stackelberg game. The main grid as the leader, by offering proper energy price to the micro grid, minimizes its cost and secures the power supply that the microgrid, as the follower, is willing to dispatch. It is shown that this game theoretic approach not only guarantees profit optimization, but also provides a convenient technique to optimize power flow from microgrids to the main grid. Numerical and simulation results for a case of study are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques. (orig.)

  7. 75 FR 57326 - Request for Comments and Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ...) the Environment Chapter (17) of the U.S.- Oman Free Trade Agreement, and (4) the Environmental Review...)'' and (2) indicate their intent ``to cooperate in the field of environmental and natural resource...) Environmental Laws and Regulations; (2) Environmental Impact Assessments; (3) Environmental Incentives; (4...

  8. 75 FR 19453 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Peru Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... granting or money is directly associated with this request for suggestions for the Work Program. There is....-Peru Environmental Cooperation Work Program and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department invites... persons, to submit written comments or suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new Work Program for...

  9. 77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... granting of money is directly associated with this request for suggestions for the Work Program. There is....S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Work Program and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department... interested persons, to submit written comments or suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new work...

  10. [Cooperation between nursing homes and intellectual disability care services : State of affairs in Flanders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campens, J; Schiettecat, T; Vervliet, M; Van Heck, L; Lesseliers, J; Goethals, I; De Witte, N

    2017-10-01

    Considering the increasing life expectancy of people with intellectual disabilities (ID), the importance of cooperation between services for people with ID and elderly care services has been stressed in Flanders and the Netherlands, as well as internationally. However, the prevalence, intensity and content of such a cooperation are yet unknown. In order to gain information to address this issue, an online-survey was delivered to directors of all nursing homes in Flanders (n = 781). 229 surveys were completed.In more than 75% of the nursing homes, people with ID were among the residents over the past decade. However, at the same time a lack of expertise has been identified as a barrier to provide them optimal care and support. Hence, the respondents point out that a cooperation with ID care services could be beneficial. Nevertheless, those partnerships only arose in a quarter of the nursing homes so far, primarily for the purpose of exchange of expertise. Intersectoral multidisciplinary consultations and intersectoral care team consultations have been taking place as well, be it mainly in the context of a persons' transition from an ID care service to a nursing home. Until now, radical cooperations which involve an exchange of staff, seem to be rather rare.

  11. An Analysis of Organ Donation Policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ghazi; Iftikhar, Sadia

    2016-05-02

    There is currently an organ shortage crisis in the United States. This paper analyzes the magnitude of the problem, the organ procurement programs in other developed countries as compared to the US, and discusses the changes that can be made to address this problem. With the opt-in or explicit-consent method currently practiced in the US, less that one third of the population consents to organ donation. In order to narrow the gap between the demand and supply of organs, steps need to be taken to improve the organ procurement infrastructure. The public needs to be educated about the dire need, the benefits and risks in organ donation, and living vs. deceased donation. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-05.asp, free with no login].

  12. Mobility Model for Self-Organizing and Cooperative MSN and MANET Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Sikora

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-organization mechanisms are used for building scalable systems consisting of a huge number of subsystems. In computer networks, self-organizing is especially important in ad hoc networking. A self-organizing ad hoc network is a collection of wireless devices that collaborate with each other to form a network system that adapts to achieve a goal or goals. Such network is often built from mobile devices that may spontaneously create a network and dynamically adapted to changes in an unknown environment. Mobility pattern is a critical element that influences the performance characteristics of mobile sensor networks (MSN and mobile ad hoc networks (MANET. In this paper, we survey main directions to mobility modeling. We describe a novel algorithm for calculating mobility patterns for mobile devices that is based on a cluster formation and an artificial potential function. Finally, we present the simulation results of its application to a rescue mission planning.

  13. Book Review: Cooper, John F. Taiwan Nation-State or Province? Boulder: Westview Press, 2009. 288 PP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardian Bakhtiar Rivai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe about my analysis of Cooper (2009 perspective in how we understand Taiwan as identity. There are two perspective that to see Taiwan in recent day. First of all, for nation who believe One China Policy, they assume that Taiwan is a province of People Republic of China which is Taiwan is part of Beijing government. Secondly, for nation who do not believe it, they assume that Taiwan is independence identity, a nation identity, and also sovereign country which is separated from mainland China influences. In this discourse about how we understand Taiwan,  this article is going to review from John F. Cooper which is in his book, Taiwan: nation state or province?. This book not only discuss how we can see Taiwan, however, how Taiwan in the future in political dynamic especially after US president Donald Trump who intent to support Taiwan as independence identity. 

  14. The Physics of Plutonium Fuels - A Review of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, Kevin; Delpech, Marc; Sartori, Enrico

    2000-01-01

    In 1993, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency first convened the Working Group on the Physics of Plutonium Recycle (WPPR) (now renamed the Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles). Since its inception, the WPPR (whose task has now been expanded to include innovative fuel cycles) has published six volumes of detailed results from analyses of plutonium fuel in pressurized water reactors and fast reactors. A seventh volume on the physics of plutonium fuel in boiling water reactors is in preparation. The analyses have been mostly in the form of theoretical benchmark exercises for situations beyond current experience, for which multinational contributions provide a basis for comparison of diverse calculational methods and nuclear data libraries. The overall activities of the WPPR are reviewed and summarized

  15. CTBTO international cooperation workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Cooperation Workshop took place in Vienna, Austria, on 16 and 17 November 1998, with the participation of 104 policy/decision makers, Research and Development managers and diplomatic representatives from 58 States Signatories to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Workshop attempted to develop Treaty stipulations to: promote cooperation to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Treaty; enable member states to strengthen national implementation of verification measures, and to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes. The potential benefits arising from the CTBT monitoring, analysis and data communication systems are multifaceted, and as yet unknown. This Workshop provided the opportunity to examine some of these possibilities. An overview of the CTBT verification regime on the general aspects of the four monitoring technologies (seismic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides), including some of the elements that are the subject of international cooperation, were presented and discussed. Questions were raised on the potential benefits that can be derived by participating in the CTBT regime and broad-based discussions took place. Several concrete proposals on ways and means to facilitate and promote cooperation among States Signatories were suggested. The main points discussed by the participants can be summarized as follows: the purpose of the CTBT Organization is to assist member states to monitor Treaty compliance; the CTBT can be a highly effective technological tool which can generate wide-ranging data, which can be used for peaceful purposes; there are differences in the levels of technology development in the member states that is why peaceful applications should be supported by the Prep Com for the benefit of all member states, whether developed or developing, training being a key element to optimize the CTBT

  16. Discovering cooperation : a contractual approach to institutional change in regional international organizations

    OpenAIRE

    MARKS, Gary; LENZ, Tobias; CEKA, Besir; BURGOON, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a fresh perspective on institutional change drawing on recent advances in the economic theory of contracting. Contractual incompleteness enhances organizational flexibility, but only at the cost of perceptual ambiguity. We hypothesize that the willingness to engage in a highly incomplete contract depends on shared understandings which reduce the cost of perceptual ambiguity. These claims are evaluated using a new dataset on delegation of state authority to non-state actors i...

  17. State-Space Estimation of Soil Organic Carbon Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunwole, Joshua O.; Timm, Luis C.; Obidike-Ugwu, Evelyn O.; Gabriels, Donald M.

    2014-04-01

    Understanding soil spatial variability and identifying soil parameters most determinant to soil organic carbon stock is pivotal to precision in ecological modelling, prediction, estimation and management of soil within a landscape. This study investigates and describes field soil variability and its structural pattern for agricultural management decisions. The main aim was to relate variation in soil organic carbon stock to soil properties and to estimate soil organic carbon stock from the soil properties. A transect sampling of 100 points at 3 m intervals was carried out. Soils were sampled and analyzed for soil organic carbon and other selected soil properties along with determination of dry aggregate and water-stable aggregate fractions. Principal component analysis, geostatistics, and state-space analysis were conducted on the analyzed soil properties. The first three principal components explained 53.2% of the total variation; Principal Component 1 was dominated by soil exchange complex and dry sieved macroaggregates clusters. Exponential semivariogram model described the structure of soil organic carbon stock with a strong dependence indicating that soil organic carbon values were correlated up to 10.8m.Neighbouring values of soil organic carbon stock, all waterstable aggregate fractions, and dithionite and pyrophosphate iron gave reliable estimate of soil organic carbon stock by state-space.

  18. Organization of Cooperation in Education and Science with Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Moshlyak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the above article the problems associated with the organization of student exchanges on the example of Argentina are revealed, as well as practical recommendations for improving the implementation of academic mobility with the countries of Latin America.

  19. CHROME: An Approach to Teaching the Concept of Inter-Functional Cooperation in Services Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lester W.

    2010-01-01

    When teaching a services course (e.g., Services Marketing) it is essential that students understand that marketing/management, operations and human resource management within the service organization be fully coordinated. One useful acronym used to remind students of this need is "CHROME", standing for Communications, Human Resources,…

  20. Self-organized control in cooperative robots using a pattern formation principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens; Ellsaesser, Carmen; Fukuda, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    problems where robot teams have to serve manufacturing targets such that an objective function is optimized. Feasibility of the self-organized solutions can be guaranteed even for unpredictable situations like sudden changes in the demands or breakdowns of robots. As example an uncrewed space mission...

  1. Self-organizing of critical state in granulated superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, S.L.; Savitskaya, N.E.

    2000-01-01

    Critical state in granulated superconductors was studied on the basis of two mathematical models - the system of differential equations for calibration and invariant difference of phases and a simplified model describing the system of associated images and equivalent to the standard models to study self-organizing criticality. The critical state of granulated superconductors in all studied cases was shown to be self-organized. Besides, it is shown that the applied models are practically equivalent ones, that is they both show similar critical behavior and lead to coincidence of noncritical phenomena. For the first time one showed that the occurrence of self-organized critically within the system of nonlinear differential equations and its equivalence to self-organized critically in the standard models [ru

  2. Interorganizational Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    Administrative Services Officer , Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs, Office of the Chief Financial Officer , Office of the Chief ...Nations. • Clarifies the role of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Transition Initiatives and its relationship...Centralize interorganizational cooperation within the command group. Under this model, the chief of staff or a special staff officer within the command

  3. Evaluating Farmers Access To Productive Resources Through Cooperative Societies And Its Effects On Their Performance In Rural Communities Of Anambra State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Abdulahi Olabisi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The poverty of Nigerian farmers and their inability to increase their output and income above the subsistence level have been identified as one of the factors militating against food production in Nigeria. Yet agricultural cooperative create the ability for the supply of required agricultural inputs so that production of commodities is done timely to enhance productivity. They also provide an assured market for commodities produced by isolated small farmers in the rural areas. This paper was determined to evaluate the effects of cooperative societies on members output. The researchers administered a total of one hundred and twenty-six 126 questionnaires to the respondents with the assistance of the divisional cooperative officers. The hypotheses were analyzed through the use of t-test statistic and regression analysis. Results showed that the various Services rendered by farmers cooperative to their members include agric credit improved seedlings fertilizer and market access. They however disagreed that they received extension services the cooperative farmers agreed that they have access to the following agricultural services after joining cooperatives Access to Agric credit Access to Improved Seedlings and Access to Fertilizer. They disagree that they have Access to emerging markets and Access to Extension services. Hence the need to adopt cooperative as a platform for improving farmers productivity and output in Awka South L.G.A of Anambra state. As such the researchers therefore recommends that the Anambra State government should encourage research development and provision of adequate extension services to cooperative farmers through the Ministry in charge of cooperative in the state. Through the extension education the farmers will have knowledge of emerging markets and cooperative farmers should also be encouraged to join cooperative to enable them have access to agricultural credit among others.

  4. Activization of the state policy on euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Pak

    2016-09-01

    Research objective is the justification of the need of activization of the state policy on Euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance. During the research it is recognized that the realization of the state policy on the basis of the considered principles, tools, functions, factors and methods has to execute a main objective of the interstate regional control which is exercised in the sphere of Euro-regional cooperation and to promote adjustment of close mutually beneficial relations of Ukraine and neighboring states, to increase competitiveness of the Ukrainian territories and the most effective use of capacity of the Ukrainian regions in the course of activity of Euro-regions. Finally, such state policy has to be focused on the maintenance of the sufficient standard of living of the population, on ensuring integrity and unity of the social and economic space of the country, on formation of the conditions of sustainable and industrial and innovative development of regions, which will provide its harmonious integration into the European environment.

  5. Integration of science and education on the example of cooperation of Semipalatinsk State University of Shakarim and National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syzdykov, E.B.; Gavrilova, N.B.; Asambaev, A.Zh.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the ways of integration of science and education on the example of cooperation of Semipalatinsk State University of Shakarim and National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan are presented. (author)

  6. Fifty years of Technical Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established in Vienna in 1957. The Statute of the IAEA, approved by 81 nations, founded the organization on three pillars: nuclear verification; safety and security; and the transfer of technology. Today, these three pillars still remain at the heart of the organization's work. However, the way in which the IAEA carries out this work, particularly with regard to technology transfer, has changed greatly over the years. When the IAEA opened for business, nuclear science and technology were in their infancy. Many Member States had no nuclear capacity at all. The IAEA's 'technical assistance' programme, as it was then known, was modest. Early projects were small in scale and short lived, focusing mainly on building human capacities and creating institutions and facilities that would support the introduction of nuclear technology in a safe and effective manner. Today, the picture is more complex. Instead of merely offering assistance, the IAEA focuses on cooperation for sustainable socioeconomic development, building on the skills and infrastructure that Member States have acquired over the past five decades. Member States are full partners in the process, guiding the IAEA's technical cooperation activities, setting national and regional priorities, and offering training opportunities and technical support to the IAEA and to other Member States. Technical cooperation between developing countries is facilitated and supported through regional cooperative agreements. Regional centres of expertise play an important role in sharing the benefits of nuclear science and technology among Member States

  7. Guest Induced Strong Cooperative One- and Two-Step Spin Transitions in Highly Porous Iron(II) Hofmann-Type Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro-López, Lucı A; Valverde-Muñoz, Francisco Javier; Seredyuk, Maksym; Muñoz, M Carmen; Haukka, Matti; Real, José Antonio

    2017-06-19

    The synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic, calorimetric, and Mössbauer studies of a series of new Hofmann-type spin crossover (SCO) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is reported. The new SCO-MOFs arise from self-assembly of Fe II , bis(4-pyridyl)butadiyne (bpb), and [Ag(CN) 2 ] - or [M II (CN) 4 ] 2- (M II = Ni, Pd). Interpenetration of four identical 3D networks with α-Po topology are obtained for {Fe(bpb)[Ag I (CN) 2 ] 2 } due to the length of the rod-like bismonodentate bpb and [Ag(CN) 2 ] - ligands. The four networks are tightly packed and organized in two subsets orthogonally interpenetrated, while the networks in each subset display parallel interpenetration. This nonporous material undergoes a very incomplete SCO, which is rationalized from its intricate structure. In contrast, the single network Hofmann-type MOFs {Fe(bpb)[M II (CN) 4 ]}·nGuest (M II = Ni, Pd) feature enhanced porosity and display complete one-step or two-step cooperative SCO behaviors when the pores are filled with two molecules of nitrobenzene or naphthalene that interact strongly with the pyridyl and cyano moieties of the bpb ligands via π-π stacking. The lack of these guest molecules favors stabilization of the high-spin state in the whole range of temperatures. However, application of hydrostatic pressure induces one- and two-step SCO.

  8. Education and Worker Co-operatives. Some Perspectives of the Australian TAFE Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Denis

    The workers' cooperative movement has grown in many countries of Europe, where it is often state-sanctioned and supported. In Australia, however, the movement is just beginning. The government organization of what are called cooperative development programs is the dominant new feature on the Australian worker cooperative scene. However, funding is…

  9. C. elegans STRADalpha and SAD cooperatively regulate neuronal polarity and synaptic organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joanne S M; Hung, Wesley; Narbonne, Patrick; Roy, Richard; Zhen, Mei

    2010-01-01

    Neurons are polarized cells with morphologically and functionally distinct axons and dendrites. The SAD kinases are crucial for establishing the axon-dendrite identity across species. Previous studies suggest that a tumour suppressor kinase, LKB1, in the presence of a pseudokinase, STRADalpha, initiates axonal differentiation and growth through activating the SAD kinases in vertebrate neurons. STRADalpha was implicated in the localization, stabilization and activation of LKB1 in various cell culture studies. Its in vivo functions, however, have not been examined. In our present study, we analyzed the neuronal phenotypes of the first loss-of-function mutants for STRADalpha and examined their genetic interactions with LKB1 and SAD in C. elegans. Unexpectedly, only the C. elegans STRADalpha, STRD-1, functions exclusively through the SAD kinase, SAD-1, to regulate neuronal polarity and synaptic organization. Moreover, STRD-1 tightly associates with SAD-1 to coordinate its synaptic localizations. By contrast, the C. elegans LKB1, PAR-4, also functions in an additional genetic pathway independently of SAD-1 and STRD-1 to regulate neuronal polarity. We propose that STRD-1 establishes neuronal polarity and organizes synaptic proteins in a complex with the SAD-1 kinase. Our findings suggest that instead of a single, linear genetic pathway, STRADalpha and LKB1 regulate neuronal development through multiple effectors that are shared in some cellular contexts but distinct in others.

  10. Cooperatives as Entrants

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Sexton; Terri A. Sexton

    1987-01-01

    A potential shortcoming of game-theoretic models in industrial organization is their failure to consider consumers as players. We introduce a customer coalition --- a cooperative -- as a potential entrant and compare the cooperative entry threat with that posed by the usual for-profit entrant. We identify four fundamental distinctions between cooperative and for-profit entrants and demonstrate that the strategic interplay between a cooperative and an incumbent firm may differ markedly from th...

  11. Choosing the cooperative option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, G. (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (United States))

    1999-06-01

    Cooperatives do not ask to be exempted from the law. They do ask that laws and regulations be designed to allow them to meet the needs of their consumer-owners in accordance with cooperative principles, at a time that the marginal consumers being abandoned by for-profit utilities may be ready to gravitate toward cooperatives. The cooperative principles are worth reviewing because they explain the focus on the consumer and the cooperative concept of service: cooperatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership; cooperatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting policies and making decisions, the elected representatives are accountable to the membership; members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative; cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members, if they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy; cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives, they inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of cooperation; cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strength the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures; and while focusing on member needs, cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.

  12. Cooper pairs versus Bose condensed molecules: The ground-state current in superfluid 3He-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermin, N.D.; Muzikar, P.

    1980-01-01

    We present a new calculation of the current g flowing in a ground state of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) form for a weakly inhomogeneous superfluid with the symmetry of 3 He-A. When the structure of the order parameter not determined by symmetry is appropriate to 3 He-A and when the mass density rho of the helium is essentially uniform, our current reduces to that calculated by Cross. If the mass density is allowed to vary, we find a generalization of the Cross current which shows that when v/sub s/=0 and the anisotropy axis l is uniform, then the current is simply (h/4M) del-arrow-rightrho x l. We show that this property of the BCS ground state, which taken with the Cross definition leads to an ''intrinsic angular momentum density'' of rhoh/2M at zero temperature, also follows directly from the Gor'kov equations. If the range of the order parameter is taken to be small compared with the interatomic separation, then the ground state does not describe 3 He-A, but a Bose-Einstein condensate of tightly bound diatomic molecules. In this limit our current reduces to the form calculated by Ishikawa et al. We indicate why their analysis is only valid in this limit, and offer some rather more general remarks on the differences between Cooper pairing and the Bose-Einstein condensation of diatomic molecules

  13. The Future of the European Union is Closely Related to a Stronger Economic Cooperation between Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Drăgoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the onset of the crisis in the euro area, the EU has implemented a series of measures to respond to the major economic challenges and support the efforts to boost growth and create jobs in the Member States. In October 2012, EU leaders have decided that in order to overcome the challenges brought by the sovereign debt crisis is necessary to establish a closer economic cooperation between European countries. Our paper aims to analyze the main measures taken at European level to converge toward this goal, aiming to highlight the extent to which they are "successful steps" leading to the creation of banking, fiscal and economic union in Europe.

  14. FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF USING CLOUD SERVICES FOR THE INFORMATION-ANALYTICAL SUPPORT OF THE ORGANIZATION OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION OF UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign experience of using cloud services for the information-analytical support of the organization of international cooperation of universities is presented in the article. The best practices of using cloud services like new analytical tools and platforms for solving complex problems of optimization of the management of scientific and international activities of universities are analyzed. Architecture of the cloud computing environment as a system is analysed; it consists of 4 blocks: hardware; infrastructure; platforms and applications and cloud taxonomy for the organization of the scientific, academic and international activities of the University support, as well as taxonomy of the main cloud technologies to support the University's academic and international activities. The activities of the leading universities of the world for 2016-2017 are monitored and the expert results of Quacquarelli Symonds specialists’ are presented according to the World University Ratings. The evaluation was carried out based on more than 50 different indicators, such as: academic reputation; employer's reputation; faculty / student rate; reference (quotation about the faculty; international correlation of faculties; international student rate; assessment of the quality of researches of scientists and determination of productivity of the university; number of quotes; graduate university rewards; assessment of teaching quality; employment opportunity; Internationalization, which includes statistical indicators for the number of foreign students styding at University; number of exchange students; number of international partnership Agreements with other universities; accessibility; the possibility of distance learning; social responsibility; innovation; art and culture; inclusiveness, etc.

  15. Organic radiation chemistry--the present state and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sareava, V.V.; Kalyazin, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The authors pose the principal problems to be solved in organic radiation chemistry: 1) to derive from the structural formula of a given organic compound the composition of the products from its radiolysis under standard conditions; 2) to use a number of physicochemical properties of a given compound at the molecular and material levels to predict the variation in composition and fraction of products from the radiolysis of the compounds with a change in irradiation conditions, i.e., the parameters of the acting radiation and the state of the substance, to indicate the direction of the principal radiation chemical processes in complex mixtures of natural or technical origin. Having stated the problems, the authors attempt to show the level of understanding of the radiolysis of organic compounds, using aliphatic hydrocarbons as principal discussion subjects

  16. Room temperature triplet state spectroscopy of organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineke, Sebastian; Baldo, Marc A

    2014-01-21

    Organic light-emitting devices and solar cells are devices that create, manipulate, and convert excited states in organic semiconductors. It is crucial to characterize these excited states, or excitons, to optimize device performance in applications like displays and solar energy harvesting. This is complicated if the excited state is a triplet because the electronic transition is 'dark' with a vanishing oscillator strength. As a consequence, triplet state spectroscopy must usually be performed at cryogenic temperatures to reduce competition from non-radiative rates. Here, we control non-radiative rates by engineering a solid-state host matrix containing the target molecule, allowing the observation of phosphorescence at room temperature and alleviating constraints of cryogenic experiments. We test these techniques on a wide range of materials with functionalities spanning multi-exciton generation (singlet exciton fission), organic light emitting device host materials, and thermally activated delayed fluorescence type emitters. Control of non-radiative modes in the matrix surrounding a target molecule may also have broader applications in light-emitting and photovoltaic devices.

  17. Role of cooperative companies in sustainable rice production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... poverty in Guilan state of Iran, thus cooperative companies should be organized and supported by government. Key words: Cooperative companies, rural households, rice, income, employment. INTRODUCTION. Almost half ... education and trainnig, neglect of agriculture and low investment are major ...

  18. Cooperative studyware development of organic chemistry module by experts, teachers, and students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Yehudit J.

    1995-06-01

    Experts, teachers, and students took active part in a process of organic chemistry studyware development. A unique characteristic of this process was the active involvement of three different groups of people in the authoring process: science educators, chemistry teachers, and chemistry students studying towards an education certificate. The science educators—the experts—advised the team on new methods of presenting the subject matter in an appealing way, using 3D computerized molecular modeling. The in-service chemistry teachers contributed from their rich field experience to constructing the studyware. This mutual development helped maintain the balance between expert requirements and expectations from students on one hand, and the actual student capabilities, as perceived by teachers through constant contact with the students, on the other. Finally, the preservice teachers—the undergraduate chemistry students—were often zealous, enthusiastic, and willing to put in the extra time and effort needed to produce quality studyware, while following the guidelines of the experts and teachers. Feedback on the qualities and shortcomings of the studyware was obtained in two cycles. The first one was done while the studyware was still under development by peers, and the second by individual target students, serving as a beta-site. This double feedback helped improve the studyware, mainly by elaborating on portions that require more detail and explanation. The paper describes the process as well as representative parts of the studyware. The combination of experts, teachers, and students in the development team seems to have the potential to yield studyware that is appropriate for effective science education in general and chemistry teaching in particular.

