WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooperating organizations optoelectronic-mechanic

  1. ITDB Cooperation With International Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    IAEA illicit trafficking database cooperates with many international organizations. Among these organizations are Interpol, Universal Postal Union,and World Customs Organization. Other organizations are Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN-Department of Disarmament Affairs and UN office for Drug and Crime. The cooperation with Interpol involves consultations on issues of training and technical assistance and other matters of common interest.

  2. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperator organization. 1220.107 Section 1220.107... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor organization...

  3. Development Internal Problems of Shanghay Cooperation Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Y. Kolegova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main internal problems of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Particular attention is paid to the conflict of interests of the participating countries, as well as identifying obstacles to strengthen the organization and increase its influence in the international arena. The international organizations are created by the states to meet mutual problems in the course of interstate relations requiring regular cooperation mechanism. Given the background of the Organization, it is important to emphasize that the main reason for the establishment of the Shanghai organization was the need for the united front against the strengthening of the region at the turn of centuries against dangerous trends of terrorism, extremism, separatism, the growth of organized crime. Despite the conflict of interests and the internal and external development challenges thirteen-year history of evolution of the SCO, to some extent proves its effectiveness, moreover, there are the preconditions for its consistent transition to a more comprehensive organization.

  4. Japan's prospects in the Shanghai cooperation organization

    OpenAIRE

    Nurgaliev, Marat

    2009-01-01

    At the present stage, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is arousing great interest in the international community. The leading actors in international relations, such as the U.S., Japan, and the European countries, are keeping a careful watch over the organization's development. The interest of these countries is mainly related to the lack of information about the SCO's actual activity and the organization's real essence. The leaders of the SCO member states constantly assure everyo...

  5. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  6. Systematic organization of interstate humanitarian cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Korolev; Nikolay Loktev; Irina Slastikhina

    2014-01-01

    International humanitarian cooperation is one of the ways for Russia to propagate its interests abroad and maintain its image of a modern democratic state in front of the world community. The article discloses the multichannel implementation of Russias soft power potential, shows the necessity of a systemic organization of international humanitarian links, proposes the grouping of the implementation mechanisms of Russias potential soft powerinto program and extracurricular blocs.The object of...

  7. Co-operation and Self-Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2008-07-01

    structures. This today culminates in global problems such as the ecological crisis, high risk technologies, poverty, unemployment, wars, armed conflicts, terrorism, etc. In order to solve these problems our social systems need re-design in terms of ecological sustainability, alliance technology, participatory economy, participatory democracy, and participatory culture. Participation is an integrated notion that is based on co-operation, selfdetermination, and inclusion in multiple dimensions. A system can be considered as participatory if power in the system is distributed in such a way that all members and concerned individuals can own the system co-operatively and can produce, decide and live in the system co-operatively. Participation is frequently understood in the very narrow sense of concerned people taking somehow part in decision processes. Such an understanding is limited to the political dimension and says nothing about the scope and dimension of participation. There are several dimensions of participation in a social system or in society: producing, owning, consuming (economic dimension, deciding, goal-setting, evaluating (political dimension, forming knowledge/norms/values/images/visions, communicating, networking, self-realizing (cultural dimension. Participation in each of these ten dimensions can be low, medium or high/full. The participation matrix describes the degree of participation in an organization/society with the help of the three dimensions of economy, politics and culture and an analysis of the scope of participation (economic, political, cultural.

  8. Theory of Regression Apple Professional Cooperation Organization Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang Bin

    2013-01-01

    In view of the enterprise ecological apple manor a variety of problems of existence, put forward to the enterprise management transformation, achieve enterprise, collective, individual integrated operation management and the use of regression mathematical model on apple professional cooperation organization analysis. Through the example, Apple professional economic cooperation organization innovation model of the input output ratio than the rural economic cooperation organization is much high...

  9. Cooperative organic mine avoidance path planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Christopher B.; Piatko, Christine D.; Peterson, Adam V.; Donnald, Creighton R.; Cohen, David

    2005-06-01

    The JHU/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph based and genetic algorithms which quickly produce near-minimum risk paths for complicated fitness functions incorporating risk, path length, ship kinematics, and naval doctrine. The TDA user interface, a Java Swing application that obtains data via Corba interfaces to path planning databases, allows the operator to explore a fusion of historic and in situ mine field data, control the path planner, and display the planning results. To provide a context for the minefield data, the user interface also renders data from the Digital Nautical Chart database, a database created by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency containing charts of the world's ports and coastal regions. This TDA has been developed in conjunction with the COMID (Cooperative Organic Mine Defense) system. This paper presents a description of the algorithms, architecture, and application produced.

  10. Fragility and cooperativity concepts in hydrogen-bonded organic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpouve, N., E-mail: delpouve.nicolas@gmail.com [AMME-LECAP EA 4528 International Laboratory, University of Rouen, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Vuillequez, A.; Saiter, A.; Youssef, B.; Saiter, J.M. [AMME-LECAP EA 4528 International Laboratory, University of Rouen, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2012-09-01

    Molecular dynamics at the glass transition of three lactose/oil glassy systems have been investigated according to the cooperativity and fragility approaches. From Donth's approach, the cooperativity length is estimated by modulated temperature calorimetric measurements. Results reveal that modification of the disaccharide by oil leads to increase the disorder degree in the lactose, the size of the cooperative domains and the fragility index. These particular hydrogen-bonded organic glasses follow the general tendency observed on organic and inorganic polymers: the higher the cooperativity length, the higher the value of the fragility index at T{sub g}.

  11. Fragility and cooperativity concepts in hydrogen-bonded organic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpouve, N.; Vuillequez, A.; Saiter, A.; Youssef, B.; Saiter, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dynamics at the glass transition of three lactose/oil glassy systems have been investigated according to the cooperativity and fragility approaches. From Donth's approach, the cooperativity length is estimated by modulated temperature calorimetric measurements. Results reveal that modification of the disaccharide by oil leads to increase the disorder degree in the lactose, the size of the cooperative domains and the fragility index. These particular hydrogen-bonded organic glasses follow the general tendency observed on organic and inorganic polymers: the higher the cooperativity length, the higher the value of the fragility index at T g .

  12. Benefits and organization of cooperative research for fisheries management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, T.R.; Densen, van W.L.T.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on research in the northeastern USA and northwestern Europe, a description is given of how cooperative research is organized and a statement made of how involving fishers in research can contribute to better fisheries management. The focus is on improving stock assessments through the

  13. Matrix organization increases physician, management cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissoneau, R; Williams, F G; Cowley, J L

    1984-04-01

    Because of the development of multihospital systems and the establishment of diagnosis related groups, hospitals increasingly will establish matrix organizations for their corporate structures. St. Luke's Hospital adopted the matrix concept in the mid-1970s, utilizing program administrators for each specialty service or "clinical center of excellence." Such centers have been developed in digestive diseases, cardiovascular and pulmonary medicine, orthopedics and rheumatology, ophthalmology, and behavioral health. The program administrator's functions are diverse: To serve as primary liaison between physicians and the hospital; To project levels of program utilization and patient and physician satisfaction, to identify areas requiring administrative and marketing emphasis, and to develop the program's marketing plan; To develop, implement, and evaluate the program's strategic, operational, and financial plans; To recruit physicians to practice at St. Luke's and to cultivate referrals from outside physicians; To participate in selecting members of all board and medical staff committees relating to the particular specialty area; and To determine the need for new programs within the specialty area and to develop services. As indicated by a medical staff survey, most physicians at St. Luke's believe that the program administrator system has improved communication with the hospital administration, that the program administrator is able to respond effectively to physician requests and problems, and that the quality of patient care has been enhanced. A great majority said they would recommend the system to other hospitals.

  14. Cooperative catalysis by silica-supported organic functional groups

    OpenAIRE

    Margelefsky, Eric L.; Zeidan, Ryan K.; Davis, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid inorganic–organic materials comprising organic functional groups tethered from silica surfaces are versatile, heterogeneous catalysts. Recent advances have led to the preparation of silica materials containing multiple, different functional groups that can show cooperative catalysis; that is, these functional groups can act together to provide catalytic activity and selectivity superior to what can be obtained from either monofunctional materials or homogeneous catalysts. This tutorial...

  15. 11 CFR 114.7 - Membership organizations, cooperatives, or corporations without capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... organizational structure. (j) A membership organization, including a trade association, cooperative, or... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership organizations, cooperatives, or... CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.7 Membership organizations, cooperatives, or corporations...

  16. The Self-Organized Archive: SPASE, PDS and Archive Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T. A.; Hughes, J. S.; Roberts, D. A.; Walker, R. J.; Joy, S. P.

    2005-05-01

    Information systems with high quality metadata enable uses and services which often go beyond the original purpose. There are two types of metadata: annotations which are items that comment on or describe the content of a resource and identification attributes which describe the external properties of the resource itself. For example, annotations may indicate which columns are present in a table of data, whereas an identification attribute would indicate source of the table, such as the observatory, instrument, organization, and data type. When the identification attributes are collected and used as the basis of a search engine, a user can constrain on an attribute, the archive can then self-organize around the constraint, presenting the user with a particular view of the archive. In an archive cooperative where each participating data system or archive may have its own metadata standards, providing a multi-system search engine requires that individual archive metadata be mapped to a broad based standard. To explore how cooperative archives can form a larger self-organized archive we will show how the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) data model will allow different systems to create a cooperative and will use Planetary Data System (PDS) plus existing space physics activities as a demonstration.

  17. Cooperation and Conflict: a Law and Economics Analysis of Meta-Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kerk (Maximilian)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOver the second part of the twentieth century inter-firm cooperations have become an increasingly popular phenomenon. These inter-firm cooperations often play out in the form of meta-organizations, which are organizations that are composed of the cooperating organizations. This

  18. Russia and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Some Elements of Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Konarovsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The new geopolitical reality that resulted from the dissolution of the USSR created the conditions for the establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO in 2001. The successful settlement of border issues between Russia and Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan and Tajikistan as well as with China also facilitated the process. With Uzbekistan joining the “Shanghai Five,” a new regional organization emerged. The SCO’s priorities were in the security sphere and the fight against the proliferation of drugs, illegal migration and organized crime, given the requirements of the times and the specific regional situation (including that in Afghanistan. As one of the active founders, Russia has always taken a leading role in the SCO’s organizational, political and legal formation, including setting specific trends and forms of cooperation, taking common measures, and holding events. During its presidency in 2008–2009 and 2014–2015, Moscow made additional efforts to strengthen cooperation among the SCO members in meeting new regional security challenges and to agree on coordinated positions on the key issues on the international and regional agenda. To increase the SCO’s credibility and political significance, Moscow emphasized its expansion, particularly with regard to the Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt. With global political and economic development growing more complicated, in order to revitalize Russia’s role in the SCO it is necessary to strengthen cooperation with China. The strategic character of bilateral relations reaffirmed at the Russian-Chinese summit in the summer of 2016 set a solid foundation.

  19. Modeling cooperating micro-organisms in antibiotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Gilad; Ingham, Colin; Ariel, Gil

    2017-01-01

    Recent experiments with the bacteria Paenibacillus vortex reveal a remarkable strategy enabling it to cope with antibiotics by cooperating with a different bacterium-Escherichia coli. While P. vortex is a highly effective swarmer, it is sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin. On the other hand, E. coli can degrade ampicillin but is non-motile when grown on high agar percentages. The two bacterial species form a shared colony in which E. coli is transported by P. vortex and E. coli detoxifies the ampicillin. The paper presents a simplified model, consisting of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, describing the development of ring patterns in the shared colony. Our results demonstrate some of the possible cooperative movement strategies bacteria utilize in order to survive harsh conditions. In addition, we explore the behavior of mixed colonies under new conditions such as antibiotic gradients, synchronization between colonies and possible dynamics of a 3-species system including P. vortex, E. coli and a carbon producing algae that provides nutrients under illuminated, nutrient poor conditions. The derived model was able to simulate an asymmetric relationship between two or three micro-organisms where cooperation is required for survival. Computationally, in order to avoid numerical artifacts due to symmetries within the discretizing grid, the model was solved using a second order Vectorizable Random Lattices method, which is developed as a finite volume scheme on a random grid.

  20. Modeling cooperating micro-organisms in antibiotic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Book

    Full Text Available Recent experiments with the bacteria Paenibacillus vortex reveal a remarkable strategy enabling it to cope with antibiotics by cooperating with a different bacterium-Escherichia coli. While P. vortex is a highly effective swarmer, it is sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin. On the other hand, E. coli can degrade ampicillin but is non-motile when grown on high agar percentages. The two bacterial species form a shared colony in which E. coli is transported by P. vortex and E. coli detoxifies the ampicillin. The paper presents a simplified model, consisting of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, describing the development of ring patterns in the shared colony. Our results demonstrate some of the possible cooperative movement strategies bacteria utilize in order to survive harsh conditions. In addition, we explore the behavior of mixed colonies under new conditions such as antibiotic gradients, synchronization between colonies and possible dynamics of a 3-species system including P. vortex, E. coli and a carbon producing algae that provides nutrients under illuminated, nutrient poor conditions. The derived model was able to simulate an asymmetric relationship between two or three micro-organisms where cooperation is required for survival. Computationally, in order to avoid numerical artifacts due to symmetries within the discretizing grid, the model was solved using a second order Vectorizable Random Lattices method, which is developed as a finite volume scheme on a random grid.

  1. Cooperation of Russian and EU technical support organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, M.V.; Kozlov, Vl.V.; Kapralov, E.Yu.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, the fruitful collaboration of the Russian and Western-European technical support organizations (TSOs) is being continued due to the support of the European Commission. There are two main areas of activities. The first one is more of methodological assistance and enhancing RF TSOs capabilities to support Rostekhnadzor decision making process. Experience and knowledge acquired in this area projects increase RF TSOs capabilities regarding a wide spectrum of safety related issues assessment, in particular safety analyses, reactor vessel embrittlement, application of 'leak before break' concept, severe accident and accident management, fire risk evaluation, etc. The second area is focused on licensing related assessments of EC financed on site assistance projects (modernisations). This area projects promote implementation in Russia a licensing process based on a technical dialogue between operator and regulator as well contributes to transfer of Western practice in assessment of NPPs modernization. The improvement of managerial, scientific and technical capabilities of RF TSO experts may be considered as noteworthy and practical result of the TSOs cooperation. The continuation of such modality of RF and EU TSOs cooperation will be a good basis to cope with present and future challenges faced by TSOs in enhancing nuclear safety. (author)

  2. 78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...] Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development Facility... The STDF is a unique global partnership established by the Food and Agriculture Organization, World... cooperative agreement in fiscal year 2013 (FY 2013) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards and...

  3. Is cooperation viable in mobile organisms? Simple Walk Away rule favors the evolution of cooperation in groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktipis, C. Athena

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation through partner choice mechanisms is often thought to involve relatively complex cognitive abilities. Using agent-based simulations I model a simple partner choice rule, the ‘Walk Away’ rule, where individuals stay in groups that provide higher returns (by virtue of having more cooperators), and ‘Walk Away’ from groups providing low returns. Implementing this conditional movement rule in a public goods game leads to a number of interesting findings: 1) cooperators have a selective advantage when thresholds are high, corresponding to low tolerance for defectors, 2) high thresholds lead to high initial rates of movement and low final rates of movement (after selection), and 3) as cooperation is selected, the population undergoes a spatial transition from high migration (and a many small and ephemeral groups) to low migration (and large and stable groups). These results suggest that the very simple ‘Walk Away’ rule of leaving uncooperative groups can favor the evolution of cooperation, and that cooperation can evolve in populations in which individuals are able to move in response to local social conditions. A diverse array of organisms are able to leave degraded physical or social environments. The ubiquitous nature of conditional movement suggests that ‘Walk Away’ dynamics may play an important role in the evolution of social behavior in both cognitively complex and cognitively simple organisms. PMID:21666771

  4. OECD (Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development) oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    Econometric response surfaces for nine different world oil models are estimated for aggregate oil demand with in the developed countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The estimates are based upon scenario results reported for the 1989-2010 period in a recent model comparison study. The response surface approach provides a parsimonious summary of model responses. It enables one to estimate long-run price elasticities directly rather than to infer such responses from 20-year cross-scenario results. It also shows more directly the significant effect of initial demand conditions (in 1988) on future oil demand growth. Due to the dynamic nature of the oil demand response, past prices exert a strongly positive effect on future oil demands in some models, but little or even negative effect in other models. On the basis of this finding, we urge demand modellers to be much more explicit about what their systems reveal about the extent of disequilibrium embedded in their model's starting oil demand conditions. (author)

  5. 78 FR 49756 - Notification of a Cooperative Agreement Award to the World Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ...: Notification of a sole source Cooperative Agreement Award to the World Health Organization for a grant titled... World Health Organization (WHO) as soon as possible, and any confirmed smallpox case would generate an... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Notification of a Cooperative Agreement Award to the World...

  6. 26 CFR 1.501(e)-1 - Cooperative hospital service organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... operates laundry services for its patron-hospitals. This cooperative organization does not meet the requirements of this paragraph because it performs laundry services not specified in this paragraph. (d) Patron... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cooperative hospital service organizations. 1.501...

  7. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  8. Farmers' Cooperatives in the EU: Policies, Strategies and Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Iliopoulos, C.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of cooperatives for European farmers has often been claimed but empirical studies to support this claim are scarce. This special issue presents a number of articles on the recent development and status of agricultural cooperatives in the European Union, based on original data

  9. The necessity of strengthening the cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations at national, regional, and international levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    The donation of tissues and organs increases significantly when tissue banks and organ transplant organizations work together in the procurement of organs and tissues at donor sources (hospitals, coroners system, organ procurement agencies, and funeral homes, among others). To achieve this important goal, national competent health authorities should considered the establishment of a mechanism that promote the widest possible cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations with hospitals, research medical institutions, universities, and other medical institutions and facilities. One of the issues that can facilitate this cooperation is the establishment of a coding and traceability system that could identify all tissues and organs used in transplant activities carried out in any country. The promotion of national, regional, and international cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations would enable the sharing of relevant information that could be important for medical practice and scientific studies carried out by many countries, particularly for those countries with a weak health care system.

  10. Global Organization of Innovation and Cooperability in Brazilian Multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Rezende da Costa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dissipation of innovations is necessary to develop them, as a company on its own does not have all the capabilities that it needs. On the contrary, they are increasingly spread over internal and external contexts, and are not developed in isolation. Most of the time, they depend on interactive, innovative processes in a global context. The aim of this study is to evaluate how the global organizational structure of innovation affects the dynamic capability of cooperation (cooperability in Brazilian multinationals (BMNs. To achieve this goal, we conducted a survey of BMNs, and a final sample of 60 companies answered a structured questionnaire. We performed statistical tests such as Factor Analysis, Cronbach's Alpha, Multiple Regression and Hierarchical Cluster, and cross-analysis of quantitative results that enabled us to create a Cooperability Model, that is, a model of local, international and global development for a dynamic capability of cooperation in BMNs. The results show that technological strengths of foreign subsidiaries and the reverse transfer of their capabilities to the parent company and technology partners affect the dynamics of cooperation in BMNs (inputs and results of cooperability. Furthermore, we detected an inverse relationship between the autonomy of foreign subsidiaries and the dynamic of cooperation in BMNs.

  11. A business process model as a starting point for tight cooperation among organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mysliveček

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing and other kinds of tight cooperation among organizations are more and more necessary for success on all markets (markets of high technology products are particularly influenced. Thus it is important for companies to be able to effectively set up all kinds of cooperation. A business process model (BPM is a suitable starting point for this future cooperation. In this paper the process of setting up such cooperation is outlined, as well as why it is important for business success. 

  12. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The text of the Agency's agreement for co-operation with the Organization of African Unity (OAU) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 26 March 1969

  13. EPA's Role with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) brings together the governments of countries committed to democracy and the market economy from around the world to support sustainable economic growth.

  14. Cooperative Learning and the Organization of Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachar, Hanna; Sharan, Shlomo

    1995-01-01

    Describes the interrelationship between school organization and classroom instructional style. Characterizes the bureaucratic and the open systems models of school organization in terms of three major dimensions of school life: administrator, teacher, and student behaviors; work design and tasks; and space-time allocations. The bureaucratic…

  15. 76 FR 44592 - Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0010] Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses in Support of... agreement with the World Health Organization. The document published stating that the total funding...

  16. Case Writing Projects in Co-Operation with Companies and Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Lars; Asplund, Carl-Johan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the process and evaluation of case writing projects in co-operation with companies and organizations in a course for engineering students. The case writing projects could provide an illustration and example framework for working with companies in constructing cases. Normally cases are constructed for teaching purposes in higher education. However, in order to get closer co-operation and more interest from the companies the authors encouraged the student...

  17. Reframing cooperation: Challenges in overcoming tensions between professional services and volunteer organizations providing parenting support in immigrant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzoni, E.

    2015-01-01

    Volunteer organizations can potentially partner with mainstream professional services to provide better parenting support to immigrant parents. This qualitative study of cooperation between professional agencies and volunteer organizations known as migrant volunteer and community organizations

  18. Hierarchical self-organization of non-cooperating individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Nepusz

    Full Text Available Hierarchy is one of the most conspicuous features of numerous natural, technological and social systems. The underlying structures are typically complex and their most relevant organizational principle is the ordering of the ties among the units they are made of according to a network displaying hierarchical features. In spite of the abundant presence of hierarchy no quantitative theoretical interpretation of the origins of a multi-level, knowledge-based social network exists. Here we introduce an approach which is capable of reproducing the emergence of a multi-levelled network structure based on the plausible assumption that the individuals (representing the nodes of the network can make the right estimate about the state of their changing environment to a varying degree. Our model accounts for a fundamental feature of knowledge-based organizations: the less capable individuals tend to follow those who are better at solving the problems they all face. We find that relatively simple rules lead to hierarchical self-organization and the specific structures we obtain possess the two, perhaps most important features of complex systems: a simultaneous presence of adaptability and stability. In addition, the performance (success score of the emerging networks is significantly higher than the average expected score of the individuals without letting them copy the decisions of the others. The results of our calculations are in agreement with a related experiment and can be useful from the point of designing the optimal conditions for constructing a given complex social structure as well as understanding the hierarchical organization of such biological structures of major importance as the regulatory pathways or the dynamics of neural networks.

  19. Rotator side chains trigger cooperative transition for shape and function memory effect in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyunjoong; Dudenko, Dmytro; Zhang, Fengjiao; D'Avino, Gabriele; Ruzié, Christian; Richard, Audrey; Schweicher, Guillaume; Cornil, Jérôme; Beljonne, David; Geerts, Yves; Diao, Ying

    2018-01-18

    Martensitic transition is a solid-state phase transition involving cooperative movement of atoms, mostly studied in metallurgy. The main characteristics are low transition barrier, ultrafast kinetics, and structural reversibility. They are rarely observed in molecular crystals, and hence the origin and mechanism are largely unexplored. Here we report the discovery of martensitic transition in single crystals of two different organic semiconductors. In situ microscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and molecular simulations combined indicate that the rotating bulky side chains trigger cooperative transition. Cooperativity enables shape memory effect in single crystals and function memory effect in thin film transistors. We establish a molecular design rule to trigger martensitic transition in organic semiconductors, showing promise for designing next-generation smart multifunctional materials.

  20. Kazakhstan's Chairmanship of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe: An Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Shirin Akiner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Massive international comment and analysis was devoted to the Kazakhstan's Chairmanship in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE. No previous candidate for this office received such treatment. Kazakhstan's agenda of aims and objectives included important issues. During the year several steps were taken towards implementing Kazakhstan's agenda.

  1. The Cooperative Organization And Rural Passenger Transportation: An Approach to Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stommes, Eileen S.

    The need for passenger transportation is widely recognized by rural communities. Shrinking federal funding has led many communities and human service agencies to experiment with innovative approaches to provide transportation services. One such approach is the use of cooperative organizations to provide needed services. A study conducted by the…

  2. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-02-07

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency.

  3. Architecture for self-organizing, co-operative and robust building automation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernier, F.; Ploennigs, J.; Pesch, D.; Lesecq, S.; Basten, T.; Boubekeur, M.; Denteneer, T.J.J.; Oltmanns, F.; Lehmann, M.; Mai, Linh Tuan; Mc Gibney, A.; Rea, S.; Pacull, F.; Guyon-Gardeux, C.; Ducreux, L.F.; Thior, S.; Hendriks, M.; Verriet, J.H.; Fedor, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the architecture for self-organizing, co-operative and robust Building Automation Systems (BAS) proposed by the EC funded FP7 SCUBA1 project. We describe the current situation in monitoring and control systems and outline the typical stakeholders involved in the

  4. Architecture for self-organizing, co-operative and robust Building Automation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernier, F.; Ploennigs, J.; Pesch, D.; Lesecq, S.; Basten, T.; Boubekeur, M.; Denteneer, D.; Oltmanns, F.; Bonnard, F.; Lehmann, M.; Mai, T.L.; McGibney, A.; Rea, S.; Pacull, F.; Guyon-Gardeux, C.; Ducreux, L.F.; Thior, S.; Hendriks, M.; Verriet, J.; Fedor, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the architecture for self-organizing, co-operative and robust Building Automation Systems (BAS) proposed by the EC funded FP7 SCUBA1 project. We describe the current situation in monitoring and control systems and outline the typical stakeholders involved in the

  5. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency

  6. An Audit Learning Experience: A Pilot Project through Cooperation with a Third Sector Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Richard; Willett, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a critical evaluation of a pilot cooperative education project conducted with a charitable organization in the UK. An action research approach was adopted. Final level students who are studying auditing have had the opportunity to apply the knowledge and skills they are developing through their studies to a real-life situation in the…

  7. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency [es

  8. Cooperation-Controlled Learning for Explicit Class Structure in Self-Organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Ryotaro

    2014-01-01

    We attempt to demonstrate the effectiveness of multiple points of view toward neural networks. By restricting ourselves to two points of view of a neuron, we propose a new type of information-theoretic method called “cooperation-controlled learning.” In this method, individual and collective neurons are distinguished from one another, and we suppose that the characteristics of individual and collective neurons are different. To implement individual and collective neurons, we prepare two networks, namely, cooperative and uncooperative networks. The roles of these networks and the roles of individual and collective neurons are controlled by the cooperation parameter. As the parameter is increased, the role of cooperative networks becomes more important in learning, and the characteristics of collective neurons become more dominant. On the other hand, when the parameter is small, individual neurons play a more important role. We applied the method to the automobile and housing data from the machine learning database and examined whether explicit class boundaries could be obtained. Experimental results showed that cooperation-controlled learning, in particular taking into account information on input units, could be used to produce clearer class structure than conventional self-organizing maps. PMID:25309950

  9. Cooperation-Controlled Learning for Explicit Class Structure in Self-Organizing Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryotaro Kamimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to demonstrate the effectiveness of multiple points of view toward neural networks. By restricting ourselves to two points of view of a neuron, we propose a new type of information-theoretic method called “cooperation-controlled learning.” In this method, individual and collective neurons are distinguished from one another, and we suppose that the characteristics of individual and collective neurons are different. To implement individual and collective neurons, we prepare two networks, namely, cooperative and uncooperative networks. The roles of these networks and the roles of individual and collective neurons are controlled by the cooperation parameter. As the parameter is increased, the role of cooperative networks becomes more important in learning, and the characteristics of collective neurons become more dominant. On the other hand, when the parameter is small, individual neurons play a more important role. We applied the method to the automobile and housing data from the machine learning database and examined whether explicit class boundaries could be obtained. Experimental results showed that cooperation-controlled learning, in particular taking into account information on input units, could be used to produce clearer class structure than conventional self-organizing maps.

  10. A spin transition mechanism for cooperative adsorption in metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Douglas A.; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Oktawiec, Julia; Mason, Jarad A.; Runčevski, Tomče; Xiao, Dianne J.; Darago, Lucy E.; Crocellà, Valentina; Bordiga, Silvia; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2017-10-01

    Cooperative binding, whereby an initial binding event facilitates the uptake of additional substrate molecules, is common in biological systems such as haemoglobin. It was recently shown that porous solids that exhibit cooperative binding have substantial energetic benefits over traditional adsorbents, but few guidelines currently exist for the design of such materials. In principle, metal-organic frameworks that contain coordinatively unsaturated metal centres could act as both selective and cooperative adsorbents if guest binding at one site were to trigger an electronic transformation that subsequently altered the binding properties at neighbouring metal sites. Here we illustrate this concept through the selective adsorption of carbon monoxide (CO) in a series of metal-organic frameworks featuring coordinatively unsaturated iron(II) sites. Functioning via a mechanism by which neighbouring iron(II) sites undergo a spin-state transition above a threshold CO pressure, these materials exhibit large CO separation capacities with only small changes in temperature. The very low regeneration energies that result may enable more efficient Fischer-Tropsch conversions and extraction of CO from industrial waste feeds, which currently underutilize this versatile carbon synthon. The electronic basis for the cooperative adsorption demonstrated here could provide a general strategy for designing efficient and selective adsorbents suitable for various separations.

  11. Cooperative Networks: Altruism, Group Solidarity, Reciprocity, and Sanctioning in Ugandan Producer Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia

    2015-09-01

    Repeated interaction and social networks are commonly considered viable solutions to collective action problems. This article identifies and systematically measures four general mechanisms--that is, generalized altruism, group solidarity, reciprocity, and the threat of sanctioning--and tests which of them brings about cooperation in the context of Ugandan producer organizations. Using an innovative methodological framework that combines "lab-in-the-field" experiments with survey interviews and complete social networks data, the article goes beyond the assessment of a relationship between social networks and collective outcomes to study the mechanisms that favor cooperative behavior. The article first establishes a positive relationship between position in the network structure and propensity to cooperate in the producer organization and then uses farmers' behavior in dictator and public goods games to test different mechanisms that may account for such a relationship. Results show that cooperation is induced by patterns of reciprocity that emerge through repeated interaction rather than other-regarding preferences like altruism or group solidarity.

  12. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Should the U.S. be Concerned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Cooperation Organization and the Central Asian States, Thesis for Master of Arts in China-U.S. Relations (University of Hawaii at Hilo , December 2007...Clinton reinforced U.S. desires to coordinate with the SCO (among other Asian regional institutions) at a January 2010 conference in Hawaii . 101F102...Hillary Rodham Clinton, Hillary Rodham, “Remarks on Regional Architecture in Asia: Principles and Priorities,” Hawaii , Department of State, January 12

  13. Why mussels stick together: spatial self-organization affects the evolution of cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, M.; Weissing, F.J.; van de Koppel, J.

    2017-01-01

    Cooperation with neighbours may be crucial for the persistence of populations instressful environments. Yet, cooperation is often not evolutionarily stable, since noncooperativeindividuals can reap the benefits of cooperation without having to pay the costsassociated with cooperation. Here we show

  14. International cooperation during radiological emergencies. NRC program guidance for the provision of technical advice to foreign counterpart organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senseney, R.

    1986-04-01

    This report defines the scope, application, and limits of the technical cooperation the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) would provide, upon request, to a foreign regulatory agency in a nuclear emergency. It outlines the basis for such cooperation, offers a model written agreement, and describes recent cases of NRC assistance. It also identifies non-NRC sources of emergency advisory assistance available to foreign organizations

  15. Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh concerning Education, Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh concerning Education, Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics

  16. Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

  17. Cooperative and submolecular dissipation mechanisms of sliding friction in complex organic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Daniel B; Gray, Tomoko O; Overney, René M

    2008-08-21

    Energy dissipation in single asperity sliding friction was directly linked to submolecular modes of mobility by intrinsic friction analysis, involving time-temperature superposition along with thermodynamic stress and reaction rate models. Thereby, polystyrene served as a representative tribological sample for organic and amorphous complex systems. This study reveals the significance of surface and subsurface (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-) relaxational modes, which couple under appropriate external conditions (load, temperature, and rate) with shear induced disturbances, and thus gives rise to material specific frictional dissipation. At low pressures and temperatures below the glass transition point, the phenyl pendant side groups of polystyrene, known for their preferential orientation at the free surface, were noticed to be the primary channel for dissipation of kinetic sliding-energy. While this process was found to be truly enthalpic (activation energy of 8 kcalmol), energy dissipation was shown to possess both enthalpic and cooperative entropic contributions above the loading capacity of the surface phenyl groups (9.9 kcalmol) or above the glass transition. Apparent Arrhenius activation energies of frictional dissipation of 22 and 90 kcalmol, respectively, and cooperative contributions up to 80% were found. As such, this study highlights issues critical to organic lubricant design, i.e., the intrinsic enthalpic activation barriers of mobile linker groups, the evaluation of cooperative mobility phenomena, and critical tribological parameters to access or avoid coupling between shear disturbances and molecular actuators.

  18. Active Learning and Cooperative Learning in the Organic Chemistry Lecture Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Donald R.

    1999-08-01

    Faculty in the physical sciences are one of the academic groups least receptive to the use of active learning strategies and cooperative learning in their classrooms. This is particularly so in traditional lecture classes. It is the objective of this paper to show how effective these techniques can be in improving student performance in classes. The use of active learning strategies and cooperative learning groups in my organic chemistry lecture classes has increased the overall pass rate in my classes by an astounding 20-30% over the traditional lecture mode. This has been accomplished without any reduction in "standards". The actual methods employed are presented as well as a discussion of how I came to radically change the way I teach my classes.

  19. Cooperation Agreement. The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8

  20. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8 [fr

  1. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8

  2. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8 [es

  3. Why mussels stick together : spatial self-organization affects the evolution of cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, Monique; Weissing, Franz J; van de Koppel, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Cooperation with neighbours may be crucial for the persistence of populations in stressful environments. Yet, cooperation is often not evolutionarily stable, since non-cooperative individuals can reap the benefits of cooperation without having to pay the costs associated with cooperation. Here we

  4. Utilizing an ANP framework for prioritizing effective criteria on performance management in cooperative organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Akhavan Alavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance management plays an essential role on increasing efficiency of business units. It helps find important barriers against a business unit helping us setup better strategies for handling troubles. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find important factors influencing performance management in cooperative organizations. The proposed study uses analytical hierarchy process to rank important factors in three groups of team level, individual and organization levels. The survey is based on receiving feedbacks from decision makers and making a pairwise comparison on measuring the relative importance of each criterion influencing performance management. The results of our survey indicate that setting appropriate standards for performance management is the most important item followed by relationship between organization structure and performance management, performance management based on future events. The other three factors including continuous improvement and updating systems, encouraging employee for change culture and relationship between future outlook and performance management are other important factors.

  5. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations; Texte des Accords de Cooperation Conclus entre L'Agence et des Organisations Intergouvernementales Regionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-02-07

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency [French] Le present document reproduit le texte des accords de cooperation que l'Agence a conclus avec les organisations intergouvernementales regionales enumerees ci-apres, ainsi que celui des protocoles validant lesdits accords. Le texte de ces instruments, classes dans l'ordre chronologique de leur entree en vigueur, est communique, pour information, a tous les Membres de l'Agence.

  6. Cooperation in carbon source degradation shapes spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on hydrated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecon, Robin; Or, Dani

    2017-03-06

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural microbial communities exhibit a high level of spatial organization at the micrometric scale that facilitate ecological interactions and support biogeochemical cycles. Microbial patterns are difficult to study definitively in natural environments due to complex biodiversity, observability and variable physicochemical factors. Here, we examine how trophic dependencies give rise to self-organized spatial patterns of a well-defined bacterial consortium grown on hydrated surfaces. The model consortium consisted of two Pseudomonas putida mutant strains that can fully degrade the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene. We demonstrated that obligate cooperation in toluene degradation (cooperative mutualism) favored convergence of 1:1 partner ratio and strong intermixing at the microscale (10-100 μm). In contrast, competition for benzoate, a compound degraded independently by both strains, led to distinct segregation patterns. Emergence of a persistent spatial pattern has been predicted for surface attached microbial activity in liquid films that mediate diffusive exchanges while permitting limited cell movement (colony expansion). This study of a simple microbial consortium offers mechanistic glimpses into the rules governing the assembly and functioning of complex sessile communities, and points to general principles of spatial organization with potential applications for natural and engineered microbial systems.