  19. Cooperative work program between ERDA/OWI and the Swedish State Power Board on waste storage in mined caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent conferences between members of OWI and LBL, and members of the Swedish State Power Board have revealed that an abandoned iron ore mine in Stripa, Sweden, can be used in a very profitable manner for a cooperative work program on the problem of radioactive waste storage in mined caverns. The main thrust of this cooperative work program will be to determine the feasibility of using a mined cavern in hard rock as a permanent repository for high level radioactive materials. The ERDA/OWI program is directed along different lines that complement the Swedish program. Seven tasks are involved as follows: Task 1 will investigate over a two-year period the temperature effects in the granite rock mass at Stripa using a full scale electric heater that simulates the energy output of radioactive waste canisters. Task 2 will determine the long term effect of waste heat in a fractured rock mass. Task 3 will assess the fracture hydrology in the Stripa mine. Task 4 will involve geophysical measurements to determine the locations of the fracture system in the granite rock mass. Task 5 is a laboratory investigation on the measurement of rock properties that are urgently needed in the overall problem of evaluating repository sites in the U.S. Task 6 will involve a method of measuring the gross seepage rate in the low permeability granitic rocks at Stripa. Task 7 will determine the virgin state of stress in the fractured granite rock mass at Stripa

  20. Tuning Interfacial States Using Organic Molecules as Spin Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloach, Andrew; Wang, Jingying; Papa, Christopher M.; Myahkostupov, Mykhaylo; Castellano, Felix N.; Dougherty, Daniel B.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Feng

    Organic semiconductors are known to have long spin relaxation times which makes them a good candidate for spintronics. However, an issue with these materials is that at metal-organic interfaces there is a conductivity mismatch problem that suppresses spin injection. To overcome this, orbital mixing at the interface can be tuned with an organic spacer layer to promote the formation of spin polarized interface states. These states act as a ``spin filters'' and have been proposed as an explanation for the large tunneling magnetoresistance seen in devices using tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate)-aluminum(Alq3). Here, we show that the spin polarized interface states can be tuned from metallic to resistive by subtle changes in molecular orbitals. This is done using spin polarized scanning tunneling microscopy with three different tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate) compounds: aluminum, chromium, and iron. Differences in d-orbital mixing results in different mechanisms of interfacial coupling, giving rise to metallic or resistive interface states. Supported by the U.S. DoE award No. DE-SC0010324.

  1. Council of Europe Black Sea Area Project: International Cooperation for the Development of Activities Related to Donation and Transplantation of Organs in the Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, E; López-Fraga, M; Chatzixiros, E; Senemaud, B; Brezovsky, P; Carella, C; Ballesté, C; Aydin Mehmet, A; Tomadze, G; Codreanu, I; Sarkissian, A A; Simeonova, M; Nikonenko, A; Zota, V; Gómez, M P; Manyalich, M; Bolotinha, C; Franca, A; Costa, A N; Ott, M-O; Buchheit, K-H

    2018-03-01

    In 2011, the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Healthcare of the Council of Europe launched a 3-year collaborative project to address the organ shortage and improve access to transplant health services in Council of Europe member states in the Black Sea area (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Moldova, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation) through the development of safe and ethical donation and transplantation programs. Support the development of donation and transplantation programs through close interstate cooperation between national health organizations and relevant stakeholders. Several work packages (WP) were established: WP1, project coordination (European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Healthcare); WP2, development and implementation of an effective legislative and financial framework (Czech Republic and France); WP3, establishment of National Transplant Authorities (Italy and Portugal); and WP4, clinical practices (DTI Foundation). Data collection, surveys, and expert visits allowed for the collection of first-hand information from each participant country at national, regional, and hospital levels. Data analysis showed the positive impact of the project represented by a tendency to increase the total donation rates (per million people) in the participant countries (2011 vs 2013): Azerbaijan, +7.3; Armenia, -0.7; Georgia, +3.3; Bulgaria, +0.9; Moldova, +2.5; Ukraine:, +0.8; Romania, +2.3; and Turkey, +2.7. Increases in total donation rates are the result of a number of initiatives in the Black Sea area, including the stepwise implementation of legislative, organizational and institutional country-specific recommendations tailored by the CoE, efforts of the respective Ministries of Health in each country and synergism with other European projects in the region. These countries should invest further in implementing the recommendations that emerged from this project to improve their organ donation

  2. Sleep deprivation and the organization of the behavioral states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    Questions concerning the significance of sleep in the developing organism are investigated, together with the mechanisms that underlie the unique distribution of behavioral states at any particular age and during any particular experimental manipulation. It is attempted to define the states of sleep and wakefulness in terms of a temporal confluence of a number of more or less independent processes, taking also into account the functional consequences of these attributes. The results of a selective deprivation of rapid eye movement sleep are explored, giving attention to effects on sleep, behavioral changes, brain excitability, pharmacological changes, and biochemical changes.

  3. International cooperation for operating safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1989-03-01

    The international-cooperation organization in nuclear safety domain is discussed. The nuclear energy Direction Committee is helped by the Security Committee for Nuclear Power Plants in the cooperation between security organizations of member countries and in the safety and nuclear activity regulations. The importance of the cooperation between experts in human being and engine problems is underlined. The applied methods, exchange activities and activity analysis, and the cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency and international organizations is analysed [fr

  4. Report on investigation in fiscal 2000 of actual status of technological cooperation in foreign market entry supporting organizations in fiscal 2000; 2000 nendo kaigai shinshutsu shien kikan ni okeru gijutsu renkei jittai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to help improve the business creation supporting environment in Japan, investigations were performed on cases of advanced business creation supporting infrastructures, centering on the United States. The activity results were put into order in the following six fields: 1) creator support and incubators in the United States, 2) the current status of incubators in the United States, 3) support on creation by universities and research institutions, 4) advantages of industry-academia cooperation on creation support, 5) international cooperation in the state of Pennsylvania with other countries, and 6) conclusion. In Item 6), the evolution of the incubator concept in the United States, roles of incubators in areas in which general business creation infrastructures have matured, creator support by universities and education organizations, and matters expected on incubators were summarized. Based on the summarisation, four items were proposed, including structuring of the Japanese type business creation infrastructures to structure a fusion and circulation model for the Japanese type business creation support and economic development, and district economy development under the initiative of business communities. (NEDO)

  5. Metal-organic cooperative catalysis in C-H and C-C bond activation and its concurrent recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Jun; Park, Jung-Woo; Jun, Chul-Ho

    2008-02-01

    The development of an efficient catalytic activation (cleavage) system for C-H and C-C bonds is an important challenge in organic synthesis, because these bonds comprise a variety of organic molecules such as natural products, petroleum oils, and polymers on the earth. Among many elegant approaches utilizing transition metals to activate C-H and C-C bonds facilely, chelation-assisted protocols based on the coordinating ability of an organic moiety have attracted great attention, though they have often suffered from the need for an intact coordinating group in a substrate. In this Account, we describe our entire efforts to activate C-H or C-C bonds adjacent to carbonyl groups by employing a new concept of metal-organic cooperative catalysis (MOCC), which enables the temporal installation of a 2-aminopyridyl group into common aldehydes or ketones in a catalytic way. Consequently, a series of new catalytic reactions such as alcohol hydroacylation, oxo-ester synthesis, C-C triple bond cleavage, hydrative dimerization of alkynes, and skeletal rearrangements of cyclic ketones was realized through MOCC. In particular, in the quest for an optimized MOCC system composed of a Wilkinson's catalyst (Ph 3P) 3RhCl and an organic catalyst (2-amino-3-picoline), surprising efficiency enhancements could be achieved when benzoic acid and aniline were introduced as promoters for the aldimine formation process. Furthermore, a notable accomplishment of C-C bond activation has been made using 2-amino-3-picoline as a temporary chelating auxiliary in the reactions of unstrained ketones with various terminal olefins and Wilkinson's catalyst. In the case of seven-membered cyclic ketones, an interesting ring contraction to five- or six-membered ones takes place through skeletal rearrangements initiated by the C-C bond activation of MOCC. On the other hand, the fundamental advances of these catalytic systems into recyclable processes could be achieved by immobilizing both metal and organic

  6. Hopping magnetotransport via nonzero orbital momentum states and organic magnetoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Alexandre S; Dediu, Valentin A; Kabanov, Victor V

    2012-05-04

    In hopping magnetoresistance of doped insulators, an applied magnetic field shrinks the electron (hole) s-wave function of a donor or an acceptor and this reduces the overlap between hopping sites resulting in the positive magnetoresistance quadratic in a weak magnetic field, B. We extend the theory of hopping magnetoresistance to states with nonzero orbital momenta. Different from s states, a weak magnetic field expands the electron (hole) wave functions with positive magnetic quantum numbers, m>0, and shrinks the states with negative m in a wide region outside the point defect. This together with a magnetic-field dependence of injection/ionization rates results in a negative weak-field magnetoresistance, which is linear in B when the orbital degeneracy is lifted. The theory provides a possible explanation of a large low-field magnetoresistance in disordered π-conjugated organic materials.

  7. STATE AND PROSPECTS OF RUSSIAN-VIETNAMESE COOPERATION IN NUCLEAR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordeev-Burgvits Mikhail Alekseevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 the Vietnam government arrived at a decision to build the first nuclear power plant in the country Ninh Thuan 1 according to Russian project and with the help of Russian specialists. The construction of NPP in Vietnam will essentially relieve the deficit in energy production. The political leaders of Vietnam reckon upon the further growth of the economy. Energy of Vietnam is now generally held on big HPPs and TPPs. Small hydropower and such renewable energy sources as sun and wind play an important role in energy production. Because of the small amount of falls in the recent years in spite of monsoon climate, HPPs in Vietnam produce energy using not their full capacity. In TPP coal, diesel oil and gas is used as energy resources. The share of coal is still quite big (around 18 % and coal TPPs have a serious negative impact on the environment. That’s why the specialists count on the development of nuclear energy. The paper presents the plans for the construction of a nuclear power plant "Ninh Thuan" in Vietnam, the alleged NPP project, its advantage over other projects, prerequisites and prospects for cooperation between the Russian and Vietnamese governments in this field.

  8. Russia In The Foreign Policy Priorities Of The Council Of Cooperation Of The Arabian Gulf States After Events Of The «Arab Spring»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Melkumyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed article focuses on the change in the approach of the regional organization of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC to Russia’s role in the Middle East region and the efforts of its members to establish fruitful cooperation with it. A new approach followed the events of the “Arab Spring”, among which the outcome was a complication of the regional situation and the emergence of a series of crises that forced the members of the GCC to expand the number of allies among the world’s leading powers. Russia’s active participation in resolving crisis situations in the Middle East, primarily in Syria, influenced the change in the GCC policy towards Russia, which realized its increased interest in establishing strong ties with the countries of this region. The article compares the relations that existed between Russia and the GCC states in the Soviet period and the initial period of the Russian Federation’s existence, and those relations that began to develop after 2011 amid growing instability in the Middle East region. A new stage in bilateral relations was caused by the coincidence of their interests in the fight against the increased terrorist threat. The parties were also interested in conducting political consultations to resolve regional crisis situations. The coincidence of points of view between Russia and the GCC on the Middle East settlement has always been a reliable basis for building mutual understanding between the parties. At the same time, the contradictions that arose between them on the issue of ways out of the Syrian crisis led to a cooling in their relations. The authors conclude that the place of Russia in the foreign policy priorities of the GCC is going to grow. The mutual interest of the parties in political interaction is reinforced by the need to coordinate policy in the energy market, the largest suppliers of which are both Russia and the GCC states. In addition, both sides are striving to expand economic

  9. Fuel irradiation research of Japan at Halden reactor. Achievement of cooperative researches between JAERI and several organizations in the period from 2000 to 2002 (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    JAERI has performed cooperative researches with several Japanese organizations utilizing the Halden Boiling Heavy Water Reactor(HBWR) which is located at Halden in Norway. These researches are carried out based on the contracts of the cooperative researches, which are revised every three years, in accordance with the renewal of the participation of JAERI to the OECD Halden Reactor Project. This report summarizes the objectives, contents and outlines of the achievements of the cooperative researches during the three years from 2000 January to 2002 December. During the period, seven cooperative researches had been carried out. Two of them had been completed and other five researches have been continued to the next three-year period. Most of them are irradiation test researches of advanced fuel and cladding in order to prepare the higher burnup utilization and introduction of LWR fuel and MOX fuel in LWRs of Japan. As the researches of fuel irradiation usually take long time for preparing test and irradiation, three years are usually not enough to obtain some achievements from the irradiation tests. Therefore, five cooperative researches have been continued to the next three-year period. In this report, the achievements of the researches continued to the next period are not final one but a kind of progress report. (author)

  10. Ageing as a price of cooperation and complexity: self-organization of complex systems causes the gradual deterioration of constituent networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Huba J M; Mihalik, Agoston; Nánási, Tibor; Ory, Bálint; Spiró, Zoltán; Soti, Csaba; Csermely, Peter

    2009-06-01

    The network concept is increasingly used for the description of complex systems. Here, we summarize key aspects of the evolvability and robustness of the hierarchical network set of macromolecules, cells, organisms and ecosystems. Listing the costs and benefits of cooperation as a necessary behaviour to build this network hierarchy, we outline the major hypothesis of the paper: the emergence of hierarchical complexity needs cooperation leading to the ageing (i.e. gradual deterioration) of the constituent networks. A stable environment develops cooperation leading to over-optimization, and forming an 'always-old' network, which accumulates damage, and dies in an apoptosis-like process. A rapidly changing environment develops competition forming a 'forever-young' network, which may suffer an occasional over-perturbation exhausting system resources, and causing death in a necrosis-like process. Giving a number of examples we demonstrate how cooperation evokes the gradual accumulation of damage typical to ageing. Finally, we show how various forms of cooperation and consequent ageing emerge as key elements in all major steps of evolution from the formation of protocells to the establishment of the globalized, modern human society.

  11. Cooperation, confrontation, and communication: Key elements to a multi state LLRW generators' association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincenti, J.R.; Slack, S.T.; McIntire, J.W.; Stigers, R.A.; Nagle, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Appalachian Compact Users of Radioactive Isotopes (ACURI) is a foul-state trade association of licensees and permit holders of radioactive materials within the Appalachian States Compact, including Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. ACURI's primary focus is on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management and disposal issues. This paper will review 1) development of an association; 2) interaction with state and federal regulators and the Compact's LLRW siting contractor; 3) special work on licensing and other user/generator issues; 4) role of ACURI at the national level; and, 5) impact of ACURI on the siting process and involvement with local and state officials, special interest groups, and the public. (author)

  12. The SSAC (State System of Accounting and Control) of Argentina: possible areas to increase co-operation with ABACC and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Laura B.; Vicens, Hugo E.; Maceiras, Elena; Saavedra, Analia D.; Valentino, Lucia I.; Llacer, Carlos D.; Mairal, Maria L.; Fernandez Moreno, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with one of the measures identified in the program 93+2 to enhance international safeguards effectiveness and efficiency. This measure is related to increase co-operation between the IAEA and the SSAC in the implementation of safeguards. It is recognized that an effective SSAC could contribute to better safeguards. During the discussion to strengthen the safeguards system different levels of co-operation between the IAEA and SSAC were identified, depending on their features and capabilities. To start assessing the possibility of increasing this co-operation, a 'SSAC Questionnaire' was submitted by the IAEA to Member States, EURATOM and ABACC. At present, those questionnaires are being assessed by the IAEA in order to identify areas for further co-operation. One important aspect is the increased co-operation level that might be achieved when the Additional Protocol becomes an integral part of the safeguard agreements. Another one refers to the methodology that IAEA might employ to audit the quality and performance of the SSAC regarding the different levels of such co-operation. This paper will also describe the features of the SSAC of Argentina emphasizing its capabilities and the various areas that might be considered to increase further co-operation with ABACC and the IAEA. (author)

  13. Low-level radioactive waste management: federal-state cooperation or confusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the legislative history of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and discusses major issues and problems resulting from the implementation of the Act. Five specific issues addressed in this paper are: what radioactive waste constitutes ''low-level radioactive waste'' within the meaning of the Act; what responsibilities, if any, do the states have to dispose of federal radioactive waste; what liabilities and protections govern the disposal of waste not generated in a disposal-site state (hereafter, the ''host state''); to what standards of care should generators of low-level radioactive waste be held, and by what authority should such generators be licensed and inspected; which disposal-site activities should be considered ''disposal,'' and which activities should be considered ''management,'' within the meaning of the Act, and what authority do the states have, under the Act, to engage in each activity, respectively. The federal government and state governments must solve these problems in order to implement the Act, and thus, to establish equity among the 50 states, and the interstate regional compacts

  14. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  15. Projections in donor organs available for liver transplantation in the United States: 2014-2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Neehar D; Hutton, David; Marrero, Wesley; Sanghani, Kunal; Xu, Yongcai; Lavieri, Mariel

    2015-06-01

    With the aging US population, demographic shifts, and obesity epidemic, there is potential for further exacerbation of the current liver donor shortage. We aimed to project the availability of liver grafts in the United States. We performed a secondary analysis of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database of all adult donors from 2000 to 2012 and calculated the total number of donors available and transplanted donor livers stratified by age, race, and body mass index (BMI) group per year. We used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention historical data to stratify the general population by age, sex, race, and BMI. We then used US population age and race projections provided by the US Census Bureau and the Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service and made national and regional projections of available donors and donor liver utilization from 2014 to 2025. We performed sensitivity analyses and varied the rate of the rise in obesity, proportion of Hispanics, population growth, liver utilization rate, and donation after cardiac death (DCD) utilization. The projected adult population growth in the United States from 2014 to 2025 will be 7.1%. However, we project that there will be a 6.1% increase in the number of used liver grafts. There is marked regional heterogeneity in liver donor growth. Projections were significantly affected by changes in BMI, DCD utilization, and liver utilization rates but not by changes in the Hispanic proportion of the US population or changes in the overall population growth. Overall population growth will outpace the growth of available donor organs and thus potentially exacerbate the existing liver graft shortage. The projected growth in organs is highly heterogeneous across different United Network for Organ Sharing regions. Focused strategies to increase the liver donor pool are warranted. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  16. Changing Metrics of Organ Procurement Organization Performance in Order to Increase Organ Donation Rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D; Kallan, M J; Fu, L; Ciccarone, M; Ramirez, J; Rosenberg, P; Arnold, J; Segal, G; Moritsugu, K P; Nathan, H; Hasz, R; Abt, P L

    2017-12-01

    The shortage of deceased-donor organs is compounded by donation metrics that fail to account for the total pool of possible donors, leading to ambiguous donor statistics. We sought to assess potential metrics of organ procurement organizations (OPOs) utilizing data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2009-2012 and State Inpatient Databases (SIDs) from 2008-2014. A possible donor was defined as a ventilated inpatient death ≤75 years of age, without multi-organ system failure, sepsis, or cancer, whose cause of death was consistent with organ donation. These estimates were compared to patient-level data from chart review from two large OPOs. Among 2,907,658 inpatient deaths from 2009-2012, 96,028 (3.3%) were a "possible deceased-organ donor." The two proposed metrics of OPO performance were: (1) donation percentage (percentage of possible deceased-donors who become actual donors; range: 20.0-57.0%); and (2) organs transplanted per possible donor (range: 0.52-1.74). These metrics allow for comparisons of OPO performance and geographic-level donation rates, and identify areas in greatest need of interventions to improve donation rates. We demonstrate that administrative data can be used to identify possible deceased donors in the US and could be a data source for CMS to implement new OPO performance metrics in a standardized fashion. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. State and business co-operation in settling socio-economic issues: forward to sustainable development of ecologically unfavorable regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkirova, N. N.; Lessovaia, S. N.

    2018-01-01

    The complexity of socio-economic issues of mono-cities located in the ecologically unfavorable regions of Eurasia was disclosed. The economically strategic role of city-forming mining enterprises and their impact on ecological situation was revealed. The general conception of settling the socio-economic problems of mono-cities located in ecologically unfavorable regions was worked out. Various approached to the concentration of financial resources for economic and ecological sustainable development of the regions located on the north of Eurasia holding nature protection actions were submitted. Based on performed critical analysis of the positive international experience of ecological taxation some approaches to reforming current Russian system of ecological taxation were suggested. It was revealed that increasing the social responsibilities of business in the field of waste recycling, environmental protection and monitoring of ecological conditions of territories and state and business co-operation are the most efficient opportunities in settling socio-economic issues of ecologically unfavorable regions.

  18. The strategic plan for combating antimicrobial resistance in Gulf Cooperation Council States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhy, Hanan H; Assiri, Abdullah M; Mousa, Haifa Al; Al-Abri, Seif S; Al-Katheeri, Huda; Alansari, Huda; Abdulrazzaq, Najiba M; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Pittet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The Gulf Cooperation Council Center for Infection Control (GCC-IC) has placed the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) on the top of its agenda for the past four years. The board members have developed the initial draft for the GCC strategic plan for combating AMR in 2014. The strategic plan stems from the WHO mandate to combat AMR at all levels. The need for engaging a large number of stakeholders has prompted the GCC-IC to engage a wider core of professionals in finalizing the plan. A multi-disciplinary group of more than 40 experts were then identified. And a workshop was conducted in Riyadh January 2015 and included, for the first time, representation of relevant ministries and agencies as well as international experts in the field. Participants worked over a period of two and a half days in different groups. International experts shared the global experiences and challenges in addressing human, food, animal, and environmental aspects of controlling AMR. Participants were then divided into 4 groups each to address the human, animal, microbiological and diagnostic, or the environmental aspect of AMR. At the end of the workshop, the strategic plan was revised and endorsed by all participants. The GCC-IC board members then approved it as the strategic plan for AMR. The document produced here is the first GCC strategic plan addressing AMR, which shall be adopted by GCC countries to develop country-based plans and related key performance indicators (KPIs). It is now the role of each country to identify the body that will be accountable for implementing the plan at the country level. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhuang; Mhibik, Oussama; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.forget@univ-paris13.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France); CNRS, UMR 7538, LPL, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France)

    2015-02-02

    High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

  20. Societal Factors Affecting Communication and Cooperation Between Industry and Accounting Education at Castleton State College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Bryan L.

    The purpose of the practicum was to determine the societal factors existing in the accounting industry and accounting education, with the aim of integrating the changing regulations and environment of the industry into the classroom at Castleton State College (Vermont). A group of certified public accountants were surveyed by Likert scale to learn…

  1. The current state of international cooperation in case of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    The state where the accident occurs is responsible for taking defence measures against the damaging effects of ionizing radiation inside and outside its frontiers. Since Chernobyl accident, the international Atomic Energy Agency has completed the rule specifying that the country responsible of the accident should notify all other countries susceptible to be affected by the consequences, with two conventions. (author)

  2. A PLAN FOR LIBRARY COOPERATION IN NEW HAMPSHIRE. REPORT TO NEW HAMPSHIRE STATE LIBRARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    AS A STEP TOWARD IMPROVING SERVICES TO ALL USERS, THE NEW HAMPSHIRE STATE LIBRARY SPONSORED A STUDY OF BOTH THE SYSTEM OF LIBRARIES IN NEW HAMPSHIRE AND THEIR RESOURCES. THE STUDY ITSELF IS LIMITED TO THE POSSIBLE COORDINATION OF THE RESOURCES OF ALL TYPES OF LIBRARIES (PUBLIC, SPECIAL, SCHOOL, ACADEMIC) IN A WAY WHICH WILL MAKE THEM MORE READILY…

  3. 77 FR 39319 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Korea Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... granting of money is directly associated with this request for suggestions for the Work Program and Plan of... Work Program. SUMMARY: The Department invites the public, including NGOs, educational institutions... regarding items for inclusion in the first Work Program for implementing the United States--Korea...

  4. 75 FR 49414 - Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ...-0276. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Angelo Carasea, Assessment and Remediation Division, Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation, (5204P), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania... funds to a State, political subdivision, or Indian Tribe that assumes responsibility as the lead or...

  5. Dominant male song performance reflects current immune state in a cooperatively breeding songbird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    York, Jenny E.; Radford, Andrew N.; Groothuis, Ton G.; Young, Andrew J.

    Conspicuous displays are thought to have evolved as signals of individual quality, though precisely what they encode remains a focus of debate. While high quality signals may be produced by high quality individuals due to good genes or favourable early-life conditions, whether current immune state

  6. The value of group purchasing organizations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the valuable role of group purchasing organizations (GPOs) in hospital purchasing in the United States. For over 100 years old GPOs have helped hospitals and other health care providers realize savings and create contracting efficiencies by aggregating purchasing volume to negotiate discounts with manufacturers, distributors and other vendors. The US has recently enacted a series of healthcare reforms to correct some of the historical concerns regarding cost, quality and access. GPOs are expected to continue to play a critical role in the business of hospital purchasing and may potential export that other countries may wish to examine.

  7. Analyzing the Effectiveness of the Self-organized Public-Key Management System on MANETs under the Lack of Cooperation and the Impersonation Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Eduardo; Dos Santos, Aldri Luiz; Lima, Michele N.; Albini, Luiz Carlos Pessoa

    Among the key management schemes for MANETs, the Self-Organized Public-Key Management System (PGP-Like) is the main chaining-based key management scheme. It is fully self-organized and does not require any certificate authority. Two kinds of misbehavior attacks are considered to be great threats to PGP-Like: lack of cooperation and impersonation attacks. This work quantifies the impact of such attacks on the PGP-Like. Simulation results show that PGP-Like was able to maintain its effectiveness when submitted to the lack of cooperation attack, contradicting previously theoretical results. It correctly works even in the presence of more than 60% of misbehaving nodes, although the convergence time is affected with only 20% of misbehaving nodes. On the other hand, PGP-Like is completely vulnerable to the impersonation attack. Its functionality is affected with just 5% of misbehaving nodes, confirming previously theoretical results.