  7. Cooperative loading of multisite receptors with lanthanide containers: an approach for organized luminescent metallopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Lucille; Guénée, Laure; Besnard, Céline; Eliseeva, Svetlana V; Petoud, Stéphane; Piguet, Claude

    2018-01-14

    Metal-containing (bio)organic polymers are materials of continuously increasing importance for applications in energy storage and conversion, drug delivery, shape-memory items, supported catalysts, organic conductors and smart photonic devices. The embodiment of luminescent components provides a revolution in lighting and signaling with the ever-increasing development of polymeric light-emitting devices. Despite the unique properties expected from the introduction of optically and magnetically active lanthanides into organic polymers, the deficient control of the metal loading currently limits their design to empirical and poorly reproducible materials. We show here that the synthetic efforts required for producing soluble multi-site host systems L k are largely overcome by the virtue of reversible thermodynamics for mastering the metal loading with the help of only two parameters: (1) the affinity of the luminescent lanthanide container for a single binding site and (2) the cooperative effect which modulates the successive fixation of metallic units to adjacent sites. When unsymmetrical perfluorobenzene-trifluoroacetylacetonate co-ligands (pbta - ) are selected for balancing the charge of the trivalent lanthanide cations, Ln 3+ , in six-coordinate [Ln(pbta) 3 ] containers, the explored anti-cooperative complexation processes induce nearest-neighbor intermetallic interactions twice as large as thermal energy at room temperature ( RT = 2.5 kJ mol -1 ). These values have no precedent when using standard symmetrical containers and they pave the way for programming metal alternation in luminescent lanthanidopolymers.

  8. Transitions towards sustainable agriculture: the organic apiculture niche in an Argentinean cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Vila Seoane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that it is possible to transform innovation pathways in natural-resource-based industries towards more sustainable ones. In particular, it employs the socio-technical transitions framework to understand the structural barriers that the industrial agricultural system puts to COOPSOL, an Argentinean cooperative project of organic apiculture. The article is based on qualitative data that systematize, on the one hand, the pressures for continuity and change in the agricultural system. On the other hand, the data reveal the main perceptions of COOPSOL´s actors about the existing structural limits.

  9. Relations of Central Asia with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Collective Security Treaty Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de M.

    2017-01-01

    Comparing the influence of and relationship of Central Asia with the major regional bodies, the SCO is an advantageous organization for the economic development of Central Asia, since it is an opportune podium for doing business, especially with China, with a guarantee that Moscow nor Beijing will

  10. 78 FR 49757 - Notification of an Expansion to the Cooperative Agreement Award to the World Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... Award to the World Health Organization AGENCY: Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority... requires notification to World Health Organization (WHO) as soon as possible, and any confirmed smallpox... Services (HHS). ACTION: Notification of an expansion to the Cooperative Agreement Award to the World Health...

  11. Enhancing Cooperativity in Bifunctional Acid–Pd Catalysts with Carboxylic Acid-Functionalized Organic Monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coan, Patrick D. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado—Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, United States; Ellis, Lucas D. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado—Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, United States; Griffin, Michael B. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Schwartz, Daniel K. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado—Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, United States; Medlin, J. Will [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado—Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, United States

    2018-03-01

    Cooperative catalysts containing a combination of noble metal hydrogenation sites and Bronsted acid sites are critical for many reactions, including the deoxygenation (DO) of biomass-derived oxygenates in the upgrading of pyrolysis oil. One route toward the design of cooperative catalysts is to tether two different catalytically active functions so that they are in close proximity while avoiding undesirable interactions that can block active sites. Here, we deposited carboxylic acid (CA)-functionalized organophosphonate monolayers onto Al2O3-supported Pd nanoparticle catalysts to prepare bifunctional catalysts containing both Bronsted acid and metal sites. Modification with phosphonic acids (PAs) improved activity and selectivity for gas-phase DO reactions, but the degree of improvement was highly sensitive to both the presence and positioning of the CA group, suggesting a significant contribution from both the PA and CA sites. Short spacer lengths of 1-2 methylene groups between the phosphonate head and CA tail were found to yield the best DO rates and selectivities, whereas longer chains performed similarly to self-assembled monolayers having alkyl tails. Results from a combination of density functional theory and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that the enhanced catalyst performance on the optimally positioned CAs was due to the generation of strong acid sites on the Al2O3 support adjacent to the metal. Furthermore, the high activity of these sites was found to result from a hydrogen-bonded cyclic structure involving cooperativity between the phosphonate head group and CA tail function. More broadly, these results indicate that functional groups tethered to supports via organic ligands can influence catalytic chemistry on metal nanoparticles.

  12. Developing Digital Dashboard Management for Learning System Dynamic Cooperative Simulation Behavior of Indonesia. (Study on Cooperative Information Organization in the Ministry of Cooperatives and SME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eni, Yuli; Aryanto, Rudy

    2014-03-01

    There are problems being experienced by the Ministry of cooperatives and SME (Small and Medium Enterprise) including the length of time in the decision by the Government to establish a policy that should be taken for local cooperatives across the province of Indonesia. The decision-making process is still analyzed manually, so that sometimes the decisions taken are also less appropriate, effective and efficient. The second problem is the lack of monitoring data cooperative process province that is too much, making it difficult for the analysis of dynamic information to be useful. Therefore the authors want to fix the system that runs by using digital dashboard management system supported by the modeling of system dynamics. In addition, the author also did the design of a system that can support the system. Design of this system is aimed to ease the experts, head, and the government to decide (DSS - Decision Support System) accurately effectively and efficiently, because in the system are raised alternative simulation in a description of the decision to be taken and the result from the decision. The system is expected to be designed dan simulated can ease and expedite the decision making. The design of dynamic digital dashboard management conducted by method of OOAD (Objects Oriented Analysis and Design) complete with UML notation.

  13. Controlling Cooperative CO2 Adsorption in Diamine-Appended Mg2(dobpdc) Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegelman, Rebecca L; McDonald, Thomas M; Gonzalez, Miguel I; Martell, Jeffrey D; Milner, Phillip J; Mason, Jarad A; Berger, Adam H; Bhown, Abhoyjit S; Long, Jeffrey R

    2017-08-02

    In the transition to a clean-energy future, CO 2 separations will play a critical role in mitigating current greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating conversion to cleaner-burning and renewable fuels. New materials with high selectivities for CO 2 adsorption, large CO 2 removal capacities, and low regeneration energies are needed to achieve these separations efficiently at scale. Here, we present a detailed investigation of nine diamine-appended variants of the metal-organic framework Mg 2 (dobpdc) (dobpdc 4- = 4,4'-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate) that feature step-shaped CO 2 adsorption isotherms resulting from cooperative and reversible insertion of CO 2 into metal-amine bonds to form ammonium carbamate chains. Small modifications to the diamine structure are found to shift the threshold pressure for cooperative CO 2 adsorption by over 4 orders of magnitude at a given temperature, and the observed trends are rationalized on the basis of crystal structures of the isostructural zinc frameworks obtained from in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. The structure-activity relationships derived from these results can be leveraged to tailor adsorbents to the conditions of a given CO 2 separation process. The unparalleled versatility of these materials, coupled with their high CO 2 capacities and low projected energy costs, highlights their potential as next-generation adsorbents for a wide array of CO 2 separations.

  14. Public diplomacy and cooperation with non-governmental organizations in the liberal perspective of international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Broś

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of state cooperation with non-governmental organizations in public diplomacy. This has been explored in relation to the liberal perspective in international relations, which very clearly highlights the importance of NGOs as an influential participant in world politics. The article contains an analysis of the international system, categorizes the roles and functions of NGOs in international relations. It shows concepts on contemporary understanding of power and a clear focus on reinforcing and using components of soft power, including public diplomacy, in moden international relations. Methodological aspects are deepened by an analytical layer exploring Civil Society 2.0 Program, what is an example of an effective combination of diplomatic efforts between the state and NGOs to achieve common goals.

  15. Visit of H.E. Dr Abdolrahim Gavahi, Secretary General, Economic Cooperation Organization, Islamic Republic of Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 01: L.to r. Prof. Galileo Violini, Head, UNESCO Office, Teheran; Mr Jan van der Boon, CERN Director of Administration; H.E. Dr Abdolrahim Gavahi, Secretary General, Economic Cooperation Organization, Islamic Republic of Iran (signing the Guest Book); Dr John Ellis, CERN Adviser for Non-Member State Relations and Dr Behzad Alipour Tehrany Photo 02: Mr Jan van der Boon, CERN Director of Administration (left) and Dr John Ellis, CERN Adviser for Non-Member State Relations (right) on the occasion of the visit of H.E. Dr Abdolrahim Gavahi, Secretary General, Economic Cooperation Organization, Islamic Republic of Iran.

  16. Self-organized control in cooperative robots using a pattern formation principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starke, Jens; Ellsaesser, Carmen; Fukuda, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    Self-organized modular approaches proved in nature to be robust and optimal and are a promising strategy to control future concepts of flexible and modular manufacturing processes. We show how this can be applied to a model of flexible manufacturing based on time-dependent robot-target assignment problems where robot teams have to serve manufacturing targets such that an objective function is optimized. Feasibility of the self-organized solutions can be guaranteed even for unpredictable situations like sudden changes in the demands or breakdowns of robots. As example an uncrewed space mission is visualized in a simulation where robots build a space station. - Highlights: → Adapting a pattern formation principle to control cooperative robots in a robust way. → Flexible manufacturing systems are modelled by time-dependent assignment problems. → Coupled selection equations guarantee feasibility of solutions. → Solution structure (permutations) is not destroyed by inhomogeneous growth rates. → Example of an uncrewed space mission shows effectivity and robustness.

  17. The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization : implications for Northeast Asian regional security co-operation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper identifies opportunities for co-operation on regional development and security in the North Pacific region. The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) was created in 1993 during bilateral negotiations between the United States and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (US-DPRK) over North Korea's alleged nuclear weapons program. The negotiations resulted in an agreement to freeze North Korea's known nuclear weapons program in return for the construction of two proliferation-resistant 100 MWe light water reactors (LWR) in North Korea, and the provision of 500,000 tons of heavy fuel oil per year until the completion of the LWR construction as compensation for lost energy production capacity resulting from the shutting down of North Korea's nuclear reactors. The author described the activities of KEDO and examined its internal dynamics. The unique circumstances that produced the Agreed Framework and KEDO in response to a major international crisis of the nuclear program in the DPRK were also highlighted along with the US-DPRK bilateral agreement and the multilateral institution involving the United States, South Korea, Japan and the European Union. Financial support from Australia and Canada was discussed along with the mechanism for engaging North Korea in regularized interaction and technical cooperation. It was concluded that KEDO's record of successes and failures is mixed. The energy security issue has been identified as an area that could result in conflict among Northeast Asian countries which are increasingly dependent on oil supplies from the Middle East. In response, numerous multilateral financing mechanisms have been developed to promote joint business opportunities that exploit natural gas resources in the Russian Far East to address Japanese, Korean and Chinese energy needs. 35 refs

  18. 76 FR 54235 - Supplement to the FY2010 Single-Source Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ...''. BARDA currently funds the development of vaccine manufacturing capacity in ten developing and emerging-economy countries worldwide via a cooperative agreement with the World Health Organization (WHO). The... Research and Development Authority was developed and has been operational [[Page 54236

  19. 77 FR 9225 - Allegheny Electric Cooperative, Inc., et al. v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Organization of PJM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ...-58-010] Allegheny Electric Cooperative, Inc., et al. v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Organization of PJM States, Inc., et al. v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February... by section 18.17.4 of the Amended and Restated Operating Agreement of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. and...

  20. Assessment of persistency and bioaccumulation in pesticide registration frameworks within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montforts, Mark H M M

    This article describes the results of a survey conducted in 2003 on methods used by different member countries within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to evaluate persistent and bioaccumulative pesticides. The objectives were to establish the differences in taking

  1. Organic mixed farms in the landscape of a brook valley. How can a co-operative of organic farms contribute to ecological and aesthetic qualities of a landscape?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.

    1997-01-01

    Under which conditions would an organic mixed farm co-operative contribute to the aesthetic and ecological quality of the landscape? The orientation of people in space and time is considered an important aspect of aesthetic quality. To facilitate orientation in space and time a landscape should

  2. UNO contribution to attract energy investments in transition economy countries in cooperation with international organizations, banks, and the business community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groza, L.

    1996-01-01

    Limited financial resources hamper the ability of transition economy countries to take advantage of recent technological progress in energy production, distribution, and consumption. Increased cooperation within and outside the UN system imposed new approaches and action programs to identify financing channels in view of implementing the economic development projects. Since the CNE'94 round table discussions on the role of the UN Economic Commission for Europe in energy cooperation for sustainable development and assistance for transition economy countries, new actions initiated by UN are supported by international organizations, banks, and the business community. The paper is based on recent UN documents, data, and information after six years of reforms. (author). 14 refs

  3. Flexibility Matters: Cooperative Active Sites in Covalent Organic Framework and Threaded Ionic Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Aguila, Briana; Perman, Jason; Nguyen, Nicholas; Ma, Shengqian

    2016-12-07

    The combination of two or more reactive centers working in concert on a substrate to facilitate the reaction is now considered state of the art in catalysis, yet there still remains a tremendous challenge. Few heterogeneous systems of this sort have been exploited, as the active sites spatially separated within the rigid framework are usually difficult to cooperate. It is now shown that this roadblock can be surpassed. The underlying principle of the strategy presented here is the integration of catalytic components with excellent flexibility and porous heterogeneous catalysts, as demonstrated by the placement of linear ionic polymers in close proximity to surface Lewis acid active sites anchored on the walls of a covalent organic framework (COF). Using the cycloaddition of the epoxides and CO 2 as a model reaction, dramatic activity improvements have been achieved for the composite catalysts in relation to the individual catalytic component. Furthermore, they also clearly outperform the benchmark catalytic systems formed by the combination of the molecular organocatalysts and heterogeneous Lewis acid catalysts, while affording additional recyclability. The extraordinary flexibility and enriched concentration of the catalytically active moieties on linear polymers facilitate the concerted catalysis, thus leading to superior catalytic performance. This work therefore uncovers an entirely new strategy for designing bifunctional catalysts with double-activation behavior and opens a new avenue in the design of multicapable systems that mimic biocatalysis.

  4. Design and Control of Cooperativity in Spin-Crossover in Metal–Organic Complexes: A Theoretical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrishit Banerjee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metal organic complexes consisting of transition metal centers linked by organic ligands, may show bistability which enables the system to be observed in two different electronic states depending on external condition. One of the spectacular examples of molecular bistability is the spin-crossover phenomena. Spin-Crossover (SCO describes the phenomena in which the transition metal ion in the complex under the influence of external stimuli may show a crossover between a low-spin and high-spin state. For applications in memory devices, it is desirable to make the SCO phenomena cooperative, which may happen with associated hysteresis effect. In this respect, compounds with extended solid state structures containing metal ions connected by organic spacer linkers like linear polymers, coordination network solids are preferred candidates over isolated molecules or molecular assemblies. The microscopic understanding, design and control of mechanism driving cooperativity, however, are challenging. In this review we discuss the recent theoretical progress in this direction.

  5. Greed and Fear in Network Reciprocity: Implications for Cooperation among Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, James A.; Leal, Diego F.; Felps, Will; Jones, Thomas M.; Berman, Shawn L.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive interdisciplinary literatures have built on the seminal spatial dilemmas model, which depicts the evolution of cooperation on regular lattices, with strategies propagating locally by relative fitness. In this model agents may cooperate with neighbors, paying an individual cost to enhance their collective welfare, or they may exploit cooperative neighbors and diminish collective welfare. Recent research has extended the model in numerous ways, incorporating behavioral noise, implementing other network topologies or adaptive networks, and employing alternative dynamics of replication. Although the underlying dilemma arises from two distinct dimensions—the gains for exploiting cooperative partners (Greed) and the cost of cooperating with exploitative partners (Fear)–most work following from the spatial dilemmas model has argued or assumed that the dilemma can be represented with a single parameter: This research has typically examined Greed or Fear in isolation, or a composite such as the K-index of Cooperation or the ratio of the benefit to cost of cooperation. We challenge this claim on theoretical grounds—showing that embedding interaction in networks generally leads Greed and Fear to have divergent, interactive, and highly nonlinear effects on cooperation at the macro level, even when individuals respond identically to Greed and Fear. Using computational experiments, we characterize both dynamic local behavior and long run outcomes across regions of this space. We also simulate interventions to investigate changes of Greed and Fear over time, showing how model behavior changes asymmetrically as boundaries in payoff space are crossed, leading some interventions to have irreversible effects on cooperation. We then replicate our experiments on inter-organizational network data derived from links through shared directors among 2,400 large US corporations, thus demonstrating our findings for Greed and Fear on a naturally-occurring network. In closing

  6. The society for gastrointestinal intervention. Are we, as an organization of disparate disciplines, cooperative or competitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarek, Richard A

    2010-09-01

    cure. Cooperative, not competitive. The potential for competition between disciplines comes in mundane situations and clinical settings that have historically been "owned" by a single discipline. On the one hand, placement of PEGS and PEJs, initially done endoscopically, can be done with equal facility and occasional failure, by endoscopists and interventional radiologists, reserving failed attempts for minimally invasive surgery. What resources are utilized with these three methods? Are there advantages to defining the mucosa of the gut lumen in all, or even a subset of patients? By way of contrast, acute cholecystectomy tubes in high surgical risk patients have usually been the domain of the radiologist, although I described transcystic duct gallbladder decompression endoscopically 2½ decades ago. With the advent of new devices delivered under EUS control, the gallbladder will now be readily accessible endoscopically. What does this mean both for the acutely ill patient without a window to approach their gallbladder radiologically? Will this play a bit part and a cooperative technique to expand our therapeutic armamentarium or will it become competitive therapeutically not only for IR but for minimally invasive surgeons? The same may be said for EUS's ability to inject genes, caustics, or chemo-therapeutic agents into organs adjacent to the lumen. What is the role of TNFerade injection into unresectable pancreatic cancers and the role of absolute alcohol or Taxitol to treat cystic neoplasms of the pancreas? The real issue of competition or cooperation between the disciplines comes when treating patients with unresectable and obstructing GI neoplasms, from my perspective. The latter may occur almost anywhere in the GI tract but, of course, are more commonly noted proximally (esophagus, stomach, duodenum) and distally (left colon) as well as proximal and distal biliary obstructions. Recognizing that the occasional mid-small bowel and many proximal colon lesions are

  7. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  8. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part the are reviewed: Co-operation with IAEA; Participation of the Slovakia on the 41 st session of the General Conference; The comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization; Co-operation with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; co-operation with the European Commission; Fulfillment of obligations resulting from the international contracting documents

  9. A Cooperative Copper Metal-Organic Framework-Hydrogel System Improves Wound Healing in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jisheng; Chen, Siyu; Yi, Ji; Zhang, Hao; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2017-01-05

    Chronic non-healing wounds remain a major clinical challenge that would benefit from the development of advanced, regenerative dressings that promote wound closure within a clinically relevant time frame. The use of copper ions has shown promise in wound healing applications possibly by promoting angiogenesis. However, reported treatments that use copper ions require multiple applications of copper salts or oxides to the wound bed, exposing the patient to potentially toxic levels of copper ions and resulting in variable outcomes. Herein we set out to assess whether copper metal organic framework nanoparticles (HKUST-1 NPs) embedded within an antioxidant thermoresponsive citrate-based hydrogel would decrease copper ion toxicity and accelerate wound healing in diabetic mice. HKUST-1 and poly-(polyethyleneglycol citrate-co- N -isopropylacrylamide) (PPCN) were synthesized and characterized. HKUST-1 NP stability in a protein solution with and without embedding them in PPCN hydrogel was determined. Copper ion release, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and in vitro migration processes were measured. Wound closure rates and wound blood perfusion were assessed in vivo using the splinted excisional dermal wound diabetic mouse model. HKUST-1 NP disintegrated in protein solution while HKUST-1 NPs embedded in PPCN (H-HKUST-1) were protected from degradation and copper ions were slowly released. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis due to copper ion release were significantly reduced while dermal cell migration in vitro and wound closure rates in vivo were significantly enhanced. In vivo , H-HKUST-1 induced angiogenesis, collagen deposition, and re-epithelialization during wound healing in diabetic mice. These results suggest that a cooperatively stabilized, copper ion-releasing H-HKUST-1 hydrogel is a promising innovative dressing for the treatment of chronic wounds.

  10. 7 CFR 1484.20 - How can my organization apply to the Cooperator program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that it is accepting applications for participation in the Cooperator program for a specified marketing... performance of competing suppliers, expected changes in demand, etc.; (ii) The long-term strategy that will be...

  11. Organization for security and co-operation in Europe mission to Georgia / Joe McDonagh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McDonagh, Joe

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne OSCE missiooni tegevusest Gruusias

  12. Lessons from a cooperative, bacterial-animal association: the Vibrio fischeri-Euprymna scolopes light organ symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, E G

    1996-01-01

    Although the study of microbe-host interactions has been traditionally dominated by an interest in pathogenic associations, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of cooperative symbiotic interactions in the biology of many bacteria and their animal and plant hosts. This review examines a model system for the study of such symbioses, the light organ association between the bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes and the marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Specifically, the initiation, establishment, and persistence of the benign bacterial infection of the juvenile host light organ are described, as are efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying this specific colonization program. Using molecular genetic techniques, mutant strains of V. fischeri have been constructed that are defective at specific stages of the development of the association. Some of the lessons that these mutants have begun to teach us about the complex and long-term nature of this cooperative venture are summarized.

  13. Conference Report: "Knowledge Organization in Cooperative Learning and Working Environments". 8th Conference of the International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO), German Chapter

    OpenAIRE

    Doris A. Ohnesorge; H. Peter Ohly

    2003-01-01

    The report gives an overview of a conference that recognized and focused upon the fundamentals of knowledge organization as well asked questions and offered solutions for practice. The primary emphasis was given to the application of cooperative learning and working environments. The special value of this conference was the focus of the presentations and detailed discussions on current topics in the information sciences. Although the spectrum ranged from scientific to organizational environme...

  14. A COMPARISON OF ASTRONOMY IN 15 MEMBER COUNTRIES OF THE ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERKRUIT, PC

    1994-01-01

    Various data are collected for 15 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) that have to do with the practising of astronomy: (1) using the report of the Astronomy expert meeting of the Megascience Forum of the OECD, the level of astronomy funding, size of

  15. Managing conflict in Dutch organizations: A test of the relevance of DeutschUs cooperation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Tjosvold, D.

    1997-01-01

    Deutsch's theory of cooperative and competitive conflict may be usefully extended to Dutch people. Results of LISREL analyses on data collected from interviews of Dutch employees in 2 companies indicate that competitive goals interfered with the open, constructive discussion of opposing views.

  16. Organized network for supporting the amateur-scientist co-operation in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, V.; Haukka, H.; Oksanen, A.; Hentunen, V.-P.

    2014-04-01

    PROAM network is a working group of Ursa Astronomical Association [1] for supporting Finnish amateur astronomers participating to co-operation projects between professional and amateur astronomers. The network relays the information on projects, maintains professional contacts and arranges training on technical skills for research work.

  17. Highly Efficient Cooperative Catalysis by Co III (Porphyrin) Pairs in Interpenetrating Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zekai; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Wenbin (UC); (Xiamen)

    2016-12-02

    A series of porous twofold interpenetrated In-CoIII(porphyrin) metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) were constructed by in situ metalation of porphyrin bridging ligands and used as efficient cooperative catalysts for the hydration of terminal alkynes. The twofold interpenetrating structure brings adjacent CoIII(porphyrins) in the two networks parallel to each other with a distance of about 8.8 Å, an ideal distance for the simultaneous activation of both substrates in alkyne hydration reactions. As a result, the In-CoIII(porphyrin) MOFs exhibit much higher (up to 38 times) catalytic activity than either homogeneous catalysts or MOF controls with isolated CoIII(porphyrin) centers, thus highlighting the potential application of MOFs in cooperative catalysis.

  18. Creating a Culture of Sustainability using Mission Statements of Cooperative Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraslinda Abdul Aris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mission statements are recognized as effective strategic management tools that influence firms’ performance. The evolution of a culture of sustainability begins with a mission statement that strikes a balance between financial performance and social commitments. The clear articulation of sustainability as part of the firm’s mission, values, goals, and strategy are key factors in fostering sustainability focused culture. This study illustrates the fundamental tenets of the culture of organizational sustainability model proposed by Galpin, Whitttington, and Bell (2015 using selected cooperatives in Malaysia. The contents of the mission statements were then analyze using the nine elements model by Pearce and David (1987 in findings its relations to and the existence of sustainability culture within the cooperatives. Findings from the study confirm building an organizational infrastructure that fosters a culture of sustainability results in positive employee and organizational-level sustainability performance. A reference was made to Bank Rakyat, one of the leading cooperative-based banking in the country for its outstanding performance.

  19. 77 FR 57567 - Single Source Cooperative Agreement Award for World Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... Organization AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and... Organization for a grant titled: ``Smallpox Research Oversight Activities: WHO Advisory Committee on Variola... notification to World Health Organization (WHO) as soon as possible, and any confirmed smallpox case would...

  20. On agent cooperation : the relevance of cognitive plausibility for multiagent simulation models of organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, J.

    2001-01-01

    Human organizations and computational multiagent systems both are social systems because they are both made up of a large number of interacting parts. Since human organizations are arrangements of distributed real intelligence, any DAI model is in some sense a model of an organization. This

  1. On agent cooperation : The relevance of cognitive plausibility for multiagent simulation models of organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, J. van den

    2001-01-01

    Human organizations and computational multiagent systems both are social systems because they are both made up of a large number of interacting parts. Since human organizations are arrangements of distributed real intelligence, any DAI model is in some sense a model of an organization. This

  2. Cooperation, trust and confidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, T.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Urze, P.C.G.D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental complexity may strain cooperative relationships, both within and beyond organizations, for two reasons. First, when complexity implies uncertainty the predictability of change disappears. Secondly, change may and often will entail different estimates of the cooperating partners on the

  3. Inertia in Cooperative Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Jerker

    1997-01-01

    Which organization model is appropriate for a cooperative enterprise depends on the prerequisites in its business environment. When conditions are changing, the firm must adapt itself. The entry of Sweden, Finland, and Austria into the European Union led to radical changes for agricultural cooperation, especially for Swedish cooperatives since agricultural policy was not allowed a transitional period. After two years, Swedish cooperatives have still not adapted their organization model despit...

  4. Cooperation in carbon source degradation shapes spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on hydrated surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tecon, Robin; Or, Dani

    2017-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural microbial communities exhibit a high level of spatial organization at the micrometric scale that facilitate ecological interactions and support biogeochemical cycles. Microbial patterns are difficult to study definitively in natural environments due to complex biodiversity, observability and variable physicochemical factors. Here, we examine how trophic dependencies give rise to self-organized spatial patterns of a well-defined bacterial consortium grow...

  5. Cooperative control for self-organizing microgrids and game strategies for optimal dispatch of distributed renewable generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maknouninejad, Ali; Lin, Wei; Harno, Hendra G.; Qu, Zhihua; Simaan, Marwan A. [University of Central Florida, Department of EECS, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2012-03-15

    The small size, extensively dispersed and decentralized, and high penetration level of renewable energy sources in the future smart grids make the application of conventional optimal power flow (OPF) neither practical nor economical. In this paper, a practical approach is proposed to realize high penetration of distributed generators (DGs) by organizing them in some groups within a microgrid and dispatching the generated power aggregately. Each group may have virtual leaders which define the power policy of the group, and all other DGs cooperatively follow that policy. A fair utilization ratio is defined and will be introduced to the group by the virtual leaders. The utilization ratio indicates what percentage of the available power each DG has to feed to the grid, and this ratio will also be propagated within the group using cooperative control. As such, a smartgrid may treat microgrids as individually dispatchable loads or generators. Meanwhile, the interaction between each microgrid and the main grid can be formulated as a Stackelberg game. The main grid as the leader, by offering proper energy price to the micro grid, minimizes its cost and secures the power supply that the microgrid, as the follower, is willing to dispatch. It is shown that this game theoretic approach not only guarantees profit optimization, but also provides a convenient technique to optimize power flow from microgrids to the main grid. Numerical and simulation results for a case of study are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques. (orig.)

  6. Mobility Model for Self-Organizing and Cooperative MSN and MANET Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Sikora

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-organization mechanisms are used for building scalable systems consisting of a huge number of subsystems. In computer networks, self-organizing is especially important in ad hoc networking. A self-organizing ad hoc network is a collection of wireless devices that collaborate with each other to form a network system that adapts to achieve a goal or goals. Such network is often built from mobile devices that may spontaneously create a network and dynamically adapted to changes in an unknown environment. Mobility pattern is a critical element that influences the performance characteristics of mobile sensor networks (MSN and mobile ad hoc networks (MANET. In this paper, we survey main directions to mobility modeling. We describe a novel algorithm for calculating mobility patterns for mobile devices that is based on a cluster formation and an artificial potential function. Finally, we present the simulation results of its application to a rescue mission planning.

  7. The Physics of Plutonium Fuels - A Review of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, Kevin; Delpech, Marc; Sartori, Enrico

    2000-01-01

    In 1993, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency first convened the Working Group on the Physics of Plutonium Recycle (WPPR) (now renamed the Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles). Since its inception, the WPPR (whose task has now been expanded to include innovative fuel cycles) has published six volumes of detailed results from analyses of plutonium fuel in pressurized water reactors and fast reactors. A seventh volume on the physics of plutonium fuel in boiling water reactors is in preparation. The analyses have been mostly in the form of theoretical benchmark exercises for situations beyond current experience, for which multinational contributions provide a basis for comparison of diverse calculational methods and nuclear data libraries. The overall activities of the WPPR are reviewed and summarized

  8. Organization of Cooperation in Education and Science with Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Moshlyak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the above article the problems associated with the organization of student exchanges on the example of Argentina are revealed, as well as practical recommendations for improving the implementation of academic mobility with the countries of Latin America.

  9. CHROME: An Approach to Teaching the Concept of Inter-Functional Cooperation in Services Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lester W.

    2010-01-01

    When teaching a services course (e.g., Services Marketing) it is essential that students understand that marketing/management, operations and human resource management within the service organization be fully coordinated. One useful acronym used to remind students of this need is "CHROME", standing for Communications, Human Resources,…

  10. Self-organized control in cooperative robots using a pattern formation principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens; Ellsaesser, Carmen; Fukuda, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    problems where robot teams have to serve manufacturing targets such that an objective function is optimized. Feasibility of the self-organized solutions can be guaranteed even for unpredictable situations like sudden changes in the demands or breakdowns of robots. As example an uncrewed space mission...

  11. C. elegans STRADalpha and SAD cooperatively regulate neuronal polarity and synaptic organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joanne S M; Hung, Wesley; Narbonne, Patrick; Roy, Richard; Zhen, Mei

    2010-01-01

    Neurons are polarized cells with morphologically and functionally distinct axons and dendrites. The SAD kinases are crucial for establishing the axon-dendrite identity across species. Previous studies suggest that a tumour suppressor kinase, LKB1, in the presence of a pseudokinase, STRADalpha, initiates axonal differentiation and growth through activating the SAD kinases in vertebrate neurons. STRADalpha was implicated in the localization, stabilization and activation of LKB1 in various cell culture studies. Its in vivo functions, however, have not been examined. In our present study, we analyzed the neuronal phenotypes of the first loss-of-function mutants for STRADalpha and examined their genetic interactions with LKB1 and SAD in C. elegans. Unexpectedly, only the C. elegans STRADalpha, STRD-1, functions exclusively through the SAD kinase, SAD-1, to regulate neuronal polarity and synaptic organization. Moreover, STRD-1 tightly associates with SAD-1 to coordinate its synaptic localizations. By contrast, the C. elegans LKB1, PAR-4, also functions in an additional genetic pathway independently of SAD-1 and STRD-1 to regulate neuronal polarity. We propose that STRD-1 establishes neuronal polarity and organizes synaptic proteins in a complex with the SAD-1 kinase. Our findings suggest that instead of a single, linear genetic pathway, STRADalpha and LKB1 regulate neuronal development through multiple effectors that are shared in some cellular contexts but distinct in others.

  12. Cooperatives as Entrants

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Sexton; Terri A. Sexton

    1987-01-01

    A potential shortcoming of game-theoretic models in industrial organization is their failure to consider consumers as players. We introduce a customer coalition --- a cooperative -- as a potential entrant and compare the cooperative entry threat with that posed by the usual for-profit entrant. We identify four fundamental distinctions between cooperative and for-profit entrants and demonstrate that the strategic interplay between a cooperative and an incumbent firm may differ markedly from th...

  13. Choosing the cooperative option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, G. (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (United States))

    1999-06-01

    Cooperatives do not ask to be exempted from the law. They do ask that laws and regulations be designed to allow them to meet the needs of their consumer-owners in accordance with cooperative principles, at a time that the marginal consumers being abandoned by for-profit utilities may be ready to gravitate toward cooperatives. The cooperative principles are worth reviewing because they explain the focus on the consumer and the cooperative concept of service: cooperatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership; cooperatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting policies and making decisions, the elected representatives are accountable to the membership; members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative; cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members, if they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy; cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives, they inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of cooperation; cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strength the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures; and while focusing on member needs, cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.

  14. FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF USING CLOUD SERVICES FOR THE INFORMATION-ANALYTICAL SUPPORT OF THE ORGANIZATION OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION OF UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign experience of using cloud services for the information-analytical support of the organization of international cooperation of universities is presented in the article. The best practices of using cloud services like new analytical tools and platforms for solving complex problems of optimization of the management of scientific and international activities of universities are analyzed. Architecture of the cloud computing environment as a system is analysed; it consists of 4 blocks: hardware; infrastructure; platforms and applications and cloud taxonomy for the organization of the scientific, academic and international activities of the University support, as well as taxonomy of the main cloud technologies to support the University's academic and international activities. The activities of the leading universities of the world for 2016-2017 are monitored and the expert results of Quacquarelli Symonds specialists’ are presented according to the World University Ratings. The evaluation was carried out based on more than 50 different indicators, such as: academic reputation; employer's reputation; faculty / student rate; reference (quotation about the faculty; international correlation of faculties; international student rate; assessment of the quality of researches of scientists and determination of productivity of the university; number of quotes; graduate university rewards; assessment of teaching quality; employment opportunity; Internationalization, which includes statistical indicators for the number of foreign students styding at University; number of exchange students; number of international partnership Agreements with other universities; accessibility; the possibility of distance learning; social responsibility; innovation; art and culture; inclusiveness, etc.

  15. Cooperative studyware development of organic chemistry module by experts, teachers, and students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Yehudit J.

    1995-06-01

    Experts, teachers, and students took active part in a process of organic chemistry studyware development. A unique characteristic of this process was the active involvement of three different groups of people in the authoring process: science educators, chemistry teachers, and chemistry students studying towards an education certificate. The science educators—the experts—advised the team on new methods of presenting the subject matter in an appealing way, using 3D computerized molecular modeling. The in-service chemistry teachers contributed from their rich field experience to constructing the studyware. This mutual development helped maintain the balance between expert requirements and expectations from students on one hand, and the actual student capabilities, as perceived by teachers through constant contact with the students, on the other. Finally, the preservice teachers—the undergraduate chemistry students—were often zealous, enthusiastic, and willing to put in the extra time and effort needed to produce quality studyware, while following the guidelines of the experts and teachers. Feedback on the qualities and shortcomings of the studyware was obtained in two cycles. The first one was done while the studyware was still under development by peers, and the second by individual target students, serving as a beta-site. This double feedback helped improve the studyware, mainly by elaborating on portions that require more detail and explanation. The paper describes the process as well as representative parts of the studyware. The combination of experts, teachers, and students in the development team seems to have the potential to yield studyware that is appropriate for effective science education in general and chemistry teaching in particular.

  16. 'Co-operation and Communism cannot work side by side': Organized Consumers and the Early Cold War in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Peter

    2018-04-02

    This article contributes to a better understanding of labour anti-communism in Britain through an exploration of the evolution of ideas and attitudes within the co-operative movement during the early Cold War. It demonstrates that the period witnessed an increasingly rigid separation of co-operation from communism and argues that this separation made it harder for activists within the co-operative movement to imagine a total or utopian alternative to capitalism. Drawing particularly on a close reading of the co-operative press as well as other sources, the study is divided into three main parts. The first section discusses sympathy among co-operators for the achievements of the Soviet Union, which increased during the war against fascism. The article then moves on to consider the continuing dialogue between British co-operators and their counterparts in European communist states and how international tensions shaped co-operators' views. The final major section explores the hardening of attitude towards communism after Marshall Aid was declared in June 1947, and underlines the role played by figures such as A. V. Alexander and Jack Bailey who worked with the Information Research Department at the Foreign Office to spread anti-communism within the movement. The conclusion reflects, more speculatively, on what implications this shift may have had for the medium and long-term decline of co-operation and the hegemony of capitalist consumerism post-war.

  17. State and regional systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials cooperation between international, regional and states safeguards organizations: An evolving issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández Moreno, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation between the IAEA, States and regional organizations is increasingly important to ensure effective accountancy and control of nuclear material in peaceful uses. The IAEA, SAGSI2 and institutions such INMM3 and ESARDA4 have recognized the relevance and the evolving role that SSAC5 and regional organizations play to this aim. In this context, it is important to take steps to ensure the effectiveness of the system and the optimal level of relationship between these organizations so as to maximize the benefits for each party, particularly in those cases where well developed systems exist. Moreover, expansion of nuclear energy requires concerted efforts towards building competence in safeguards in all relevant States. This is also important with respect to other aspects of nonproliferation. In this scenario there is agreement on the need to have effective state organizations that fulfill international safeguards and other security obligations. However, the roles and duties of SSAC and the possible scope of cooperation between the IAEA and SSAC are still under evolution. This paper discusses possible ways and means to build competence in safeguards and how the international community could be more proactive in establishing a framework including the various dimensions of the cooperation in safeguards and other security matters between all parties concerned. The establishment of a forum and a network of interested parties under the auspice of interested organizations could be one mechanism to exchange best practices and experiences. (authors)

  18. International cooperation for operating safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1989-03-01

    The international-cooperation organization in nuclear safety domain is discussed. The nuclear energy Direction Committee is helped by the Security Committee for Nuclear Power Plants in the cooperation between security organizations of member countries and in the safety and nuclear activity regulations. The importance of the cooperation between experts in human being and engine problems is underlined. The applied methods, exchange activities and activity analysis, and the cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency and international organizations is analysed [fr

  19. Metal-organic cooperative catalysis in C-H and C-C bond activation and its concurrent recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Jun; Park, Jung-Woo; Jun, Chul-Ho

    2008-02-01

    The development of an efficient catalytic activation (cleavage) system for C-H and C-C bonds is an important challenge in organic synthesis, because these bonds comprise a variety of organic molecules such as natural products, petroleum oils, and polymers on the earth. Among many elegant approaches utilizing transition metals to activate C-H and C-C bonds facilely, chelation-assisted protocols based on the coordinating ability of an organic moiety have attracted great attention, though they have often suffered from the need for an intact coordinating group in a substrate. In this Account, we describe our entire efforts to activate C-H or C-C bonds adjacent to carbonyl groups by employing a new concept of metal-organic cooperative catalysis (MOCC), which enables the temporal installation of a 2-aminopyridyl group into common aldehydes or ketones in a catalytic way. Consequently, a series of new catalytic reactions such as alcohol hydroacylation, oxo-ester synthesis, C-C triple bond cleavage, hydrative dimerization of alkynes, and skeletal rearrangements of cyclic ketones was realized through MOCC. In particular, in the quest for an optimized MOCC system composed of a Wilkinson's catalyst (Ph 3P) 3RhCl and an organic catalyst (2-amino-3-picoline), surprising efficiency enhancements could be achieved when benzoic acid and aniline were introduced as promoters for the aldimine formation process. Furthermore, a notable accomplishment of C-C bond activation has been made using 2-amino-3-picoline as a temporary chelating auxiliary in the reactions of unstrained ketones with various terminal olefins and Wilkinson's catalyst. In the case of seven-membered cyclic ketones, an interesting ring contraction to five- or six-membered ones takes place through skeletal rearrangements initiated by the C-C bond activation of MOCC. On the other hand, the fundamental advances of these catalytic systems into recyclable processes could be achieved by immobilizing both metal and organic

  20. Fuel irradiation research of Japan at Halden reactor. Achievement of cooperative researches between JAERI and several organizations in the period from 2000 to 2002 (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    JAERI has performed cooperative researches with several Japanese organizations utilizing the Halden Boiling Heavy Water Reactor(HBWR) which is located at Halden in Norway. These researches are carried out based on the contracts of the cooperative researches, which are revised every three years, in accordance with the renewal of the participation of JAERI to the OECD Halden Reactor Project. This report summarizes the objectives, contents and outlines of the achievements of the cooperative researches during the three years from 2000 January to 2002 December. During the period, seven cooperative researches had been carried out. Two of them had been completed and other five researches have been continued to the next three-year period. Most of them are irradiation test researches of advanced fuel and cladding in order to prepare the higher burnup utilization and introduction of LWR fuel and MOX fuel in LWRs of Japan. As the researches of fuel irradiation usually take long time for preparing test and irradiation, three years are usually not enough to obtain some achievements from the irradiation tests. Therefore, five cooperative researches have been continued to the next three-year period. In this report, the achievements of the researches continued to the next period are not final one but a kind of progress report. (author)

  1. Ageing as a price of cooperation and complexity: self-organization of complex systems causes the gradual deterioration of constituent networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Huba J M; Mihalik, Agoston; Nánási, Tibor; Ory, Bálint; Spiró, Zoltán; Soti, Csaba; Csermely, Peter

    2009-06-01

    The network concept is increasingly used for the description of complex systems. Here, we summarize key aspects of the evolvability and robustness of the hierarchical network set of macromolecules, cells, organisms and ecosystems. Listing the costs and benefits of cooperation as a necessary behaviour to build this network hierarchy, we outline the major hypothesis of the paper: the emergence of hierarchical complexity needs cooperation leading to the ageing (i.e. gradual deterioration) of the constituent networks. A stable environment develops cooperation leading to over-optimization, and forming an 'always-old' network, which accumulates damage, and dies in an apoptosis-like process. A rapidly changing environment develops competition forming a 'forever-young' network, which may suffer an occasional over-perturbation exhausting system resources, and causing death in a necrosis-like process. Giving a number of examples we demonstrate how cooperation evokes the gradual accumulation of damage typical to ageing. Finally, we show how various forms of cooperation and consequent ageing emerge as key elements in all major steps of evolution from the formation of protocells to the establishment of the globalized, modern human society.

  2. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  3. Theoretical study on the cooperative exciton dissociation process based on dimensional and hot charge-transfer state effects in an organic photocell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Tomomi; Nakajima, Takahito

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the exciton dissociation process at the donor–acceptor interface in organic photocells. In our previous study, we introduced a local temperature to handle the hot charge-transfer (CT) state and calculated the exciton dissociation probability based on the 1D organic semiconductor model [T. Shimazaki and T. Nakajima, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 12538 (2015)]. Although the hot CT state plays an essential role in exciton dissociations, the probabilities calculated are not high enough to efficiently separate bound electron–hole pairs. This paper focuses on the dimensional (entropy) effect together with the hot CT state effect and shows that cooperative behavior between both effects can improve the exciton dissociation process. In addition, we discuss cooperative effects with site-disorders and external-electric-fields.

  4. Analyzing the Effectiveness of the Self-organized Public-Key Management System on MANETs under the Lack of Cooperation and the Impersonation Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Eduardo; Dos Santos, Aldri Luiz; Lima, Michele N.; Albini, Luiz Carlos Pessoa

    Among the key management schemes for MANETs, the Self-Organized Public-Key Management System (PGP-Like) is the main chaining-based key management scheme. It is fully self-organized and does not require any certificate authority. Two kinds of misbehavior attacks are considered to be great threats to PGP-Like: lack of cooperation and impersonation attacks. This work quantifies the impact of such attacks on the PGP-Like. Simulation results show that PGP-Like was able to maintain its effectiveness when submitted to the lack of cooperation attack, contradicting previously theoretical results. It correctly works even in the presence of more than 60% of misbehaving nodes, although the convergence time is affected with only 20% of misbehaving nodes. On the other hand, PGP-Like is completely vulnerable to the impersonation attack. Its functionality is affected with just 5% of misbehaving nodes, confirming previously theoretical results.

  5. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations; Teksty Soglashenij o Sotrudnichestve Mezhdu Agentstvom i Regional 'Nymi Mezhpravitel' Stvennymi Organizacijami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-02-07

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency [Russian] Teksty soglashenii Agentstva o sotrudnichestve s perechislennymi nizhe regional'nymi mezhpravitel'stvennymi organizacijami vmeste s sootvetstvujushhimi protokolami, udostoverjajushhimi ih autentichnost'; soglashenija perechisleny v porjadke vstuplenija ih v silu.

  6. Money laundering in the convention on combating bribery of foreign public officials in international business transactions of the organization for cooperation and development (OECD)

    OpenAIRE

    Notari Bonini Notari; Rogério Gesta Leal

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the phenomenon of corruption and money laundering and how they are being addressed this issue under the Convention on Combating Public Officials Corruption Foreigners in Transactions Organization of International Trade for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the formulation of public policies for Combating Corruption and Money Laundering, by the Brazilian State. The Money Laundering is a species of corrupting practices, so that this type of illicit und...

  7. Links between internal and external cooperation in product development : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, B; Biemans, WG

    While there is an overwhelming amount of publications on cooperation in product development projects, they mainly,focus on cooperation between business functions within an organization (internal cooperation) or on cooperation between organizations (external cooperation). Yet the relationship between

  8. 1 November 2012 - Signature of the Co-operation Agreement between the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (COLCIENCIAS) of Colombia and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics and related technologies by CERN Director-General R. Heuer, witnessed by Ambassador of Colombia to Switzerland C. Turbay Quintero.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    1 November 2012 - Signature of the Co-operation Agreement between the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (COLCIENCIAS) of Colombia and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics and related technologies by CERN Director-General R. Heuer, witnessed by Ambassador of Colombia to Switzerland C. Turbay Quintero.

  9. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  10. Cooperative Purchasing Guidelines. Background and Research, Pros and Cons, Examples of Exemplary Programs, Sample Forms, and Organization Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of School Business Officials, Chicago, IL.

    Cooperative purchasing programs among school districts have grown rapidly in the past decade, but significant questions remain about the benefits and drawbacks of such programs. This document presents the results of a project sponsored by the Association of School Business Officials for the purpose of addressing these questions. Comprising…

  11. Analysis of the operation of the organs of internal control in the non agricultural cooperatives of the county of Pinar del Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis del Llano Sobrino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The achievement of a good operation of any entity, demands a high efficiency in the acting of its organs of internal control. It guarantees it that they are detected and prevent the internal deficiencies that affect the achievement of the objectives of the company, on time either material, social and financial without to wait to that coming organisms from the exterior of the entity are those that detect the same ones. At the present time the Non Agricultural Cooperatives in Cuba, are not isolated of this problem, being evidenced structural and functional inadequacies of the organs of internal control in the same ones that affect their inspection processes as well as the control of the execution of the agreements of their General Assembly of Associates. For what is necessary to propose a structure and functions for the organs of the Non Agricultural Cooperatives that it contributes to the improvement of their internal control and consequently the improvement of their economic and social administration.

  12. Proposal for a Co-operation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) concerning Scientific and Technical Co-o

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Proposal for a Co-operation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) concerning Scientific and Technical Co-o

  13. Co-operation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arab

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Co-operation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arab

  14. The governance of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.

  15. The Relationship Between Core Members' Social Capital and Perceived and Externally Evaluated Prestige and Cooperation Among HIV/AIDS-Related Civil Society Organizations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danni; Xu, Xiaoru; Mei, Guangliang; Ma, Ying; Chen, Ren; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the core members' social capital was associated with individually perceived and externally evaluated prestige and cooperation among the HIV/AIDS-related civil society organizations (CSOs). To accomplish this, a cross-sectional study using multistage sampling was carried out in eight provinces of China. Data were collected from the 327 core members via questionnaires and self-evaluated performance of the respondents were evaluated and measured. The interviews were conducted with all core members and the supervisory staff of the local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that social support (adjusted odds ratio [a OR] = 1.87) and organizational commitment (a OR = 1.57) were significantly associated with a higher odds of prestige performance in self-evaluation. Furthermore, social support (a OR = 1.65), trust (a OR = 1.33), and organizational commitment (a OR = 1.52) were significantly correlated with cooperation performance. Trust was positively associated with the cooperation performance on external evaluation. These findings may provide a new perspective on challenges that the CSOs face in response to a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. Social capital may increase performance and accelerate organizational growth, ultimately improving HIV/AIDS prevention and care.

  16. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations; Texto de los Acuerdos de Colaboracion del Organismo con las Organizaciones Intergubernamentales Regionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-02-07

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency [Spanish] Para conocimiento de todos los Estados Miembros del Organismo, en este documento se transcriben en el orden en que entraron en vigor, los acuerdos de colaboracion que el Organismo ha concertado con las organizaciones intergubernamentales regionales que a continuacion se enumeran, junto con los respectivos protocolos de autenticacion.

  17. Post-synthetic modification of porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic materials by cooperative addition of inorganic salts to enhance CO 2/CH 4 selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie

    2012-08-21

    Keeping MOM: Reaction of biphenyl-3,4\\',5-tricarboxylate and Cd(NO 3) 2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetratosylate afforded porph@MOM-11, a microporous metal-organic material (MOM) that encapsulates cationic porphyrins and solvent in alternating open channels. Porph@MOM-11 has cation and anion binding sites that facilitate cooperative addition of inorganic salts (such as M +Cl -) in a stoichiometric fashion. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Post-synthetic modification of porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic materials by cooperative addition of inorganic salts to enhance CO 2/CH 4 selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie; Gao, Wenyang; Wojtas, Łukasz; Ma, Shengqian; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Keeping MOM: Reaction of biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylate and Cd(NO 3) 2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetratosylate afforded porph@MOM-11, a microporous metal-organic material (MOM) that encapsulates cationic porphyrins and solvent in alternating open channels. Porph@MOM-11 has cation and anion binding sites that facilitate cooperative addition of inorganic salts (such as M +Cl -) in a stoichiometric fashion. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  20. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  1. The power of games. Comment on "Climate change governance, cooperation and self-organization" by Pacheco, Vasconcelos and Santos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2014-12-01

    Cooperators are those who contribute to a common pool while Defectors just exploit the formers' investments. If we follow the most rational individual choice then no one should contribute hence there would be nothing to exploit. This dilemma is at the heart of every conflict which is summarized as the problem of cooperation and provides the natural setting for the occurrence of the tragedy of the commons. It emerges in a wild variety of fields and systems ranging from the smallest, such as viruses and bacteria, to the largest ones which are formed by countries with partly conflicting interests [1]. The present study [2] focuses on the latter end of this spectrum by considering the global warming problem, which importance cannot be exaggerated. Traditionally, Game Theory is supposed to describe the mathematical framework of conflicts. These problems could be especially challenging when we analyze the competition of several participants whose collective behavior elevates the difficulty to a higher level. This complexity, however, provides an attractive hunting field for scientists with a statistical physics background: concepts familiar to them, such as phase transitions, pattern formation, scaling and universal behaviors have allowed this field to flourish in the last two decades. The present work is a beautiful example of this research avenue.

  2. Exploring the influence of external actors on the cooperation in public–private project organizations for constructing infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, L.S.W.; Bosch-Rekveldt, M.G.C.; Bakker, H.L.M.; Hertogh, M.J.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Though different forms of public–private partnerships exist, in the organizational structure of most forms a public and a private project organization can be derived, resulting in two collaborating project organizations. The literature on project management however mostly considers one project

  3. Money laundering in the convention on combating bribery of foreign public officials in international business transactions of the organization for cooperation and development (OECD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notari Bonini Notari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the phenomenon of corruption and money laundering and how they are being addressed this issue under the Convention on Combating Public Officials Corruption Foreigners in Transactions Organization of International Trade for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD and the formulation of public policies for Combating Corruption and Money Laundering, by the Brazilian State. The Money Laundering is a species of corrupting practices, so that this type of illicit undertakes the realization of fundamental rights, social rights, economic criminal law, the democratic rule of law affecting, directly, public policy tax as a result of the commission of unlawful acts and offenses linked to issues of an economic nature, such as bribery, fraud, tax evasion, bribery, money laundering, drug trafficking, arms linked indirectly, to organized crime. Whereas the article is a bibliographic nature, it will be used as the method of approach to be adopted in its deductive development, with general assumption arguments (major premise for particular arguments (minor premise; while the procedure is analytical. Key words: Public Policy Tax, Money Laundering, Corruption of Foreign Public Officials, economic, illegalities. Money Laundering CRIME UNDER THE CONVENTION ON THE FIGHT AGAINST CORRUPTION OF FOREIGN public employee in the business operations of the International Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD This article AIMS to analyze the phenomenon of corruption and money laundering and how it is addressing this issue under the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Economic Development (OECD and the formulation of public policies for the Fight against Corruption and Money Laundering, by the Brazilian government. Money laundering is a kind of corrupt practices, so this type of crime committed with the

  4. Hungarian experience in the role of a Technical Support Organization - Expert support and R and D activities in nuclear safeguards and forensics, participation in international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeles, E.; Kovacs, A.; Biro, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Isotopes (IoI) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences has been - since the mid-fifties - engaged not only in basic and applied research related to the use of radioisotopes in Hungary but also in the production, trade and safety of radioisotopes supported by the central accountancy at national level. Based on its experience and capabilities the technical tasks of nuclear safeguards and forensics have been delegated to the Institute by governmental decrees. Thus the Institute is one of the Technical Support Organizations of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) providing expert support in the areas mentioned above and maintaining the central isotope registry. An Agreement between HAEA and IoI specifies both routine and R and D activities supporting authority functions. These include the development and application of both non-destructive (i.e. gamma spectrometry, neutron-coincidence counting and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and destructive (i.e. inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) analytical methods to satisfy domestic needs as well as to explore novel methods both for safeguards and nuclear forensics purposes. Methods have been developed to identify and quantify nuclear material in fresh and spent fuel assemblies and to characterize seized or found nuclear material of unknown origin and also environmental samples. The validation of these measurement methods have been performed in inter-laboratory comparisons organized by the Joint Research Centers of the European Union and by other international organizations such as IAEA and the International Technical Working Group on Nuclear Smuggling (ITWG). The presentation describes TSO activities both at domestic level and in potential international cooperation initiatives. The need of regional cooperation is emphasized discussing advantages and difficulties. (author)

  5. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  6. Features of the organization of separate accounting of income and expenses from business and statutory activities of the dwelling-construction cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ildusovna Khairullina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to reveal the need for separate accounting of income and expenses from business and statutory activities of dwellingconstruction cooperative. Methods in this work the abstractlogical method of research has been applied. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal documents regulating the activities of dwellingconstruction cooperatives the business activities of cooperatives were determined the income and expenses received by the cooperative from business activity were reviewed. Scientific novelty the technique is proposed of separate accounting of expenditures from business and statutory activities in dwellingconstruction cooperative. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions can be used in dwellingconstruction cooperatives as well as in research and teaching activity. nbsp

  7. Publication of the Korea-WHO Cooperation History - 70 Years of Working Together for Heath: World Health Organization and the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heeyeon; Lee, Dong Woo; Choe, Young June; Choe, Seung Ah; Park, No Yai

    2017-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) have been in collaborative efforts with the Republic of Korea in keeping of and for better health for all for the past decades. From the control of parasites to building of community health system in rural places, the works has now resulted in healthier Korea than ever, and has transformed the role of engaging as the world leader in contribution of health and development. Seventy years of independence, war, and poverty, transforming from a recipient country of official development assistance to a significant donor to the global society, we have emphasized the importance of international cooperation and the role of WHO in the past years in Korea and neighboring countries. Looking back of the past is meaningful to diagnose the present problems, and to foresee the future of our world.

  8. Multiple connections in European co-operation: : international organizations, policy ideas, practices and transfers 1967–92

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, Wolfram; Patel, Kiran Klaus

    2017-01-01

    International organizations are ubiquitous in contemporary Europe and the wider world. This special issue takes a historical approach to exploring their relations with each other in Western Europe between 1967 and 1992. The authors seek to ‘provincialize’ and ‘de-centre’ the European Union’s role,

  9. Comparative Study of the Roles of ASEAN and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation in Responding to the Rohingya Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Jati, Irawan

    2017-01-01

    Since 2012, Southeast Asia has witnessed the human rights tragedy of the Rohingya people of Myanmar. Hundreds of thousands of Rohingya have been displaced from their homes and traveled to refugee facilities in Myanmar and Bangladesh, while others have been stranded on the Andaman Sea. The Rohingya crisis is perhaps the most horrific human rights tragedy after the crisis in Vietnam in the 1970s. As the crisis has developed, international communities, including ASEAN and the Organization of Isl...

  10. Cooperative Security: New Horizons for International Order

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Richard; Mihalka, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... Both are controversial. Richard Cohen presents a compelling and highly original model of Cooperative Security -- a term that once was applied almost exclusively to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE...

  11. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  12. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.

    2006-12-01

    Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation means that selfish replicators forgo some of their reproductive potential to help one another. But natural selection implies competition and therefore opposes cooperation unless a specific mechanism is at work. Here I discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation.

  13. The pollution characteristics of PM2.5 and correlation analysis with meteorological parameters in Xinxiang during the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Prime Ministers' Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinglan; Yu, Hao; Mi, Kai; Su, Xianfa; Chen, Yunqi; Sun, Jian-Hui; Li, Qilu

    2018-06-01

    The pollution characteristics of PM 2.5 and correlation analysis with meteorological parameters in Xinxiang during the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Prime Ministers' Meeting were investigated. During the whole meeting, nine PM 2.5 samples were collected at a suburban site of Xinxiang, and the average concentration of PM 2.5 was 122.28 μg m -3 . NO 3 - , NH 4 + , SO 4 2- accounted for 56.8% of the total water-soluble ions. In addition, with an exception of Cl - , all of water-soluble ions decreased during the meeting. Total concentrations of crustal elements ranged from 6.53 to 185.86 μg m -3 , with an average concentration of 52.51 μg m -3 , which accounted for 82.5% of total elements. The concentrations of organic carbon and elemental carbon were 7.71 and 1.52 μg m -3 , respectively, lower than those before and after the meeting. It is indicated that during the meeting, limiting motor vehicles is to reduce exhaust emissions, delay heating is to reduce the fossil fuel combustion, and other measures are to reduce the concentration of PM 2.5 . The directly dispersing by mixing layer height increase and the indirectly reducing the formation of secondary aerosol by low relative humidity, and these are the only two key removing mechanisms of PM 2.5 in Xinxiang during the meeting.

  14. Guest Induced Strong Cooperative One- and Two-Step Spin Transitions in Highly Porous Iron(II) Hofmann-Type Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro-López, Lucı A; Valverde-Muñoz, Francisco Javier; Seredyuk, Maksym; Muñoz, M Carmen; Haukka, Matti; Real, José Antonio

    2017-06-19

    The synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic, calorimetric, and Mössbauer studies of a series of new Hofmann-type spin crossover (SCO) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is reported. The new SCO-MOFs arise from self-assembly of Fe II , bis(4-pyridyl)butadiyne (bpb), and [Ag(CN) 2 ] - or [M II (CN) 4 ] 2- (M II = Ni, Pd). Interpenetration of four identical 3D networks with α-Po topology are obtained for {Fe(bpb)[Ag I (CN) 2 ] 2 } due to the length of the rod-like bismonodentate bpb and [Ag(CN) 2 ] - ligands. The four networks are tightly packed and organized in two subsets orthogonally interpenetrated, while the networks in each subset display parallel interpenetration. This nonporous material undergoes a very incomplete SCO, which is rationalized from its intricate structure. In contrast, the single network Hofmann-type MOFs {Fe(bpb)[M II (CN) 4 ]}·nGuest (M II = Ni, Pd) feature enhanced porosity and display complete one-step or two-step cooperative SCO behaviors when the pores are filled with two molecules of nitrobenzene or naphthalene that interact strongly with the pyridyl and cyano moieties of the bpb ligands via π-π stacking. The lack of these guest molecules favors stabilization of the high-spin state in the whole range of temperatures. However, application of hydrostatic pressure induces one- and two-step SCO.

  15. 7 CFR 4285.2 - Cooperative agreement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agency to: (a) Conduct marketing research related to agricultural cooperatives. (b) Assist other organizations in conducting marketing research related to agricultural cooperatives. ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Federal-State Research on...

  16. Systematic, Cooperative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Paula M.

    Evaluation procedures based on a systematic evaluation methodology, decision-maker validity, new measurement and design techniques, low cost, and a high level of cooperation on the part of the school staff were used in the assessment of a public school mathematics program for grades 3-8. The mathematics curriculum was organized into Spirals which…

  17. The Cooperativity of Fe3O4 and Metal-Organic Framework as Multifunctional Nanocomposites for Laser Desorption Ionization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chung-Wei; Lirio, Stephen; Shih, Yung-Han; Liu, Wan-Ling; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2018-05-10

    We report a novel and facile strategy for developing a water stable magnetic metal organic framework nanocomposite (Fe3O4@MOF), in which a Keggin polyoxometalate, phosphotungstic acid (HPW), was encapsulated within the MOF framework via one-pot synthesis method. The combination of HPW-embedded MOF and Fe3O4 endowed the composite with high surface area, strong UV absorption, good hydrophilicity, and enhanced water stability. With these unique properties, the Fe3O4@MOF embedded HPW were served as adsorbent as well as matrix for (surface-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry) SALDI-MS analysis of polar and non-polar compounds. The synergistic effect of Fe3O4 and MOF showed an interference-free background at low mass region than the pristine MOF or Fe3O4 counterpart. This simple approach can be used as new platform in developing magnetic MOF composites without the time consuming and labor-intensive preparation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Council of Europe Black Sea Area Project: International Cooperation for the Development of Activities Related to Donation and Transplantation of Organs in the Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, E; López-Fraga, M; Chatzixiros, E; Senemaud, B; Brezovsky, P; Carella, C; Ballesté, C; Aydin Mehmet, A; Tomadze, G; Codreanu, I; Sarkissian, A A; Simeonova, M; Nikonenko, A; Zota, V; Gómez, M P; Manyalich, M; Bolotinha, C; Franca, A; Costa, A N; Ott, M-O; Buchheit, K-H

    2018-03-01

    In 2011, the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Healthcare of the Council of Europe launched a 3-year collaborative project to address the organ shortage and improve access to transplant health services in Council of Europe member states in the Black Sea area (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Moldova, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation) through the development of safe and ethical donation and transplantation programs. Support the development of donation and transplantation programs through close interstate cooperation between national health organizations and relevant stakeholders. Several work packages (WP) were established: WP1, project coordination (European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Healthcare); WP2, development and implementation of an effective legislative and financial framework (Czech Republic and France); WP3, establishment of National Transplant Authorities (Italy and Portugal); and WP4, clinical practices (DTI Foundation). Data collection, surveys, and expert visits allowed for the collection of first-hand information from each participant country at national, regional, and hospital levels. Data analysis showed the positive impact of the project represented by a tendency to increase the total donation rates (per million people) in the participant countries (2011 vs 2013): Azerbaijan, +7.3; Armenia, -0.7; Georgia, +3.3; Bulgaria, +0.9; Moldova, +2.5; Ukraine:, +0.8; Romania, +2.3; and Turkey, +2.7. Increases in total donation rates are the result of a number of initiatives in the Black Sea area, including the stepwise implementation of legislative, organizational and institutional country-specific recommendations tailored by the CoE, efforts of the respective Ministries of Health in each country and synergism with other European projects in the region. These countries should invest further in implementing the recommendations that emerged from this project to improve their organ donation

  19. Personality, Organizational Culture, and Cooperation: Evidence from a Business Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatman, Jennifer A.; Barsade, Sigal G.

    1995-01-01

    Explored personal and situational sources of cooperation. Assessed MBA students' disposition to cooperate and randomly assigned them to simulated organizations emphasizing either collectivistic or individualistic cultural values. Coworkers rated cooperative subjects in collectivistic cultures as most cooperative. Cooperative people were most…

  20. “Kazakhstani” Identity, Eurasian Regionalism and Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Biopolitics of Forced Migration, Modernity and Multilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Sartbayeva Peleo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a case of forced migration and its effects on the formation of national identity and the consolidation of state agencies, industries, and other formal organizations. A composite of several theories, namely “survival migration” and “biopolitical control” will be used to account for the case that features significant social transformation, conflict and even trauma. In the 1940s the population of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic underwent unprecedented migration of evacuees from the European parts of the USSR due to World War II. However in the same period the Soviet government conducted a “forced migration” policy for particular “ethnic groups” deemed politically unreliable in the context of World War II. In the 1950s-1960s, populations located in the European parts of the USSR were officially induced by the Soviet government to contribute to a massive industrialization initiative by relocating to industrializing regions in the Asian parts of the USSR. At around the same period, population dislocations in the People’s Republic of China caused a diaspora of Uighurs moving to the Soviet Union. The life activities of these migrants would be the basis for a new collective “Kazakhstani” identity that continues to the present day. However, this identity is distinct from, and in some cases opposed to, the historic primordial “Kazakh” identity held by the Turko-Mongol ethno-linguistic societies that inhabited Kazakhstan prior to the Soviet migrations. The government of the present-day Kazakhstan recognizes the significance of the Soviet migrations, and modulates the shift of political power towards ethnic Kazakhs. Checking the newly assertive Kazakh nationalist movement and the unresolved Uighur nationalism in Eurasia through regionalist-technocratic means may increase the viability of the more inclusive and socially constructed multicultural “Kazakhstani” and regional “Eurasian” identities and may

  1. Dvigateli regional'nogo stroitel'stva. Vlijanie regional'nyh politicheskih organizacij na sotrudnichestvo universitetov v regione Baltijskogo morja [Motors for regional development: impact on regional political organizations on the university cooperation in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational co-operation is one of the main aspects of the regional political agenda in the Baltic Sea Region. The article analyzes the political impact of the organizations, as perceived by the universities in the region and political decision-makers on national and regional levels. Based on the success of the OECD in becoming an influential actor in educational policies, this article discusses different strategies for the regional political organizations to enhance their influence.

  2. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured the Slovak Republic (SR) obligations with relation to the international agreements and with the SR membership in the IAEA.International co-operation has been ensured on the basis of the bilateral international agreements. With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-operation, the SR fulfilled its financial obligations to this organization in due time and in the full scope. Representing Central and Eastern Europe interest in the Board of Governors, the SR participation in the highest executive in the highest executive authority was finished in 1996.The Board of Governors Vice-chairman position was executed by NRA SR Chairman. 5 national and 6 regional technical co-operation and assistance projects were realized in 1996. 12 organizations participated in these projects and accordingly 104 experts took part in training programmes, scientific visits or as the mission members abroad. Besides, Slovak experts participated at work of technical advisory and consultation groups with the significant assistance. In the framework of IAEA co-operation, the SR was visited by 11 expert missions formed by 28 experts from 19 countries including IAEA. Slovak organizations, namely institutes of the Academy of Sciences, Slovak research centres and universities participated in IAEA scientific and research activities through NRA SR. 15 scientific contracts in total were approved and realized and these contracts are utilized as supplementary financing of the own scientific and research projects. Other international co-operation and regional co-operation activities of the NRA SR in 1996 are reviewed

  3. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  4. Highly Efficient Interception and Precipitation of Uranium(VI) from Aqueous Solution by Iron-Electrocoagulation Combined with Cooperative Chelation by Organic Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhun, Bao; Wang, Xuegang; Liao, PingPing; Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Lizhang; Guo, Yadan; Zhang, Weimin

    2017-12-19

    A new strategy combining iron-electrocoagulation and organic ligands (OGLs) cooperative chelation was proposed to screen and precipitate low concentrations (0-18.52 μmol/L) of uranium contaminant in aqueous solution. We hypothesized that OGLs with amino, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups hydrophobically/hydrophilically would realize precuring of uranyl ion at pH electrocoagulation would achieve faster and more efficient uranium precipitation. Experimentally, the strategy demonstrated highly efficient uranium(VI) precipitation efficiency, especially with hydrophilic macromolecular OGLs. The uranium removal efficiency at optimized experimental condition reached 99.65%. The decrease of zeta potential and the lattice enwrapping between U-OGLs chelates and flocculation precursor were ascribed to the enhanced uranium precipitation activity. Uranium was precipitated as oxides of U(VI) or higher valences that were easily captured in aggregated micelles under low operation current potential. The actual uranium tailing wastewater was treated, and a satisfied uranium removal efficiency of 99.02% was discovered. After elution of the precipitated flocs, a concentrated uranium solution (up to 106.52 μmol/L) with very few other metallic impurities was obtained. Therefore, the proposed strategy could remove uranium and concentrate it concurrently. This work could provide new insights into the purification and recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly process.

  5. A survey on staging and treatment in uterine cervical carcinoma in the Radiotherapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coucke, P.A.; Ciernik, I.F.; Maingon, P.; Do, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    The treatment outcome of advanced stage uterine cervical carcinoma remains unsatisfactory. In order to elaborate a novel trial within The Radiotherapy Cooperative Group (RCG) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), we conducted a survey in 1997-1998 to determine the variability of pre-treatment assessment and treatment options. The variability of choosing surgery, defined radiation therapy techniques and chemotherapy are investigated, as well as the center's choices of future treatment strategies. Fifty two of 81 RCG centers from the RCG have participated in the survey. As one would expect, there is a large variation in the techniques used for pretreatment evaluation and treatment options. There is no 'standard' for reporting acute and late side effects. Chemotherapy is used neither systematically nor uniformly, and some centers continue to use neadjuvant chemotherapy modalities. Furthermore, the survey reveals that there is a strong demand for the reduction of overall treatment-time, for clinical investigation of novel combined modality treatment strategies, especially chemo-radiation therapy, and also for the use of new radiation sensitizers. We conclude that a more homogeneous approach to the pretreatment evaluation as well as treatment techniques is required in order to allow adequate quality control in any future trial of the RCG in the EORTC. (author)

  6. Mechanistic Insight into Ketone α-Alkylation with Unactivated Olefins via C-H Activation Promoted by Metal-Organic Cooperative Catalysis (MOCC): Enriching the MOCC Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yanfeng; Qu, Shuanglin; Tao, Yuan; Deng, Xi; Wang, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-05-20

    Metal-organic cooperative catalysis (MOCC) has been successfully applied for hydroacylation of olefins with aldehydes via directed C(sp(2))-H functionalization. Most recently, it was reported that an elaborated MOCC system, containing Rh(I) catalyst and 7-azaindoline (L1) cocatalyst, could even catalyze ketone α-alkylation with unactivated olefins via C(sp(3))-H activation. Herein we present a density functional theory study to understand the mechanism of the challenging ketone α-alkylation. The transformation uses IMesRh(I)Cl(L1)(CH2═CH2) as an active catalyst and proceeds via sequential seven steps, including ketone condensation with L1, giving enamine 1b; 1b coordination to Rh(I) active catalyst, generating Rh(I)-1b intermediate; C(sp(2))-H oxidative addition, leading to a Rh(III)-H hydride; olefin migratory insertion into Rh(III)-H bond; reductive elimination, generating Rh(I)-1c(alkylated 1b) intermediate; decoordination of 1c, liberating 1c and regenerating Rh(I) active catalyst; and hydrolysis of 1c, furnishing the final α-alkylation product 1d and regenerating L1. Among the seven steps, reductive elimination is the rate-determining step. The C-H bond preactivation via agostic interaction is crucial for the bond activation. The mechanism rationalizes the experimental puzzles: why only L1 among several candidates performed perfectly, whereas others failed, and why Wilkinson's catalyst commonly used in MOCC systems performed poorly. Based on the established mechanism and stimulated by other relevant experimental reactions, we attempted to enrich MOCC chemistry computationally, exemplifying how to develop new organic catalysts and proposing L7 to be an alternative for L1 and demonstrating the great potential of expanding the hitherto exclusive use of Rh(I)/Rh(III) manifold to Co(0)/Co(II) redox cycling in developing MOCC systems.

  7. m-Health Policy Readiness and Enabling Factors: Comparisons of Sub-Saharan Africa and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seohyun; Begley, Charles E; Morgan, Robert; Chan, Wenyaw; Kim, Sun-Young

    2018-02-12

    As an innovative solution to poor access to care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), m-health has gained wide attention in the past decade. Despite enthusiasm from the global health community, LMICs have not demonstrated high uptake of m-health promoting policies or public investment. To benchmark the current status, this study compared m-health policy readiness scores between sub-Saharan Africa and high-income Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries using an independent two-sample t test. In addition, the enabling factors associated with m-health policy readiness were investigated using an ordinal logistic regression model. The study was based on the m-health policy readiness scores of 112 countries obtained from the World Health Organization Third Global Survey on e-Health. The mean m-health policy readiness score for sub-Saharan Africa was statistically significantly lower than that for OECD countries (p = 0.02). The enabling factors significantly associated with m-health policy readiness included information and communication technology development index (odds ratio [OR] 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.2), e-health education for health professionals (OR 4.43; 95% CI 1.60-12.27), and the location in sub-Saharan Africa (OR 3.47; 95% CI 1.06-11.34). The findings of our study suggest dual policy goals for m-health in sub-Saharan Africa. First, enhance technological and educational support for m-health. Second, pursue global collaboration for building m-health capacity led by sub-Saharan African countries with hands-on experience and knowledge. Globally, countries should take a systematic and collaborative approach in pursuing m-health policy with the focus on technological and educational support.