  8. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations; Teksty Soglashenij o Sotrudnichestve Mezhdu Agentstvom i Regional 'Nymi Mezhpravitel' Stvennymi Organizacijami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-02-07

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency [Russian] Teksty soglashenii Agentstva o sotrudnichestve s perechislennymi nizhe regional'nymi mezhpravitel'stvennymi organizacijami vmeste s sootvetstvujushhimi protokolami, udostoverjajushhimi ih autentichnost'; soglashenija perechisleny v porjadke vstuplenija ih v silu.

  9. PRODUCTION AND MARKET INFORMATION STRATEGY FOR FISHERFOLKS COOPERATIVES IN THE COASTAL COMMUNITIES OF ONDO STATE

    OpenAIRE

    Akegbejo-Samsons, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Information for agricultural and rural communities is a crucial tool in the fight against poverty in order to achieve food security. This paper presents the result of pilot fishnet initiative (FNI) of the Ilaje local government area of Ondo State. A model information network that provided data on fish production techniques and methodologies was established with the aim of networking all the fishers in the administrative area. Information on marketing and fish distribution were disseminated th...

  10. Communication from the Permanent Missions of the Russian Federation and the United States of America regarding a joint statement on nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication from the Permanent Missions of the Russian Federation and the United States of America, transmitting the text of the Joint Statement by the Presidents of the Russian Federation and the United States of America on Nuclear Cooperation issued on 6 July 2009 in Moscow. As requested in that communication, the abovementioned statement is herewith circulated for the information of all Member States

  11. The United States and international climate cooperation: International 'pull' versus domestic 'push'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Guri; Froyn, Camilla Bretteville; Hovi, Jon; Menz, Fredric C.

    2007-01-01

    The US government is being pressured by both international and domestic influences to re-engage in international climate control. This paper considers whether the international 'pull' and the domestic 'push' will be strong enough to accomplish this. First, we discuss whether changes in the architecture of the current climate regime might induce the United States to re-engage at the international level. We argue that the United States is unlikely to rejoin any global climate regime that is based on the Kyoto architecture, even if Kyoto were to be 'reformed'. Second, we discuss whether domestic political developments might eventually cause the United States to re-engage. We conclude that US re-engagement is likely to require the emergence of a new climate regime that basically extends US regulation to other countries. However, the forging of a unified US climate policy is still in the making. Furthermore, a new regime can gain widespread participation only if the Kyoto countries accept the idea of replacing Kyoto with some alternative architecture, which seems unlikely in the near future

  12. The United States and international climate cooperation: international ''pull'' versus domestic ''push''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, G.; Froyn, C.B.; Hovi, J.; Menz, F.C.; Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY

    2007-01-01

    The US government is being pressured by both international and domestic influences to re-engage in international climate control. This paper considers whether the international ''pull'' and the domestic ''push'' will be strong enough to accomplish this. First, we discuss whether changes in the architecture of the current climate regime might induce the United States to re-engage at the international level. We argue that the United States is unlikely to rejoin any global climate regime that is based on the Kyoto architecture, even if Kyoto were to be ''reformed''. Second, we discuss whether domestic political developments might eventually cause the United States to re-engage. We conclude that US re-engagement is likely to require the emergence of a new climate regime that basically extends US regulation to other countries. However, the forging of a unified US climate policy is still in the making. Furthermore, a new regime can gain widespread participation only if the Kyoto countries accept the idea of replacing Kyoto with some alternative architecture, which seems unlikely in the near future. (author)

  13. Links between internal and external cooperation in product development : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, B; Biemans, WG

    While there is an overwhelming amount of publications on cooperation in product development projects, they mainly,focus on cooperation between business functions within an organization (internal cooperation) or on cooperation between organizations (external cooperation). Yet the relationship between

  14. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices. PMID:21569579

  15. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Waseem

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices.

  16. Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Danyel [American University of Beirut, Jesup Hall, Room 205, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Wuppertal Institute (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are major oil and natural gas producing countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. The six GCC countries fall in the top 25 countries of carbon dioxide emissions per capita and are perceived as the main actors blocking international climate change negotiations. The aim of this article is to discuss from a policy perspective the capacities of the GCC states to switch toward an ecological modernization of their energy sectors. At the beginning of the paper, I analyze the benefits of transforming oil wealth into funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. After this, I discuss obstacles to such a transformation process based on the rentier states theory. Finally, I investigate governance of the GCC on all levels (international, regional, and local). The article shows that the GCC countries have recently adopted a more pro-active approach toward ecological modernization. This reorientation has not yet resulted in the development of consistent strategies and policies, however. The concluding assumption based on the concept of policy transfer is that pioneering projects such as Masdar City and innovative regulation like the green building code in Dubai will spread within the GCC. (author)

  17. Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries-possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Danyel, E-mail: dr09@aub.edu.l [American University of Beirut, Jesup Hall, Room 205, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Wuppertal Institute (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are major oil and natural gas producing countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. The six GCC countries fall in the top 25 countries of carbon dioxide emissions per capita and are perceived as the main actors blocking international climate change negotiations. The aim of this article is to discuss from a policy perspective the capacities of the GCC states to switch toward an ecological modernization of their energy sectors. At the beginning of the paper, I analyze the benefits of transforming oil wealth into funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. After this, I discuss obstacles to such a transformation process based on the rentier states theory. Finally, I investigate governance of the GCC on all levels (international, regional, and local). The article shows that the GCC countries have recently adopted a more pro-active approach toward ecological modernization. This reorientation has not yet resulted in the development of consistent strategies and policies, however. The concluding assumption based on the concept of policy transfer is that pioneering projects such as Masdar City and innovative regulation like the green building code in Dubai will spread within the GCC.

  18. Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries-possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, Danyel

    2010-01-01

    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are major oil and natural gas producing countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. The six GCC countries fall in the top 25 countries of carbon dioxide emissions per capita and are perceived as the main actors blocking international climate change negotiations. The aim of this article is to discuss from a policy perspective the capacities of the GCC states to switch toward an ecological modernization of their energy sectors. At the beginning of the paper, I analyze the benefits of transforming oil wealth into funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. After this, I discuss obstacles to such a transformation process based on the rentier states theory. Finally, I investigate governance of the GCC on all levels (international, regional, and local). The article shows that the GCC countries have recently adopted a more pro-active approach toward ecological modernization. This reorientation has not yet resulted in the development of consistent strategies and policies, however. The concluding assumption based on the concept of policy transfer is that pioneering projects such as Masdar City and innovative regulation like the green building code in Dubai will spread within the GCC.

  19. 1 November 2012 - Signature of the Co-operation Agreement between the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (COLCIENCIAS) of Colombia and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics and related technologies by CERN Director-General R. Heuer, witnessed by Ambassador of Colombia to Switzerland C. Turbay Quintero.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    1 November 2012 - Signature of the Co-operation Agreement between the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (COLCIENCIAS) of Colombia and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics and related technologies by CERN Director-General R. Heuer, witnessed by Ambassador of Colombia to Switzerland C. Turbay Quintero.

  20. Portugal and United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 3. Reference reports, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    Statistical data on energy production and consumption and supporting information were obtained from US Bureau of Mines records supplemented by additional data obtained in Portugal. Geologic descriptions and analysis of known areas and of areas having possible future potential have been prepared by the US Geological Survey. Portugal lacks sufficient indigenous supplies of organic fuels to meet its energy demands, and so must import large quantities of petroleum and coal. Approximately 80% of Portugal's electric energy is produced by hydroelectric stations; thermal stations produce the other 20%. Portugal has produced no crude oil, natural gas, or condensate; no resources or reserves in these categories are listed for Portugal in the 1976 World Energy Conference report. Until the last year or so (1980), no significant onshore petroleum exploration had been done in Portugal since 1963. Production of coal in Portugal has declined steadily to the present annual yield of about 200,000 metric tons. On the basis of estimates in only three coal fields, resources of coal of all ranks in Portugal total at least 76 million (10/sup 6/) metric tons. Uranium is mined near Viseu and Guarda in the northern part of Portugal; the Nisa mine in east-central Portugal will begin producing uranium ore in 1985 after installation of a processing plant. Portugal produced 95 metric tons of uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) from ore stocks in each year from 1972 through 1974; production is assumed to have continued at the same rate since then. Geothermal energy has not been developed in mainland Portugal; however, hot springs that may have geothermal energy potential are known in the Minho district in the northwest. Geothermal energy resources exist in the Azores and a program of evaluation and exploration with technical assistance from the USGS is presently in progress there.

  1. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  2. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the States of the co-operation council for the Arab States of the Gulf: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Alhyas

    Full Text Available The recent and ongoing worldwide expansion in prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM is a considerable risk to individuals, health systems and economies. The increase in prevalence has been particularly marked in the states of the Co-operation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC, and these trends are set to continue. We aimed to systematically review the current prevalence of T2DM within these states, and also within particular sub-populations.We identified 27 published studies for review. Studies were identified by systematic database searches. Medline and Embase were searched using terms such as diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent, hyperglycemia, prevalence, epidemiology and Gulf States. Our search also included scanning reference lists, contacting experts and hand-searching key journals. Studies were judged against pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and where suitable for inclusion, data extraction and quality assessment was achieved using a specifically-designed tool. All studies where prevalence of diabetes was investigated were eligible for inclusion. The inclusion criteria required that the study population be of a GCC country, but otherwise all ages, sexes and ethnicities were included, resident and migrant populations, urban and rural, of all socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. No limitations on publication type, publication status, study design or language of publication were imposed. However, we did not include secondary reports of data, such as review articles without novel data synthesis.The prevalence of T2DM is an increasing problem for all GCC states. They may therefore benefit to a relatively high degree from co-ordinated implementation of broadly consistent management strategies. Further study of prevalence in children and in national versus expatriate populations would also be useful.

  3. Cooperative Purchasing Guidelines. Background and Research, Pros and Cons, Examples of Exemplary Programs, Sample Forms, and Organization Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of School Business Officials, Chicago, IL.

    Cooperative purchasing programs among school districts have grown rapidly in the past decade, but significant questions remain about the benefits and drawbacks of such programs. This document presents the results of a project sponsored by the Association of School Business Officials for the purpose of addressing these questions. Comprising…

  4. Cooperating for assisting intelligently operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezillon, P.; Cases, E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule

    1995-01-01

    We are in the process of an intelligent cooperative system in a nuclear plant application. The system must cooperate with an operator who accomplishes a task of supervision of a real-world process. We point out in the paper that a cooperation between a cooperative system and an operator has two modes: a waking state and a participating state. During the waking state, the system observes the operator's behavior and the consequences on the process. During the participation state, the cooperative system builds jointly with the user a solution to the problem. In our approach, the cooperation depends on the system capabilities to explain, to incrementally acquire knowledge and to make explicit the context of the cooperation. We develop these ideas in the framework of the design of the cooperative system in the nuclear plant. (authors). 22 refs., 1 fig

  5. Analysis of the operation of the organs of internal control in the non agricultural cooperatives of the county of Pinar del Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis del Llano Sobrino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The achievement of a good operation of any entity, demands a high efficiency in the acting of its organs of internal control. It guarantees it that they are detected and prevent the internal deficiencies that affect the achievement of the objectives of the company, on time either material, social and financial without to wait to that coming organisms from the exterior of the entity are those that detect the same ones. At the present time the Non Agricultural Cooperatives in Cuba, are not isolated of this problem, being evidenced structural and functional inadequacies of the organs of internal control in the same ones that affect their inspection processes as well as the control of the execution of the agreements of their General Assembly of Associates. For what is necessary to propose a structure and functions for the organs of the Non Agricultural Cooperatives that it contributes to the improvement of their internal control and consequently the improvement of their economic and social administration.

  6. International Economic Association on organization of co-operative production and development of equipment and providing technical assistance in construction of nuclear power plants - ''INTERATOMENERGO''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, N.D.

    1979-01-01

    History is stated of foundation of the International Economic Association ''Interatomenergo''. Structure is given of the Association and the list of main problems to be solved by it. Project is given of the programm of co-operation in the field of scientific and technical works as well as of design and projecting works in creation of new types of equipment for nuclear power plants, in particular, creation of serial power units with improved WWER-1000 reactor. Directions are stated of activity of the Association in the field of providing assistance in construction and exploitation of nuclear power plants as well as in training of operational personnel [ru

  7. Proposal for a Co-operation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) concerning Scientific and Technical Co-o

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Proposal for a Co-operation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) concerning Scientific and Technical Co-o

  8. Co-operation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arab

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Co-operation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arab

  9. "Fort Valley State University Cooperative Developmental Energy Program: Broadening the Participation of Underrepresented Minorities in the Geosciences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbly, I.; Hodges, J.; Kar, A.; Rashidi, L.

    2015-12-01

    According to the American Geological Institute's Status of Recent Geoscience Graduates, 2014, underrepresented minorities (URMs) make up only 7%, 5%, and 2% of graduates at the BS/BA, MA/MS, and Ph.D levels, respectively. Recruiting academically-talented URMs to major in the geosciences instead of majoring in other fields such as medicine, law, business, or engineering is a major undertaking. Numerous factors may contribute as to why few URMs choose geoscience careers. To address the underrepresentation of URMs in the geosciences 1992, the Cooperative Developmental Energy Program (CDEP) of Fort Valley State University (FVSU) and the College of Geosciences at the University of Oklahoma (OU) implemented a 3 + 2 dual degree program specifically in geology and geophysics. Since 1992, FVSU-CDEP has added the University of Texas at Austin (2004), Pennsylvania State University (2005), University of Arkansas (2010), and the University of Nevada at Las Vegas (2015) as partners to offer degrees in geology and geophysics. The dual degree programs consist of students majoring in chemistry or mathematics at FVSU for the first three years and transferring to one of the above partnering universities for years four and five to major in geology or geophysics. Upon completion of the program, students receive a BS degree in chemistry or mathematics from FVSU and a BS degree in geology or geophysics from a partnering university. CDEP has been responsible for recruiting 33 URMs who have earned BS degrees in geology or geophysics. Females constitute 50% of the graduates which is higher than the national average. Also, 56% of these graduates have earned the MS degree and 6% have earned the Ph.D. Currently, 60% of these graduates are employed with oil and gas companies; 20% work for academia; 12% work for governmental agencies; 6 % are professionals with environmental firms; and 2% of the graduate's employment is unknown.

  10. The governance of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.

  11. Foreign cooperative technology development and transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schassburger, R.J.; Robinson, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    It is the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) that, in pursuing the development of mined geologic repositories in the United States, the waste isolation program will continue to actively support international cooperation and exchange activities that are judged to be in the best interest of the program and in compliance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, Sec. 223. Because there are common technical issues and because technology development often requires large expenditures of funds and dedication of significant capital resources, it is advantageous to cooperate with foreign organizations carrying out similar activities. The DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is working on cooperative nuclear waste isolation technology development programs with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), Canada's Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited (AECL), Sweden, Switzerland, and the Federal Republic of Germany. This paper describes recent technology results that have been obtained in DOE's foreign cooperative programs. Specific technology development studies are discussed for cooperative efforts with Canada, OECD/NEA, and a natural analog project in Brazil

  12. On the self-organized critical state of Vesuvio volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, G.; Mazzarella, A.; Palumbo, A.

    1996-01-01

    The catalogue of volcanic earthquakes recorded at Vesuvio (1972-1993) is shown to be complete for events with magnitude enclosed between 1.8 and 3.0. Such a result is converted in significant fractal laws (power laws) relating the distribution of earthquakes to the distribution of energy release, seismic moment, size of fractured zone and linear dimension of faults. The application of the Cantor dust model to time sequence of Vesuvio seismic and eruptive events allows the determination of significant time-clustering fractal structures. In particular, the Vesuvio eruptive activity shows a double-regime process with a stronger clustering on short-time scales than on long-time scales. The complexity of the Vesuvio system does not depend on the number of geological, geophysical and geochemical factors that govern it, but mainly on the number of their interconnections, on the intensity of such linkages and on the feed-back processes. So, all the identified fractal features are taken as evidence that the Vesuvio system is in a self-organized critical state i.e., in a marginally stable state in which a small perturbation can start a chain reaction that can lead to catastrophe. After the catatrophe, the system regulates itself and begins a new cycle, not necessarily periodic, that will end with a successive catastrophe. The variations of the fractal dimension and of the specific scale ranges, in which the fractal behaviour is found to hold, serve as possible volcanic predictors reflecting changes of the same volcanic process.

  13. Spatial Patterns of Soil Organic Carbon in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, N. B.

    2005-12-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) has jurisdiction influencing approximately 22 percent of the land area of the United States. The poster presents estimates of the current stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC) on all lands and Federal lands. The DOI lands have about 22 percent of the nation's SOC, so the average carbon intensity (8.66 kg C m-2) about matches the average for all lands (8.81 kg C m-2). However the carbon on DOI lands is not evenly distributed. Of the 17.76 Petagrams (1 Pg = 1015 grams) of SOC on DOI lands, 13.07 Pg (74 percent) are in Alaska, and 4.69 Pg (26 percent) are in the Conterminous U.S. The Alaska soils are wetter and colder than the national average, and the DOI lands in the conterminous U.S. are warmer and drier than the average. A set of SOC maps is shown, developed by intersecting the State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) database with data on federal lands from the National Atlas. With 22 percent of the nation's soil carbon, the DOI lands are important in a national accounting of greenhouse gas emission and sequestration. Future behavior of these lands is uncertain, but in scenarios of warming or drying, carbon released by respiration may exceed carbon captured by photosynthesis, resulting in a net release of carbon to the atmosphere. If warming stimulates a net release of greenhouse gases, this represents a positive feedback contributing to future global warming, a very unstable condition for the global climate system.

  14. The Relationship Between Core Members' Social Capital and Perceived and Externally Evaluated Prestige and Cooperation Among HIV/AIDS-Related Civil Society Organizations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danni; Xu, Xiaoru; Mei, Guangliang; Ma, Ying; Chen, Ren; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the core members' social capital was associated with individually perceived and externally evaluated prestige and cooperation among the HIV/AIDS-related civil society organizations (CSOs). To accomplish this, a cross-sectional study using multistage sampling was carried out in eight provinces of China. Data were collected from the 327 core members via questionnaires and self-evaluated performance of the respondents were evaluated and measured. The interviews were conducted with all core members and the supervisory staff of the local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that social support (adjusted odds ratio [a OR] = 1.87) and organizational commitment (a OR = 1.57) were significantly associated with a higher odds of prestige performance in self-evaluation. Furthermore, social support (a OR = 1.65), trust (a OR = 1.33), and organizational commitment (a OR = 1.52) were significantly correlated with cooperation performance. Trust was positively associated with the cooperation performance on external evaluation. These findings may provide a new perspective on challenges that the CSOs face in response to a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. Social capital may increase performance and accelerate organizational growth, ultimately improving HIV/AIDS prevention and care.

  15. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations; Texto de los Acuerdos de Colaboracion del Organismo con las Organizaciones Intergubernamentales Regionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-02-07

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency [Spanish] Para conocimiento de todos los Estados Miembros del Organismo, en este documento se transcriben en el orden en que entraron en vigor, los acuerdos de colaboracion que el Organismo ha concertado con las organizaciones intergubernamentales regionales que a continuacion se enumeran, junto con los respectivos protocolos de autenticacion.

  16. Post-synthetic modification of porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic materials by cooperative addition of inorganic salts to enhance CO 2/CH 4 selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie

    2012-08-21

    Keeping MOM: Reaction of biphenyl-3,4\\',5-tricarboxylate and Cd(NO 3) 2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetratosylate afforded porph@MOM-11, a microporous metal-organic material (MOM) that encapsulates cationic porphyrins and solvent in alternating open channels. Porph@MOM-11 has cation and anion binding sites that facilitate cooperative addition of inorganic salts (such as M +Cl -) in a stoichiometric fashion. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Post-synthetic modification of porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic materials by cooperative addition of inorganic salts to enhance CO 2/CH 4 selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie; Gao, Wenyang; Wojtas, Łukasz; Ma, Shengqian; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Keeping MOM: Reaction of biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylate and Cd(NO 3) 2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetratosylate afforded porph@MOM-11, a microporous metal-organic material (MOM) that encapsulates cationic porphyrins and solvent in alternating open channels. Porph@MOM-11 has cation and anion binding sites that facilitate cooperative addition of inorganic salts (such as M +Cl -) in a stoichiometric fashion. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. IAEA's technical co-operation programme and its role in assisting member states in the safe utilisation of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this contribution the author deals with the technical co-operation projects of the IAEA. The Agency's technical co-operation programme is a most welcome mechanism for the transfer of nuclear technology, and to developing countries it is certainly the most attractive side of the Agency, since it is through this programme that the IAEA can contribute to the solution of their problems through the provision of know-how, technology and training. (authors)

  19. Deep energetic trap states in organic photovoltaic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Shuttle, Christopher G.; Treat, Neil D.; Douglas, Jessica D.; Frechet, Jean; Chabinyc, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of energetic disorder in organic semiconductors is poorly understood. In photovoltaics, energetic disorder leads to reductions in the open circuit voltage and contributes to other loss processes. In this work, three independent optoelectronic methods were used to determine the long-lived carrier populations in a high efficiency N-alkylthieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) based polymer: fullerene solar cell. In the TPD co-polymer, all methods indicate the presence of a long-lived carrier population of ∼ 10 15 cm -3 on timescales ≤100 μs. Additionally, the behavior of these photovoltaic devices under optical bias is consistent with deep energetic lying trap states. Comparative measurements were also performed on high efficiency poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT): fullerene solar cells; however a similar long-lived carrier population was not observed. This observation is consistent with a higher acceptor concentration (doping) in P3HT than in the TPD-based copolymer. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Deep energetic trap states in organic photovoltaic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Shuttle, Christopher G.

    2011-11-23

    The nature of energetic disorder in organic semiconductors is poorly understood. In photovoltaics, energetic disorder leads to reductions in the open circuit voltage and contributes to other loss processes. In this work, three independent optoelectronic methods were used to determine the long-lived carrier populations in a high efficiency N-alkylthieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) based polymer: fullerene solar cell. In the TPD co-polymer, all methods indicate the presence of a long-lived carrier population of ∼ 10 15 cm -3 on timescales ≤100 μs. Additionally, the behavior of these photovoltaic devices under optical bias is consistent with deep energetic lying trap states. Comparative measurements were also performed on high efficiency poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT): fullerene solar cells; however a similar long-lived carrier population was not observed. This observation is consistent with a higher acceptor concentration (doping) in P3HT than in the TPD-based copolymer. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Distribution of soil organic carbon in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Norman B.; Waltman, Sharon; West, Larry T.; Neale, Anne; Mehaffey, Megan; Hartemink, Alfred E.; McSweeney, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database provides detailed soil mapping for most of the conterminous United States (CONUS). These data have been used to formulate estimates of soil carbon stocks, and have been useful for environmental models, including plant productivity models, hydrologic models, and ecological models for studies of greenhouse gas exchange. The data were compiled by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) from 1:24,000-scale or 1:12,000-scale maps. It was found that the total soil organic carbon stock in CONUS to 1 m depth is 57 Pg C and for the total profile is 73 Pg C, as estimated from SSURGO with data gaps filled from the 1:250,000-scale Digital General Soil Map. We explore the non-linear distribution of soil carbon on the landscape and with depth in the soil, and the implications for sampling strategies that result from the observed soil carbon variability.

  2. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  3. Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Requirements Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurawski, Jason, W; Mace, Kathryn, P

    2016-08-11

    In August 2016 The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) and Colorado State University (CSU) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) located on the campus of Colorado State University. Several key findings highlighting the results from the review were discovered, with benefits to improve the overall scientific process for CIRA and CSU.

  4. The Regulatory Cooperation Forum, an Opportunity to Strengthen International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachaume, J.L.; Mamoru, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Regulatory Cooperation Forum (RCF) is a member-driven forum of nuclear power regulators created in 2010 that promotes the sharing of regulatory knowledge and experience through international cooperation and collaboration using the IAEA Safety Standards as its basis. The RCF involves countries with advanced nuclear power programmes, countries embarking on nuclear power for the first time and countries with smaller programmes considering expansion. The primary objectives of the RCF are: • To promote collaboration and cooperation among RCF members to improve coordination of support for regulatory infrastructure development; • To contribute to achieving and sustaining a high level of nuclear safety, consistent with the IAEA Safety Standards and Guidance; • To optimize resources among RCF members and avoid unnecessary support duplication through improved coordination. Membership of the RCF is open to all Member States of the IAEA. Participants in RCF activities will normally be senior representatives from regulatory bodies in Member States and from other providers, including the IAEA, European Commission (EC) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). So far, more than 30 countries are members of the RCF. The RCF has developed Action Plans to support Jordan, Vietnam, Belarus and Poland. The IAEA’s Nuclear Safety Action Plan urges Member States to strengthen the effectiveness of national regulatory bodies as well as base the development of their nuclear infrastructures on IAEA Safety Standards. The RCF assists Member States in implementing both of these actions for embarking, existing and expanding nuclear programmes. (author)

  5. 22 CFR 9b.2 - Press correspondents employed by United States media organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... media organizations. 9b.2 Section 9b.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS... employed by United States media organizations must: (a) Present to the Office of Press Relations... news media organizations; (3) Date of birth; (4) Place of birth; (5) Sex; (6) Citizenship; (7) Social...