  8. The good governance and management  of cooperative societies under cooperative values: a didactic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Souza de Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the administrative management of cooperative enterprises, the various cooperative laws establish the need to organize a social-democratic structure formed by all members of society.

  9. Interorganizational Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    Administrative Services Officer , Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs, Office of the Chief Financial Officer , Office of the Chief ...Nations. • Clarifies the role of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Transition Initiatives and its relationship...Centralize interorganizational cooperation within the command group. Under this model, the chief of staff or a special staff officer within the command

  10. Cooperative Change and the Myth of Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Rokholt, Per Ove; Borgen, Svein Ole

    2000-01-01

    Much of the current research on agricultural cooperatives is biased towards weaknesses of the cooperative organization form. The literature says very little about the strengths and advantages of the cooperative form and what is necessary to develop the form's uniqueness into a sustainable competitive advantage. We argue that for cooperatives to remain viable and competitive, the advantages of the form must be clearly manifested. There is now a lack of systematic theorizing in this field. Typi...

  11. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  12. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations. The Agreement with the League of Arab States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The text of the Agency's agreement for co-operation with the League of Arab States is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 15 December 1971 pursuant to Article IX

  13. 9 May 2008 - Signature of the Protocol to the co-operation agreement dated 21 January 2006 between King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, represented by M. I. Al-Suwaiyel and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), represented by R. Aymar, concerning the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    9 May 2008 - Signature of the Protocol to the co-operation agreement dated 21 January 2006 between King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, represented by M. I. Al-Suwaiyel and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), represented by R. Aymar, concerning the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy physics

  14. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, W.Y.; Chen, J.H.; Kim, D.H.; Simmons, R.B.V.; Surguri, S.

    1985-01-01

    A review has been conducted of a number of multi-national and bilateral arrangements between governments and between utility-sponsored organizations which provide the framework for international cooperation in the field of nuclear safety. These arrangements include the routine exchange operational data, experiences, technical reports and regulatory data, provision of special assistance when requested, collaboration in safety research, and the holding of international conferences and seminars. Areas which may be better suited for cooperation on a regional basis are identified. These areas include: exchange of operational data and experience, sharing of emergency planning information, and collaboration in safety research. Mechanisms to initiate regional cooperation in these areas are suggested

  15. Transboundary cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, D.

    2006-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants near national borders requires a close bilateral co-operation to cope with accidents having off-site radiological impacts. For example in 1978 such an agreement was signed by the German and Swiss government. The accident at the Chernobyl NPP changed the international co-operation in the framework of international consequence management. International conventions were agreed to insure a timely notification and international assistance in case of an accident with transboundary effects. In order to fulfill these conventions several procedures were introduced. In addition, bilateral agreements were signed also with countries which are not operating nuclear power plants near national borders. Since then no accident took place that would have required any notification. However, following the experience the expectations to these networks have changed considerably and hence sustainable development is required to cope with new challenges such as long term consequences management, new radiological threats, faster international assistance, media and public concerns, and technical evolution of communications systems. (author)

  16. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  17. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations. The Agreement with the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The text of the Agency's agreement for co-operation with the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 3 October 1972 pursuant to Article VIII

  18. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. States, Social Capital and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting...... in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...... or undermine cooperative behavior. In both cases we focus on the important mechanisms by which each one contributes to the development of cooperative behavior and collective goods. We conclude by extending our arguments to a brief analysis of one of the world’s newest and largest collective goods...

  20. Fiscal 1998 research cooperation project. Research cooperation on diversity preservation and sustainable use for living organisms; 1998 nendo seibutsu tayosei hozen to jizokuteki riyo nado ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report describes the titled research cooperation. Joint R and D with Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia was made on collection and preservation of bio-resources such as tropical rain forest, and sustainable use of them by developing countries themselves. The project includes the simple identification and preservation technology of biospecies such as microorganism, assessment and monitoring technology of ecosystem, search of useful functions of biospecies, and construction of a bio-resource information network. This project promotes conversion of excessive hunting into resource conservation in agriculture, forestry and fisheries industries, and establishment of the basis of new product development in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. This project also contributes to preparation of the basic scheme of developed countries including Japan to countries holding bio-resources in addition to industrial basis preparation of every country. Until 1997, basis establishment has been made such as training of researchers, preparation of equipment and technical guidance, and in the final 1998, various results such as extraction of promising samples from microorganisms were obtained. (NEDO)

  1. CTBTO international cooperation workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Cooperation Workshop took place in Vienna, Austria, on 16 and 17 November 1998, with the participation of 104 policy/decision makers, Research and Development managers and diplomatic representatives from 58 States Signatories to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Workshop attempted to develop Treaty stipulations to: promote cooperation to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Treaty; enable member states to strengthen national implementation of verification measures, and to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes. The potential benefits arising from the CTBT monitoring, analysis and data communication systems are multifaceted, and as yet unknown. This Workshop provided the opportunity to examine some of these possibilities. An overview of the CTBT verification regime on the general aspects of the four monitoring technologies (seismic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides), including some of the elements that are the subject of international cooperation, were presented and discussed. Questions were raised on the potential benefits that can be derived by participating in the CTBT regime and broad-based discussions took place. Several concrete proposals on ways and means to facilitate and promote cooperation among States Signatories were suggested. The main points discussed by the participants can be summarized as follows: the purpose of the CTBT Organization is to assist member states to monitor Treaty compliance; the CTBT can be a highly effective technological tool which can generate wide-ranging data, which can be used for peaceful purposes; there are differences in the levels of technology development in the member states that is why peaceful applications should be supported by the Prep Com for the benefit of all member states, whether developed or developing, training being a key element to optimize the CTBT

  2. The Impact of Cooperative Social Organization on Reducing the Prevalence of Malaria and Intestinal Parasite Infections in Awramba, a Rural Community in South Gondar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebeyehu Yihenew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Parasitic diseases are the major causes of human health problem in Ethiopia. The high prevalence of parasitic infections is closely correlated with poverty, poor environmental hygiene, and impoverished health services. Objective. The study was conducted to assess the impact of health-conscious Awramba cooperative community and its neighboring communities on the prevalence of parasitic infections in South Gondar, Ethiopia. Methods. Single stool specimens were collected from 392 individuals from Awramba and the neighboring communities. Specimens were examined microscopically for the presence of parasites using microscopy. Questionnaire was administered to determine the knowledge attitude and practice (KAP of study participants. Results. Of the total 392 study participants examined, 58(14.8% were positive for malaria and 173 (44.1% for intestinal parasites. The prevalence of malaria in Awramba community (5.1% was less than that in neighboring communities (24.5%. The prevalence of parasitic infections in Awramba (18.8% was less than that of the neighboring communities (69.4%. Conclusion. This study showed that good household and environmental hygiene, good toilet construction and usage, and proper utilization of ITN in Awramba cooperative community have significantly contributed to the reduction of the burden of parasitic infections. Thus, the positive achievement in reducing parasitic infections in Awramba cooperative community could be used as a model for affordable health intervention in the neighboring communities, in particular, and the whole country in general.

  3. Enresa International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 with the mandate to undertake responsibility for radioactive waste management in Spain. From the very beginning, ENRESA was fully aware of the fact that international cooperation plays a very important role in the development of national programmes. Aspects such as the setting up of international databases, the development and validation of models or site characterization technique such enormous efforts and amounts of resources that they could hardly be undertaken individually. Furthermore, joint participation in research, development and demonstration projects reinforces the level of confidence, not only in the decision-making process but also in the technologies, techniques and practices used. ENRESA's participation in the international contexts is largely defined, on the one hand, by the needs arising from its technical programme, as reflected in the General Radioactive Waste Plan and in the Research and Development Plan, and on the other by the need to support spanish governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental forums. The formula for cooperation varies according to needs, this cooperation generally being accomplished by means of bilateral agreements with other institutions having similar competence or by participating in the programmes of inter-governmental organizations. In particular, ENRESA has reached cooperation agreements with most of the agencies with similar responsibilities in other countries and participates very actively in the programmes of the European Union, the Nuclear energy Agency (NEA/OECD) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (Author)

  4. The cooperative game theory of networks and hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Gilles, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    This book details standard concepts in cooperative game theory with applications to the analysis of social networks and hierarchical authority organizations. It covers the multi-linear extension, the Core, the Shapley value, and the cooperative potential.

  5. The evolution of cooperation in spatial groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianlei; Zhang Chunyan; Chu Tianguang

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We propose a model of evolutionary games in which individuals are organized into networked groups. → We show that the social dilemma can be resolved and high cooperation levels are attained. → Larger average group size would lead to lower cooperation level but higher average payoffs. → The results show that higher expectations can bring the system with larger average payoffs. - Abstract: Much of human cooperation remains an evolutionary riddle. There is evidence that individuals are often organized into groups in many social situations. Inspired by this observation, we propose a simple model of evolutionary public goods games in which individuals are organized into networked groups. Here, nodes in the network represent groups; the edges, connecting the nodes, refer to the interactions between the groups. Individuals establish public goods games with partners in the same group and migrate among neighboring groups depending on their payoffs and expectations. We show that the paradigmatic public goods social dilemma can be resolved and high cooperation levels are attained in structured groups, even in relatively harsh conditions for cooperation. Further, by means of numerical simulations and mean-field analysis, we arrive at the result: larger average group size and milder cooperation environment would lead to lower cooperation level but higher average payoffs of the entire population. Altogether, these results emphasize that our understanding of cooperation can be enhanced by investigations of how spatial groups of individuals affect the evolution dynamics, which might help in explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation.

  6. International Economic Association on organization of co-operative production and development of equipment and providing technical assistance in construction of nuclear power plants - ''INTERATOMENERGO''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, N.D.

    1979-01-01

    History is stated of foundation of the International Economic Association ''Interatomenergo''. Structure is given of the Association and the list of main problems to be solved by it. Project is given of the programm of co-operation in the field of scientific and technical works as well as of design and projecting works in creation of new types of equipment for nuclear power plants, in particular, creation of serial power units with improved WWER-1000 reactor. Directions are stated of activity of the Association in the field of providing assistance in construction and exploitation of nuclear power plants as well as in training of operational personnel [ru

  7. Maritime English for Communication and Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Teresa A.

    Because most maritime accidents are caused by human error, notably breakdowns in communication or cooperation, and because English is the international maritime language, instruction in maritime English for communication and cooperation is an important element in maritime education. The International Maritime Organization, a specialized agency of…

  8. Rationalizing Cooperation: Moroccan Craft, Politics, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Claire

    2018-01-01

    State attempts to rationalize Moroccan craft education reflect the ambivalent status of traditional knowledge in a modern economy. Female artisans, recently organized as a cooperative, navigate this ambivalence in a weaving "theory" class and in their "occupation" of the cooperative structure itself. During performances of…

  9. Cooperative catalysis designing efficient catalysts for synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, René

    2015-01-01

    Written by experts in the field, this is a much-needed overview of the rapidly emerging field of cooperative catalysis. The authors focus on the design and development of novel high-performance catalysts for applications in organic synthesis (particularly asymmetric synthesis), covering a broad range of topics, from the latest progress in Lewis acid / Br?nsted base catalysis to e.g. metal-assisted organocatalysis, cooperative metal/enzyme catalysis, and cooperative catalysis in polymerization reactions and on solid surfaces. The chapters are classified according to the type of cooperating acti

  10. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...... can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort....

  11. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    In the contemporary world, engineers and designers face huge challenges as they shift towards novel organizational concepts such as ‘concurrent engineering’ in order to manage increasing product diversity so as to satisfy customer demands while trying to accelerate the design process to deal...... they are facing. On one hand, designers need highly flexible ‘coordination mecha-nisms’ that can support horizontal coordination of large-scale distributed design projects, and on the other hand design organizations require versatile and ubiquitous infrastructures to be able to manage their ‘common informa...... with the competitive realities of a global market and decreasing product life cycles. In this environment, the coordination and integration of the myriads of interdependent and yet distributed and concurrent design activities becomes enormously complex. It thus seems as if CSCW technologies may be indispensable...

  12. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  13. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...

  14. FY 2000 report on the survey of policies on cooperation in new energy/energy conservation for developing countries by developed countries/international organizations. Survey of collection/analysis of information on effective energy utilization, etc.; 2000 nendo senshinkoku kokusai kikan no tai tojokoku shin energy sho energy kyoryoku seisaku ni kakawaru chosa hokokusho. Energy yuko riyo nado joho shushu bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Looking for measures for cooperation in effective energy conservation for developing countries, the paper arranged characteristics of the policies, systems and organizations in relation to energy conservation/new energy policies in developed countries and international organizations excluding Japan. Concretely, survey was made of the following 5 fields: 1) new energy cooperation (project) for developing countries by developed countries and international organizations excluding Japan; 2) outline of activities by aid giving organizations; 3) energy conservation policies of developing countries and cooperation of developed countries and international organizations; 4) policies of new energy introduction in developed countries; 5) study to reinforce cooperation for helping developing countries by Japan and developed countries/international organizations excluding Japan. In 1), survey is composed of case study of the main project and study of the outline of activities by aid giving organizations. The activities by the following aid giving organizations were surveyed: the World Bank group, International Finance Corporation (IFC), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the European Committee and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). (NEDO)

  15. International cooperation in production inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limousin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear pressure equipment, like the reactor pressure vessel or steam generators, are manufactured in many countries all around the world. As only few reactors were built in the 90's, most of the nuclear safety authorities have lost part of their know how in component manufacturing oversight. For these two reasons, vendor inspection is a key area for international cooperation. On the one hand, ASN has bilateral relationships with several countries (USA, Finland, China...) to fulfill specific purposes. On the other hand, ASN participates in international groups like the MDEP ( Multinational Design Evaluation Program). A MDEP working group dedicated to vendor inspection cooperation enables exchanges of informations (inspection program plan, inspection findings...) among the regulators. Join inspections are organized. International cooperation could lead in the long term to an harmonization of regulatory practices. (author)

  16. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  18. Cooperation between territorial communities: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П. М. Любченко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem Setting. The paper analyzes the problems in the system of legal regulation of cooperation between communities, highlights the advantages and disadvantages of such cooperation in Ukrainian local government. Analysis of the recent researches and publications. The legal basis for cooperation in the field of local government are provisions of the Constitution and laws of Ukraine, by-laws. The organizational principles of communities cooperation, principles, forms and mechanisms of such cooperation and its promotion, financing and monitoring prescribed by the Law of Ukraine «On cooperation of local communities» 17 June 2014, which provides five possible forms of cooperation. Paper main body. The first form - delegation to one party of cooperation by another parties of cooperation execution of one or few tasks with transferring of appropriate resources - one of the most difficult to implement, therefore in Ukraine it is not yet implemented. The second form – realization of joint projects, involving coordination of activities between parties of cooperation and accumulating them for a certain period resources to joint implementation of appropriate measures - one of the most common. This  form is popular because of its simplicity and versatility. Parties are determining the purpose of the project, terms and conditions of its implementation, a list of activities and conditions for their implementation, financial liabilities, other forms of local governments participation in implementation of the project and mechanism of coordination. The third and fourth forms aimed on the creation and maintenance of communal enterprises, institutions and organizations - joint infrastructure projects by parties of cooperation. This form of cooperation with the prospect of widespread use because it is aimed at ensuring effective use of resources of local communities based on common application available in one of the subjects of cooperation of municipal

  19. Report on investigation in fiscal 2000 of actual status of technological cooperation in foreign market entry supporting organizations in fiscal 2000; 2000 nendo kaigai shinshutsu shien kikan ni okeru gijutsu renkei jittai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to help improve the business creation supporting environment in Japan, investigations were performed on cases of advanced business creation supporting infrastructures, centering on the United States. The activity results were put into order in the following six fields: 1) creator support and incubators in the United States, 2) the current status of incubators in the United States, 3) support on creation by universities and research institutions, 4) advantages of industry-academia cooperation on creation support, 5) international cooperation in the state of Pennsylvania with other countries, and 6) conclusion. In Item 6), the evolution of the incubator concept in the United States, roles of incubators in areas in which general business creation infrastructures have matured, creator support by universities and education organizations, and matters expected on incubators were summarized. Based on the summarisation, four items were proposed, including structuring of the Japanese type business creation infrastructures to structure a fusion and circulation model for the Japanese type business creation support and economic development, and district economy development under the initiative of business communities. (NEDO)

  20. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  1. Modeling a polycentric approach to the problem of climate change. Comment on "Climate change governance, cooperation and self-organization" by Pacheco, Vasconcelos & Santos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinski, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is a global problem. Because of unlimited use of fossil energy and resulting greenhouse gas emissions the global temperature is rising causing floods, draughts and storms in all parts of the world with increasing frequency and strength. Dangerous climate change will occur with high probability after the global temperature has passed a certain threshold [1]. To avoid dangerous climate change global greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced to a level of 50% or less of the year-2000 emissions by 2050 [2-4]. All people on earth take part in this global target public goods game, "a game that we cannot afford to loose" [5]. Simulating this scenario in a nutshell a collective risk social dilemma game has shown that a small group of subjects can achieve a collective goal by sequential individual contributions but only when the risk of loosing their not invested money is high, e.g. 90% [6]. Cooperation in public goods games usually decreases with increasing group size [7]. Thus, does this mean that the global game will be lost?

  2. Evolutionary escape from the climate dilemma. Comment on "Climate change governance, cooperation and self-organization" by Pacheco, Vasconcelos and Santos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoni, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Jorge M. Pacheco, Vítor V. Vasconcelos and Francisco C. Santos take stock of a growing body of research they have produced in recent years, with the aim of shedding light on whether bottom-up agreements can suffice in promoting the high levels of cooperation needed to avert dangerous climate change [1]. The current state of affairs leave little reason for optimism, given the steady rise in CO2 emissions [2]. The UNFCCC approach to seeking universal participation has thus been called into question, both by some policy makers and by academics who have established pessimistic theoretical predictions concerning the limited ability of international environmental agreements to improve upon what nation states would do in the absence of an agreement. Game theorists have predicted that self-enforcing agreements are likely to comprise only a handful of countries committing to unambitious emission abatement targets [3]. Clearly, this is incompatible with stabilizing CO2 concentrations at levels that significantly constrain the likelihood of dangerous climate change. The question than arises as to whether we can deliver on ambitious abatement targets by leveraging on unilateral action by countries or other sub- or supra-national entities (e.g. cities or blocs). This has recently been analyzed in game-theoretic contexts [4,5], as well as in the governance literature [6], with more optimistic predictions compared to traditional models focusing on overarching agreements.

  3. 17th Business Report Meeting of New Energy Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Section Meeting on International Cooperation Projects; Dai 17 kai jigyo hokokukai. Kokusai kyoryoku jigyo bunkakai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    In this section meeting, reports were made on the following themes: 1) pregrinder model project; 2) power recovery model project; 3) energy conservation model project and the importance of the spread. In 1), this model project aims to demonstrate that the electric power unit requirement for cement production can be reduced by installing a pregrinder at the front step of ball mill as the finish process at a cement factory in Indonesia, increasing capacity of ball mill grinding, and reducing operational loads of the ball mill which is large in power consumption. In 2), this project aims to supply China a technology to recover power from high temperature/high pressure exhaust gas via gas expander as electric power of 5.8MW after separating FCC catalyst associated with from the exhaust gas from the generative tower of fluid catalytic cracking equipment for oil refining. To come up to expectations for Japan from neighboring countries in Asia, NEDO Information Center carried out the energy conservation model project, etc. as the international cooperation related project in the energy/environment field. The center is now developing 10 projects. (NEDO)

  4. Fifty years of Technical Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established in Vienna in 1957. The Statute of the IAEA, approved by 81 nations, founded the organization on three pillars: nuclear verification; safety and security; and the transfer of technology. Today, these three pillars still remain at the heart of the organization's work. However, the way in which the IAEA carries out this work, particularly with regard to technology transfer, has changed greatly over the years. When the IAEA opened for business, nuclear science and technology were in their infancy. Many Member States had no nuclear capacity at all. The IAEA's 'technical assistance' programme, as it was then known, was modest. Early projects were small in scale and short lived, focusing mainly on building human capacities and creating institutions and facilities that would support the introduction of nuclear technology in a safe and effective manner. Today, the picture is more complex. Instead of merely offering assistance, the IAEA focuses on cooperation for sustainable socioeconomic development, building on the skills and infrastructure that Member States have acquired over the past five decades. Member States are full partners in the process, guiding the IAEA's technical cooperation activities, setting national and regional priorities, and offering training opportunities and technical support to the IAEA and to other Member States. Technical cooperation between developing countries is facilitated and supported through regional cooperative agreements. Regional centres of expertise play an important role in sharing the benefits of nuclear science and technology among Member States

  5. Teleworking through cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Minervini

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available La diffusion des TIC a des effets majeurs sur la société et sur l’économie. L’effet des nouvelles technologies sur le travail est évident dans les transformations de l’organisation du travail et des pratiques dans les organisations. Le télétravail est un bon exemple de ces nouvelles pratiques. Le présent texte expose les résultats d’un projet de recherche récemment mené sur le télétravail. Contrairement à l’approche qui présente un modèle d’avantages pour les acteurs économiques et sociaux, notre hypothèse est que le schème dialogique est lié aux nouvelles technologies et que la coopération est une dimension importante du télétravail. Dans notre étude, la coopération est observée à la fois dans les relations sociales entre employeurs et employés, et dans l’institutionnalisation de relations entre managers et syndicats. Bien que les deux formes de coopération, appelées ici coopération sociale et coopération institutionnelle, soient souvent considérées comme des prérequis aux « meilleures pratiques » en matière de nouvelles organisations du travail, nos études de cas montrent que la coopération n’est pas toujours au rendez-vous, ce qui rend difficile la mise en place des pratiques de télétravail. Nous discutons des résultats de diverses études de cas dans l’industrie et les services en nous centrant sur les relations de coopération et ce, afin de contribuer au débat sociologique sur le télétravail.The diffusion of ICT has massive effects on society and economy. The impact of the new technologies on work is apparent in new ways of organizing work and in new practices introduced in organizations. Telework is one good example within these. In this paper, we present the results of a recent research project on telework, in which we have been engaged. Differently from the approach referring to a model of benefits for economic and social actors, our hypothesis is that the dialogical

  6. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  7. What is a cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  8. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  9. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  10. Cooperatives management evaluation of four Savings and Credit Cooperatives of Quito, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Joel Alba Caluguillin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The administrative management in cooperative enterprises develops in each of the stages of the administrative process of the traditional companies, which are planning, organization, direction and control, with the only difference that the savings and credit cooperatives comply with cooperative principles and values such as mutual aid, social responsibility, democracy, equality, equity and solidarity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the process of administrative management in four selected savings and credit cooperatives from Quito city, Ecuador, were applied theoretical and empirical methods of research. From the empirical point of view, a survey was applied getting results from this process. In general, in the cooperatives evaluated, it was recognized the importance of comprehensive management, strategic planning, motivation as a key element for good job performance, the effectiveness of formal communication channels and other aspects inherent in administrative management, although there are certain deficiencies that limit the results of the cooperative activity.

  11. Non-cooperative planning theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogetoft, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Planning in a general sense is concerned with the design of communication and decision making mechanisms in organizations where information and choice are decentralized. Non-cooperative planning theory as it is developed in this book treats the incentive aspects hereof. It stresses how strategic behavior and opportunism may impede planning, and how this can be coped with via the organization of communication and decision making, the design of information and control systems, and the development of incentive schemes. In particular, the book contains a thorough investigation of incentive provision in information production.

  12. Can German wine cooperatives compete on quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how German cooperative wineries compete with private (i.e. non-cooperative wineries regarding reputation, quality categorization and varietal selection. Among the reasons why German cooperatives lag behind in terms of reputation for quality wine are organization principles of cooperatives and the difficulty to manage growers supplying grapes of different qualities. Cooperatives turn their supply of grapes into wine often classified as quality wine without much distinction. Conversely, privately owned wineries growing their own grapes may have more control over quality along their production chain and are able to produce more distinctive wines. In turn, they gain more reputation with final consumers with respect to quality. We analyze data for private and cooperative wineries from Germany. Our objective is to identify key differences in terms of reputation for quality wine production. Specifically, we look at interaction effects based on organizational form (cooperative vs. private and the German wine quality categorization (i.e. basic quality wine vs. Kabinett, Spätlese, or Auslese as well as varietal effects. We employ a hedonic pricing model to test the hypothesis that wines produced by private producers receive a reputation premium relative to cooperatives. Moreover, we hypothesize that private wineries receive a price premium relative to coopera- tives for other than basic quality wines and distinct varieties such as Riesling and Pinot Noir. The empirical analysis confirms both hypotheses. The estimated coefficients indicate that cooperatives are unable to gain quality premium for most quality cat- egories and gain price premiums only for non-distinct varieties such as Lemberger and Dornfelder. We can argue that German cooperatives are stuck in the low quality corner of the quality and variety spectrum and are currently not able to compete with private wineries in terms of quality. This result supports the observation

  13. Populating a Control Point Database: A cooperative effort between the USGS, Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center and the Grand Canyon Youth Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K. M.; Fritzinger, C.; Wharton, E.

    2004-12-01

    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center measures the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on the resources along the Colorado River from Glen Canyon Dam to Lake Mead in support of the Grand Canyon Adaptive Management Program. Control points are integral for geo-referencing the myriad of data collected in the Grand Canyon including aerial photography, topographic and bathymetric data used for classification and change-detection analysis of physical, biologic and cultural resources. The survey department has compiled a list of 870 control points installed by various organizations needing to establish a consistent reference for data collected at field sites along the 240 mile stretch of Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. This list is the foundation for the Control Point Database established primarily for researchers, to locate control points and independently geo-reference collected field data. The database has the potential to be a valuable mapping tool for assisting researchers to easily locate a control point and reduce the occurrance of unknowingly installing new control points within close proximity of an existing control point. The database is missing photographs and accurate site description information. Current site descriptions do not accurately define the location of the point but refer to the project that used the point, or some other interesting fact associated with the point. The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) resolved this problem by turning the data collection effort into an educational exercise for the participants of the Grand Canyon Youth organization. Grand Canyon Youth is a non-profit organization providing experiential education for middle and high school aged youth. GCMRC and the Grand Canyon Youth formed a partnership where GCMRC provided the logistical support, equipment, and training to conduct the field work, and the Grand Canyon Youth provided the time and personnel to complete the field work. Two data

  14. CTBT and the international technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lixing

    1999-01-01

    Having in mind the basic aim of the CTBTO this presentation covers the fields of international co-operation as one of the most important and the cooperation of China and some International research and development institutions concerning the related subjects. One of the most important among international organizations being the IAEA, detailed list of general circumstances in the Chinese cooperation with IAEA is presented. It covers nuclear power plants construction and operation, safety of nuclear facilities, nuclear fuel cycle, radiation protection and waste management, industrial application, agricultural application, human health, fundamental research and information dissemination

  15. Co-operatives and Normative Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten; Jagd, Søren

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the conditions for applying normative control in co-operatives. For normative control to be effective two conditions are found particularly important: Individuals must be morally involved and the organization must have a system of making it possible to link common norms...... and individual action. If these conditions are not fulfilled, as may be the case in many co-operatives, normative control cannot be expected to work. The problems of normative control in co-operatives may then not be caused by the use of normative control as such, but may instead be a problem of securing...

  16. Workshops with expedition trips organized by the Central Botanical Gardens of NAS of Belarus - an effective instrument of international cooperation between botanical gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridovich Elena Vladimirovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available NASB Central Botanical Garden (CBG in 2013-2016 made by the lead agency, the organizer of four international scientific workshops with with expedition trips "Strategies and methods of botanical gardens for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of the natural flora" (Minsk, protected nature areas (PNAs of the Republic of Belarus, which was attended by representatives of leading botanical gardens of the US, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Poland and Lithuania. During the scientific seminars discussions and expeditions at 2013-2015 the overall goal of joint work - addressing the conservation of biodiversity of flora and strengthening the role of scientific support for optimal implementation of the Global Strategy Plant Conservation (GSPC were defined, as well as specific joint projects are elaborated.

  17. Agricultural Cooperatives and Dilemmas of Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Thomas W.; Heffernan, William D.; Hendrickson, Mary K.

    2001-01-01

    The context of agricultural cooperatives is undergoing major change with the development of various food and information monitoring technologies. Large multi-nationals have moved to take advantage of these developments with the construction of agri-food chains. These chains are being facilitated via various mergers, acquisitions, and alliances, with the power, and deepening power of such deep-pocket organizations as Cargill, ADM, and ConAgra. Cooperatives have been integrated into these chain...

  18. When Reputation Enforces Evolutionary Cooperation in Unreliable MANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Changbing; Li, Ang; Li, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    In self-organized mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), network functions rely on cooperation of self-interested nodes, where a challenge is to enforce their mutual cooperation. In this paper, we study cooperative packet forwarding in a one-hop unreliable channel which results from loss of packets and noisy observation of transmissions. We propose an indirect reciprocity framework based on evolutionary game theory, and enforce cooperation of packet forwarding strategies in both structured and unstructured MANETs. Furthermore, we analyze the evolutionary dynamics of cooperative strategies and derive the threshold of benefit-to-cost ratio to guarantee the convergence of cooperation. The numerical simulations verify that the proposed evolutionary game theoretic solution enforces cooperation when the benefit-to-cost ratio of the altruistic exceeds the critical condition. In addition, the network throughput performance of our proposed strategy in structured MANETs is measured, which is in close agreement with that of the full cooperative strategy.

  19. A project in support of international nuclear cooperation activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeongkong; Kim, Myungro; Choi, Pyunghoon; Kim, Kyungpyo; Jung, Sunghyon; Park, Jiyeon; Eom, Jaesik; Kim, Wangkeun; Chung, Byungsun

    2011-12-15

    This study contains the work undertaken to promote multilateral cooperation within the framework of international nuclear related organizations and regional cooperative agreements and the relevant forums, to enhance bilateral cooperation with foreign nuclear related research institutes as well as to promote cooperation through the exchange of foreign scientists. As for multilateral cooperation, activities for promoting cooperation within the IAEA and regional cooperative frameworks are introduced. Regarding bilateral cooperation, activities for concluding arrangements and MOUs with foreign research institutes and for participation in joint nuclear coordinating committee meetings between Korea and other countries are presented. For promoting personnel exchanges, activities for inviting and utilizing foreign scientists and mutual discussions with foreign experts, who have visited KAERI, are also described. Continuous efforts to contributing towards the international community through utilizing Korea's experience gained in the process of technical self-reliance and development of human resources are needed. Also efforts to establish the foundation of international cooperation and to make inroad into overseas nuclear markets for export of our nuclear technologies should be made. Meanwhile in the bilateral cooperation, we need to beef up cooperation with U. S. A. and Canada through the joint committee for the joint export to third countries. It is expected that this study would be utilized as a basic material for the international cooperation of nuclear energy, especially for the KAERI's international cooperation in an effective way.

  20. Cooperative Trust Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the more widely recognized competitive (non-cooperative) game theory. Cooperative game theory focuses on what groups of self-interested agents can...provides immediate justification for using non-cooperative game theory as the basis for modeling the purely competitive agents. 2.4. Superadditive...the competitive and altruistic contributions of the subset team. Definition: Given a payoff function ( ) in a subset team game , the total marginal

  1. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  2. Developing Praxis in Conflictual Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    . The presentation will discuss and analyse some empirical material from a project on conflictual cooperation in the building business. The analysis opens an opportunity to discuss and expand Lave and Wenger's notion of situated learning. The authors' original intention of understanding learning as an integral......The present and Nielsen's abstracts argue that change and learning are two related aspects of praxis. The present abstract will investigate the relation between developing praxis and its organization, while Nielsen's abstract will investigate the relation between learning and changing praxis...... of the house leaves traces which we must take into account in our ensuing acts. Additionally it will be argued that the professionals may constitute different communities on the building site. This does not mean that the building site is a community of practice, all the same the conflictual cooperation...

  3. Cooperation between CERN and ITER

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    CERN and the International Fusion Organisation ITER have just signed a first cooperation agreeement. Kaname Ikeda, the Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organisation (ITER) (on the right) and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN, signing the agreement.The Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organization, Mr Kaname Ikeda, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement at a meeting on the Meyrin site on Thursday 6 March. One of the main purposes of this agreement is for CERN to give ITER the benefit of its experience in the field of technology as well as in administrative domains such as finance, procurement, human resources and informatics through the provision of consultancy services. Currently in its start-up phase at its Cadarache site, 70 km from Marseilles (France), ITER will focus its research on the scientific and technical feasibility of using fusion energy as a fu...

  4. The role of civil organizations in monitoring the convention on the prohibition of the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines and on their destruction: a proposal for a cooperative compliance mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseberg, LS.

    1998-01-01

    On December 2, 1997, approximately 100 government representatives will gather in Ottawa, Canada to sign a treaty banning the production, use or stockpiling of landmines. Both the speed with which this treaty was negotiated, and the extent to which it is a product of genuine cooperation between like-minded governments and non-governmental organizations (especially the International Campaign to Ban Landmines) make it a landmark document. Nonetheless, when the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on their Destruction (hereinafter, the APM Treaty) is reviewed in the context of other arms control agreements, it is clear that the 'compliance mechanism' is extremely soft. There are no sanctions against states who do not live up to the obligations they assume on signing the APM Treaty, although (under Article 8), States Parties may authorize a fact-finding mission to clarify a question regarding alleged non-compliance. This notwithstanding, the primary compliance mechanism is the provision that states voluntarily report once a year on measures they have taken to implement the treaty. (author)

  5. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : A review: Environmental challenges and opportunities of the North American electricity market : A symposium organized by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukert, J.M.

    2002-06-01

    North America produces and uses over 50 per cent of the electricity in the industrialized world. Regulatory trends in Mexico, the United States and Canada converge toward the opening up of electricity markets, while regional trade of electricity across national borders is being encouraged. Fundamental questions remain concerning the effects on the natural air-water-and-land environment in all three countries and the manner in which this trade occurs. Public health is also a factor to be considered. Some government intervention is required, was the general consensus arrived at at the symposium organized by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation of North America (CEC). This intervention should probably take the form of emission standards, transparent regulatory hearings and efforts to render the rules in the three countries more compatible. Demand growth and the incorporation of pollution controls will require some private investment. The author indicated that the symposium participants recognized that the reconciliation of an efficient continental electricity market with environmental goals will come with improving the efficiency with which North Americans use energy. refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  6. Predisposed to cooperate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Costello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in Toronto and Geneva indicates that asylum seekers and refugees are predisposed to be cooperative with the refugee status determination system and other immigration procedures, and that the design of alternatives to detention can create, foster and support this cooperative predisposition – or can undermine or even demolish it.

  7. Proto-cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Read, James E; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre...

  8. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own

  9. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  10. Helping Children Cooperate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    There are occasions in life when the competitive process is appropriate. But when people consider the relationships in their lives--with friends, family members, coworkers, and the larger community--they realize the value of cooperation. When adults give children the chance to cooperate, to work together toward a solution or a common goal like…

  11. Foreign cooperative technology development and transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schassburger, R.J.; Robinson, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    It is the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) that, in pursuing the development of mined geologic repositories in the United States, the waste isolation program will continue to actively support international cooperation and exchange activities that are judged to be in the best interest of the program and in compliance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, Sec. 223. Because there are common technical issues and because technology development often requires large expenditures of funds and dedication of significant capital resources, it is advantageous to cooperate with foreign organizations carrying out similar activities. The DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is working on cooperative nuclear waste isolation technology development programs with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), Canada's Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited (AECL), Sweden, Switzerland, and the Federal Republic of Germany. This paper describes recent technology results that have been obtained in DOE's foreign cooperative programs. Specific technology development studies are discussed for cooperative efforts with Canada, OECD/NEA, and a natural analog project in Brazil

  12. [Ethics and esthetics in international cooperation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aranzabal Agudo, Maite; Hermana Tezanos, María Teresa

    2011-09-01

    Although more optimistic, the new report by the World Health Organization (WHO) continues to cast horrifying statistics on inequalities, not only in life expectancy but in many areas. Many Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) related to medicine seek to address this imbalance. To cooperate does not in any way appeal to the call of sentimentality. Cooperation moves money and is accountable. It requires a strong background in both professional and human values. It requires research on vaccines and diseases foreign to our society. To cooperate means "operate with" local counterparts, according to their needs and global health project. And finally, cooperation implies the demand for change in certain aspects of the global economic order. We reflect on these questions and describe the different ethical frameworks for the population and NGOs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. The Regulatory Cooperation Forum, an Opportunity to Strengthen International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachaume, J.L.; Mamoru, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Regulatory Cooperation Forum (RCF) is a member-driven forum of nuclear power regulators created in 2010 that promotes the sharing of regulatory knowledge and experience through international cooperation and collaboration using the IAEA Safety Standards as its basis. The RCF involves countries with advanced nuclear power programmes, countries embarking on nuclear power for the first time and countries with smaller programmes considering expansion. The primary objectives of the RCF are: • To promote collaboration and cooperation among RCF members to improve coordination of support for regulatory infrastructure development; • To contribute to achieving and sustaining a high level of nuclear safety, consistent with the IAEA Safety Standards and Guidance; • To optimize resources among RCF members and avoid unnecessary support duplication through improved coordination. Membership of the RCF is open to all Member States of the IAEA. Participants in RCF activities will normally be senior representatives from regulatory bodies in Member States and from other providers, including the IAEA, European Commission (EC) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). So far, more than 30 countries are members of the RCF. The RCF has developed Action Plans to support Jordan, Vietnam, Belarus and Poland. The IAEA’s Nuclear Safety Action Plan urges Member States to strengthen the effectiveness of national regulatory bodies as well as base the development of their nuclear infrastructures on IAEA Safety Standards. The RCF assists Member States in implementing both of these actions for embarking, existing and expanding nuclear programmes. (author)

  14. Cooperation in research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanna, R.

    1977-01-01

    In planning scientific programs for rapid and extensive peaceful applications of atomic energy in any developing country, it is not fully realized that one of the most important inputs is a strong research and development (R and D) base with a well-oriented training program. The paper discusses the various ways in which R and D is required to assist in both indigenous and turnkey projects. The R and D organization should be broad based; i.e., it should have physicists, chemists (particularly specialists in water chemistry), health physicists, and engineers (particularly metallurgists for materials development, study of corrosion problems, etc.). The role of electronic engineers is also very significant from the viewpoint of designing reactor control systems. Another important advantage of having an R and D program is its general technological fallout, which aids the entire industrial structure of the country. The concept of regional cooperation is very important, particularly for atomic energy programs in developing countries that have similar conditions and levels of technological skills. This cooperation can be bilateral or multilateral under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Scientists from several countries have been trained in our Center, and we also had a very successful India-Philippines-Agency Project in which scientists from many countries in the region participated in cooperative research programs

  15. Modelling Cooperative Tumorigenesis in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The development of human metastatic cancer is a multistep process, involving the acquisition of several genetic mutations, tumour heterogeneity, and interactions with the surrounding microenvironment. Due to the complexity of cancer development in mammals, simpler model organisms, such as the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, are being utilized to provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms involved. In this review, we highlight recent advances in modelling tumorigenesis using the Drosophila model, focusing on the cooperation of oncogenes or tumour suppressors, and the interaction of mutant cells with the surrounding tissue in epithelial tumour initiation and progression. PMID:29693007

  16. Evolution of international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, Bertrand

    1978-01-01

    The various stages of the history of the International Cooperation in nuclear matters are reviewed: isolationism period at the end of the war with the anglosaxon monopoly; opening period with the 1955 Geneva Conference and the creation of organisms within the framework of Euratom (the six European countries), of OCED (NEA) and of UNO (IAEA); industrial realizations period with Euratom research centres (Ispra, Geel, Karlsruhe and Petten) and the NEA enterprises (Halden, Dragon project, Eurochemic). The international industrial accords in the domains of exploitation and uranium enrichment are recalled and the program for the international evaluating of the fuel cycle (INFCE) is mentioned [fr

  17. Modelling Cooperative Tumorigenesis in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena E. Richardson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of human metastatic cancer is a multistep process, involving the acquisition of several genetic mutations, tumour heterogeneity, and interactions with the surrounding microenvironment. Due to the complexity of cancer development in mammals, simpler model organisms, such as the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, are being utilized to provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms involved. In this review, we highlight recent advances in modelling tumorigenesis using the Drosophila model, focusing on the cooperation of oncogenes or tumour suppressors, and the interaction of mutant cells with the surrounding tissue in epithelial tumour initiation and progression.

  18. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  19. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    India , Indonesia, and South Africa with a view toward possible membership. The member countries rely on the OECD Secretariat in Paris to collect...science and technology, internet, tax and anti-bribery standards, gender , green growth; public management; and globalization and development. One... inequality that arises from necessary economic adjustments. In addition, the initiative will address the needs and issues of developing countries

  20. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2009-01-01

    ... and emerging economies. While all of the member countries are considered to be economically advanced and collectively produce three-fourths of the world's goods and services, membership is limited only by a...

  1. Carbon tariffs and cooperative outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyland, Terry; Zaccour, Georges

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of an international environmental agreement (IEA) on climate change, a country may be reluctant to unilaterally implement environmental actions, as this may lead to the relocation of firms to other, lax-on-pollution countries. To avoid this problem, while still taking care of the environment, a country may impose a carbon tariff that adjusts for the differences between its own carbon tax and the other country's tax. We consider two countries with a representative firm in each one, and characterize and contrast the equilibrium strategies and outcomes in three scenarios. In the first (benchmark) scenario, in a first stage the regulators in the two countries determine the carbon taxes noncooperatively, and in a second stage, the firms compete à la Cournot. In the second scenario, the regulators cooperate in determining the carbon taxes, while the firms still play a noncooperative Cournot game. In the third scenario, we add another player, e.g., the World Trade Organization, which announced a border tax in a prior stage; the game is then played as in the first scenario. Our two major results are (i) a border-tax adjustment (BTA) mimics quite well the cooperative solution in setting the carbon taxes as in scenario two. This means that a BTA may be a way around the lack of enthusiasm for an IEA. (ii) All of our simulations show that a partial correction of the difference in taxes is sufficient to maximize total welfare. In short, the conclusion is that a BTA may be used as a credible threat to achieve an outcome that is very close to the cooperative outcome. - Highlights: • One of the first studies to consider border-tax adjustment in a strategic context. • Border-tax adjustment can lead to an optimal outcome, in cooperative sense. • Optimal outcome is achieved with partial tax adjustment

  2. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  3. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    Brundtland Commission Report, and climate change became a common concern. Energy technology cooperation was an integral part of Nordic energy policy cooperation from the very beginning. The Nordic Energy Research Programme was established with funding from each of the Nordic countries, and was earmarked...... by a committee of senior officials and a secretariat. This was characterised by an incremental development of the cooperation based on consensus, mutual understanding and trust facilitated through exchange of experiences, work groups, seminars, educational activities and mobility schemes for energy policy...

  4. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data......-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web...

  5. POPULAR COOPERATIVE RECYCLING: THE CASE OF COOPERATIVE RECYCLABLE MATERIAL RIBEIRÃO PRETO

    OpenAIRE

    Mantovani, Daielly Melina Nassif; Leite, Maria FLavia Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    The social cooperatives, in view of supportive economy, are pointed as a necessity to social inclusion of many marginalized employees in the work market and society. Thisarticlepresentsthe case oftheRecycling Material Cooperativefrom Ribeirão Preto (Cooperativa dos Catadores de Material Reciclável de Ribeirão Preto). The cooperative, in partner with a non-governmental organization (Casa das Mangueiras) tries to improve the social conditions of the employees and their fair social inclusion. Th...

  6. Responsibility, administration and social balance in the cooperative companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Alfonso Alemán

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Declaration of Values and Cooperative Principles approved in the General Assembly of the International Cooperative Alliance (ACI, taken place in Manchester in 1995 he responds to the demands that it demands the modern cooperative, amid an environment that he/she forces to the consolidation of their cooperative identity. In this declaration the seven principles that govern the operation of all the organizations that you/they conform the cooperative, included movement the Cuban Agricultural Cooperatives settle down, however it is valid to clarify that in the Cuban case our Legislation outlines eleven principles that in a way or another coincides in its content with the seven settled down by the ACI. The execution of these principles demands from the cooperatives an instrument or evaluation mechanism that it considers so much its economic aspects as social. In their great one our majority organizations has instruments of economic administration that are shared by other managerial forms in many cases and they don't respond neither they contribute to the establishment of the cooperative ideal, to the consolidation of its true identity. It is for it that the cooperatives, in spite of its already grateful history and existence, they lack specifically in many places of mechanisms and administration methodologies cooperative.

  7. Cooperation and Development: a study of case in network cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Alisson Westarb Cruz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop new surviving strategies and competitive advantage by individuals and organizations make cooperation to obtain complementary competences and potentialities very important, through the insertion of social actors in multiple networks of relationships and interactions.  This research was made in an Association Network of Carrinheiros[1] located in Curitiba and in the coast of Paraná.  The objective of the study was to analyze the structural characteristics of the network and its implications to develop collective actions. The data was collected through questionnaires, interviews, document analysis, and the daily direct observation of the network.  An interaction system between individuals and organizations from various sectors in society could be verified. This interaction stimulates the structured work connected to associations and cooperatives.  Between the actors of the network, concepts and realities are different, as well as individual objectives are distinct.  However, they converge to a common general objective that establish a common base for collaborative work.

  8. Mutual cooperation with Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orstein, Roberto M.

    1998-01-01

    The history of the nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Argentina is outlined in the framework of the changing political circumstances. Reference is made to the agreements between both countries and to its implementation

  9. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  10. From cooperation to globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela UNGUREANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is seen as a consequence of cross-border business. This complex and irreversible process can be seen as an extension of capitalist relations of production or increased interdependence in the economic system. Globalization has given rise to more and more fields of activity worldwide. To meet the challenges of business globalization, many companies form strategic alliances, cooperate or merge with other companies. Cooperation is seen by many companies as an alternative path to success. In recent years joint international associations, licensing, co-production agreements, joint research programs, exploration of consortia and other cooperative relationships between two or more corporations with potential have increased. We notice a cooperation tendency among small-sized companies, especially among those from the developing countries.

  11. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  12. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  13. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  14. On Cooper's Nonparametric Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeidler, James

    1978-01-01

    The basic assumption of Cooper's nonparametric test for trend (EJ 125 069) is questioned. It is contended that the proper assumption alters the distribution of the statistic and reduces its usefulness. (JKS)

  15. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  16. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  17. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  18. Nuclear cooperation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cooperation agreements are reviewed in tabular form, especially agreements with developing countries. The reporting countries are the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, Australia, Japan, and France. A separate EURATOM list is annexed

  19. Attraction and cooperative behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Donja Darai; Silvia Grätz

    2012-01-01

    Being good-looking seems to generate substantial benefits in many social interactions, making the "beauty premium" a not to be underrated economic factor. This paper investigates how physical attractiveness enables people to generate these benefits in the case of cooperation, using field data from a modified one-shot prisoner's dilemma played in a high-stakes television game show. While attractive contestants are not more or less cooperative than less attractive ones, facial attractiveness pr...

  20. Cooperative robots and sensor networks 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Dios, JRamiro

    2015-01-01

    This book compiles some of the latest research in cooperation between robots and sensor networks. Structured in twelve chapters, this book addresses fundamental, theoretical, implementation and experimentation issues. The chapters are organized into four parts namely multi-robots systems, data fusion and localization, security and dependability, and mobility.

  1. DOE/ABACC safeguards cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, J.M.; Toth, P.; Rubio, J.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) signed a safeguards cooperation agreement. The agreement provides for cooperation in the areas of nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for international safeguards applications. ABACC is an international safeguards organization responsible for verifying the commitments of a 1991 bilateral agreement between Argentina and Brazil in which both countries agreed to submit all nuclear material in all nuclear activities to a Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). DOE provides critical assistance (including equipment and training) through the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security to countries and international organizations to enhance their capabilities to control and verify nuclear material inventories. Specific activities initiated under the safeguards agreement include: (1) active US participation in ABACC's safeguards training courses, (2) joint development of specialized measurement training workshops, (3) characterization of laboratory standards, and (4) development and application of an extensive analytical laboratory comparison program. The results realized from these initial activities have been mutually beneficial in regard to strengthening the application of international safeguards in Argentina and Brazil

  2. Role of cooperative companies in sustainable rice production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... poverty in Guilan state of Iran, thus cooperative companies should be organized and supported by government. Key words: Cooperative companies, rural households, rice, income, employment. INTRODUCTION. Almost half ... education and trainnig, neglect of agriculture and low investment are major ...

  3. Practicing What We Preach: Teacher Reflection Groups on Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.; Jacobs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the use of teacher reflection groups to aid teachers in their efforts to facilitate cooperative learning among their students. It is argued that these teacher reflection groups function best when they are organized with reference to eight cooperative learning principles. Furthermore, it is suggested that these reflective…

  4. Researchers and mine managers cooperate for better technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    How cooperation between mine managers and research organizations can result in practical technology and better work methods is discussed. Specific cases of how this close cooperation has helped in the U.K., Swedish blasting experiments, linear array scanners for Australian geologic evaluation, coal preparation in Canada, and deep mine problems in South Africa are given

  5. Online discovery of cooperative structures in business processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zelst, S. J.; van Dongen, B.F.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Debruyne, C.; Panetto, H.; Meersman, R.; Dillon, T.; Kühn, E.; O'Sullivan, D.; Agostino Ardagna, C.

    2016-01-01

    Process mining is a data-driven technique aiming to provide novel insights and help organizations to improve their business processes. In this paper, we focus on the cooperative aspect of process mining, i.e., discovering networks of cooperating resources that together perform processes. We use

  6. Intuition, deliberation, and the evolution of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Adam; Rand, David G

    2016-01-26

    Humans often cooperate with strangers, despite the costs involved. A long tradition of theoretical modeling has sought ultimate evolutionary explanations for this seemingly altruistic behavior. More recently, an entirely separate body of experimental work has begun to investigate cooperation's proximate cognitive underpinnings using a dual-process framework: Is deliberative self-control necessary to reign in selfish impulses, or does self-interested deliberation restrain an intuitive desire to cooperate? Integrating these ultimate and proximate approaches, we introduce dual-process cognition into a formal game-theoretic model of the evolution of cooperation. Agents play prisoner's dilemma games, some of which are one-shot and others of which involve reciprocity. They can either respond by using a generalized intuition, which is not sensitive to whether the game is one-shot or reciprocal, or pay a (stochastically varying) cost to deliberate and tailor their strategy to the type of game they are facing. We find that, depending on the level of reciprocity and assortment, selection favors one of two strategies: intuitive defectors who never deliberate, or dual-process agents who intuitively cooperate but sometimes use deliberation to defect in one-shot games. Critically, selection never favors agents who use deliberation to override selfish impulses: Deliberation only serves to undermine cooperation with strangers. Thus, by introducing a formal theoretical framework for exploring cooperation through a dual-process lens, we provide a clear answer regarding the role of deliberation in cooperation based on evolutionary modeling, help to organize a growing body of sometimes-conflicting empirical results, and shed light on the nature of human cognition and social decision making.

  7. The level of influence of trust, commitment, cooperation, and power in the interorganizational relationships of Brazilian credit cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Maria Martins

    Full Text Available Abstract This article aims to analyze the level of influence of trust, commitment, cooperation, and power in the interrelationships of individual credit cooperatives and their central organization in Brazil. The quantitative and descriptive research was developed in unique credit unions linked to the Central Bank of Brazil and the Organization of Brazilian Cooperatives. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, with the estimation through partial least squares. The results obtained for the coefficients of determination (R2 of the endogenous latent variables confirmed the assumptions found in the theoretical models of Morgan and Hunt (1994 and Coote, Forrest, and Tam (2003. Statistical significance was also found in the relationships between power and trust, commitment and cooperation, trust and commitment, trust and cooperation, and power and commitment. However, in this study the relationship between power and commitment characterized the significance and was positive between the individual credit cooperatives and their central organization. This is in line with the understanding that power is the solution to resolving conflicts. The research identifies how the constructs of trust, commitment, cooperation, and power show relevance to the alignment of relations between individual credit cooperatives and their central organization.

  8. Cooperative games and network structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    This thesis covers various research topics involving cooperative game theory, a mathematical tool to analyze the cooperative behavior within a group of players. The focus is mainly on interrelations between operations research and cooperative game theory by analyzing specific types of cooperative

  9. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Bouwmeester, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition) than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown), the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions) and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection). However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants) also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  10. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P J L Verkoeijen

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown, the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection. However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  11. Tax cooperation among member states of European Union and Directive on administrative cooperation in the field of taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimovski Aleksandar G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries have possibility to choose between several alternatives for cooperation in international tax matters at global level. They can decide not to cooperate or provide some form of tax cooperation. Because of harmful tax competition among countries and efforts of international organizations, all countries in the world are oblidged to comply with one of multiple alternatives for tax cooperation. Situation in European Union (hereinafter EU is specific. EU is not country or classic international organization. By the reason of its successful functioning, EU has need for tax cooperation. EU has attempted to harmonise tax policies of member states, but member states did not approve that. Only indirect taxes are harmonized on EU level, direct taxes are harmonized only to the point necessarily for functioning of single market. That is why tax cooperation instruments are so important. Object of this paper are procedures and measures, stipulated by the most important instrument in the field of tax cooperation enacted by institutions of EU, its development and status in international tax law. Regulatives and directives in field of tax cooperation in the EU are 'pioneers' in tax matters. EU instruments provide standards which are subsequently accepted by several international organizations - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and United Nations (UN. Our purpose is to present positive and negative aspects of tax cooperation in the EU. In time of crisis efficient tax cooperation provides higher revenues for the member states, on the other hand, taxpayers and tax administrations have increased expenses as result of tax cooperation which are not fairly distributed.

  12. A Project in Support of International Nuclear Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Ro; Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong; Jung, Sung Hyon; Shim, Jae Sun

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to establish the strategies of international cooperation in order to promote our nation's leading role in international community, to lay the foundation for the effective transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries, and to cope with the rapidly changing in the international nuclear communities. This study contains the work undertaken to promote multilateral cooperation within the framework of international nuclear related organizations and regional cooperative agreements and the relevant forums, to enhance bilateral cooperation with foreign nuclear related research institutes as well as to promote cooperation through the exchange of foreign scientists. As for multilateral cooperation, activities for promoting cooperation within the IAEA and regional cooperative frameworks are introduced. Regarding bilateral cooperation, activities for concluding arrangements and MOUs with foreign research institutes and for participation in joint nuclear coordinating committee meetings between Korea and other countries are presented. For promoting personnel exchanges, activities for inviting and utilizing foreign scientists and mutual discussions with foreign experts, who have visited KAERI, are also described. Continuous efforts to contributing towards the international community through utilizing Korea's experience gained in the process of technical self-reliance and development of human resources are needed. Also efforts to establish the foundation of international cooperation and to make inroad into overseas nuclear markets for export of our nuclear technologies should be made. Meanwhile in the bilateral cooperation, we need to beef up cooperation with U.S.A. and Canada through the joint committee for the joint export to third countries. It is expected that this study would be utilized as a basic material for the international cooperation of nuclear energy, especially for the KAERI's international cooperation in an effective way

  13. A Project in Support of International Nuclear Cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Ro; Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong; Jung, Sung Hyon; Shim, Jae Sun

    2008-12-15

    The objective of this study is to establish the strategies of international cooperation in order to promote our nation's leading role in international community, to lay the foundation for the effective transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries, and to cope with the rapidly changing in the international nuclear communities. This study contains the work undertaken to promote multilateral cooperation within the framework of international nuclear related organizations and regional cooperative agreements and the relevant forums, to enhance bilateral cooperation with foreign nuclear related research institutes as well as to promote cooperation through the exchange of foreign scientists. As for multilateral cooperation, activities for promoting cooperation within the IAEA and regional cooperative frameworks are introduced. Regarding bilateral cooperation, activities for concluding arrangements and MOUs with foreign research institutes and for participation in joint nuclear coordinating committee meetings between Korea and other countries are presented. For promoting personnel exchanges, activities for inviting and utilizing foreign scientists and mutual discussions with foreign experts, who have visited KAERI, are also described. Continuous efforts to contributing towards the international community through utilizing Korea's experience gained in the process of technical self-reliance and development of human resources are needed. Also efforts to establish the foundation of international cooperation and to make inroad into overseas nuclear markets for export of our nuclear technologies should be made. Meanwhile in the bilateral cooperation, we need to beef up cooperation with U.S.A. and Canada through the joint committee for the joint export to third countries. It is expected that this study would be utilized as a basic material for the international cooperation of nuclear energy, especially for the KAERI's international cooperation in an

  14. A Project in Support of International Nuclear Cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Ro; Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong; Jung, Sung Hyon; Shim, Jae Sun

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this study is to establish the strategies of international cooperation in order to promote our nation's leading role in international community, to lay the foundation for the effective transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries, and to cope with the rapidly changing in the international nuclear communities. This study contains the work undertaken to promote multilateral cooperation within the framework of international nuclear related organizations and regional cooperative agreements and the relevant forums, to enhance bilateral cooperation with foreign nuclear related research institutes as well as to promote cooperation through the exchange of foreign scientists. As for multilateral cooperation, activities for promoting cooperation within the IAEA and regional cooperative frameworks are introduced. Regarding bilateral cooperation, activities for concluding arrangements and MOUs with foreign research institutes and for participation in joint nuclear coordinating committee meetings between Korea and other countries are presented. For promoting personnel exchanges, activities for inviting and utilizing foreign scientists and mutual discussions with foreign experts, who have visited KAERI, are also described. Continuous efforts to contributing towards the international community through utilizing Korea's experience gained in the process of technical self-reliance and development of human resources are needed. Also efforts to establish the foundation of international cooperation and to make inroad into overseas nuclear markets for export of our nuclear technologies should be made. Meanwhile in the bilateral cooperation, we need to beef up cooperation with U.S.A. and Canada through the joint committee for the joint export to third countries. It is expected that this study would be utilized as a basic material for the international cooperation of nuclear energy, especially for the KAERI's international cooperation in an

  15. Strategies of EU agro-food cooperatives to confront globalization: The case of wine cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastián Castillo Valero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to globalization and market integration, the agro-food cooperative sector needs to be more competitive. This generates new challenges for cooperative enterprises in the agro-food sector. In this article the analysis of the wine producing sector is undertaken in the area of greatest world-wide wine production and commercialization, Castilla-La Mancha. EU wineries and cooperatives should propose strategic lines within an economy marked by a globalization process in world markets. The paradigmatic case is analyzed in this paper of the comparison of strategies followed by cooperatives confronting capitalist winery enterprises. Therefore, the degree of suitability is aimed to be elucidated and the success of the foundations of international commercial strategies that cooperative enterprises of the sector have followed, depending on their characteristics. Moreover, an exhaustive diagnosis is offered of the current strategic situation of cooperatives and their probability of gaining access to and/or growing in the international market. The parameters that have resulted significant are used as conclusions and recommendations so that cooperatives will reformulate their strategies and the organizations linked to the agro-food sector will know what factors to foment and support in their internationalization and global competitive positioning.

  16. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed the communic......The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed...... the companies in the case can be understood as possessing a social capital which is enforced and united by initiatives of the main contractor. The social capital was built up and maintained through the actual constitution of cooperation already in the initial phase of bidding before the building process....... The management logic of the main contractor is interpreted as based on a sociology-inspired understanding focusing on norms and social values rather than on contractual (law) and functional (engineering) logic, which had hitherto been prevalent in Danish construction management....

  17. Education, ethics, and solidarity in international cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Lima de Castro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes an experience in technical cooperation between Brazil and Andean countries in the form of the International Course in the Management of Human Resource Policies in Health. This exploratory documental study encompassed a number of Latin American countries whose institutions of higher education had partnerships with the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, mediated by the Pan American Health Organization Representation in Brazil. The course experience shows that fundamental values like ethics and solidarity are determinant to the success of technical cooperation processes.

  18. [International cooperation on aging: areas and players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, A V; Mikhaĭlova, O N

    2014-01-01

    This review article is devoted to the issues of international cooperation on ageing. It aims at describing the basic areas of cooperation and introducing its major players. Within the limited length of a journal article it is hardly possible to offer an exhaustive presentation of all available information; thus the article strives to provide a general orientation within the selected themes. The authors are hopeful that the presented materials will be of interest to the policy oriented researchers, policy makers and professionals working in the field of ageing and related areas such as social security, health and social services etc., as well as to the activists of non-governmental organizations.

  19. Education, ethics, and solidarity in international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Janete Lima de; Vilar, Rosana Lucia Alves de; Germano, Raimunda Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes an experience in technical cooperation between Brazil and Andean countries in the form of the International Course in the Management of Human Resource Policies in Health. This exploratory documental study encompassed a number of Latin American countries whose institutions of higher education had partnerships with the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, mediated by the Pan American Health Organization Representation in Brazil. The course experience shows that fundamental values like ethics and solidarity are determinant to the success of technical cooperation processes.

  20. The story of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Taek

    1989-09-01

    This book gives descriptions of technical cooperation, which is about why does technology transfer?, process of technology transfer with model, decisive cause and cooperation of technology transfer, cost and effect of technology transfer, historical experience of technology transfer, cases of technology transfer by field such as rubber tire, medicine and computer industry and automobile industry, technology transfer process and present condition of technical cooperation, and strategy for rising of technical cooperation : selection of technology for object of cooperation and development of human resources.

  1. Cooperation percolation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Rong, Zhihai; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2014-01-01

    The paradox of cooperation among selfish individuals still puzzles scientific communities. Although a large amount of evidence has demonstrated that the cooperator clusters in spatial games are effective in protecting the cooperators against the invasion of defectors, we continue to lack the condition for the formation of a giant cooperator cluster that ensures the prevalence of cooperation in a system. Here, we study the dynamical organization of the cooperator clusters in spatial prisoner's dilemma game to offer the condition for the dominance of cooperation, finding that a phase transition characterized by the emergence of a large spanning cooperator cluster occurs when the initial fraction of the cooperators exceeds a certain threshold. Interestingly, the phase transition belongs to different universality classes of percolation determined by the temptation to defect b. Specifically, on square lattices, 1 < b < 4/3 leads to a phase transition pertaining to the class of regular site percolation, whereas 3/2 < b < 2 gives rise to a phase transition subject to invasion percolation with trapping. Our findings offer a deeper understanding of cooperative behavior in nature and society. (paper)

  2. Coaction versus reciprocity in continuous-time models of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, G Sander; Riebli, Thomas; Taborsky, Michael

    2014-09-07

    Cooperating animals frequently show closely coordinated behaviours organized by a continuous flow of information between interacting partners. Such real-time coaction is not captured by the iterated prisoner's dilemma and other discrete-time reciprocal cooperation games, which inherently feature a delay in information exchange. Here, we study the evolution of cooperation when individuals can dynamically respond to each other's actions. We develop continuous-time analogues of iterated-game models and describe their dynamics in terms of two variables, the propensity of individuals to initiate cooperation (altruism) and their tendency to mirror their partner's actions (coordination). These components of cooperation stabilize at an evolutionary equilibrium or show oscillations, depending on the chosen payoff parameters. Unlike reciprocal altruism, cooperation by coaction does not require that those willing to initiate cooperation pay in advance for uncertain future benefits. Correspondingly, we show that introducing a delay to information transfer between players is equivalent to increasing the cost of cooperation. Cooperative coaction can therefore evolve much more easily than reciprocal cooperation. When delays entirely prevent coordination, we recover results from the discrete-time alternating prisoner's dilemma, indicating that coaction and reciprocity are connected by a continuum of opportunities for real-time information exchange. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, James

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions.

  4. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  5. Membership in cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eba Gaminde Egia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the practical application of one of the cooperative principles, «voluntary and free membership», referring to the entering of members in cooperative societies. We will first explain the meaning of this principle, and then bring up its normative regulation, with special emphasis on those aspects in which our autonomic laws differ, and ending with a brief reference to the economic aspect and the different ways to make contributions and their consequences.Received: 31 May 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  6. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  7. Medical insurance policy organized by Chinese government and the health inequity of the elderly: longitudinal comparison based on effect of New Cooperative Medical Scheme on health of rural elderly in 22 provinces and cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Lu, Peiyi

    2014-05-13

    The alarming progression of the aging trend in China attracts much attention in the country and abroad. In 2003, the Chinese central government launched the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) to resolve the inequity problem of health in regions with inadequate infrastructure and relative poverty. The rural elderly are the main beneficiaries of this policy; the improvement of their health through the medical insurance policy require exploration. This study used data obtained from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) conducted in 2005 and 2008. Elderly people living in rural areas and aged 60 and above were screened for the investigation. A total of 8658 and 9904 elderly people were selected from 2005 and 2008, respectively. By establishing models and employing multi-logistic analysis, stereotype logistic analysis, we examined the effect of NCMS organized by Chinese government on three domains of the health of the rural elderly. A total of 948 and 6361 elderly people participated in NCMS in 2005 (n = 8658) and 2008 (n = 9904), respectively. With regard to the independent variables, the number of participants in NCMS increased, whereas province distribution, gender, and years of education only slightly changed. As for the dependent variables, the rural elderly in 2005 had poor general health but good psychological health. Differences were found between different moods. Old people who engage in much outdoor activity can take care of themselves. After three-year promotion of NCMS, the differences between 2005 and 2008 indicate that the physical function of the rural elderly worsen, whereas the general health and psychological health improves. (1) In the 2005 data and 2008 data, result shows that NCMS participation can promote the self-rated quality and health change of the elderly. (2) After three years, the alleviation effect on anxiety and loneliness changed from insignificant to significant. Participants in NCMS have a stronger sense of

  8. Promotion of cooperation by selective group extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Marvin A.; Nagler, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Multilevel selection is an important organizing principle that crucially underlies evolutionary processes from the emergence of cells to eusociality and the economics of nations. Previous studies on multilevel selection assumed that the effective higher-level selection emerges from lower-level reproduction. This leads to selection among groups, although only individuals reproduce. We introduce selective group extinction, where groups die with a probability inversely proportional to their group fitness. When accounting for this the critical benefit-to-cost ratio is substantially lowered. Because in game theory and evolutionary dynamics the degree of cooperation crucially depends on this ratio above which cooperation emerges, previous studies may have substantially underestimated the establishment and maintenance of cooperation.

  9. Cooperatives between truth and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Krueger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current declaration of the International Cooperative Alliance on cooperative identity since its 1995 Centennial Conference (which was held in Manchester makes no distinction between cooperation and cooperative. The lack of distinction between cooperation and cooperative has caused the Decennial Cooperative Action Plan to define cooperatives as a form, while their materiality is regarded as managerial: a business (activity under a cooperative form. An identity that is close to us cannot be reduced to form, without this being a problem. Therefore, the value underlying this identity —cooperation— must have a substantial basis, even if it is idealised, if it is to affect us.Received: 27.03.2014Accepted: 12.05.2014

  10. International cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatkin, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    Main forms of international cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy are described. IAEA represents the organization called to establish the cooperation. For the purposes of wide nuclear power usage IAEA provides technical assistance to developing countries, conducting of meetings and conferences, accomplishes wide publishing activity and nuclear information exchange with the use of different data bases, including the INIS system, and coordinates the operating group activity through the INTOR program. Cooperation of socialist countries is accomplished in the framework of the CMEA. JINR, intimately connected with scientific organization of other countries including CERN, represents the center of nuclear investigations in socialist countries

  11. International cooperation workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    In pursuant to its 2002 programme of work, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization organized a workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya, from 18 to 20 June 2002. The summary report on the workshop has been provided, covering ways and means of promoting regional cooperation. The list of participants and the programme outline are annexed thereto

  12. International cooperation workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    In pursuant to its 2002 programme of work, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization organized a workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya, from 18 to 20 June 2002. The summary report on the workshop has been provided, covering ways and means of promoting regional cooperation. The list of participants and the programme outline are annexed thereto.

  13. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  14. Cooperative particle motion in complex (dusty) plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Sergey; Morfill, Gregor

    2014-05-01

    Strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasmas give us a unique opportunity to go beyond the limits of continuous media and study various generic processes occurring in liquids or solids at the kinetic level. A particularly interesting and challenging topic is to study dynamic cooperativity at local and intermediate scales. As an important element of self-organization, cooperative particle motion is present in many physical, astrophysical and biological systems. As a rule, cooperative dynamics, bringing to life 'abnormal' effects like enhanced diffusion, self-dragging, or self-propelling of particles, hold aspects of 'strange' kinetics. The synergy effects are also important. Such kind of cooperative behavior was evidenced for string-like formations of colloidal rods, dynamics of mono- and di-vacancies in 2d colloidal crystals. Externally manipulated 'dust molecules' and self-assembled strings in driven 3d particle clusters were other noticeable examples. There is a certain advantage to experiment with complex plasmas merely because these systems are easy to manipulate in a controllable way. We report on the first direct observation of microparticle cooperative movements occurring under natural conditions in a 2d complex plasma.

  15. Evolution of Cooperation in Adaptive Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segbroeck, Sven Van; Santos, Francisco C.; Traulsen, Arne; Lenaerts, Tom; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    Humans are organized in societies, a phenomenon that would never have been possible without the evolution of cooperative behavior. Several mechanisms that foster this evolution have been unraveled over the years, with population structure as a prominent promoter of cooperation. Modern networks of exchange and cooperation are, however, becoming increasingly volatile, and less and less based on long-term stable structure. Here, we address how this change of paradigm aspects the evolution of cooperation. We discuss analytical and numerical models in which individuals can break social ties and create new ones. Interactions are modeled as two-player dilemmas of cooperation. Once a link between two individuals has formed, the productivity of this link is evaluated. Links can be broken off at different rates. This individual capacity of forming new links or severing inconvenient ones can effectively change the nature of the game. We address random formation of new links and local linking rules as well as different individual capacities to maintain social interactions. We conclude by discussing how adaptive social networks can become an important step towards more realistic models of cultural dynamics.

  16. Internal control in non - agricultural cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda García Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of formation of non-agricultural cooperatives in Cuba, has been a step forward for the Cuban economy, provide primary care represents economic sustainability for the country. A necessary tool for achieving quality in the provision of services and products, it represents the audit process. In this sense the present work was aimed in the Council of the Provincial Administration, in order to strengthen the functioning of non-agricultural cooperatives. Theoretical and empirical methods, techniques, surveys and interviews with leaders and workers, aimed to assess the knowledge, applications for the creation of cooperatives, processing, approval, establishment and operation, based on guidelines established in internal control were applied; and descriptive statistics for processing information, which identified the important work that developed the organization, which was able to promote the operation of non-agricultural cooperatives, as well as the tools necessary for the production of income and consequently improve the quality of services. The diagnosis made it possible to identify the point in the process, so disruption to the operation. Undoubtedly, every experiment needs time to mature and gain experience, besides confirming Waste Disposal workers cooperatives and agencies to jump-start this process. Improvement measures were implemented in order to increase the economic efficiency of each process, in response to various guidelines of Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution, adopted at the Sixth Party Congress and Conference Objectives.

  17. Within-group competition reduces cooperation and payoffs in human groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Barclay, Pat; Reeve, H. Kern

    2012-01-01

    Social organisms in many taxa cooperate to produce resources that are shared among group members. Some cooperatively produced resources may be monopolized by individuals who invest in within-group competition, but these have largely been overlooked in empirical and theoretical research on human c......, and demonstrates unifying principles in cooperation and competition across the animal kingdom....