  6. Localised states in organic semiconductors and their detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperia, Paolo

    2002-06-01

    New polymers and low molecular compounds, suitable for organic light emitting devices and organic electronic applications, have been synthesised in this years in order to obtain electron transport characteristics compatible with requirements for applications in real plastic devices. However, despite of the technological importance and of the relevant progress in devices manufacture, fundamental physical properties of such class of materials are still not enough studied. In particular extensive presence of distributions of localised states inside the band gap has a deep impact on their electronic properties. Such presence of shallow traps as well as the influence of the sample preparation conditions on deep and shallow localised states have not been, until now, systematically explored. The thermal techniques are powerful tools in order to study localised levels in inorganic and organic materials. Thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL), thermally stimulated currents (TSC) and thermally stimulated depolarisation currents (TSDC) allow to deeply look to shallow and deep trap levels as well as they permit to study, in synergy with dielectric spectroscopy (DES), polarisation and depolarisation effects. We studied, by means of numerical simulations, the first and the second order kinetic equations characterised by negligible and strong re-trapping respectively. We included in the equations Gaussian, exponential and quasi-continuous distributions of localised states. The shapes of the theoretical peaks have been investigated by means of systematic variation of the two main parameters of the equations, i. e. the energy trap depth E and the frequency factor a and of the parameters regulating the distributions, in particular for a Gaussian distribution the distribution width s and the integration limits. The theoretical findings have been applied to experimental glow curves. Thin films of polymers and low molecular compounds. Polyphenylquinoxalines, trisphenylquinoxalines and

  7. “Kazakhstani” Identity, Eurasian Regionalism and Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Biopolitics of Forced Migration, Modernity and Multilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Sartbayeva Peleo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a case of forced migration and its effects on the formation of national identity and the consolidation of state agencies, industries, and other formal organizations. A composite of several theories, namely “survival migration” and “biopolitical control” will be used to account for the case that features significant social transformation, conflict and even trauma. In the 1940s the population of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic underwent unprecedented migration of evacuees from the European parts of the USSR due to World War II. However in the same period the Soviet government conducted a “forced migration” policy for particular “ethnic groups” deemed politically unreliable in the context of World War II. In the 1950s-1960s, populations located in the European parts of the USSR were officially induced by the Soviet government to contribute to a massive industrialization initiative by relocating to industrializing regions in the Asian parts of the USSR. At around the same period, population dislocations in the People’s Republic of China caused a diaspora of Uighurs moving to the Soviet Union. The life activities of these migrants would be the basis for a new collective “Kazakhstani” identity that continues to the present day. However, this identity is distinct from, and in some cases opposed to, the historic primordial “Kazakh” identity held by the Turko-Mongol ethno-linguistic societies that inhabited Kazakhstan prior to the Soviet migrations. The government of the present-day Kazakhstan recognizes the significance of the Soviet migrations, and modulates the shift of political power towards ethnic Kazakhs. Checking the newly assertive Kazakh nationalist movement and the unresolved Uighur nationalism in Eurasia through regionalist-technocratic means may increase the viability of the more inclusive and socially constructed multicultural “Kazakhstani” and regional “Eurasian” identities and may

  8. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  9. 39 CFR 230.3 - Cooperation with the Office of Inspector General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperation with the Office of Inspector General. 230.3 Section 230.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL General Policy and Authority § 230.3 Cooperation with the Office of Inspector...

  10. Nuclear cooperation targets global challenges. States back main pillars of the IAEA's work to strengthen nuclear safety, verification and technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    States meeting at the 44th IAEA General Conference in Vienna have set a challenging agenda for international nuclear cooperation into the 21st century that targets issues of global safety, security, and sustainable development. They adopted resolutions endorsing the Agency's programmes for strengthening activities under its three main pillars of work - nuclear verification, safety, and technology - that are closely linked to major challenges before the world. The document presents the main actions taken during the conference

  11. PROSPECTS FOR AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN ROMANIA IN THE CONTEXT OF CAP REFORM 2014-2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena TUREK RAHOVEANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European and global cooperative sector is a powerful economic and social actors within these societies, with significant results can be summarized as market shares both in their work and contribution to GDP and the number of members and the welfare of citizens offered through job creation. Global cooperative activity operates on cooperative principles cooperative companies regularly reviewed by members of the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA. This cooperative movement worldwide organization founded in 1889, is composed of 226 active cooperatives in all sectors of the economy that brings together more than 800 million members in 89 countries. This work is part of the CAP reform in Europe after 2013, by which Romania will have to undergo a series of transformations including: promoting and encouraging cooperation and association in agriculture; stimulate the development of alternative economic activities such as organic farming, ecotourism, development and promotion of local products labeled specialized human capital development and collaboration and sharing of best practices with experts from other EU Member States. Macroeconomic paper wants to answer a series of questions: Is a viable alternative for Agricultural Cooperative Farm? What is the economic and social impact of cooperatives in the next stage? Through agricultural cooperatives can better penetrate markets closer to the consumer? What is the specific model of cooperation forward Romanian society?

  12. The power of games. Comment on "Climate change governance, cooperation and self-organization" by Pacheco, Vasconcelos and Santos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2014-12-01

    Cooperators are those who contribute to a common pool while Defectors just exploit the formers' investments. If we follow the most rational individual choice then no one should contribute hence there would be nothing to exploit. This dilemma is at the heart of every conflict which is summarized as the problem of cooperation and provides the natural setting for the occurrence of the tragedy of the commons. It emerges in a wild variety of fields and systems ranging from the smallest, such as viruses and bacteria, to the largest ones which are formed by countries with partly conflicting interests [1]. The present study [2] focuses on the latter end of this spectrum by considering the global warming problem, which importance cannot be exaggerated. Traditionally, Game Theory is supposed to describe the mathematical framework of conflicts. These problems could be especially challenging when we analyze the competition of several participants whose collective behavior elevates the difficulty to a higher level. This complexity, however, provides an attractive hunting field for scientists with a statistical physics background: concepts familiar to them, such as phase transitions, pattern formation, scaling and universal behaviors have allowed this field to flourish in the last two decades. The present work is a beautiful example of this research avenue.

  13. US Presence and Grounds for Cooperation between the Islamic Republic of Iran and United States in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Javadikouchaksaraei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, USA has not designed a policy to deal with Afghanistan and Iraq without Iran. One of the fundamental strategies of USA is to cooperate with the European Union, the Pacific, Russia, the Balkan Area, as well as the Caucasus the Middle East, North Africa, and Middle Asia. All of the countries relate to Iran in saving the Pacific. Iran is the most influential country in the area surrounding Afghanistan, the Middle East, and Northern Africa and Middle Asia. USA has to face Iran in the Middle East to meet the benefits of this relation. Therefore, such situation leads to the main question: does the attendance of USA in Afghanistan create the grounds for cooperation with Iran? Despite the existing disputes between the two governments, the attendance of USA in Afghanistan seems to have created new security, political, economic, and cultural fields for the cooperation of both countries.

  14. Organized Labor's Participation in State Workplace Literacy Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Anthony R.

    The literature shows that state federations of labor should be, and many are, actively involved in current state literacy initiatives. The United States must develop a coherent and comprehensive system of lifetime education. This will require a greater commitment of public and private resources to education and training. Too many employers are…

  15. Exploring the influence of external actors on the cooperation in public–private project organizations for constructing infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, L.S.W.; Bosch-Rekveldt, M.G.C.; Bakker, H.L.M.; Hertogh, M.J.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Though different forms of public–private partnerships exist, in the organizational structure of most forms a public and a private project organization can be derived, resulting in two collaborating project organizations. The literature on project management however mostly considers one project

  16. Of Policy Entrepreneurship, bandwagoning and free-riding : EU member states and multilateral cooperation frameworks for Europe's southern neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, T.; Bouris, D.; Olszewska, M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 25 years the EU and NATO have displayed considerable agency and thus influence as far as the development of institutionalised collective cooperation and/or foreign policy frameworks towards Europe’s southern neighbourhood is concerned. Against this backdrop, this article puts EU and

  17. 77 FR 5867 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Jordan Joint Statement on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... money is directly associated with this request for suggestions for the Work Program. There is no... of the 2012-2013 U.S.-Jordan Environmental Cooperation Work Program and request for comments. SUMMARY... inclusion in a new work program for implementing the U.S.-Jordan Joint Statement on Environmental Technical...

  18. Hungarian experience in the role of a Technical Support Organization - Expert support and R and D activities in nuclear safeguards and forensics, participation in international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeles, E.; Kovacs, A.; Biro, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Isotopes (IoI) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences has been - since the mid-fifties - engaged not only in basic and applied research related to the use of radioisotopes in Hungary but also in the production, trade and safety of radioisotopes supported by the central accountancy at national level. Based on its experience and capabilities the technical tasks of nuclear safeguards and forensics have been delegated to the Institute by governmental decrees. Thus the Institute is one of the Technical Support Organizations of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) providing expert support in the areas mentioned above and maintaining the central isotope registry. An Agreement between HAEA and IoI specifies both routine and R and D activities supporting authority functions. These include the development and application of both non-destructive (i.e. gamma spectrometry, neutron-coincidence counting and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and destructive (i.e. inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) analytical methods to satisfy domestic needs as well as to explore novel methods both for safeguards and nuclear forensics purposes. Methods have been developed to identify and quantify nuclear material in fresh and spent fuel assemblies and to characterize seized or found nuclear material of unknown origin and also environmental samples. The validation of these measurement methods have been performed in inter-laboratory comparisons organized by the Joint Research Centers of the European Union and by other international organizations such as IAEA and the International Technical Working Group on Nuclear Smuggling (ITWG). The presentation describes TSO activities both at domestic level and in potential international cooperation initiatives. The need of regional cooperation is emphasized discussing advantages and difficulties. (author)

  19. Inorganic and organic radiation chemistry: state and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyazin, E.P.; Bugaenko, L.T.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation inorganic and organic chemistry is presented on the basis of the general scheme and classification of radiolysis products and elementary processes, by which evolution of radiation-affected substances up to the final radiolysis products takes place. The evolution is traced for the representatives of inorganic and organic compounds. The contribution of radiation inorganic and organic chemistry to radiation technology, radiation materials technology, radiation ecology and medicine, is shown. Tendencies in the development of radiation chemistry and prediction of its certain directions are considered

  20. Perspectives of cooperation of the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University and Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zholdasbekov, M.Zh.; Donbaev, K.M.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    It is noted, that one of a modern tendency in development both science and education in CIS and Kazakhstan is its step-by-step integration. For purpose of further development of scientific trends in physics field the agreement on cooperative activity between the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University and Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan was concluded (2000, November 18). The principle aim of the cooperative activity of the sides is conducting of fundamental and applied studies on solid state physics, nuclear physics, radioecological problems of the Astana town and development of science-intensive technologies. For realization of this task the Astana Filial of Institute of Nuclear Physics is established at the University. In particularly, on the ground of this cooperation the implementation of Inter-disciplinary Research Complex with heavy ion accelerator was initiated. Such accelerator could be used for the scientific researches, training of students and postgraduates, and different technological purposes

  1. Organization Design: The Evolving State-of-the-Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Burton, Richard M.; Eriksen, Bo

    The design of organizations has been a prime characteristic of management theory and practice over the past several decades. However, there has been little change in the fundamental theory, principles and concepts of Organization Design since the introduction of contingency theory in the 1970s...... theory, principles and concepts, and on the basis of this benchmark publication, the editors will encourage researchers and students to further develop the field. The recent development in organization design has been sporadic; hence this book will be an important step in creating better theoretical....... Nevertheless, over the past 25 years organizational reality has changed dramatically with the advent of all sorts of communication systems, AI agents, information technology, knowledge management systems, and more. Therefore leading researchers in Organization Design who understand the situation have...

  2. Reality Checks: The state of civil society organizations in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the role of donors in supporting CSOs and the responses of the government to the ... Key words: civil society organizations; regulatory frameworks; service ..... rates; prevention and control of the spread of HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria; gender.

  3. The Transnational State and the Infrastructure Push

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    In 2010 the G20 in cooperation with major international organizations launched a comprehensive effort - here labelled the infrastructure push – to promote infrastructure investments around the world. Using selected transnationalised elements from historical materialism, this is explained as a tra....... In this cooperation, the international organizations have a relatively autonomous role in line with a historical materialist understanding of state apparatuses....

  4. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  5. Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Kroll, Jesse H.; Donahue, Neil M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Altieri, Katye E.; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Wozniak, Andrew S.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mysak, Erin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2010-11-05

    A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations, and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that organics play in human health, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state (OSC), a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of OSC , using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number (nC).

  6. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  7. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data......-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web...

  8. Features of the organization of separate accounting of income and expenses from business and statutory activities of the dwelling-construction cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ildusovna Khairullina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to reveal the need for separate accounting of income and expenses from business and statutory activities of dwellingconstruction cooperative. Methods in this work the abstractlogical method of research has been applied. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal documents regulating the activities of dwellingconstruction cooperatives the business activities of cooperatives were determined the income and expenses received by the cooperative from business activity were reviewed. Scientific novelty the technique is proposed of separate accounting of expenditures from business and statutory activities in dwellingconstruction cooperative. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions can be used in dwellingconstruction cooperatives as well as in research and teaching activity. nbsp

  9. Origin and role of gap states in organic semiconductor studied by UPS: as the nature of organic molecular crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin-Peng; Bussolotti, Fabio; Kera, Satoshi; Ueno, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews experimental studies on ‘bridging electronic structure and charge transport property of organic semiconductors’ performed using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and related methods mainly in Chiba University, Japan, in particular on the investigation of the origin and the role of electronic states existing in the highest occupied molecular orbital band–lowest unoccupied molecular orbital band (HOMO–LUMO) gap. We summarize experimental observations including direct measurements of ‘invisible’ gap states with ultrahigh sensitivity UPS, which demonstrate that there exist intrinsic gap states in organic semiconductors. We firstly describe the nature of organic molecular solids to understand features of organic semiconductors because such intrinsic gap states are a result of the interplay of these features, which give the principal difference between the organic semiconductor and inorganic counterpart. We then discuss (i) the origin and role of the band gap states in relation to intermolecular interaction/band dispersion and electron–phonon coupling, (ii) the Fermi level pinning issue in organic semiconductors, and (iii) the method of computing the Fermi level position within the HOMO–LUMO gap for experimental groups. The gap states of organic semiconductors appear easily when a weak perturbation is applied to the organic system, namely by contact with other material, by injecting a charge, by elevating temperature, and by exposure to 1 atm gas. What we finally found is that tailing states of HOMO and LUMO always exist, and their energy distributions must not be symmetric; they thus produce a larger Fermi level shift from the mid gap position than previously thought. Furthermore, as shown by computational work, Fermi level pinning , which is a well-known phenomena in semiconductor devices field, occurs in weakly interacting organic/conductor systems without any gap states if the system temperature is not zero ( T

  10. Origin and role of gap states in organic semiconductor studied by UPS: as the nature of organic molecular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Peng; Bussolotti, Fabio; Kera, Satoshi; Ueno, Nobuo

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews experimental studies on ‘bridging electronic structure and charge transport property of organic semiconductors’ performed using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and related methods mainly in Chiba University, Japan, in particular on the investigation of the origin and the role of electronic states existing in the highest occupied molecular orbital band-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital band (HOMO-LUMO) gap. We summarize experimental observations including direct measurements of ‘invisible’ gap states with ultrahigh sensitivity UPS, which demonstrate that there exist intrinsic gap states in organic semiconductors. We firstly describe the nature of organic molecular solids to understand features of organic semiconductors because such intrinsic gap states are a result of the interplay of these features, which give the principal difference between the organic semiconductor and inorganic counterpart. We then discuss (i) the origin and role of the band gap states in relation to intermolecular interaction/band dispersion and electron-phonon coupling, (ii) the Fermi level pinning issue in organic semiconductors, and (iii) the method of computing the Fermi level position within the HOMO-LUMO gap for experimental groups. The gap states of organic semiconductors appear easily when a weak perturbation is applied to the organic system, namely by contact with other material, by injecting a charge, by elevating temperature, and by exposure to 1 atm gas. What we finally found is that tailing states of HOMO and LUMO always exist, and their energy distributions must not be symmetric; they thus produce a larger Fermi level shift from the mid gap position than previously thought. Furthermore, as shown by computational work, Fermi level pinning, which is a well-known phenomena in semiconductor devices field, occurs in weakly interacting organic/conductor systems without any gap states if the system temperature is not zero (T  >  0). We

  11. Co-operative agreement for Arab States in Asia for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (ARASIA). Entry into force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Co-operative Agreement for Arab States in Asia for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (ARASIA), pursuant to Article XII, entered into force upon receipt by the Director General of the Agency of notification of acceptance by three Arab Member States of the Agency in Asia, in accordance with Article XI, i.e. on 29 July 2002. The Agreement shall continue to be in force for a period of six years from the date of its entry into force and may be extended for further period(s) if the States Parties so agree. The text of the Agreement is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States. By 20 November 2002, there were 5 Parties to the above Agreement

  12. Publication of the Korea-WHO Cooperation History - 70 Years of Working Together for Heath: World Health Organization and the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heeyeon; Lee, Dong Woo; Choe, Young June; Choe, Seung Ah; Park, No Yai

    2017-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) have been in collaborative efforts with the Republic of Korea in keeping of and for better health for all for the past decades. From the control of parasites to building of community health system in rural places, the works has now resulted in healthier Korea than ever, and has transformed the role of engaging as the world leader in contribution of health and development. Seventy years of independence, war, and poverty, transforming from a recipient country of official development assistance to a significant donor to the global society, we have emphasized the importance of international cooperation and the role of WHO in the past years in Korea and neighboring countries. Looking back of the past is meaningful to diagnose the present problems, and to foresee the future of our world.

  13. The role of civil organizations in monitoring the convention on the prohibition of the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines and on their destruction: a proposal for a cooperative compliance mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseberg, LS.

    1998-01-01

    On December 2, 1997, approximately 100 government representatives will gather in Ottawa, Canada to sign a treaty banning the production, use or stockpiling of landmines. Both the speed with which this treaty was negotiated, and the extent to which it is a product of genuine cooperation between like-minded governments and non-governmental organizations (especially the International Campaign to Ban Landmines) make it a landmark document. Nonetheless, when the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on their Destruction (hereinafter, the APM Treaty) is reviewed in the context of other arms control agreements, it is clear that the 'compliance mechanism' is extremely soft. There are no sanctions against states who do not live up to the obligations they assume on signing the APM Treaty, although (under Article 8), States Parties may authorize a fact-finding mission to clarify a question regarding alleged non-compliance. This notwithstanding, the primary compliance mechanism is the provision that states voluntarily report once a year on measures they have taken to implement the treaty. (author)

  14. Health care in the United States: organization, management, and policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenwald, Howard P

    2010-01-01

    "Health Care in the United States discusses the basic structures and operations of the U.S. health system. This resource includes examples, tables, and a glossary with key terms and acronyms to help understand important concepts...

  15. Multiple connections in European co-operation: : international organizations, policy ideas, practices and transfers 1967–92

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, Wolfram; Patel, Kiran Klaus

    2017-01-01

    International organizations are ubiquitous in contemporary Europe and the wider world. This special issue takes a historical approach to exploring their relations with each other in Western Europe between 1967 and 1992. The authors seek to ‘provincialize’ and ‘de-centre’ the European Union’s role,

  16. Organic rice IPM research update in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. organic rice production has steadily increased over the past decade, with a majority of the acreage being grown in the southern region. Because of the warm and humid environments and the long growing season in the region, weed, disease and insect pests are among the primary factors limiting org...

  17. Reality Checks: The state of civil society organizations in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development; human rights and advocacy; Ethiopia .... first two studies were carried out in Addis Ababa City, Bahir Dar (Amhara Region), ... from members of CSOs (in the case of societies), beneficiaries of CSOs (in the case of ... organizations, associations, networks, and groups that promote public interests and that.

  18. Organized social involvement in the battle against poverty: PRONASOL’s experiences in three states in the north of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Ordóñez Barba

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to show, through the analysis of empirical data of three states of the north of Mexico, an approximation to the study of neighbour organizations incorporated or originated by the shelter of the Solidarity National Program (Pronasol in order to cooperate in the tasks related with the application and operation of projects for collective benefit.Considering the importance this organizations obtained in the strategy of the program and in the social context, different analysts of that time began to doubt about the arguments that justified the creation of the Solidarity Committees, arguing possible bonds with neocorporative control plans or noticing their limitations for overcoming a merely instrumental participation. Independently of their peculiarities, this critics coincided in a general hypothesis: organised participation in the context of the Solidarity Program doesn’t represent an effective alternative for a change in the process for a democratic reform of the Mexican State.In the present paper, we pretend to explore some answers to that hypothesis dividing Committees in two levels: as instances of communitary participation and management, and as organisations linked with possible schemes of corporative control.

  19. Participatory plant breeding and organic agriculture: A synergistic model for organic variety development in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organic farmers require improved varieties that have been adapted to their unique soils, nutrient inputs, management practices, and pest pressures. One way to develop adapted varieties is to situate breeding programs in the environment of intended use, such as directly on organic farms, and in collaboration with organic farmers. This model is a form of participatory plant breeding, and was originally created in order to meet the needs of under-served, small-scale farmers in developing countries. A robust body of literature supports the quantitative genetic selection theory of participatory plant breeding, and helps to explain its increasing prevalence among organic breeding projects in the United States. The history of the organic farming movement in the United States highlights the cultural relevance of engaging organic farmers in the breeding process, complementing the biological rationale for participatory plant breeding. In addition, limited private investment in organic plant breeding encourages the involvement of plant breeders at public institutions. This paper synthesizes the biological, cultural, and economic justifications for utilizing participatory plant breeding as an appropriate methodology for organic cultivar development.

  20. Globalization and Education within Two Revolutionary Organizations in the United States of America: A Gramscian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, John D.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the history, strategy, structure, educational practices, and globalization perspectives of two revolutionary organizations in the United States of America: the Freedom Road Socialist Organization and the League of Revolutionaries for a New America. This article relates the work of these organizations to the theory and…

  1. Investigation of defect states in organic semiconductors. Towards long term stable materials for organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafferhans, Julia

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the trap states in the conjugated polymer P3HT, often used as electron donor in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, three commonly used fullerene based electron acceptors and P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM blends were investigated. Concerning the lifetime of organic solar cells the influence of oxygen on P3HT and P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM blends was studied. Fractional TSC measurements on P3HT diodes revealed a quasi-continuous trap distribution. The deeper traps exhibited a strong dependence on oxygen. Exposure of the P3HT diodes to oxygen, ambient air and synthetic (dry) air all revealed an increase of the deeper traps density with exposure time in the same manner. While the lower limit of the trap density in non aged P3HT samples was in the range of (1.0-1.2) x 10{sup 22} m{sup -3}, it was more than doubled after an exposure of 50 h to air. An increase of the trap density with oxygen exposure time was also seen in the Q-DLTS measurements accompanied with an increase of the temperature dependence of the emission rates. Due to the raise in density of the deeper traps, the charge carrier mobility in P3HT significantly decreased, as revealed by photo-CELIV measurements, resulting in a loss in mobility of about two orders of magnitude after 100 h exposure to synthetic air. This effect was partially reversible by applying vacuum to the sample for several hours or, more significantly, by a thermal treatment of the devices in nitrogen atmosphere. The trap states in the methanofullerenes PC{sub 61}BM, bisPC{sub 61}BM and PC71BM were investigated by TSC measurements. PC{sub 61}BM yielded a broad quasi-continuous trap distribution with the maximum of the distribution at about 75 meV. The comparison of the TSC spectra of the three methanofullerenes exhibited significant differences in the trap states with higher activation energies of the most prominent traps in bisPC{sub 61}BM and PC71BM compared to PC{sub 61}BM. The lower limit of the trap density of all of the three

  2. Jenergeticheskoe sotrudnichestvo Rossii i Evrosojuza: osnovnye napravlenija jevoljucii i sovremennoe sostojanie [EU — Russia energy cooperation: major development trends and the present state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova Tatyana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of EU — Russia energy relations through the lens of the evolution of three parameters: the political agenda (the Energy Dialogue, the institutional structure, and the legal modalities. The identification of these three aspects for assessing the evolution of EU-Russia energy relations is the novelty in the author’s approach. This study aims to identify the previous stages and assess the current state of EU — Russia energy dialogue, since they set out conditions for energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region. This research is based on a political and legal analysis of various documents and employs various international relations theories (including integration theories. The article demonstrates that the EU and Russia have made a transition to the integration agenda manifested in the Energy Dialogue (its current goal is the creation of a common European energy market. The author describes the process of gradual consolidation of transgovernmental and transnational institutions, which leads to depoliticization of cooperation and mutual socialization of the partners. Finally, legal discussions on the development of common rules have become more constructive. In sum, the current situation in EU — Russia energy relations is favourable and positively affects cooperation in the Baltic Sea region.