  18. Worker cooperatives with particular reference to Malta : an educationist's theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Baldacchino (Godfrey)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe issue of worker cooperation remains at the top of the agenda for workplace organization today, although the history of worker (or producer) cooperatives is littered with failures. Yet, despite the glaring and disappointing evidence, the establishment of cooperative forms of work

  19. Education and Worker Co-operatives. Some Perspectives of the Australian TAFE Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Denis

    The workers' cooperative movement has grown in many countries of Europe, where it is often state-sanctioned and supported. In Australia, however, the movement is just beginning. The government organization of what are called cooperative development programs is the dominant new feature on the Australian worker cooperative scene. However, funding is…

  20. Use of a Cooperative to Interlock Contingencies and Balance the Commonwealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavosius, Mark; Getting, Jim; Dagen, Joseph; Newsome, William; Hopkins, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Cooperatives are systems organized along key principles to balance the distribution of wealth across organizational members. The cooperative movement has an extensive history and has contributed to the design and operation of a large variety of endeavors that seek to maximize returns to a maximum number of stakeholders. While cooperatives are…

  1. Global Education and the Cooperation of NGOs and Schools: A German Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmüller, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing pressure but also an increase of possibilities for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to cooperate with schools in the field of global education. However, especially in cases of more continuous forms of cooperation, difficulties in process management are noted and the intended cooperation impacts often…

  2. Cooperative social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Acera Manero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Social capital consists of the contributions of members and associates, both mandatory and voluntary. From an accounting point of view, it is a liability figure that expresses the value of a portion of the equity of the cooperative. Its inclusion in the liability is not the fact that it is a debt but by its nature unenforceable.

  3. Supranational Cooperation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Deugd, Nienke; Stamm, Katharina; Westerman, Wim

    The sovereign debt crisis and the euro crisis have prompted heads of state and government in Europe to intensify supranational cooperation. However, some political leaders and policy makers aim for more. They propose the introduction of a common European economic government that would prevent Europe

  4. Non-Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe non-cooperative game models and discuss game theoretic solution concepts. Some applications are also noted. Conventional theory focuses on the question ‘how will rational players play?’, and has the Nash equilibrium at its core. We discuss this concept and its interpretations, as well as

  5. Cooperative Technolgy Deployed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenders, E.; Velt, R. in 't

    2011-01-01

    After the successful demonstrations of cooperative technology by the CVIS and Safespot projects the question remains how this technology can be successfully deployed. This question is explored by the Field Operational Test project FREILOT, which aims to provide fuel economy applications that must be

  6. Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Patricia L. Kennedy; Rob Yaksich; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    The Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) is intermediate in size between the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and the Sharp-shinned Hawk (A. striatus), northern North America's other two accipiters. The two sexes are almost alike in plumage, but as in both of the other species, the female is noticeably larger. According to Wheeler and Clark (1995), a...

  7. Cooperative courseware authoring support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicheva, D.; Aroyo, L.M.; Cristea, A.I.

    2003-01-01

    We refined our knowledge classification and indexing approach applied in our previously developed system AIMS (Agentbased Information Management System) by introducing ontology-oriented support for cooperative courseware authoring. In order to provide a basis for formal semantics and reasoning in

  8. Can war foster cooperation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Michal; Blattman, C.; Chytilová, Julie; Henrich, J.; Miguel, E.; Mitts, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-274 ISSN 0895-3309 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : war * conflict * cooperation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 5.727, year: 2016

  9. Robust Dynamic Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauso, D.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2006-01-01

    Classical cooperative game theory is no longer a suitable tool for those situations where the values of coalitions are not known with certainty. Recent works address situations where the values of coalitions are modelled by random variables. In this work we still consider the values of coalitions as

  10. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more

  11. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  12. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  13. Discover new cooperation forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    In spite of the good forecasts concerning the supply and demand, the gas market is full of uncertainties because of the competition and the industrial reorganizing. Producers and operators try to define new forms of cooperation allowing the attainments protection and at the same time allowing to take advantage of the market opportunities with a shared risk. (A.L.B.)

  14. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities in international co-operation carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. Professionality of the Bohunice NPPs staff was highly appreciated by inviting them to be the OSART team members

  15. Marketing co-operatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); C.P. Veerman (Cees)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractMarketing co-operatives (MCs) are analysed from an incomplete contracting perspective. The requirement of the domination of control by the members of a MC is a threat to the survival of a MC in markets where the level of asset specificity at the processing stage of production is

  16. Health data cooperatives - citizen empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, E; Kossmann, D; Brand, A

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of a Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on Health Record Banking. Healthcare is often ineffective and costs are steadily rising. This is in a large part due to the inaccessibility of medical and health data stored in multiple silos. Furthermore, in most cases molecular differences between individuals that result in different susceptibilities to drugs and diseases as well as targeted interventions cannot be taken into account. Technological advances in genome sequencing and the interaction of 'omics' data with environmental data on one hand and mobile health on the other, promise to generate the longitudinal health data that will form the basis for a more personalized, precision medicine. For this new medicine to become a reality, however, millions of personal health data sets have to be aggregated. The value of such aggregated personal data has been recognized as a new asset class and many commercial entities are competing for this new asset (e.g. Google, Facebook, 23andMe, PatientsLikeMe). The primary source and beneficiary of personal health data is the individual. As a collective, society should be the beneficiary of both the economic and health value of these aggregated data and (health) information. We posit that empowering citizens by providing them with a platform to safely store, manage and share their health-related data will be a necessary element in the transformation towards a more effective and efficient precision medicine. Such health data platforms should be organized as cooperatives that are solely owned and controlled by their members and not by shareholders. Members determine which data they want to share for example with doctors or to contribute to research for the benefit of their health and that of society. Members will also decide how the revenues generated by granting third parties access to the anonymized data that they agreed to share, should be invested in research, information or education. Currently no

  17. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  18. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Fan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including "what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?" and "what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?" Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  19. Cooperation and Defection in Ghetto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    We consider ghetto as a community of people ruled against their will by an external power. Members of the community feel that their laws are broken. However, attempts to leave ghetto makes their situation worse. We discuss the relation of the ghetto inhabitants to the ruling power in context of their needs, organized according to the Maslow hierarchy. Decisions how to satisfy successive needs are undertaken in cooperation with or defection the ruling power. This issue allows to construct the tree of decisions and to adopt the pruning technique from the game theory. Dynamics of decisions can be described within the formalism of fundamental equations. The result is that the strategy of defection is stabilized by the estimated payoff.

  20. Atoms in the service of agriculture: 25 years of co-operation of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This film displays joint FAO/IAEA co-operation in developing nuclear technology to improve methods in agriculture. The goal of these methods is to help end world hunger without destroying the environment. Such technology includes: monitoring water levels beneath the earth's surface, improving plant varieties, enriching the soil, preserving foods, eradicating harmful insects, etc., by using isotopes and radiation techniques

  1. Carbon nanotube-supported Au-Pd alloy with cooperative effect of metal nanoparticles and organic ketone/quinone groups as a highly efficient catalyst for aerobic oxidation of amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weiping; Chen, Jiashu; Kang, Jincan; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Ye

    2016-05-21

    Functionalised carbon nanotube (CNT)-supported Au-Pd alloy nanoparticles were highly efficient catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of amines. We achieved the highest turnover frequencies (>1000 h(-1)) for the oxidative homocoupling of benzylamine and the oxidative dehydrogenation of dibenzylamine. We discovered a cooperative effect between Au-Pd nanoparticles and ketone/quinone groups on CNTs.

  2. Atoms in the service of agriculture: 25 years of co-operation of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    This film displays joint FAO/IAEA co-operation in developing nuclear technology to improve methods in agriculture. The goal of these methods is to help end world hunger without destroying the environment. Such technology includes: monitoring water levels beneath the earth`s surface, improving plant varieties, enriching the soil, preserving foods, eradicating harmful insects, etc., by using isotopes and radiation techniques

  3. Consoil 2000 : 7th international FZK/TNO conference on contaminated soil, organized by Research Centre Karlsruhe (KZK, D), TNO, in cooperation with UFZ Leipzig, 18-22 Sept 2000. Vol. 1 en 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    These volumes present the proceedings of ConSoil 2000, the 7th international FZK/TNO conference on contaminated soil (in cooperation with UFZ Leipzig-Halle). This series of conferences focuses on policies, research and development, regulations, practical implementation and experiences related to

  4. Collective chasing behavior between cooperators and defectors in the spatial prisoner's dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genki Ichinose

    Full Text Available Cooperation is one of the essential factors for all biological organisms in major evolutionary transitions. Recent studies have investigated the effect of migration for the evolution of cooperation. However, little is known about whether and how an individuals' cooperativeness coevolves with mobility. One possibility is that mobility enhances cooperation by enabling cooperators to escape from defectors and form clusters; the other possibility is that mobility inhibits cooperation by helping the defectors to catch and exploit the groups of cooperators. In this study we investigate the coevolutionary dynamics by using the prisoner's dilemma game model on a lattice structure. The computer simulations demonstrate that natural selection maintains cooperation in the form of evolutionary chasing between the cooperators and defectors. First, cooperative groups grow and collectively move in the same direction. Then, mutant defectors emerge and invade the cooperative groups, after which the defectors exploit the cooperators. Then other cooperative groups emerge due to mutation and the cycle is repeated. Here, it is worth noting that, as a result of natural selection, the mobility evolves towards directional migration, but not to random or completely fixed migration. Furthermore, with directional migration, the rate of global population extinction is lower when compared with other cases without the evolution of mobility (i.e., when mobility is preset to random or fixed. These findings illustrate the coevolutionary dynamics of cooperation and mobility through the directional chasing between cooperators and defectors.

  5. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Egypt and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Egypt. Recent policy trends in the use and development of nuclear energy in Egypt, were investigated including introduction of nuclear power plant, and cooperative relations between two nations were also established under the implementation of the project. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of nuclear cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) invitation of egypt experts to policy seminar 3) cooperation between relevant nuclear related organizations of two countries, 4) future cooperation fields and directions between two countries. It is recommended that cooperation with Egypt be implemented systematically through the long term based on national basic cooperation directions and integrated strategies.

  6. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Egypt and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Egypt. Recent policy trends in the use and development of nuclear energy in Egypt, were investigated including introduction of nuclear power plant, and cooperative relations between two nations were also established under the implementation of the project. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of nuclear cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) invitation of egypt experts to policy seminar 3) cooperation between relevant nuclear related organizations of two countries, 4) future cooperation fields and directions between two countries. It is recommended that cooperation with Egypt be implemented systematically through the long term based on national basic cooperation directions and integrated strategies

  7. Japan's international cooperation programs on seismic safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Akira

    1997-01-01

    MITI is promoting many international cooperation programs on nuclear safety area. The seismic safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is a one of most important cooperation areas. Experts from MITI and related organization join the multilateral cooperation programs carried out by international organization such as IAEA, OECD/NEA etc. MITI is also promoting bilateral cooperation programs such as information exchange meetings, training programs and seminars on nuclear safety with several countries. Concerning to the cooperation programs on seismic safety of NPPs such as information exchange and training, MITI shall continue and expand these programs. (J.P.N.)

  8. Japan`s international cooperation programs on seismic safety of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Akira [Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    MITI is promoting many international cooperation programs on nuclear safety area. The seismic safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is a one of most important cooperation areas. Experts from MITI and related organization join the multilateral cooperation programs carried out by international organization such as IAEA, OECD/NEA etc. MITI is also promoting bilateral cooperation programs such as information exchange meetings, training programs and seminars on nuclear safety with several countries. Concerning to the cooperation programs on seismic safety of NPPs such as information exchange and training, MITI shall continue and expand these programs. (J.P.N.)

  9. Enhancing maya women's development through cooperative associations : what factors support or restrict the contribution of cooperatives?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osorio Vazquez, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of contributing to the development of Mayan women living in the Yucatan Peninsula, this research focused on determine the factors that support or inhibit the sustainability of micro-businesses cooperatives, which are organizations with innovative elements that allow Mayan women to work

  10. Cooperation induces other cooperation: Fruiting bodies promote the evolution of macrocysts in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Shota; Shirokawa, Yuka; Shimada, Masakazu

    2017-05-21

    Biological studies of the evolution of cooperation are challenging because this process is vulnerable to cheating. Many mechanisms, including kin discrimination, spatial structure, or by-products of self-interested behaviors, can explain this evolution. Here we propose that the evolution of cooperation can be induced by other cooperation. To test this idea, we used a model organism Dictyostelium discoideum because it exhibits two cooperative dormant phases, the fruiting body and the macrocyst. In both phases, the same chemoattractant, cyclic AMP (cAMP), is used to collect cells. This common feature led us to hypothesize that the evolution of macrocyst formation would be induced by coexistence with fruiting bodies. Before forming a mathematical model, we confirmed that macrocysts coexisted with fruiting bodies, at least under laboratory conditions. Next, we analyzed our evolutionary game theory-based model to investigate whether coexistence with fruiting bodies would stabilize macrocyst formation. The model suggests that macrocyst formation represents an evolutionarily stable strategy and a global invader strategy under this coexistence, but is unstable if the model ignores the fruiting body formation. This result indicates that the evolution of macrocyst formation and maintenance is attributable to coexistence with fruiting bodies. Therefore, macrocyst evolution can be considered as an example of evolution of cooperation induced by other cooperation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Case Study on the Forestry Cooperation Model from Game Structure Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hao; Cai, Zhijian; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Take Chinese yew cooperative organization for example,different game structures of forestry cooperation model were analyzed,the elative merit and applicable occasion was discussed combined with empirical investigation,and some suggestions were given also.The results showed that depending entirely on normal forest farmers cooperate spontaneously is difficult. Policies should be designed from the perspective of promoted village cadres and influential family salons to cooperation. When m...

  12. Cooperating for assisting intelligently operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezillon, P.; Cases, E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule

    1995-01-01

    We are in the process of an intelligent cooperative system in a nuclear plant application. The system must cooperate with an operator who accomplishes a task of supervision of a real-world process. We point out in the paper that a cooperation between a cooperative system and an operator has two modes: a waking state and a participating state. During the waking state, the system observes the operator's behavior and the consequences on the process. During the participation state, the cooperative system builds jointly with the user a solution to the problem. In our approach, the cooperation depends on the system capabilities to explain, to incrementally acquire knowledge and to make explicit the context of the cooperation. We develop these ideas in the framework of the design of the cooperative system in the nuclear plant. (authors). 22 refs., 1 fig

  13. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  14. Cooperation in regional nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newstead, C.M.; Lee, D.S.; Spitalnik, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the nuclear training currently being undertaken in the countries of the co-authors, and considers the degree to which training problems are amenable to common solutions such as cooperative regional training programs. Different types of cooperation are discussed including the development of regional and international training centers, cooperative bilateral and multilateral training, and the proposed US International Nuclear Safety Training Academy. The paper provides suggestions of ways for enhancing regional cooperation

  15. Basic contradiction of the international production cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinas V. Kashbraziyev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the contradictions of international industrial cooperation as a driving force for its development. Methods identification and analysis of contradictions in international cooperation were carried out using systematic approach based on general scientific methods of theoretical and empirical research analysis synthesis scientific observation measurement and comparison. On the basis of generalization and analysis of the information contained in the statistical system of the Organization for economic cooperation and development and the global competitiveness reports of the world economic forum the author presents assessment of the level of technological and knowledgeintensity of the economies of certain developed and developing transition countries investment efficiency in science and research their influence on the technological level of production and the degree of technological sovereignty of the mentioned countries. Results the study of the industrialized countriesrsquo experience has shown that the production of hightech products is impossible without integration into a global cooperative network of industrial companies and research institutes. However being included into the global production chains and attracting advanced technologies of production marketing and management the national companies inevitably fall into dependence on foreign import supply. An economic axiom is formulated modern hightech production requires a dramatic expansion of international production cooperation. The main ontological contradiction of international industrial cooperation is revealed characterized by the impact on the improvement of the technological level of production and innovativeness of the national economy on the one hand and simultaneous strengthening of its dependence on foreign partners on the other hand. Scientific novelty on the basis of systematic approach the article reveals contradictions in international cooperation in the

  16. The organization of organ procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prottas, J M

    1989-01-01

    The American organ procurement system has improved and matured in the last five years. At the same time, the basic challenges facing it have remained substantially the same because the moral and legal framework of the system has not changed. Success at organ procurement continues to depend on the voluntary cooperation of medical professionals and the families of potential organ donors. The generosity of the American public is so great that the primary challenge facing organ procurement agencies is obtaining cooperation from hospitals and medical professionals. This calls for a "marketing" orientation aimed at those hospitals and professionals who are most likely to treat potential donors. The last five years have seen a more general acceptance of this appreciation of the central task of organ procurement. As a result, the overall effectiveness of the system has improved, as measured by the number of organs procured on a per capita basis and by the number of multiorgan donors obtained. Much of this improvement can be attributed to the diffusion of organizational techniques and approaches, and this diffusion has been encouraged by the involvement of national organizations and public bodies in the organ procurement community. The system remains uneven in its effectiveness and further improvement is possible. It is also possible that the next general round of improvement will result from the application of businesslike information management and marketing techniques.

  17. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  18. Conditional cooperation on three continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocher, M.G.; Cherry, T.; Kroll, S.; Netzer, R.; Sutter, M.

    2007-01-01

    We show in a public goods experiment on three continents that conditional cooperation is a universal behavioral regularity. Yet, the number of conditional cooperators and the extent of conditional cooperation are much higher in the U.S.A. than anywhere else.

  19. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  20. Forestry cooperatives: past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark G. Rickenbach

    2006-01-01

    Forest landowner cooperatives are not a new phenomenon, but past efforts to create and sustain these businesses have been largely unsuccessful in the U.S. Before and just after World War II saw significant investment in cooperative development that failed to create durable business. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly describe the history of forestry cooperatives...

  1. Cooperate or Free Ride?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    of international cooperation. On the other hand, the evidence seems to confirm Kindleberger's hypothesis that small countries were free riding during the international financial crisis of 1931, and that therefore there is a need for some coordinating mechanism, or a hegemon, in such crises....... in the establishment of the BIS and free riders in the Austrian crisis, even though there were marked differences in their attitude to international cooperation. These results run counter to the views of those International Political Economy (IPE) theorists who argue that small states should be in favour......In this article, I discuss the role of the three Scandinavian central banks in the establishment of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in 1930, and in the international lender of last resort operation towards Austria in 1931. I argue that small central banks were reluctant supporters...

  2. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu., E-mail: konstantin.yu.arutyunov@jyu.fi [National Research University Higher School of Economics , Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems RAS , Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Lehtinen, J.S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Centre for Metrology MIKES, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Junctionless Cooper pair box. • Quantum phase slips. • Coulomb blockade and gate modulation of the Coulomb gap. - Abstract: Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current–voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  3. Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling har evalueret undervisningsmetoden Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen og dokumenteret positive effekter på oplevelsen af samarbejde og på lærere og kursisters engagement - men har ikke kunnet påvise systematiske positive effekter af metoden på...... kursisters frafald, fravær og karakterer. Projektet har afprøvet og videreudviklet den pædagogiske metode Cooperative Learning (CL) i en dansk virkelighed og mere specifikt i forhold til VUC'ernes nye kursistgrupper med det overordnede mål at øge gennemførslen markant og målbart ved at anvende og udvikle en...

  4. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  5. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...... research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development...

  6. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    a gravitational pull which goes beyond economic problems. Furthermore, the EU has gradually built up a coherent policy on many fields. The EU has become the “reform anchor” and most important cooperation partner for Egypt. The progress towards increasing Egypt’s “Stake in the Internal Market” places cooperation......For decades the US has had a hegemonic position in the Middle East. A key country in this respect has been Egypt. However, in recent decades the EU has made itself increasingly felt in the region. Due to enlargements the EU came geographically much closer, and the Internal Market has generated...... to see the US and EU as rivals. Their roles are rather complementary. The article explores developments in a long-term perspective. Internal and structural developments have had a heavy impact, but at important junctions ideas and strategies for gaining political legitimacy were powerful factors too...

  7. Strategies of inducing cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, M.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the four experiments described in this paper are very consistent, and they can be summarized as follows: (1) The ''nonpunitive'' strategy was most effective in eliciting cooperative behavior from the subjects and, overall, resulted in the highest joint outcomes as well as the highest outcomes for the accomplice. (2) The effectiveness of the turn-the-other-cheek strategy was very much influenced by the competitiveness of the situation; the more competitive the incentives of the subjects, the more massively they exploited the accomplice who employed this strategy. (3) The punitive deterrent strategy elicited more agressive and self-protective, as well as less cooperative, behavior from the subjects than did the other strategies

  8. Problems of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noramli, M.

    1987-01-01

    The main principles of the IAEA technical co-operation program, which intends to answer the requirements of the member states as regards technical assistance, are presented. IAEA offers its assistance in the supervision and financial support of the projects, which promise direct and quick profit to the member states. Projects related to the satisfaction of the main demands of humanity, industrial use, energy generation, radiation protection and other fields, which can promote the contribution of nuclear power generation to the course of peace, protection of health and thriving of states, are among them. 35 million dollars (USA) was allocated for the IAEA technical assistance and realization of the co-operation program in 1987

  9. From scorecard to social learning: a reflective coassessment approach for promoting multiagency cooperation in natural resource management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, DJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available resource management are usually confined to single organizations. This paper describes a social learning approach which acknowledges cooperation as an essential precondition for effective management and that encourages reflective coassessment of cooperative...

  10. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  11. Diversity and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruner, Justin Pearce

    2014-01-01

    The present dissertation is an exploration of the effect of diversity on social contract formation and the evolution of cooperation. This work stems from the pioneering efforts of economist Arthur Robson, who first explored the role of costless pre-game communication in strategic interactions. When communication is permitted, individuals playing a game can condition their behavior on the signal received from their counterpart. For my purposes, I interpret these signals as racial markers or cu...

  12. A strategy study on international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hong Rae; Kim, Kyung Pyo; Kim, Young Min; Shin, Kyung Hye; Yoon, Sung Won; Lee, Myung Ho; Lee, Jong Hee; Hong Young Don

    1995-12-01

    The implementing methodologies suggested from this study cover the following: 1) strategies for the promotion of the nation's leading roles in such international organizations as the IAEA and OECD/NEA; 2) strategies for the implementation of national nuclear policy, positively coping with international nuclear trends; 3) strategies for the promotion of technical cooperation with the Russian Federation to introduce essential nuclear technology by utilizing its new environment of science and technology. 39 tabs., 28 figs., 64 refs. (Author)

  13. O papel das organizações não-governamentais na cooperação internacional em saúde pública The role of non-governmental organizations in international cooperation in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Antas Torronteguy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo pergunta pela possibilidade de as ONGs atuarem na cooperação internacional sanitária e pelo modo como essa atuação é regulada. Primeiramente se apresenta a cooperação internacional e sua relação com a saúde pública. Então são referidos dados sobre a cooperação bilateral sanitária brasileira, nos quais se pode verificar o reconhecimento formal das ONGs como parceiras dos Estados. Isso permite refletir sobre o papel das ONGs na cooperação e se percebe que, embora o direito internacional legitime a atuação das ONGs, ele regula essa atuação de modo incipiente. Isso sugere importantes aspectos a serem aperfeiçoados na relação jurídica que as ONGs travam com Estados no campo da saúde pública.This article discusses the possibility of the NGOs acting on international health cooperation and how this acting is regulated. Firstly, the international cooperation and its relation with public health is presented. After that, data on Brazilian bilateral health cooperation are brought in, in which it is possible to find the formal recognition of NGOs as partners of States. This allows the consideration of the role of NGOs in health cooperation. Although the action of NGOs is legitimated by international law, their regulation is just beginning. This suggests important issues to be improved in the legal relation between NGOs and States in the field of public health.

  14. Genetic architecture promotes the evolution and maintenance of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Frénoy

    Full Text Available When cooperation has a direct cost and an indirect benefit, a selfish behavior is more likely to be selected for than an altruistic one. Kin and group selection do provide evolutionary explanations for the stability of cooperation in nature, but we still lack the full understanding of the genomic mechanisms that can prevent cheater invasion. In our study we used Aevol, an agent-based, in silico genomic platform to evolve populations of digital organisms that compete, reproduce, and cooperate by secreting a public good for tens of thousands of generations. We found that cooperating individuals may share a phenotype, defined as the amount of public good produced, but have very different abilities to resist cheater invasion. To understand the underlying genetic differences between cooperator types, we performed bio-inspired genomics analyses of our digital organisms by recording and comparing the locations of metabolic and secretion genes, as well as the relevant promoters and terminators. Association between metabolic and secretion genes (promoter sharing, overlap via frame shift or sense-antisense encoding was characteristic for populations with robust cooperation and was more likely to evolve when secretion was costly. In mutational analysis experiments, we demonstrated the potential evolutionary consequences of the genetic association by performing a large number of mutations and measuring their phenotypic and fitness effects. The non-cooperating mutants arising from the individuals with genetic association were more likely to have metabolic deleterious mutations that eventually lead to selection eliminating such mutants from the population due to the accompanying fitness decrease. Effectively, cooperation evolved to be protected and robust to mutations through entangled genetic architecture. Our results confirm the importance of second-order selection on evolutionary outcomes, uncover an important genetic mechanism for the evolution and

  15. Co-operatives in the Cultural Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Sandoval

    2015-04-01

    The roundtable discussed the potentials and limits of worker co-operatives as an alternative way of organizing cultural work. It explored how worker co-operation might contribute to new collaborative forms of cultural production; how they do, or might, strengthen a 'cultural commons'; and the role cultural co-ops play in the wider context of movements for workers' rights. Questions that were discussed include: To what extent can worker co-operatives be a means to confront precariousness and individualisation in work in the cultural sector? Do worker co-ops open up new possibilities for the collaborative production of cultural commons? What role can worker co-operatives play within a broader movement for creating more just, equal and humane cultural work and an alternative to capitalist economies? Where lies the boundary between neoliberal calls for self-help and individual responsibility and a radical co-op movement? What is the relation between worker co-ops and other forms of progressive politics such as the union movements, social protests and civil society activism? Can cultural co-ops contribute to reinventing the meaning and practice of work in the 21st century? About the speakers: Marisol Sandoval is a Lecturer at the Department of Culture and Creative Industries at City University London. Her research critically deals with questions of power, responsibility, commodification, exploitation, ideology and resistance in the global culture industry. Jo Littler is Senior Lecturer at City University London's Department of Culture and Creative Industries. Her work explores questions of culture and power from an interdisciplinary, cultural studies-informed perspective. Rhiannon Colvin after graduating in 2010 to find the world of work competitive and brutal, Rhiannon founded AltGen to empower young graduates to get together and create their own work. http://www.altgen.org.uk/ Tara Mulqueen is a PhD candidate at Birkbeck College School of Law. Her thesis concerns the

  16. Study on Enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jounghoon; Heo, Chul

    2015-01-01

    Regional and global cooperation in nuclear security was urged. Nevertheless, it is hard to seek a successful example of regional cooperation in nuclear security, with the exception of EURATOM. Northeast Asia which includes China, Russia, Japan, ROK and, DPRK has many nuclear issues. For example, the concerns of the international community were raised when the DPRK has conducted three nuclear tests. Countries in this region also possess many nuclear power plants and materials. However, there has been no attempt at creating a community or organization for multinational security in this region. In this paper, we discuss various ways of enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia. We begin with an examination of current global, regional and national nuclear security cooperation efforts. We then discuss directions and strategies for nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia, and offer some detailed cooperation agendas to be considers. Northeast Asia countries have tried to cooperate in many areas such as energy, environment, economy, and policy. However, nuclear security issues have not been discussed seriously. We need to start cooperating on nuclear security issues, because a nuclear security event may affect several countries. One country may not be able to respond to such an event independently. In order to gain cooperate in nuclear security, we have to be able to suggest pertinent agendas to Northeast Asia countries. R and D, education and training of nuclear security may be a good suggestion for starting cooperation. And more practical and detailed agendas such as joint response and information sharing may be suggested for cooperation strengthening

  17. Study on Enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jounghoon; Heo, Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Regional and global cooperation in nuclear security was urged. Nevertheless, it is hard to seek a successful example of regional cooperation in nuclear security, with the exception of EURATOM. Northeast Asia which includes China, Russia, Japan, ROK and, DPRK has many nuclear issues. For example, the concerns of the international community were raised when the DPRK has conducted three nuclear tests. Countries in this region also possess many nuclear power plants and materials. However, there has been no attempt at creating a community or organization for multinational security in this region. In this paper, we discuss various ways of enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia. We begin with an examination of current global, regional and national nuclear security cooperation efforts. We then discuss directions and strategies for nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia, and offer some detailed cooperation agendas to be considers. Northeast Asia countries have tried to cooperate in many areas such as energy, environment, economy, and policy. However, nuclear security issues have not been discussed seriously. We need to start cooperating on nuclear security issues, because a nuclear security event may affect several countries. One country may not be able to respond to such an event independently. In order to gain cooperate in nuclear security, we have to be able to suggest pertinent agendas to Northeast Asia countries. R and D, education and training of nuclear security may be a good suggestion for starting cooperation. And more practical and detailed agendas such as joint response and information sharing may be suggested for cooperation strengthening.

  18. New roads toward North-South cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, E G

    1989-12-01

    A Netherlands Parliament member gives a European Perspective on population and development, problems in urban development, and methods of cooperation between industrialized and developing countries. On population and development, the relationship between population explosion and poverty, underdevelopment, environment, social infrastructure, and food shortages is pointed out. Most population growth in the years ahead will be in developing countries. Rampant population growth and burgeoning poverty strain the world's carrying capacity and environment, both in industrial and developing countries. Development policy and cooperation will fail in the absence of efforts to stem population growth. On this front, religious and political leaders have groundbreaking cooperative steps in supporting international family planning efforts through the global forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human Survival. Economic development, environment, and population issues are inexorably tied together. The numerous problems faced by uncontrolled Third World urbanization are discussed with potential solutions for change. Incorporating women in the development process is strongly encouraged. The interdependent North-South relationship is discussed. All nations, the private sector, nongovernmental organizations, and women must cooperate to find solutions and effect positive change on a case-by-case basis.

  19. 42 CFR 476.76 - Cooperation with health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Utilization and Quality Control Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs) General Provisions... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperation with health care facilities. 476.76...

  20. The NATO and Russia: is the Antiterrorist Cooperation Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Надежда Викторовна Шуленина

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the questions of the NATO-Russia antiterrorist cooperation organization. Problems which partners face organizing it are considered by authors. The sight is given not only from Russia's point of view, but also from the position of NATO.

  1. Overview of Cooperative Monitoring Concepts and the CMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biringer, Kent L.

    1999-01-01

    Cooperative monitoring holds the promise of utilizing many technologies from conflicts of the past to implement agreements of peace in the future. Important approaches to accomplish this are to develop the framework for assessing monitoring opportunities and to provide education and training on the technologies and experience available for sharing with others. The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories is working closely with agencies throughout the federal government, academics at home and abroad, and regional organizations to provide the technical tools needed to assess, design, analyze, and implement these cooperative agreements. In doing so, the goals of building regional confidence and increasing trust and communication can be furthered

  2. Social Cooperative – an Important Entity of the Social Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society is characterized by a number of social problems that have multiple causes that range from structural weaknesses of purely individual factors. In the challenges of globalization phenomenon and in the context of sustainable development needs of humanity, the cooperative movement has an important role. Cooperative organizations have the ability to provide viable alternatives, being the main actors of social economy, along with associations and foundations, putting the human in the center of the activity and bringing another report in the process of creating economic value. Also, the cooperative movement is a solution for the multiple and the difficult economic and social issues of the contemporary world.

  3. AFRA: Supporting regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) provides a framework for African Member States to intensify their collaboration through programmes and projects focused on the specific shared needs of its members. It is a formal intergovernmental agreement which entered into force in 1990. In the context of AFRA, Regional Designated Centres for training and education in radiation protection (RDCs) are established African institutions able to provide services, such as training of highly qualified specialists or instructors needed at the national level and also to facilitate exchange of experience and information through networks of services operating in the field

  4. Market orientation in Ethiopian seed producer cooperatives: implications for performance and members' livelihood improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sisay, Dawit Tsegaye

    2017-01-01

    Prior researches indicate that farmers, who organize themselves into producer organizations or cooperatives can overcome some of the challenges that affect their livelihood at individual level. Seed producer cooperatives (SPCs) engaged in Ethiopian agricultural sector with the aim to produce and

  5. Cooperation prevails when individuals adjust their social ties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco C Santos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional evolutionary game theory predicts that natural selection favours the selfish and strong even though cooperative interactions thrive at all levels of organization in living systems. Recent investigations demonstrated that a limiting factor for the evolution of cooperative interactions is the way in which they are organized, cooperators becoming evolutionarily competitive whenever individuals are constrained to interact with few others along the edges of networks with low average connectivity. Despite this insight, the conundrum of cooperation remains since recent empirical data shows that real networks exhibit typically high average connectivity and associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. Here, a computational model is constructed in which individuals are able to self-organize both their strategy and their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on their self-interest. We show that the entangled evolution of individual strategy and network structure constitutes a key mechanism for the sustainability of cooperation in social networks. For a given average connectivity of the population, there is a critical value for the ratio W between the time scales associated with the evolution of strategy and of structure above which cooperators wipe out defectors. Moreover, the emerging social networks exhibit an overall heterogeneity that accounts very well for the diversity of patterns recently found in acquired data on social networks. Finally, heterogeneity is found to become maximal when W reaches its critical value. These results show that simple topological dynamics reflecting the individual capacity for self-organization of social ties can produce realistic networks of high average connectivity with associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. On the other hand, they show that cooperation cannot evolve as a result of "social viscosity" alone in heterogeneous networks with high average connectivity, requiring the

  6. Intercommunal cooperation for the purpose of satisfying local power demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieres, L.

    1992-01-01

    The article deals with the following: communal competences in the area of the power economy; forms of communal activity in the area of power supply; specific forms of communal cooperation; the procedure of communal cooperation; legal personality and internal organization; the local administration union as an instrument of power supply; categorization of the local administration union with respect to the legal system; the communal administrative agreement. (HSCH) [de

  7. Study on the Flexibility in Cross-Border Water Resources Cooperation Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongrui; Wang, Teng; Zhou, Li

    2018-02-01

    Flexible strategy is very important to cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources, which may be employed to reconcile contradictions and ease conflicts. Flexible characters of cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources could be analyzed and revealed, using flexible strategic management framework, by taking international cooperation protocols related to water from Transboundary Freshwater Disputes Database (TFDD) as samples from the number of cooperation issues, the amount of management layers and regulator agencies in cooperation organization and the categories of income (cost) distribution (allocation) mode. The research demonstrates that there are some flexible features of cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources: Riparian countries would select relative diversification strategies related to water, tend to construct a flexible cooperation organization featured with moderate hierarchies from vertical perspective and simplified administrations from horizontal perspective, and adopt selective inducement modes to respect ‘joint and several liability’.

  8. PROSPECTS FOR AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN ROMANIA IN THE CONTEXT OF CAP REFORM 2014-2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena TUREK RAHOVEANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European and global cooperative sector is a powerful economic and social actors within these societies, with significant results can be summarized as market shares both in their work and contribution to GDP and the number of members and the welfare of citizens offered through job creation. Global cooperative activity operates on cooperative principles cooperative companies regularly reviewed by members of the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA. This cooperative movement worldwide organization founded in 1889, is composed of 226 active cooperatives in all sectors of the economy that brings together more than 800 million members in 89 countries. This work is part of the CAP reform in Europe after 2013, by which Romania will have to undergo a series of transformations including: promoting and encouraging cooperation and association in agriculture; stimulate the development of alternative economic activities such as organic farming, ecotourism, development and promotion of local products labeled specialized human capital development and collaboration and sharing of best practices with experts from other EU Member States. Macroeconomic paper wants to answer a series of questions: Is a viable alternative for Agricultural Cooperative Farm? What is the economic and social impact of cooperatives in the next stage? Through agricultural cooperatives can better penetrate markets closer to the consumer? What is the specific model of cooperation forward Romanian society?

  9. Promotion of technical cooperation in the field of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jung Kyung; Jung, Duk Yung; Suh, Seong Seog; Park, Myung Nam; Kim, Young Mi; Cho, Moo Kyung [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study aims to improve the quality of human resources and the capability of research and development through the promotion of technical cooperation with foreign energy organizations possessing advanced technologies, and at the same time to contribute to internationalizing energy technology through the active involvement in multilateral technical cooperation programs with international organizations. To attain these aims, practical cooperative relations has been strengthened with 34 organizations from 11 countries including 6 organizations with which new cooperative agreements has been concluded in 1995 from the USA, Australia, China, and Russia, through the promotion of the continuous exchange of information and personnel, and international joint projects. And also the positive participation in technical cooperation programs and research projects organized or sponsored by APEC, IEA, UNDP, UNESCO, WEC has been made. In addition, for the improvement in research capability, 200 researchers has been dispatched abroad for the presentation of papers, of for the discussion of joint research projects, and 30 foreign experts through diverse overseas personnel exchange programs including Brain Pool Program were invited for the contribution of advancing research projects. (author). 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Financial problems and cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J.

    1994-12-31

    For a Bank, an usual way to attract new clients is by offering better interest rates depending on the amount of money that the client deposits in an account: {open_quotes}The more money you have the higher interest rate you get{close_quotes}. For a company is also a common practice to offer their clients discounts connected with the number of units of the product they order: {open_quotes}The more you order, the lower price per unit you pay{close_quotes}. From these situations arises the possibility to take profit if the clients cooperate and join their money or their orders. Hence, we define a new class of cooperative games called Financial Games. We study basic properties and necessary conditions for a game to belong to this class of games and we define the concept of duality for Financial games. The core is always non-empty and, moreover, Financial games are always totally balanced. We look at some special amputations lying in the Core and we study the reduced game on the j{sup th} player at {rvec x} where x{sub j} = b{sub j} = v(N) {minus} v(N {minus} j).

  11. Precompetitive cooperative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the current worldwide technology environment, it is essential for the U.S. microelectronics industry, and especially for the integrated circuit portion of that industry, that precompetitive cooperative research alliances be formed and funded at a level that enables them to be effective in rapidly advancing technology. It is important to realize that technology advances with or without our direct participation. If we do not aggressively participate we are quickly left behind. Increasing complexity and miniaturization have been the themes in semiconductor technology. Many are aware that what began in the early 60's with a few masking steps and minimum dimensions measured in mils, has now evolved to a level of sophistication requiring a 100 MIP workstation for IC design and the investment of nearly $400 million dollars in fab cost to produce today's microchips. The leading nations of the world have come to realize that their future well- being is closely tied to their ability to compete in this hi- tech environment. Industry coalitions have been formed to exploit the early ramifications of emerging technologies. Improvements in overseas manufacturing have been made and continue unabated with new products, new processes, and new services being introduced at an increasing rate. Many foreign governments are now actively involved in formulating and conducting industrial and technology policies to aid their hi-tech industry. To meet these challenges, U.S. firms, with U.S. government cooperation, must respond

  12. Soft cooperation systems and games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J. R.; Gallego, I.; Jiménez-Losada, A.; Ordóñez, M.

    2018-04-01

    A cooperative game for a set of agents establishes a fair allocation of the profit obtained for their cooperation. In order to obtain this allocation, a characteristic function is known. It establishes the profit of each coalition of agents if this coalition decides to act alone. Originally players are considered symmetric and then the allocation only depends on the characteristic function; this paper is about cooperative games with an asymmetric set of agents. We introduced cooperative games with a soft set of agents which explains those parameters determining the asymmetry among them in the cooperation. Now the characteristic function is defined not over the coalitions but over the soft coalitions, namely the profit depends not only on the formed coalition but also on the attributes considered for the players in the coalition. The best known of the allocation rules for cooperative games is the Shapley value. We propose a Shapley kind solution for soft games.

  13. Models in cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef

    2008-01-01

    This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in cooperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The properties of these solution concepts and their interrelations on several classes of crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games are studied. Applications of the investigated models to many economic situations are indicated as well. The second edition is highly enlarged and contains new results and additional sections in the different chapters as well as one new chapter.

  14. Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M.; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict cooperation with a partner who self-identifies as Republican or Democrat in two samples before (n = 362) and after (n = 366) the 2012 US presidential election. Liberals show slightly more concern for their partners’ outcomes compared to conservatives (study 1), and in study 2 this relation is supported by a meta-analysis (r = .15). However, in study 1, political ideology did not relate to cooperation in general. Both Republicans and Democrats extend more cooperation to their in-group relative to the out-group, and this is explained by expectations of cooperation from in-group versus out-group members. We discuss the relation between political ideology and cooperation within and between groups. PMID:29593363

  15. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  16. EL RIESGO DE RESPONSABILIDAD DEL ORGANO DE ADMINISTRACIÓN DE LAS COOPERATIVAS EN SITUACIONES DE INSOLVENCIA, Y DE PÉRDIDAS PATRIMONIALES/THE RISK OF RESPONSIBILITY FOR CO-OPERATIVES ADMINISTRATION ORGAN IN INSOLVENCY SITUATIONS, AND PATRIMONY LOSSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando SACRISTAN BERGIA

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se aborda el estudio de la responsabilidad de los administradores de las cooperativas en situaciones de pérdidas patrimoniales y de insolvencia. El estudio trata de presentar cual es el régimen legal de la responsabilidad en la actualidad, para lo que resulta necesario tener en cuenta el diferente tratamiento de la cuestión en función de las distintas leyes cooperativas autonómicas. El estudio toma en consideración el tratamiento jurisprudencial, que nos permite valorar la trascendencia práctica del tema y conocer la interpretación de los tribunales a las recientes reformas en materia de responsabilidad de los administradores. El régimen de responsabilidad previsto en la nueva Ley Concursal es objeto de tratamiento diferenciado en el último apartado./The current paper covers the aspect of the cooperative company´s directors legal responsability in situations of patrimonial losses and insolvency. The Study tries to present wich is the current Law, for what truns out to be necesary bear in mind the different treatment on the different cooperative autonomic laws. The study takes in consideration the jurisprudential treatment, wich allows us to value the practical transcendency of the interpretation which is the Court to the recentt reforms. The responsability in the Insolvency Law is an object of tratment differentiated in the last paragraph.

  17. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  18. Regional cooperation in transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  19. Social identity and cooperation in cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E

    2017-12-06

    I discuss the function of social identity signaling in facilitating cooperative group formation, and how the nature of that function changes with the structure of social organization. I propose that signals of social identity facilitate assortment for successful coordination in large-scale societies, and that the multidimensional, context-dependent nature of social identity is crucial for successful coordination when individuals have to cooperate in different contexts. Furthermore, the structure of social identity is tied to the structure of society, so that as societies grow larger and more interconnected, the landscape of social identities grows more heterogeneous. This discussion bears directly on the need to articulate the dynamics of emergent, ephemeral groups as a major factor in human cultural evolution. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ulysses - An ESA/NASA cooperative programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, W.; Eaton, D.

    1990-01-01

    Cooperation between ESA and NASA is discussed, noting that the Memorandum of Understanding lays the framework for this relationship, defining the responsibilities of ESA and NASA and providing for appointment of leadership and managers for the project. Members of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and ESA's ESTEC staff have been appointed to leadership positions within the project and ultimate control of the project rests with the Joint Working Group consisting of two project managers and two project scientists, equally representing both organizations. Coordination of time scales and overall mission design is discussed, including launch cooperation, public relations, and funding of scientific investigations such as Ulysses. Practical difficulties of managing an international project are discussed such as differing documentation requirements and communication techniques, and assurance of equality on projects.

  1. Securing cooperation from persons supplying statistical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AUBENQUE, M J; BLAIKLEY, R M; HARRIS, F F; LAL, R B; NEURDENBURG, M G; DE SHELLY HERNANDEZ, R

    1954-01-01

    Securing the co-operation of persons supplying information required for medical statistics is essentially a problem in human relations, and an understanding of the motivations, attitudes, and behaviour of the respondents is necessary.Before any new statistical survey is undertaken, it is suggested by Aubenque and Harris that a preliminary review be made so that the maximum use is made of existing information. Care should also be taken not to burden respondents with an overloaded questionnaire. Aubenque and Harris recommend simplified reporting. Complete population coverage is not necessary.Neurdenburg suggests that the co-operation and support of such organizations as medical associations and social security boards are important and that propaganda should be directed specifically to the groups whose co-operation is sought. Informal personal contacts are valuable and desirable, according to Blaikley, but may have adverse effects if the right kind of approach is not made.Financial payments as an incentive in securing co-operation are opposed by Neurdenburg, who proposes that only postage-free envelopes or similar small favours be granted. Blaikley and Harris, on the other hand, express the view that financial incentives may do much to gain the support of those required to furnish data; there are, however, other incentives, and full use should be made of the natural inclinations of respondents. Compulsion may be necessary in certain instances, but administrative rather than statutory measures should be adopted. Penalties, according to Aubenque, should be inflicted only when justified by imperative health requirements.The results of surveys should be made available as soon as possible to those who co-operated, and Aubenque and Harris point out that they should also be of practical value to the suppliers of the information.Greater co-operation can be secured from medical persons who have an understanding of the statistical principles involved; Aubenque and Neurdenburg

  2. Engineering co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryniszak, W

    1981-06-01

    A purposeful employment policy for human energy is basic to solving the energy dilemma, but a lack of understanding about human behavior has allowed man's exploitive characteristics to dominate during the Inductrial Revolution. England is dependent on trade to survive, but the importance of size in world competition is seen in the trend toward multinational and partnership enterprises. Reflecting this increasing competition, the engineering industries see a need for government policies that acknowledge the importance of technology and the effects of those policies on productivity. Engineering progress requires the creativity of optimistic idealism and the realism of implementing new ideas. The training and nurturing of human resources should begin by broadening the education of engineers to emphasize the concepts of quality and cooperation between government and industry. Engineers and scientists, who work within society, need to understand national demands and to operate in accordance with the highest moral standards. (DCK)

  3. 75 FR 10319 - Cooper Tools-Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,602] Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From... January 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Division, a subsidiary of...

  4. Enhancement of international cooperation and experience exchange - international and regional cooperation in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper will explore methods that have been effective in accomplishing broad-based technology transfer relationships between international commercial nuclear organizations, and have enhanced the benefits from such relationships through mutual participation in the development of new technology. The factors involved in accomplishing technology transfer will be examined based on the 25 years of Westinghouse experience in establishing successful nuclear technology relationships with over 20 different associates world-wide. This will include information pertaining to organization, training, consultation, technical information transmission, and other important aspects of technology transfer. Additionally, the methodology of enhancing and increasing the benefits of technology transfer through cooperative development programs as produced and promoted by Westinghouse with its associates will be examined. This will include reviews of several significant cooperative programs, such as the programs for the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor and the Integrated Protection and Control Systems for future plants

  5. ASEAN energy cooperation an increasingly daunting challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, F.

    2009-07-01

    energy appears to be an ideal area for cooperation: given the characteristics of these economies, and in particular their shared concerns with energy security, it seems logical for them to push for resource sharing and interconnecting so as to enhance security. Energy cooperation has indeed been on ASEAN's agenda for a long time and the recent rise in oil prices has no doubt rekindled interest in cooperative initiatives in the energy sector. However, an oft-heard criticism about ASEAN is that it tends to be often long on good intentions and relatively short on actions. The objective of the present paper is two-fold, first to survey and assess critically ASEAN's achievements in the area of energy cooperation, and secondly to examine the future prospects, as well as the limitations of further cooperation. In this context, the appropriate scope for further cooperation, in particular its extension beyond the borders of ASEAN, needs to be examined. The paper is organized in two parts. The first part provides a brief overview of the energy situation in ASEAN. The second part assesses the various cooperative initiatives undertaken by ASEAN and examines the opportunities and challenges associated with the extension of energy cooperation beyond the borders of ASEAN. (author)

  6. ASEAN energy cooperation an increasingly daunting challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, F.

    2009-01-01

    to be an ideal area for cooperation: given the characteristics of these economies, and in particular their shared concerns with energy security, it seems logical for them to push for resource sharing and interconnecting so as to enhance security. Energy cooperation has indeed been on ASEAN's agenda for a long time and the recent rise in oil prices has no doubt rekindled interest in cooperative initiatives in the energy sector. However, an oft-heard criticism about ASEAN is that it tends to be often long on good intentions and relatively short on actions. The objective of the present paper is two-fold, first to survey and assess critically ASEAN's achievements in the area of energy cooperation, and secondly to examine the future prospects, as well as the limitations of further cooperation. In this context, the appropriate scope for further cooperation, in particular its extension beyond the borders of ASEAN, needs to be examined. The paper is organized in two parts. The first part provides a brief overview of the energy situation in ASEAN. The second part assesses the various cooperative initiatives undertaken by ASEAN and examines the opportunities and challenges associated with the extension of energy cooperation beyond the borders of ASEAN. (author)

  7. How mutation alters the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Genki; Satotani, Yoshiki; Sayama, Hiroki

    2018-05-01

    Cooperation is ubiquitous at every level of living organisms. It is known that spatial (network) structure is a viable mechanism for cooperation to evolve. A recently proposed numerical metric, average gradient of selection (AGoS), a useful tool for interpreting and visualizing evolutionary dynamics on networks, allows simulation results to be visualized on a one-dimensional phase space. However, stochastic mutation of strategies was not considered in the analysis of AGoS. Here we extend AGoS so that it can analyze the evolution of cooperation where mutation may alter strategies of individuals on networks. We show that our extended AGoS correctly visualizes the final states of cooperation with mutation in the individual-based simulations. Our analyses revealed that mutation always has a negative effect on the evolution of cooperation regardless of the payoff functions, fraction of cooperators, and network structures. Moreover, we found that scale-free networks are the most vulnerable to mutation and thus the dynamics of cooperation are altered from bistability to coexistence on those networks, undergoing an imperfect pitchfork bifurcation.

  8. Cooperative newsvendor games : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montrucchio, L.; Norde, H.; Ozen, U.; Scarsini, M.; Slikker, M.; Choi, T.-M.

    2012-01-01

    In this survey, we review some of the main contributions to the cooperative approach of newsvendor situations. We show how newsvendor situations with several retailers can be modeled as a transferable-utility cooperative game and we concentrate on one solution concept: the core. First, we examine

  9. Gender and Cooperation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare cooperation among Colombian and Swedish children aged 9-12. We illustrate the dynamics of the prisoner’s dilemma in a new task that is easily understood by children and performed during a physical education class. We find no robust evidence of a difference in cooperation...

  10. Monitoring emotions and cooperative behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorbunov, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation among people in teams that are bound to perform a common goal is one of the main factors determining success of these teams. Cooperation becomes even more important for small teams performing long-term missions in isolation. Examples of such missions include missions performed on the

  11. Subsidizing R&D cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.

    2001-01-01

    A framework is developed with which the implementation of two commonly used R&D-stimulating policies can be evaluated: providing R&D subsidies and sustaining the formation of R&D cooperatives. Subsidized R&D cooperatives can also be analyzed. The analysis shows that providing R&D subsidies is more

  12. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  13. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  14. Industrial Buyer-Supplier Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Friis

    The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...

  15. The financing of cooperative businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ispizua

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Concern for adequate funding, both at birth and consolidation of the cooperative enterprise, has been, is and will be a constant concern in the cooperative world. So, have emerged in the legal field, a number of financial instruments of various kinds: as equity securities or special interests that seek to cover traditional financing gaps.

  16. Marketing Cooperatives and Financial Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, G.W.J.; Veerman, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between the financial structure of marketing cooperatives and the requirement of the domination of control by the members of the cooperative is analysed with an emphasis on incomplete contracts and system complementarities. It is argued that the disappearance of shortage markets in

  17. Progress of international evaluation cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The international evaluation cooperation started to remove the differences among major nuclear data libraries such as JENDL, ENDF, and JEF. The results obtained from the cooperation have been used to improve the quality of the libraries. This paper describes the status of the ongoing projects and several remarkable results so far obtained from the projects already finished. (author)

  18. Making Cooperative Learning Groups Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, James; De Jong, Cherie

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of cooperative-learning groups with middle school students. Describes cooperative-learning techniques, including group roles, peer evaluation, and observation and monitoring. Considers grouping options, including group size and configuration, dyads, the think-pair-share lecture, student teams achievement divisions, jigsaw groups,…

  19. COOPERATION AND COORDINATION BETWEEN INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL AUDITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA DUMITRESCU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Between external and internal auditors it is necessary to be a good cooperation and coordination; both professionals have to be involved in building a good working relationship. Objectives of the external and internal auditors are different from the company point of view, but in the achievement of the specific goals, there are interactions and work cooperation. If the internal auditors work together with the external auditors the results will be an increasing of the quality and the effectiveness of the organization`s systems and activities. If the external auditors work together with the internal auditors will result a decreasing of the amount of the testing they do, and as consequences’ a reducing of the fees. Because there are many benefits of the cooperation between external and internal auditing it is important to find out how could be coordinated these two professional activities. This study has the purpose to examine the most important provisions that promote such kind of cooperation and work like necessary tools for coordination and to identify the Romanian`s internal and external auditors perceptions regarding that cooperation and coordination. The objective of the study is to identify the nature of the relationship between the internal audit function and the organizations’ external auditors regarding their interactions and their cooperation.

  20. Nuclear energy and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Keiichi

    1981-01-01

    There is no need to emphasize that nuclear energy cannot be developed without international cooperation at either the industrial or the academic level. In the meanwhile, there have been some marked political, economic and social changes in recent years which are posing constraints to the international cooperation in nuclear energy. The problems and constraints impeding nuclear power programs cannot be overcome by only one nation; international cooperation with common efforts to solve the problems is essential. Nuclear energy is different from fossil energy resources in that it is highly technology-intensive while others are resource-intensive. International cooperation in technology has an entirely different importance in the field of nuclear energy. Educational institutions will play a role in a new era of the international cooperation. (Mori, K.)

  1. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...... feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates how cooperative...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education...

  2. Non-cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara-Greve, Takako

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook for university juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in economics, applied mathematics, and related fields. Each chapter is structured so that a core concept of that chapter is presented with motivations, useful applications are given, and related advanced topics are discussed for future study. Many helpful exercises at various levels are provided at the end of each chapter. Therefore, this book is most suitable for readers who intend to study non-cooperative game theory rigorously for both theoretical studies and applications. Game theory consists of non-cooperative games and cooperative games. This book covers only non-cooperative games, which are major tools used in current economics and related areas. Non-cooperative game theory aims to provide a mathematical prediction of strategic choices by decision makers (players) in situations of conflicting interest. Through the logical analyses of strategic choices, we obtain a better understanding of social (economic, business) probl...

  3. Evolution of Cooperation in Social Dilemmas on Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Swami; Killingback, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation in social dilemmas is essential for the functioning of systems at multiple levels of complexity, from the simplest biological organisms to the most sophisticated human societies. Cooperation, although widespread, is fundamentally challenging to explain evolutionarily, since natural selection typically favors selfish behavior which is not socially optimal. Here we study the evolution of cooperation in three exemplars of key social dilemmas, representing the prisoner’s dilemma, hawk-dove and coordination classes of games, in structured populations defined by complex networks. Using individual-based simulations of the games on model and empirical networks, we give a detailed comparative study of the effects of the structural properties of a network, such as its average degree, variance in degree distribution, clustering coefficient, and assortativity coefficient, on the promotion of cooperative behavior in all three classes of games. PMID:26928428

  4. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    Full Text Available Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  5. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  6. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-01-01

    research described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future

  7. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  8. REGIONAL COOPERATION IN THE BLACK SEA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia GAVUIK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The Black Sea region is situated in a very important geopolitical manner. Consequently, a large-scale regional collaboration becomes possible within the Black Sea zone and countries get appropriate conditions to launch their activity in this context. Aim: The body of the article is going to analyze the BSEC as one of the most successful regional organizations in the Black Sea area. The paper aims to provide an overview of the regional players’ activity in the framework of the BSEC which are involved in sustaining and strengthening of this organization and also in continuing the reform process in it, developing in the same time relations of cooperation with the EU and other regional initiatives. Methods. This article embraces a row of different scientific methods of data analysis, predictive analytics, historical and statistical overview, descriptive method, case study etc. Results. The countries from the Black Sea basin are the most vulnerable to potential risks and shocks due to the instability of the region. This requires the interstate cooperation in the Black Sea area with no tradition in this field several decades ago. In the same time, countries like Turkey, Romania or Russia aspire to play the role of the regional leader, which can cause regional rivalries. With the help of the regional cooperation and the BSEC in particular, regional countries could learn how to work together for the common benefit. The creation of stable markets, interconnected and transparent regional organizations and initiatives would largely contribute to the security and stability of the Black Sea region.

  9. Enhancing social skills through cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M J Booysen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The National Curriculum Statement of South Africa envisages qualified and competent teachers to deal with the diversity of learners and their needs in the classroom. One of the needs refers to all learners (Gr R-12 who need to acquire the necessary social skills to enable them to work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organization and community. These skills refer inter alia to: learning to work with others, listening to others, giving attention, asking clarifying questions, learning how to evaluate, and to praise others, handling conflict, reflecting on group work and allowing all group members to participate. The most obvious place to deal purposefully with the development of social skills is the classroom. This implies that alternative ways and methods of teaching must be introduced to develop the necessary social skills. This article reports on the findings obtained from a combined quantitative and qualitative study that set out to determine the levels of social competence achieved by a group of Grade 2 learners, and the possible association of a cooperative teaching and learning intervention programme for enhancing the social skills of these learners. The results revealed the latent potential of cooperative learning to enhance the social skills of Grade 2 learners. The significance of this research lies in the contribution it makes to establish the social competence of a group of Grade 2 learners and to determine the possibilities for enhancing their social skills through cooperative learning.

  10. Proposals for regional cooperation in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleywegt, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The CTBTO Prep Com is overseeing the rapid establishment of the verification-related means for the future CTBTO. It encourages support and participation in its development and would like to ensure that ancillary benefits are identified and utilised. One such benefit is to be derived from the global expertise, data and information which are developed and generated through its activities. This is particularly so in the field of seismology where the rapidly developing field of engineering seismology is dependent on quality data over an extended period. A national seismological capability is essential for countries that wish/expect to develop rapidly in the next few decades. Tremendous benefit can be derived by utilizing the verification-related monitoring data and information products of the CTBTO Prep Com, by making the organization (International Cooperation Section) aware of all national seismological needs and by interacting with member states. A regional co-operative programme or structure could be of benefit to countries to link with the CTBTO Prep Com in Vienna or for addressing problems common to a region. There are a number of regional organisations in Africa that can house or provide some form of support to further the cause of envisaged regional co-operative endeavours. The terms of reference and mechanisms by which the regional endeavours will operate should preferably be set up by the participating states within each region

  11. Surgery with cooperative robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Amy C; Berg, Kyle A; Dumpert, Jason; Wood, Nathan A; Visty, Abigail Q; Rentschler, Mark E; Platt, Stephen R; Farritor, Shane M; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2008-03-01

    Advances in endoscopic techniques for abdominal procedures continue to reduce the invasiveness of surgery. Gaining access to the peritoneal cavity through small incisions prompted the first significant shift in general surgery. The complete elimination of external incisions through natural orifice access is potentially the next step in reducing patient trauma. While minimally invasive techniques offer significant patient advantages, the procedures are surgically challenging. Robotic surgical systems are being developed that address the visualization and manipulation limitations, but many of these systems remain constrained by the entry incisions. Alternatively, miniature in vivo robots are being developed that are completely inserted into the peritoneal cavity for laparoscopic and natural orifice procedures. These robots can provide vision and task assistance without the constraints of the entry incision, and can reduce the number of incisions required for laparoscopic procedures. In this study, a series of minimally invasive animal-model surgeries were performed using multiple miniature in vivo robots in cooperation with existing laparoscopy and endoscopy tools as well as the da Vinci Surgical System. These procedures demonstrate that miniature in vivo robots can address the visualization constraints of minimally invasive surgery by providing video feedback and task assistance from arbitrary orientations within the peritoneal cavity.

  12. Model evaluation of agricultural consumer cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Oksana Evgen'evna

    2016-10-01

    Subject of research - the system of organization and management and economic relations arising in the process of interaction between business entities. The object of research is the agricultural consumer cooperatives. In the course of the study were actively used different methods and techniques of economic and statistical analysis, with particular, such as the method of comparison, grouping method, the Delphi method, the methods and techniques of factor analysis, economic and statistical methods; techniques used medium, relative and average values ​​of continuous reception and sample surveys, was conducted as a detail, and data compilation.

  13. Coal mine reclamation: the cooperative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazenko, E J; Kuhn, J A

    1976-07-01

    Salient problems encountered in coal mine reclamation include land use and environmental protection values, license applications and subsequent reports, and the development of sound reclamation planning programs. The facts of life to be dealt with in reclamation and reclamation planning include encounters with negative attitudes toward reclamation, basic physics, chemistry, biology and geology, and the ability or inability to respond properly. The cooperative approach to reclamation includes interfacing with mining company personnel, government agencies, public-interest groups and consultants. Some promising solutions to reclamation, especially in alpine and subalpine regions, include handling of materials and organic test plot research.

  14. Advisory and autonomous cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the traffic efficiency of an advisory cooperative driving system, Advisory Acceleration Control is examined and compared to the efficiency of an autonomous cooperative driving system, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. The algorithms and implementation thereof are explained. The

  15. Cooperation: the foundation of improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmer, T P; Spuhler, V J; Berwick, D M; Nolan, T W

    1998-06-15

    Cooperation--working together to produce mutual benefit or attain a common purpose--is almost inseparable from the quest for improvement. Although the case for cooperation can be made on ethical grounds, neither the motivation for nor the effects of cooperation need to be interpreted solely in terms of altruism. Cooperation can be a shrewd and pragmatic strategy for accomplishing personal goals in an interdependent system. Earlier papers in this series have explored the conceptual roots of modern approaches to improvement, which lie in systems theory. To improve systems, we must usually attend first and foremost to interactions. Among humans, "better interaction" is almost synonymous with "better cooperation." Physicians have ample opportunities and, indeed, an obligation to cooperate with other physicians in the same or different specialties, with nurses and other clinical workers, with administrators, and with patients and families. Many intellectual disciplines have made cooperation an object of study. These include anthropology; social psychology; genetics; biology; mathematics; game theory; linguistics; operations research; economics; and, of course, moral and rational philosophy. Scientifically grounded methods to enhance cooperation include developing a shared purpose; creating an open, safe environment; including all who share a common purpose and encouraging diverse viewpoints; negotiating agreement; and insisting on fairness and equity in the application of rules. These methods apply at the organizational level and at the level of the individual physician. This paper describes the application of these methods at the organizational level and focuses on one especially successful example of system-level cooperation in a care delivery site where interactions matter a great deal: the modern intensive care unit.

  16. Managing the Cooperative Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, JoAn S.

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the management of not-for-profit corporations which provide computerized library networks highlights marketing, nonprofit constraints, multiple goals, consumer demands, professional commitment, external influences, motivation and control, dependence on charisma, management and altruism, hybrid organizations, and rational management.…

  17. Multilateral Cooperation on Nonproliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Nathan E . Busch and Daniel H. Joyner, eds., Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Future of International Nonproliferation Policy (Athens, GA...or the World Bank . These organizations receive contributions from member states but have their own...Opening Reception Jack’s Lounge , Portola Hotel Friday, March 30, 2010 Timeline Content Delivery 7:30-8:30 Breakfast and Registration Cottonwood

  18. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  19. Wine quality, reputation, denominations: How cooperatives and private wineries compete?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how cooperatives in Northern Italy (Alto Adige and Trentino compete with private wineries regarding product quality and reputation, i.e. if firm organization affects wine quality and winery reputation. Moreover, we examine if cooperatives with deep roots in their local economy specialize in specific regional denomination rules (i.e. DOC, IGT. Compared to private wineries, cooperatives face additional challenges in order to raise wine quality, among them appropriate incentives that induce individual growers to supply high quality grapes (e.g. vineyard management and grape pricing schemes to lower yields. The quality reputation of a winery with consumers depends crucially on its winemaking skills. Wine regions differ with respect to climatic conditions and quality denomination rules. Assuming similar climatic conditions within wine regions as well as winemaking skills between firms, incentive schemes to induce individual growers to supply high quality grapes and quality denomination rules remain crucial determinants of wine quality and winery reputation when comparing different regions and firm organizational forms. The data set analyzed allows differentiating local cooperatives vs. private wineries and denotes retail prices, wine quality evaluations, indicators for winery reputation, and distinct denomination rules. We employ a hedonic pricing model in order to test the following hypothesis: First, wines produced by cooperatives suffer a significant reputation and/or wine quality discount relative to wines from private producers. Second, cooperatives and/or private wineries specialize in specific wine denominations for which they receive a price premium relative the competing organizational form. Our results are mixed. However, we reject the hypothesis that cooperatives suffer a reputation/wine quality discount relative to private producers for the Alto Adige wine region. Moreover, we find that regional cooperatives and private

  20. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  1. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  2. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  3. Cooperative and supportive neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sree Hari Rao, V.; Raja Sekhara Rao, P.

    2007-01-01

    This Letter deals with the concepts of co-operation and support among neurons existing in a network which contribute to their collective capabilities and distributed operations. Activational dynamical properties of these networks are discussed

  4. Nuclear cooperation within the CAEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katchanov, A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the situation and the perspectives of the nuclear cooperation between USSR and the different countries participating in the CAEM (USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, German Democratic Republic, Poland, Romania and Cuba) and Yugoslavia [fr

  5. Heuristics for Cooperative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    behaviors of cooperating humans are not necessary for simple tasks. Those of cooperating wolves or wasps might perform more reliably and could be...observed in wolves (Mech 1970), lions (Schaller 1972), and coyotes (Robinson 1952, Hamlin 1979). In coyotes this behavior seems to be directed toward...predation in Yellowstone National Park. J. Mammal. 33:470-476. value - low Schaller, G. B. 1972. The Serengeti lion: a study of predator-prey relationships

  6. Managing the evolution of cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Dormann, Julian; Ehrmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Management scholars have long stressed the importance of evolutionary processses for inter-firm cooperation but have mostly missed the promising opportunity to incorporate ideas from evolutionary theories into the analysis of collaborative arrangements. In this paper, we first present three rules for the evolution of cooperation - kinship selection, direct reciprocity, and indirect reciprocity. Second, we apply our theoretical considerations, enriched with ideas from cultural anthropology, to...

  7. International cooperation in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanisms of international co-operations, co-ordinated by International Atomic Energy Agency, are presented. These co-operations are related to international safety standards, to the safety of the four hundred existing reactors in operation, to quick help and information in case of emergency, and to the already valid international conventions. The relation between atomic energy and environmental protection is also discussed briefly. (K.A.)

  8. Regional and Global Monetary Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Lamberte; Peter J. Morgan

    2012-01-01

    The increasing occurrence of national, regional, and global financial crises, together with their rising costs and complexity, have increased calls for greater regional and global monetary cooperation. This is particularly necessary in light of volatile capital flow movements that can quickly transmit crisis developments in individual countries to other countries around the world. Global financial safety nets (GFSNs) are one important area for monetary cooperation. This paper reviews the c...

  9. INFORMATION SECURITY IN LOGISTICS COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Małkus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation of suppliers of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, wholesalers, retailers in the form of the supply chain, as well as outsourcing of specialized logistics service require ensuring adequate support of information. It concerns the use of appropriate computer tools. The security of information in such conditions of collaboration becomes the important problem for parties of contract. The objective of the paper is to characterize main issues relating to security of information in logistics cooperation.

  10. Assessment of a cooperative workstation.

    OpenAIRE

    Beuscart, R. J.; Molenda, S.; Souf, N.; Foucher, C.; Beuscart-Zephir, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    Groupware and new Information Technologies have now made it possible for people in different places to work together in synchronous cooperation. Very often, designers of this new type of software are not provided with a model of the common workspace, which is prejudicial to software development and its acceptance by potential users. The authors take the example of a task of medical co-diagnosis, using a multi-media communication workstation. Synchronous cooperative work is made possible by us...

  11. Effects of R&D Cooperation to Innovation Performance in Open Innovation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Liang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic nonlinear characteristics of internal and external environment in modern organization shows up increasingly, which make innovative research breakthrough organizational boundaries and present a pattern of open mode, the traditional mode of innovation is facing huge challenges like increasing innovation cycle, huge R&D input and inefficient knowledge transfer. And cooperation with external organizations to implement R&D is definitely a possibility to solve the open innovation environment challenge. Since organizations often have multiple dimensions of cooperation with different types of organization for research and development for the influence of organizational innovation performance or for exploring cooperation at the same time in different areas, and in different types of institutions. This paper studied the innovation performance of relevant government agencies except such innovation organization as enterprises, universities, and research institutions for the first time. This paper tracked on a survey of China's national engineering technology research center in related situation from 2002 to 2011 and collected related data to research and development cooperation and innovation performance for empirical research. Study found that universities have advantages in richness, in knowledge itself and knowledge accessible extent, cooperation with university in R&D is the best choice to promote the innovation performance of the organization. While cooperating with domestic universities and domestic enterprises to carry out research and development has bad effect in organizational innovation performance; while cooperation with domestic institutions and foreign institutions in the research and development plays a positive role in promoting innovation.

  12. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  13. International cooperation on breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.E.; Kratzer, M.B.; Leslie, K.E.; Paige, H.W.; Shantzis, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    In March 1977, as the result of discussions which began in the fall of 1976, the Rockefeller Foundation requested International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) to undertake a study of the role of international cooperation in the development and application of the breeder reactor. While there had been considerable international exchange in the development of breeder technology, the existence of at least seven major national breeder development programs raised a prima facie issue of the adequacy of international cooperation. The final product of the study was to be the identification of options for international cooperation which merited further consideration and which might become the subject of subsequent, more detailed analysis. During the course of the study, modifications in U.S. breeder policy led to an expansion of the analysis to embrace the pros and cons of the major breeder-related policy issues, as well as the respective views of national governments on those issues. The resulting examination of views and patterns of international collaboration emphasizes what was implicit from the outset: Options for international cooperation cannot be fashioned independently of national objectives, policies and programs. Moreover, while similarity of views can stimulate cooperation, this cannot of itself provide compelling justification for cooperative undertakings. Such undertakings are influenced by an array of other national factors, including technological development, industrial infrastructure, economic strength, existing international ties, and historic experience

  14. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  15. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Ramazi

    Full Text Available For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  16. Cooperation and deception in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katie; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2017-08-01

    Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates. In experimental food competitions, primates flexibly manipulate group-mates' behavior to tactically deceive them. Deception can infiltrate cooperative interactions, such as when one takes an unfair share of meat after a coordinated hunt. In order to counter competition of this sort, primates maintain cooperation through partner choice, partner control, and third party punishment. Yet humans appear to stand alone in their ability to understand others' beliefs, which allows us not only to deceive others with the explicit intent to create a false belief, but it also allows us to put ourselves in others' shoes to determine when cheaters need to be punished, even if we are not directly disadvantaged by the cheater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure of NCI Cooperative Groups Program Prior to NCTN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how the National Cancer Institute’s Cooperative Groups Program was structured prior to its being replaced by NCI’s National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN). The NCTN gives funds and other support to cancer research organizations to conduct cancer clinical trials.

  18. Cooperative motion of intrinsic and actuated semiflexible swimmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llopis, I.; Pagonabarraga, I.; Lagomarsino, M.C.; Lowe, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the phenomenon of hydrodynamic-induced cooperativity for pairs of flagellated micro-organism swimmers, of which spermatozoa cells are an example. We consider semiflexible swimmers, where inextensible filaments are driven by an internal intrinsic force and torque-free mechanism (intrinsic

  19. Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Requirements Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurawski, Jason, W; Mace, Kathryn, P

    2016-08-11

    In August 2016 The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) and Colorado State University (CSU) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) located on the campus of Colorado State University. Several key findings highlighting the results from the review were discovered, with benefits to improve the overall scientific process for CIRA and CSU.

  20. Analysis of factors affecting agribusiness cooperators' access to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High interest rate, delay in loan disbursement and reluctance in repaying loans were rated the most dominant challenges to borrowing from formal sources. Based on the findings, it was recommended that cooperatives should be encouraged to organize periodic capacity building exercises for members to keep them ...

  1. Democracy in NGOs: Making the Cooperative Option Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Chris

    1988-01-01

    Discusses several problems encountered by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that structure themselves as cooperatives, with all members being equal. Presents four problem areas--(1) decision making, (2) meetings, (3) job rotation, and (4) growth--as well as strategies to solve potential problems. (CH)

  2. Planning for Interagency Cooperation in Rural Development. CARD Report 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, David L.; Glick, Edward L.