  3. Implementation of cooperative learning model type STAD with RME approach to understanding of mathematical concept student state junior high school in Pekanbaru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Dian Mita; Hartono

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to determine whether there is a difference in the ability of understanding the concept of mathematics between students who use cooperative learning model Student Teams Achievement Division type with Realistic Mathematic Education approach and students who use regular learning in seventh grade SMPN 35 Pekanbaru. This study was quasi experiments with Posttest-only Control Design. The populations in this research were all the seventh grade students in one of state junior high school in Pekanbaru. The samples were a class that is used as the experimental class and one other as the control class. The process of sampling is using purposive sampling technique. Retrieval of data in this study using the documentation, observation sheets, and test. The test use t-test formula to determine whether there is a difference in student's understanding of mathematical concepts. Before the t-test, should be used to test the homogeneity and normality. Based in the analysis of these data with t0 = 2.9 there is a difference in student's understanding of mathematical concepts between experimental and control class. Percentage of students experimental class with score more than 65 was 76.9% and 56.4% of students control class. Thus be concluded, the ability of understanding mathematical concepts students who use the cooperative learning model type STAD with RME approach better than students using the regular learning. So that cooperative learning model type STAD with RME approach is well used in learning process.

  4. Comparative Study of the Roles of ASEAN and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation in Responding to the Rohingya Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Jati, Irawan

    2017-01-01

    Since 2012, Southeast Asia has witnessed the human rights tragedy of the Rohingya people of Myanmar. Hundreds of thousands of Rohingya have been displaced from their homes and traveled to refugee facilities in Myanmar and Bangladesh, while others have been stranded on the Andaman Sea. The Rohingya crisis is perhaps the most horrific human rights tragedy after the crisis in Vietnam in the 1970s. As the crisis has developed, international communities, including ASEAN and the Organization of Isl...

  5. The state of the international organ trade: a provisional picture based on integration of available information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazono, Yosuke

    2007-12-01

    Organ transplantation is widely practised worldwide. The expansion of organ transplantation has led to a critical shortage of organs and the development of the organ trade. Many patients travel to areas where organs are obtainable through commercial transactions. Although the international organ trade is regarded as an important health policy issue, its current state remains obscure because of scarce data and the lack of efforts to synthesize available data. This paper is an attempt to integrate information about the current international organ trade and create a tentative global picture based on a systematic review of 309 media reports, journal articles and other documents. The international organ trade is described in terms of its forms, the organ-exporting countries, the organ-importing countries and its outcomes and consequences.

  6. Steady-state organization of binary mixtures by active impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Mads Christian; Gilhøj, Henriette; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1998-01-01

    The structural reorganization of a phase-separated binary mixture in the presence of an annealed dilution of active impurities is studied by computer-simulation techniques via a simple two-dimensional lattice-gas model. The impurities, each of which has two internal states with different affinity...

  7. Cooperative Security: New Horizons for International Order

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Richard; Mihalka, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... Both are controversial. Richard Cohen presents a compelling and highly original model of Cooperative Security -- a term that once was applied almost exclusively to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE...

  8. Breeders: operational experience with fast power reactors in five states - more intensive German-French breeder cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1978-01-01

    In the past year contracts have been signed and implemented for German-French cooperation in LMFBR development and commercialization. - The first German nuclear power station with a sodium cooled fast reactor, KNK II in Karlsruhe, is going into operation. - Construction of the prototype SNR 300 at Kalkar (Lower Rhine) is slowing down awaiting a decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court. - On the international level, remarkable experience in the operation of fast power reactors has accumulated. - Possible fuel cycle alternatives are being evaluated by an international committee. (orig.) [de

  9. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  10. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.

    2006-12-01

    Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation means that selfish replicators forgo some of their reproductive potential to help one another. But natural selection implies competition and therefore opposes cooperation unless a specific mechanism is at work. Here I discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation.

  11. The pollution characteristics of PM2.5 and correlation analysis with meteorological parameters in Xinxiang during the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Prime Ministers' Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinglan; Yu, Hao; Mi, Kai; Su, Xianfa; Chen, Yunqi; Sun, Jian-Hui; Li, Qilu

    2018-06-01

    The pollution characteristics of PM 2.5 and correlation analysis with meteorological parameters in Xinxiang during the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Prime Ministers' Meeting were investigated. During the whole meeting, nine PM 2.5 samples were collected at a suburban site of Xinxiang, and the average concentration of PM 2.5 was 122.28 μg m -3 . NO 3 - , NH 4 + , SO 4 2- accounted for 56.8% of the total water-soluble ions. In addition, with an exception of Cl - , all of water-soluble ions decreased during the meeting. Total concentrations of crustal elements ranged from 6.53 to 185.86 μg m -3 , with an average concentration of 52.51 μg m -3 , which accounted for 82.5% of total elements. The concentrations of organic carbon and elemental carbon were 7.71 and 1.52 μg m -3 , respectively, lower than those before and after the meeting. It is indicated that during the meeting, limiting motor vehicles is to reduce exhaust emissions, delay heating is to reduce the fossil fuel combustion, and other measures are to reduce the concentration of PM 2.5 . The directly dispersing by mixing layer height increase and the indirectly reducing the formation of secondary aerosol by low relative humidity, and these are the only two key removing mechanisms of PM 2.5 in Xinxiang during the meeting.

  12. Organic-​organic interfaces and unoccupied electronic states of thin films of perylene and naphthalene derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Komolov, A.S; Juul Møller, Preben

    2005-01-01

    ,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA, Fig. 1c) film surfaces, respectively, in order to form organic–organic interfaces so that molecules constituting the interfacing layers differ by the substituent group. The surface potential and the density of unoccupied electron states (DOUS) located 5–25 eV above the Fermi...

  13. Modeling the Current and Future Roles of Particulate Organic Nitrates in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Havala O T; Luecken, Deborah J; Xu, Lu; Boyd, Christopher M; Ng, Nga L; Baker, Kirk R; Ayres, Benjamin R; Bash, Jesse O; Baumann, Karsten; Carter, William P L; Edgerton, Eric; Fry, Juliane L; Hutzell, William T; Schwede, Donna B; Shepson, Paul B

    2015-12-15

    Organic nitrates are an important aerosol constituent in locations where biogenic hydrocarbon emissions mix with anthropogenic NOx sources. While regional and global chemical transport models may include a representation of organic aerosol from monoterpene reactions with nitrate radicals (the primary source of particle-phase organic nitrates in the Southeast United States), secondary organic aerosol (SOA) models can underestimate yields. Furthermore, SOA parametrizations do not explicitly take into account organic nitrate compounds produced in the gas phase. In this work, we developed a coupled gas and aerosol system to describe the formation and subsequent aerosol-phase partitioning of organic nitrates from isoprene and monoterpenes with a focus on the Southeast United States. The concentrations of organic aerosol and gas-phase organic nitrates were improved when particulate organic nitrates were assumed to undergo rapid (τ = 3 h) pseudohydrolysis resulting in nitric acid and nonvolatile secondary organic aerosol. In addition, up to 60% of less oxidized-oxygenated organic aerosol (LO-OOA) could be accounted for via organic nitrate mediated chemistry during the Southern Oxidants and Aerosol Study (SOAS). A 25% reduction in nitrogen oxide (NO + NO2) emissions was predicted to cause a 9% reduction in organic aerosol for June 2013 SOAS conditions at Centreville, Alabama.

  14. Authorities and organizations involved with geographic names - 1989: United States, Canada, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need for accurate and standard geographic names usage in all levels of government, industry, commerce, communications, education, and research. There is also a growing number of organizations in North America that are, fully or partly, involved in the scholarly study of geographic names. This report is a list of official national, State/Provincial, and regional provincial authorities concerned with name standardization, and of organizations involved with the study of geographic names, in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The appendixes are copies of documents that provide additional information about the organization, policies, procedures, and publications of some of these organizations.

  15. Systematic, Cooperative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Paula M.

    Evaluation procedures based on a systematic evaluation methodology, decision-maker validity, new measurement and design techniques, low cost, and a high level of cooperation on the part of the school staff were used in the assessment of a public school mathematics program for grades 3-8. The mathematics curriculum was organized into Spirals which…

  16. The Cooperativity of Fe3O4 and Metal-Organic Framework as Multifunctional Nanocomposites for Laser Desorption Ionization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chung-Wei; Lirio, Stephen; Shih, Yung-Han; Liu, Wan-Ling; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2018-05-10

    We report a novel and facile strategy for developing a water stable magnetic metal organic framework nanocomposite (Fe3O4@MOF), in which a Keggin polyoxometalate, phosphotungstic acid (HPW), was encapsulated within the MOF framework via one-pot synthesis method. The combination of HPW-embedded MOF and Fe3O4 endowed the composite with high surface area, strong UV absorption, good hydrophilicity, and enhanced water stability. With these unique properties, the Fe3O4@MOF embedded HPW were served as adsorbent as well as matrix for (surface-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry) SALDI-MS analysis of polar and non-polar compounds. The synergistic effect of Fe3O4 and MOF showed an interference-free background at low mass region than the pristine MOF or Fe3O4 counterpart. This simple approach can be used as new platform in developing magnetic MOF composites without the time consuming and labor-intensive preparation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Tradicii rossijskogo i evropejskogo predstavlenija o gosudarstvennoj granice v uslovijah transgranichnogo regional'nogo sotrudnichestva [The traditions of Russian and European perception of the state frontier in the conditions of transborder regional cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosov Yuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the state frontier in European and Russian political cultures as a major instrument for developing trans-border regional cooperation. The term ‘state frontier’ is defined through a prism of regional integration processes. The authors examine the role of trans-border relations between Russia and the European Union in promoting mutually beneficial strategic cooperation in the Baltic Sea region. Historical experience, geopolitical position, national psychology and some other factors shape common perceptions of the state frontier in mass consciousness, which can vary from country to country. The state frontier is a key imperative of trans-border regional cooperation. The trans-border relations between Russia and the EU serve a foundation for the development of strategic partnership, and it is cross-border cooperation in the Baltic Sea region that proves to be most efficient in this respect. At present, there are several cooperation mechanisms and programmes in place which are aimed at enhancing Russia — EU relations in the Baltic Sea region. In the long-term perspective, the development of regional integration processes in the Baltic Sea region is seen as one of the key elements for increasing and strengthening strategic cooperation between Russia and the EU.

  18. Personality, Organizational Culture, and Cooperation: Evidence from a Business Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatman, Jennifer A.; Barsade, Sigal G.

    1995-01-01

    Explored personal and situational sources of cooperation. Assessed MBA students' disposition to cooperate and randomly assigned them to simulated organizations emphasizing either collectivistic or individualistic cultural values. Coworkers rated cooperative subjects in collectivistic cultures as most cooperative. Cooperative people were most…

  19. The State of Human Anatomy Teaching in the Medical Schools of Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: Present and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbal, Omar

    2009-04-01

    Available literature on medical education charts an emerging trend in the field of anatomy. In the past decade, assisted by innovations in informatics and the paradigm shift in medical education, the hands-on experience of cadaver dissection has progressively become a relic of the past. Within the context of the situation in Gulf Cooperation Council countries, this paper compares the traditional teaching approach with the modern one that tends to emphasise technical gadgetry, virtual reality and plastic models rather than hands-on-experience to impart knowledge and skill. However, cadaver-based learning is an important building block for the future physician and surgeon since clinical astuteness is likely to rely on skills gained from hands-on experience rather than the tendency to learning through virtual reality found in modern curricula.

  20. Regional cooperation in nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.; Muntzing, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    In November 1985, PBNCC (the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee) was formally established. Currently six Pacific Basin members have been participating in PBNCC: Canada, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Taiwan of Chian, and the United States of America. The People's Republic of China has sent observes to the PBNCC meetings. The technical contents of PBWCC working groups are as follows: 1. Regional cooperative for pooled spare parts of nuclear power plants and inventory management; 2. Regional cooperation in nuclear training; 3. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety; 4. Regional cooperation in Codes and Standards; 5. Regional Cooperation in public acceptance; 6. Regional cooperation on radwaste management. (Liu)

  1. Dvigateli regional'nogo stroitel'stva. Vlijanie regional'nyh politicheskih organizacij na sotrudnichestvo universitetov v regione Baltijskogo morja [Motors for regional development: impact on regional political organizations on the university cooperation in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational co-operation is one of the main aspects of the regional political agenda in the Baltic Sea Region. The article analyzes the political impact of the organizations, as perceived by the universities in the region and political decision-makers on national and regional levels. Based on the success of the OECD in becoming an influential actor in educational policies, this article discusses different strategies for the regional political organizations to enhance their influence.

  2. Evolutionary escape from the climate dilemma. Comment on "Climate change governance, cooperation and self-organization" by Pacheco, Vasconcelos and Santos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoni, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Jorge M. Pacheco, Vítor V. Vasconcelos and Francisco C. Santos take stock of a growing body of research they have produced in recent years, with the aim of shedding light on whether bottom-up agreements can suffice in promoting the high levels of cooperation needed to avert dangerous climate change [1]. The current state of affairs leave little reason for optimism, given the steady rise in CO2 emissions [2]. The UNFCCC approach to seeking universal participation has thus been called into question, both by some policy makers and by academics who have established pessimistic theoretical predictions concerning the limited ability of international environmental agreements to improve upon what nation states would do in the absence of an agreement. Game theorists have predicted that self-enforcing agreements are likely to comprise only a handful of countries committing to unambitious emission abatement targets [3]. Clearly, this is incompatible with stabilizing CO2 concentrations at levels that significantly constrain the likelihood of dangerous climate change. The question than arises as to whether we can deliver on ambitious abatement targets by leveraging on unilateral action by countries or other sub- or supra-national entities (e.g. cities or blocs). This has recently been analyzed in game-theoretic contexts [4,5], as well as in the governance literature [6], with more optimistic predictions compared to traditional models focusing on overarching agreements.

  3. Communities with Source Separated Organics Programs, United States, 2015, EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent communities with residential organics collection programs in the United States. EPA used US Census Bureau...

  4. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured the Slovak Republic (SR) obligations with relation to the international agreements and with the SR membership in the IAEA.International co-operation has been ensured on the basis of the bilateral international agreements. With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-operation, the SR fulfilled its financial obligations to this organization in due time and in the full scope. Representing Central and Eastern Europe interest in the Board of Governors, the SR participation in the highest executive in the highest executive authority was finished in 1996.The Board of Governors Vice-chairman position was executed by NRA SR Chairman. 5 national and 6 regional technical co-operation and assistance projects were realized in 1996. 12 organizations participated in these projects and accordingly 104 experts took part in training programmes, scientific visits or as the mission members abroad. Besides, Slovak experts participated at work of technical advisory and consultation groups with the significant assistance. In the framework of IAEA co-operation, the SR was visited by 11 expert missions formed by 28 experts from 19 countries including IAEA. Slovak organizations, namely institutes of the Academy of Sciences, Slovak research centres and universities participated in IAEA scientific and research activities through NRA SR. 15 scientific contracts in total were approved and realized and these contracts are utilized as supplementary financing of the own scientific and research projects. Other international co-operation and regional co-operation activities of the NRA SR in 1996 are reviewed

  5. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, James

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions.

  6. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  7. From grassroots movement to state-coordinated market strategy: the transformation of organic agriculture in China

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Thiers

    2002-01-01

    The production, certification, and marketing of organic agriculture developed slowly in the West as a nongovernmental, community-based response to concerns over food safety and the environmental impacts of chemical agriculture. The current emergence of organic agriculture in less-developed nations is following a very different trajectory owing to the presence of an established global market for organic products and the developmental goals of interventionist states. In this paper I examine the...

  8. Cooperative Agreement on Pesticide Safety Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is awarding the eXtension Foundation with a cooperative agreement to establish a system to distribute EPA funds to Pesticide Safety Education Programs (PSEPs) in State Cooperative Extension Services at Land Grant Universities.

  9. Assessing the research and education needs of the organic dairy industry in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Brito, A F; Townson, L L; Townson, D H

    2013-01-01

    Demographic and management data about organic dairies have been reported previously, but the current study is the first needs assessment of research and educational priorities of organic dairy farmers in the northeastern United States based directly upon their input. Our objectives were to (1) develop an initial understanding of the emerging research and educational needs of organic dairy farmers in the northeastern United States via focus group interviews, and (2) prioritize the needs identified by the focus groups with a broader population of organic dairy farmers via survey methods. Focus group interviews determined the questions used for the survey questionnaire distributed to 1,200 members of the Northeast Organic Dairy Producers Alliance. The members were asked about demographic information, but more importantly, challenges concerning business management and marketing, organic certification, and animal nutrition, health, and reproduction. The results (183 respondents, 15% response rate) were parsed by region (New England farms compared with New York and Pennsylvania farms), herd size (i.e., 12 to 37, 38 to 59, and >60 cows), and years of organic certification (organic treatments for mastitis (92% respondents), growing forages for organic production (84%), and developing value-added products (84%). Farms with organic certification were concerned with level of knowledge and experience of local certifiers, whereas organic producers with ≥ 4 yr of organic certification were more interested in field testing of new organic products. Opportunities for educational programs included learning about direct marketing possibilities (76% respondents) and providing training to regional veterinarians interested in organic remedies (91%). In conclusion, the information obtained from the current needs assessment provides a foundation for future research proposals and educational outreach programs, germane to stakeholder needs, which could benefit the organic dairy industry

  10. Highly Efficient Interception and Precipitation of Uranium(VI) from Aqueous Solution by Iron-Electrocoagulation Combined with Cooperative Chelation by Organic Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhun, Bao; Wang, Xuegang; Liao, PingPing; Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Lizhang; Guo, Yadan; Zhang, Weimin

    2017-12-19

    A new strategy combining iron-electrocoagulation and organic ligands (OGLs) cooperative chelation was proposed to screen and precipitate low concentrations (0-18.52 μmol/L) of uranium contaminant in aqueous solution. We hypothesized that OGLs with amino, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups hydrophobically/hydrophilically would realize precuring of uranyl ion at pH electrocoagulation would achieve faster and more efficient uranium precipitation. Experimentally, the strategy demonstrated highly efficient uranium(VI) precipitation efficiency, especially with hydrophilic macromolecular OGLs. The uranium removal efficiency at optimized experimental condition reached 99.65%. The decrease of zeta potential and the lattice enwrapping between U-OGLs chelates and flocculation precursor were ascribed to the enhanced uranium precipitation activity. Uranium was precipitated as oxides of U(VI) or higher valences that were easily captured in aggregated micelles under low operation current potential. The actual uranium tailing wastewater was treated, and a satisfied uranium removal efficiency of 99.02% was discovered. After elution of the precipitated flocs, a concentrated uranium solution (up to 106.52 μmol/L) with very few other metallic impurities was obtained. Therefore, the proposed strategy could remove uranium and concentrate it concurrently. This work could provide new insights into the purification and recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly process.

  11. A survey on staging and treatment in uterine cervical carcinoma in the Radiotherapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coucke, P.A.; Ciernik, I.F.; Maingon, P.; Do, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    The treatment outcome of advanced stage uterine cervical carcinoma remains unsatisfactory. In order to elaborate a novel trial within The Radiotherapy Cooperative Group (RCG) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), we conducted a survey in 1997-1998 to determine the variability of pre-treatment assessment and treatment options. The variability of choosing surgery, defined radiation therapy techniques and chemotherapy are investigated, as well as the center's choices of future treatment strategies. Fifty two of 81 RCG centers from the RCG have participated in the survey. As one would expect, there is a large variation in the techniques used for pretreatment evaluation and treatment options. There is no 'standard' for reporting acute and late side effects. Chemotherapy is used neither systematically nor uniformly, and some centers continue to use neadjuvant chemotherapy modalities. Furthermore, the survey reveals that there is a strong demand for the reduction of overall treatment-time, for clinical investigation of novel combined modality treatment strategies, especially chemo-radiation therapy, and also for the use of new radiation sensitizers. We conclude that a more homogeneous approach to the pretreatment evaluation as well as treatment techniques is required in order to allow adequate quality control in any future trial of the RCG in the EORTC. (author)

  12. Supranational Cooperation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Deugd, Nienke; Stamm, Katharina; Westerman, Wim

    The sovereign debt crisis and the euro crisis have prompted heads of state and government in Europe to intensify supranational cooperation. However, some political leaders and policy makers aim for more. They propose the introduction of a common European economic government that would prevent Europe

  13. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  14. Mechanistic Insight into Ketone α-Alkylation with Unactivated Olefins via C-H Activation Promoted by Metal-Organic Cooperative Catalysis (MOCC): Enriching the MOCC Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yanfeng; Qu, Shuanglin; Tao, Yuan; Deng, Xi; Wang, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-05-20

    Metal-organic cooperative catalysis (MOCC) has been successfully applied for hydroacylation of olefins with aldehydes via directed C(sp(2))-H functionalization. Most recently, it was reported that an elaborated MOCC system, containing Rh(I) catalyst and 7-azaindoline (L1) cocatalyst, could even catalyze ketone α-alkylation with unactivated olefins via C(sp(3))-H activation. Herein we present a density functional theory study to understand the mechanism of the challenging ketone α-alkylation. The transformation uses IMesRh(I)Cl(L1)(CH2═CH2) as an active catalyst and proceeds via sequential seven steps, including ketone condensation with L1, giving enamine 1b; 1b coordination to Rh(I) active catalyst, generating Rh(I)-1b intermediate; C(sp(2))-H oxidative addition, leading to a Rh(III)-H hydride; olefin migratory insertion into Rh(III)-H bond; reductive elimination, generating Rh(I)-1c(alkylated 1b) intermediate; decoordination of 1c, liberating 1c and regenerating Rh(I) active catalyst; and hydrolysis of 1c, furnishing the final α-alkylation product 1d and regenerating L1. Among the seven steps, reductive elimination is the rate-determining step. The C-H bond preactivation via agostic interaction is crucial for the bond activation. The mechanism rationalizes the experimental puzzles: why only L1 among several candidates performed perfectly, whereas others failed, and why Wilkinson's catalyst commonly used in MOCC systems performed poorly. Based on the established mechanism and stimulated by other relevant experimental reactions, we attempted to enrich MOCC chemistry computationally, exemplifying how to develop new organic catalysts and proposing L7 to be an alternative for L1 and demonstrating the great potential of expanding the hitherto exclusive use of Rh(I)/Rh(III) manifold to Co(0)/Co(II) redox cycling in developing MOCC systems.

  15. m-Health Policy Readiness and Enabling Factors: Comparisons of Sub-Saharan Africa and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seohyun; Begley, Charles E; Morgan, Robert; Chan, Wenyaw; Kim, Sun-Young

    2018-02-12

    As an innovative solution to poor access to care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), m-health has gained wide attention in the past decade. Despite enthusiasm from the global health community, LMICs have not demonstrated high uptake of m-health promoting policies or public investment. To benchmark the current status, this study compared m-health policy readiness scores between sub-Saharan Africa and high-income Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries using an independent two-sample t test. In addition, the enabling factors associated with m-health policy readiness were investigated using an ordinal logistic regression model. The study was based on the m-health policy readiness scores of 112 countries obtained from the World Health Organization Third Global Survey on e-Health. The mean m-health policy readiness score for sub-Saharan Africa was statistically significantly lower than that for OECD countries (p = 0.02). The enabling factors significantly associated with m-health policy readiness included information and communication technology development index (odds ratio [OR] 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.2), e-health education for health professionals (OR 4.43; 95% CI 1.60-12.27), and the location in sub-Saharan Africa (OR 3.47; 95% CI 1.06-11.34). The findings of our study suggest dual policy goals for m-health in sub-Saharan Africa. First, enhance technological and educational support for m-health. Second, pursue global collaboration for building m-health capacity led by sub-Saharan African countries with hands-on experience and knowledge. Globally, countries should take a systematic and collaborative approach in pursuing m-health policy with the focus on technological and educational support.

  16. Industrial Buyer-Supplier Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Friis

    The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...

  17. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : A review: Environmental challenges and opportunities of the North American electricity market : A symposium organized by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukert, J.M.

    2002-06-01

    North America produces and uses over 50 per cent of the electricity in the industrialized world. Regulatory trends in Mexico, the United States and Canada converge toward the opening up of electricity markets, while regional trade of electricity across national borders is being encouraged. Fundamental questions remain concerning the effects on the natural air-water-and-land environment in all three countries and the manner in which this trade occurs. Public health is also a factor to be considered. Some government intervention is required, was the general consensus arrived at at the symposium organized by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation of North America (CEC). This intervention should probably take the form of emission standards, transparent regulatory hearings and efforts to render the rules in the three countries more compatible. Demand growth and the incorporation of pollution controls will require some private investment. The author indicated that the symposium participants recognized that the reconciliation of an efficient continental electricity market with environmental goals will come with improving the efficiency with which North Americans use energy. refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  18. Organic semiconductor density of states controls the energy level alignment at electrode interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehzelt, Martin; Koch, Norbert; Heimel, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Minimizing charge carrier injection barriers and extraction losses at interfaces between organic semiconductors and metallic electrodes is critical for optimizing the performance of organic (opto-) electronic devices. Here, we implement a detailed electrostatic model, capable of reproducing the alignment between the electrode Fermi energy and the transport states in the organic semiconductor both qualitatively and quantitatively. Covering the full phenomenological range of interfacial energy level alignment regimes within a single, consistent framework and continuously connecting the limiting cases described by previously proposed models allows us to resolve conflicting views in the literature. Our results highlight the density of states in the organic semiconductor as a key factor. Its shape and, in particular, the energy distribution of electronic states tailing into the fundamental gap is found to determine both the minimum value of practically achievable injection barriers as well as their spatial profile, ranging from abrupt interface dipoles to extended band-bending regions. PMID:24938867

  19. Immobilizing Organic-Based Molecular Switches into Metal-Organic Frameworks: A Promising Strategy for Switching in Solid State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Bo; Meng, Yi; Xie, Yang; Du, Ke; Sue, Andrew C-H; Wang, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Organic-based molecular switches (OMS) are essential components for the ultimate miniaturization of nanoscale electronics and devices. For practical applications, it is often necessary for OMS to be incorporated into functional solid-state materials. However, the switching characteristics of OMS in solution are usually not transferrable to the solid state, presumably because of spatial confinement or inefficient conversion in densely packed solid phase. A promising way to circumvent this issue is harboring the functional OMS within the robust and porous environment of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as their organic components. In this feature article, recent research progress of OMS-based MOFs is briefly summarized. The switching behaviors of OMS under different stimuli (e.g., light, redox, pH, etc.) in the MOF state are first introduced. After that, the technological applications of these OMS-based MOFs in different areas, including CO 2 adsorption, gas separation, drug delivery, photodynamic therapy, and sensing, are outlined. Finally, perspectives and future challenges are discussed in the conclusion. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Forming a three-dimensional porous organic network via solid-state explosion of organic single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seo-Yoon; Kim, Dongwook; Shin, Dongbin; Mahmood, Javeed; Jeon, In-Yup; Jung, Sun-Min; Shin, Sun-Hee; Kim, Seok-Jin; Park, Noejung; Lah, Myoung Soo; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2017-11-17

    Solid-state reaction of organic molecules holds a considerable advantage over liquid-phase processes in the manufacturing industry. However, the research progress in exploring this benefit is largely staggering, which leaves few liquid-phase systems to work with. Here, we show a synthetic protocol for the formation of a three-dimensional porous organic network via solid-state explosion of organic single crystals. The explosive reaction is realized by the Bergman reaction (cycloaromatization) of three enediyne groups on 2,3,6,7,14,15-hexaethynyl-9,10-dihydro-9,10-[1,2]benzenoanthracene. The origin of the explosion is systematically studied using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, along with high-speed camera and density functional theory calculations. The results suggest that the solid-state explosion is triggered by an abrupt change in lattice energy induced by release of primer molecules in the 2,3,6,7,14,15-hexaethynyl-9,10-dihydro-9,10-[1,2]benzenoanthracene crystal lattice.

  1. The Romanian Agriculture Cooperative Movement, from the Beginning to the Threshold of the Second World War. Briefly Historic Argument or Argument for History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Popescu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In the philosophical meaning, the cooperative is a result of the knowing experimentallydevelopment and includes the interaction between: persons of consequence – through ideas and attitudes,state – through laws and institutes, experiences – through structures and effects.In Romania, in the first half of the XIXth century, and to the threshold of the Second World War, areremarked numerous persons of consequence who promote and support the cooperative movement, suchas P.S. Aurelian, Spiru Haret, Ion Raducanu, Virgil Madgearu, Mitita Constantinescu and NicolaeCornateanu.The state has accepted the cooperative as an instrument of the democratization of the capital andprofit. The cooperative movement had fight continuously towards promotion of the collaboration principlebetween cooperative companies, principle by virtue of which the organizations can manifest independencein confrontation with the state.The experiences had been substantiated mostly on the ideology of modern cooperative systems:Rochdale, Raiffaisen and Schulttze.The Romanian cooperative movement appeared, just like in the majority of European states, on abackground of some restrictions in the agricultural field, generated by a complex of factors among whichthe main position in a constant way had been hold by the contest between the big and small agriculturalfarms.In Romania, during the period before and after-war, cooperatives’ organization worked successfullyas credit cooperatives or economical cooperatives (consumption cooperatives, supply and sale cooperatives,forestry cooperatives, purchase community, leasing community, etc..The various shapes of the cooperative movements shows the potential which those have had in thepurpose of their economical development and social situation improvement of the farmers. The potentialwas narrowed not only by the legislative and institutional instability, but more by the agriculturalmarket size and intensity. The cooperatives activities

  2. Transformative State Capacity in Post-Collective China: The Introduction of the New Rural Cooperative Medical System in Two Counties of Western China, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbücher, Sascha; Lässig, Peter

    2009-06-01

    In 2002, the Chinese leadership announced a turnaround in national welfare policy: Local insurance at county level, called the New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS), was to cover all counties by 2010. This paper addresses the main characteristics of NRCMS as an example of 'transformative state capacity' in decentralised policy fields and its feature 'responsiveness' as a market-based means of its introduction.Reviewing the modes of governance and comparing the introduction of local schemes based on two case studies of western China since 2006, this paper argues that the flexibility shown by local administrators in considering structural and procedural adjustments is the result not only of central directives but also of local initiatives. Forms of locally embedded responsiveness to the needs and perceptions of health care recipients are crucial in enhancing the accountability and responsiveness of local cadres. These new modes of 'responsiveness' or responsive regulation are important in understanding and conceptualising the transformative state capacity. Responsive settings using centrally defined local feedback loops are different from hierarchical control and the formal institutionalised representation of the interests of the local population, and are a rough but effective means of enhancing both flexibility and the efficiency of control and financing by the central state. These feedback loops, which are based on voluntary enrolment and on central state subsidies made dependent on contributions received from participants and local government, are complementary forms of governance at grassroots level.

  3. TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC AS WELL AS COOPERATIVE EDUCATION IN THE WESTERN TERRITORIES OF UKRAINE (THE SECOND HALF OF XIX – THE BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY: STATE, PECULIARITIES, GALICIAN LEADERS, EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, THEORETICAL METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhailo Holubka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the transformation processes of the development of financial and economic as well as cooperative education in the Western territories of Ukraine in the second half of the XIX – the beginning of the XX century, its state, peculiarities, scientific results of Galician figures, educational associations, historical and economic aspects were covered. The methodology and the general essence of the financial and economic as well as cooperative education, the high importance of its quality were found out. The significance of financial and economic as well as cooperative education for realizing the opportunities for the self-understanding of a human as an economically active member of the nation was identified. The purpose of this study is to find out the personal and the peculiarities of the financial and economic as well as cooperative education in the Western territories of Ukraine in the second half of the XIX – the beginning of the XX century with the transformation on the processes that take place under the modern conditions of the development of the national education system. Methodology. The features and the transformation processes which defined environment conditions for financial and economic as well as cooperative education in the second half of the XIX – the beginning of the XX century on the territory of Western Ukraine were identified. Special attention is paid at the identification of financial and economic as well as cooperative education with business culture that includes the need to consider the public interest. A very important role of activation of the cooperative movement in the Ukraine Western territories that were not independent was admitted. The institutional framework of the development of the financial and economic as well as cooperative education of the population that has proved a key role in these processes and various institutions of self-education partnerships was analyzed. The broad functionality

  4. COMBATING TERRORISM: Intergovernmental Cooperation in the Development of a National Strategy to Enhance State and Local Preparedness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalton, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    ... A. Dalton, Director, Strategic Issues, of GAO discussed issues critical to successful federal leadership of, assistance to, and partnerships with state and local governments in the area of preparedness...

  5. The good governance and management  of cooperative societies under cooperative values: a didactic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Souza de Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the administrative management of cooperative enterprises, the various cooperative laws establish the need to organize a social-democratic structure formed by all members of society.

  6. Electronic processes in organic electronics bridging nanostructure, electronic states and device properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kudo, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Takashi; Ueno, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The book covers a variety of studies of organic semiconductors, from fundamental electronic states to device applications, including theoretical studies. Furthermore, innovative experimental techniques, e.g., ultrahigh sensitivity photoelectron spectroscopy, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, spin-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and a material processing method with optical-vortex and polarization-vortex lasers, are introduced. As this book is intended to serve as a textbook for a graduate level course or as reference material for researchers in organic electronics and nanoscience from electronic states, fundamental science that is necessary to understand the research is described. It does not duplicate the books already written on organic electronics, but focuses mainly on electronic properties that arise from the nature of organic semiconductors (molecular solids). The new experimental methods introduced in this book are applicable to various materials (e.g., metals, inorganic and organic mater...

  7. Assessing Capacity to Promote Science-Based Programs: A Key Informant Study of State Teen Pregnancy Prevention Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Edward; Sabri, Bushra; Huberman, Barbara; Klaus, T. W.; Davis, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify significant external and internal challenges that state organization leaders face in promoting science-based teen pregnancy prevention programs within their states. The state organization administrators were chosen because their organizations were funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control…

  8. How mutation alters the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Genki; Satotani, Yoshiki; Sayama, Hiroki

    2018-05-01

    Cooperation is ubiquitous at every level of living organisms. It is known that spatial (network) structure is a viable mechanism for cooperation to evolve. A recently proposed numerical metric, average gradient of selection (AGoS), a useful tool for interpreting and visualizing evolutionary dynamics on networks, allows simulation results to be visualized on a one-dimensional phase space. However, stochastic mutation of strategies was not considered in the analysis of AGoS. Here we extend AGoS so that it can analyze the evolution of cooperation where mutation may alter strategies of individuals on networks. We show that our extended AGoS correctly visualizes the final states of cooperation with mutation in the individual-based simulations. Our analyses revealed that mutation always has a negative effect on the evolution of cooperation regardless of the payoff functions, fraction of cooperators, and network structures. Moreover, we found that scale-free networks are the most vulnerable to mutation and thus the dynamics of cooperation are altered from bistability to coexistence on those networks, undergoing an imperfect pitchfork bifurcation.

  9. 75 FR 25032 - Biennial Review of the Progress of Cooperation Under the United States-Singapore Memorandum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... those areas.'' In addition, in the Environment Chapter of the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (FTA) (Chapter 18), ``[t]he Parties recognize the importance of strengthening capacity to protect the environment... invites interested organizations and members of the public to submit written comments or suggestions...

  10. A Toolbox of Solid-State NMR Experiments for the Characterization of Soft Organic Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Straasø, Lasse Arnt

    2016-02-02

    Determining how organic molecules self-assemble into a solid material is a challenging and demanding task if a single crystal of the material cannot be produced. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy offers access to such molecular details via an appropriate selection of techniques. This report gives a selected overview of 1D and 2D solid-state NMR techniques for elucidating the structure of soft organic solids. We focus on how the solid-state NMR techniques are designed from the perspective of the different nuclear interactions, using average Hamiltonian theory and product operators. We also introduce recent methods for quantification and reduction of experimental artifacts. Finally, we highlight how the solid-state NMR techniques can be applied to soft organic materials by reviewing recent applications to semicrystalline polymers, π-conjugated polymers, natural silk, and graphene-related materials.

  11. A Toolbox of Solid-State NMR Experiments for the Characterization of Soft Organic Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Straasø , Lasse Arnt; Saleem, Qasim; Hansen, Michael Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Determining how organic molecules self-assemble into a solid material is a challenging and demanding task if a single crystal of the material cannot be produced. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy offers access to such molecular details via an appropriate selection of techniques. This report gives a selected overview of 1D and 2D solid-state NMR techniques for elucidating the structure of soft organic solids. We focus on how the solid-state NMR techniques are designed from the perspective of the different nuclear interactions, using average Hamiltonian theory and product operators. We also introduce recent methods for quantification and reduction of experimental artifacts. Finally, we highlight how the solid-state NMR techniques can be applied to soft organic materials by reviewing recent applications to semicrystalline polymers, π-conjugated polymers, natural silk, and graphene-related materials.

  12. Occupational safety and health in nanotechnology and Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, Vladimir; Engel, Stefan; Savolainen, Kai; Fullam, Brian; Lee, Michelle; Kearns, Peter

    2009-10-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), an intergovernmental organization, is playing a critical global role in ensuring that emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology, are developed responsibly. This article describes OECD activities around occupational safety and health of nanotechnology and provides state-of-the-science overview resulting from an OECD workshop on exposure assessment and mitigation for nanotechnology workplace.

  13. Changing Roles of a University Cooperative Extension Service in Response to Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Thelma C.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have acknowledged that cooperative extension organizations should rethink dominant agricultural foci and be more inclusive of nontraditional audiences. An extension organization in the southeastern United States has experienced declining workshop participation, requests for technical assistance, and local office visits. These declines…

  14. Implementation of treaty as basis for regional cooperation vis-à-vis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virtually all states of the world belong to some regional cooperation organization and nearly all regions of the world have at least one organization, which aims, inter alia, at establishing a free trade area amongst its members, promotion of economic integration, monetary integration, improvement of regional infrastructure for ...

  15. Exploring the Eastern United States Continental Shelf with the NOAA Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Pomponi, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology (CIOERT) serves NOAA priorities in three theme areas: exploring the eastern U.S. continental shelf, improving the understanding of coral and sponge ecosystems, and developing advanced underwater technologies. CIOERT focuses on the exploration and research of ecosystems and habitats along frontier regions of the eastern U.S. continental shelf that are of economic, scientific, or cultural importance or of natural hazards concern. One particular focus is supporting ocean exploration and research through the use of advanced underwater technologies and techniques in order to improve the understanding of vulnerable deep and shallow coral and sponge ecosystems. CIOERT expands the scope and efficiency of exploration and research by developing, testing, and applying new and/or innovative uses of existing technologies to ocean exploration and research activities. In addition, CIOERT is dedicated to expanding ocean literacy and building NOAA's technical and scientific workforce through hands-on, at-sea experiences. A recent CIOERT cruise characterized Gulf of Mexico mesophotic and deepwater reef ecosystems off the west Florida shelf, targeting northern Pulley Ridge. This project created and ground-truthed new sonar maps made with an autonomous underwater vehicle; conducted video and photographic transects of benthic habitat and fish using a remotely operated vehicle; and examined the connectivity of fauna from shallow to deep reef ecosystems. CIOERT was established in 2009 by FAU-Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, with University of North Carolina, Wilmington, SRI International, and the University of Miami. The primary NOAA partner is the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research.

  16. International Cooperation of the Republic of Croatia in the Field of Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.; Rosandic, L.

    2010-01-01

    International cooperation of the Republic of Croatia in the field of nuclear safety can be divided in two parts - political part, for which the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration is responsible, and technical part, for which the State Office for Nuclear Safety is responsible, in cooperation with other state administration bodies, where applicable. According to the Nuclear Safety Act (OG 73/2003) the State Office for Nuclear Safety: 'coordinates technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency for all participants from the Republic of Croatia'; 'fulfills the obligations which the Republic of Croatia has assumed through international conventions and bilateral agreements concerning nuclear safety and the application of protective measures aimed at the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons' and 'cooperates with international organizations and associations in the area of nuclear safety, and appoints its own expert representatives to take part in the work of such organizations and associations or to monitor their work'. In this paper various aspects of the technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as international conventions and bilateral agreements in the field of nuclear safety, will be presented. Also, cooperation with other international organizations and associations in the nuclear area, such as Nuclear Suppliers Group, Zangger Committee, Wassenaar Arrangement, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, Euratom and certain civil expert groups of NATO, will be described.(author).

  17. [Community-based organizations and the aids epidemic in Amazonas state, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Michele Rocha; Schweickardt, Julio Cesar

    2015-05-01

    The scope of this paper was to analyze the perception of community-based organizations and their contributions to the history of tackling Aids in Amazonas State. It involved qualitative research with the use of oral and documental sources. Data were collected between June and September 2013 by means of semi-structured interviews with the leaders of eight organizations that work or worked with more vulnerable communities. Based on Discourse Analysis the conclusion drawn is that that the organizations perceive two distinct phases since the decentralization of funds from the Sexually-Transmitted Diseases Aids and Viral Hepatitis Department to the local leaders. The first phase was marked by the strengthening of organizations, collective empowerment and active political participation. The current phase has seen the distancing between organizations, a loss of political momentum and weakening of common response and organization.

  18. Cooperative Change and the Myth of Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Rokholt, Per Ove; Borgen, Svein Ole

    2000-01-01

    Much of the current research on agricultural cooperatives is biased towards weaknesses of the cooperative organization form. The literature says very little about the strengths and advantages of the cooperative form and what is necessary to develop the form's uniqueness into a sustainable competitive advantage. We argue that for cooperatives to remain viable and competitive, the advantages of the form must be clearly manifested. There is now a lack of systematic theorizing in this field. Typi...

  19. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  20. 77 FR 12354 - Meeting of the Joint Forum on Environmental Technical Cooperation Pursuant to the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... the subject line ``United States-Jordan Joint Forum Meeting.'' If you have access to the Internet, you... promote sustainable economic growth and development. The plan outlined activities to, among other things... laws through, among other things, the promotion of economic opportunities, voluntary measures to...

  1. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  2. Problems of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noramli, M.

    1987-01-01

    The main principles of the IAEA technical co-operation program, which intends to answer the requirements of the member states as regards technical assistance, are presented. IAEA offers its assistance in the supervision and financial support of the projects, which promise direct and quick profit to the member states. Projects related to the satisfaction of the main demands of humanity, industrial use, energy generation, radiation protection and other fields, which can promote the contribution of nuclear power generation to the course of peace, protection of health and thriving of states, are among them. 35 million dollars (USA) was allocated for the IAEA technical assistance and realization of the co-operation program in 1987

  3. Self-organized emergence of multilayer structure and chimera states in dynamical networks with adaptive couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasatkin, D. V.; Yanchuk, S.; Schöll, E.; Nekorkin, V. I.

    2017-12-01

    We report the phenomenon of self-organized emergence of hierarchical multilayered structures and chimera states in dynamical networks with adaptive couplings. This process is characterized by a sequential formation of subnetworks (layers) of densely coupled elements, the size of which is ordered in a hierarchical way, and which are weakly coupled between each other. We show that the hierarchical structure causes the decoupling of the subnetworks. Each layer can exhibit either a two-cluster state, a periodic traveling wave, or an incoherent state, and these states can coexist on different scales of subnetwork sizes.

  4. Model potential for the description of metal/organic interface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrust, Nico; Schiller, Frederik; Güdde, Jens; Höfer, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    We present an analytical one-dimensional model potential for the description of electronic interface states that form at the interface between a metal surface and flat-lying adlayers of π-conjugated organic molecules. The model utilizes graphene as a universal representation of these organic adlayers. It predicts the energy position of the interface state as well as the overlap of its wave function with the bulk metal without free fitting parameters. We show that the energy of the interface state depends systematically on the bond distance between the carbon backbone of the adayers and the metal. The general applicability and robustness of the model is demonstrated by a comparison of the calculated energies with numerous experimental results for a number of flat-lying organic molecules on different closed-packed metal surfaces that cover a large range of bond distances. PMID:28425444

  5. The United States and international climate cooperation: International 'pull' versus domestic 'push'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Guri [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Norway); Froyn, Camilla Bretteville [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Norway); Hovi, Jon [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Norway) and Department of Political Science, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1097, 0317 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: jon.hovi@stv.uio.no; Menz, Fredric C. [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Norway); School of Business, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The US government is being pressured by both international and domestic influences to re-engage in international climate control. This paper considers whether the international 'pull' and the domestic 'push' will be strong enough to accomplish this. First, we discuss whether changes in the architecture of the current climate regime might induce the United States to re-engage at the international level. We argue that the United States is unlikely to rejoin any global climate regime that is based on the Kyoto architecture, even if Kyoto were to be 'reformed'. Second, we discuss whether domestic political developments might eventually cause the United States to re-engage. We conclude that US re-engagement is likely to require the emergence of a new climate regime that basically extends US regulation to other countries. However, the forging of a unified US climate policy is still in the making. Furthermore, a new regime can gain widespread participation only if the Kyoto countries accept the idea of replacing Kyoto with some alternative architecture, which seems unlikely in the near future.

  6. 50 CFR 81.3 - Cooperative Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CONSERVATION OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES OF FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PLANTS-COOPERATION WITH THE STATES § 81.3 Cooperative Agreement. Upon... Project Agreement can be approved for endangered or threatened species projects. A cooperative agreement...

  7. Causes and consequences of decreasing atmospheric organic aerosol in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, D. A.; Heald, C. L.; Ridley, K. J.; Kroll, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) exacerbates respiratory and cardiovascular conditions and is a leading source of premature mortality globally. Organic aerosol contributes a significant fraction of PM in the United States. Here, using surface observations between 1990 and 2012, we show that organic carbon has declined dramatically across the entire United States by 25–50%; accounting for more than 30% of the US-wide decline in PM. The decline is in contrast with the increasing organic aerosol due to wildfires and no clear trend in biogenic emissions. By developing a carbonaceous emissions database for the United States, we show that at least two-thirds of the decline in organic aerosol can be explained by changes in anthropogenic emissions, primarily from vehicle emissions and residential fuel burning. We estimate that the decrease in anthropogenic organic aerosol is responsible for averting 180,000 (117,000–389,000) premature deaths between 1990 and 2012. The unexpected decrease in organic aerosol, likely a consequence of the implementation of Clean Air Act Amendments, results in 84,000 (30,000–164,000) more lives saved than anticipated by the EPA between 2000 and 2010.

  8. A generalization of Hamilton’s rule for the evolution of microbial cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    smith, jeff; Van Dyken, J. David; Zee, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Hamilton’s rule states that cooperation will evolve if the fitness cost to actors is less than the benefit to recipients multiplied by their genetic relatedness. This rule makes many simplifying assumptions, however, and does not accurately describe social evolution in organisms like microbes where selection is both strong and nonadditive. We derived a generalization of Hamilton’s rule and measured its parameters in Myxococcus xanthus bacteria. Nonadditivity made cooperative sporulation surpr...

  9. Gas reactor international cooperative program interim report: United States/Federal Republic of Germany nuclear licensing comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In order to compare US and FRG Nuclear Licensing, a summary description of United States Nuclear Licensing is provided as a basis. This is followed by detailed information on the participants in the Nuclear Licensing process in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). FRG licensing procedures are described and the rules and regulations imposed are summarized. The status of gas reactor licensing in both the U.S. and the FRG is outlined and overall conclusions are drawn as to the major licensing differences. An appendix describes the most important technical differences between US and FRG criteria

  10. Survey report for fiscal 1997 on the survey report on the actual state of technical cooperation on industrial technologies by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region; 1997 nendo Tonan Asia chiiki ni okeru Obei shokoku no sangyo gijutsu ni kansuru gijutsu kyoryoku jittai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The actual state was surveyed on the technical cooperation by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region. The U.S.A. is making research cooperation with Thailand on ethylene molecule structures to enhance productivity in rubber production, France on molecule markers for high production rubber clone selection, and Australia on grain storing and drying methods. For the Philippines, America is giving assistance on management of reproducible resources, France on climate information communications systems for local areas, Australia on grain storing and drying methods, and Germany on waste oil recovery and reutilization, and development of pollution-free energy resources. For Malaysia, the Great Britain is cooperating on building engineering research centers, Australia on search for plant patheology genetic organics available in the Pacific region, and Germany on investigative researches on pollution prevention for tin mines and processing areas, and forestry and plant information systems. With respect to the ASEAN, this paper reports its activities placing importance on biology and electronics engineering, while the organization is taking actions in the areas of foodstuffs, animals, electronics, information and material science, energy exploration, marine and earth physics, and resource development. (NEDO)

  11. Internal structures of self-organized relaxed states and self-similar decay phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi

    1992-03-01

    A thought analysis on relaxation due to nonlinear processes is presented to lead to a set of general thoughts applicable to general nonlinear dynamical systems for finding out internal structures of the self-organized relaxed state without using 'invariant'. Three applications of the set of general thoughts to energy relaxations in resistive MHD plasmas, incompressible viscous fluids, and incompressible viscous MHD fluids are shown to lead to the internal structures of the self-organized relaxed states. It is shown that all of the relaxed states in these three dynamical systems are followed by self-similar decay phase without significant change of the spatial structure. The well known relaxed state of ∇ x B = ±λ B is shown to be derived generally in the low β plasma limit. (author)

  12. "Robin Hood" of techno-Turkey or organ trafficking in the state of ethical beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Aslihan

    2004-09-01

    Dr S. is a famous transplant surgeon in the Middle East. He operates "underground" on wealthy patients in different countries, from Israel to Turkey to Russia. The media refer to him as the "Organ Mafia doctor," and patients diagnosed with renal failure speak of him sardonically as "Robin Hood," acknowledging that he takes organs from the poor to give to the rich. But ethical issues of organ trafficking are not limited to marginal private clinics and "Mafia" doctors. All-living related organ transplants in Turkey involve similar ethical dilemmas: many related or nonrelated organ recipients pay their donors, and demand continues to rise. This paper explores practices in state and university hospitals and the ethical dilemmas doctors encounter to understand where and how judicial, cultural, and social categories of "human rights" and "crime" are constructed in our high-tech world.