    With a major emphasis on cooperative planning in rural development, three elements of development process were identified: (1) integration of units involved, occurring when several organizations contribute to a larger collective effort; (2) decentralized planning and local initiative, occurring when planning initiative is at the local level; (3)…

  3. Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information Access Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information Access (TICFIA) Program supports projects focused on developing innovative technologies for accessing, collecting, organizing, preserving, and disseminating information from foreign sources to address the U.S.' teaching and research needs in international education and foreign…

  4. Competition and Cooperation: The Wisdom to Know When

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Roberta Wiig

    2010-01-01

    Both competition and cooperation are as necessary in business as they are in other aspects of people's lives. Unfortunately, highly educated professionals do not always make wise decisions about when to do what; even when they know in theory that competition is counterproductive, they still "choose" to compete. Organizations would be better served…

  5. Does cooperation mean kinship between spatially discrete ant nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Duncan S; Cottrell, Joan E; Watts, Kevin; A'Hara, Stuart W; Hofreiter, Michael; Robinson, Elva J H

    2016-12-01

    Eusociality is one of the most complex forms of social organization, characterized by cooperative and reproductive units termed colonies. Altruistic behavior of workers within colonies is explained by inclusive fitness, with indirect fitness benefits accrued by helping kin. Members of a social insect colony are expected to be more closely related to one another than they are to other conspecifics. In many social insects, the colony can extend to multiple socially connected but spatially separate nests (polydomy). Social connections, such as trails between nests, promote cooperation and resource exchange, and we predict that workers from socially connected nests will have higher internest relatedness than those from socially unconnected, and noncooperating, nests. We measure social connections, resource exchange, and internest genetic relatedness in the polydomous wood ant Formica lugubris to test whether (1) socially connected but spatially separate nests cooperate, and (2) high internest relatedness is the underlying driver of this cooperation. Our results show that socially connected nests exhibit movement of workers and resources, which suggests they do cooperate, whereas unconnected nests do not. However, we find no difference in internest genetic relatedness between socially connected and unconnected nest pairs, both show high kinship. Our results suggest that neighboring pairs of connected nests show a social and cooperative distinction, but no genetic distinction. We hypothesize that the loss of a social connection may initiate ecological divergence within colonies. Genetic divergence between neighboring nests may build up only later, as a consequence rather than a cause of colony separation.

  6. Age structure and cooperation in coevolutionary games on dynamic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zilong; Hu, Zhenhua; Zhou, Xiaoping; Yi, Jingzhang

    2015-04-01

    Our proposed model imitates the growth of a population and describes the age structure and the level of cooperation in games on dynamic network with continuous changes of structure and topology. The removal of nodes and links caused by age-dependent attack, together with the nodes addition standing for the newborns of population, badly ruins Matthew effect in this coevolutionary process. Though the network is generated by growth and preferential attachment, it degenerates into random network and it is no longer heterogeneous. When the removal of nodes and links is equal to the addition of nodes and links, the size of dynamic network is maintained in steady-state, so is the low level of cooperation. Severe structure variation, homogeneous topology and continuous invasion of new defection jointly make dynamic network unsuitable for the survival of cooperator even when the probability with which the newborn players initially adopt the strategy cooperation is high, while things change slightly when the connections of newborn players are restricted. Fortunately, moderate interactions in a generation trigger an optimal recovering process to encourage cooperation. The model developed in this paper outlines an explanation of the cohesion changes in the development process of an organization. Some suggestions for cooperative behavior improvement are given in the end.

  7. 39 CFR 230.3 - Cooperation with the Office of Inspector General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperation with the Office of Inspector General. 230.3 Section 230.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL General Policy and Authority § 230.3 Cooperation with the Office of Inspector...

  8. Learning from the experiences of others: four forest landowner cooperatives share their stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela Jakes

    2006-01-01

    For a community or group investigating the appropriateness of a cooperative as a means for organizing local landowners to accomplish forest management or marketing objectives, it is useful to hear about the experiences of other communities or cooperatives. For the conference, we put together a series of video case studies, summarizing the stories of four forest...

  9. The Impact of Cooperative Learning on CHC Students' Achievements and Its Changes over the Past Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiuxian; Liu, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Informed by emergent learning theories and multiple evidenced benefits, cooperative learning has developed into a widely accepted organization mode of class in the Western context. For the same reason, cooperative learning is transferred, during the past decade, into classrooms of Confucian Heritage Culture (CHC) contexts. Concerns, however, are…

  10. Cost Effective Bioethanol via Acid Pretreatment of Corn Stover, Saccharification, and Conversion via a Novel Fermentation Organism: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number: CRD-12-485

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowe, N.

    2014-05-01

    This research program will convert acid pretreated corn stover to sugars at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and then transfer these sugars to Honda R&D and its partner the Green Earth Institute (GEI) for conversion to ethanol via a novel fermentation organism. In phase one, NREL will adapt its pretreatment and saccharification process to the unique attributes of this organism, and Honda R&D/GEI will increase the sugar conversion rate as well as the yield and titer of the resulting ethanol. In later phases, NREL, Honda R&D, and GEI will work together at NREL to optimize and scale-up to pilot-scale the Honda R&D/GEI bioethanol production process. The final stage will be to undertake a pilot-scale test at NREL of the optimized bioethanol conversion process.

  11. On Cooperative Behavior in Distributed Teams: The Influence of Organizational Design, Media Richness, Social Interaction, and Interaction Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    H?konsson, Dorthe D.; Obel, B?rge; Eskildsen, Jacob K.; Burton, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Self-interest vs. cooperation is a fundamental dilemma in animal behavior as well as in human and organizational behavior. In organizations, how to get people to cooperate despite or in conjunction with their self-interest is fundamental to the achievement of a common goal. While both organizational designs and social interactions have been found to further cooperation in organizations, some of the literature has received contradictory support, just as very little research, if any, has examin...

  12. ENHANCING STUDENTS‟ CONTENT AND ORGANIZATION IN WRITING REPORT AND NARRATIVE TEXTS THROUGH COOPERATIVE LEARNING (THE CASE OF GRADE XI OF NASIMA SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR OF 2012/2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatona Suraya

    2017-04-01

    Two cycles of an action research had been implemented to 26 students of eleventh graders. The primary data were the teacher‘s daily journal, the students‘ interview results, the students‘ pre-cycle test results, and the students‘ post -test results. The secondary data were the students‘ artifacts and the interpretation of the video recorder. This study explained the pattern of change related to the students‘ writing. At the end of the second cycle my students gained improvement. In the area of content, my students were able to move from scratch writing to writing with clear ideas and full of knowledgeable information. It was assumed that spoken drill on think-pair-shared activities helped my students to state ideas clearly. In the area of text organization, my students were able to write in sequence order. It was assumed that the drill on peer review has trained them to make their writing better organized following the organization of the genre. The improvement was significant. It was indicated by the post -test‘s score that was better than the pre-cycle‘s test score. The mean score f the pre-test was 65.77 and 81.5 in the second post test. The results suggest that structuring discussion and conversation during the ooperative learning activities help the students perform better in writing.

  13. The Ways of Using Foreign Experience of Intermunicipal Investment Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siryk Zenoviy O.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The content and nature of intermunicipal investment cooperation (IMIC are disclosed in the article. The aim of the article is to study the foreign experience of intermunicipal investment cooperation with a view to further introduction of local self-government into domestic practice. By analyzing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists, in which the general experience and mechanism of intermunicipal cooperation is considered, the main features of the reasons for the existence and promotion of intermunicipal investment cooperation are revealed. Some foreign practices of the existence of intermunicipal investment cooperation are analyzed. There made a critical analysis regarding the forms of implementation of such cooperation. Features of the mechanism of functioning of various models of such cooperation are revealed. It is substantiated that the intermunicipal investment IMIC is not a fairly common practice and direction of cooperation between territorial communities and their government bodies. The legislation of most of the analyzed countries does not establish clear rules that would administer or regulate IMIC to an extent required by the practice of territorial management and development of territories. It is determined that a large number of forms, models and methods of implementing IMIC, despite even a certain rarity of their application, attests to the most important characteristic feature of it. It is stated that the following forms of IMIC should be considered as the most effective with regard to domestic practice of organization of local self-government and financial flows: establishment of a separate intermunicipal institution (body authorized to manage or regulate the implementation of investment processes and administration of investment processes by concluding an administrative agreement.

  14. Fifth Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation. Towards strengthening pacific energy cooperation (Participants list)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-02-27

    This is a list of participants in the above-named conference held at Tokyo Prince Hotel in the period February 27-28, 1991, and other people related to the event. The chairman of Committee for Energy Policy Promotion, president of IEE (Institute of Energy Economics), Minister for International Trade and Industry, and Minister for Foreign Affairs were in attendance. Speakers and chairpersons were from various organizations, such as the Petronas, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Australia, PPT Migas, JCCP (Japan Cooperation Center Petroleum), Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc., Indonesia, Tokyo University, Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc., Korea, Caltex Corporation, Thailand, Asian Development Bank, Latin America, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, 16th Conference of World Energy Council organizing committee, etc. Key persons met from the governments of countries in the Asia-Pacific region, energy research organizations, business and economic circles, research institutes, etc. The names in the list are grouped into two sections, domestic and overseas, and are in the alphabetical order. Also mentioned are the names of the ambassadors of New Zealand, Indonesia, Columbia, Malaysia, Canada, Australia, U.K., China, and Venezuela. (NEDO)

  15. Cooperating systems: Layered MAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Distributed intelligent systems can be distinguished by the models that they use. The model developed focuses on layered multiagent system conceived of as a bureaucracy in which a distributed data base serves as a central means of communication. The various generic bureaus of such a system is described and a basic vocabulary for such systems is presented. In presenting the bureaus and vocabularies, special attention is given to the sorts of reasonings that are appropriate. A bureaucratic model has a hierarchy of master system and work group that organizes E agents and B agents. The master system provides the administrative services and support facilities for the work groups.

  16. Cooperation for a competitive position: The impact of hospital cooperation behavior on organizational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Vera Antonia; Hinz, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Several public policy initiatives, particularly those involving managed care, aim to enhance cooperation between partners in the health care sector because it is expected that such cooperation will reduce costs and generate additional revenue. However, empirical evidence regarding the effects of cooperation on hospital performance is scarce, particularly with respect to creating a comprehensive measure of cooperation behavior. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of hospital cooperation behavior on organizational performance. We differentiate between horizontal and vertical cooperation using two alternative measures-cooperation depth and cooperation breadth-and include the interaction effects between both cooperation directions. Data are derived from a survey of German hospitals and combined with objective performance information from annual financial statements. Generalized linear regression models are used. The study findings provide insight into the nature of hospitals' cooperation behavior. In particular, we show that there are negative synergies between horizontal administrative cooperation behavior and vertical cooperation behavior. Whereas the depth and breadth of horizontal administrative cooperation positively affect financial performance (when there is no vertical cooperation), vertical cooperation positively affects financial performance (when there is no horizontal administrative cooperation) only when cooperation is broad (rather than deep). Horizontal cooperation is generally more effective than vertical cooperation at improving financial performance. Hospital managers should consider the negative interaction effect when making decisions about whether to recommend a cooperative relationship in a horizontal or vertical direction. In addition, managers should be aware of the limited financial benefit of cooperation behavior.

  17. Culture and Cooperation during the Interwar Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara Popa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the most important Publications of the International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (1925-1946 we will explore the ideas concerning culture and personalities involved in the intellectual cooperation during the Interwar Period. Pointing out the role that the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation had and the Romanian contribution to this cooperation is another purpose of this article.

  18. Cooperative decision making in a stochastic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative game theory is a mathematical tool to analyze situations involving several individuals who can obtain certain benefits by cooperating. The main questions this theory addresses are who will cooperate with whom and how will the corresponding benefits be divided. Most results of cooperative

  19. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the member...

  20. Astronaut Gordon Cooper during flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, relaxes while waiting for weight and balance tests to begin (03974); Cooper prior to entering the Mercury Spacecraft for a series of simulated flight tests. During these tests NASA doctors, engineers and technicians monitor Cooper's performance (03975); Cooper undergoing suit pressurization tests (03976).

  1. International nuclear cooperation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yong-Kyu

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power project traditionally involve huge financial investment, highly sophisticated technology, and long lead time. Many countries, particularly developing ones, find it impossible to implement their nuclear power programs without technical cooperation and assistance from advanced countries. In this Asia and Pacific Region, seven countries have commercial nuclear power units in operation and/or under construction. Korea has six nuclear power units in operation, and three under construction. Active nuclear cooperation has been instrumental in implementing her abmitious nuclear power programs successfully. Nuclear cooperation is one of the widely recognized necessities, which is quite often talked about among the countries of the Asia and Pacific Region. But the differences in nuclear maturity and national interests among those in the region seem to be standing against it. Given the constraints, it is not easy to select appropriate areas for cooperation. There is no doubt, however, that they should include the nuclear policy, nuclear safety, radwaste management, radiological protection, and the management of nuclear units. In order to effectively promote nuclear cooperation in the Region, the scope of RCA activities must be expanded to include the nuclear power area. The Regional Nuclear Data Bank, the Regional Training Center and the Nuclear Emergency Response Center, for example, would be the effective tools for cooperation to meet the demands of the countries in the Region. In view of the technological gap between Japan and all others in the region, we cannot speak of a regional nuclear cooperation without heavily counting on Japan, the most advanced nuclear state in the region. For these reasons, Japan is expected to share an increasing portion of her nuclear technology with others. (author)

  2. Comparative environmental evaluation of three different waste treating methods for bio-degradable organic waste and residual waste from the six municipalities cooperating in Biogasanlaeg I/S and I/S Nordforbraending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cour Jansen, J. la.

    1997-03-01

    A comparative environmental evaluation has been made for three systems for processing household refuse. The first system (1) comprises thermofilic treatment of the organic waste. The inorganic parts of the waste from both systems is combusted in a cogeneration plant. The third system (3) is a cogeneration plant combusting all the wastes. The most essential issue in comparing the three waste processing systems is the possibility to use the residual products from the bio-gasification system (1) and the composting system in the agriculture as fertilizers. Without such a use it is estimated that the systems (1) and (2) will be very unfeasible, both environmentally and economically. The contents of heavy metals, organic chemicals, and plasticizers in the residual products are at present above the Danish threshold values. This problem can only be solved by reducing the contents of these pollutants in the household wastes. Based on these findings it is therefore very doubtful whether the residual waste products from bio-gasification and probably also from composting can be used in the agriculture in the future. However, it is for the other parts of the environmental analysis assumed that the problem will eventually be solved. Differences in resource utilization in the waste processing are very small in the three systems. When comparing the net energy production system (1) and (3) show the best results. The three systems are almost equal related to emissions of HC1, NO x , and SO 2 , the composting system performing the best. The three systems emit the same amount of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases. Composting, however, results in a smaller energy susbstituion and is therefore marginally a poorer solution. For reducing the heavy metals and plasticizers in the environment combustion of the organic wastes is the best system. (LN)

  3. Regional cooperation in nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.; Muntzing, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    In November 1985, PBNCC (the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee) was formally established. Currently six Pacific Basin members have been participating in PBNCC: Canada, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Taiwan of Chian, and the United States of America. The People's Republic of China has sent observes to the PBNCC meetings. The technical contents of PBWCC working groups are as follows: 1. Regional cooperative for pooled spare parts of nuclear power plants and inventory management; 2. Regional cooperation in nuclear training; 3. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety; 4. Regional cooperation in Codes and Standards; 5. Regional Cooperation in public acceptance; 6. Regional cooperation on radwaste management. (Liu)

  4. Theoretical and methodological bases of the cooperation and the cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alberto Rivera Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work has the purpose to approach the theoretical and methodological foundations of the rise of the cooperatives. In this article are studied the logical antecedents of the cooperativism, the premises  establish by  the Industrial Revolution for the emergence of the first modern cooperative “The Pioneers of Rochdale”  that  is  the inflection point of  cooperativism, until analyzing the contributions of the whole thinking  of the time that maintain this process.

  5. Forskningsoversigt - Effekterne af Cooperative Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    Kan Cooperative Learning - en undervisningsform hvor lærerens tid ved tavlen mindskes og hvor de lærende samarbejder om stoffet - maksimere de lærendes indlæring og medvirke til en forbedring af deres interpersonelle og kommunikative kompetencer, samt øge deres motivation for læring? Den megen...... forskning fra USA viser, at Cooperative Learning øger lærerens bevidsthed om, hvilken adfærd, han er medvirkende til at skabe blandt de lærende. Og den øger lærerens bevidsthed omkring interaktioner i klasserummet, og giver god plads og taletid til hver enkelt lærende. Set i lyset heraf kan Cooperative......, at Cooperative Learning har lige så høj grad af positiv effekt, som den viser sig at have på grundskoleområdet. Det er sigtet med denne oversigt over den empiriske forskning. Til start præsenteres Cooperative Learning som metode, dens rødder og udvikling, dernæst skitseres den omfattende forskning omkring...

  6. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W.; Dancey, Janet E.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Horvath, L. Elise; Perez, Edith A.; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M.; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a long-standing history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the U.S. based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the U.S., and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the U.S. or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the U.S. and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to U.S. policies that restrict drug distribution outside the U.S. This manuscript serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. PMID:26433551

  8. Partial Cooperative Equilibria: Existence and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Ghintran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the solution concepts of partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria. The partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibrium is axiomatically characterized by using notions of rationality, consistency and converse consistency with regard to reduced games. We also establish sufficient conditions for which partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria exist in supermodular games. Finally, we provide an application to strategic network formation where such solution concepts may be useful.

  9. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was ac...

  10. Trial hygienic assessment and minimizing environmental health risks during leaders council meeting of shanghai cooperation organization countries and meeting of leaders and government heads of brics countries held in Ufa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Kleyn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the results and experience obtained in the process of giving scientific grounds for volume and essence of a monitoring program, and detecting territories with health risks for Ufa city population, as well as for participants and visitors during the Summits (SCO member states leaders council and meeting of BRICS leaders and heads of BRICS countries governments. We detected that if unfavorable meteorological conditions occurred (calm or wind weaker than 0.5 m/sec and if industrial enterprises were working at full capacity together with motorways being under peak loads it could lead to unacceptable health risks in areas where the Summits were organized; such risks for exposed population were related to dangers for respiratory organs (up to 5.66HI, eyes (up to 3.2HI, and system effects (up to 1.3HI. When we modeled weather conditions which were typical for July risks were assessed as being lower (in relation to respiratory organs up to 2.8HI, eyesight, up to 1.05HI, system effects up to 1.03HI, and an area where such risks could possibly occur was considerably smaller. We didn't detect any unacceptable health risks for participants and visitors of the Summits under exposure to chemical admixtures from drinking water and soil (HI=0.17 and HI=3.95*10–7 correspondingly. We suggested optimal programs for monitoring environmental objects aimed at providing maximum control over the situation. We also recommended to perform additional measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 fine-dispersed dust fractions when monitoring air quality. A comprehensive sanitary analysis of drinking water and soil quality control as per standard programs were offered. We created a set of activities which allowed to minimize health risks and to provide safe conditions for the Summits in term of all the examined factors. Implementation of the created monitoring program and recommended sanitary-epidemiologic activities as per data of instrumental air quality

  11. Formation, “Gold Rule” for the cooperative development

    OpenAIRE

    Alcides López Labrada

    2013-01-01

    Before the arising of the cooperative movement in the world, cooperation already existed. So, it is logical to affirm that there can be cooperation without cooperative movement. But there cannot be cooperative movement without cooperation, because cooperation is an indispensable premise for the existence of cooperative movement. Both the precursors of the cooperative movement and the classics of Marxism agreed on the necessity of cooperative formation. Lenin called socialism “the regime o...

  12. Cooperative Cloudlet for Pervasive Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef Jamal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of cooperation in wireless communication has got significant attention from both academia and industrial persons towards to address the performance drawbacks of wireless sensor network due to reason of user’s high mobility and lack of resources of network. The future wireless systems should be highly heterogeneous and interconnected because motivating cooperative relaying has to apply on the future mobile network for efficient results and future demand. As currently the mobile computing is facing latency and battery drainage issues which need to address and solve hence in this work we are proposed mobile - centric and opportunistic communication architecture. In this work mobile devices which are in the range of Wi - Fi of each other can create cluste r with each other and can create an ad - hoc cooperative cloud using Relay Spot[1 - 4]. The Collaboration between these devices can enable them to resourcefully use the augmentation without any infrastructure.

  13. Regional cooperation prospects in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki

    2006-01-01

    The Republic of Korea follows a well-established nuclear nonproliferation policy and could consider regional cooperation as proposed by many nuclear experts over the years. Real problems exist in establishing cooperation, but as the nuclear industry continues to grow, the motivation increases. The US should be a partner in the regional cooperation also. This paper summarizes significant advances made by the NNCA in applying remote monitoring technologies to support international safeguards in the ROK, providing the technical foundation for the use of these technologies for transparency between partner countries. Concrete steps are proposed to form an institutional and then a governmental approach for transparency in the use of nuclear material and even, eventual establishment of a regional safeguards inspection regime. (author)

  14. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    in the five countries and discuss its implications. The present paper synthesizes possible ‘blind spots’ in the national policy, legal or administrative water governance frameworks with reference to the identified types of water-related conflictive and cooperative situations identified during the inventories.......In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...

  15. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... by taking the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was utilized to analyse cross-border innovation...... of innovativeness increase the likelihood of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on selecting partners within the European Union. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic...

  16. International co-operation in the supply of nuclear fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allday, C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper draws on British Nuclear Fuels' (BNFL) wide experience of international collaboration in nuclear fuel process activities to examine the pros and cons of international agreements. Initially, the factors that influence the need to co-operate, the extent of possible co-operation and the alternative types of agreement, are reviewed. Next, the benefits, problems and risks associated with each function, such as management, financial R and D, marketing and operations that could be covered within the scope of an international agreement, are examined in detail. The paper continues by calling upon specific experience obtained by BNFL in the co-operation with other organizations over several years in both major and much smaller agreements, illustrating the rationale behind the co-operation, the resolution of 'teething' troubles and the present status of these organizations. In conclusion, the paper comments upon the effectiveness of collaboration agreements and identifies several requirements for international co-operation to succeed. (author)

  17. Fashion, Cooperation, and Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people’s cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed. PMID:23382799

  18. [Strategy Development for International Cooperation in the Clinical Laboratory Field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yoshiko; Osawa, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    The strategy of international cooperation in the clinical laboratory field was analyzed to improve the quality of intervention by reviewing documents from international organizations and the Japanese government. Based on the world development agenda, the target of action for health has shifted from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases (NCD). This emphasizes the importance of comprehensive clinical laboratories instead of disease-specific examinations in developing countries. To achieve this goal, the World Health Organization (WHO) has disseminated to the African and Asian regions the Laboratory Quality Management System (LQMS), which is based on the same principles of the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) 15189. To execute this strategy, international experts must have competence in project management, analyze information regarding the target country, and develop a strategy for management of the LQMS with an understanding of the technical aspects of laboratory work. However, there is no appropriate pre- and post-educational system of international health for Japanese international workers. Universities and academic organizations should cooperate with the government to establish a system of education for international workers. Objectives of this education system must include: (1) training for the organization and understanding of global health issues, (2) education of the principles regarding comprehensive management of clinical laboratories, and (3) understanding the LQMS which was employed based on WHO's initiative. Achievement of these objectives will help improve the quality of international cooperation in the clinical laboratory field.

  19. Cooperation, framing and political attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Wengström, Erik Roland

    This paper shows that political attitudes are linked to cooperative behavior in an incentivized experiment with a large sample randomly drawn from the Danish population. However, this relationship depends on the way the experiment is framed. In the standard game in which subjects give to a public...... good, contributions are the same regardless of political attitudes. In an economically equivalent version, in which subjects take from a public good, left-wingers cooperate significantly more than subjects in the middle or to the right of the political spectrum. Through simulation techniques we find...

  20. Some aspects of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera A, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    The present work deals with some aspects of International cooperation which are directly related with Science and Technology in general, but which have total validity in Nuclear Science and Technology. It is meant particularly for Latin-American countries as a whole. Some ideas meant to review the factors that act on the development of Science and Technology are briefly developed; the number of positive achievements reached in Sc. and T.; is recounted; the problems to be overcome in Sc. and T. are numbered and, finally, some propositions for increasing international cooperation in Science and Technology are exposed. (Author)

  1. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  2. Cooperative Localization for Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Urup, Daniel Nygaard; Meyer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hybrid message passing method for distributed cooperative localization and tracking of mobile agents. Belief propagation and mean field message passing are employed for, respectively, the motion-related and measurementrelated part of the factor graph. Using a Gaussian belief approxim......We propose a hybrid message passing method for distributed cooperative localization and tracking of mobile agents. Belief propagation and mean field message passing are employed for, respectively, the motion-related and measurementrelated part of the factor graph. Using a Gaussian belief...

  3. Cooperation for knowledge demands know-how for cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. de la Rive Box (Louk)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractValedictory Address by Louk de la Rive Box, Professor of international cooperation and Rector of the International Institute of Social Studies (22 April 2010). Which Knowledge and for Which Development? Old Timers and New Players More than a decade ago the cyber-revolution gave rise

  4. The sound of cooperation: Musical influences on cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Kevin M; Yan, Jubo; Wansink, Brian; Schulze, William D

    2017-03-01

    Music as an environmental aspect of professional workplaces has been closely studied with respect to consumer behavior while sparse attention has been given to its relevance for employee behavior. In this article, we focus on the influence of music upon cooperative behavior within decision-making groups. Based on results from two extended 20-round public goods experiments, we find that happy music significantly and positively influences cooperative behavior. We also find a significant positive association between mood and cooperative behavior. Consequently, while our studies provide partial support for the relevance of affect in relation to cooperation within groups, we also show an independently important function of happy music that fits with a theory of synchronous and rhythmic activity as a social lubricant. More generally, our findings indicate that music and perhaps other atmospheric variables that are designed to prime consumer behavior might have comparably important effects for employees and consequently warrant closer investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Let's Cooperate! Integrating Cooperative Learning Into a Lesson on Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineke, Patricia R

    2017-04-01

    Cooperative learning is an effective teaching strategy that promotes active participation in learning and can be used in academic, clinical practice, and professional development settings. This article describes that strategy and provides an example of its use in a lesson about ethics. J Contin Nurs Educ. 2017;48(4):154-156. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Accelerating cooperative systems' development through the Grand Cooperative Driving challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.; Malone, K.M.; Katwijk, R. van; Gerrits, A.

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative driving systems comprise an important research area. They are considered a promising solution for reducing traffic congestion, reducing environmental impact and improving traffic safety and driver comfort. The key to these systems is the communication and interaction between vehicles and

  7. International cooperation workshop. Regional workshop for CTBTO international cooperation: Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Pursuant to the 1999 programme of work, and following the International Cooperation Workshop held in Vienna, Austria, in 1998, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO (Prep Com) held a regional Workshop for CTBTO International Cooperation in Cairo. The purpose of the workshop was to identify how and by what means the Africa region can promote international cooperation in CTBT verification related technologies, and how the region can benefit from and contribute to Prep Com activity. PTS staff briefed the 40 participants from 22 African States who attended the Workshop on general aspects, including costs, of the establishment and operation of the CTBT verification system, including its four monitoring technologies. Participants were informed on opportunities for local institutions in the establishment of monitoring stations and on possible support for national and regional data centres. National experts presented their research and development activities and reviewed existing experiences on bi/multi-lateral cooperation. The main points of the discussion focused on the need to engage governments to advance signature/ratification, and further training opportunities for African states

  8. HySafe research priorities workshop report Summary of the workshop organized in cooperation with US DOE and supported by EC JRC in Washington DC November 10-11 2014.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Keller; Laura Hill; Kristian Kiuru; Groth, Katrina M.; Hecht, Ethan; Will James

    2016-03-01

    The HySafe research priorities workshop is held on the even years between the International Conference on Hydrogen Safety (ICHS) which is held on the odd years. The research priorities workshop is intended to identify the state-of-the-art in understanding of the physical behavior of hydrogen and hydrogen systems with a focus on safety. Typical issues addressed include behavior of unintended hydrogen releases, transient combustion phenomena, effectiveness of mitigation measures, and hydrogen effects in materials. In the workshop critical knowledge gaps are identified. Areas of research and coordinated actions for the near and medium term are derived and prioritized from these knowledge gaps. The stimulated research helps pave the way for the rapid and safe deployment of hydrogen technologies on a global scale. To support the idea of delivering globally accepted research priorities for hydrogen safety the workshop is organized as an internationally open meeting. In attendance are stakeholders from the academic community (universities, national laboratories), funding agencies, and industry. The industry participation is critically important to ensure that the research priorities align with the current needs of the industry responsible for the deployment of hydrogen technologies. This report presents the results of the HySafe Research Priorities Workshop held in Washing- ton, D.C. on November 10-11, 2014. At the workshop the participants presented updates (since the previous workshop organized two years before in Berlin, Germany) of their research and development work on hydrogen safety. Following the workshop, participants were asked to provide feedback on high-priority topics for each of the research areas discussed and to rank research area categories and individual research topics within these categories. The research areas were ranked as follows (with the percentage of the vote in parenthesis): 1. Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) Tools (23%) 2. Reduced Model

  9. Cooperatives – Promoters of Social Economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Balogh,

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article makes an analysis of cooperatives in Romania in terms of their role in the context of socio-economic development of society by generating new jobs and social integration, by eradicating poverty and by inclusion of vulnerable groups and categories. Since the cooperative phenomenon has become a highly visible and present one in the European and Romanian public life, through this paper we want to answer a series of questions related to the occurrence and evolution of cooperatives at national and international level, the approaches to this phenomenon which have emerged at European level and which are the regulations governing their organization and operation in the Romanian space.

  10. Cooperative spontaneous emission from volume sources in layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichelatti, E.

    2009-01-01

    The classical theory of radiation from a dipole located inside a microcavity is extended to the case of a volume source placed inside a layered medium. Cooperation phenomena that can take place in the spontaneous emission process are taken into account with an approach based on the theory of spatial coherence. Three cases are considered: noncooperation, long-range cooperation, and short-range cooperation. In all these cases, the expressions found for the out coupled power are analytical. As an application of the theory, an Alq 3 -based organic light emitting diode is analyzed. The optical properties of the device are evaluated and compared for two different types of cathode, one consisting of an Al layer, the other one consisting of an Al/LiF bi-layer. The results found show that the ultra-thin LiF layer significantly improves extraction efficiency [it

  11. 76 FR 61597 - Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments: DOT Amendments on Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... organization or a Principles and Procedures, or non-profit organization listed in 2 uniform cost accounting CFR... Principles and Procedures, or non-profit organization listed in 2 uniform cost accounting CFR part 230... to applicable cost principles for grants and cooperative agreements with State and Local Governments...

  12. Cooperation in wireless networks principles and applications : real egoistic behavior is to cooperate!

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzek, Frank HP

    2006-01-01

    Covers the underlying principles of cooperative techniques as well as several applications demonstrating the use of such techniques in practical systems. This book also summarizes the strength of cooperation for wireless communication systems, motivating the use of cooperative techniques.

  13. Wnt ligands signal in a cooperative manner to promote foregut organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Mayumi F.; Cohen, Ethan David; Baggs, Julie E.; Lu, Min Min; Hogenesch, John B.; Morrisey, Edward E.

    2012-01-01

    Endoderm-mesenchyme cross-talk is a central process in the development of foregut-derived organs. How signaling pathways integrate the activity of multiple ligands to guide organ development is poorly understood. We show that two Wnt ligands, Wnt2 and Wnt7b, cooperatively induce Wnt signaling without affecting the stabilization of the Wnt canonical effector β-catenin despite it being necessary for Wnt2–Wnt7b cooperativity. Wnt2–Wnt7b cooperation is specific for mesenchymal cell lineages and t...

  14. North-South cooperation for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiyaki, M

    1989-12-01

    Affirming that international cooperation along North-North, North-South, and South-South lines is essential for mutual survival, Mr. Waiyaki calls upon international understanding, good w ill, determination, and compromise in achieving mutually beneficial socioeconomic development for developing nations, while avoiding serious international confrontation and internal civil strife. He cites remaining instances of colonialism and the debate over Africa's debt repayment as potential conflict areas, then provides previously suggested resolving steps involving the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Economic Commission for Africa. Regarding internal strife, he discusses the hardships imposed upon African populations by structural adjustment programs. Should such exacerbatory measures be implemented in the hope of fostering development, negative international ramifications are possible. Specifically, the potential failure of measures to redress regional population and environmental problems should not be discounted. Improved communications and increasing interdependence continue to make the world seem smaller, allowing regional changes to affect the world on a broader scale. Key issues in high population growth, especially in Africa, Latin America, and Oceania, and environmental concerns are explored. The address includes specific mention of determinant factors and suggestions for Northern country interventions in finding solutions to these comprehensive concerns.

  15. Social networks and cooperation: a bibliometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Lopes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The social network analysis involves social and behavioral science. The decentralization of productive activities, such as the formation of "network organizations" as a result of downsizing of large corporate structures of the past, marked by outsoucing and formation of alliances, shows the importance of this theme. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the theory of cooperation and social networks over a period of 24 years. For this, was performed a bibliometric study with content analysis. The database chosen for the initial sample search was ISI Web of Science. The search topics were “social network” and “cooperation”. Were analyzed 97 articles and their references, through networks of citations. The main identified research groups dealing with issues related to trust, strategic alliances, natural cooperation, game theory, social capital, intensity of interaction, reciprocity and innovation. It was found that the publications occurred in a large number of journals, which indicates that the theme is multidisciplinary, and only five journals published at least three articles. Although the first publication has occurred in 1987, was from 2006 that the publications effectively increased. The areas most related to the theme of the research were performance, evolution, management, graphics, model and game theory.

  16. Contribution of village cooperation unit in improving farmers incomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibuea, M. B.; Sibuea, F. A.

    2018-02-01

    One of the government and private efforts to improve people’s welfare particularly to improve farmer’s income is to activate the Village Cooperation Unit (KUD). The objective of research was to know the efficiency level of farming organized by farmers together with cooperative. Theoretically some social economic variables have been known influences the rate of farmer’s income, therefore three social variables, such us the level of cooperation services, members participation and friendship among farmers with cooperation were studied. List of questions divided into forty family’s leader members of KUD which become samples. Analysis models were used production function of Cob-Douglass and Output Input Ratio models. It was concluded that level of participation and friendship partially were significantly to the income’s rate meanwhile variable of cooperation services level were not significant. Simultaneously, three factors gave very significant contribution, where R-square was 0.97 so that very significant. It’s also concluded that the biggest contribution given by the friendship level. Efficiency level or farming efforts of the farmers is very well and feasible with the average of OIR rate 19.23. This research recommended that this effort could be improved from friendship process among institution since the contribution was significantly improving the farmer’s income.

  17. Incipient cognition solves the spatial reciprocity conundrum of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeromos Vukov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From the simplest living organisms to human societies, cooperation among individuals emerges as a paradox difficult to explain and describe mathematically, although very often observed in reality. Evolutionary game theory offers an excellent toolbar to investigate this issue. Spatial structure has been one of the first mechanisms promoting cooperation; however, alone it only opens a narrow window of viability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we equip individuals with incipient cognitive abilities, and investigate the evolution of cooperation in a spatial world where retaliation, forgiveness, treason and mutualism may coexist, as individuals engage in Prisoner's Dilemma games. In the model, individuals are able to distinguish their partners and act towards them based on previous interactions. We show how the simplest level of cognition, alone, can lead to the emergence of cooperation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the incipient nature of the individuals' cognitive abilities, cooperation emerges for unprecedented values of the temptation to cheat, being also robust to invasion by cheaters, errors in decision making and inaccuracy of imitation, features akin to many species, including humans.

  18. Prenatal temperature shocks reduce cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchoslav, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Climate change has not only led to a sustained rise in mean global temperature over the past decades, but also increased the frequency of extreme weather events. This paper explores the effect of temperature shocks in utero on later-life taste for cooperation. Using historical climate data combined

  19. Market competition and efficient cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    We use laboratory experiments to study the causal effects of favorable and unfavorable competitive market experience on cooperation in a subsequent social dilemma game. The issues we study are part of the broader topic of whether there are behavioral spillovers between different spheres of social

  20. Cooperation: New Players in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hugon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalisation and the current global financial crisis, new players are emerging in cooperation in Africa. These partners loosen financial constraints and conditionalities, increase the room for manoeuvre and stimulate commodity markets. On the other hand, they also increase the risks of renewed indebtedness and potentially weaken the coordination of aid policies. Do these partnerships call the new cooperation practices of OECD countries into question? Do they justify the return to a realpolitik or are they repeating the earlier mistakes of industrial powers? Can these mistakes be corrected? The question also arises as to whether the global crisis, which has a profound effect on Africa, will lead to a withdrawal or to a passing of the baton on to new, emerging powers. This article highlights the new geopolitical issues concerning Africa in a multipolar world, then discusses the new players involved in cooperation in Africa, before going on to explore the horizons that are opening up for cooperation in Africa, in particular with regard to the global crisis.