  13. The Potential Role of Social Media Platforms in Community Awareness of Antibiotic Use in the Gulf Cooperation Council States: Luxury or Necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zowawi, Hosam Mamoon; Abedalthagafi, Malak; Mar, Florie A; Almalki, Turki; Kutbi, Abdullah H; Harris-Brown, Tiffany; Harbarth, Stephan; Balkhy, Hanan H; Paterson, David L; Hasanain, Rihab Abdalazez

    2015-10-15

    The increasing emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious public health issue. Increasing the awareness of the general public about appropriate antibiotic use is a key factor for combating this issue. Several public media campaigns worldwide have been launched; however, such campaigns can be costly and the outcomes are variable and difficult to assess. Social media platforms, including Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, are now frequently utilized to address health-related issues. In many geographical locations, such as the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) States (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Bahrain), these platforms are becoming increasingly popular. The socioeconomic status of the GCC states and their reliable communication and networking infrastructure has allowed the penetration and scalability of these platforms in the region. This might explain why the Saudi Ministry of Health is using social media platforms alongside various other media platforms in a large-scale public awareness campaign to educate at-risk communities about the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). This paper discusses the potential for using social media tools as cost-efficient and mass education platforms to raise awareness of appropriate antibiotic use in the general public and in the medical communities of the Arabian Peninsula.

  14. Correlation between the Open-Circuit Voltage and Charge Transfer State Energy in Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell J

    2015-08-26

    In order to further improve the performance of organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), it is essential to better understand the factors that limit the open-circuit voltage (VOC). Previous work has sought to correlate the value of VOC in donor-acceptor (D-A) OPVs to the interface energy level offset (EDA). In this work, measurements of electroluminescence are used to extract the charge transfer (CT) state energy for multiple small molecule D-A pairings. The CT state as measured from electroluminescence is found to show better correlation to the maximum VOC than EDA. The difference between EDA and the CT state energy is attributed to the Coulombic binding energy of the CT state. This correlation is demonstrated explicitly by inserting an insulating spacer layer between the donor and acceptor materials, reducing the binding energy of the CT state and increasing the measured VOC. These results demonstrate a direct correlation between maximum VOC and CT state energy.

  15. Self-organization of the critical state in Josephson lattices and granulated superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    A number of models of a Josephson medium and granulated superconductors are studied. It is shown that an important parameter is the quantity V∼j c a 3 /Φ 0 , where j c is the Josephson-current density, a is the granule size, and Φ 0 is the quantum of flux. In the limit V>>1 the continuum approximation is inapplicable. In this case the Josephson medium is transformed into a system in which pinning is realized on elementary loops that incorporate Josephson junctions. Here, nonlinear properties of these junctions obtain. The equations obtained for the currents of the Josephson lattice are identical to the standard formulation in the problem of self-organized criticality, while in granulated superconductors a problem of self-organized criticality with a different symmetry arises-a problem not of sites, but of loop. From the point of view of the critical state in granulated superconductors the concept of self-organized criticality radically changes the entire customary picture. The usual equations of the critical state describe only the average values of the magnetic field in the hydrodynamic approximation. However, it follows from the concept of self-organized criticality that the critical state has an extremely complicated structure, much more complicated than that which follows from the equation of the critical state. In particular, the fluctuations of various quantities in the critical state are much stronger than the ordinary statistical fluctuations, since there are large-scale fluctuations of the currents and fields, with a power-law (scaling) behavior that extends up to scales of the order of the size of the system, as in a turbulent medium. On the other hand, the basic equations in it reflect all the features of pinning - hysteresis and threshold behavior. Therefore, the self-organization of the critical state of a superconductor is a natural realization of this extremely general problem. 15 refs., 4 figs

  16. 9 May 2008 - Signature of the Protocol to the co-operation agreement dated 21 January 2006 between King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, represented by M. I. Al-Suwaiyel and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), represented by R. Aymar, concerning the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    9 May 2008 - Signature of the Protocol to the co-operation agreement dated 21 January 2006 between King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, represented by M. I. Al-Suwaiyel and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), represented by R. Aymar, concerning the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy physics

  17. Forest products research and development organizations in a worldwide setting: A review of structure, governance, and measures of performance of organizations outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; Kenneth E. Skog; Christopher D. Risbrudt

    2007-01-01

    Located in 23 countries, 40 forest-products research and development organizations outside the United States were reviewed in 2004 and 2005. The intent was to obtain a better understanding of how such organizations are structured and administered and their performance judged. Investing over $600 million annually, the 40 organizations employed 7,000 to 7,500 scientists...

  18. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, W.Y.; Chen, J.H.; Kim, D.H.; Simmons, R.B.V.; Surguri, S.

    1985-01-01

    A review has been conducted of a number of multi-national and bilateral arrangements between governments and between utility-sponsored organizations which provide the framework for international cooperation in the field of nuclear safety. These arrangements include the routine exchange operational data, experiences, technical reports and regulatory data, provision of special assistance when requested, collaboration in safety research, and the holding of international conferences and seminars. Areas which may be better suited for cooperation on a regional basis are identified. These areas include: exchange of operational data and experience, sharing of emergency planning information, and collaboration in safety research. Mechanisms to initiate regional cooperation in these areas are suggested

  19. Ordinance concerning the implementation of the Agreement for cooperation on the peaceful uses of atomic energy between the Swiss Government and the Government of the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1957-01-01

    This Ordinance sets out the conditions for implementation of the Agreement for co-operation on the peaceful uses of atomic energy concluded by Switzerland and the United States on 21 June 1956, in particular with respect to classified information and material. The Ordinance entered into force on 1 April 1957 [fr

  20. Identification and ranking of the risk factors of cloud computing in State-Owned organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohammad Yaghoubi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of processing and storage technologies and the success of the Internet have made computing resources cheaper, more powerful and more available than before. This technological trend has enabled the realization of a new computing model called cloud computing. Recently, the State-Owned organizations have begun to utilize cloud computing architectures, platforms, and applications to deliver services and meet constituents’ needs. Despite all of the advantages and opportunities of cloud computing technology, there are so many risks that State-Owned organizations need to know about before their migration to cloud environment. The purpose of this study is to identify and rank the risks factors of cloud computing in State-Owned organizations by making use of IT experts’ opinion. Firstly, by reviewing key articles, a comprehensive list of risks factors were extracted and classified into two categories: tangible and intangible. Then, six experts were interviewed about these risks and their classifications, and 10 risks were identified. After that, process of ranking the risks was done by seeking help from 52 experts and by fuzzy analytic hierarchy process. The results show that experts have identified intangible risks as the most important risks in cloud computing usage by State-Owned organizations. As the results indicate, "data confidentiality" risk has the highest place among the other risks.

  1. Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-21

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013.  Created: 10/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/23/2014.

  2. An Analysis of the Content of Stories Published for Children by Environmental Organizations in Arab States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarini, Moh'd S.; Haddad, Afaf S.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzed are 21 environmental stories published for children by national and regional environmental organizations. Findings indicate that, although these stories are in compliance with suggested environmental attitudes for children, they also conform to conventional sex role behavior in Arab States. (Author/CW)

  3. Organic dye for highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt-Mende, L.; Bach, U.; Humphry-Baker, R.; Ito, S.; Graetzel, M. [Institut des Sciences et Ingenierie Chimiques (ISIC), Laboratoire de Photonique et Interfaces (LPI), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Horiuchi, T.; Miura, H. [Technology Research Laboratory, Corporate Research Center, Mitsubishi Paper Mills Limited, 46, Wadai, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan); Uchida, S. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1-1 Katahira 2-chome, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2005-04-04

    The feasibility of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells as a low-cost alternative to amorphous silicon cells is demonstrated. Such a cell with a record efficiency of over 4 % under simulated sunlight is reported, made possible by using a new organic metal-free indoline dye as the sensitizer with high absorption coefficient. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. 11 CFR 100.84 - Office building for State, local, or district party committees or organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office building for State, local, or district party committees or organizations. 100.84 Section 100.84 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.84 Office building for...

  5. 11 CFR 100.144 - Office building for State, local, or district party committees or organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office building for State, local, or district party committees or organizations. 100.144 Section 100.144 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.144 Office building for...

  6. Overview of the Camcore (NC State University) and USDA Forest Service cooperative gene conservation program for threatened and endangered tree species native to the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Jetton; W. Andrew Whittier; William S. Dvorak; Gary R. Hodge; Barbara S. Crane; James “Rusty”. Rhea

    2017-01-01

    The southern United States is home to some of the world’s most biologically diverse temperate forests. These forests range from the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains to the Southern Appalachian Mountains and are home to more than 140 tree species which provide a number of ecosystem services, including clean air and water, carbon storage, recreational opportunities, wood...

  7. The Scholarly Communication Process within the University Research Corridor (Michigan State University, the University of Michigan, and Wayne State University): A Case Study in Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Timothy; Holley, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of open access publishing, the development of institutional repositories, and the availability of millions of digitized monographs and journals are rapidly changing scholarly communication. This case study looks at the current and possible uses of these tools by Michigan's three largest universities: Michigan State University, the…

  8. The World Health Organization Global Health Emergency Workforce: What Role Will the United States Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-08-01

    During the May 2016 World Health Assembly of 194 member states, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the process of developing and launching emergency medical teams as a critical component of the global health workforce concept. Over 64 countries have either launched or are in the development stages of vetting accredited teams, both international and national, to provide surge support to national health systems through WHO Regional Organizations and the delivery of emergency clinical care to sudden-onset disasters and outbreak-affected populations. To date, the United States has not yet committed to adopting the emergency medical team concept in funding and registering an international field hospital level team. This article discusses future options available for health-related nongovernmental organizations and the required educational and training requirements for health care provider accreditation. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:531-535).

  9. Rechargeable quasi-solid state lithium battery with organic crystalline cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyu, Yuki; Honma, Itaru

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of metal-free low-cost high-capacity organic cathodes for lithium batteries has been a long-standing goal, but critical cyclability problems owing to dissolution of active materials into the electrolyte have been an inevitable obstacle. For practical utilisation of numerous cathode-active compounds proposed over the past decades, a novel battery construction strategy is required. We have designed a solid state cell that accommodates organic cathodic reactions in solid phase. The cell was successful at achieving high capacity exceeding 200 mAh/g with excellent cycleability. Further investigations confirmed that our strategy is effective for numerous other redox-active organic compounds. This implies hundreds of compounds dismissed before due to low cycleability would worth a re-visit under solid state design. PMID:22693655

  10. Nucleation of Organic Molecules via a Hot Precursor State: Pentacene on Amorphous Mica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Organic thin films have attracted considerable interest due to their applicability in organic electronics. The classical scenario for thin film nucleation is the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). Recently, it has been shown that organic thin film growth is better described by attachment-limited aggregation (ALA). However, in both cases, an unusual relationship between the island density and the substrate temperature was observed. Here, we present an aggregation model that goes beyond the classical DLA or ALA models to explain this behavior. We propose that the (hot) molecules impinging on the surface cannot immediately equilibrate to the substrate temperature but remain in a hot precursor state. In this state, the molecules can migrate considerable distances before attaching to a stable or unstable island. This results in a significantly smaller island density than expected by assuming fast equilibration and random diffusion. We have applied our model to pentacene film growth on amorphous Muscovite mica. PMID:24340130

  11. Age structure and cooperation in coevolutionary games on dynamic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zilong; Hu, Zhenhua; Zhou, Xiaoping; Yi, Jingzhang

    2015-04-01

    Our proposed model imitates the growth of a population and describes the age structure and the level of cooperation in games on dynamic network with continuous changes of structure and topology. The removal of nodes and links caused by age-dependent attack, together with the nodes addition standing for the newborns of population, badly ruins Matthew effect in this coevolutionary process. Though the network is generated by growth and preferential attachment, it degenerates into random network and it is no longer heterogeneous. When the removal of nodes and links is equal to the addition of nodes and links, the size of dynamic network is maintained in steady-state, so is the low level of cooperation. Severe structure variation, homogeneous topology and continuous invasion of new defection jointly make dynamic network unsuitable for the survival of cooperator even when the probability with which the newborn players initially adopt the strategy cooperation is high, while things change slightly when the connections of newborn players are restricted. Fortunately, moderate interactions in a generation trigger an optimal recovering process to encourage cooperation. The model developed in this paper outlines an explanation of the cohesion changes in the development process of an organization. Some suggestions for cooperative behavior improvement are given in the end.

  12. Transboundary cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, D.

    2006-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants near national borders requires a close bilateral co-operation to cope with accidents having off-site radiological impacts. For example in 1978 such an agreement was signed by the German and Swiss government. The accident at the Chernobyl NPP changed the international co-operation in the framework of international consequence management. International conventions were agreed to insure a timely notification and international assistance in case of an accident with transboundary effects. In order to fulfill these conventions several procedures were introduced. In addition, bilateral agreements were signed also with countries which are not operating nuclear power plants near national borders. Since then no accident took place that would have required any notification. However, following the experience the expectations to these networks have changed considerably and hence sustainable development is required to cope with new challenges such as long term consequences management, new radiological threats, faster international assistance, media and public concerns, and technical evolution of communications systems. (author)

  13. Proposals for regional cooperation in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleywegt, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The CTBTO Prep Com is overseeing the rapid establishment of the verification-related means for the future CTBTO. It encourages support and participation in its development and would like to ensure that ancillary benefits are identified and utilised. One such benefit is to be derived from the global expertise, data and information which are developed and generated through its activities. This is particularly so in the field of seismology where the rapidly developing field of engineering seismology is dependent on quality data over an extended period. A national seismological capability is essential for countries that wish/expect to develop rapidly in the next few decades. Tremendous benefit can be derived by utilizing the verification-related monitoring data and information products of the CTBTO Prep Com, by making the organization (International Cooperation Section) aware of all national seismological needs and by interacting with member states. A regional co-operative programme or structure could be of benefit to countries to link with the CTBTO Prep Com in Vienna or for addressing problems common to a region. There are a number of regional organisations in Africa that can house or provide some form of support to further the cause of envisaged regional co-operative endeavours. The terms of reference and mechanisms by which the regional endeavours will operate should preferably be set up by the participating states within each region

  14. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  15. Highly Viscous States Affect the Browning of Atmospheric Organic Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Bateman, Adam P; Zhang, Yue; Gong, Zhaoheng; Bertram, Allan K; Martin, Scot T

    2018-02-28

    Initially transparent organic particulate matter (PM) can become shades of light-absorbing brown via atmospheric particle-phase chemical reactions. The production of nitrogen-containing compounds is one important pathway for browning. Semisolid or solid physical states of organic PM might, however, have sufficiently slow diffusion of reactant molecules to inhibit browning reactions. Herein, organic PM of secondary organic material (SOM) derived from toluene, a common SOM precursor in anthropogenically affected environments, was exposed to ammonia at different values of relative humidity (RH). The production of light-absorbing organonitrogen imines from ammonia exposure, detected by mass spectrometry and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, was kinetically inhibited for RH atmospheric brown carbon production and associated influences on energy balance.

  16. Collective punishment is more effective than collective reward for promoting cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Pansini, Riccardo; Li, Yao-Tang; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2015-12-01

    Collective punishment and reward are usually regarded as two potential mechanisms to explain the evolution of cooperation. Both scenarios, however, seem problematic to understand cooperative behavior, because they can raise the second-order free-rider problem and many organisms are not able to discriminate less cooperating individuals. Even though they have been proved to increase cooperation, there has been a debate about which one being more effective. To address this issue, we resort to the N-player evolutionary snowdrift game (NESG), where a collective punishment/reward mechanism is added by allowing some players to display punishment/reward towards all remaining players. By means of numerous simulations and analyses, we find that collective punishment is more effective in promoting cooperation for a relatively high initial frequency of cooperation or for a relatively small group. When the intensity of punishment exceeds a certain threshold, a stable state of full cooperation emerges for both small and large groups. In contrast, such state does not appear for large groups playing a NESG with reward mechanism. In the case of mutualistic interactions, finally, our results show the new payoff with collective punishment/reward can lead to the coexistence of cooperators and defectors when discrimination between these two is not possible.

  17. Text of a Protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Norway and the United States of America in Connection with the Application of Safeguards under a Co-Operation Agreement between the Two Governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of a protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Norway and the United States of America in connection with the application of safeguards under the Agreement for Co-operation between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Norway Concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy signed on 4 May 1967, as amended, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The protocol entered into force on 25 September 1973 pursuant to Section 4.

  18. Role of band states and trap states in the electrical properties of organic semiconductors: Hopping versus mobility edge model

    KAUST Repository

    Mehraeen, Shafigh

    2013-05-01

    We compare the merits of a hopping model and a mobility edge model in the description of the effect of charge-carrier concentration on the electrical conductivity, carrier mobility, and Fermi energy of organic semiconductors. We consider the case of a composite electronic density of states (DOS) that consists of a superposition of a Gaussian DOS and an exponential DOS. Using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we apply the two models in order to interpret the recent experimental data reported for n-doped C60 films. While both models are capable of reproducing the experimental data very well and yield qualitatively similar characteristic parameters for the density of states, some discrepancies are found at the quantitative level. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  19. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations. The Agreement with the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The text of the Agency's agreement for co-operation with the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 3 October 1972 pursuant to Article VIII

  20. REMOVAL EFFICIENCY OF ORGANIC MATTER OF PIG SLURRY WITH BIODIGESTERS IN YUCATAN STATE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Trejo-Lizama

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the intensive pig production in the state of Yucatan, 62 biodigesters were installed in the last 10 years. However, the complexities of the anaerobic biodigestion enclose difficulties to reach the expected efficiency. The objective of the present study was to determine the removal efficiency of the organic matter in pig slurry using biodigesters in the state of Yucatan. There were visited 15 pig farms in the state of Yucatan to interview the farmer about the management of the farm and the waste disposal and to take samples of the influent of the collector of the pig slurry and the effluent of the biodigestor and evaluating the samples by laboratory analysis. The removal values found in the present study were 7 percentage points below the reference value of total volatile solids, which represent the organic matter fraction of the solids treated in the biodigestor. More than the 50 % of the farms evaluated were similar or higher than the parameters of reference. The removal efficiency of the organic matter in the pig slurry by biodigesters in the state of Yucatan is close to the reference values. However complementary treatments are necessary to continue the waste slurry treatment.

  1. Factors for Microbial Carbon Sources in Organic and Mineral Soils from Eastern United States Deciduous Forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stitt, Caroline R. [Mills College, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2013-09-16

    Forest soils represent a large portion of global terrestrial carbon; however, which soil carbon sources are used by soil microbes and respired as carbon dioxide (CO2) is not well known. This study will focus on characterizing microbial carbon sources from organic and mineral soils from four eastern United States deciduous forests using a unique radiocarbon (14C) tracer. Results from the dark incubation of organic and mineral soils are heavily influenced by site characteristics when incubated at optimal microbial activity temperature. Sites with considerable differences in temperature, texture, and location differ in carbon source attribution, indicating that site characteristics play a role in soil respiration.

  2. The Ways of Using Foreign Experience of Intermunicipal Investment Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siryk Zenoviy O.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The content and nature of intermunicipal investment cooperation (IMIC are disclosed in the article. The aim of the article is to study the foreign experience of intermunicipal investment cooperation with a view to further introduction of local self-government into domestic practice. By analyzing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists, in which the general experience and mechanism of intermunicipal cooperation is considered, the main features of the reasons for the existence and promotion of intermunicipal investment cooperation are revealed. Some foreign practices of the existence of intermunicipal investment cooperation are analyzed. There made a critical analysis regarding the forms of implementation of such cooperation. Features of the mechanism of functioning of various models of such cooperation are revealed. It is substantiated that the intermunicipal investment IMIC is not a fairly common practice and direction of cooperation between territorial communities and their government bodies. The legislation of most of the analyzed countries does not establish clear rules that would administer or regulate IMIC to an extent required by the practice of territorial management and development of territories. It is determined that a large number of forms, models and methods of implementing IMIC, despite even a certain rarity of their application, attests to the most important characteristic feature of it. It is stated that the following forms of IMIC should be considered as the most effective with regard to domestic practice of organization of local self-government and financial flows: establishment of a separate intermunicipal institution (body authorized to manage or regulate the implementation of investment processes and administration of investment processes by concluding an administrative agreement.

  3. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. A new corresponding state-based correlation for the surface tension of organic fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuihua; Tian, Jianxiang; Zheng, Mengmeng; Yi, Huili; Zhang, Laibin; Liu, Shuzhen

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new corresponding state-based correlation for organic fatty (aliphatic, carboxylic and polyfunctional) acids. By using the recently published surface tension data of the 99 acids [A. Mulero and I. Cachadiña, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 45 (2016) 033105] and comparing with the recently published other corresponding state correlations, we found that this correlation reproduces the lowest absolute average deviation (AAD) values for 82 acids out of the 99 acids. It can reproduce the surface tension data with AAD less than 10% for 89 out of the 99 acids.

  5. Cooperate or Free Ride?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    of international cooperation. On the other hand, the evidence seems to confirm Kindleberger's hypothesis that small countries were free riding during the international financial crisis of 1931, and that therefore there is a need for some coordinating mechanism, or a hegemon, in such crises....... in the establishment of the BIS and free riders in the Austrian crisis, even though there were marked differences in their attitude to international cooperation. These results run counter to the views of those International Political Economy (IPE) theorists who argue that small states should be in favour......In this article, I discuss the role of the three Scandinavian central banks in the establishment of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in 1930, and in the international lender of last resort operation towards Austria in 1931. I argue that small central banks were reluctant supporters...

  6. The state and transnational organized crime: a case study analysis of criminal opportunities in the Russian Federation and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Zabyelina, Yuliya

    2013-01-01

    The concern with the role of failing and post-conflict states as incubators of transnational organized crime (TOC) was a recurrent theme in research in the 1990s. Because of deep-seated institutional failures, instability and impoverishment, weak states were considered as crime-facilitative environments, in which criminal organizations were provided with rewarding criminal opportunities and a high degree of immunity. The resilience of properly functioning states has often been taken for grant...

  7. Resident Involvement in Professional Otolaryngology Organizations: Current Trends in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin; Jang, Minyoung; Gilad, Amir; Levi, Jessica R

    2017-08-01

    Involvement by residents in professional medical organizations can enrich their training, but little data exist regarding the number and types of involvement opportunities available to otolaryngology residents. We sought to fill this gap in knowledge by quantifying the extent to which major otolaryngology-related organizations in the United States provide involvement opportunities to otolaryngology residents. Our analysis included 23 organizations and subspecialty societies. Results showed that many opportunities exist for residents to attend conferences and present research; however, fewer involvement and funding opportunities existed in any other leadership, health policy, or service-learning experiences. These findings were consistent across general and subspecialty societies. Given the many purported benefits of resident involvement in otolaryngology outside of the standard training environment, future efforts may be warranted to increase the number and type of involvement opportunities currently available in professional societies.

  8. Social Media Analysis For Organizations: Us Northeastern Public And State Libraries Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Matthew; Karami, Amir

    2018-01-01

    Social networking sites such as Twitter have provided a great opportunity for organizations such as public libraries to disseminate information for public relations purposes. However, there is a need to analyze vast amounts of social media data. This study presents a computational approach to explore the content of tweets posted by nine public libraries in the northeastern United States of America. In December 2017, this study extracted more than 19,000 tweets from the Twitter accounts of sev...

  9. Fiscal 1998 research cooperation project. Research cooperation on diversity preservation and sustainable use for living organisms; 1998 nendo seibutsu tayosei hozen to jizokuteki riyo nado ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report describes the titled research cooperation. Joint R and D with Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia was made on collection and preservation of bio-resources such as tropical rain forest, and sustainable use of them by developing countries themselves. The project includes the simple identification and preservation technology of biospecies such as microorganism, assessment and monitoring technology of ecosystem, search of useful functions of biospecies, and construction of a bio-resource information network. This project promotes conversion of excessive hunting into resource conservation in agriculture, forestry and fisheries industries, and establishment of the basis of new product development in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. This project also contributes to preparation of the basic scheme of developed countries including Japan to countries holding bio-resources in addition to industrial basis preparation of every country. Until 1997, basis establishment has been made such as training of researchers, preparation of equipment and technical guidance, and in the final 1998, various results such as extraction of promising samples from microorganisms were obtained. (NEDO)

  10. In Search of the Political Value of the Federalism Cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Silva Marinho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the constitutional affirmation of cooperative federalism as an organizational model of the Brazilian state and the difficulties of its implementation. To do so, were used the post- positivist theories, that defend the indispensability of moral values for the legitimation of institutional practices, and some sociological theories that, analyzing the consolidation of the nation-state as the archetype of social organization of modernity, were able to distinguish the categories "state" and "nation" as not necessarily complementary elements. Through this distinction, the article tried to discuss the relationship among these categories in the construction of Brazil's social fabric.

  11. Adaptation of rural electricity cooperatives in the State of Parana to the scenario of the electric sector; Adaptacao das cooperativas de eletrificacao rural do estado do Parana ao cenario do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos], Email: celsooli@fzea.usp.br; Halmenan, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Reisdoerfer, Eli Carlos; Massochin, Amauri [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], Email: cristhalmeman@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    Rural Electrification Cooperatives (REC) has already played a fundamental role in rural electrification process. Bearing in mind changes in legislation towards specific laws that tend to facilitate energy distribution and trade relations, REC has increased there potential to contribute even more to above mentioned process. The present work intended to assess how REC settled in Parana State have adapted themselves to the privatised electrical business scenario as well as to new legal requirements and the presence of great national and international corporations disputing the energy market. Such new electrical market model favors huge changes to the electrification cooperatives, with the possibility of transforming cooperatives into public service energy with governmental permission. Moreover, it also represents a giant challenge for their insertion and continuity in such new scenario, in as much as the REC classification process as public service companies for electric energy distribution has been carried out for years, added to the scarcity of investments on state cooperatives, therefore restricting electric energy supply to residential, rural and irrigation sectors. (author)

  12. Room air versus carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum: effects on oxidative state, apoptosis and histology of splanchnic organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypsilantis, Petros; Lambropoulou, Maria; Tentes, Ioannis; Chryssidou, Maria; Georgantas, Themistoklis; Simopoulos, Constantinos

    2016-04-01

    Although CO2 is the insufflation gas of choice in laparoscopic procedures, room air is usually used in natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. The aim of the present study was to compare the safety of room air versus CO2 pneumoperitoneum in terms of their effect on the oxidative state, apoptosis and tissue injury of splanchnic organs. Eighteen Wistar rats were assigned to three groups (n = 6 per group) and were subjected to 8 mm Hg room air (group Pne-Air) or CO2 pneumoperitoneum (group Pne-CO2) or sham operation for 60 min. Forty-five minutes postdeflation, tissue samples were excised from the liver, stomach, ileum and kidneys for reduced glutathione-to-glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) ratio, caspase-8 and caspase-3 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) immunohistochemical assessment and histopathologic examination. GSH/GSSG ratio substantially declined in both pneumoperitoneum groups. No change was noted in HIF-1α expression. Mild upregulation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 was noted in both pneumoperitoneum groups being less pronounced in group Pne-Air. Histopathologic score was increased in all organs studied, but the stomach, in both pneumoperitoneum groups. Pneumoperitoneum established by either room air or CO2 induced substantial oxidative stress, mild apoptosis and mild tissue injury in splanchnic organs. While air pneumoperitoneum conferred a less pronounced apoptotic effect, the oxidative state and histopathologic profile of splanchnic organs did not differ between insufflation gases.

  13. Abortion in the United States' Bible Belt: organizing for power and empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Mary Ann

    2011-01-05

    Over the last 30 years, conservative power in the United States, financed and organized by Christian fundamentalist sects, the Catholic Church, and conservative corporate and political leadership, has become more threatening and potentially destabilizing of progressive democratic principles and practices. Powerful interlocking political, financial and social forces are arrayed against women in many Southern and Western states. They are having destructive effects on women's ability to control their fertility and maintain bodily integrity and health. Poor women and women of color are disproportionately affected by restrictions on abortion services. Strategically developed interventions must be initiated and managed at every level in these localities. It is urgent to coordinate and empower individuals, multiple organizations and communities to engender effective changes in attitudes, norms, behavior and policies that will enable women to obtain reproductive health services, including abortion care. This paper describes contextual factors that continue to decimate U.S. women's right to health and, then, describes a community organizing-social action project in a number of US' states aimed at reversing the erosion of women's right to have or not to have children.

  14. O papel das organizações não-governamentais na cooperação internacional em saúde pública The role of non-governmental organizations in international cooperation in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Antas Torronteguy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo pergunta pela possibilidade de as ONGs atuarem na cooperação internacional sanitária e pelo modo como essa atuação é regulada. Primeiramente se apresenta a cooperação internacional e sua relação com a saúde pública. Então são referidos dados sobre a cooperação bilateral sanitária brasileira, nos quais se pode verificar o reconhecimento formal das ONGs como parceiras dos Estados. Isso permite refletir sobre o papel das ONGs na cooperação e se percebe que, embora o direito internacional legitime a atuação das ONGs, ele regula essa atuação de modo incipiente. Isso sugere importantes aspectos a serem aperfeiçoados na relação jurídica que as ONGs travam com Estados no campo da saúde pública.This article discusses the possibility of the NGOs acting on international health cooperation and how this acting is regulated. Firstly, the international cooperation and its relation with public health is presented. After that, data on Brazilian bilateral health cooperation are brought in, in which it is possible to find the formal recognition of NGOs as partners of States. This allows the consideration of the role of NGOs in health cooperation. Although the action of NGOs is legitimated by international law, their regulation is just beginning. This suggests important issues to be improved in the legal relation between NGOs and States in the field of public health.

  15. The Impact of Cooperative Social Organization on Reducing the Prevalence of Malaria and Intestinal Parasite Infections in Awramba, a Rural Community in South Gondar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebeyehu Yihenew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Parasitic diseases are the major causes of human health problem in Ethiopia. The high prevalence of parasitic infections is closely correlated with poverty, poor environmental hygiene, and impoverished health services. Objective. The study was conducted to assess the impact of health-conscious Awramba cooperative community and its neighboring communities on the prevalence of parasitic infections in South Gondar, Ethiopia. Methods. Single stool specimens were collected from 392 individuals from Awramba and the neighboring communities. Specimens were examined microscopically for the presence of parasites using microscopy. Questionnaire was administered to determine the knowledge attitude and practice (KAP of study participants. Results. Of the total 392 study participants examined, 58(14.8% were positive for malaria and 173 (44.1% for intestinal parasites. The prevalence of malaria in Awramba community (5.1% was less than that in neighboring communities (24.5%. The prevalence of parasitic infections in Awramba (18.8% was less than that of the neighboring communities (69.4%. Conclusion. This study showed that good household and environmental hygiene, good toilet construction and usage, and proper utilization of ITN in Awramba cooperative community have significantly contributed to the reduction of the burden of parasitic infections. Thus, the positive achievement in reducing parasitic infections in Awramba cooperative community could be used as a model for affordable health intervention in the neighboring communities, in particular, and the whole country in general.

  16. Steady-state photoconductivity and multi-particle interactions in high-mobility organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irkhin, P; Najafov, H; Podzorov, V

    2015-10-19

    Fundamental understanding of photocarrier generation, transport and recombination under a steady-state photoexcitation has been an important goal of organic electronics and photonics, since these processes govern such electronic properties of organic semiconductors as, for instance, photoconductivity. Here, we discovered that photoconductivity of a highly ordered organic semiconductor rubrene exhibits several distinct regimes, in which photocurrent as a function of cw (continuous wave) excitation intensity is described by a power law with exponents sequentially taking values 1, 1/3 and ¼. We show that in pristine crystals this photocurrent is generated at the very surface of the crystals, while the bulk photocurrent is drastically smaller and follows a different sequence of exponents, 1 and ½. We describe a simple experimental procedure, based on an application of "gauge effect" in high vacuum, that allows to disentangle the surface and bulk contributions to photoconductivity. A model based on singlet exciton fission, triplet fusion and triplet-charge quenching that can describe these non-trivial effects in photoconductivity of highly ordered organic semiconductors is proposed. Observation of these effects in photoconductivity and modeling of the underlying microscopic mechanisms described in this work represent a significant step forward in our understanding of electronic properties of organic semiconductors.

  17. Enresa International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 with the mandate to undertake responsibility for radioactive waste management in Spain. From the very beginning, ENRESA was fully aware of the fact that international cooperation plays a very important role in the development of national programmes. Aspects such as the setting up of international databases, the development and validation of models or site characterization technique such enormous efforts and amounts of resources that they could hardly be undertaken individually. Furthermore, joint participation in research, development and demonstration projects reinforces the level of confidence, not only in the decision-making process but also in the technologies, techniques and practices used. ENRESA's participation in the international contexts is largely defined, on the one hand, by the needs arising from its technical programme, as reflected in the General Radioactive Waste Plan and in the Research and Development Plan, and on the other by the need to support spanish governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental forums. The formula for cooperation varies according to needs, this cooperation generally being accomplished by means of bilateral agreements with other institutions having similar competence or by participating in the programmes of inter-governmental organizations. In particular, ENRESA has reached cooperation agreements with most of the agencies with similar responsibilities in other countries and participates very actively in the programmes of the European Union, the Nuclear energy Agency (NEA/OECD) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (Author)

  18. The cooperative game theory of networks and hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Gilles, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    This book details standard concepts in cooperative game theory with applications to the analysis of social networks and hierarchical authority organizations. It covers the multi-linear extension, the Core, the Shapley value, and the cooperative potential.

  19. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  1. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  2. [Potential of cooperative learning in project development : Relevance of cooperative participation procedure for the further development of generation-appropriate accomodation in structurally weak rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Gerd; Frankenberg, Olga; Sommer, Ralf-Rüdiger; Jost, Annemarie

    2017-04-01

    A joint initiative of existing senior care organizations, the municipality of Meyenburg and the state of Brandenburg was further developed by affiliation of an institute of the Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg (ABV) in cooperation with members of the architecture and social work departments in 2014. A cooperative process between different players was central to create an appropriate structure of services for this region. Cooperative projects are necessary to establish new forms of generation-appropriate living and care concepts in rural areas. Cooperative learning methods are needed to develop new forms of generation-appropriate living and care concepts in rural areas, which take the diversity of elderly people, the rural context, intergenerational residential arrangements and affordable accommodation that meets the requirements of the social security system into account. Furthermore, the project had to reflect the recent developments of the German care insurance. The article describes the participatory methods, the coordination process and the resulting concept.

  3. State-Funded Activism: Lessons from Civil Society Organizations in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Visser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Civil society organizations (CSOs in Ireland receive significant state funding and institutional support according to the logic that they are important contributors to democratic governance, with the effect that the CSO sector has expanded and become more embedded in formal decision-making processes over the past several decades. At the same time, dependency on government funding exposes CSOs to three important challenges: to stay true to activist mandates in the face of pressure from state funders to focus on service provision; to maintain accountability to constituents while also satisfying the vertically oriented accountability requirements of the state; and to nurture collaboration among CSOs in a context of competition for state funding. University-based activists, who are also reliant on (increasingly scarce government funding, face similar challenges, and therefore should pay more attention to debates regarding state funding in the CSO sphere. By working together to overcome common challenges associated with state funding, activists in both spheres can more effectively contribute to progressive social change.

  4. Self-organized criticality occurs in non-conservative neuronal networks during `up' states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Daniel; Mihalas, Stefan; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Niebur, Ernst

    2010-10-01

    During sleep, under anaesthesia and in vitro, cortical neurons in sensory, motor, association and executive areas fluctuate between so-called up and down states, which are characterized by distinct membrane potentials and spike rates. Another phenomenon observed in preparations similar to those that exhibit up and down states-such as anaesthetized rats, brain slices and cultures devoid of sensory input, as well as awake monkey cortex-is self-organized criticality (SOC). SOC is characterized by activity `avalanches' with a branching parameter near unity and size distribution that obeys a power law with a critical exponent of about -3/2. Recent work has demonstrated SOC in conservative neuronal network models, but critical behaviour breaks down when biologically realistic `leaky' neurons are introduced. Here, we report robust SOC behaviour in networks of non-conservative leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with short-term synaptic depression. We show analytically and numerically that these networks typically have two stable activity levels, corresponding to up and down states, that the networks switch spontaneously between these states and that up states are critical and down states are subcritical.

  5. The crisis of the economic model, overview of the social state: cooperative societies as the key solution “Socially Intellegent Restructuring” in the European Union, towards a new vision of the economic and social order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pastor Sempere

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the European Economic and Social Committee: “We are witnessing a large-scale restructuring as a consequence of the crisis in the European economy. Socially responsible restructuring strategies are essential in order to avoid additional enterprise closures and failures, to preserve and create employment and organize social welfare by boosting competitiveness and local development.” (Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee on “Cooperatives and restructuring”, (2012/C 91/05:eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2012:191:0024:0029:ES:PDF In view of an endless economic recession, co-operative societies can play a key role in the entrepreneurial and social recovery and restructuring. This paper shows that this is likely to happen if we create a cooperative model in accordance with the principles of the socially intelligent restructuring processes proposed by the European Economic and Social Committee on «Cooperatives and Restructuring.

  6. The evolution of cooperation in spatial groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianlei; Zhang Chunyan; Chu Tianguang

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We propose a model of evolutionary games in which individuals are organized into networked groups. → We show that the social dilemma can be resolved and high cooperation levels are attained. → Larger average group size would lead to lower cooperation level but higher average payoffs. → The results show that higher expectations can bring the system with larger average payoffs. - Abstract: Much of human cooperation remains an evolutionary riddle. There is evidence that individuals are often organized into groups in many social situations. Inspired by this observation, we propose a simple model of evolutionary public goods games in which individuals are organized into networked groups. Here, nodes in the network represent groups; the edges, connecting the nodes, refer to the interactions between the groups. Individuals establish public goods games with partners in the same group and migrate among neighboring groups depending on their payoffs and expectations. We show that the paradigmatic public goods social dilemma can be resolved and high cooperation levels are attained in structured groups, even in relatively harsh conditions for cooperation. Further, by means of numerical simulations and mean-field analysis, we arrive at the result: larger average group size and milder cooperation environment would lead to lower cooperation level but higher average payoffs of the entire population. Altogether, these results emphasize that our understanding of cooperation can be enhanced by investigations of how spatial groups of individuals affect the evolution dynamics, which might help in explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation.

  7. Stochastic Oscillation in Self-Organized Critical States of Small Systems: Sensitive Resting State in Neural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Jun; Ouyang, Guang; Guang, Jing; Zhang, Mingsha; Wong, K Y Michael; Zhou, Changsong

    2016-01-08

    Self-organized critical states (SOCs) and stochastic oscillations (SOs) are simultaneously observed in neural systems, which appears to be theoretically contradictory since SOCs are characterized by scale-free avalanche sizes but oscillations indicate typical scales. Here, we show that SOs can emerge in SOCs of small size systems due to temporal correlation between large avalanches at the finite-size cutoff, resulting from the accumulation-release process in SOCs. In contrast, the critical branching process without accumulation-release dynamics cannot exhibit oscillations. The reconciliation of SOCs and SOs is demonstrated both in the sandpile model and robustly in biologically plausible neuronal networks. The oscillations can be suppressed if external inputs eliminate the prominent slow accumulation process, providing a potential explanation of the widely studied Berger effect or event-related desynchronization in neural response. The features of neural oscillations and suppression are confirmed during task processing in monkey eye-movement experiments. Our results suggest that finite-size, columnar neural circuits may play an important role in generating neural oscillations around the critical states, potentially enabling functional advantages of both SOCs and oscillations for sensitive response to transient stimuli.

  8. Predicting behavioural responses to novel organisms: state-dependent detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, Pete C; Ehlman, Sean M; Sih, Andrew

    2017-01-25

    Human activity alters natural habitats for many species. Understanding variation in animals' behavioural responses to these changing environments is critical. We show how signal detection theory can be used within a wider framework of state-dependent modelling to predict behavioural responses to a major environmental change: novel, exotic species. We allow thresholds for action to be a function of reserves, and demonstrate how optimal thresholds can be calculated. We term this framework 'state-dependent detection theory' (SDDT). We focus on behavioural and fitness outcomes when animals continue to use formerly adaptive thresholds following environmental change. In a simple example, we show that exposure to novel animals which appear dangerous-but are actually safe-(e.g. ecotourists) can have catastrophic consequences for 'prey' (organisms that respond as if the new organisms are predators), significantly increasing mortality even when the novel species is not predatory. SDDT also reveals that the effect on reproduction can be greater than the effect on lifespan. We investigate factors that influence the effect of novel organisms, and address the potential for behavioural adjustments (via evolution or learning) to recover otherwise reduced fitness. Although effects of environmental change are often difficult to predict, we suggest that SDDT provides a useful route ahead. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Predicting behavioural responses to novel organisms: state-dependent detection theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Human activity alters natural habitats for many species. Understanding variation in animals' behavioural responses to these changing environments is critical. We show how signal detection theory can be used within a wider framework of state-dependent modelling to predict behavioural responses to a major environmental change: novel, exotic species. We allow thresholds for action to be a function of reserves, and demonstrate how optimal thresholds can be calculated. We term this framework ‘state-dependent detection theory’ (SDDT). We focus on behavioural and fitness outcomes when animals continue to use formerly adaptive thresholds following environmental change. In a simple example, we show that exposure to novel animals which appear dangerous—but are actually safe—(e.g. ecotourists) can have catastrophic consequences for ‘prey’ (organisms that respond as if the new organisms are predators), significantly increasing mortality even when the novel species is not predatory. SDDT also reveals that the effect on reproduction can be greater than the effect on lifespan. We investigate factors that influence the effect of novel organisms, and address the potential for behavioural adjustments (via evolution or learning) to recover otherwise reduced fitness. Although effects of environmental change are often difficult to predict, we suggest that SDDT provides a useful route ahead. PMID:28100814

  10. Unspeciated organic emissions from combustion sources and their influence on the secondary organic aerosol budget in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from the atmospheric oxidation of nonmethane organic gases (NMOG) is a major contributor to atmospheric aerosol mass. Emissions and smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate SOA formation from gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles,...

  11. Attitudes of students of Jan Grodek State High Vocational School In Sanok towards organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lisowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Transplantology is at a stage of its dynamic development. Despite legal regulations and social campaigns promoting the idea of transplantology, organ donors are missing in Poland. Most Poles are in favor of transplantation, but consenting to transplantation has a number of determinants including sociodemographic, cultural and personal ones. Their cognition allows us to take actions as regards promoting the idea of transplantology and changing the attitudes towards pro-transplantation. Aim of the study. Determination of student attitudes towards organ donation. Materials and methods. The study was conducted in 2017 and covered 355 students of Jan Grodek State High Vocational School in Sanok. Diagnostic survey method and survey technique were used. The research questionnaire was composed of 41 questions. Statistical significance level was assumed to be p <0.05. V-Kramer and Chi squares were used. Results. Most students, especially in medical fields, were supporters of organ transplants, both from living and dead donors. More than half of the respondents in case of a cerebral death would have agreed to donate their organs for transplant. More than half of the students expressed their donation for relatives, and over one quarter of them for the stramgers. More often than not, women declared this. More than half of the respondents would never have been financially financially guided donors, and one in five students strongly opposed to such a practice. Conclusions. Most respondents positively consider their presence in a situation where donor organs are required, both in the face of death and transplantation of a part of their body during the lifetime of relatives or even unrelated recipients. Attitudes of students towards organ donation were altruistic. The students were opposed to financial donations. Attitudes of students were different as regards: gender, place of residence and profile of studies.

  12. AFRA: Supporting regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) provides a framework for African Member States to intensify their collaboration through programmes and projects focused on the specific shared needs of its members. It is a formal intergovernmental agreement which entered into force in 1990. In the context of AFRA, Regional Designated Centres for training and education in radiation protection (RDCs) are established African institutions able to provide services, such as training of highly qualified specialists or instructors needed at the national level and also to facilitate exchange of experience and information through networks of services operating in the field

  13. The influence of isomer purity on trap states and performance of organic thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Peter J; Hayes, Jacori; Welchman, Evan; Hallani, Rawad; Pookpanratana, Sujitra J; Hacker, Christina A; Richter, Curt A; Anthony, John E; Thonhauser, Timo; Jurchescu, Oana D

    2017-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistor (OFET) performance is dictated by its composition and geometry, as well as the quality of the organic semiconductor (OSC) film, which strongly depends on purity and microstructure. When present, impurities and defects give rise to trap states in the bandgap of the OSC, lowering device performance. Here, 2,8-difluoro-5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl)-anthradithiophene is used as a model system to study the mechanism responsible for performance degradation in OFETs due to isomer coexistence. The density of trapping states is evaluated through temperature dependent current-voltage measurements, and it is discovered that OFETs containing a mixture of syn - and anti -isomers exhibit a discrete trapping state detected as a peak located at ~ 0.4 eV above the valence-band edge, which is absent in the samples fabricated on single-isomer films. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and density functional theory calculations do not point to a significant difference in electronic band structure between individual isomers. Instead, it is proposed that the dipole moment of the syn -isomer present in the host crystal of the anti -isomer locally polarizes the neighboring molecules, inducing energetic disorder. The isomers can be separated by applying gentle mechanical vibrations during film crystallization, as confirmed by the suppression of the peak and improvement in device performance.

  14. 3D Spin-Liquid State in an Organic Hyperkagome Lattice of Mott Dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Asato; Shuku, Yoshiaki; Matsushita, Michio M.; Tsuchiizu, Masahisa; Hara, Yuuki; Wada, Nobuo; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Awaga, Kunio

    2017-08-01

    We report the first 3D spin liquid state of isotropic organic spins. Structural analysis, and magnetic and heat-capacity measurements were carried out for a chiral organic radical salt, (TBA) 1.5[(-)-NDI -Δ ] (TBA denotes tetrabutylammonium and NDI denotes naphthalene diimide), in which (-)-NDI -Δ forms a K4 structure due to its triangular molecular structure and an intermolecular π -π overlap between the NDI moieties. This lattice was identical to the hyperkagome lattice of S =1 /2 Mott dimers, and should exhibit 3D spin frustration. In fact, even though the high-temperature magnetic susceptibility followed the Curie-Weiss law with a negative Weiss constant of θ =-15 K , the low-temperature magnetic measurements revealed no long-range magnetic ordering down to 70 mK, and suggested the presence of a spin liquid state with a large residual paramagnetism χ0 of 8.5 ×10-6 emu g-1 at the absolute zero temperature. This was supported by the N 14 NMR measurements down to 0.38 K. Further, the low-temperature heat capacities cp down to 68 mK clearly indicated the presence of cp for the spin liquid state, which can be fitted to the power law of T0.62 in the wide temperature range 0.07-4.5 K.

  15. Efficient charge generation by relaxed charge-transfer states at organic interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen

    2013-11-17

    Interfaces between organic electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials have the ability to generate charge carriers on illumination. Efficient organic solar cells require a high yield for this process, combined with a minimum of energy losses. Here, we investigate the role of the lowest energy emissive interfacial charge-transfer state (CT1) in the charge generation process. We measure the quantum yield and the electric field dependence of charge generation on excitation of the charge-transfer (CT) state manifold via weakly allowed, low-energy optical transitions. For a wide range of photovoltaic devices based on polymer:fullerene, small-molecule:C60 and polymer:polymer blends, our study reveals that the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is essentially independent of whether or not D, A or CT states with an energy higher than that of CT1 are excited. The best materials systems show an IQE higher than 90% without the need for excess electronic or vibrational energy. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  16. Efficient charge generation by relaxed charge-transfer states at organic interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen; Albrecht, Steve N.; Hoke, Eric T.; Graham, Kenneth; Widmer, Johannes; Douglas, Jessica D.; Schubert, Marcel; Mateker, William R.; Bloking, Jason T.; Burkhard, George F.; Sellinger, Alan; Frechet, Jean; Amassian, Aram; Riede, Moritz Kilian; McGehee, Michael D.; Neher, Dieter; Salleo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Interfaces between organic electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials have the ability to generate charge carriers on illumination. Efficient organic solar cells require a high yield for this process, combined with a minimum of energy losses. Here, we investigate the role of the lowest energy emissive interfacial charge-transfer state (CT1) in the charge generation process. We measure the quantum yield and the electric field dependence of charge generation on excitation of the charge-transfer (CT) state manifold via weakly allowed, low-energy optical transitions. For a wide range of photovoltaic devices based on polymer:fullerene, small-molecule:C60 and polymer:polymer blends, our study reveals that the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is essentially independent of whether or not D, A or CT states with an energy higher than that of CT1 are excited. The best materials systems show an IQE higher than 90% without the need for excess electronic or vibrational energy. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  17. Maritime English for Communication and Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Teresa A.

    Because most maritime accidents are caused by human error, notably breakdowns in communication or cooperation, and because English is the international maritime language, instruction in maritime English for communication and cooperation is an important element in maritime education. The International Maritime Organization, a specialized agency of…

  18. Genetically modified organisms in the United States: implementation, concerns, and public perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeschger, Max P; Silva, Catherine E

    2007-01-01

    We examine the state of biotechnology with respect to genetically modified (GM) organisms in agriculture. Our focus is on the USA, where there has been significant progress and implementation but where, to date, the matter has drawn little attention. GM organisms are the result of lateral gene transfers, the transfer of genes from one species to another, or sometimes, from one kingdom to another. The introduction of foreign genes makes some people very uncomfortable, and a small group of activists have grave concerns about the technology. Attempts by activists to build concern in the general public have garnered little attention; however, the producers of GM organisms have responded to their concerns and established extensive testing programs to be applied to each candidate organism that is produced. In the meantime, GM varieties of corn, cotton, soybean and rapeseed have been put into agricultural production and are now extensively planted. These crops, and the other, newer GM crops, have produced no problems and have pioneered a silent agricultural revolution in the USA.

  19. Cooperation Between the Russian Federation and the United States to Enhance the Existing Nuclear-Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Systems at Mayak Production Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalane, P.T.; Ehinger, M.H.; James, L.T.; Jarrett, J.H.; Lundgren, R.A.; Manatt, D.R.; Niederauer, G.F.; Olivos, J.D.; Prishchepov, A.I.; Starodubtsev, G.S.; Suda, S.C.; Tittemore, G.W.; Zatorsky, Y.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (Mayak) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by lylINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC and A systems at Mayak. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC and A systems at two of the plants operated by Mayak that work with proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials

  20. Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the United States to enhance the existing nuclear-material protection, control, and accounting systems at Mayak Production Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starodubtsev, G.S.; Prishchepov, A.I.; Zatorsky, Y.M.; James, L.T.

    1997-01-01

    The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (MPA) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by MINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC ampersand A systems at MPA. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC ampersand A systems at four plants that are operated by MPA and that produce, process, handle and/or store proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials