WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooperating organization american

  1. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor organization to the American Soybean Association, which conducts foreign market development activities on behalf... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  2. [International cooperation and affirmative action policies: the role of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Marcos Chor; Pires-Alves, Fernando A; Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção; Silva Magalhães, Rodrigo Cesar da

    2010-07-01

    The article analyzes the formulation, legitimation, and implementation of a policy with an ethnic/race approach by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The study includes the emergence of the theme within this international organization, the institutional dynamics related to it, and the proposals focused on the Black population in Latin America. These issues are discussed on the basis of interaction between PAHO and a range of intergovernmental agencies and private organizations working in the international health domain. Participation by PAHO in the ethnic/racial theme provides elements for understanding the dual role played by intergovernmental organizations in the new global scenario, as both social actors and arenas. As an important social actor in the international health field, PAHO has produced and disseminated values and guidelines related to the ethnic/racial theme. As an arena, the organization has proven open to various interests, seeking to work harmoniously with them through its internal administration.

  3. Pan American Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Google Tag Pan American Health Organization | Organización Panamericana de la Salud Skip to content English Español Menu Home Health Topics Programs Media Center Publications Data Countries and Centers About PAHO question  ...

  4. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  5. Cooperative and Competitive Behavior of Cuban-American and Anglo-American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Carlos M.; Pader, Olga F.

    1979-01-01

    The cooperative behavior of 144 children in three groups--Cuban-Americans in either private or public schools and Anglo-Americans--decreased when task instructions emphasized individual rewards. Only the Anglo-American children, who maintained a significant level of competitiveness throughout, significantly increased their competitive behavior in…

  6. Pan American Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Emergencies. Read more... Health services must stop leaving older people behind On the International Day of ... édition de 2017. Résumé du panorama régional Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization ...

  7. Americans Divided Over Organic, GM Foods: Poll

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162314.html Americans Divided Over Organic, GM Foods: Poll Their opinions aren't driven by politics ... News) -- Americans are split on the value of organic foods and concerns about genetically modified (GM) foods, a ...

  8. 22 CFR 203.12 - Cooperative Development Organizations (CDOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative Development Organizations (CDOs). 203.12 Section 203.12 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT REGISTRATION OF PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS (PVOs) § 203.12 Cooperative Development Organizations (CDOs). CDOs are not PVOs for...

  9. Emergence of cooperation with self-organized criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Hyeong-Chai

    2010-01-01

    Cooperation and self-organized criticality are two main keywords in current studies of evolution. We propose a generalized Bak-Sneppen model and provide a natural mechanism which accounts for both phenomena simultaneously. We use the prisoner's dilemma games to mimic the interactions among the species. Each species is identified by its cooperation probability and its fitness is given by the payoffs from the neighbors. The species with the least payoff is replaced by a new species with a random cooperation probability. When the neighbors of the least fit one are also replaced with a non-zero probability, a strong cooperation emerges. Bak-Sneppen process builds a self-organized structure so that the cooperation can emerge even in the parameter region where a uniform or random population decreases the number of cooperators. The emergence of cooperation is due to the same dynamical correlation which leads to self-organized criticality in replacement activities.

  10. Discussion on Diversified Development of Forestry Cooperation Organizations in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the survey results in several places of Fujian Province, the paper summed up the main types of forestry cooperation organizations in China’s collective forest regions, and analyzed their characteristics in terms of basic nature, property arrangement, distribution methods and closeness of cooperation. The essential trend of diversified development of forestry cooperation organizations was discussed, with the analysis on how the diversification get reflected from the aspects of organizational structu...

  11. Fragility and cooperativity concepts in hydrogen-bonded organic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpouve, N., E-mail: delpouve.nicolas@gmail.com [AMME-LECAP EA 4528 International Laboratory, University of Rouen, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Vuillequez, A.; Saiter, A.; Youssef, B.; Saiter, J.M. [AMME-LECAP EA 4528 International Laboratory, University of Rouen, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2012-09-01

    Molecular dynamics at the glass transition of three lactose/oil glassy systems have been investigated according to the cooperativity and fragility approaches. From Donth's approach, the cooperativity length is estimated by modulated temperature calorimetric measurements. Results reveal that modification of the disaccharide by oil leads to increase the disorder degree in the lactose, the size of the cooperative domains and the fragility index. These particular hydrogen-bonded organic glasses follow the general tendency observed on organic and inorganic polymers: the higher the cooperativity length, the higher the value of the fragility index at T{sub g}.

  12. 78 FR 35217 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes new Federal American lobster regulations that would control lobster trap fishing effort by limiting access into the lobster trap fishery in Lobster...

  13. Directory of Library Networks and Cooperative Library Organizations, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This directory lists cooperating library organizations and networks in the United States which engage in cooperative, interinstitutional activities beyond the scope of traditional interlibrary loan services and reciprocal borrowing. Criteria for inclusion, survey methodology, and entry format are explained. Entries identify the address, phone…

  14. Cooperation, decision time, and culture: Online experiments with American and Indian participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Akihiro; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Rand, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Two separate bodies of work have examined whether culture affects cooperation in economic games and whether cooperative or non-cooperative decisions occur more quickly. Here, we connect this work by exploring the relationship between decision time and cooperation in American versus Indian subjects. We use a series of dynamic social network experiments in which subjects play a repeated public goods game: 80 sessions for a total of 1,462 subjects (1,059 from the United States, 337 from India, and 66 from other countries) making 13,560 decisions. In the first round, where subjects do not know if connecting neighbors are cooperative, American subjects are highly cooperative and decide faster when cooperating than when defecting, whereas a majority of Indian subjects defect and Indians decide faster when defecting than when cooperating. Almost the same is true in later rounds where neighbors were previously cooperative (a cooperative environment) except decision time among Indian subjects. However, when connecting neighbors were previously not cooperative (a non-cooperative environment), a large majority of both American and Indian subjects defect, and defection is faster than cooperation among both sets of subjects. Our results imply the cultural background of subjects in their real life affects the speed of cooperation decision-making differentially in online social environments. PMID:28231296

  15. Spatial self-organization favors heterotypic cooperation over cheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Babak; Waite, Adam James; Shou, Wenying

    2013-11-12

    Heterotypic cooperation-two populations exchanging distinct benefits that are costly to produce-is widespread. Cheaters, exploiting benefits while evading contribution, can undermine cooperation. Two mechanisms can stabilize heterotypic cooperation. In 'partner choice', cooperators recognize and choose cooperating over cheating partners; in 'partner fidelity feedback', fitness-feedback from repeated interactions ensures that aiding your partner helps yourself. How might a spatial environment, which facilitates repeated interactions, promote fitness-feedback? We examined this process through mathematical models and engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains incapable of recognition. Here, cooperators and their heterotypic cooperative partners (partners) exchanged distinct essential metabolites. Cheaters exploited partner-produced metabolites without reciprocating, and were competitively superior to cooperators. Despite initially random spatial distributions, cooperators gained more partner neighbors than cheaters did. The less a cheater contributed, the more it was excluded and disfavored. This self-organization, driven by asymmetric fitness effects of cooperators and cheaters on partners during cell growth into open space, achieves assortment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00960.001.

  16. INIS and the Spanish American Cooperation in the field of the nuclear documentation and information field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, R.J. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. Informacion Tecnica)

    INIS system is described in its subjects covered, its functioning and outputs produced. It is stated that due to similar necessities that Hispano-American countries belonging to the INIS system have, a harmonic and associated work in the scientific and technological information area is convenient. The importance of a cooperation program as well as a regional mutual assistance in disseminating, servicing, training, technical supporting, designing, organizing and putting into service Nuclear Information Centers is discussed. The outstanding characteristics of the INIS system are pointed out, like being descentralized and cooperating as well as the profitable utilization of important experience from previous systems like ENDS (European Nuclear Documentation System) and Nuclear Science Abstracts from USA. Also other important characteristics of INIS system are evaluated like the permanent challenge to National Centers in order to improve their services, that implying a common task for librarians, new information specialists and users.

  17. Inter-organizational cooperation in community health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Mário; Haase, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine various aspects related to inter-organizational cooperation and how this phenomenon can be applied to healthcare institutions. To fulfil the aim, a qualitative investigation was adopted, focussing on the relationship between public hospital and a higher education institution in Portugal. The study supports health managers and higher education leaders, and other stakeholders involved inter-organizational cooperation drawing up strategies and understanding inter-organizational cooperation's impact at the regional level. One contribution is to help fill a gap regarding the empirical research surrounding cooperation between organizations, especially in the health sector, where scientific studies are scarce. It also provides new insights by applying competence-based theory to analyze different approaches to hospital cooperation, which has received scant attention in the health sector.

  18. Specialized Cooperative Economic Organization of Farmers: Problems and Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiangzhiKong; QiaoGuanghua

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses the problems of the specialized cooperative economic organizations of farmers in their development process. These problems are: excessive interference by local governments; low service capacity at the operating level; administrative and management confusion resulting from the lack of status as a legal entity, with rules and regulations. It is suggested that the relevant laws and regulations concerning these organizations be established as soon as possible, giving them a legal identification; that the regulations and organizational structure be perfected; that support be increased and the financial situation of the specialized cooperative economic organizations of farmers be improved.

  19. The direction of evolution: the rise of cooperative organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John E

    2014-09-01

    Two great trends are evident in the evolution of life on Earth: towards increasing diversification and towards increasing integration. Diversification has spread living processes across the planet, progressively increasing the range of environments and free energy sources exploited by life. Integration has proceeded through a stepwise process in which living entities at one level are integrated into cooperative groups that become larger-scale entities at the next level, and so on, producing cooperative organizations of increasing scale (for example, cooperative groups of simple cells gave rise to the more complex eukaryote cells, groups of these gave rise to multi-cellular organisms, and cooperative groups of these organisms produced animal societies). The trend towards increasing integration has continued during human evolution with the progressive increase in the scale of human groups and societies. The trends towards increasing diversification and integration are both driven by selection. An understanding of the trajectory and causal drivers of the trends suggests that they are likely to culminate in the emergence of a global entity. This entity would emerge from the integration of the living processes, matter, energy and technology of the planet into a global cooperative organization. Such an integration of the results of previous diversifications would enable the global entity to exploit the widest possible range of resources across the varied circumstances of the planet. This paper demonstrates that it's case for directionality meets the tests and criticisms that have proven fatal to previous claims for directionality in evolution.

  20. To the Farmer Cooperative Federation---Investigation Report on American Iowa Farmer Cooperative Organization%要走向农民合作社联盟吗--美国衣阿华州农民合作组织考察报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐旭初; 黄祖辉; 郭红东; 顾益康

    2013-01-01

    At present, China's farmer specialized cooperatives the strong momentum of development, but also in the development process exposed many problems. By studying the development status of the USA Iowa agriculture cooperation and alliance, we find that American agricultural cooperatives is flourishing and all over rural area, not only provides production, transportation, sales for the majority of farmers, until the life of all aspects of the service, but also play an important role in the national economy.%目前,我国农民专业合作社发展势头强劲,但在发展过程中也暴露出许多问题。通过对美国衣阿华州农业合作社及其联盟组织的发展现状进行考察,发现美国农业合作社非常兴盛,遍布农村区域,为广大农场主提供了生产、储运、销售以及生活等方面的服务,在国民经济中发挥着重要作用。

  1. Evolutionarily Cooperative Stable of Science & Technology Alliance Under Self-organized Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-jun

    2009-01-01

    The cooperative evolutionary stability under self-organised organization is discussed in this paper.The differences between the objects studied by cooperative game theory and the ones studied by cooperative game in science & technology alliance are analyzed.The mutant probability of agent's utility under endogenous technical factor condition is analyzed.By clarifying the connotation of Pareto-dominate institution in cooperative game,the efficient and feasible managerial definition of Pareto-dominate Institution in science & technology alliance is presented.The evolutionarily cooperative game for the agent in Pareto-dominate institution is explained.And then the necessary condition of cooperative evolutionary stabilization based on multi-agent utility's dynamic equilibrium is put forward.Finally,the model of alliance's utility's dynamic equilibrium under self-organization is established.

  2. Cooperation between International Organizations in Complex Emergencies in Eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradhan-Blach, Flemming; Schaub Jr, Gary John; LeRiche, Matthew

    This report addresses the challenges of cooperation between international organizations in complex emergencies in fragile states of East Africa. An expert seminar was conducted on the basis of a paper on the subject to discuss problems, challenges, and possible solutions. Denmark and the rest...... of the international community often face the problem of poor coordination, lack of cooperation, and de-confliction of assistance in such situations. Countries and organizations are aware of these problems and have undertaken efforts to resolve them, but it remains insufficient. Attempts to better coordinate have been...... made at various levels—between governments, between organizations, and between local actors. Some improvements in effectiveness are being observed. Since 2005, Danish development policy has tried to take these efforts into account, as do policies that are still under development. The necessity...

  3. Cooperation between International Organizations in Complex Emergencies in Eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradhan-Blach, Flemming; Schaub Jr, Gary John; LeRiche, Matthew

    This report addresses the challenges of cooperation between international organizations in complex emergencies in fragile states of East Africa. An expert seminar was conducted on the basis of a paper on the subject to discuss problems, challenges, and possible solutions. Denmark and the rest...... of the international community often face the problem of poor coordination, lack of cooperation, and de-confliction of assistance in such situations. Countries and organizations are aware of these problems and have undertaken efforts to resolve them, but it remains insufficient. Attempts to better coordinate have been...... made at various levels—between governments, between organizations, and between local actors. Some improvements in effectiveness are being observed. Since 2005, Danish development policy has tried to take these efforts into account, as do policies that are still under development. The necessity...

  4. 76 FR 71501 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes new Federal American lobster regulations that would limit entry into the lobster trap fishery in Lobster Conservation Management Area 1 (Federal inshore waters-Gulf...

  5. 11 CFR 114.7 - Membership organizations, cooperatives, or corporations without capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... organizational structure. (j) A membership organization, including a trade association, cooperative, or... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership organizations, cooperatives, or... CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.7 Membership organizations, cooperatives, or...

  6. Strategic Implications of the Evolving Shanghai Cooperation Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    precedent for this kind of activity in the form of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa ( BRICS ) financial cooperation, which, of course, also...involves both China and Russia; one key difference, however, is the considerable economic power wielded by each of the individual BRICS members in... BRICS , and the Eurasian Union. Russia gains political support from these suprana- tional organizations to rally for Russian interests. Fo- rum

  7. The Self-Organized Archive: SPASE, PDS and Archive Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T. A.; Hughes, J. S.; Roberts, D. A.; Walker, R. J.; Joy, S. P.

    2005-05-01

    Information systems with high quality metadata enable uses and services which often go beyond the original purpose. There are two types of metadata: annotations which are items that comment on or describe the content of a resource and identification attributes which describe the external properties of the resource itself. For example, annotations may indicate which columns are present in a table of data, whereas an identification attribute would indicate source of the table, such as the observatory, instrument, organization, and data type. When the identification attributes are collected and used as the basis of a search engine, a user can constrain on an attribute, the archive can then self-organize around the constraint, presenting the user with a particular view of the archive. In an archive cooperative where each participating data system or archive may have its own metadata standards, providing a multi-system search engine requires that individual archive metadata be mapped to a broad based standard. To explore how cooperative archives can form a larger self-organized archive we will show how the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) data model will allow different systems to create a cooperative and will use Planetary Data System (PDS) plus existing space physics activities as a demonstration.

  8. Cooperation and Conflict: a Law and Economics Analysis of Meta-Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kerk (Maximilian)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOver the second part of the twentieth century inter-firm cooperations have become an increasingly popular phenomenon. These inter-firm cooperations often play out in the form of meta-organizations, which are organizations that are composed of the cooperating organizations. This

  9. Russia and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Some Elements of Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Konarovsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The new geopolitical reality that resulted from the dissolution of the USSR created the conditions for the establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO in 2001. The successful settlement of border issues between Russia and Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan and Tajikistan as well as with China also facilitated the process. With Uzbekistan joining the “Shanghai Five,” a new regional organization emerged. The SCO’s priorities were in the security sphere and the fight against the proliferation of drugs, illegal migration and organized crime, given the requirements of the times and the specific regional situation (including that in Afghanistan. As one of the active founders, Russia has always taken a leading role in the SCO’s organizational, political and legal formation, including setting specific trends and forms of cooperation, taking common measures, and holding events. During its presidency in 2008–2009 and 2014–2015, Moscow made additional efforts to strengthen cooperation among the SCO members in meeting new regional security challenges and to agree on coordinated positions on the key issues on the international and regional agenda. To increase the SCO’s credibility and political significance, Moscow emphasized its expansion, particularly with regard to the Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt. With global political and economic development growing more complicated, in order to revitalize Russia’s role in the SCO it is necessary to strengthen cooperation with China. The strategic character of bilateral relations reaffirmed at the Russian-Chinese summit in the summer of 2016 set a solid foundation.

  10. The China Factor in Regional Security Cooperation: The ASEAN Regional Forum and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Gerstl

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that regional security cooperation in South-East Asia, mainly promoted by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN, is a response to China´s economic rise. Although China is not regarded as a military challenge, Beijing’s ascension threatens to undermine the regional balance of power. The emerging insecurities threaten the stability of the regimes whose power is based on output legitimacy. Cooperation, the thesis states, can reduce these uncertainties. Yet, whereas collaboration in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF offers Beijing incentives for the strengthening of its “enlightened” multilateralism, regional cooperation in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO will not change China’s behaviour. The reason is that this cooperation is based on Realpolitik motives. Offensive Realism seems therefore well suited to analyse the Central Asian power relations. Even though the dimension of cooperation has not been included in John Mearsheimer’s approach, this article demonstrates that it can conceptually be integrated into offensive Realism without contradicting its core theses. For this, however, its adherents must accept two assumptions: First, that the domestic political logic – in case of Beijing the output legitimacy of the Communist Party – must be integrated. Second, that there exists no automatism in international politics. Otherwise one would have to speak of the tragic of offensive Realism: Policies, based on this perception, does not offer China sufficient incentives to further pursue multilateralism. ----- In diesem Aufsatz wird argumentiert, dass die regionale sicherheitspolitische Integration in SüdostundNordostasien, primär von der südostasiatischen Staatengemeinschaft ASEAN vorangetrieben, eine Reaktion auf Chinas wirtschaftlichen Aufstieg verkörpert. Dieser droht das regionale Kräftegleichgewicht zu untergraben, wodurch er Unsicherheiten weckt und damit eine Gefahr für die auf Stabilit

  11. Food protection activities of the Pan American Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    One of the most widespread health problems in the Caribbean and Latin America is contaminated food and foodborne illness. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has been a major force in activities to strengthen food protection. The program within the regional Program of Technical Cooperation is administered by the Veterinary Public Health program and under the guidance of the Pan American Institute for Food protection and Zoonoses in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A food action plan for 1986-90 was established at the 1986 Pan American Sanitary Conference, and extended to cover 1991-95. Program activities during the 1990s covered cholera, epidemiologic surveillance, street food vendors, shellfish poisoning, meat, national programs, information systems, air catering, food irradiation, and tourism. The action plan for 1991-95 promoted greater political support and cooperation within and between related sectors and institutions, management, and education. The aims were to organize national integrated programs, to strengthen laboratory services, to strengthen inspection services, to establish epidemiologic surveillance systems, and to promote food protection through community participation. Program activities included the initiatives of the Veterinary Public Health Program in 1991 to distribute literature on the transmission of cholera by foods. Studies were conducted in Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru on food contamination. Microbiologists received training on standard methods for detecting Vibrio cholerae in foods. A working group of experts from 10 countries examined the issues and produced a guide for investigating the incidence of foodborne disease. PAHO has contributed to the formation of an Inter-American Network for Epidemiologic Surveillance of Foodborne Diseases. PAHO has worked to improve hygienic practices among street food vendors. Seminars on paralytic shellfish poisoning were conducted in 1990; the outcome was a network working to strengthen national

  12. African American Women Scholars and International Research: Dr. Anna Julia Cooper's Legacy of Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2009-01-01

    EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…

  13. The Function,Future and Support Elements of Farmer Cooperative Economy Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; GAO; Peng; XIE

    2014-01-01

    The nature of farmer cooperative economy organization( known as FCEO) determines the fact that the economic effects of farmer cooperative economy organization are as important as its social effects. Many experts,however,now would only focus on its economic function, and either neglect or weaken its social influence. Therefore,this paper introduces the theoretical foundation of the farmer cooperative economy organization,and studies the nature of cooperative economics. Based on those typical cases,the future of cooperative organization and four supporting elements were put forward in this paper.

  14. Cooperative organization of bacterial colonies: from genotype to morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Jacob, E; Cohen, I; Gutnick, D L

    1998-01-01

    In nature, bacteria must often cope with difficult environmental conditions. To do so they have developed sophisticated cooperative behavior and intricate communication pathways. Utilizing these elements, motile microbial colonies frequently develop complex patterns in response to adverse growth conditions on hard surfaces under conditions of energy limitation. We employ the term morphotype to refer to specific properties of colonial development. The morphologies we discuss include a tip-splitting (T) morphotype, chiral (C) morphotype, and vortex (V) morphotype. A generic modeling approach was developed by combining a detailed study of the cellular behavior and dynamics during colonial development and invoking concepts derived from the study of pattern formation in nonliving systems. Analysis of patterning behavior of the models suggests bacterial processes whereby communication leads to self-organization by using cooperative cellular interactions. New features emerging from the model include various models of cell-cell signaling, such as long-range chemorepulsion, short-range chemoattraction, and, in the case of the V morphotype, rotational chemotaxis. In this regard, pattern formation in microorganisms can be viewed as the result of the exchange of information between the micro-level (the individual cells) and the macro-level (the colony).

  15. Profits and Costs of the Development of Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Through analyzing the economic profits of rural cooperative economic organizations,the following conclusions are obtained.The rural cooperative economic organizations can get the economic profits which are in accordance with the demands of market-oriented economy.The rural cooperative economic organizations can benefit from sharing the knight service provided by the government;from reducing and avoiding various kinds of risks in operation and from applying the agricultural technology and standardization production.Besides,the organizations can share the profits bought along by the standardized production of agricultural production and their members can enjoy the profits bought by socialized service system.In addition,the rural cooperative economic organizations can enjoy the profits produced by the agricultural management integration strategy.What’ more,they can increase profits by reducing the transaction costs;enlarging scale and enjoying the brand advantages.The analyses of the costs of the development of rural cooperative economic organizations mainly include the organizing costs,operation costs,restriction costs and cooperation costs.We think that the slow development of rural cooperative economic organizations is caused by their high operation cost and the impediment of external environment.In the end,the countermeasures on strengthening the research on the theory,promotion,education and training of rural economic cooperative organizations and intensifying the supports on the policies of rural economic cooperative organizations are put forward.

  16. Clinical analysis of 670 cases in two trials of the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Cooperative Group subtyped according to the Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms: a comparison with the Working Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaluga, S; Bijnens, L; Teodorovic, I; Hagenbeek, A; Meerwaldt, J H; Somers, R; Thomas, J; Noordijk, E M; De Wolf-Peeters, C

    1996-05-15

    In the Working Formulation (WF), non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are grouped according to their clinical behavior. These disorders are listed as entities defined by morphology, phenotype, and cytogenetics in the proposed Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms (REAL), the clinical relevance of which is still debated. We analyzed 670 NHL cases included in two randomized clinical trials (EORTC 20855 WF-intermediate/high-grade and 20856 WF-low-grade malignancy) with histologic material available for review. Based on hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, 77% of cases could be subtyped. Immunophenotyping was considered to be mandatory only in diagnosing T-cell lymphoma and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Of 522 cases subtyped, 11% were mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), 5% were marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL), 46% were follicle center lymphoma, and 32% were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Statistical analysis and comparisons between classifications were made only within each trial and treatment group. MCL and MZBCL were characterized by a shorter median survival (3.4 and 4.1 years, respectively) in comparison with low- and intermediate-grade WF groups (> 9.3 and 5.8 years, respectively). In terms of progression-free survival, MCL showed a behavior similar to the low-grade group, with frequent relapses. Follicle center cell lymphomas behaved as low-grade lymphomas as defined by the WF and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas as the WF-intermediate grade group. Because several NHL entities have a clinical behavior of their own, their recognition by the REAL classification offers clinicians additional information that is not obtained when the WF is used.

  17. The Architecture of Co-operation: A Project for organizing collective creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borra, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Architecture of Co-operation investigates the relationship between the collective subject and urban form through co-operation as means of production. The point is how individuals can organize co-operation today for the city as a project and what could be the role of architects into this process.

  18. The discipline gap and African Americans: defiance or cooperation in the high school classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Anne; Weinstein, Rhona S

    2008-08-01

    African Americans are over-represented in school suspensions, yet little is known about the underlying contributing dynamics. Study 1 reviewed a high school's annual discipline data and 442 students referred for defiance. African Americans were over-represented in referrals for defiance and most students received referrals from one or several teachers. This suggests that defiance referrals are specific to the classroom situation. Examining the situational specificity of referrals, Study 2 used repeated measures and multilevel modeling with a sub-sample of 30 African American students. Attendance, grades, and teacher reports showed that students behaved more defiantly and less cooperatively with teachers perceived as having untrustworthy authority. Predictors of African American student trust in teacher authority included teacher caring and high expectations, offering implications for lowering the discipline gap.

  19. Shanghai Cooperation Organization and Future Perspective in Turkish Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem EREN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the end of the Cold War, as a result of the disintegration of the USSR, many new states has gained their independence in Turkistan, Central Asia and the South Caucasus and multipolar global system has ended and following that the new order emerged building USA as a global power. However, this led to instability in many regions. Firstly, with the emergence of the Independent States Community headed by the Russian Federation, and then a growing giant of China the Shanghai Cooperation Organization was established against the unilateral order of the United States. In Turkey's foreign policy, the organization has been seen as an alternative to the EU which has been on the verge of membership for many years, and which was applied for the application for membership in 2007. However, Turkey needs to be analyzed multidimensionally with positive and negative aspects of membership process; it seems that Turkey can build a long-term relationship with Russia and China based on mutual trust and benefit.

  20. Effect of group organization on the performance of cooperative processes

    CERN Document Server

    Reia, Sandro M

    2016-01-01

    Problem-solving competence at group level is influenced by the structure of the social networks and so it may shed light on the organization patterns of gregarious animals. Here we use an agent-based model to investigate whether the ubiquity of hierarchical networks in nature could be explained as the result of a selection pressure favoring problem-solving efficiency. The task of the agents is to find the global maxima of NK fitness landscapes and the agents cooperate by broadcasting messages informing on their fitness to the group. This information is then used to imitate, with a certain probability, the fittest agent in their influence networks. For rugged landscapes, we find that the modular organization of the hierarchical network with its high degree of clustering eases the escape from the local maxima, resulting in a superior performance as compared with the scale-free and the random networks. The optimal performance in a rugged landscape is achieved by letting the main hub to be only slightly more prop...

  1. 34 CFR 361.31 - Cooperative agreements with private nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration § 361.31 Cooperative agreements with private nonprofit organizations. The State plan must describe... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative agreements with private nonprofit organizations. 361.31 Section 361.31 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  2. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  3. Construction and Evaluation of the Theoretical Model of Citrus Cooperative Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the general overview of cooperative economic organizations of citrus industry at home and abroad,theoretical model of the modernization,industrialization and marketization of Citrus Cooperative Organization is established.After selecting the indices,such as the scale of production,the scale of management,the rate of encouraged farmers,and the market competitiveness,quantitative evaluation index system for modernization,industrialization and marketization is established.Then,Citrus Cooperative Organization is divided into three stages,such as primary stage,intermediate stage and senior stage.After evaluating the modernization,industrialization and marketization of citrus industry in the United States,Spain and South Africa,it is pointed out that the Citrus Cooperative Organization in China at present is at the primary stage.Finally,policy direction of the development of Citrus Cooperative Organization in China is pointed out.

  4. The necessity of strengthening the cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations at national, regional, and international levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    The donation of tissues and organs increases significantly when tissue banks and organ transplant organizations work together in the procurement of organs and tissues at donor sources (hospitals, coroners system, organ procurement agencies, and funeral homes, among others). To achieve this important goal, national competent health authorities should considered the establishment of a mechanism that promote the widest possible cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations with hospitals, research medical institutions, universities, and other medical institutions and facilities. One of the issues that can facilitate this cooperation is the establishment of a coding and traceability system that could identify all tissues and organs used in transplant activities carried out in any country. The promotion of national, regional, and international cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations would enable the sharing of relevant information that could be important for medical practice and scientific studies carried out by many countries, particularly for those countries with a weak health care system.

  5. Construction of the Government Support and Evaluation Index System of Farmers’ Cooperative Economic Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expounding the necessity of evaluation index system of farmers’ cooperative economic organization,the three first level indexes including organization development index,member development index and social development index and 13 second level indexes including aggregate capital of cooperative organization,annual profit share of cooperative organization,annual total income of cooperative organization,etc.,are established according to the principles of Systematics and the methods of Statistics and Quantitative economics.By using the analytical hierarchy process,the weight of each index is tested and the operation result and evaluation mode is established,as well as the index standard value and comprehensive value.As for the result of the evaluation,it is suggested that the government should support the farmers’ cooperative organizations in hierarchy and targeted way according to local conditions.Though the construction of index system and comprehensive score,the government should establish the entry and exit mechanism of farmers’ cooperative organizations to reasonably guild the rapid development of cooperators.

  6. A business process model as a starting point for tight cooperation among organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mysliveček

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing and other kinds of tight cooperation among organizations are more and more necessary for success on all markets (markets of high technology products are particularly influenced. Thus it is important for companies to be able to effectively set up all kinds of cooperation. A business process model (BPM is a suitable starting point for this future cooperation. In this paper the process of setting up such cooperation is outlined, as well as why it is important for business success. 

  7. Organ donation and culture: a comparison of Asian American and European American beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, D L; Cheung, A H S

    2000-02-01

    The well-known gap between organ-donor supply and demand in the United States is particularly acute for Asian Americans. Lower participation in organ donation programs by Asian Americans has been hypothesized as one explanation for this observation. This study finds that, relative to European Americans, Asian Americans hold more negative attitudes toward and participate less frequently in a large, urban organ-donor program. The study also hypothesizes and test possible reasons for subcultural differences in attitudes toward donation. Two cultural belief constructs hypothesized to more strongly predict Asian American attitudes and behaviors appear to impact both groups equally. Reasons for these results along with public policy implications and future research directions are discussed.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations in Hunan Province Based on Structural Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naman; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Using the method of structural equation and balanced scorecard,this paper establishes the evaluation indicators and evaluation model for the performance of 21 rural cooperative economic organizations in X City of Hunan Province,and analyzes the relationship between indicators and dimensions of performance evaluation indicators,in order to find the influencing factors,obstacles and successful experience concerning the development of rural cooperative economic organizations. According to model analysis and conclusions,this paper sets forth the recommendations for promoting the development of rural cooperative economic organizations in Hunan Province,in order to provide a scientific basis for the institutional design and mechanism innovation of rural cooperative economic organizations in Hunan Province.

  9. EPA's Role with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) brings together the governments of countries committed to democracy and the market economy from around the world to support sustainable economic growth.

  10. Alienation of Rural Cooperative Finance and the Innovation of Financial Organization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the elaboration of the content and status of rural cooperative finance, rural cooperative finance--the alienation of rural credit cooperative is introduced from three aspects of the concept and objective of management, the organizational form and management mode, and the service object and business scope. Causes of alienation are analyzed. Firstly, change in the economic foundation of cooperative finance is the fundamental reasons for the alienation. Secondly, mandatory system change led by the government is an important reason for alienation. Thirdly, property and administration structure of rural credit cooperative are the internal reasons for alienation of agricultural support. To achieve the innovation of rural cooperative financial organization, the following aspects should be done: cultivating the basis for rural cooperative economy, further promoting the reform of rural credit cooperatives (innovating a variety of property rights modes; making clear definition of ownership; implementing the internal governance structure), introducing competition in the field of rural cooperative finance, and homing function of government and rural cooperative finance.

  11. Fighting for business: the limits of professional cooperation among American doctors during the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, James A

    2015-04-01

    The American medical profession participated extensively in preparedness and mobilization for the First World War, with more than one in five doctors voluntarily enlisting in various branches of the Army and Navy Medical Corps. Medical officers were widely valorized for suspending their civilian careers and for sacrificing their professional income while in service. Because of the meager commissions that medical officers received by comparison with fees many doctors earned in established private medical practices, scores of county medical societies implemented organizational solutions to this business problem, with the hopes of removing a significant disincentive to enlistment. In these "practice protection plans," a civilian doctor promised to take care of the patients of a military doctor, to forward a portion of the fees collected thereby to the family of the military doctor, and to refer these patients to the military doctor upon his return. Despite initial enthusiasm and promotion, these plans ultimately failed to achieve their objectives, leading some medical officers to accuse civilian doctors of being opportunistic, unpatriotic "slackers." This episode reveals the limits of professional cooperation in American medicine at the time and the need to explain organizational failures in the grand narrative of professionalization during the "Golden Age" of American medicine. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The Organization of Islamic Cooperation in contemporary international society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Luis Gutiérrez Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC is an international organisation consisting of 57 member States of Muslim confession, also Palestina. This organisation is "the collective voice of the Muslim world" and works to "safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony". In 28 June 2011 during the 38th Council of Foreign Ministers meeting (CFM in Astana (Kazakhstan the organisation changed its name from Organisation of the Islamic Conference to its current name.The OIC also changed its logo at this time.The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC has a permanent delegation of the United Nations and it’s the second largest international organisation outside the United Nations. In recent years it has been increasing its importance in the international society and it has played an important role in regional conflicts

  13. Another Life: social cooperation and a-organic life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Terranova

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author draws attention to some key concepts of the political economy of digital culture asking whether new theories of social production and sympathetic cooperation, in the work of authors such as Yochai Benkler and Maurizio Lazzarato, can offer an alternative to the neoliberal logic of market-based competition as the basis for the production of new forms of life.

  14. Case Study on the Development of Forestry Cooperative Organization after the Collective Forest Reform in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilei Hou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the problems of forestry cooperative organization after the collective forest reform in China, this study investigated different stakeholders of the cooperative organization in Jiashang village of Shaowu City, which is an important part of the northwest green industry zone in Fujian Province. Chinese farmers have their own use right of forest land after China’s collective forest reform. Cooperation requirement of forest production is increasing after the clarification of the use right. Paper by collecting the second-hand data, training the farmers in participatory interview and discussing with staff members of forestry bureau, many problems have been founded. This study investigated different stakeholders of the cooperative organization. According to the study, the main problems of the cooperative development are lack of motivations, requirement, operating capability, proper environment for legal operation and policy guarantee. Based on these problems, this study gives some suggestions such as Providing Fundamental Legal System Guarantee, Policy Guidance, Providing Sound Developing Conditions and Gradual Guiding the sound Development of Cooperatives to improve the development of forest cooperatives in collective forest area.

  15. The Governance Structure and Performance of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of questionnaire survey results of 100 agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area,this article uses the structural equation modeling as analysis tool to conduct empirical analysis of the governance structure and performance of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. The results show that the ownership structure has the most critical impact on the performance of cooperative organizations,and the impact coefficient is as high as 0.92; the importance of oversight mechanism is basically equivalent to that of the council structure for cooperative organizations,and the impact coefficient is 0.87 and 0.86,respectively,second only to the ownership structure; the size of members’ quit capacity also has a very important impact on the performance of organizations,with impact coefficient of 0.74. Thus,the problems influencing the performance of organizations,in the current governance structure of agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area,are pointed out. Finally,corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

  16. Rural Cooperative Economic Organized United Association: A Case Study of Baoding City of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Yi-xiang; ZHANG Hong-jie

    2012-01-01

    Taking its development in Baoding City as an example, we introduced service fields of rural cooperative economic organized united association. It mainly includes setting up service platform and providing scientific and technological services; organizing economic and trade negotiation and exchange, and promoting farmer-supermarket partnership; providing financial services and solving fund-raising problems. In line with these fields, we analyzed existing problems: (i) regional development is unbalanced and organization lacks internal connection; (ii) the development in some counties (cities) is to be improved, and the promotion effect is not significant; (iii) there is shortage of talent and the innovation strength is not enough; and (iv) it lacks system and management lacks restriction mechanism. Finally, we put forward countermeasures and recommendations: strengthen propaganda and cultivate farmers’ cooperative awareness; incorporate rural cooperative economic organized united association into formal system arrangement, and absorb professional talents; innovate upon organization system of rural cooperative economic organized united association and improve service methods; improve internal operating mechanism and innovate upon working contents of rural cooperative economic organized united association at new development background.

  17. Latin American special project: kidney health cooperation project between Uruguay and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Laura; Plata-Cornejo, Raúl; Fernández-Cean, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay and Bolivia are two countries that show heterogenicity of the Latin American region, including the national income, the expenditure on health and the services for renal care. In Bolivia, there is manpower shortage for renal care with only 5 nephrologists per million people (pmp) and the prevalence of patients on dialysis is only 200 pmp. This is much lower than the mean prevalence rate of renal replacement therapy for Latin America as a whole. Uruguay on the other hand has more dedicated renal resources with 50 nephrologists pmp, and renal replacement therapy is provided to ~ 1,000 dialysis patients pmp. In November 2012, a collaborative project financed by the Uruguayan International Cooperation Agency was signed by both the Uruguay and Bolivia Ministries of Health, and the goal was to develop a comprehensive program for the prevention and management of all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Bolivia. The specific objectives were to: a) promote renal healthcare in the primary healthcare setting, b) identify kidney disease in populations at risk, and c) optimize patient care at all stages of CKD, including dialysis and transplantation supported with a national ESRD registry in Bolivia. As a first step, delegates from the Bolivian Health Ministry, visited Uruguay in April 2014, primarily to strengthen the development of tools required for developing and maintaining a national registry. In addition, during this visit, a meeting with the president of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) culminated in designing a training program for peritoneal dialysis. This highly cooperative relationship is advancing the prevention and care of CKD in Bolivia and may serve as a model for international approaches to advance system level CKD care in countries with limited healthcare resources.

  18. 48 CFR 225.871 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects. 225.871 Section 225.871 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Other International Agreements and Coordination 225.871 North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  19. 77 FR 40085 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-American Gap...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... safety, supervision, and general integrity of ``gap year'' educational programs. Patricia A. Brink... Gap Association Notice is hereby given that, on June 6, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), American Gap...

  20. Cooperative Learning and the Organization of Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachar, Hanna; Sharan, Shlomo

    1995-01-01

    Describes the interrelationship between school organization and classroom instructional style. Characterizes the bureaucratic and the open systems models of school organization in terms of three major dimensions of school life: administrator, teacher, and student behaviors; work design and tasks; and space-time allocations. The bureaucratic…

  1. IT Knowledge Requirements Identification in Organizational Networks: Cooperation Between Industrial Organizations and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzajs, Peteris; Kirikova, Marite

    ICT professionals face rapid technology development, changes in design paradigms, methodologies, approaches, and cooperation patterns. These changes impact relationships between universities that teach ICT disciplines and industrial organizations that develop and use ICT-based products. The required knowledge and skills of university graduates depend mainly on the current industrial situation; therefore the university graduates have to meet industry requirements which are stated at the time point of their graduation, not at the start of their studies. Continuous cooperation between universities and industrial organizations is needed to identify a time and situation-dependent set of knowledge requirements, which lead to situation aware, industry acknowledged, balanced and productive ICT study programs. This chapter proposes information systems solutions supporting cooperation between the university and the industrial organizations with respect to curriculum development in ICT area.

  2. Partners and innovation in American destination marketing organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zach, Florian

    2012-01-01

    , this study focuses on destination marketing organizations (DMOs) as they collaborate with destination businesses to assist in the development of new services in marketing the destination. A national survey among American DMOs indicates that partner collaboration is a significant driver of visitor...

  3. Development of New Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations from the Perspective of Institutional Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua; BAI

    2015-01-01

    Appearance of new rural cooperative economic organizations is the result of institutional change and also important institutional arrangement and innovation promoting rural development of China. At present,development of rural cooperative economic organizations is faced with problems of unsmooth operation and management mechanism,lack of supervision mechanism,internal system defect and imperfect law,weak policy support,and imperfect financial system. In this situation,government should take due responsibility from improving legal system,strengthening policy support,deepening rural market reform,and improving rural financial system.

  4. Differences in Perceptions between Afro-American and Anglo-American Males and Females in Cooperative Learning Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, John A.; Conwell, Catherine R.

    The effects of cooperative learning on students' perceptions of themselves and their roles in academic settings are explored. A group of 28 students from seven intermediate classrooms in an urban school system were selected to be videotaped while participating in a cooperative problem-solving lesson and were subsequently interviewed. The students…

  5. MEMBER PRIVILEGES——Each of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization members finds its own national interests served within the regional organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIDOROV; OLEG

    2006-01-01

    Facing common security threats, leaders of six countries-Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan-established the Shanghai Cooperation Organization in June 2001 to maintain regional stability and security, fight terrorism and extremism, prevent conflicts and enhance economic cooperation. The SCO's primary goals are economic cooperation and fighting terrorism.

  6. Effect of self-organized interdependence between populations on the evolution of cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao; Zhang, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    In this article, based on interdependent networks, the effect of self-organized interdependence on the evolution of cooperation is studied. Different from the previous works, the interdependent strength, which can effectively improve the fitness of players, is taken as a kind of limited resources and co-evolves with players' strategy. We show that the self-organization of interdependent strength would spontaneously lead to power law distribution at the stationary state, where the level of cooperation in system can be significantly promoted. Furthermore, when intermediate quantity of interdependence resources existing in system, the power law distribution is most evident with the power β ≈ 1.72, meanwhile the level of cooperation also reaches the maximum value. We discuss the related microscopic system properties which are responsible for the observed results and also demonstrate that the power law distribution of interdependence resources is an elementary property which is robust against the governing repeated games and the initial resources allocation patterns.

  7. Hierarchical self-organization of non-cooperating individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Nepusz

    Full Text Available Hierarchy is one of the most conspicuous features of numerous natural, technological and social systems. The underlying structures are typically complex and their most relevant organizational principle is the ordering of the ties among the units they are made of according to a network displaying hierarchical features. In spite of the abundant presence of hierarchy no quantitative theoretical interpretation of the origins of a multi-level, knowledge-based social network exists. Here we introduce an approach which is capable of reproducing the emergence of a multi-levelled network structure based on the plausible assumption that the individuals (representing the nodes of the network can make the right estimate about the state of their changing environment to a varying degree. Our model accounts for a fundamental feature of knowledge-based organizations: the less capable individuals tend to follow those who are better at solving the problems they all face. We find that relatively simple rules lead to hierarchical self-organization and the specific structures we obtain possess the two, perhaps most important features of complex systems: a simultaneous presence of adaptability and stability. In addition, the performance (success score of the emerging networks is significantly higher than the average expected score of the individuals without letting them copy the decisions of the others. The results of our calculations are in agreement with a related experiment and can be useful from the point of designing the optimal conditions for constructing a given complex social structure as well as understanding the hierarchical organization of such biological structures of major importance as the regulatory pathways or the dynamics of neural networks.

  8. 76 FR 44592 - Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses in Support of Strategies That Address Food Safety Problems That Align Domestically and Globally (U01); Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice...

  9. Competing Through Cooperation: The Organization of Standard Setting in Wireless Telecommunications

    OpenAIRE

    Aija Elina Leiponen

    2008-01-01

    This study examines cooperative standard setting in wireless telecommunications. Focusing on the competition among firms to influence formal standardization, the roles of standard-setting committees, private alliances, and industry consortia are highlighted. The empirical context is Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), an international standards-development organization in the wireless telecommunication industry. Panel data analyses exploiting natural experiments caused by a consortiu...

  10. Hierarchical self-organization of non-cooperating individuals

    CERN Document Server

    Nepusz, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchy is one of the most conspicuous features of numerous natural, technological and social systems. The underlying structures are typically complex and their most relevant organizational principle is the ordering of the ties among the units they are made of according to a network displaying hierarchical features. In spite of the abundant presence of hierarchy no quantitative theoretical interpretation of the origins of a multi-level, knowledge-based social network exists. Here we introduce an approach which is capable of reproducing the emergence of a multi-levelled network structure based on the plausible assumption that the individuals (representing the nodes of the network) can make the right estimate about the state of their changing environment to a varying degree. Our model accounts for a fundamental feature of knowledge-based organizations: the less capable individuals tend to follow those who are better at solving the problems they all face. We find that relatively simple rules lead to hierarchic...

  11. [The treatment of chronic stable angina with isradipine. A cooperative Latin American study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, O; Alcocer, L; Espinoza, J; Arcos, R; Gómez, G; Mayorga, E; Buzzi, A; Tavella, N; Romero, C; Kuster, F

    1991-04-01

    In order to study the efficacy and tolerance of isradipine, a new Ca++ antagonist for the treatment of stable chronic angina, a multicentric cooperative study was carried out in eight Latin American countries (Argentine, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela), which included 169 patients (60% men and 40% women), average age 62.6 +/- 9.7. Patients with more than 4 biweekly anginal crisis were accepted, with one or more of the following inclusion criteria: coronariographic evidence of obstruction greater than 60% in one or more vessels, IAM history, positive scintigraphy and positive effort test. The trial was single-blind, with placebo during the admission phase (2 weeks) and active treatment for 12 weeks. isradipine was administered in increasing doses of 2.5, 5, and 7 mg thrice a day, according to the presence or absence of anginal crisis. It was observed that the average frequency of weekly pains decreased from 8.2 +/- 7 under placebo to 6.3 +/- 7.5 under isradipine at low doses, and to 2.0 +/- 2.0 (p less than 0.001) under maximum doses. TNT intake decreased parallel also in a significant way. At the end of the trial, 37% of patients had become asymptomatic, and angina had reduced to less than two crisis a week in 33%. A clear relation doses-effect was observed. There was no alteration in laboratory exams neither in ECG. Seven patients had complications derived from the evolutional course of disease (2 IAM, 5 unstable angina and one sudden death). Adverse events were relatively frequent and the majority derived from vasodilator effect (tibial oedema 37%, flushing 17%, headache 23%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. COOPERATING,WITH COMPLICATIONS——The Shanghai Cooperation Organization still has a long way to go before it can operate effectively

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUFRIN; GENNADY

    2006-01-01

    On June 15,2001, the Declaration on the Establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization was signed, marking the formal launch of the regional organization. Its history can be traced back to 19% when Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan formed the Shanghai Five, later renamed the Shanghai Forum. After Uzbekistan joined, the forum changed into

  13. Cooperative Networks: Altruism, Group Solidarity, Reciprocity, and Sanctioning in Ugandan Producer Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia

    2015-09-01

    Repeated interaction and social networks are commonly considered viable solutions to collective action problems. This article identifies and systematically measures four general mechanisms--that is, generalized altruism, group solidarity, reciprocity, and the threat of sanctioning--and tests which of them brings about cooperation in the context of Ugandan producer organizations. Using an innovative methodological framework that combines "lab-in-the-field" experiments with survey interviews and complete social networks data, the article goes beyond the assessment of a relationship between social networks and collective outcomes to study the mechanisms that favor cooperative behavior. The article first establishes a positive relationship between position in the network structure and propensity to cooperate in the producer organization and then uses farmers' behavior in dictator and public goods games to test different mechanisms that may account for such a relationship. Results show that cooperation is induced by patterns of reciprocity that emerge through repeated interaction rather than other-regarding preferences like altruism or group solidarity.

  14. Global cooperation among diverse organizations to reduce illegal fishing in the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterblom, Henrik; Bodin, Orjan

    2012-08-01

    Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing is prevalent globally and has detrimental effects on commercial fish stocks and nontarget species. Effective monitoring and enforcement aimed at reducing the level of IUU fishing in extensive, remote ocean fisheries requires international collaboration. Changes in trade and vessel activities further complicate enforcement. We used a web-based survey of governmental and nongovernmental organizations engaged in reducing IUU fishing in the Southern Ocean to collect information on interorganizational collaborations. We used social-network analyses to examine the nature of collaborations among the identified 117 organizations engaged in reducing IUU fishing. International collaboration improved the ability to control and manage harvest of commercially important toothfish (Dissostichus spp.) stocks and reduced bycatch of albatrosses (Diomedeidae) and petrels (Procellariidae) in longlines of IUU fishing vessels. The diverse group of surveyed organizations cooperated frequently, thereby making a wide range of resources available for improved detection of suspected IUU vessels and trade flows, cooperation aimed at prosecuting suspected offenders or developing new policy measures. Our results suggest the importance of a central agency for coordination and for maintaining commonly agreed-upon protocols for communication that facilities collaboration. Despite their differences, the surveyed organizations have developed common perceptions about key problems associated with IUU fishing. This has likely contributed to a sustained willingness to invest in collaborations. Our results show that successful international environmental governance can be accomplished through interorganizational collaborations. Such cooperation requires trust, continuous funding, and incentives for actors to participate.

  15. Research on Benefit Distribution Mechanism of Farmers’ Specialized Cooperative Economic Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of conducting survey in Jiaonan City,the thesis analyzes benefit distribution mechanism of farmers’ specialized cooperative economic organizations:firstly,the benefit correlation is mainly the contract correlation;secondly,the profit distribution is mainly the dividend;thirdly,patronage refund has many connotations;fourthly,the public accumulation has not yet been quantified to individual;fifthly,the government support capital is ill-defined.Based on these,the measures are put forward in order to improve benefit distribution pattern of farmers’ specialized cooperative economic organizations:firstly,reform structure of property rights and realize farmers’ ownership;secondly,change mode of decision-making,and realize farmers’ control;thirdly,increase turnover rebate and realize farmers’ benefiting;fourthly,quantify public accumulation and government support fund.

  16. Service allocation based on QoS evaluation in military organization cloud cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Zhang; Haiyang Sun; Yanxia Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The problem of cloud cooperation of military service providers (MSPs) is addressed for alocating limited resources to military service users (MSUs) that are geographicaly dis-tributed. The MSPs, also caled military organization clouds, are virtualized and encapsulated by the services they can offer and each of them contains different kinds of resources that MSU needs. The MSPs are also geographicaly dis-persed. They are required to alocate their resources to the MSU complying with the corresponding quality of service (QoS), so that each MSU gathers the services it needs to guarantee its task to be implemented. The outline of military organization cloud cooperation is discussed and the method of service optimal selection is proposed based on QoS evaluation. The QoS evaluation method based on exponential approximation is put forward to include the users’ will. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh concerning Education, Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh concerning Education, Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics

  18. Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

  19. Highly Efficient Cooperative Catalysis by Co(III) (Porphyrin) Pairs in Interpenetrating Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zekai; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-10-24

    A series of porous twofold interpenetrated In-Co(III) (porphyrin) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were constructed by in situ metalation of porphyrin bridging ligands and used as efficient cooperative catalysts for the hydration of terminal alkynes. The twofold interpenetrating structure brings adjacent Co(III) (porphyrins) in the two networks parallel to each other with a distance of about 8.8 Å, an ideal distance for the simultaneous activation of both substrates in alkyne hydration reactions. As a result, the In-Co(III) (porphyrin) MOFs exhibit much higher (up to 38 times) catalytic activity than either homogeneous catalysts or MOF controls with isolated Co(III) (porphyrin) centers, thus highlighting the potential application of MOFs in cooperative catalysis. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Physically active lifestyles for all Americans: a call to action for non-profit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Colleen; Hutber, Adrian; McCarthy, William J

    2009-10-01

    Many nonprofit organizations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are strategically poised to encourage and facilitate healthier lifestyles. Non-profit organizations can play leadership roles in improving physical levels among all Americans.

  1. 75 FR 61503 - Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization for a Plan to Develop a Global...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Organization (WHO), Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses, to develop a plan for a global integrated food... for awarding a cooperative agreement to the WHO, Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses to develop...

  2. The Pan American Health Organization and international health: a history of training, conceptualization, and collective development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Annella; Guerrero Espinel, Juan Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    A constantly changing and increasingly complex global environment requires leaders with special competencies to respond effectively to this scenario. Within this context, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) goes beyond traditional leadership training models both in terms of its design as well as its conceptual approach to international health. As an intergovernmental, centenary organization in health, PAHO allows participants a unique vantage point from which to conceptualize, share experiences and develop projects relevant to international health. Derived from over two decades of experience (1985-2006) training professionals through its predessor Training Program in International Health, the Leaders in International Health Program "Edmundo Granda Ugalde" (LIHP) utilizes an innovative design, virtual and practical learning activities, and a problem-based approach to analyze the main concepts, theories, actors, forces, and processes relevant to international health. In collaboration with PAHO/WHO Representative Offices and national institutions, participants develop country projects based on priority health issues, many of which are integrated into the Organization's technical cooperation and/or implemented by relevant ministries and other entities in their respective countries/subregions. A total of 185 participants representing 31 countries have participated in the LIHP since its inception in 2008, building upon the 187 trained through its predecessor. These initiatives have contributed to the development of health professionals in the Region of the Americas devoted to international health, as well as provided important input towards a conceptual understanding of international health by fostering debate on this issue.

  3. Intercultural Communication and the Decision-Making Process: Americans and Malaysians in a Cooperative University Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Kim Hughes

    A study investigated the application of Geert Hofstede's theory of cultural dimensions in management to the situation of Malaysian (n=8) and American (n=4) instructors in implementing a new English-as-a-Second-Language curriculum in Malaysia. American and Malaysian cultures are compared on four dimensions: social differentiation by gender; desire…

  4. Utilizing an ANP framework for prioritizing effective criteria on performance management in cooperative organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Akhavan Alavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance management plays an essential role on increasing efficiency of business units. It helps find important barriers against a business unit helping us setup better strategies for handling troubles. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find important factors influencing performance management in cooperative organizations. The proposed study uses analytical hierarchy process to rank important factors in three groups of team level, individual and organization levels. The survey is based on receiving feedbacks from decision makers and making a pairwise comparison on measuring the relative importance of each criterion influencing performance management. The results of our survey indicate that setting appropriate standards for performance management is the most important item followed by relationship between organization structure and performance management, performance management based on future events. The other three factors including continuous improvement and updating systems, encouraging employee for change culture and relationship between future outlook and performance management are other important factors.

  5. Cooperation in carbon source degradation shapes spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on hydrated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecon, Robin; Or, Dani

    2017-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural microbial communities exhibit a high level of spatial organization at the micrometric scale that facilitate ecological interactions and support biogeochemical cycles. Microbial patterns are difficult to study definitively in natural environments due to complex biodiversity, observability and variable physicochemical factors. Here, we examine how trophic dependencies give rise to self-organized spatial patterns of a well-defined bacterial consortium grown on hydrated surfaces. The model consortium consisted of two Pseudomonas putida mutant strains that can fully degrade the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene. We demonstrated that obligate cooperation in toluene degradation (cooperative mutualism) favored convergence of 1:1 partner ratio and strong intermixing at the microscale (10–100 μm). In contrast, competition for benzoate, a compound degraded independently by both strains, led to distinct segregation patterns. Emergence of a persistent spatial pattern has been predicted for surface attached microbial activity in liquid films that mediate diffusive exchanges while permitting limited cell movement (colony expansion). This study of a simple microbial consortium offers mechanistic glimpses into the rules governing the assembly and functioning of complex sessile communities, and points to general principles of spatial organization with potential applications for natural and engineered microbial systems. PMID:28262696

  6. Transitions towards sustainable agriculture: the organic apiculture niche in an Argentinean cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Vila Seoane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that it is possible to transform innovation pathways in natural-resource-based industries towards more sustainable ones. In particular, it employs the socio-technical transitions framework to understand the structural barriers that the industrial agricultural system puts to COOPSOL, an Argentinean cooperative project of organic apiculture. The article is based on qualitative data that systematize, on the one hand, the pressures for continuity and change in the agricultural system. On the other hand, the data reveal the main perceptions of COOPSOL´s actors about the existing structural limits.

  7. Computational method validation: An OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) working group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitesides, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Representatives from eleven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development member countries participated in an exercise to validate computer calculations to evaluate the criticality safety for several fissile material transport and handling situations. A procedure evolved from this work which has been shown to demonstrate whether a given computation method produces ''valid'' results. This procedure is expected to provide a basis for acceptance of computational results on an international basis by regulatory authorities through the comparison of methods used by the various countries. This work will also provide the framework for validating computational methods for other applications such as heat transfer and neutron/gamma shielding.

  8. 78 FR 42975 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-American Massage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... Massage Therapy Association Notice is hereby given that, on June 24, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the... Massage Therapy Association (``AMTA'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney... principal place of business of the standards development organization is American Massage...

  9. 78 FR 20141 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993 -- American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Act''), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (``ASME'') has filed written notifications.... Specifically, since August 22, 2012, ASME has published one new standard, initiated six new standards... nature and scope of ASME's standards development activities, as specified in its original...

  10. New Structures of American Foreign Strategy Since 9/11-Seeking Cooperation with Asia-Pacific Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    When George W. Bush entered the White House in early 2001,American foreign policy was based on unilateral principles and favored disengagement from global conflict resolution. The United States declared it's decision to withdraw from the Kyoto protocol, refused to negotiate with North Korea, and, in particular, it's pursuit of a national ballstic missile defense system,in face of global opposition, further reinforced the position of its unilateralism.The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 came as a shock to the world. The United States suffered not only physical casualties, but felt a psychological blow as well. For the first time since the 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States had been attacked at home. Unlike Pearl Harbor, the attacks on September 11 targeted civilians and the cornerstones of the American way of life- their financial and government centers. The terrorist attacks forced the Bush administration to re-examine it approach to foreign policy Seeking cooperation with other powers will be the new choice for American foreign strategy.

  11. THE COOPERATION AND AGROINDUSTRIAL INTEGRATION AS THE IMPORTANT FORMATION DIRECTION OF THE ORGANIZED AGRIFOOD MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Paramonov P. F.; Khalyavka I. E.

    2016-01-01

    The cooperation and agroindustrial integration development are important directions of agrofood market growth. The article deals with the economic benefits of cooperation and agroindustrial integration, the cooperation system and forms in agroindustrial complex, the creation principles and economic efficiency of cooperatives

  12. The Soul of Leadership: African American Students' Experiences in Historically Black and Predominantly White Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…

  13. Unlikely Alliances: Treaty Conflicts and Environmental Cooperation between Native American and Rural White Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Zoltan

    2005-01-01

    Beginning in the 1970s, members of Native and rural white communities unexpectedly came together to protect the same natural resources from a perceived outside threat. Environmental alliances began to bring together Native Americans and rural white resource users in areas of the country where no one would have predicted or even imagined them. In…

  14. Analysis on the Rural Cooperative Organization Established by Returning Migrant Workers——A Case of the Cooperative Organization of Han’s Cattle and Lamb Fattening in Gonghe County,Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking the Han’s Cattle and Lamb Fattening Cooperative Organization in Gonghe County of Qinghai Province as an example,the geographic situation,establishment process and operation situation of the cooperative organization are expounded.And then the social effect of returning migrant workers who start their own business is analyzed.In the first place,starting their own business has promoted the rapid development of economy at county level;in the second place,it has promoted the adjustment of agricultural structure;in the third place,it is conducive to reallocating resources.The problems in the development of Han’s Cattle and Lamb Fattening Cooperative Organization are analyzed from four aspects covering weakening of village’ cadres,multiple ethnic groups,difficulties in expanding scale cooperation and inadequate funds.Three countermeasures which are conducive to creating favorable external environment for migrant workers to start their own businesses,takes the ethnic factors into consideration and implements scale operation,so as to solve the new problems in the process of developing rural farmers’ cooperative organization and provide the evidence for formulating relevant policies.

  15. 22 CFR 101.3 - Services for American businessmen and organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services for American businessmen and organizations. 101.3 Section 101.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL FUNCTIONS § 101.3 Services for American businessmen and organizations. Officers of...

  16. Cooperative TPA enhancement via through-space interactions in organic nanodots built from dipolar chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Anne-Claire; Parthasarathy, Venkatakrishnan; Pla-Quintana, Anna; Mongin, Olivier; Terenziani, Francesca; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille

    2010-08-01

    Whereas structure-properties relationships have been widely investigated at the molecular level, supramolecular structure-property relationships have been somewhat overlooked. In many cases, interchromophoric interactions are found to be detrimental (in particular in second-order NLO) and a lot of efforts have been devoted to circumvent and control these effects to achieve efficient NLO materials for electrooptics. At opposite, we have implemented a countermainstream route based on the confinement of push-pull chromophores in close proximity within organic nanodots where both their number and relative position/distance are controlled by covalent attachment onto appropriate organic scaffolds. In such multichromophoric organic superstructures (namely covalent nanoclusters), dipole-dipole interactions can be tuned by playing on the internal architecture (topology, number of chromophoric subunits, length of the covalent linkers) and on the nature and properties (polarity, polarizability) of the chromophoric subunits. Following this strategy, we present the investigation of two series of such organic nanoclusters built from push-pull chromophores where through-space interactions are shown to modify both one-photon (OPA) and two-photon absorption (TPA) of each chromophoric subunits leading to cooperative enhancement of TPA properties and improved transparency.

  17. Cooperative Chemisorption-Induced Physisorption of CO2 Molecules by Metal-Organic Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Min; Petek, Hrvoje; Shi, Yongliang; Sun, Hao; Zhao, Jin; Calaza, Florencia; Sterrer, Martin; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2015-12-22

    Effective CO2 capture and reduction can be achieved through a molecular scale understanding of interaction of CO2 molecules with chemically active sites and the cooperative effects they induce in functional materials. Self-assembled arrays of parallel chains composed of Au adatoms connected by 1,4-phenylene diisocyanide (PDI) linkers decorating Au surfaces exhibit self-catalyzed CO2 capture leading to large scale surface restructuring at 77 K (ACS Nano 2014, 8, 8644-8652). We explore the cooperative interactions among CO2 molecules, Au-PDI chains and Au substrates that are responsible for the self-catalyzed capture by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT). Decorating Au surfaces with Au-PDI chains gives the interfacial metal-organic polymer characteristics of both a homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst. Au-PDI chains activate the normally inert Au surfaces by promoting CO2 chemisorption at the Au adatom sites even at surface supported Au-PDI chains provide a platform for investigating the physical and chemical interactions involved in CO2 capture and reduction.

  18. Developing Digital Dashboard Management for Learning System Dynamic Cooperative Simulation Behavior of Indonesia. (Study on Cooperative Information Organization in the Ministry of Cooperatives and SME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eni, Yuli; Aryanto, Rudy

    2014-03-01

    There are problems being experienced by the Ministry of cooperatives and SME (Small and Medium Enterprise) including the length of time in the decision by the Government to establish a policy that should be taken for local cooperatives across the province of Indonesia. The decision-making process is still analyzed manually, so that sometimes the decisions taken are also less appropriate, effective and efficient. The second problem is the lack of monitoring data cooperative process province that is too much, making it difficult for the analysis of dynamic information to be useful. Therefore the authors want to fix the system that runs by using digital dashboard management system supported by the modeling of system dynamics. In addition, the author also did the design of a system that can support the system. Design of this system is aimed to ease the experts, head, and the government to decide (DSS - Decision Support System) accurately effectively and efficiently, because in the system are raised alternative simulation in a description of the decision to be taken and the result from the decision. The system is expected to be designed dan simulated can ease and expedite the decision making. The design of dynamic digital dashboard management conducted by method of OOAD (Objects Oriented Analysis and Design) complete with UML notation.

  19. A Confirmatory Analysis of the Organ Donation Readiness Index: Measuring the Potential for Organ Donations among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Christopher; Tamburlin, Judith

    2004-01-01

    The need for transplant exceeds the number of available organs. Antigen compatible organs are particularly scarce for African Americans because of their proportionately lower rate of donations. This study presents a measure of organ donation readiness. Examination of the factor structure and a test of weak invariance were conducted on…

  20. ON COOPERATIVE BEHAVIOR IN DISTRIBUTED TEAMS: THE INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATION DESIGN, MEDIA RICHNESS, SOCIAL INTERACTION, AND INTERACTION ADAPTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorthe Doejbak Haakonsson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-interest vs. cooperation is a fundamental dilemma in animal behavior as well as in human and organizational behavior. In organizations, how to get people to cooperate despite or in conjunction with their self-interest is fundamental to the achievement of a common goal.While both organizational designs and social interactions have been found to further cooperation in organizations, some of the literatures have received contradictory support, just as very little research, if any, has examined their joint effects in distributed organizations, where communication is usually achieved via different communication media. This paper reviews the extant literature, and offers a set of hypothesis to integrate current theories and explanations. Further, it discusses how future research should examine the joint effects of media, incentives, and social interactions.

  1. Cooperation and conflict in host manipulation: interactions among macro-parasites and micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cézilly, Frank; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Rigaud, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Several parasite species are known to manipulate the phenotype of their hosts in ways that enhance their own transmission. Co-occurrence of manipulative parasites, belonging to the same species or to more than one species, in a single host has been regularly observed. Little is known, however, on interactions between co-occurring manipulative parasites with same or different transmission routes. Several models addressing this problem have provided predictions on how cooperation and conflict between parasites could emerge from multiple infections. Here, we review the empirical evidence in favor of the existence of synergistic or antagonistic interactions between co-occurring parasites, and highlight the neglected role of micro-organisms. We particularly discuss the actual importance of selective forces shaping the evolution of interactions between manipulative parasites in relation to parasite prevalence in natural populations, efficiency in manipulation, and type of transmission (i.e., horizontal versus vertical), and we emphasize the potential for future research.

  2. Spatially self-organized resilient networks by a distributed cooperative mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yukio

    2016-09-01

    The robustness of connectivity and the efficiency of paths are incompatible in many real networks. We propose a self-organization mechanism for incrementally generating onion-like networks with positive degree-degree correlations whose robustness is nearly optimal. As a spatial extension of the generation model based on cooperative copying and adding shortcut, we show that the growing networks become more robust and efficient through enhancing the onion-like topological structure on a space. The reasonable constraint for locating nodes on the perimeter in typical surface growth as a self-propagation does not affect these properties of the tolerance and the path length. Moreover, the robustness can be recovered in the random growth damaged by insistent sequential attacks even without any remedial measures.

  3. Spatially self-organized resilient networks by a distributed cooperative mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The robustness of connectivity and the efficiency of paths are incompatible in many real networks. We propose a self-organization mechanism for incrementally generating onion-like networks with positive degree-degree correlations whose robustness is nearly optimal. As a spatial extension of the generation model based on cooperative copying and adding shortcut, we show that the growing networks become more robust and efficient through enhancing the onion-like topological structure on a space. The reasonable constraint for locating nodes on the perimeter in typical surface growth as a self-propagation does not affect these properties of the tolerance and the path length. Moreover, the robustness can be recovered in the random growth damaged by insistent sequential attacks even without any remedial measures.

  4. Visit of H.E. Dr Abdolrahim Gavahi, Secretary General, Economic Cooperation Organization, Islamic Republic of Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 01: L.to r. Prof. Galileo Violini, Head, UNESCO Office, Teheran; Mr Jan van der Boon, CERN Director of Administration; H.E. Dr Abdolrahim Gavahi, Secretary General, Economic Cooperation Organization, Islamic Republic of Iran (signing the Guest Book); Dr John Ellis, CERN Adviser for Non-Member State Relations and Dr Behzad Alipour Tehrany Photo 02: Mr Jan van der Boon, CERN Director of Administration (left) and Dr John Ellis, CERN Adviser for Non-Member State Relations (right) on the occasion of the visit of H.E. Dr Abdolrahim Gavahi, Secretary General, Economic Cooperation Organization, Islamic Republic of Iran.

  5. The Latin American population in Spain and organ donation. Attitude toward deceased organ donation and organ donation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Antonio; López-Navas, Ana I; Navalón, Juan C; Martínez-Alarcón, Laura; Ayala-García, Marco A; Sebastián-Ruiz, María J; Moya-Faz, Francisco; Garrido, Gregorio; Ramirez, Pablo; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-04-01

    The Latin American (LA) population has similarities with the Spanish population which makes its integration into Spanish society easier. to analyze the attitude toward organ donation among Latin American citizens residing in Spain, to determine the psychosocial variables which affect this attitude, and to examine the correlation between donation rates of LA citizens in Spain and in their countries of origin. A random sample of LA residents in Spain was taken and stratified according to the respondent's nationality (n = 1.314), in the year 2010. Attitude was assessed using a validated questionnaire (PCID-DTO Dr Rios). The survey was self-administered and completed anonymously. Student's t-test, the χ(2) test, and logistic regression analysis. There was a 94% completion rate (n = 1.237). Attitude toward donation was favorable in 60% of cases (n = 745), 12% (n = 145) were against, and 28% (n = 347) were undecided. The following variables were associated with attitude toward donation: sex (P = 0.038), level of formal education (P donation of a family member's organs (P donation with the family (P organ donation and transplantation process (P donation (P organ donation and transplantation (P organ donation (P donation rates in this population group in Spain are higher than those recorded in their countries of origin (55.76 vs. organ donation among LA citizens residing in Spain is slightly worse than that reported in the native Spanish population and is determined by many psychosocial factors. The donation rates of LA citizens in Spain are higher than those in their countries of origin. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  6. Community-based home support agencies: comparing the quality of care of cooperative and non-profit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviten-Reid, Catherine; Hoyt, Ann

    2009-06-01

    In the province of Québec, services focusing on the instrumental activities of daily living are delivered to seniors by a combination of non-profit organizations and cooperatives. But do these organizations perform differently? This study asks whether home support cooperatives deliver higher-quality care than non-profit home support agencies. The specific effects of consumer and worker participation on the board of directors are also tested. Data were collected in 2006 and 2007 from 831 individuals receiving home support services from nine cooperatives and nine non-profits. Two consumer-centered measures of quality were used: a summated, 39-point satisfaction score and a 4-point overall quality score. Data were analyzed using ordered logistic regression. Results show that although organizational type was not a predictor of the two quality outcomes, worker involvement in governance was positively associated with the satisfaction score, while consumer involvement was positively associated with the overall quality score.

  7. Collaboration, collegiality, and cooperation: consumer health library services and the American Cancer Society navigator role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Carol Ann; Wellik, Kay E

    2012-10-01

    Patients and family members are overwhelmed by the diagnosis of cancer and often do not know where to look for answers, information on the treatment options, or community resources for support during the cancer journey. A unique relationship was forged with a patient and health education librarian at the Mayo Clinic in Arizona and an American Cancer Society navigator, which encouraged collaboration to better meet the informational and supportive healthcare needs of patients. This article addresses the background of the project, the steps taken to establish the relationship, space allocation, and need for confidentiality. The innovations produced by this partnership also are discussed, including development of cancer pathfinders and cancer communication blogs for patients, as well as comarketing of services.

  8. 77 FR 9225 - Allegheny Electric Cooperative, Inc., et al. v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Organization of PJM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Allegheny Electric Cooperative, Inc., et al. v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Organization of PJM States, Inc., et al. v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on... required by section 18.17.4 of the Amended and Restated Operating Agreement of PJM Interconnection,...

  9. 76 FR 54235 - Supplement to the FY2010 Single-Source Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Organization (WHO) AGENCY: Biomedical Advanced Research Development Authority (BARDA), Office of the Assistant...: Notice. SUMMARY: In FY 2011, HHS/ASPR/BARDA plans to supplement the FY2010 ``Single-Source Cooperative... Production Capacity in Under Resourced Nations''. BARDA currently funds the development of...

  10. The History and Founding Organizations of the American Board of Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Bruce E

    2016-09-01

    In the early 1900s, ophthalmologists became the first group of American physicians to lead the call for the establishment of higher standards in the practice of medicine. This movement for excellence in practice evolved into a program of board certification through the creation of what is today the American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO). Three organizations-the American Ophthalmological Society, the Section on Ophthalmology of the American Medical Association, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology-are credited as the founders of the ABO. Representatives from these organizations were charged with overseeing the development of board certification programs from the ABO's inception in 1916 through 1982, when it became a fully autonomous organization.

  11. N-Heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a powerful tool in organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob De Vreese

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between metals and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs has provided a window of opportunities for the development of novel catalytic strategies within the past few years. The recent successful combination of Brønsted acids with NHCs has added a new dimension to the field of cooperative catalysis, enabling the stereoselective synthesis of functionalized pyrrolidin-2-ones as valuable scaffolds in heterocyclic chemistry. This Commentary will briefly highlight the concept of N-heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a new and powerful methodology in organic chemistry.

  12. International cooperation and non-profit organizations: re-reading the institutional role in combating neglected diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinício Chein Feres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the juridical role of patent rights and the importance of international cooperation concerning the health system, especially those held between the countries of the South, as well as not-for-profit organizations for the prevention and combating neglected diseases. From the theoretical perspective of law as identity, and the methodological approach of qualitative content analysis, some cases of cooperation between states and public and private institutions were collected and analyzed in order to develop new drugs to combat neglected diseases and ensure equity of access to these drugs.

  13. N-Heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a powerful tool in organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vreese, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Summary The interplay between metals and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) has provided a window of opportunities for the development of novel catalytic strategies within the past few years. The recent successful combination of Brønsted acids with NHCs has added a new dimension to the field of cooperative catalysis, enabling the stereoselective synthesis of functionalized pyrrolidin-2-ones as valuable scaffolds in heterocyclic chemistry. This Commentary will briefly highlight the concept of N-heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a new and powerful methodology in organic chemistry. PMID:22509208

  14. Organic nanoclusters for nonlinear optics: from model systems to cooperative nanoassemblies with enhanced NLO responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenziani, Francesca; Parthasarathy, Venkatakrishnan; Ghosh, Sampa; Pandey, Ravindra; Das, Puspendu K.; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille

    2009-08-01

    While structure-properties relationships are quite actively and successfully investigated at the molecular level of engineering of optical nonlinear responses, supramolecular structure-property relationships are an appealing field. The realization that interchromophoric interactions between strongly polar/polarizable NLO chromophores can significantly affect the NLO response of each chromophoric unit as well as promote associations has opened new dimensions for molecular design. Several elegant routes have been implemented to hinder or counterbalance dipole-dipole interactions between dipolar NLO chromophores for the elaboration of second-order materials (for SHG or electro-optical modulation). At opposite, we have implemented a reverse strategy by confining discrete numbers of NLO push-pull chromophores in close proximity within covalent organic nanoclusters with the aim to exploit interchromophoric interactions in order to achieve enhanced NLO responses. As a proof of concept, we present here the investigation of two-series of multichromophoric covalent assemblies built from NLO push-pull chromophores showing that cooperative enhancement can be achieved both for second-order optical responses (first hyperpolarizabilities) or third-order responses (two-photon absorption cross-sections).

  15. Cooperative insertion of CO2 in diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Thomas M.; Mason, Jarad A.; Kong, Xueqian; Bloch, Eric D.; Gygi, David; Dani, Alessandro; Crocellà, Valentina; Giordanino, Filippo; Odoh, Samuel O.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Dzubak, Allison L.; Poloni, Roberta; Schnell, Sondre K.; Planas, Nora; Lee, Kyuho; Pascal, Tod; Wan, Liwen F.; Prendergast, David; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Smit, Berend; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Gagliardi, Laura; Bordiga, Silvia; Reimer, Jeffrey A.; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2015-03-01

    The process of carbon capture and sequestration has been proposed as a method of mitigating the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. If implemented, the cost of electricity generated by a fossil fuel-burning power plant would rise substantially, owing to the expense of removing CO2 from the effluent stream. There is therefore an urgent need for more efficient gas separation technologies, such as those potentially offered by advanced solid adsorbents. Here we show that diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks can behave as `phase-change' adsorbents, with unusual step-shaped CO2 adsorption isotherms that shift markedly with temperature. Results from spectroscopic, diffraction and computational studies show that the origin of the sharp adsorption step is an unprecedented cooperative process in which, above a metal-dependent threshold pressure, CO2 molecules insert into metal-amine bonds, inducing a reorganization of the amines into well-ordered chains of ammonium carbamate. As a consequence, large CO2 separation capacities can be achieved with small temperature swings, and regeneration energies appreciably lower than achievable with state-of-the-art aqueous amine solutions become feasible. The results provide a mechanistic framework for designing highly efficient adsorbents for removing CO2 from various gas mixtures, and yield insights into the conservation of Mg2+ within the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase family of enzymes.

  16. Cooperative insertion of CO2 in diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Thomas M; Mason, Jarad A; Kong, Xueqian; Bloch, Eric D; Gygi, David; Dani, Alessandro; Crocellà, Valentina; Giordanino, Filippo; Odoh, Samuel O; Drisdell, Walter S; Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Dzubak, Allison L; Poloni, Roberta; Schnell, Sondre K; Planas, Nora; Lee, Kyuho; Pascal, Tod; Wan, Liwen F; Prendergast, David; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Smit, Berend; Kortright, Jeffrey B; Gagliardi, Laura; Bordiga, Silvia; Reimer, Jeffrey A; Long, Jeffrey R

    2015-03-19

    The process of carbon capture and sequestration has been proposed as a method of mitigating the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. If implemented, the cost of electricity generated by a fossil fuel-burning power plant would rise substantially, owing to the expense of removing CO2 from the effluent stream. There is therefore an urgent need for more efficient gas separation technologies, such as those potentially offered by advanced solid adsorbents. Here we show that diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks can behave as 'phase-change' adsorbents, with unusual step-shaped CO2 adsorption isotherms that shift markedly with temperature. Results from spectroscopic, diffraction and computational studies show that the origin of the sharp adsorption step is an unprecedented cooperative process in which, above a metal-dependent threshold pressure, CO2 molecules insert into metal-amine bonds, inducing a reorganization of the amines into well-ordered chains of ammonium carbamate. As a consequence, large CO2 separation capacities can be achieved with small temperature swings, and regeneration energies appreciably lower than achievable with state-of-the-art aqueous amine solutions become feasible. The results provide a mechanistic framework for designing highly efficient adsorbents for removing CO2 from various gas mixtures, and yield insights into the conservation of Mg(2+) within the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase family of enzymes.

  17. Design and Control of Cooperativity in Spin-Crossover in Metal–Organic Complexes: A Theoretical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrishit Banerjee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metal organic complexes consisting of transition metal centers linked by organic ligands, may show bistability which enables the system to be observed in two different electronic states depending on external condition. One of the spectacular examples of molecular bistability is the spin-crossover phenomena. Spin-Crossover (SCO describes the phenomena in which the transition metal ion in the complex under the influence of external stimuli may show a crossover between a low-spin and high-spin state. For applications in memory devices, it is desirable to make the SCO phenomena cooperative, which may happen with associated hysteresis effect. In this respect, compounds with extended solid state structures containing metal ions connected by organic spacer linkers like linear polymers, coordination network solids are preferred candidates over isolated molecules or molecular assemblies. The microscopic understanding, design and control of mechanism driving cooperativity, however, are challenging. In this review we discuss the recent theoretical progress in this direction.

  18. Greed and Fear in Network Reciprocity: Implications for Cooperation among Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, James A.; Leal, Diego F.; Felps, Will; Jones, Thomas M.; Berman, Shawn L.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive interdisciplinary literatures have built on the seminal spatial dilemmas model, which depicts the evolution of cooperation on regular lattices, with strategies propagating locally by relative fitness. In this model agents may cooperate with neighbors, paying an individual cost to enhance their collective welfare, or they may exploit cooperative neighbors and diminish collective welfare. Recent research has extended the model in numerous ways, incorporating behavioral noise, implementing other network topologies or adaptive networks, and employing alternative dynamics of replication. Although the underlying dilemma arises from two distinct dimensions—the gains for exploiting cooperative partners (Greed) and the cost of cooperating with exploitative partners (Fear)–most work following from the spatial dilemmas model has argued or assumed that the dilemma can be represented with a single parameter: This research has typically examined Greed or Fear in isolation, or a composite such as the K-index of Cooperation or the ratio of the benefit to cost of cooperation. We challenge this claim on theoretical grounds—showing that embedding interaction in networks generally leads Greed and Fear to have divergent, interactive, and highly nonlinear effects on cooperation at the macro level, even when individuals respond identically to Greed and Fear. Using computational experiments, we characterize both dynamic local behavior and long run outcomes across regions of this space. We also simulate interventions to investigate changes of Greed and Fear over time, showing how model behavior changes asymmetrically as boundaries in payoff space are crossed, leading some interventions to have irreversible effects on cooperation. We then replicate our experiments on inter-organizational network data derived from links through shared directors among 2,400 large US corporations, thus demonstrating our findings for Greed and Fear on a naturally-occurring network. In closing

  19. Testing the Utility of a Modified Organ Donation Model among African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dana H. Z.; Perryman, Jennie P.; Thompson, Nancy J.; Amaral, Sandra; Jacob Arriola, Kimberly R.

    2011-01-01

    African Americans are overrepresented on the organ transplant waiting list because they are disproportionately impacted by certain health conditions that potentially warrant a life-saving transplant. While the African American need for transplantation is considerably high, organ and tissue donation rates are comparatively low, resulting in African Americans spending more than twice the amount of time on the national transplant waiting list as compared to people of other racial/ethnic backgrounds. There are a multitude of factors that contribute to the reluctance expressed by African Americans with respect to organ donation. This study proposes the use of an adaptation of the Organ Donation Model to explore the ways in which knowledge, trust in the donation/allocation process, and religious beliefs impact African American donation decision making. Bivariate and path analyses demonstrated that alignment with religious beliefs was the greatest driving factor with respect to attitudes towards donation; attitudes were significantly associated with donation intentions; and knowledge is directly associated with intentions to serve as a potential deceased organ donor. The significance of these variables speaks to the importance of their inclusion in a model that focuses on the African American population and offers new direction for more effective donation education efforts. PMID:21698439

  20. Non-Formal Education in Organizations for American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Judith B.

    1986-01-01

    Explains how changes in family and society have had a broad impact on youth-serving organizations, which have for decades engaged in nonformal education, a support service needed by today's young people. Suggests a stronger partnership is needed between public and private education and nonformal education provided by organizations for youth. (HOD)

  1. The society for gastrointestinal intervention. Are we, as an organization of disparate disciplines, cooperative or competitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarek, Richard A

    2010-09-01

    cure. Cooperative, not competitive. The potential for competition between disciplines comes in mundane situations and clinical settings that have historically been "owned" by a single discipline. On the one hand, placement of PEGS and PEJs, initially done endoscopically, can be done with equal facility and occasional failure, by endoscopists and interventional radiologists, reserving failed attempts for minimally invasive surgery. What resources are utilized with these three methods? Are there advantages to defining the mucosa of the gut lumen in all, or even a subset of patients? By way of contrast, acute cholecystectomy tubes in high surgical risk patients have usually been the domain of the radiologist, although I described transcystic duct gallbladder decompression endoscopically 2½ decades ago. With the advent of new devices delivered under EUS control, the gallbladder will now be readily accessible endoscopically. What does this mean both for the acutely ill patient without a window to approach their gallbladder radiologically? Will this play a bit part and a cooperative technique to expand our therapeutic armamentarium or will it become competitive therapeutically not only for IR but for minimally invasive surgeons? The same may be said for EUS's ability to inject genes, caustics, or chemo-therapeutic agents into organs adjacent to the lumen. What is the role of TNFerade injection into unresectable pancreatic cancers and the role of absolute alcohol or Taxitol to treat cystic neoplasms of the pancreas? The real issue of competition or cooperation between the disciplines comes when treating patients with unresectable and obstructing GI neoplasms, from my perspective. The latter may occur almost anywhere in the GI tract but, of course, are more commonly noted proximally (esophagus, stomach, duodenum) and distally (left colon) as well as proximal and distal biliary obstructions. Recognizing that the occasional mid-small bowel and many proximal colon lesions are

  2. INTERNATIONAL RUSSIAN-CHINESE COOPERATION IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE UNITED NATIONS (UN AND THE REGIONAL SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION (SCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui ZOU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the world politics and economy occur after the end of the "cold war". After the 2008 international financial crisis, the need for reforming of the world order is becoming increasingly apparent. However, the economically well-developed countries traditionally firmly hold the old world order, insist that all democratic rules has adopted by the western countries, are must comply with all the countries. Russia and China as permanent members of the UN Security Council do a lot within the organization in order to strengthen international peace and international security. UN Member States should, by means of the broad and democratic consultations, taking into consideration the interests and concerns of all sides to look forward for finding a "comprehensive" version of the solution to achieve a consensus as much as possible. China is ready to maintain contacts with all sides to apply common efforts to promote the development of the Security Council reforming process in a direction that would have favored the preservation of the common interests of the United States and the cohesion of its members. China and Russia support rational and necessary reforms of the UN Security Council that are aimed at enhancing its authority and efficiency, as well as a more strict implementation of its obligations under the peace and security on the planet. As important members (SCO, China and Russia are the leading force for promoting a multipolar world and democratization of international relationships, with broad common interests in promoting the reform of the global financial system to increase the representativeness of fast developing countries. China supports Russia in the fight against terrorism and separatism, while Russia supports China in the questions, which are connected with Taiwan, Tibet and Xinjiang. The sides apply the joint efforts for the facilitating the political resolution of the crises.doi 10.17748/2075-9908-2016-8-2/1-13-25. [ru; en

  3. Development of a scale to measure African American attitudes toward organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnicow, Ken; Andrews, Ann M; Zhang, Nanhua; Chapman, Remonia; Beach, Denise K; Langford, Aisha T; Goodwin, Nancy; Magee, John C

    2012-04-01

    African American attitudes toward organ donation differ from other racial and ethnic groups. However, existing measures of organ donation attitudes do not adequately address ethnic identity and cultural factors. We examined the psychometric properties of a new 18-item organ donation scale among 1225 members of 21 African American churches in Southeast Michigan. We identified three factors: (1) Barriers; (2) Family/Race Benefits; and (3) Altruism. More positive donation attitudes on each subscale were observed for individuals who reported being enrolled as a donor. Among individuals not enrolled, higher scores were observed on scales two and three for those with stronger intentions to enroll.

  4. Organization for security and co-operation in Europe mission to Georgia / Joe McDonagh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McDonagh, Joe

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne OSCE missiooni tegevusest Gruusias

  5. Organization for security and co-operation in Europe mission to Georgia / Joe McDonagh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McDonagh, Joe

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne OSCE missiooni tegevusest Gruusias

  6. Implementation of a cooperative methodology to develop organic chemical engineering skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, J. F.; Díaz Blanco, M. J.; Toscano Fuentes, C.; Martín Alfonso, J. E.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate how most of the competences required by engineering students may be developed through an active methodology based on cooperative learning/evaluation. Cooperative learning was employed by the University of Huelva's third-year engineering students. The teaching methodology pretends to create some of the most relevant engineering skills required nowadays such as the ability to cooperate finding appropriate information; the ability to solve problems through critical and creative thinking; and the ability to make decisions and to communicate effectively. The statistical study carried out supports the hypothesis that comprehensive and well-defined protocols in the development of the subject, the rubric and cooperative evaluation allow students to acquire a successful learning.

  7. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  8. 75 FR 61502 - Cooperative Agreement With the Pan American Health Organization for the Development of an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... postmarketing surveillance; Data presented on other regulatory areas such as clinical trials and supply chains...., Web-based) in English and Spanish for a series of countries providing: Overview of the regulated... processes and systems market; Structural overview of the national regulatory process(es)...

  9. Relationships between Islamic religiosity and attitude toward deceased organ donation among American Muslims: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Zaganjor, Hatidza

    2014-06-27

    Religion-rooted beliefs and values are often cited as barriers to organ donation among Muslims. Yet how Islamic religiosity relates to organ donation attitude among Muslims is less studied. Using a community based participatory research approach, we recruited adults from mosque communities to self-administer a questionnaire assessing levels of Islamic religiosity, attitude toward deceased organ donation, and sociodemographic descriptors. Of the 97 respondents, there were nearly equal numbers of men and women. Over a third were Arab American (n=36), and nearly a quarter were either South Asian (n=23) or African American (n=25). Respondents viewing difficulties in life as punishment from God had a decreased odds of believing deceased organ donation to be justified (OR 0.85, Preligiosity, such as intrinsic religiosity, positive religious coping and one related to following Islamic ethical guidelines, were not associated with organ donation attitude. Arab Muslims were more likely to believe deceased organ donation to be justified than South Asian or African Americans (OR 7.06, Preligiosity or adherence to Islamic ethics do not appear to associate with negative attitudes toward deceased organ donation. Negative religious coping appears, however, to be related to lower rates of believing deceased organ donation to be justified. Future studies with larger samples that incorporate additional measures of religiosity can further clarify relationships between religiosity and organ donation attitude among Muslim communities.

  10. Carbon Sequestration and Nitrogen Mineralization in Soil Cooperated with Organic Composts and Bio-char During Corn (Zea mays) Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joung-Du; Lee, Sun-Ill; Park, Wu-Gyun; Choi, Yong-Su; Hong, Seong-Gil; Park, Sang-Won

    2014-05-01

    Objectives of this study were to estimate the carbon sequestration and to evaluate nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in soils cooperated with organic composts and bio-char during corn cultivation. For the experiment, the soil used in this study was clay loam types, and application rates of chemical fertilizer and bio-char were recommended amount after soil test and 2 % to soil weight, respectively. The soil samples were periodically taken at every 15 day intervals during the experimental periods. The treatments were consisted of non-application, cow manure compost, pig manure compost, swine digestate from aerobic digestion system, their bio-char cooperation. For the experimental results, residual amount of inorganic carbon was ranged from 51 to 208kg 10a-1 in soil only cooperated with different organic composts. However it was estimated to be highest at 208kg 10a-1 in the application plot of pig manure compost. In addition to bio-char application, it was ranged from 187.8 to 286kg 10a-1, but was greatest accumulated at 160.3kg 10a-1 in the application plot of cow manure compost. For nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates, it was shown that there were generally low in the soil cooperated with bio-char compared to the only application plots of different organic composts except for 71 days after sowing. Also, they were observed to be highest in the application plot of swine digestate from aerobic digestion system. For the loss of total inorganic carbon (TIC) by run-off water, it was ranged from 0.18 to 0.36 kg 10a-1 in the different treatment plots. Also, with application of bio-char, total nitrogen was estimated to be reduced at 0.42(15.1%) and 0.38(11.8%) kg 10a-1 in application plots of the pig manure compost and aerobic digestate, respectively.

  11. Education, ethics, and solidarity in international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Janete Lima de; Vilar, Rosana Lucia Alves de; Germano, Raimunda Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes an experience in technical cooperation between Brazil and Andean countries in the form of the International Course in the Management of Human Resource Policies in Health. This exploratory documental study encompassed a number of Latin American countries whose institutions of higher education had partnerships with the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, mediated by the Pan American Health Organization Representation in Brazil. The course experience shows that fundamental values like ethics and solidarity are determinant to the success of technical cooperation processes.

  12. Highly Efficient Cooperative Catalysis by Co III (Porphyrin) Pairs in Interpenetrating Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zekai; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Wenbin (UC); (Xiamen)

    2016-12-02

    A series of porous twofold interpenetrated In-CoIII(porphyrin) metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) were constructed by in situ metalation of porphyrin bridging ligands and used as efficient cooperative catalysts for the hydration of terminal alkynes. The twofold interpenetrating structure brings adjacent CoIII(porphyrins) in the two networks parallel to each other with a distance of about 8.8 Å, an ideal distance for the simultaneous activation of both substrates in alkyne hydration reactions. As a result, the In-CoIII(porphyrin) MOFs exhibit much higher (up to 38 times) catalytic activity than either homogeneous catalysts or MOF controls with isolated CoIII(porphyrin) centers, thus highlighting the potential application of MOFs in cooperative catalysis.

  13. Indonesia’s Relations with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-25

    against terrorism by creating a counterbalance to extremism in Indonesia and strengthening the democratic system since Indonesian officers are naturally...ASEAN defense cooperation and interoperability.40 Beyond that mentioned above, the strong Indonesian democratic system could have a major impact on

  14. Accomodating Two Worlds in One Organization: Changing Board Models in Agricultural Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Hendrikse, G.W.J.; Oijen, A.

    2013-01-01

    While most economic organisation literature on cooperatives has focused on changes in income rights, we study changes in the allocation of decision rights between board of directors (representing members) and managers. The traditional role of the board is to direct the activities of the managers. Ho

  15. Accomodating Two Worlds in One Organization: Changing Board Models in Agricultural Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Hendrikse, G.W.J.; Oijen, A.

    2013-01-01

    While most economic organisation literature on cooperatives has focused on changes in income rights, we study changes in the allocation of decision rights between board of directors (representing members) and managers. The traditional role of the board is to direct the activities of the managers.

  16. Managing conflict in Dutch organizations: A test of the relevance of DeutschUs cooperation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu; D. Tjosvold

    1997-01-01

    Deutsch's theory of cooperative and competitive conflict may be usefully extended to Dutch people. Results of LISREL analyses on data collected from interviews of Dutch employees in 2 companies indicate that competitive goals interfered with the open, constructive discussion of opposing views. Howev

  17. Organizations(2): "Social Capitalism" and Adult Education: The Migros Co-Operative in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Journal of Adult Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Half of all adult education programs in Switzerland are conducted through Migros, the country's largest cooperative and largest private company. Migros' educational network principle specializes in teaching languages but also offers 174 subject areas as well as other activities and services. Some Migros adult education innovations are described.…

  18. Identification of strategies to facilitate organ donation among African Americans using the nominal group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jayme E; Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard; Mannon, Roslyn B; Gaston, Robert; Segev, Dorry L; Mannon, Elinor C; Martin, Michelle Y

    2015-02-06

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by ESRD, but few receive a living donor kidney transplant. Surveys assessing attitudes toward donation have shown that African Americans are less likely to express a willingness to donate their own organs. Studies aimed at understanding factors that may facilitate the willingness of African Americans to become organ donors are needed. A novel formative research method was used (the nominal group technique) to identify and prioritize strategies for facilitating increases in organ donation among church-attending African Americans. Four nominal group technique panel interviews were convened (three community and one clergy). Each community panel represented a distinct local church; the clergy panel represented five distinct faith-based denominations. Before nominal group technique interviews, participants completed a questionnaire that assessed willingness to become a donor; 28 African-American adults (≥19 years old) participated in the study. In total, 66.7% of participants identified knowledge- or education-related strategies as most important strategies in facilitating willingness to become an organ donor, a view that was even more pronounced among clergy. Three of four nominal group technique panels rated a knowledge-based strategy as the most important and included strategies, such as information on donor involvement and donation-related risks; 29.6% of participants indicated that they disagreed with deceased donation, and 37% of participants disagreed with living donation. Community participants' reservations about becoming an organ donor were similar for living (38.1%) and deceased (33.4%) donation; in contrast, clergy participants were more likely to express reservations about living donation (33.3% versus 16.7%). These data indicate a greater opposition to living donation compared with donation after one's death among African Americans and suggest that improving knowledge about organ donation, particularly

  19. THE EFFECTS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING ON FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANXIETY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TAIWANESE AND AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Duxbury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the level of foreign language anxiety in the classroom, plus the correlation between foreign language anxiety and cooperative learning attitudes and practice among university students at one university in the United States and three universities in Southern Taiwan. Two instruments (The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety scale by Horwitz et al., 1986 and the Style Analysis Survey by Oxford et al., 1999a were employed along with ten questions designed by the author: five sought to establish student perceptions of their classrooms’ cooperative atmosphere and five concerned students’ predilection towards cooperative learning. No significant correlation was found between foreign language anxiety and cooperative learning at the United States University. Of the three Southern Taiwan colleges, results from only one school showed a significant correlation. This was the only school that had a Taiwanese teacher.

  20. Comparative West Nile virus detection in organs of naturally infected American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos).

    OpenAIRE

    Panella, N. A.; Kerst, A. J.; Lanciotti, R. S.; Bryant, P.; Wolf, B.; Komar, N.

    2001-01-01

    Widespread deaths of American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos)were associated with the 1999 outbreak of West Nile (WN) virus in the New York City region. We compared six organs from 20 crow carcasses as targets for WN virus detection. Half the carcasses had at least one positive test result for WN virus infection. The brain was the most sensitive test organ; it was the only positive organ for three of the positive crows. The sensitivity of crow organs as targets for WN virus detection makes crow...

  1. Operation Risk of Rural Cooperative Economic Organization Based on Principal Component Analysis——A Case of Sichuan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the previous research,a total of 10 risk indices are selected according to the specific situation in Sichuan Province,such as natural risk,resource constraint risk,internal management risk,capital risk,technical input and output risk,market risk,contract credit risk,property risk and policy support risk.According to the questionnaire survey by cooperative economic organization of Sichuan Province,principal component analysis is used to analyze the importance and influence degree of the operation risk of rural cooperative economic organization.Result shows that in the operation of cooperative economic organization,management risk has greater influence degree and importance degree,which should be paid special attention to.Capital,property,price fluctuation,and quality of members have great degree of risk and are paid little attention to.The technical input and output risk and the contract credit risk have relatively low impact on the operation risk of cooperative economic organization and their importance is relatively low.Therefore,we should continue to maintain its advantages.Nature,resource constraint and policy support have relatively high risk awareness and low influence degree,belonging to the factors with priority attention which are controlled to some extent.Finally,suggestions are put forward,such as enhancing the management level of cooperative economic organizations,strengthening the farmer’s risk awareness,and improving the risk aversion ability of cooperative economic organization.

  2. American Organization of Nurse Executives Care Innovation and Transformation program: improving care and practice environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlies, Amanda Stefancyk

    2014-09-01

    The American Organization of Nurse Executives conducted an evaluation of the hospitals participating in the Care Innovation and Transformation (CIT) program. A total of 24 hospitals participated in the 2-year CIT program from 2012 to 2013. Reported outcomes include increased patient satisfaction, decreased falls, and reductions in nurse turnover and overtime. Nurses reported statistically significant improvements in 4 domains of the principles and elements of a healthful practice environment developed by the Nursing Organizations Alliance.

  3. Organ Donation Attitudes and Practices among African Americans: An Adapted Measurement Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ann M; Zhang, Nanhua; Buechley, Caitlin; Chapman, Remonia; Guillen, Jennifer L; Magee, John C; Resnicow, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the psychometric properties and correlates of a measure of organ donation attitudes and practices for African Americans. We surveyed 736 members from 14 alumni chapters of historically African American sororities and fraternities in Michigan. We constructed subscales and compared subscale values with two variables related to donation status: 1) enrollment status in the state donor registry, and 2) intentions for future enrollment. Psychometric analyses indicated our measure tapped four distinct domains of attitudes concerning donation. The four subscales identified-General Benefits, Race Benefits, General Barriers, and Disparity Barriers-had good psychometric properties. For all four scales the more positive the attitudes toward donation held by the respondent, the more likely they were to report having signed up to be an organ donor. An understanding of attitudes toward donation may help development of effective culturally sensitive intervention messages targeting the African American community.

  4. Mexican Americans on the Home Front: Community Organizations in Arizona during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Christine

    During World War II Arizona's Mexican-American communities organized their own patriotic activities and worked, in spite of racism, to support the war effort. In Phoenix the Lenadores del Mundo, an active fraternal society, began this effort by sponsoring a festival in January 1942. Such "mutualistas" provided an essential support system…

  5. 8 CFR 316.20 - American institutions of research, public international organizations, and designations under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... international organizations, and designations under the International Immunities Act. 316.20 Section 316.20... under the International Immunities Act. (a) American institutions of research. The following-listed... University of Beirut (Near East College Associations). Arctic Institute of North America, Inc. Armour...

  6. "Project ACTS": An Intervention to Increase Organ and Tissue Donation Intentions among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, Kimberly; Robinson, Dana H.; Thompson, Nancy J.; Perryman, Jennie P.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of "Project ACTS: About Choices in Transplantation and Sharing," which was developed to increase readiness for organ and tissue donation among African American adults. Nine churches (N = 425 participants) were randomly assigned to receive donation education materials currently available to consumers…

  7. 40 CFR 33.304 - Must a Native American (either as an individual, organization, Tribe or Tribal Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must a Native American (either as an... PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS Good Faith Efforts § 33.304 Must a Native American (either as an individual...) A Native American (either as an individual, organization, corporation, Tribe or Tribal...

  8. The Emergence of Regional Organizations in Latin America and Implications for the Future of the Organization of American States (OAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    Southern Market (MERCOSUR) was created. In 1993, the US, Canada , and Mexico signed the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ). 106 In 1996, an... Canada are not part of it. The OAS is the oldest regional organization in the world. It represents an ideal organizational system of state alliances...budget for a total nearly US$ 85 million for fiscal year 2011. The three largest contributors (2010) are Canada with US$ 22.3 million, followed by the

  9. An assessment of exposure and effects of persistent organic pollutants in an urban Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Jason M; Green, David J; Maisonneuve, France; Elliott, John E

    2017-01-01

    Among the stressors confronting urban wildlife, chemical contaminants pose a particular problem for high trophic feeding species. Previous data from fortuitous carcass collections revealed surprisingly high levels of persistent organic pollutants in raptor species, including the Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii), from urbanized areas of southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Thus, in 2012 and 2013, we followed up on that finding by measuring POPs in blood samples from 21 adult and 15 nestling Cooper's hawks in Vancouver, a large urban area in southwestern Canada. Reproductive success and circulating thyroid hormones were measured to assess possible toxicological effects. Model comparisons showed concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs) were positively influenced by the level of urbanization. Total thyroxin (TT4) was negatively associated with increases in ΣPCBs. Total triiodothyronine (TT3) was negatively associated with ΣPCBs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (ΣPBDEs). The legacy insecticide, dieldrin, appeared to have some negative influence on reproductive success. There is some evidence of biochemical perturbation by PBDEs and lingering impact of legacy POPs which have not been used for at least 40 years, but overall Cooper's hawks have successfully populated this urban environment.

  10. Science and business cooperation. Barriers in Poland within the context of selected European and North American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Trzmielak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the theoretical and empirical analysis of factors affecting the cooperation between science and business. The author will present the results of empirical research conducted in Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, France, Norway, the United States of America and Canada. The analysis will indicate how and which factors: structural, systemic, competence or awareness and cultural can be utilised in the commercialisation of knowledge and technologies. The analysis of research outcomes which underpins this study is also set on the following assumptions: Every country has different barriers to cooperation between scientists and entrepreneurs; Polish scientists and entrepreneurs should rely on proven and significant factors conducive to cooperation between science and business in Poland; Academic centres in Poland can benefit from the experience gained by other countries to intensify its model of cooperation with entrepreneurs. The article will showcase the research results that relate to the identification of selected problems occurring in establishing and maintaining cooperation between Polish scientific research organisations and entrepreneurs in the context of selected countries whose respondents were subject to empirical research.

  11. 19 CFR 148.88 - Certain representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... United Nations and the Organization of American States. 148.88 Section 148.88 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS... members of the staff of the United Nations and the Organization of American States, and their personal... United Nations member nation as the principal resident representative to the United Nations of...

  12. Cellular cooperation: insights from microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiker, Hasan; Gore, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation between cells is a widespread phenomenon in nature, found across diverse systems ranging from microbial populations to multicellular organisms. For cooperation to evolve and be maintained within a population of cells, costs due to competition have to be outweighed by the benefits gained through cooperative actions. Because cooperation generally confers a cost to the cooperating cells, defector cells that do not cooperate but reap the benefits of cooperation can thrive and eventually drive the cooperating phenotypes to extinction. Here we summarize recent advances made in understanding how cooperation and multicellularity can evolve in microbial populations in the face of such conflicts and discuss parallels with cell populations within multicellular organisms.

  13. The Pan American Health Organization's role and perspectives on the mapping and modeling of the neglected tropical diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Steven K; Nicholls, Ruben Santiago; Saboya, Martha IdaIí

    2012-09-01

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), which functions as the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, is committed to provide technical cooperation to countries to update the epidemiological information available for mapping and modelling of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a set of diseases mainly caused by parasites affecting people living in low socioeconomic and favourable environmental conditions. This communication discusses PAHO's role and perspectives in the use of mapping and modelling of these diseases with a view to promote its use in the development and implementation of integrated, inter-programmatic and inter-sectoral plans for the prevention, control or elimination of the NTDs and other infectious diseases related to poverty.

  14. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Foreign Language Anxiety: A Comparative Study of Taiwanese and American Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, John G.; Tsai, Ling-ling

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the level of foreign language anxiety in the classroom, plus the correlation between foreign language anxiety and cooperative learning attitudes and practice among university students at one university in the United States and three universities in Southern Taiwan. Two instruments (The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety…

  15. Cooperative Cluster Metalation and Ligand Migration in Zirconium Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Ying-Pin; Qin, Junsheng; Lu, Weigang; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang; Bosch, Mathieu; Liu, Tian-Fu; Lian, Xizhen; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2015-10-23

    Cooperative cluster metalation and ligand migration were performed on a Zr-MOF, leading to the isolation of unique bimetallic MOFs based on decanuclear Zr6M4 (M=Ni, Co) clusters. The M2+ reacts with the μ3-OH and terminal H2O ligands on an 8-connected [Zr6O4(OH)8(H2O)4] cluster to form a bimetallic [Zr6M4O8(OH)8(H2O)8] cluster. Along with the metalation of Zr6 cluster, ligand migration is observed in which a Zr–carboxylate bond dissociates to form a M–carboxylate bond. Single-crystal to single-crystal transformation is realized so that snapshots for cooperative cluster metalation and ligand migration processes are captured by successive single-crystal X-ray structures. In3+ was metalated into the same Zr-MOF which showed excellent catalytic activity in the acetaldehyde cyclotrimerization reaction. This work not only provides a powerful tool to functionalize Zr-MOFs with other metals, but also structurally elucidates the formation mechanism of the resulting heterometallic MOFs.

  16. Information Update Research Fellowship for International Young Scientists NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Danish National Research Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects with DFG News in Brief: NSFC set up Department of Medical Sciences NSFC Announced Approved Cooperative Projects With France and Germany NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Academy of Finland NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects with K. T. Li Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research projects With Japan Science and Technology Agency NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects With Royal Society of Edinburgh for 2010 NSFC Announced a List of proved Cooperative Projects With Three International Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Research Fellowship for International Young Scientists NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Danish National Research Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects with DFG News in Brief: NSFC set up Department of Medical Sciences NSFC Announced Approved Cooperative Projects With France and Germany NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Academy of Finland NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects with K. T. Li Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research projects With Japan Science and Technology Agency NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects With Royal Society of Edinburgh for 2010 NSFC Announced a List of proved Cooperative Projects With Three International Organizations

  17. ENHANCING COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China and Japan can cooperate on a wide scope of issues, such as the organization of the Beijing Olympic Games next year and aid to Africa,said Ide Keiji, Minister of Public Relations, Press, Culture, Education and Sports and Spokesperson of the Embassy

  18. Perceptions about organ donation among African American, Hispanic, and white high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Brian L; Lavoie, Nicole R; Scott, Allison M; Bosch, Dave; Morgan, Susan E

    2012-07-01

    We applied the Health Belief Model (HBM) to better understand perceptions of organ donation among African American, Hispanic, and White high school students. We conducted 14 focus groups with 18-year-old students to identify strategies to reach this audience when promoting the First-Person Consent Registry (FPCR) for organ donation. We found that African American, Hispanic, and White high school students are largely unaware of the need for organ donors, and are unfamiliar with how to join the FPCR. Participants identified more barriers to joining the FPCR than benefits. Two aspects of self-efficacy emerged related to joining the FPCR: decisional and task efficacy. Overall, few differences were found with respect to organ donation myths across the three ethnic groups. The results are discussed, with an emphasis on how the findings compare and contrast with previous organ donation research. We focus on message design and dissemination strategies for practitioners targeting 18-year-old high school students with organ donation promotional materials.

  19. 我国农民合作经济组织产权制度研究%Study of Chinese Property Right System of Farmer Cooperating Economic Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉媛; 蒋崧韬

    2014-01-01

    The farmer cooperating economic organization is organized to enhance the capacity of risk resist-ance and increase the income.According to analysis of the defect of the property right system about the farmer cooperating economic organization,propose the advice to improve the property right system,inclu-ding redefining the legal liability of the farmer cooperating economic organization,expanding the rang of the cooperation,and perfecting the consequence as farmer put the contractual right of land into the farmer coop-erating economic organization.%农民合作经济组织是农民增强自身抗风险能力和提高收益的经济联合体,通过分析它在当下发展中遇到的瓶颈,提出了相关产权制度的建议:包括合理规制农民合作经济组织的法律责任、扩大农民合作经济组织的合作范围以及完善土地承包经营权出资的法律后果。

  20. Cooperative control for self-organizing microgrids and game strategies for optimal dispatch of distributed renewable generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maknouninejad, Ali; Lin, Wei; Harno, Hendra G.; Qu, Zhihua; Simaan, Marwan A. [University of Central Florida, Department of EECS, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2012-03-15

    The small size, extensively dispersed and decentralized, and high penetration level of renewable energy sources in the future smart grids make the application of conventional optimal power flow (OPF) neither practical nor economical. In this paper, a practical approach is proposed to realize high penetration of distributed generators (DGs) by organizing them in some groups within a microgrid and dispatching the generated power aggregately. Each group may have virtual leaders which define the power policy of the group, and all other DGs cooperatively follow that policy. A fair utilization ratio is defined and will be introduced to the group by the virtual leaders. The utilization ratio indicates what percentage of the available power each DG has to feed to the grid, and this ratio will also be propagated within the group using cooperative control. As such, a smartgrid may treat microgrids as individually dispatchable loads or generators. Meanwhile, the interaction between each microgrid and the main grid can be formulated as a Stackelberg game. The main grid as the leader, by offering proper energy price to the micro grid, minimizes its cost and secures the power supply that the microgrid, as the follower, is willing to dispatch. It is shown that this game theoretic approach not only guarantees profit optimization, but also provides a convenient technique to optimize power flow from microgrids to the main grid. Numerical and simulation results for a case of study are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques. (orig.)

  1. Evidence of Aqueous Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Biogenic Emissions in the North American Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, A.; Youn, J.; Wang, Z.; Wonaschuetz, A.; Arellano, A. F.; Betterton, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    This study examines the role of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the North American Sonoran Desert as a result of intense solar radiation, enhanced moisture, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). The ratio of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) to organic carbon (OC) nearly doubles during the monsoon season relative to other seasons of the year. When normalized by mixing height, the WSOC enhancement during monsoon months relative to preceding dry months (May - June) exceeds that of sulfate by nearly a factor of ten. WSOC:OC and WSOC are most strongly correlated with moisture parameters, temperature, and concentrations of ozone and BVOCs. No positive relationship was identified between WSOC or WSOC:OC and anthropogenic tracers such as carbon monoxide over a full year. These results are especially of significance as recent modeling studies suggest that aqueous SOA formation is geographically concentrated in the eastern United States and likely unimportant in other areas such as the Southwest.

  2. 26 CFR 1.501(e)-1 - Cooperative hospital service organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... anticipated needs of the organization. See, § 1.537-1(b). Whether there is an improper accumulation of funds... and operated by the United States, a State, the District of Columbia, or a possession of the...

  3. Towards an Integrated Vision across Inter-cooperative Grid Virtual Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ye; Bessis, Nik; Brocco, Amos; Sotiriadis, Stelios; Courant, Michele; Kuonen, Pierre; Hisbrunner, Beat

    Much work has been done to exploit the benefit brought by allowing job execution on distributed computational resources. Nodes are typically able to share jobs only within the same virtual organization, which is inherently bounded by various reasons such as the adopted information system or other agreed constraints. The problem raised by such limitation is thus related to finding a way to enable interoperation between nodes from different virtual organizations.

  4. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Should the U.S. be Concerned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    characterize the SCO, the organization has largely remained an enigma . SCO characterizations have ranged from a simple security group to a regional economic...Who’s Socializing Whom? Regional Organizations and Contested Norms in Central Asia”, Europe-Asia Studies online, Vol. 64, No.7 (July 30, 2012...article/2380723 (accessed December 3, 2012). 32 Lewis, “Who’s Socializing Whom?”, 1225. 33 Mulyono, Indonesia’s Relations with the Shanghai

  5. War Games of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Collective Security Treaty Organization : Drills on the Move!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de M.

    2016-01-01

    The SCO is a political, economic, and security organization that started its security policy in arms control and subsequently developed war games. Conversely, the CSTO is a military alliance with collective armed forces. The military exercises of the CSTO are focused on conventional warfare, peaceke

  6. Extensive Dialogues and Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chinese Taipei On March 23,Chairman Wan Jifei of the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) and Board Chairman Wang Zhigang of the Taipei World Trade Center (TWTC) signed a cooperation agreement at the Taipei World Trade Tower,marking the new page of the development of cooperation and relations between the two organizations and the establishment of their cooperation mechanism.

  7. Binary birth-death dynamics and the expansion of cooperation by means of self-organized growth

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila; Tomassini, Marco; Perc, Matjaz

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection favors the more successful individuals. This is the elementary premise that pervades common models of evolution. Under extreme conditions, however, the process may no longer be probabilistic. Those that meet certain conditions survive and may reproduce while others perish. By introducing the corresponding binary birth-death dynamics to spatial evolutionary games, we observe solutions that are fundamentally different from those reported previously based on imitation dynamics. Social dilemmas transform to collective enterprises, where the availability of free expansion ranges and limited exploitation possibilities dictates self-organized growth. Strategies that dominate are those that are collectively most apt in meeting the survival threshold, rather than those who succeed in exploiting others for unfair benefits. Revisiting Darwinian principles with the focus on survival rather than imitation thus reveals the most counterintuitive ways of reconciling cooperation with competition.

  8. Effect of Organic Materials on Speciation of Cooper in Soil Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGGUO; CHENJIANBIN; 等

    1999-01-01

    Incubation of two soils,a red soil derived from granodiorte and a fluvo-aquic soil from alluvial deposit,with rice straw,Chinese milk vetch and pig manure under submerged condition were conducted to study the species of Cu in soil solutions as affected by the organic materials.The organic materials increased total soluble Cu by raising dissolved organic carbon(DOC) in soil solution when the solution pH values were below the range in which Cu deposited quickly.When the solution pH rose to this rage,the increase of DOC did not raise total soluble Cu.Total soluble Cu in all the treatments dropped with incubation time.After adding organic materials labile Cu dropped with incubation time and decreased sharply in the pH range of Cu precipitation.Addition of organic materials enhanced slowly labile Cu but depressed the ratio of labile Cu to total soluble Cu.Slowly labile Cu decreased with incubation time.Sepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that total soluble Cu was positively correlated with Eh and DOC(P=0.0025),labile Cu was negatively correlated with pH(P=0.0118),and slowly labile Cu was positively correlated with Eh and DOC(P=0.0022).Both the labile and slowly labile Cu were correlated with total soluble Cu at extremely significant levels.

  9. Parenting Practices and Obesity in Low-Income African-American Preschoolers. Contractor and Cooperator Report No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott W.

    2005-01-01

    This study developed and administered a questionnaire to identify feeding practices among low-income African-American mothers and eating behaviors in their preschool children that are associated with childhood obesity. The findings do not appear to implicate feeding practices to childhood obesity in this sample of preschoolers. However, before…

  10. 77 FR 31041 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-American Society...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (``ASME... actual damages under specified circumstances. Specifically, since December 1, 2011, ASME has published... charter of three consensus committees within the general nature and scope of ASME's standards...

  11. 76 FR 6497 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-American Society...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ...''), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (``ASME'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the..., since October 7, 2010, ASME has published three new standards, initiated three new standards activities, and withdrawn one standard within the general nature and scope of ASME's standards...

  12. 78 FR 58558 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-American Society...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...''), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (``ASME'') has filed written notifications simultaneously.... Specifically, since March 1, 2013, ASME has published four new standards, initiated one new standard activity, and withdrawn one published standard within the general nature and scope of ASME's...

  13. American Association of School Administrators 1980 Summer Instructional Leadership Conference: A Cooperative R&D Dissemination Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William C.

    This final report on the American Association of School Administrators' 1980 Summer Instructional Leadership Conference includes information on the background and scope of the project, a list of presenters and their topics, and plans for future programs. In addition, abstracts of 20 papers presented at the conference are appended. (WD)

  14. Mobility Model for Self-Organizing and Cooperative MSN and MANET Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Sikora

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-organization mechanisms are used for building scalable systems consisting of a huge number of subsystems. In computer networks, self-organizing is especially important in ad hoc networking. A self-organizing ad hoc network is a collection of wireless devices that collaborate with each other to form a network system that adapts to achieve a goal or goals. Such network is often built from mobile devices that may spontaneously create a network and dynamically adapted to changes in an unknown environment. Mobility pattern is a critical element that influences the performance characteristics of mobile sensor networks (MSN and mobile ad hoc networks (MANET. In this paper, we survey main directions to mobility modeling. We describe a novel algorithm for calculating mobility patterns for mobile devices that is based on a cluster formation and an artificial potential function. Finally, we present the simulation results of its application to a rescue mission planning.

  15. 对农民专业合作组织发展的思考%Thinking About Development of the Peasant Professional Cooperative Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑寿庆

    2011-01-01

    概述当前农民专业合作组织的特点,分析存在的问题,并提出具体的建议和对策,以期促进其持续健康发展,促进农村经济发展和农民增收。%The characteristic of the peasant professional cooperative organization was expounded in this paper.The problems were analyzed,the specific suggestions and countermeasures were put forward,in orde to keep the sustainable development of the peasant professional cooperative organization,promote the agricultural economic development and peasants′ income increase.

  16. Self-organized control in cooperative robots using a pattern formation principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens; Ellsaesser, Carmen; Fukuda, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    Self-organized modular approaches proved in nature to be robust and optimal and are a promising strategy to control future concepts of flexible and modular manufacturing processes. We show how this can be applied to a model of flexible manufacturing based on time-dependent robot-target assignment...... problems where robot teams have to serve manufacturing targets such that an objective function is optimized. Feasibility of the self-organized solutions can be guaranteed even for unpredictable situations like sudden changes in the demands or breakdowns of robots. As example an uncrewed space mission...

  17. African American Organ Donor Registration: A Mixed Methods Design using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBay, Derek A.; Ivankova, Nataliya; Herby, Ivan; Wynn, Theresa A.; Kohler, Connie; Berry, Beverly; Foushee, Herman; Carson, April; Redden, David T.; Holt, Cheryl; Siminoff, Laura; Fouad, Mona; Martin, Michelle Y.

    2015-01-01

    Context A large racial disparity exists in organ donation. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with becoming a registered organ donor in among African Americans in Alabama. Methods The study utilized a concurrent mixed methods design guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior to analyze African American’s decisions to become a registered organ donor using both qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (survey) methods. Results The sample consisted of 22 registered organ donors (ROD) and 65 non-registered participants (NRP) from six focus groups completed in urban (n=3) and rural (n=3) areas. Participants emphasized the importance of the autonomy to make one’s own organ donation decision and have this decision honored posthumously. One novel barrier to becoming a ROD was the perception that organs from African Americans were often unusable due to high prevalence of chronic medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. Another novel theme discussed as an advantage to becoming a ROD was the subsequent motivation to take responsibility for one’s health. Family and friends were the most common groups of persons identified as approving and disapproving of the decision to become a ROD. The most common facilitator to becoming a ROD was information, while fear and the lack of information were the most common barriers. In contrast, religious beliefs, mistrust and social justice themes were infrequently referenced as barriers to becoming a ROD. Discussion Findings from this study may be useful for prioritizing organ donation community-based educational interventions in campaigns to increase donor registration. PMID:25193729

  18. Conference of National Organizations for Co-operation in Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David

    1974-01-01

    An overview of the conference proceedings, the report looks at structures, functions, memberships, definitions, relationships, pressures, and the international dimension of adult education. Thirty-two countries were represented. A key issue was the relationship between national adult education organizations, government policy, and governmental…

  19. CHROME: An Approach to Teaching the Concept of Inter-Functional Cooperation in Services Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lester W.

    2010-01-01

    When teaching a services course (e.g., Services Marketing) it is essential that students understand that marketing/management, operations and human resource management within the service organization be fully coordinated. One useful acronym used to remind students of this need is "CHROME", standing for Communications, Human Resources,…

  20. Perspectives of the mercosur parliament performance according to south american political organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Franzoi Dri

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The signature of the MERCOSUR Parliament Constitutive Protocol, in 2005, has opened new parliamentary perspectives to the integration process which takes place in the South Cone. The nomination “parliament”, the universal suffrage prevision and new legislative and control functions evidence possibilities for an outstanding actuation. But is it possible to consider that this new organ was created in the middle of political conditions favorable to an effective functionality? Looking for traces to an answer, the paper examines political and electoral characteristics common to the South American States. First, we study the daily relations between the Executive and Legislative Powers in South American presidential regimes. Then, we verify to what extent the proportional open-list electoral system, largely used in the election of the lower houses members in the continent, influences such relations. At the end, we discuss the new assembly perspectives of effectiveness based on the regional characteristics studied.

  1. Soil organic matter content effects on dermal pesticide bioconcentration in American toads (Bufo americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Robin J; Glinski, Donna A; Henderson, W Matthew; Purucker, S Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Pesticides have been implicated as a major factor in global amphibian declines and may pose great risk to terrestrial phase amphibians moving to and from breeding ponds on agricultural landscapes. Dermal uptake from soil is known to occur in amphibians, but predicting pesticide availability and bioconcentration across soil types is not well understood. The present study was designed to compare uptake of 5 current-use pesticides (imidacloprid, atrazine, triadimefon, fipronil, and pendimethalin) in American toads (Bufo americanus) from exposure on soils with significant organic matter content differences (14.1% = high organic matter and 3.1% = low organic matter). We placed toads on high- or low-organic matter soil after applying individual current-use pesticides on the soil surface for an 8-h exposure duration. Whole body tissue homogenates and soils were extracted and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine pesticide tissue and soil concentration, as well as bioconcentration factor in toads. Tissue concentrations were greater on the low-organic matter soil than the high-organic matter soil across all pesticides (average ± standard error; 1.23 ± 0.35 ppm and 0.78 ± 0.23 ppm, respectively), and bioconcentration was significantly higher for toads on the low-organic matter soil (analysis of covariance p = 0.002). Soil organic matter is known to play a significant role in the mobility of pesticides and bioavailability to living organisms. Agricultural soils typically have relatively lower organic matter content and serve as a functional habitat for amphibians. The potential for pesticide accumulation in amphibians moving throughout agricultural landscapes may be greater and should be considered in conservation and policy efforts. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2734-2741. © 2016 SETAC.

  2. Distribution and sources of organic matter in surface marine sediments across the North American Arctic margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; O'Connor, Alison E.; Kuzyk, Zou Zou; Yunker, Mark B.; Gobeil, Charles; Macdonald, Robie W.

    2013-09-01

    As part of the International Polar Year research program, we conducted a survey of surface marine sediments from box cores along a section extending from the Bering Sea to Davis Strait via the Canadian Archipelago. We used bulk elemental and isotopic compositions, together with biomarkers and principal components analysis, to elucidate the distribution of marine and terrestrial organic matter in different regions of the North American Arctic margin. Marked regional contrasts were observed in organic carbon loadings, with the highest values (≥1 mg C m-2 sediment) found in sites along Barrow Canyon and the Chukchi and Bering shelves, all of which were characterized by sediments with low oxygen exposure, as inferred from thin layers (cutin acids) all indicate marked regional differences in the proportions of marine and terrigenous organic matter present in surface sediments. Regions such as Barrow Canyon and the Mackenzie River shelf were characterized by the highest contributions of land-derived organic matter, with compositional characteristics that suggested distinct sources and provenance. In contrast, sediments from the Canadian Archipelago and Davis Strait had the smallest contributions of terrigenous organic matter and the lowest organic carbon loadings indicative of a high degree of post-depositional oxidation.

  3. The Influence of Different Cover Types on American Robin Nest Success in Organic Agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Brandle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many opportunities for biodiversity conservation in organic farm systems. Successful and sustainable conservation efforts in organic systems, however, need to measure appropriate outcomes. In particular, data are needed on the breeding success of associated wildlife species. We measured nesting success of the American Robin (Turdus migratorius in woodlands embedded within eight organic farms in eastern Nebraska. We modeled daily nest survival rate to identify land use and land cover patterns that optimize conservation of birds in organic farm systems. The percentage of a crop in the fields adjacent to linear woodlands best predicted daily survival rate. Daily survival rate was lower in fields adjacent to wheat and greater in woodlands adjacent to soybean fields, though the latter may be a weak effect. There was no evidence that reducing the area allocated to organic crop production would improve daily survival rate but rather an evidence of a patch-matrix interaction. These results suggest that, if suitable nesting sites exist, organic farmers can complement local conservation efforts without losing working farmland.

  4. 河北省加强与国际金融组织合作研究%Research on Strengthening Cooperation with International Financial Organizations in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金霞; 课题组成员李建英、王琳、徐卫、张亮、赵桂英、王雅楠、王凤飞

    2015-01-01

    新形势下河北省与国际金融组织具有拓展合作的空间,如知识合作、民营经济发展,新的资金合作渠道等。为此,深化与国际金融组织合作的路径主要为:注重合作,提升服务水平;加强管理,提高项目质量;立足实际,创新资金合作模式;与时俱进,争取世行新的贷款品种;提升素质,打造涉外队伍。%The loans, which are used by Hebei province from international financial organizations, play role of inviting investment, talent, and technology, and it shows characteristic of continual scale expansion and industry distribution tends to centralization, at the same time, we face more problems, for example, the binding force for total loans and direction of international financial organizations is increasing, relevant departments' understanding and the supervision of funds still need to strengthen. In the new situation, there have space to expand cooperation between Hebei province and the international financial organizations, such as the development of the private economy, knowledge cooperation, new channels of funding cooperation, and so on. Therefore, deepening the paths of cooperation with international financial organizations mainly are:focus on cooperation, improve service levels; strengthen management, improve project quality; based on reality, innovative fund cooperation model; keep pace with the times, strive for the World Bank's new loan varieties; improve the quality to create a foreign team.

  5. The Regional Self-organizing Potential in Sustainable Agriculture: An Analysis of Co-operative Agreements on Pollution in Bavaria by Means of Rough Set Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, P.; Oltmer, K.

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses the achievements of cooperative agreements in sustainable agriculture policy. After an economic analysis of multi-actor choice situations, it focuses the attention on the self-organizing potential of regional market parties in order to comply with environmental policy objectives

  6. Assessing the social licence to operate of the work of humanitarian and development cooperation organizations : A case study of Mercy Corps in Samtskhe-Javakheti, Georgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijelava, David; Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We examine the applicability of the concept of Social Licence to Operate (SLO) for international humanitarian and development cooperation organizations. We review the relevant literature on SLO and derive criteria that can be applicable to the work of development agencies. We also examine the case

  7. A model educational program for people with type 2 diabetes: a cooperative Latin American implementation study (PEDNID-LA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardino, J J; Etchegoyen, G

    2001-06-01

    To implement an educational program in 10 Latin American countries and to evaluate its effect on the clinical, biochemical, and therapeutic aspects as well as the economic cost of diabetes. Educators from each participating country were previously trained to implement the educational model. The patient population included 446 individuals with type 2 diabetes; all patients were education courses. Clinical and therapeutic data and the cost of their pharmacological treatment were collected 6 months before participation in the educational program (-6 months), on entry into the program (time 0), and at 4, 8, and 12 months after initiation of the program. All parameters measured had improved significantly (P educational model, implemented in 10 Latin American countries, reinforce the value of patient education as an essential part of diabetes care. They also suggest that an educational approach promoting healthy lifestyle habits and patient empowerment is an effective strategy with the potential to decrease the development of complications related to diabetes as well as the socioeconomic costs of the disease.

  8. Application of organic petrography in North American shale petroleum systems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Cardott, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Organic petrography via incident light microscopy has broad application to shale petroleum systems, including delineation of thermal maturity windows and determination of organo-facies. Incident light microscopy allows practitioners the ability to identify various types of organic components and demonstrates that solid bitumen is the dominant organic matter occurring in shale plays of peak oil and gas window thermal maturity, whereas oil-prone Type I/II kerogens have converted to hydrocarbons and are not present. High magnification SEM observation of an interconnected organic porosity occurring in the solid bitumen of thermally mature shale reservoirs has enabled major advances in our understanding of hydrocarbon migration and storage in shale, but suffers from inability to confirm the type of organic matter present. Herein we review organic petrography applications in the North American shale plays through discussion of incident light photographic examples. In the first part of the manuscript we provide basic practical information on the measurement of organic reflectance and outline fluorescence microscopy and other petrographic approaches to the determination of thermal maturity. In the second half of the paper we discuss applications of organic petrography and SEM in all of the major shale petroleum systems in North America including tight oil plays such as the Bakken, Eagle Ford and Niobrara, and shale gas and condensate plays including the Barnett, Duvernay, Haynesville-Bossier, Marcellus, Utica, and Woodford, among others. Our review suggests systematic research employing correlative high resolution imaging techniques and in situ geochemical probing is needed to better document hydrocarbon storage, migration and wettability properties of solid bitumen at the pressure and temperature conditions of shale reservoirs.

  9. Cooperating and Prospering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO MINGWEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since its establish-ment in 2001, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)-a re-gional organization grouping China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan-has grown at a notable pace.

  10. Liquid Organic Battery Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-14-540

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEV) have the potential to significantly reduce consumption of gasoline and emission of greenhouse gases. However, the commercial success of mass-market, long-range BEVs requires battery technology with a challenging combination of technical metrics -- specific energy, safety, fast recharge capability, cycle life, and cost. The NREL team proposes a robust, liquid-phase battery design utilizing a high-energy organic redox couple capable of decoupling these metrics via electrode exchange to provide the necessary combination of performance characteristics. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a functioning prototype and determine its ability to meet RANGE performance targets in large-scale production. Three main tasks described below will work towards this goal with the individual objectives of (1) identifying a robust, high-performance redox couple-solvent-additive combination, (2) designing and demonstrating a functional cell, and (3) analyzing the concept's potential performance and cost in future mass-production scenarios.

  11. The Pan American Health Organization and the mainstreaming of human rights in regional health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Ayala, Ana S

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of centralized human rights leadership in an increasingly fragmented global health policy landscape, regional health offices have stepped forward to advance the rights-based approach to health. Reviewing the efforts of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), this article explores the evolution of human rights in PAHO policy, assesses efforts to mainstream human rights in the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), and analyzes the future of the rights-based approach through regional health governance, providing lessons for other regional health offices and global health institutions. This article explores PAHO's 15-year effort to mainstream human rights through PASB technical units, national capacity-building, the Inter-American human rights system, and the PAHO Directing Council. Through documentary analysis of PAHO policies and semi-structured interviews with key PASB stakeholders, the authors analyze the understandings and actions of policymakers and technical officers in implementing human rights through PAHO governance. Analyzing the themes arising from this narrative, the authors examine the structural role of secretariat leadership, state support, legal expertise, and technical unit commitment in facilitating a rights-based approach to the health in the Americas. Human rights are increasingly framing PAHO efforts, and this analysis of the structures underlying PAHO's approach provides an understanding of the institutional determinants of the rights-based approach to health, highlighting generalizable themes for the mainstreaming of human rights through regional health governance. With this regional-level understanding of health governance, future national-level research can begin to understand the causal forces linking regional human rights work with national policy reforms and public health outcomes. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  12. Herbert Hoover and the Organization of the American Relief Effort in Poland (1919-1923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lloyd Adams

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Poland, recreated after the armistice of 1918, was confronted at its rebirth with four very severe challenges: welding together the separate sections of the dissected country, which for many decades had been under the rule of Prussia-Germany, Austria and Russia; creating a functioning administration and military force for the country; ensuring the recovery of agriculture, which, during World War I, had seriously declined; and restarting industries destroyed or closed during foreign military occupation. Even under the valuable leadership of the first Prime Minister of the new Polish Republic Ignacy Paderewski and Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, the Poles could not accomplish the goal of rebuilding a strong Poland without outside help. The American Relief Administration (ARA, founded and led by Herbert Hoover, offered their help. The ARA, with its food aid and provision of economic assistance and expertise, played an important role in bringing about stability in the newly independent state of Poland. This paper examines the many steps Herbert Hoover had to take to arrange food relief in Poland and will outline the organization of the ARA, including the establishment of the Polish relief organization and the introduction of young Polish-American women, called the Grey Samaritans, into the field.

  13. The effect of organic acids on base cation leaching from the forest floor under six North American tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Geibe, C.; Holmstrom, S.; Lundstrom, U.S.; Breemen, van N.

    2001-01-01

    Organic acidity and its degree of neutralization in the forest floor can have large consequences for base cation leaching under different tree species. We investigated the effect of organic acids on base cation leaching from the forest floor under six common North American tree species. Forest floor

  14. The effect of organic acids on base cation leaching from the forest floor under six North American tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Geibe, C.; Holmstrom, S.; Lundstrom, U.S.; Breemen, van N.

    2001-01-01

    Organic acidity and its degree of neutralization in the forest floor can have large consequences for base cation leaching under different tree species. We investigated the effect of organic acids on base cation leaching from the forest floor under six common North American tree species. Forest floor

  15. Stimulus for organ donation: a survey of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, J R; Crist, K; Roberts, J P; Freeman, R B; Merion, R M; Reed, A I

    2009-09-01

    Federal legislation has been proposed to modify the National Organ Transplant Act in a way that would permit government-regulated strategies, including financial incentives, to be implemented and evaluated. The Council and Ethics Committee of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons conducted a brief web-based survey of its members' (n = 449, 41.6% response rate) views on acceptable or unacceptable strategies to increase organ donation. The majority of the membership supports reimbursement for funeral expenses, an income tax credit on the final return of a deceased donor and an income tax credit for registering as an organ donor as strategies for increasing deceased donation. Payment for lost wages, guaranteed health insurance and an income tax credit are strategies most strongly supported by the membership to increase living donation. For both deceased and living donation, the membership is mostly opposed to cash payments to donors, their estates or to next-of-kin. There is strong support for a government-regulated trial to evaluate the potential benefits and harms of financial incentives for both deceased and living donation. Overall, there is strong support within the ASTS membership for changes to NOTA that would permit the implementation and careful evaluation of indirect, government-regulated strategies to increase organ donation.

  16. Management of the Potential Organ Donor in the ICU: Society of Critical Care Medicine/American College of Chest Physicians/Association of Organ Procurement Organizations Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotloff, Robert M; Blosser, Sandralee; Fulda, Gerard J; Malinoski, Darren; Ahya, Vivek N; Angel, Luis; Byrnes, Matthew C; DeVita, Michael A; Grissom, Thomas E; Halpern, Scott D; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Stock, Peter G; Sudan, Debra L; Wood, Kenneth E; Anillo, Sergio J; Bleck, Thomas P; Eidbo, Elling E; Fowler, Richard A; Glazier, Alexandra K; Gries, Cynthia; Hasz, Richard; Herr, Dan; Khan, Akhtar; Landsberg, David; Lebovitz, Daniel J; Levine, Deborah Jo; Mathur, Mudit; Naik, Priyumvada; Niemann, Claus U; Nunley, David R; O'Connor, Kevin J; Pelletier, Shawn J; Rahman, Omar; Ranjan, Dinesh; Salim, Ali; Sawyer, Robert G; Shafer, Teresa; Sonneti, David; Spiro, Peter; Valapour, Maryam; Vikraman-Sushama, Deepak; Whelan, Timothy P M

    2015-06-01

    This document was developed through the collaborative efforts of the Society of Critical Care Medicine, the American College of Chest Physicians, and the Association of Organ Procurement Organizations. Under the auspices of these societies, a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional task force was convened, incorporating expertise in critical care medicine, organ donor management, and transplantation. Members of the task force were divided into 13 subcommittees, each focused on one of the following general or organ-specific areas: death determination using neurologic criteria, donation after circulatory death determination, authorization process, general contraindications to donation, hemodynamic management, endocrine dysfunction and hormone replacement therapy, pediatric donor management, cardiac donation, lung donation, liver donation, kidney donation, small bowel donation, and pancreas donation. Subcommittees were charged with generating a series of management-related questions related to their topic. For each question, subcommittees provided a summary of relevant literature and specific recommendations. The specific recommendations were approved by all members of the task force and then assembled into a complete document. Because the available literature was overwhelmingly comprised of observational studies and case series, representing low-quality evidence, a decision was made that the document would assume the form of a consensus statement rather than a formally graded guideline. The goal of this document is to provide critical care practitioners with essential information and practical recommendations related to management of the potential organ donor, based on the available literature and expert consensus.

  17. The Afghan Issue and Shanghai Cooperation Organization%阿富汗问题与上海合作组织

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余建华

    2012-01-01

    The Afghan issue has been a focus of the Eurasian international strategies and the pattern of regional security since the 1979 Soviet invasion of Af- anistan. It is also an unavoidable major practical problem of the Shanghai Cooper- on Organization (SCO) . With the situation in Afghanistan and its impact on the security situation in Central Asia, SCO must keep pace with the times by launching new Afghanistan strategy. The policy orientation of SCO is mainly to improve the se- curity environment, to promote political reconciliation, participation in economic and social reconstruction, and to strengthen international cooperation. The deeds of SCO should be properly positioned, well grasped and proceeded step by step.%阿富汗问题是影响欧亚大陆国际战略以及地区安全格局的一个焦点问题,也始终是上海合作组织客观上难以回避的一个重大现实问题。近年来,美国奥巴马政府的阿富汗战略展开重大调整,但阿富汗局势及其对中亚安全形势的影响再趋严峻,上海合作组织对阿富汗问题的政策和作为也日益凸显出其重要性和迫切性。上海合作组织必须推出与时俱进的阿富汗问题新战略。上海合作组织在阿富汗问题上的政策取向主要从改善安全环境、推进政治和解、参与经济和社会重建、加强国际合作四方面入手。在阿富汗问题上上海合作组织可以有所作为,但要恰当定位,把握好度,循序渐进。

  18. Links between internal and external cooperation in product development : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, B; Biemans, WG

    2004-01-01

    While there is an overwhelming amount of publications on cooperation in product development projects, they mainly,focus on cooperation between business functions within an organization (internal cooperation) or on cooperation between organizations (external cooperation). Yet the relationship between

  19. American Mock World Health Organization: An Innovative Model for Student Engagement in Global Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Mia; Acharya, Neha; Kwok Man Lee, Edith; Catherine Holcomb, Emma; Kapoor, Veronica

    2017-03-24

    The American Mock World Health Organization (AMWHO) is a model for experiential-based learning and student engagement in global health diplomacy. AMWHO was established in 2014 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with a mission to engage students in health policy by providing a simulation of the World Health Assembly (WHA), the policy-forming body of the World Health Organization that sets norms and transforms the global health agenda. AMWHO conferences are designed to allow students to take their knowledge of global health beyond the classroom and practice their skills in diplomacy by assuming the role of WHA delegates throughout a 3-day weekend. Through the process of developing resolutions like those formed in the WHA, students have the unique opportunity to understand the complexities behind the conflict and compromise that ensues through the lens of a stakeholder. This article describes the structure of the first 2 AMWHO international conferences, analyzes survey results from attendees, and discusses the expansion of the organization into a multi-campus national network. The AMWHO 2014 and 2015 post-conference survey results found that 98% and 90% of participants considered the conference "good" or "better," respectively, and survey responses showed that participants considered the conference "influential" in their careers and indicated that it "allowed a paradigm shift not possible in class." © Lei et al.

  20. Biomarkers of Organic Contamination in the South-American Fishes Poecilia vivipara and Jenynsia multidentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacke Ferreira, Roger; Monserrat, José Maria; Ribas Ferreira, Josencler Luís; Kalb, Ana Cristina; Stegeman, John; Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso; Zanette, Juliano

    2017-01-01

    South American Cyprinodontiform fishes are potential candidates to be used as model species in environmental toxicology. We sought for molecular and biochemical biomarkers of pollution in Poecilia vivipara (Poecilidae) and Jenynsia multidentata (Anablepidae). Partial nucleotide sequences for the cytochrome P450 1A (cyp1A), a classical biomarker of exposure to organic contaminants in fish, were identified in P. vivipara and J. multidentata (∼ 650 nucleotides) using degenerated primers and PCR. These sequences shared ∼ 90 % identity in the predicted amino acid sequence with the corresponding Cyp1A region of Fundulus heteroclitus. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed that cyp1A transcription was strongly induced in the liver and gills of J. multidentata (∼185-fold and ∼20-fold, respectively) and P. vivipara (122-fold and 739-fold, respectively), after 24-hrs exposure to 1 μM of the synthetic cyp1A inducer β-naphthoflavone (BNF). After 24 hs of injection with 1 μg.g-1 of the environmental carcinogenic contaminant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a decreased total antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals was observed both in liver of J. multidentata and gills of P. vivipara. BaP injection in both fishes did not cause changes in lipid peroxides (TBARS) levels, suggesting an absence of an oxidative stress situation caused by BaP injection in this study. The newly identified cyp1As would serve as general biomarkers of exposure to organic contaminant in future studies using P. vivipara and J. multidentata. The results also points out to the important species-specific differences in the biomarker responses in those South American cyprinodontiform fishes, which would suggests distinct resistance/susceptibility to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:22852852

  1. A Survey of the American Society of Anesthesiologists Regarding Environmental Attitudes, Knowledge, and Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, John L; Tobin, Katherine; Huncke, Tessa; Kline, Richard; Ryan, Susan M; Bell, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Our planet is in the midst of an environmental crisis. Government and international agencies such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change urge radical and transformative change at every level of how we conduct our personal and professional lives. The health care industry contributes to climate change. According to a study from the University of Chicago, the health care sector accounts for 8% of the United States' total greenhouse gas emissions. In an effort to understand the current state of environmental practice, attitudes, and knowledge among anesthesiologists in the United States, we conducted a survey of American anesthesiologists regarding environmental sustainability. The environmental survey was sent out by e-mail to a random sampling of 5200 members of the American Society of Anesthesiologists. This process was repeated a second time. A total of 2189 anesthesiologists of 5200 responded to the survey, a 42% response rate. Of the survey respondents, 80.1% (confidence interval, 78.2%-81.9%) were interested in recycling. Respondents reported recycling in 27.7% of operating rooms where they work. The majority of respondents (67%; confidence interval, 64%-69%) reported there was insufficient information on how to recycle intraoperatively. Respondents supported sustainability practices such as reprocessing equipment, using prefilled syringes, and donating unused equipment and supplies. The affirmative response rate was 48.4% for reprocessing equipment, 56.6% for using prefilled syringes, and 65.1% for donating equipment and supplies to medical missions. Questions about hospital-wide organization of sustainability programs elicited many "I don't know" responses. Eighteen percent of responders indicated the presence of a sustainability or "green" task force. A total of 12.6% of responders indicated the presence of a mandate from hospital leadership to promote sustainability programs. Two important conclusions drawn from the survey data are a lack of

  2. 1 November 2012 - Signature of the Co-operation Agreement between the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (COLCIENCIAS) of Colombia and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics and related technologies by CERN Director-General R. Heuer, witnessed by Ambassador of Colombia to Switzerland C. Turbay Quintero.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    1 November 2012 - Signature of the Co-operation Agreement between the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (COLCIENCIAS) of Colombia and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics and related technologies by CERN Director-General R. Heuer, witnessed by Ambassador of Colombia to Switzerland C. Turbay Quintero.

  3. International Cooperation Advances Internationalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Mingyi

    2004-01-01

    @@ Intemational scientific cooperation continues to successfully promote the development of research and the quality of researchers in China, and also the internationalization of China's research system and research organizations. An outstanding example of this is the 30 years of fruitful cooperation between the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Max Planck Society.

  4. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world's largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCAA, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70(th) anniversary of Estadística, made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world's largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world's population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística, han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  5. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCAA, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70th anniversary of Estadística, made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world’s population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística, han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  6. Wound care in primary health care: district nurses' needs for co-operation and well-functioning organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, Anne; Klang, Birgitta; Ebbeskog, Britt

    2010-01-01

    Most patients with leg- and foot ulcers are managed within non-institutional care. The aim of this study was to investigate the district nurses' wound management, including wound appearance, assignment of responsibility, guidelines for wound treatment and co-operation with other professional groups. The study has a descriptive quantitative approach. Data was collected using a wound registration form and a questionnaire. The selection of participants was made by random sampling. District nurses (n = 26) in five health-care centers situated in central Stockholm and two of its suburbs, participated in the study. The results show that the wound appearance is dominated by traumatic wounds. Approximately 40% of the wounds were not medically diagnosed. The area of responsibility of different professional groups was not defined and guidelines for wound treatment were mostly lacking. The decision about wound management was generally made by the district nurse. Co-operation with the general practitioner was lacking and when a consultation with dermatologist was required, the routines concerning referral were undefined. Co-operation with the assistant nurses consisted of redressing the wounds in home care. Interprofessional co-operation was regarded as important for wound healing. The paper provides insights into the district nurses' wound management and co-operation in wound care.

  7. African American Women Executives' Leadership Communication within Dominant-Culture Organizations: (Re)Conceptualizing Notions of Collaboration and Instrumentality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Patricia S.

    2001-01-01

    Examines African American women executives' leadership communication within majority White, male-dominated organizations in the United States. Reveals five themes related to the executives' leadership communication that challenge views of women as master collaborators who shun control-oriented leadership. Offers implications of this study for…

  8. LA CULTURA COMO MECANISMO DE GOBIERNO Y CONTROL EN LAS ORGANIZACIONES COOPERATIVAS/THE CULTURE LIKE MECHANISM OF GOVERNMENT AND CONTROL IN THE COOPERATIVE ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Jesús HERNÁNDEZ ÓRTIZ

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo identifica la cultura como una de las piezas básicas del comportamiento organizativo en una cooperativa pues integra el conjunto de normas sociales, valores, principios y conductas comunes a los individuos que conforman la organización. El objetivo que perseguimos es estudiar el papel de la cultura en la sociedad cooperativa, como proyecto de personas que aspiran a crear riqueza social sobre una base democrática. Nos planteamos como cuestiones clave si realmente podemos referirnos a una cultura cooperativa como elemento diferenciador de este tipo de organizaciones, si realmente existen rasgos culturales propios y distintos a otras formas empresariales, así como conocer qué función desempeña esta cultura en el ámbito del gobierno de las organizaciones cooperativas./In this paper we try to define the culture as a Basic piece in the organizational behavior in a cooperative. This culture includes a group of social norms, values, principles and common behaviors of people which define the organization. The objective of this paper is to study the role of the culture in the cooperative, as a people project who try to create social wealth in a democratic group of people. We try to explain questions such as the culture as a different element of these organizations, the existence of different and specific cultural characteristic and the function of this culture in the cooperative government.

  9. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are public-private partnerships composed of states, tribes, federal agencies, non-governmental organizations,...

  10. Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Crespo Solana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The collected essays comprised in this work are the result of the first years of research by the scientists who make up the DynCoopNet work team. In the framework of the EUROCORES Programme as part of the TECT call – The Evolution of Cooperation and Trading – of the European Science Foundation, this was one of five projects approved by this ambitious, interdisciplinary scientific programme. The aim of this programme has been the study of the emergence of and evolutionary processes of exchange and cooperation that occur in nature, including human societies. This programme was based on a series of common ideas. The phenomenon of cooperation essentially has, at various organisational levels, the same roots and raison d’être in all evolutionary processes whether genetic or historic-cultural. Scientists know that these processes emerge in various social contexts or ecosystems, where bacteria or human societies in multinational alliances have been elements involved. However, in most cases, Science is still unable to determine and define cooperation and why it takes place. Despite a relative lack of research, the study of cooperation has had numerous, convergent developments in various fields, such as Economics, Biology and Sociology. It can be said, in practice, that there is a common theory which explains biological and cultural evolution. This theory highlights features of interactions between agents or entities, which have developed even more in relation to economic behaviour than Social and Human Sciences. In this case, our project has been greatly enriched by an excellent bibliographical base. Generally speaking, theories relating to the emergence of cooperation mechanisms have been applied in various fields, from Neuroscience (especially with regards to Cognitive Theory to Economic History (Game Theory.Within this broad research framework, “Dynamic Cooperation Networks” is an interdisciplinary project with historians, mathematicians

  11. [The internationalization of health: contextual elements and institutional frameworks of Brazilian cooperation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires-Alves, Fernando A; Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção; de Santana, José Paranaguá

    2012-12-01

    The article contextualizes the emergence of an international policy for the Brazilian Unified Health System as the common agenda of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. For this purpose, two contextual axes were explored throughout the work. The first discusses the explicit relationship between the development-cooperation-health triad from an international perspective. The second examines the recent evolution of Brazilian foreign policy, particularly with respect to the role it is playing in South-South cooperation on health matters. The contextual framework that defines Brazilian international cooperation with PAHO is emphasized, above all with regard to the implementation of a specific cooperation agreement. The article concludes that this agreement, within the framework of South-South cooperation, is one of the principal institutional mechanisms established to bring about technical cooperation in health in the current setting.

  12. "Djunta-mon": o processo de construção de organizações cooperativas "Djunta Mon": the process of creating cooperative organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Sato

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo discute a construção de cooperativas a partir da concepção de organização como processo social dinamizado por negociações. Para tanto, consideramos o conflito e a harmonia de interesses nucleares para a compreensão desse processo, os quais explicam movimentos de cooperação e de confrontação.This article discusses the creation of cooperatives taking into account the concept of organization as a social process mediated by negotiations. For this purpose, we consider the conflict and the harmony of nuclear interests to understand this process, which explains movements of cooperation and confrontation.

  13. Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Hachemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME)

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Hachemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME)

  14. Some comparative economics of the organization of sports: competition and regulation in north American vs. European professional team sports leagues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreff, Wladimir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contends that a new research avenue is open to comparative economics which is the economic comparison between American (closed and European (open professional team sports leagues. It starts with sketching the major institutional differences between the two leagues systems. Then it surveys the American modelling of competitive balance in these sports leagues that objects pro-competitive balance regulation as being non Walrasian when (American teams are profit maximising. A next step is to cover how the Walrasian model has been adapted to European open leagues and their regulation of win maximising clubs under a hard budget constraint. Such approach has recently been outdated by models where win maximising clubs operate with a flexible supply of talent in a non cooperative game, given the globalization of the labour market for sporting talent (namely after the Bosman case. Finally, the article ploughs into a new research path advocating for a disequilibrium model where clubs would have a "soft" budget constraint rooted in their weak governance, and empirically tests a vicious circle between TV rights revenues and wages in French football that may explain the aforementioned disequilibrium.

  15. [Approaches for suicide prevention in Osaka Psychiatric Medical Center: the importance of multi-disciplinary cooperation and partnerships with other organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a very common problem in psychiatric practice today. Therefore, almost all staff of psychiatric hospitals have encountered the suicide of one or more of their patients. Our hospital, Osaka Psychiatric Medical Center, is a public psychiatric hospital in Japan. We provide treatment and support for patients from the acute to chronic phases of psychiatric disorders, and patients range from children to the elderly. Because we accept many patients with severe mental illness from other hospitals, many of our staff are routinely confronted with patients' violence or suicidal attempts. If a patient commits suicide, the relevant staff immediately have a conference to implement measures for preventing a recurrence. At the same time, information about the incident is conveyed to the medical safety management office and made known to all staff in our hospital. This office was established in 2007. Currently, all information about incidents and accidents in our hospital (e.g., suicide, problems between patients, problems with hospital facilities) is aggregated in the office and distributed to all staff members through the hospital intranet. This system makes it possible for staff to consider countermeasures against similar incidents and accidents, even if not involved in the incident. Additionally, we make an effort to develop cooperative relationships with organizations including the police, public health centers, and the fire department. The social welfare council in Hirakata City, where our hospital is located, provides some services to prevent suicide (e.g., telephone counseling, meetings with bereaved family members). Our hospital cooperates with these services by providing lecturers. The partnerships with these organizations help regarding the mental crises of patients in our hospital and fulfill a role to prevent suicide. Multi-disciplinary cooperation and partnerships with community organizations are not special approaches to suicide prevention, but ordinary

  16. Serum Persistent Organic Pollutants and Duration of Lactation among Mexican-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Rosana H.; Webster, Monique; Harley, Kim G.; Bradman, Asa; Fenster, Laura; Davis, Mark D.; Hubbard, Alan; Barr, Dana B.; Holland, Nina; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Background. Research suggests that estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals interfere with lactation. Objectives. (1) to determine if estrogenic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are associated with shortened lactation duration; (2) to determine whether previous breastfeeding history biases associations. Methods and Results. We measured selected organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (p, p′-DDE, p, p′-DDT, o, p′-DDT, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, and PCBs 44, 49, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180) in serum from 366 low-income, Mexican-American pregnant women living in an agricultural region of California and assessed breastfeeding duration by questionnaires. We found no association between DDE, DDT, or estrogenic POPs with shortened lactation duration, but rather associations for two potentially estrogenic POPs with lengthened lactation duration arose (HR [95% CI]: 0.6 [0.4, 0.8] for p, p′-DDE & 0.8 [0.6, 1.0] for PCB 52). Associations between antiestrogenic POPs (PCBs 138 and 180) and shortened lactation duration were attributed to a lactation history bias. Conclusion. Estrogenic POPs were not associated with shortened lactation duration, but may be associated with longer lactation duration. PMID:20671963

  17. The governance of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.

  18. Prospects of ASEAN Legal Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Riyanto

    2016-01-01

    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional organization in the countries of Southeast Asia established in Bangkok, Thailand, on August 8, 1967 (the Bangkok Declaration) by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. One form of cooperation that could further encourage the establishment of ASEAN's goal was legal cooperation. This was because, this cooperation could further strengthen cooperation in politics, economy, social and culture in Southeast Asia. ...

  19. [Scientific information, medical education and health policies: the Pan-American Health Organization and the creation of the Regional Library of Medicine--Bireme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires-Alves, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the creation and the first years of functioning of the Regional Library of Medicine (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina--Bireme--PAHO), today Latin-American Center for Information in Health Sciences, during 1963-1982. In the course of this analysis, Bireme is being characterized as both an apparatus and an arena for negotiation present in the most general processes of development expressed in international cooperation, information in science and technology, health policies and in the movement for expansion and reform of medical teaching. The narrative has as initial landmark the conception of a regional library of medicine for Latin America according to a model proposed by the National Library of Medicine. The article qualifies the first years of Bireme's existence as the history of the reception of this model, a trajectory that reflected the criticism of that time against the way the health care services were organized and their human resources were educated. Finally, beginning in 1976, a new model resulted in a real modification of Bireme's programmatic agenda, implying in very distinct contributions for the functioning of the regime of information in health sciences in force in Brazil and Latin America.

  20. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: national guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette H; Berg, Martin; Pedersen, Anders N;

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focus...... on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required....

  1. Post-synthetic modification of porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic materials by cooperative addition of inorganic salts to enhance CO 2/CH 4 selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie

    2012-08-21

    Keeping MOM: Reaction of biphenyl-3,4\\',5-tricarboxylate and Cd(NO 3) 2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetratosylate afforded porph@MOM-11, a microporous metal-organic material (MOM) that encapsulates cationic porphyrins and solvent in alternating open channels. Porph@MOM-11 has cation and anion binding sites that facilitate cooperative addition of inorganic salts (such as M +Cl -) in a stoichiometric fashion. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. 农村合作经济组织推动农业保险发展研究%Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀芬; 李茂松

    2011-01-01

    分析了合作经济组织作为农业保险发展有效载体的有利条件:合作经济组织推动了规模化经营,破解了小户分散经营难题;合作经济组织可以解决农民组织化程度低的问题;合作经济组织可以大大缩减农业保险运营成本;合作组织能在一定程度上降低道德风险和逆向选择;合作组织在一定程度上降低了农业生产风险,提高了农业风险的可保性.同时,指出了农业合作经济组织作为农业保险经营载体的局限性:合作经济组织的覆盖范围小,组织规模小,不利于农业风险的分散;合作经济组织资金缺乏,本身发展还不够规范,不利于载体功能的发挥;专业合作组织成员文化素质低,不利于农业保险的推行.提出了推进农业保险发展的农民合作经济组织模式,如农业保险合作社(相互会社)模式、“龙头企业(公司)+专业合作组织(种养大户)+保险”的模式、专业合作社代理农业保险模式.最后,简要说明了农业保险对农业合作经济组织的促进作用.%The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organizations promote quantitative management and solve the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants' low systemization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance management are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative

  3. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  4. Arauco: The Role of a Housing Cooperative Community in the Mental Health and Social Adaptation of Latin American Refugees in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allodi, F.; Rojas, A.

    1988-01-01

    Studies the social adjustment of 30 Chilean refugee families who comprise the Arauco Housing Cooperative in Toronto, Canada. Concludes that preservation of the parent child relationship in times of stress is the key to the child's continuing development. (FMW)

  5. Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the cooperative learning as a teaching method in a second language learning class. It mainly talks about the background, foundation, features, definitions, components, goals, advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning. And as the encounter of the disadvantages in cooperative learning, this paper also proposes some strategies.

  6. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  7. The arabidopsis IDD14, IDD15, and IDD16 cooperatively regulate lateral organ morphogenesis and gravitropism by promoting auxin biosynthesis and transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayong Cui

    Full Text Available The plant hormone auxin plays a critical role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development, and the spatial accumulation of auxin within organs, which is primarily attributable to local auxin biosynthesis and polar transport, is largely responsible for lateral organ morphogenesis and the establishment of plant architecture. Here, we show that three Arabidopsis INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD transcription factors, IDD14, IDD15, and IDD16, cooperatively regulate auxin biosynthesis and transport and thus aerial organ morphogenesis and gravitropic responses. Gain-of-function of each IDD gene in Arabidopsis results in small and transversally down-curled leaves, whereas loss-of-function of these IDD genes causes pleiotropic phenotypes in aerial organs and defects in gravitropic responses, including altered leaf shape, flower development, fertility, and plant architecture. Further analyses indicate that these IDD genes regulate spatial auxin accumulation by directly targeting YUCCA5 (YUC5, TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE of ARABIDOPSIS1 (TAA1, and PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1 to promote auxin biosynthesis and transport. Moreover, mutation or ectopic expression of YUC suppresses the organ morphogenic phenotype and partially restores the gravitropic responses in gain- or loss-of-function idd mutants, respectively. Taken together, our results reveal that a subfamily of IDD transcription factors plays a critical role in the regulation of spatial auxin accumulation, thereby controlling organ morphogenesis and gravitropic responses in plants.

  8. Learning from the Co-operative Institutional Model: How to Enhance Organizational Robustness of Third Sector Organizations with More Pluralistic Forms of Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Taylor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Third sector organizations are oftentimes seen as contributing to a robust civil society. Yet the dominant modes of third sector organizational governance often adhere to a unitary orientation. The over-reliance on unitary modes of governance introduces two challenges: first, organizational stakeholders are kept from utilizing participatory mechanisms that would enable them to act as societal intermediaries, and; second, these organizations may underperform due to the artificial separation of stakeholders from participating in governance. This paper addresses calls to widen our knowledge by translating theory into practice through a discussion about the efficacy of pluralistic governance. The co-operative enterprise in introduced to focus analyses on pluralist modes of stakeholder governance. A specific co-operative’s governance structure and practice is introduced—Choctaw Electric Co-operative—through an archival analyses of secondary media accounts of a stakeholder-led reform initiative in rural Oklahoma. The Ostrom Design Principles—a diagnostic used to assess institutional robustness—are applied to demonstrate the shortsightedness of unitary governance, and highlight the potential benefits of pluralistic stakeholder engagement. Knowledge is widened in two ways: first, empirical analyses of co-operative enterprise may provide for significant insights and innovations in third sector governance, and; second proper systems of pluralistic governance exhibit enormous capacity to better orient the firm toward better serving the stakeholder base, improving performance and institutional robustness, while empowering stakeholders as societal intermediaries.

  9. The power of games. Comment on "Climate change governance, cooperation and self-organization" by Pacheco, Vasconcelos and Santos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2014-12-01

    Cooperators are those who contribute to a common pool while Defectors just exploit the formers' investments. If we follow the most rational individual choice then no one should contribute hence there would be nothing to exploit. This dilemma is at the heart of every conflict which is summarized as the problem of cooperation and provides the natural setting for the occurrence of the tragedy of the commons. It emerges in a wild variety of fields and systems ranging from the smallest, such as viruses and bacteria, to the largest ones which are formed by countries with partly conflicting interests [1]. The present study [2] focuses on the latter end of this spectrum by considering the global warming problem, which importance cannot be exaggerated. Traditionally, Game Theory is supposed to describe the mathematical framework of conflicts. These problems could be especially challenging when we analyze the competition of several participants whose collective behavior elevates the difficulty to a higher level. This complexity, however, provides an attractive hunting field for scientists with a statistical physics background: concepts familiar to them, such as phase transitions, pattern formation, scaling and universal behaviors have allowed this field to flourish in the last two decades. The present work is a beautiful example of this research avenue.

  10. Extending Eurasia Security Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    After 14 years of development, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) , has set its sights on goals for the next de-cade at the 15th meeting of the Council of SCO Heads of State that was held in Ufa, the capital of Russia's Bashkortostan Republic, on July 9-10. The SCO, established in Shanghai in 2001, is committed to building fdendly neighbor rela- tions and maintaining security and stability in the Central Asian region through multilateral cooperation.

  11. British American Tobacco's tactics during China's accession to the World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Fei; Yano, Eiji

    2007-04-01

    China entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 after years of negotiations. As a WTO member, China had to reduce tariffs on imported cigarettes and remove non-tariff barriers to allow foreign cigarettes to be more competitive in the Chinese market. Among foreign tobacco companies, British American Tobacco (BAT) was the most active lobbyist during China's WTO negotiations. To review and analyse BAT's tactics and activities relating to China's entry into the WTO. Internal tobacco industry documents were reviewed and are featured here. Industry documents were searched mainly on the website of BAT's Guildford Depository and other documents' websites. 528 documents were evaluated and 142 were determined to be relevant to China's entry into the WTO. BAT was extremely active during the progress of China's entry into the WTO. The company focused its lobbying efforts on two main players in the negotiations: the European Union (EU) and the US. Because of the negative moral and health issues related to tobacco, BAT did not seek public support from officials associated with the WTO negotiations. Instead, BAT lobbyists suggested that officials protect the interests of BAT by presenting the company's needs as similar to those of all European companies. During the negotiation process, BAT officials repeatedly spoke favourably of China's accession into the WTO, with the aim of presenting BAT as a facilitator in this process and of gaining preferential treatment from their Chinese competitor. BAT's activities clearly suggest that tobacco companies place their own interests above public health interests. Today, China struggles with issues of tobacco control that are aggravated by the aggressive practices of transnational tobacco companies, tobacco-tariff reductions and the huge number of smokers. For the tobacco-control movement to progress in China, health advocates must understand how foreign tobacco companies have undermined anti-tobacco activities by taking advantage

  12. Money laundering in the convention on combating bribery of foreign public officials in international business transactions of the organization for cooperation and development (OECD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notari Bonini Notari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the phenomenon of corruption and money laundering and how they are being addressed this issue under the Convention on Combating Public Officials Corruption Foreigners in Transactions Organization of International Trade for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD and the formulation of public policies for Combating Corruption and Money Laundering, by the Brazilian State. The Money Laundering is a species of corrupting practices, so that this type of illicit undertakes the realization of fundamental rights, social rights, economic criminal law, the democratic rule of law affecting, directly, public policy tax as a result of the commission of unlawful acts and offenses linked to issues of an economic nature, such as bribery, fraud, tax evasion, bribery, money laundering, drug trafficking, arms linked indirectly, to organized crime. Whereas the article is a bibliographic nature, it will be used as the method of approach to be adopted in its deductive development, with general assumption arguments (major premise for particular arguments (minor premise; while the procedure is analytical. Key words: Public Policy Tax, Money Laundering, Corruption of Foreign Public Officials, economic, illegalities. Money Laundering CRIME UNDER THE CONVENTION ON THE FIGHT AGAINST CORRUPTION OF FOREIGN public employee in the business operations of the International Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD This article AIMS to analyze the phenomenon of corruption and money laundering and how it is addressing this issue under the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Economic Development (OECD and the formulation of public policies for the Fight against Corruption and Money Laundering, by the Brazilian government. Money laundering is a kind of corrupt practices, so this type of crime committed with the

  13. New N-Type Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-177

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, D.

    2014-08-01

    This CRADA will develop improved thin film organic solar cells using a new n-type semiconducting polymer. High efficiency photovoltaics (PVs) based on inorganic semiconductors have good efficiencies (up to 30%) but are extremely expensive to manufacture. Organic PV technology has the potential to overcome this problem through the use of high-throughput production methods like reel-to-reel printing on flexible substrates. Unfortunately, today's best organic PVs have only a few percent efficiency, a number that is insufficient for virtually all commercial applications. The limited choice of stable n-type (acceptor) organic semiconductor materials is one of the key factors that prevent the further improvement of organic PVs. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) previously developed a new class of electron-deficient (n-type) conjugated polymers for use in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). During this project TDA in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will incorporate these electron-deficient polymers into organic photovoltaics and investigate their performance. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing new materials and polymers to improve the performance of organic solar cells. Materials being developed at TDA include spin coated transparent conductors, charge injection layers, fullerene derivatives, electron-deficient polymers, and three-phase (fullerene/polythiophene/dye) active layer inks.

  14. Neighbors for a smoke free north side: evaluation of a community organization approach to promoting smoking cessation among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E B; Auslander, W F; Munro, J F; Arfken, C L; Brownson, R C; Owens, N W

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated a community organization approach that emphasized involvement of audiences in program planning and implementation in promoting nonsmoking among African American residents of low-income neighborhoods. METHODS: The quasi-experimental design involved a 24-month intervention in 3 low-income, predominantly African American neighborhoods in St. Louis. Intervention neighborhoods were compared with comparable, untreated neighborhoods in Kansas City. RESULTS: The program was successful in engaging audience members in its governance and in instigating numerous and diverse neighborhood activities to promote nonsmoking. The prevalence of smoking declined from 34% to 27% in program neighborhoods but only from 34% to 33% in comparison neighborhoods. This difference was apparent within all demographically defined subsamples, indicating that observed changes were consistent and not attributable to confounding by demographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: A community organization approach emphasizing local authority for program decisions and involvement of informal networks may have an appreciable impact on smoking among residents of low-income, African American neighborhoods. PMID:9807532

  15. Competitive versus Cooperative Exergame Play for African American Adolescents' Executive Function Skills: Short-Term Effects in a Long-Term Training Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Abraham, Anisha A.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Exergames are videogames that require gross motor activity, thereby combining gaming with physical activity. This study examined the role of competitive versus cooperative exergame play on short-term changes in executive function skills, following a 10-week exergame training intervention. Fifty-four low-income overweight and obese African American…

  16. Features of the organization of separate accounting of income and expenses from business and statutory activities of the dwelling-construction cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ildusovna Khairullina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to reveal the need for separate accounting of income and expenses from business and statutory activities of dwellingconstruction cooperative. Methods in this work the abstractlogical method of research has been applied. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal documents regulating the activities of dwellingconstruction cooperatives the business activities of cooperatives were determined the income and expenses received by the cooperative from business activity were reviewed. Scientific novelty the technique is proposed of separate accounting of expenditures from business and statutory activities in dwellingconstruction cooperative. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions can be used in dwellingconstruction cooperatives as well as in research and teaching activity. nbsp

  17. Expand and extend bilateral and multilateral cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Focusing on her major business subject, at the same time, NSFC strived to promote international fundamental research cooperations, seriously implemented the new-era policies, and achieved great progress in exploring international cooperation channels, organizing international cooperative projects, attracting overseas talent resources,designing the Eleventh Five-Year Plan for international cooperation, establishing constitution and exploring political strategy etc. In 2005, NSFC granted 1593 cooperation projects with a total investment of 89.7716 million RMB.

  18. 农业产业化中的农村非正式组织与农民合作研究%Study on the Rural Informal Organizations and Peasants Cooperation in Agricultural Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婧

    2011-01-01

    从非正式组织的产生背景出发,借助管理学对农村非正式组织的产生及其与农民合作的关系进行了分析,对如何促进农业产业化中的农民合作进行了讨论.%The formation of rural informal organizations and its relationship with peasants cooperation were analyzed by the principles of management from the formation background of informal organizations, and then the ways to promote peasants cooperation in agricultural industrialization were discussed.

  19. The Relationships among Servant Leadership, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Person-Organization Fit and Organizational Identification in Fars Quality Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rahgozar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes that there is a relationship between servant leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB and that person-organization fit and organizational identification moderate that relationship. Eighty participants completed a cross-sectional self-report survey. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that servant leadership behavior partially predicts organizational citizenship behaviors and that person-organization fit and organizational identification partially moderate the relationship between servant leadership and organizational citizenship behavior. One implication is that leaders who want to encourage citizenship behaviors among employees would do well to model those same behaviors toward others.

  20. Organization and financing of alcohol and substance abuse programs for American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Bentson H; Gabriel, Roy M; Bigelow, Douglas A; Walker, R Dale

    2006-08-01

    Although American Indians and Alaska Natives have high rates of substance abuse, few data about treatment services for this population are available. We used national data from 1997-2002 to describe recent trends in organizational and financial arrangements. Using data from the Indian Health Service (IHS), the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, and the Census Bureau, we estimated the number of American Indians served by substance abuse treatment programs that apparently are unaffiliated with either the IHS or tribal governments. We compared expected and observed IHS expenditures. Half of the American Indians and Alaska Natives treated for substance abuse were served by programs (chiefly in urban areas) apparently unaffiliated with the IHS or tribal governments. IHS substance abuse expenditures were roughly what we expected. Medicaid participation by tribal programs was not universal. Many Native people with substance abuse problems are served by programs unaffiliated with the IHS. Medicaid may be key to expanding needed resources.

  1. 7 CFR 4285.2 - Cooperative agreement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agency to: (a) Conduct marketing research related to agricultural cooperatives. (b) Assist other organizations in conducting marketing research related to agricultural cooperatives. ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Federal-State Research...

  2. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.

    2006-12-01

    Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation means that selfish replicators forgo some of their reproductive potential to help one another. But natural selection implies competition and therefore opposes cooperation unless a specific mechanism is at work. Here I discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation.

  3. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  4. Organ Donation and Transplantation: A Dialogue with American Indian Healers and Western Health-Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche; Bellanger, Patricia; Norman, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Surgically replacing organs in the human body has become an acceptable and successful procedure in Western medicine. In more recent years, replacing major organs in the human body with those procured from deceased or living donors has become commonplace. Disparities exist at the earliest stages in the donor and transplantation process in that…

  5. Organ Donation and Transplantation: A Dialogue with American Indian Healers and Western Health-Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche; Bellanger, Patricia; Norman, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Surgically replacing organs in the human body has become an acceptable and successful procedure in Western medicine. In more recent years, replacing major organs in the human body with those procured from deceased or living donors has become commonplace. Disparities exist at the earliest stages in the donor and transplantation process in that…

  6. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  7. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  8. “Kazakhstani” Identity, Eurasian Regionalism and Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Biopolitics of Forced Migration, Modernity and Multilateralism

    OpenAIRE

    Aliya Sartbayeva Peleo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines a case of forced migration and its effects on the formation of national identity and the consolidation of state agencies, industries, and other formal organizations. A composite of several theories, namely “survival migration” and “biopolitical control” will be used to account for the case that features significant social transformation, conflict and even trauma. In the 1940s the population of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic underwent unprecedented migration of evacue...

  9. Cooperation between CERN and ITER

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2008-01-01

    CERN and the International Fusion Organisation ITER have just signed a first cooperation agreeement. The Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organization, Mr Kaname Ikeda, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement at a meeting on the Meyrin site on Thursday 6 March.

  10. Total Observed Organic Carbon (TOOC): A synthesis of North American observations

    OpenAIRE

    Heald, C. L.; Goldstein, A. H.; Allan, J. D.; Aiken, A. C.; Apel, E.; Atlas, E. L.; Baker, A. K; T. S. Bates; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D. R.; CAMPOS, T. de; Coe, H; Crounse, J. D.; P. F. DeCarlo; J. A. de Gouw

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of organic carbon compounds in both the gas and particle phases measured upwind, over and downwind of North America are synthesized to examine the total observed organic carbon (TOOC) over this region. These include measurements made aboard the NOAA WP-3 and BAe-146 aircraft, the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown, and at the Thompson Farm and Chebogue Point surface sites during the summer 2004 ICARTT campaign. Both winter and summer 2002 measurements during the Pittsburgh Air ...

  11. Agent组织中的政策导向型协作模型%A Policy-Oriented Cooperation Model in Agent Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡军; 李志昂

    2012-01-01

    Traditional agent cooperation model emphasizes the high degree of autonomy of agent, and its spontaneous collaborative process is completely out of internal "selfish" motivation. No macro guidance, free from external control, it is difficult to meet the reliability requirements of current software system. The computational complexity of the formal theory and no effective mechanism for conflict resolution are also obstacles for agent technology to be applied in the real software systems. In this paper, using organization and policy metaphor, we build an organized and policy-oriented agent collaborative model. Through the organization and policies, macro-guidance and external control are given to the agents to enhance system dependability. While using extended defeasible logical framework, we establish a formal theory for this collaborative process which has non-monotonic reasoning ability and linear time computational complexity. The built-in priority manner of this logical framework provides an effective mechanism for conflict resolution. Based on this model, a policy-oriented cooperation process in agent organization is formally described with four cooperation stages including organizational state updating, organizational goals creating, agent obligation distributing and agent action executing. And then we analyze computational complexity and prove the consistency of the model, as well as some other simple and interesting nature. Finally, the main characteristics of this model are verified by an example.%传统Agent协作模型强调Agent的高度自主性,其自发协作过程完全出于内部的“自私性”动机,难以在模型中表达宏观层面上的引导及系统外部的约束,在应用于开放复杂软件系统时,将面临可信度不能满足要求、计算复杂度高及没有有效的冲突消解机制这3方面的问题,这阻碍了Agent技术在现实软件系统建模中的应用.采用组织与政策隐喻,提出Agent组织中的政策导

  12. The short coiled-coil domain-containing protein UNC-69 cooperates with UNC-76 to regulate axonal outgrowth and normal presynaptic organization in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung Nancy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used extensively to identify the genetic requirements for proper nervous system development and function. Key to this process is the direction of vesicles to the growing axons and dendrites, which is required for growth-cone extension and synapse formation in the developing neurons. The contribution and mechanism of membrane traffic in neuronal development are not fully understood, however. Results We show that the C. elegans gene unc-69 is required for axon outgrowth, guidance, fasciculation and normal presynaptic organization. We identify UNC-69 as an evolutionarily conserved 108-amino-acid protein with a short coiled-coil domain. UNC-69 interacts physically with UNC-76, mutations in which produce similar defects to loss of unc-69 function. In addition, a weak reduction-of-function allele, unc-69(ju69, preferentially causes mislocalization of the synaptic vesicle marker synaptobrevin. UNC-69 and UNC-76 colocalize as puncta in neuronal processes and cooperate to regulate axon extension and synapse formation. The chicken UNC-69 homolog is highly expressed in the developing central nervous system, and its inactivation by RNA interference leads to axon guidance defects. Conclusion We have identified a novel protein complex, composed of UNC-69 and UNC-76, which promotes axonal growth and normal presynaptic organization in C. elegans. As both proteins are conserved through evolution, we suggest that the mammalian homologs of UNC-69 and UNC-76 (SCOCO and FEZ, respectively may function similarly.

  13. Cr(VI) reduction by gluconolactone and hydrogen peroxide, the reaction products of fungal glucose oxidase: Cooperative interaction with organic acids in the biotransformation of Cr(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Rodríguez, Pamela; Acevedo-Aguilar, Francisco Javier; Lopez-Torres, Adolfo; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Gutiérrez-Corona, J Félix

    2015-09-01

    The Cr(VI) reducing capability of growing cells of the environmental A. tubingensis Ed8 strain is remarkably efficient compared to reference strains A. niger FGSC322 and A. tubingensis NRRL593. Extracellular glucose oxidase (GOX) activity levels were clearly higher in colonies developed in solid medium and in concentrated extracts of the spent medium of liquid cultures of the Ed8 strain in comparison with the reference strains. In addition, concentrated extracts of the spent medium of A. tubingensis Ed8, but not those of the reference strains, exhibited the ability to reduce Cr(VI). In line with this observation, it was found that A. niger purified GOX is capable of mediating the conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in a reaction dependent on the presence of glucose that is stimulated by organic acids. Furthermore, it was found that a decrease in Cr(VI) may occur in the absence of the GOX enzyme, as long as the reaction products gluconolactone and hydrogen peroxide are present; this conversion of Cr(VI) is stimulated by organic acids in a reaction that generates hydroxyl radicals, which may involve the formation of an intermediate peroxichromate(V) complex. These findings indicated that fungal glucose oxidase acts an indirect chromate reductase through the formation of Cr(VI) reducing molecules, which interact cooperatively with other fungal metabolites in the biotransformation of Cr(VI).

  14. 德国农业合作经济组织的发展研究及对我国的启示%Development of German Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations and the Inspiration for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡媛媛; 万红先

    2011-01-01

    As the representative of European countries,Germany successfully solved the agriculture issue and enabled farmers to become the main competition in agricultural markets by the way of agricultural cooperative economic organizations.Germany has leading level in developed countries because of the large scale,strong strength and tight organization of German agricultural cooperative economic organizations.Germany as a highly developed industrialized countries,also maintains a strong agricultural development,and it is inseparable from the credit of agricultural cooperative economic organizations.Studying German agricultural cooperative economic organizations has a real and long-term significance on the development of agricultural cooperative economic organizations and cultivating the main market competition entities of agricultural product in China.%以德国为代表的欧洲国家,通过农业合作经济组织的方式,不但成功解决了"三农"问题,而且使农民成为农业市场的竞争主体.德国农业合作经济组织的规模之大、实力之强、组织之严密,在发达国家中居于领先水平.像德国这样高度发达的工业化国家,还能保持农业的强势,离不开农业合作经济组织的功劳.研究和借鉴德国农业合作经济组织的发展,对我国发展农业合作经济组织、培育农产品市场竞争主体有着现实和长远的意义.

  15. Using a Problem Solving-Cooperative Learning Approach to Improve Students' Skills for Interpreting [Superscript 1]H NMR Spectra of Unknown Compounds in an Organic Spectroscopy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angawi, Rihab F.

    2014-01-01

    To address third- and fourth-year chemistry students' difficulties with the challenge of interpreting [superscript 1]H NMR spectra, a problem solving-cooperative learning technique was incorporated in a Spectra of Organic Compounds course. Using this approach helped students deepen their understanding of the basics of [superscript 1]H NMR…

  16. Total mercury, organic mercury and selenium in liver and kidney of a South American coastal dolphin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seixas, Tercia G. [Departamento de Quimica, PUC-Rio, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF-UFRJ, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: tercia@rdc.puc-rio.br; Kehrig, Helena do A. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF-UFRJ, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Monica [Departamento de Oceanografia, CTG-UFPE, 50740-550 Recife, PE (Brazil); Fillmann, Gilberto [Departamento de Oceanografia, FURG, C.P. 474, 96201-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M. [Laboratorio de Ciencias Ambientais, CBB-UENF, 28013-602 Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Secchi, Eduardo R. [Departamento de Oceanografia, FURG, C.P. 474, 96201-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Laboratorio de Tartarugas e Mamiferos Marinhos, Departamento de Oceanografia e Museu Oceanografico ' Prof. E.C. Rios' , FURG, 96201-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Souza, Cristina M.M. [Laboratorio de Ciencias Ambientais, CBB-UENF, 28013-602 Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Malm, Olaf [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF-UFRJ, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, Isabel [Departamento de Quimica, PUC-Rio, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    Selenium and total and organic mercury were determined in the liver and kidney of franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) incidentally caught in fishing nets along two Brazilian coastal areas (southeast and south). Regional differences in the concentrations of these contaminants were observed in P. blainvillei. Liver showed the highest organic and total mercury. In general, samples of individuals collected at the southern of Brazil had the highest concentrations of selenium and total and organic mercury. No significant gender differences were observed. Growth stage influenced the accumulation of these contaminants in both organs, and hepatic concentrations increased with the body length, according to the sampling area. Molar mercury and selenium concentrations in liver were significantly correlated, with a Se:Hg ratio close to 4. The among-site differences we found may be related to differences in preferred prey, bioavailability in the marine environment, environmental conditions, or these individuals may belong to distinct populations. - This study presents some useful data on the bioaccumulation of Hg, organic Hg and Se, and their inter-element relationships in a Brazilian small cetacean.

  17. Total Observed Organic Carbon (TOOC: A synthesis of North American observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Heald

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of organic carbon compounds in both the gas and particle phases measured upwind, over and downwind of North America are synthesized to examine the total observed organic carbon (TOOC over this region. These include measurements made aboard the NOAA WP-3 and BAe-146 aircraft, the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown, and at the Thompson Farm and Chebogue Point surface sites during the summer 2004 ICARTT campaign. Both winter and summer 2002 measurements during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study are also included. Lastly, the spring 2002 observations at Trinidad Head, CA, surface measurements made in March 2006 in Mexico City and coincidentally aboard the C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO campaign and later during the IMPEX campaign off the northwestern United States are incorporated. Concentrations of TOOC in these datasets span more than two orders of magnitude. The daytime mean TOOC ranges from 4.0 to 456 μgC m−3 from the cleanest site (Trinidad Head to the most polluted (Mexico City. Organic aerosol makes up 3–17% of this mean TOOC, with highest fractions reported over the northeastern United States, where organic aerosol can comprise up to 50% of TOOC. Carbon monoxide concentrations explain 46 to 86% of the variability in TOOC, with highest TOOC/CO slopes in regions with fresh anthropogenic influence, where we also expect the highest degree of mass closure for TOOC. Correlation with isoprene, formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketene and methacrolein also indicates that biogenic activity contributes substantially to the variability of TOOC, yet these tracers of biogenic oxidation sources do not explain the variability in organic aerosol observed over North America. We highlight the critical need to develop measurement techniques to routinely detect total gas phase VOCs, and to deploy comprehensive suites of TOOC instruments in diverse environments to quantify the ambient evolution of organic carbon from source to sink.

  18. Total observed organic carbon (TOOC in the atmosphere: a synthesis of North American observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Heald

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of organic carbon compounds in both the gas and particle phases made upwind, over and downwind of North America are synthesized to examine the total observed organic carbon (TOOC in the atmosphere over this region. These include measurements made aboard the NOAA WP-3 and BAe-146 aircraft, the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown, and at the Thompson Farm and Chebogue Point surface sites during the summer 2004 ICARTT campaign. Both winter and summer 2002 measurements during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study are also included. Lastly, the spring 2002 observations at Trinidad Head, CA, surface measurements made in March 2006 in Mexico City and coincidentally aboard the C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO campaign and later during the IMPEX campaign off the northwestern United States are incorporated. Concentrations of TOOC in these datasets span more than two orders of magnitude. The daytime mean TOOC ranges from 4.0 to 456 μgC m−3 from the cleanest site (Trinidad Head to the most polluted (Mexico City. Organic aerosol makes up 3–17% of this mean TOOC, with highest fractions reported over the northeastern United States, where organic aerosol can comprise up to 50% of TOOC. Carbon monoxide concentrations explain 46 to 86% of the variability in TOOC, with highest TOOC/CO slopes in regions with fresh anthropogenic influence, where we also expect the highest degree of mass closure for TOOC. Correlation with isoprene, formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein also indicates that biogenic activity contributes substantially to the variability of TOOC, yet these tracers of biogenic oxidation sources do not explain the variability in organic aerosol observed over North America. We highlight the critical need to develop measurement techniques to routinely detect total gas phase VOCs, and to deploy comprehensive suites of TOOC instruments in diverse environments to quantify the ambient evolution of organic carbon from source

  19. Total Observed Organic Carbon (TOOC): A Synthesis of North American Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, C. L.; Goldstein, A. H.; Allan, J. D.; Aiken, A. C.; Apel, E.; Atlas, E. L.; Baker, A. K.; Bates, T. S.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D. R.; Campos, T.; Coe, H.; Crounse, J. D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; de Gouw, J. A.; Dunlea, E. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Goldan, P.; Griffin, R. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Holloway, J. S.; Holzinger, R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Junkermann, W.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of organic carbon compounds in both the gas and particle phases made upwind, over and downwind of North America are synthesized to examine the total observed organic carbon (TOOC) in the atmosphere over this region. These include measurements made aboard the NOAA WP-3 and BAe-146 aircraft, the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown, and at the Thompson Farm and Chebogue Point surface sites during the summer 2004 ICARTT campaign. Both winter and summer 2002 measurements during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study are also included. Lastly, the spring 2002 observations at Trinidad Head, CA, surface measurements made in March 2006 in Mexico City and coincidentally aboard the C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO campaign and later during the IMPEX campaign off the northwestern United States are incorporated. Concentrations of TOOC in these datasets span more than two orders of magnitude. The daytime mean TOOC ranges from 4.0 to 456 microg C/cubic m from the cleanest site (Trinidad Head) to the most polluted (Mexico City). Organic aerosol makes up 3-17% of this mean TOOC, with highest fractions reported over the northeastern United States, where organic aerosol can comprise up to 50% of TOOC. Carbon monoxide concentrations explain 46 to 86% of the variability in TOOC, with highest TOOC/CO slopes in regions with fresh anthropogenic influence, where we also expect the highest degree of mass closure for TOOC. Correlation with isoprene, formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein also indicates that biogenic activity contributes substantially to the variability of TOOC, yet these tracers of biogenic oxidation sources do not explain the variability in organic aerosol observed over North America. We highlight the critical need to develop measurement techniques to routinely detect total gas phase VOCs, and to deploy comprehensive suites of TOOC instruments in diverse environments to quantify the ambient evolution of organic carbon from source to sink.

  20. Total Observed Organic Carbon (TOOC): A synthesis of North American observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, C. L.; Goldstein, A. H.; Allan, J. D.; Aiken, A. C.; Apel, E.; Atlas, E. L.; Baker, A. K.; Bates, T. S.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D. R.; Campos, T.; Coe, H.; Crounse, J. D.; Decarlo, P. F.; de Gouw, J. A.; Dunlea, E. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Goldan, P.; Griffin, R. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Holloway, J. S.; Holzinger, R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Junkermann, W.; Kuster, W. C.; Lewis, A. C.; Meinardi, S.; Millet, D. B.; Onasch, T.; Polidori, A.; Quinn, P. K.; Riemer, D. D.; Roberts, J. M.; Salcedo, D.; Sive, B.; Swanson, A. L.; Talbot, R.; Warneke, C.; Weber, R. J.; Weibring, P.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wittig, A. E.; Zhang, R.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, W.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of organic carbon compounds in both the gas and particle phases measured upwind, over and downwind of North America are synthesized to examine the total observed organic carbon (TOOC) over this region. These include measurements made aboard the NOAA WP-3 and BAe-146 aircraft, the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown, and at the Thompson Farm and Chebogue Point surface sites during the summer 2004 ICARTT campaign. Both winter and summer 2002 measurements during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study are also included. Lastly, the spring 2002 observations at Trinidad Head, CA, surface measurements made in March 2006 in Mexico City and coincidentally aboard the C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO campaign and later during the IMPEX campaign off the northwestern United States are incorporated. Concentrations of TOOC in these datasets span more than two orders of magnitude. The daytime mean TOOC ranges from 4.0 to 456 μgC m-3 from the cleanest site (Trinidad Head) to the most polluted (Mexico City). Organic aerosol makes up 3-17% of this mean TOOC, with highest fractions reported over the northeastern United States, where organic aerosol can comprise up to 50% of TOOC. Carbon monoxide concentrations explain 46 to 86% of the variability in TOOC, with highest TOOC/CO slopes in regions with fresh anthropogenic influence, where we also expect the highest degree of mass closure for TOOC. Correlation with isoprene, formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketene and methacrolein also indicates that biogenic activity contributes substantially to the variability of TOOC, yet these tracers of biogenic oxidation sources do not explain the variability in organic aerosol observed over North America. We highlight the critical need to develop measurement techniques to routinely detect total gas phase VOCs, and to deploy comprehensive suites of TOOC instruments in diverse environments to quantify the ambient evolution of organic carbon from source to sink.

  1. Total observed organic carbon (TOOC) in the atmosphere: a synthesis of North American observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, C. L.; Goldstein, A. H.; Allan, J. D.; Aiken, A. C.; Apel, E.; Atlas, E. L.; Baker, A. K.; Bates, T. S.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D. R.; Campos, T.; Coe, H.; Crounse, J. D.; Decarlo, P. F.; de Gouw, J. A.; Dunlea, E. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Goldan, P.; Griffin, R. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Holloway, J. S.; Holzinger, R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Junkermann, W.; Kuster, W. C.; Lewis, A. C.; Meinardi, S.; Millet, D. B.; Onasch, T.; Polidori, A.; Quinn, P. K.; Riemer, D. D.; Roberts, J. M.; Salcedo, D.; Sive, B.; Swanson, A. L.; Talbot, R.; Warneke, C.; Weber, R. J.; Weibring, P.; Wennberg, P. O.; Worsnop, D. R.; Wittig, A. E.; Zhang, R.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, W.

    2008-04-01

    Measurements of organic carbon compounds in both the gas and particle phases made upwind, over and downwind of North America are synthesized to examine the total observed organic carbon (TOOC) in the atmosphere over this region. These include measurements made aboard the NOAA WP-3 and BAe-146 aircraft, the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown, and at the Thompson Farm and Chebogue Point surface sites during the summer 2004 ICARTT campaign. Both winter and summer 2002 measurements during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study are also included. Lastly, the spring 2002 observations at Trinidad Head, CA, surface measurements made in March 2006 in Mexico City and coincidentally aboard the C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO campaign and later during the IMPEX campaign off the northwestern United States are incorporated. Concentrations of TOOC in these datasets span more than two orders of magnitude. The daytime mean TOOC ranges from 4.0 to 456 μgC m-3 from the cleanest site (Trinidad Head) to the most polluted (Mexico City). Organic aerosol makes up 3-17% of this mean TOOC, with highest fractions reported over the northeastern United States, where organic aerosol can comprise up to 50% of TOOC. Carbon monoxide concentrations explain 46 to 86% of the variability in TOOC, with highest TOOC/CO slopes in regions with fresh anthropogenic influence, where we also expect the highest degree of mass closure for TOOC. Correlation with isoprene, formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein also indicates that biogenic activity contributes substantially to the variability of TOOC, yet these tracers of biogenic oxidation sources do not explain the variability in organic aerosol observed over North America. We highlight the critical need to develop measurement techniques to routinely detect total gas phase VOCs, and to deploy comprehensive suites of TOOC instruments in diverse environments to quantify the ambient evolution of organic carbon from source to sink.

  2. Disentangling the Importance of Psychological Predispositions and Social Constructions in the Organization of American Political Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Brad; Hatemi, Peter K; Eaves, Lindon J

    2012-06-01

    Ideological preferences within the American electorate are contingent on both the environmental conditions that provide the content of the contemporary political debate and internal predispositions that motivate people to hold liberal or conservative policy preferences. In this article we apply Jost, Federico, and Napier's (2009) top-down/bottom-up theory of political attitude formation to a genetically informative population sample. In doing so, we further develop the theory by operationalizing the top-down pathway to be a function of the social environment and the bottom-up pathway as a latent set of genetic factors. By merging insights from psychology, behavioral genetics, and political science, we find strong support for the top-down/bottom-up framework that segregates the two independent pathways in the formation of political attitudes and identifies a different pattern of relationships between political attitudes at each level of analysis.

  3. Serum Persistent Organic Pollutants and Duration of Lactation among Mexican-American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana H. Weldon

    2010-01-01

    Methods and Results. We measured selected organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, and PCBs 44, 49, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180 in serum from 366 low-income, Mexican-American pregnant women living in an agricultural region of California and assessed breastfeeding duration by questionnaires. We found no association between DDE, DDT, or estrogenic POPs with shortened lactation duration, but rather associations for two potentially estrogenic POPs with lengthened lactation duration arose (HR [95% CI]: 0.6 [0.4, 0.8] for p,p′-DDE & 0.8 [0.6, 1.0] for PCB 52. Associations between antiestrogenic POPs (PCBs 138 and 180 and shortened lactation duration were attributed to a lactation history bias. Conclusion. Estrogenic POPs were not associated with shortened lactation duration, but may be associated with longer lactation duration.

  4. The Innovation of Organization and Mode of Multiagent Cooperative Governance%多元主体合作共治的组织与模式创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄增如; 樊瑛

    2015-01-01

    In the current era of information and network society, the ecology for social governance has the feature of complexity. So the innovations of social governance from thinking paradigm to management mode and mechanism are needed. In this paper, from the perspective of cooperative governance of multi-agents, the key problems and possible research paths on different levels are discussed respectively, including the design and transformation of macro-system, the behavior and interaction of multi-agents on the micro-level, as well as the organization and patterns of multiagent cooperative governance in community management. The deep understanding of the behavior of multi-agents should be got from the analysis of big data. It is the basis to construct the new organization and mode for social governance. On the macroscopic level, positive feedback to promote social organization is the key to creating the new mode and system. Meanwhile, on the community level, negative feedback is needed for the stabalization and adaptive operation of the new social governance system. The information communication and interaction among the agents should be addressed. The mechanism for interaction, cooperation and decision-making should be constructed based on the information and networks techonology and meta-synthesis methodology.%当前的信息时代和网络社会背景下,社会治理生态具有“复杂性”,需要从思维范式、管理模式和体制机制方面创新社会治理。本文基于多元主体合作共治的视角,分别从宏观制度设计及转型途径、多主体行为及其相互影响的微观层次、基层社区管理中多元主体合作共治的组织与模式三个方面,分析了各自层面关注的问题及可能的研究途径,以期探讨多元主体合作共治的治理框架与结构体系。在大数据技术基础上加深对多元主体行为的认识是建立新型社会治理组织与模式的基础;在宏观层面,建立促进社

  5. Dvigateli regional'nogo stroitel'stva. Vlijanie regional'nyh politicheskih organizacij na sotrudnichestvo universitetov v regione Baltijskogo morja [Motors for regional development: impact on regional political organizations on the university cooperation in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational co-operation is one of the main aspects of the regional political agenda in the Baltic Sea Region. The article analyzes the political impact of the organizations, as perceived by the universities in the region and political decision-makers on national and regional levels. Based on the success of the OECD in becoming an influential actor in educational policies, this article discusses different strategies for the regional political organizations to enhance their influence.

  6. Spanish-Latin American multicenter study of attitudes toward organ donation among personnel from hospital healthcare centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Antonio; López-Navas, Ana; Ayala-García, Marco Antonio; Sebastián, María José; Abdo-Cuza, Anselmo; Alán, Jeannina; Martínez-Alarcón, Laura; Ramírez, Ector Jaime; Muñoz, Gerardo; Suárez-López, Juliette; Castellanos, Roberto; Ramírez, Ricardo; González, Beatriz; Martínez, Miguel Angel; Díaz, Ernesto; Ramírez, Pablo; Parrilla, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    Hospital personnel are a group which has an influence on the opinion of the rest of the population about healthcare matters. Any unfavorable attitude of this group would be an obstacle to an increase in organ donation. To analyze the attitude of hospital workers toward the donation of one's own organs in Spanish and Latin American hospitals and to determine the factors affecting this attitude. Eleven hospitals from the "International Collaborative Donor Project" were selected, 3 in Spain, 5 in Mexico, 2 in Cuba and one in Costa Rica. A random sample was stratified by the type of service and job category. Attitude toward donation and transplantation was assessed using a validated survey. The questionnaire was completed anonymously and was self-administered. Student's t-test, the χ2 test and logistic regression analysis. Of the 2,785 workers surveyed, 822 were from Spain, 1,595 from Mexico, 202 from Cuba and 166 from Costa Rica and 79% (n=2,191) were in favor of deceased organ donation. According to country, 94% (n=189) of Cubans were in favor, compared to 82% (n=1,313) of the Mexicans, 73% (n=121) of the Costa Ricans and 69% (n=568) of the Spanish (P<.001). In the multivariate analysis, the following variables had the most specific weight: 1) originating from Cuba (odds ratio=8.196; P<.001); 2) being a physician (OR= 2.544; P<.001); 3) performing a job related to transplantation (OR = 1.610; P=.005); 4) having discussed the subject of donation and transplantation within the family (OR= 3.690; P<.001); 5) having a partner with a favorable attitude toward donation and transplantation (OR= 3.289; P<.001); 6) a respondent's belief that his or her religion is in favor of donation and transplantation (OR= 3.021; P=.001); 7) not being concerned about the possible mutilation of the body after donation (OR= 2.994; P<.001); 8) the preference for other options apart from burial for treating the body after death (OR= 2.770; P<.001); and 9) acceptance of carrying out an autopsy

  7. Discussion about Shareholding Cooperative Development Road for Agricultural Cooperatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongcai WANG

    2016-01-01

    Using modern economic theories,this paper analyzed drawbacks of Shareholding cooperative development of agricultural cooperatives in institutional design and expounded inevitable difficulties of development of agricultural cooperatives. Shareholding cooperative development provides a pass for many social forces entering and controlling agricultural cooperatives and making numerous non-agricultural cooperative organizations become formal cooperatives. Deep cause for Shareholding cooperative development of agricultural cooperatives involves how to recognize status and function of family producers of agricultural products in the drive of agricultural modernization and the problem of state policies choosing family producers of agricultural products or other participants in the agricultural industry chain. Shareholding cooperative development is only an expedient measure in certain period,and it should not change development laws of things and essential feature of agricultural cooperatives because of stressing national conditions.

  8. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  9. 基于利益需求角度的农民专业合作社动力研究%Research on Motivation in Development of Farmers' Specialized Cooperative Organization from Angle of Interest Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦普

    2012-01-01

    介绍了农民专业合作社各利益主体的需求,分析了农民专业合作社的动力,其中作为合作社主体地位的普通农户的需求是合作社持久发展的内部动力源,各利益主体的利益平衡是合作社持久发展的动力保障,政府扶持是合作社发展不可或缺的外部驱力.最后提出推动农民专业合作社持久健康发展,应实行品牌化经营,提升市场竞争力,完善运行机制,同时加大政府在教育培训、农超对接、电子商务平台建设、财政金融扶持方面的力度和对核心成员的精神激励.%The demands of different interest subjects in farmers' specialized cooperative organization were introduced, the motive of farmers' specialized cooperative organization was analyzed. Among which, the interest of common farmer as the main body station is the internal motive, the balance of different interest subjects provide guarantee of motivation, and the government support is the essential external motive in the development of farmers' specialized cooperative organizations. Finally, several countermeasures for promoting sustainable and healthy development of farmers' specialized cooperative organization were put forward, which include carrying out brand strategy to improve the market competitiveness and perfect its operation mechanism, strengthening government' s support in education training, farming-supermarket docking, e-commerce platform construction, financial and monetary support and spiritual stimulation to farmers' specialized cooperative organizations.

  10. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining Article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2010-06-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term 'British American Tobacco' was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, 'Dunhill' and 'Lucky Strike', was conducted. Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook.

  11. Report from the Latin American Spondyloarthritis Society for Education and Research in Immunology and Medicine organization 2012 workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Molano, Wilson; Toloza, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Marwin; Uribe, Carlos Vinicio Caballero; Pineda, Carlos; Londoño, John; Santos, Pedro; Jaimes, Diego; Diaz, Mario; Chalem, Phillipe; Villota, Orlando; Sierra, Rita; Puche, William; Salas, José; Yara, José; Hamilton, Gordon; Pardo, Carlos; Mercado, Beatriz; Valle-Oñate, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    The first annual meeting of the Latin American Spondyloarthritis Society for Education and Research in Immunology and Medicine (LASSERIM) was held in Bogotá, Colombia, in September 2012 and was attended by key opinion leaders, researchers, and rheumatologists. The meeting included presentations and discussions from renowned speakers during 2 days and a coaching leadership exercise led by an expert in the field followed by an open forum. Two groups defined a priori discussed the establishment of a professional network and organization to be involved in the identification, assessment, and effective resolution of health care issues in Latin America.A broad spectrum of topics were discussed but focused on the following: pharmacoeconomics in general rheumatology, spondyloarthritis and chronic back pain, therapeutic interventions in rheumatoid arthritis, ultrasonography in spondyloarthritis, impact of social media in medicine and global trends in leadership, quality of life, and innovation. A special workshop on coaching in health care and coaching as a tool to implement LASSERIM goals was part of the 2-day conference.LASSERIM will be working in the future on education, research, and innovation in the field of rheumatology and immunology. A special focus will be on spondyloarthritis, by promoting research, open discussions, and by conducting carefully planned research studies to impact on the quality of life of patients and doctors from Latin American countries.

  12. Multi-agent robotic cooperative assembly system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents a multi-robot cooperative assembly systen (MRCAS) which is composed of an organizer computer, three industrial robots, PUMA 562 mounted on an onni-directional vehicle, PUMA 760 and Adept I and organized in to a hierarchical structure with the cooperation organization on the top and the coordination motion at the bottom to solve the main problem of coordination and cooperation among robots, and concludes with experimental results that MRCAS is reconfigurable and adaptable as the mission changes.

  13. “Kazakhstani” Identity, Eurasian Regionalism and Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Biopolitics of Forced Migration, Modernity and Multilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Sartbayeva Peleo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a case of forced migration and its effects on the formation of national identity and the consolidation of state agencies, industries, and other formal organizations. A composite of several theories, namely “survival migration” and “biopolitical control” will be used to account for the case that features significant social transformation, conflict and even trauma. In the 1940s the population of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic underwent unprecedented migration of evacuees from the European parts of the USSR due to World War II. However in the same period the Soviet government conducted a “forced migration” policy for particular “ethnic groups” deemed politically unreliable in the context of World War II. In the 1950s-1960s, populations located in the European parts of the USSR were officially induced by the Soviet government to contribute to a massive industrialization initiative by relocating to industrializing regions in the Asian parts of the USSR. At around the same period, population dislocations in the People’s Republic of China caused a diaspora of Uighurs moving to the Soviet Union. The life activities of these migrants would be the basis for a new collective “Kazakhstani” identity that continues to the present day. However, this identity is distinct from, and in some cases opposed to, the historic primordial “Kazakh” identity held by the Turko-Mongol ethno-linguistic societies that inhabited Kazakhstan prior to the Soviet migrations. The government of the present-day Kazakhstan recognizes the significance of the Soviet migrations, and modulates the shift of political power towards ethnic Kazakhs. Checking the newly assertive Kazakh nationalist movement and the unresolved Uighur nationalism in Eurasia through regionalist-technocratic means may increase the viability of the more inclusive and socially constructed multicultural “Kazakhstani” and regional “Eurasian” identities and may

  14. Practice on Organic Tea Certification of Specialized Farmers Cooperatives in China%农民专业合作社开展有机茶认证的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒爱民; 龚淑英

    2012-01-01

    In China, there are the organization institute as smallholder group. Supported by the of Specialized Farmers Cooperatives (SFC) a similar Common Fund for Commodities (CFC), OTRDC conducted organic tea certification of specialized farmers cooperatives in Yunnan Shuangjiang County Haigong Village Tea Specialized Farmers Cooperative. The key of organic tea production to success for SFC is to keep strict accordance with Internal Control System (ICS), to build up a benign win-win cooperative relationship with a business company who has responsibility and strong marketing ability.%国际上称之的小农户组织,在国内则是农民专业合作社。中国农业科学院茶叶研究所有机茶研究与发展中心(OTRDC)在国际商品共同基金的资助下,对云南省双江县亥公村农民专业合作社持续开展了有机茶认证。农民专业合作社获得有机认证的关键因素是:有效的内部控制系统;与具有市场开拓能力和社会责任感的企业建立双赢合作关系;认证机构按照标准要求实施认证。

  15. 从国际组织法角度浅析上海合作组织%On the Shanghai cooperation organization from the perspective of international organization law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵菡麟; 窦安旎

    2015-01-01

    As a regional international organization, the internal organization of the Shanghai cooperation organization is divided into the following several: the first, the decision-making agencies, specific performance for the summit of heads of state and government. The second, executive agencies, the main performance of the foreign ministers' meeting, the national coordinator board meeting, the leaders of the department. In addition, there are a number of ancillary agencies to provide various services.%作为区域性国际组织而言的上海合作组织之内部机构主要分为如下几个:第一,决策机关,具体表现为国家元首会议和政府首脑会议。第二,执行机构,主要表现为外长会议国家协调员理事会会议,各部门领导人会议。此外,还有一些提供完美服务的辅助机构。

  16. Cooperative Principle in Oral English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mai

    2009-01-01

    The Cooperative Principle by American linguist Grice is one of the major principles guiding people's communication. Observing the Cooperative Principle will be helpful for people to improve the flexibility and accuracy of language communication. The ultimate aim of spoken English teaching is to develop students' communicative competence.…

  17. Creating healthier workplaces: The American Psychological Association/National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health cooperative agreement. Introduction and historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, J C; Camara, W J; Johnson, J V; Sauter, S L; Hurrell, J J; Piotrkowski, C S; Spielberger, C D

    1997-01-01

    This article introduces the special section on the American Psychological Association/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (APA/NIOSH) collaboration. The section includes an overview statement of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research by Linda Rosenstock and 5 competitively peer-reviewed articles submitted to the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology following their presentation in an earlier form at the 3rd APA/NIOSH conference in September 1995. This article provides a brief history of the APA/NIOSH collaboration forged at the turn of this decade.

  18. On Regional Tourism Cooperation System Based on Self-organization Theory%基于自组织理论的区域旅游合作系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段圣奎

    2012-01-01

    Based on the self-organization theory,the paper,taking regional tourism cooperation as a system,analyzes the development of regional tourism cooperation system,studies the traits of self-organization,and explores the self-organization mechanism from three aspects of space natural growth,enterprise symbiosis collaboration and industrial cluster development.%以自组织理论为基础,将区域旅游合作作为一个整体系统,分析区域旅游合作系统发展过程,审视其所具有的自组织特性,从空间自然生长、企业共生协同、产业集群发展等三个方面深入探讨了区域旅游合作系统自组织机制。

  19. Diversification of Scientific-Technical Cooperation between Ukraine and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarytska Nataliia S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ukrainian-American cooperation in the innovation-technological sphere is an important component of bilateral relations, considering the enormous innovative potential of the USA, the unquestionable leadership of the latter State in the global technological process, as well as the pivotal need to assimilate an innovation-technological model of economic development on the part of Ukraine. Prevalent forms of such cooperation as for today are: interstate exchange of researchers; cooperation within the framework of the UkraineNATO; participation of Ukrainian inventors, institutions and organizations in exhibitions and fairs of high-tech products and technologies in the USA, etc. At the same time, far from exhausted remains the potential of interstate cooperation in the sphere of transferring American technology innovation, construction and design development, patenting of domestic innovation by the United States Patent and Trademark Office, which significantly reduces the geographic structure for their implementation, limits the possibilities of internationalization of the patent system and commercialization of Ukrainian innovations on the American market, as well as creates high risks for domestic business structures when entering with their technological innovations the American market, together with loss of national intellectual resource because of absence of patent purity in terms of domestic innovation developments.

  20. Cooperation percolation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    The paradox of cooperation among selfish individuals still puzzles scientific communities. Although a large amount of evidence has demonstrated that cooperator clusters in spatial games are effective to protect cooperators against the invasion of defectors, we continue to lack the condition for the formation of a giant cooperator cluster that assures the prevalence of cooperation in a system. Here, we study the dynamical organization of cooperator clusters in spatial prisoner's dilemma game to offer the condition for the dominance of cooperation, finding that a phase transition characterized by the emergence of a large spanning cooperator cluster occurs when the initial fraction of cooperators exceeds a certain threshold. Interestingly, the phase transition belongs to different universality classes of percolation determined by the temptation to defect $b$. Specifically, on square lattices, $1

  1. The Governance Structure and Performance of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area%三峡库区农业合作经济组织治理结构与绩效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于开红

    2012-01-01

    基于对三峡库区100家农业合作经济组织的问卷调查结果,以结构方程模型为分析工具,对农业合作经济组织的治理结构与绩效进行了实证分析.结果表明,股权结构对于合作组织的绩效有着最关键的影响,系数高达0.92;监督机制和理事套结构对于合作组织来说重要程度相当,影响系数分别为0.87和0.86,仅次于股权结构;成员的退出能力大小对于组织的绩效也有相当重要的影响,系数为0.74.由此指出了当前三峡库区农业合作经济组织治理结构中存在的影响其组织绩效的问题,并提出了相应的解决对策.%On the basis of questionnaire survey results of 100 agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area .this article uses the structural equation modeling as analysis tool to conduct empirical analysis of the governance structure and performance of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. The results show that the ownership structure has the most critical impact on the performance of cooperative organisations,and the impact coefficient is as high as 0.92; the importance of oversight mechanism is basically equivalent to that of the council structure for cooperative organizations.and the impact coefficient is 0. 87 and 0.86,respectively,second only to the ownership structure; the size of members' quit capacity also has a very important impact on the performance of organizations, with impact coefficient of 0. 74. Thus, the problems influencing the performance of organizations, in the current governance structure of agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Are, are pointed out. Finally, corresponding countermeasures are put forward. Thus pointed out that the current governance structure of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of agricultural cooperative economic organizations affect the organizational performance issues and .

  2. The Unified North American Soil Map and its implication on the soil organic carbon stock in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Unified North American Soil Map (UNASM was developed to provide more accurate regional soil information for terrestrial biosphere modeling. The UNASM combines information from state-of-the-art US STATSGO2 and Soil Landscape of Canada (SLCs databases. The area not covered by these datasets is filled by using the Harmonized World Soil Database version 1.21 (HWSD1.21. The UNASM contains maximum soil depth derived from the data source as well as seven soil attributes (including sand, silt, and clay content, gravel content, organic carbon content, pH, and bulk density for the topsoil layer (0–30 cm and the subsoil layer (30–100 cm, respectively, of the spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees in latitude and longitude. There are pronounced differences in the spatial distributions of soil properties and soil organic carbon between UNASM and HWSD, but the UNASM overall provides more detailed and higher-quality information particularly in Alaska and central Canada. To provide more accurate and up-to-date estimate of soil organic carbon stock in North America, we incorporated Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD into the UNASM. The estimate of total soil organic carbon mass in the upper 100 cm soil profile based on the improved UNASM is 365.96 Pg, of which 23.1% is under trees, 14.1% is in shrubland, and 4.6% is in grassland and cropland. This UNASM data will provide a resource for use in terrestrial ecosystem modeling both for input of soil characteristics and for benchmarking model output.

  3. Analysis of socio-economic and environmental barriers for the development of rural economic cooperative organization%农村合作经济组织发展过程中的环境障碍分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭怀亮; 魏鑫

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The present paper is an attempt to analyze the presence of main socio-economic and environ-mental barriers in the process of development of rural economic cooperative organization. [ Method ] The methods of qualitative analysis combined with documentary analysis were used to analyzed the presence of main socio-economic and environmental barriers in the process of development of rural economic cooperative organization. [Result] The main socio-economic and environmental barriers in the process of development of rural economic cooperative organization include low level of educational background of farmers, lack of enthusiasm to participate in rural economic cooperative organization, deficiency in knowledge of their own role playing in the development of rural economic cooperative organization for government, shortage of systematic study on the theory of rural economic cooperative organization,too many management subjects, absence of relevant laws and regulations,etc. [Suggestion] Based on the analysis results,some countermeasures have been put forward which include coordination of relationship between government and rural economic cooperative organization, enhancement of theoretical research,advertisement, and training for rural individuals,formulation of preferential policies for rural economic cooperative organization,etc., in order to get a comfortable operation of rural economic cooperative organization.%[目的]掌握了解农村合作经济组织发展过程中的主要环境障碍,为政府制定促进农业合作经济组织发展的外部环境政策提供依据.[方法]采用定性分析和文献分析相结合的方法对农村合作经济组织发展主要环境障碍进行分析.[结果]农村合作经济组织发展主要环境障碍包括:农民文化素质较低、积极性不高,政府在发展农村合作经济组织过程中队自身作用认识不足,对农村合作经济组织的理论研究较为薄弱,管理主体较多,相关的体

  4. Nitrogen loss from unpolluted South American forests mainly via dissolved organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, Steven S.; Hedin, Lars O.

    2002-01-01

    Conceptual and numerical models of nitrogen cycling in temperate forests assume that nitrogen is lost from these ecosystems predominantly by way of inorganic forms, such as nitrate and ammonium ions. Of these, nitrate is thought to be particularly mobile, being responsible for nitrogen loss to deep soil and stream waters. But human activities-such as fossil fuel combustion, fertilizer production and land-use change-have substantially altered the nitrogen cycle over large regions, making it difficult to separate natural aspects of nitrogen cycling from those induced by human perturbations. Here we report stream chemistry data from 100 unpolluted primary forests in temperate South America. Although the sites exhibit a broad range of environmental factors that influence ecosystem nutrient cycles (such as climate, parent material, time of ecosystem development, topography and biotic diversity), we observed a remarkably consistent pattern of nitrogen loss across all forests. In contrast to findings from forests in polluted regions, streamwater nitrate concentrations are exceedingly low, such that nitrate to ammonium ratios were less than unity, and dissolved organic nitrogen is responsible for the majority of nitrogen losses from these forests. We therefore suggest that organic nitrogen losses should be considered in models of forest nutrient cycling, which could help to explain observations of nutrient limitation in temperate forest ecosystems.

  5. Cooperative Change and the Myth of Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Rokholt, Per Ove; Borgen, Svein Ole

    2000-01-01

    Much of the current research on agricultural cooperatives is biased towards weaknesses of the cooperative organization form. The literature says very little about the strengths and advantages of the cooperative form and what is necessary to develop the form's uniqueness into a sustainable competitive advantage. We argue that for cooperatives to remain viable and competitive, the advantages of the form must be clearly manifested. There is now a lack of systematic theorizing in this field. Typi...

  6. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; ZHANG, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; ZHANG, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  7. Fast Track to Accreditation: An Implementation Review of College of American Pathologists and International Organization for Standardization 15189 Accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelWareth, Laila O; Pallinalakam, Fasila; Ibrahim, Faisal; Anderson, Peter; Liaqat, Muneezeh; Palmer, Bryson; Harris, Jonathan; Bashir, Saber; Alatoom, Adnan; Algora, Manuel; Alduaij, Ahmad; Mirza, Imran

    2017-08-31

    - This review examines challenges and opportunities in preparing laboratories in a startup phase for accreditation by both College of American Pathologists (CAP) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15189 in an international setting as it relates to our experience at Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi Laboratory. It also discusses some of the strategies used in executing those projects and the added advantages in perusing both types of accreditations. - To share our experience with CAP and ISO 15189 accreditations in a startup international operation in relation to the challenges encountered and implementation strategy success factors. - MEDLINE (PubMed) database was used to review this topic as well as peer-reviewed articles and World Health Organization publications on the topic. - Accreditation is a perfect means toward building quality medical laboratories in a diverse workforce environment and improving patient safety. Further, it establishes a strong foundation on which any new operation can build a sustainable quality improvement culture. Accreditations by CAP and/or ISO are among the most reputable and well-established accreditation systems that clinical laboratories could aim for. As a result of both accreditations offering synergistic and complementing features, we recommend that any laboratory seeking excellence in quality and performance should consider exploring both. Key elements to success include having dedicated project management and change management support while preparing for accreditation. Laboratories seeking accreditation in early operational stages may face a number of challenges; however, significant opportunities will also be present to optimize various operational components from the beginning.

  8. Simposio interamericano sobre administracion de la educacion (Inter-American Symposium on Educational Administration).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes, Francisco S., Ed.

    The presidents and foreign ministers in Latin America recognize the importance of applying technology to school administration as the first step in any educational reform. In October 1968, the Organization of American States (OAS) [Organizacion de los Estados Americanos (OEA)], sponsored a symposium in Brasilia, Brazil, in cooperation with the…

  9. U.S. Geological Survey activities related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal year 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Brunstein, F. Craig

    2006-01-01

    The USGS works in cooperation with American Indian and Alaska Native governments to conduct research on (1) water, energy, and mineral resources, (2) animals and plants that are important for traditional lifeways or have environmental or economic significance, and (3) natural hazards. This report describes most of the activities that the USGS conducted with American Indian and Alaska Native governments, educational institutions, and individuals during Federal fiscal year (FY) 2004. Most of these USGS activities were collaborations with Tribes, Tribal organizations, or professional societies. Other activities were conducted cooperatively with the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) or other Federal entities.

  10. 中美反腐合作的机制、成就与意义%Mechanism, Achievements and Significance of Sino-American Cooperative Anti-Corruption Efforts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文

    2016-01-01

    It is an important ring in the campaign to promote Party mood and clean governance and anti-corruption since the 18th Party Congress to actively push forward cooperation in anti-corruption between China and the US. Based on the platform of APEC, G20 and the United Nations Convention against Corruption, new cooperative frameworks and dialog mechanisms are designed and made in an incessant manner, through which the chase of run-away corrupt officials and recovery of illicit money have been regulated and normalized. Motivated by the benefits and supported by the systems, considerable achievements have been made in the cooperative efforts between China and the US, yet there still are difficulties and barriers, mainly found in the lack of extradition treaties, insufficient share of information and differences in the judicial systems. Cooperative efforts destroyed corrupt officials’dreams of finding“a paradise to evade punishment”in the US, filled new strategic contents in Sino-American cooperation, opened up a new field in the construction of a new style relationship between major powers and improved our ne-gotiation powers in setting-up new topics and regulations in the construction of a new order in international fight against cor-ruption.%积极推动中美反腐合作,是十八大以来党风廉政建设和反腐败斗争的重要环节。以APEC、G20、《联合国反腐败公约》为主要平台,中美反腐合作通过不断设计和制定新的合作框架和对话机制,在追逃追赃问题上逐步实现规范化和常态化。在利益驱动和制度支撑下,中美反腐合作取得显著成就,但也面临一些困难与障碍,主要表现在缺乏引渡条约、信息共享不够、司法制度存在差异等方面。反腐合作使美国不再是腐败分子的“避罪天堂”,为中美合作注入了新的战略性内容,开辟了构建中美新型大国关系的新领域,提高了我国在构建国际反腐新秩

  11. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. Methods BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term ‘British American Tobacco’ was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, ‘Dunhill’ and ‘Lucky Strike’, was conducted. Results Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Discussion Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook. PMID:20395406

  12. Founding Mothers: The Contribution of Women's Organizations to Public Library Development in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Paula D.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the work of women's voluntary associations in support of public libraries in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Activities studied include support of traveling libraries, library legislation, and the founding of local libraries. Cooperation of organized women's groups with the American Library Association and other organizations is…

  13. Using Philosophical Liberalism and Philosophical Conservatism as an Organizing Theme in the First Half of the American History Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Since approximately 1970, many historians have been seeking a unifying theme for the American History Survey. Early in the twentieth century, Progressive historians identified class conflict as the main theme in American History, but during the 1950s and 1960s, this view was challenged by the Consensus Schools' assertion that Americans have always…

  14. The American Medical Association's Section on Surgery: The Beginnings of the Organization, Professionalization, and Specialization of Surgery in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Ira

    2017-01-01

    To explore the founding of the American Medical Association's Section on Surgery in 1859 and how it represented, on a national basis, the beginnings of organized surgery and the formal start of the professionalization and specialization of surgery in the United States. The broad social process of organization, professionalization, and specialization that began for various disciplines in America in the mid-19th century was a reaction to emerging economic, political, and scientific influences including industrialization, urbanization, and technology. For surgeons or, at least, those men who performed surgical operations, the efforts toward group organization provided a means to promote their skills and restrict competition. An analysis of the published literature, and unpublished documents relating to the creation of the American Medical Association's Section on Surgery. During the 1850s and through the 1870s, a time when surgery was still not considered a separate branch of medicine, the organization of the American Medical Association's Section on Surgery provided the much needed encouragement to surgeons in their quest for professional and specialty recognition. The establishment of the American Medical Association's Section on Surgery in 1859 helped shape the nationwide future of the craft, in particular, surgery's rise as a specialty and profession.

  15. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: National guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Mette H. [Dept. of Oncology, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark)], E-mail: mette.m.nielsen@ouh.regionsyddanmark.dk; Berg, Martin [Dept. of Medical Physics, Hospital of Vejle, Vejle (Denmark); Pedersen, Anders N. [Dept. of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-05-15

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focus on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required. Material and methods. A CT scan of a breast cancer patient after surgical breast conservation and axillary lymph node (LN) dissection was used for delineation. During multiple dummy-runs seven experienced radiation oncologists contoured all CTVs and OARs of interest in adjuvant breast RT. Two meetings were held in the DBCG Radiotherapy Committee to discuss the contouring and to approve a fi nal consensus. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was used to evaluate the delineation agreement before and after the consensus. Results. The consensus delineations of CTVs and OARs are available online and a table is presented with a contouring description of the individual volumes. The consensus provides recommendations for target delineation in a standard patient both in case of breast conservation or mastectomy. Before the consensus, the average value of the DSC was modest for most volumes, but high for the breast CTV and the heart. After the consensus, the DSC increased for all volumes. Conclusion. The DBCG has provided the fi rst national guidelines and a contouring atlas of CTVs and OARs definition for RT of early breast cancer. The DSC is a useful tool in quantifying the effect of the introduction of guidelines indicating improved inter-delineator agreement. This consensus will be used by the DBCG in our prospective trials.

  16. 美国浪漫主义时期小说的本土特征解读--以库伯的小说为例%Analysis of American Culture’ s Native Color from American Romantic Novels---Take Cooper As Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿卫玲

    2016-01-01

    American romanticism , known as “American Renaissance”, is the most important period in its litera-ture development .It is in this period that America tries to establish its own identity as an independent country and break away from European ’ s influence .So does its literature .As the important literature form , novel plays an impor-tant role in American literature ’ s independence process .This will help to promote its national culture ’ s development . Cooper is the representative novelist in this period and he chooses the native setting , native characters and native themes to create his novels which distinguish his writing from his Europe counterparts .Thus, hemakes great contribu-tions to American national literature .%美国浪漫主义时期是美国文学发展进程中的重要阶段,被誉为“美国的文艺复兴”,是美国文学摆脱欧洲影响,民族文学日渐形成、发展和确立的重要时期。小说作为这个时期重要的一种文学形式,在实现美国文学的民族化,最终实现文化独立,开创真正的美国文学方面起到了重要作用。作为这一时期比较有代表性的小说家,库伯在小说的背景选材、人物塑造、主题等方面都努力地做到本土化,为构建美国文学的民族特色做出了极大的贡献。

  17. Development of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations: A New Review under New Classical Frameworks%农业合作经济组织发展:新兴古典框架下的重新审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜玉凯; 张柏杨

    2011-01-01

    在新兴古典框架下,刻画农业合作经济组织的专业化分工经济模型,运用超边际分析方法,探讨了农业合作经济组织的内在演化机制.以湖北宜昌柑橘业合作经济组织实际发展为例,运用数据进行了相关检验.数理分析结果表明:农业合作经济组织所在区域的交易条件、生产专业化程度、交易效率与农民收入程度成正相关,着手改善经济环境,才能为合作经济组的继续发展提供动力.%Under new classical frameworks, the text has portrayed the division of economy originating in specialization of cooperative organization, and inframarginal analysis method was used to discuss the internal evolution mechanism of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. Taking the case of the actual development of Yichang citriculture cooperative economic organization, correlation test was carried out by using data. Mathematical analysis results indicated that the trading conditions, the specialization of production and trading efficiency are in positive correlation with farmers' income. Therefore, the improvement of the economic environment can provide powder for the further development of cooperative economic organization.

  18. The relationship between internal and external cooperation : literature review and propositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, B; Biemans, WG

    2003-01-01

    Over time, the management literature has paid much attention to the topic of cooperation. The literature on cooperation can be divided into two broad parts, with one part focusing on cooperation within organizations (internal cooperation) and another addressing cooperation between organizations (ext

  19. The relationship between internal and external cooperation : literature review and propositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, B; Biemans, WG

    Over time, the management literature has paid much attention to the topic of cooperation. The literature on cooperation can be divided into two broad parts, with one part focusing on cooperation within organizations (internal cooperation) and another addressing cooperation between organizations

  20. Energy Security and Climate Change in the European Union,China and Latin American Relationships:Major Challenges and Areas of International Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria; Cristina; Silva; Parejas

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses the subject in both ecological and political perspectives based on a most comprehensive,authoritative and updated bibliography.Hence,Latin America and the Caribbean(LAC) is as much diversified as there are sub-regions and regional organizations in geopolitical and geo-economical terms and often dialectic regarding energy security,climate change and LAC ties with Europeans and China and so is the tripartite relations with the rest of the world so far as energy security and climate cha...

  1. Latin-American Regional Developments in Space Technology and International Cooperation - Columbian Space Policy: An Approach to Create a National Space Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenales-Vergara, Oscar A.

    2002-01-01

    Space exploration is a great human adventure: culturally, scientifically, technologically and industrially. Since the earliest of times, civilizations have been united in their awe of, and inspiration by, the cosmos, as testified in particularly by the peoples and cultures of the Central and South American continent in pre-Columbian times. Today, space systems have become an essential tool for the scientific disciplines related to the knowledge of the universe, including our own planet and its close or its remote environment. The main objective of this research is to explain the way in which Colombia, rich in myths and secular legends connecting mankind to the universe, must in the present tackle the issue of its development of space activities. The context in which it could be carried out is also described, along with a perspective of the current state of science and technology in the space sector on a global scale. Any modern nation is concerned with its independence, whether political, economic, or intellectual. That is why we support the concept of countries in the process of development becoming actively involved in the international space scene. Indeed, having limitations in industrial and technological exchange, we feel excluded today from key fields for our tomorrow. This research thus proposes to demonstrate how in a time that can be regarded as one of the most serious crises in its history, Colombia could, in an atmosphere free from fratricidal conflicts, exploit its space matter capabilities. We do not limit our focus to the scientific field, but also consider the social, economic and cultural aspects. The results of this research delineate how Colombia could start a new optimistic phase of its development, joining the international space programs within the framework of agreements among the regional governments in Latin America.

  2. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : NAFTA provisions and the electricity sector[Secretariat report to Council under article 13 of the North American agreement on environmental cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlick, G.; Schuchhardt, C. [O' Melveny and Myers LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Mann, H. [International Inst. for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    In this background paper, the authors examined the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) from the perspective of the electricity sector, especially trade in electricity. The authors only identified those rules that have relevance to the topic at hand; they did not interpret the rules. NAFTA rules and environmental regulations, as well as the possible links between them were examined in the first section of the paper, while the relationship between NAFTA Chapter Eleven: Investment Provisions and environmental regulations and standards was dealt with in the second section. The twelve committees and nineteen working groups of NAFTA were listed in annex one, as well as the one council. Annex two discussed tariff reduction on capital equipment. refs., tabs.

  3. Deepen Practical Cooperation And Uphold Peace and Stability Address at the 10th Meeting of the Council of Heads of member States of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization%深化务实合作维护和平稳定在上海合作组织成员国元首理事会第十次会议上讲话

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡锦涛

    2010-01-01

    @@ Your Excellency President Karimov, Dear colleagues, It gives me great pleasure to meet you all in Tashkent, a city with a history of several thousand years. Since assuming the chairmanship of the Shanghai Co-operation Organization (SCO), Uzbekistan has done a large amount of effective work for the development of this organization. China highly appreciates its efforts.I wish to express heartfelt thanks to President Karimov and the government of Uz-bekistan for the thoughtful reparations and arrangements for this meeting.

  4. 9 May 2008 - Signature of the Protocol to the co-operation agreement dated 21 January 2006 between King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, represented by M. I. Al-Suwaiyel and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), represented by R. Aymar, concerning the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    9 May 2008 - Signature of the Protocol to the co-operation agreement dated 21 January 2006 between King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, represented by M. I. Al-Suwaiyel and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), represented by R. Aymar, concerning the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy physics

  5. A Pan American Health Organization strategy for cervical cancer prevention and control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Silvana; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2008-11-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in Latin America and the Caribbean, and disproportionately affects poorer women. Mortality rates in the region are seven times greater than in North America. In light of the significant public health burden, the Pan American Health Organization has drafted a Regional Strategy for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control. The Strategy calls for increased action to strengthen programmes through an integrated package of services: health information and education; screening and pre-cancer treatment; invasive cervical cancer treatment and palliative care; and evidence-based policy decisions on whether and how to introduce human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. It calls for a seven-point plan of action: conduct a situation analysis; intensify information, education and counselling; scale up screening and link to pre-cancer treatment; strengthen information systems and cancer registries; improve access to and quality of cancer treatment and palliative care; generate evidence to facilitate decision-making regarding HPV vaccine introduction; and advocate for equitable access and affordable HPV vaccines. This proposed strategy, approved by the PAHO Directing Council on 1 October 2008, has the possibility of stimulating and accelerating the introduction of new screening technology and HPV vaccines into programmes throughout Latin America and the Caribbean.

  6. Occurrence of heavy metals and antibiotic resistance in bacteria from internal organs of american bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana raised in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SW Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 40 bacteria have been successfully isolated from internal organs of the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana raised in Malaysia, namely, eight isolates of Aeromonas spp., 21 of Edwardsiella spp., six of Flavobacterium spp. and five of Vibrio spp. In terms of antibiotic susceptibility testing, each isolate was tested against 21 antibiotics, resulting in 482 (57.3% cases of sensitivity and 61 (7.3% cases of partial sensitivity. Meanwhile, 297 (35.4% bacterial isolates were registered as resistant. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index of each bacterial species indicated that bacteria from raised bullfrogs have been exposed to tested antibiotics with results ranging from 0.27 to 0.39. Additionally, high percentages of heavy metal resistance among these isolates were observed, with values ranging from 85.0 to 100.0%. The current results provided us information on bacterial levels of locally farmed bullfrogs exposed to copper, cadmium, chromium as well as 21 types of antibiotics.

  7. Eliciting Survey Cooperation: Incentives, Self-Interest, and Norms of Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Martha E.; Blair, Johnny

    2005-01-01

    Given the weaker ties to community as noted by scholars such as Robert Putnam, survey researchers should not be surprised by a decline in survey participation over the past 10 years. This research analyzes the use of incentives coupled with introductory themes emphasizing cooperation and helpfulness--cooperative norms in American society--to…

  8. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : Modeling techniques and estimating environmental outcomes[Secretariat report to Council under article 13 of the North American agreement on environmental cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Z. [Commission for Environmental Cooperation of North America, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    Background information and results of the different models publicly available used for the evaluation of environmental effects of electricity market restructuring in the various jurisdictions in North America were included in this working paper. It comprised the description of eleven models and twelve modeling exercises. The information on each model varied greatly, as it is proprietary. The models described were: (1) the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), (2) the Department of Energy's Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS), (3) the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) utilized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), (4) Resources for the Future's (RFF) Haiku model, (5) the Canadian Energy Research Institute's Energy 2020 Model, (6) the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) use of ICF's Coal and Electric Utilities Model, (7) the Center for Clean Air Policy's use of General Electric's Market Assessment and Portfolio Strategies (GE MAPS) model, (8) the Center for Clean Air Policy's use of GE MAPS in combination with New Energy Associates' Proscreen II, (9) the Commission for Environmental Cooperation use of the Front of Envelope Model, (10) Ontario Power Generation's use of the Utility Fuel Economics Model and National Power Model, and (11) New York State Department of Public Service's (NYDPS) Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement using New Energy Associates' PROMOD. Also included in this working paper was a comparison of the results of models and modeling exercises on which the estimation of the environmental effects of electricity market restructuring in the United States was based. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  9. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  10. The Right Organ for the Right Recipient: the Ninth Annual American Society of Transplant Surgeons' State-of-the-Art Winter Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Randall S; Abt, Peter L; Desai, Dev M; Garvey, Catherine A; Segev, Dorry L; Kaufman, Dixon B

    2011-01-01

    With an increasing number of individuals with end-stage organ disease and the increasing success of organ transplantation, the demand for transplants has steadily increased. This growth has led to a greater need to utilize organs from as many donors as possible. As selection criteria have become less stringent to accommodate increasing demand, transplant outcomes are more strongly influenced by recipient and donor factors; thus, finding the right organ for the right recipient is more important than ever. The Ninth Annual American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) State-of-the-Art Winter Symposium, entitled "The Right Organ for the Right Recipient," addressed the matching of donor organs to appropriate recipients. Representative dilemmas in the matching of donor organs with recipients were discussed. These included the following: matching by donor and recipient risk characteristics; use of organs with risk for disease transmission; biologic incompatibility; use of organs from donors after cardiac death; the justification for combined organ transplants like liver-kidney and kidney-pancreas; and the role of allocation in facilitating the matching of donors and recipients. Regardless of the particular issue, decisions about donor-recipient matching should be evidence-based, practical, and made with the goal of maximizing organ utilization while still protecting individual patient interests. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Directory of Library and Related Organizations. Networks, Consortia, and Other Cooperative Library Organizations; National Library and Information-Industry Associations, United States and Canada; State, Provincial, and Regional Library Associations; State and Provincial Library Agencies; State School Library Media Associations; International Library Associations; Foreign Library Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents lists of networks, consortia, and other cooperative library organizations; national library and information-industry associations in the U.S. and Canada; state, provincial, and regional library associations; state and provincial library agencies; state school library media associations; international library associations; and foreign…

  12. Construction of the Government Support and Evaluation Index System of Farmers' Cooperative Economic Organizations%农民专业合作经济组织政府扶持评价指标体系构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙浩杰; 王征兵; 汪蕴慧

    2011-01-01

    在阐述农民专业合作经济组织评价指标体系设计必要性的基础上,按照系统学原理,结合统计学和数量经济学的方法,构建了组织发展指标、社员发展指标和社会发展指标3个1级指标和合作组织的资产总额、合作组织的年分配利润总额、合作组织的年总收入等13个2级指标的指标体系,采用层次分析法计算得到各指标的权重并进行了一致性检验,建立了运行效果评价模型,计算得到指标标准值和综合得分.根据综合评分结果,建议应该因地制宜,对不同发展程度和规范程度的农民专业合作经济组织进行有层次、有针对性的系统扶持.通过指标体系的构建及综合得分,最后提出政府应在扶持农民专业合作社经济组织发展过程中应建立常规的进入与退出机制,合理引导合作者的快速发展.%On the basis of expounding the necessity of the evaluation index system of farmers ' cooperative economic organization, the 3 first level indexes including organization development index,member development index and social development index and 13 second level indexes including aggregate capital of cooperative organization,annual profit share of cooperative organization,annual total income of cooperative organization,etc. are established according to the principles of Systematics and the methods of Statistics and Quantitative economics. By using the analytical hierarchy process,the weight of each index is tested and the operation result and evaluation mode is established,as -well as the index standard value and comprehensive value. As for the result of the evaluation,it is suggested that the government should support the farmers' cooperative organizations in hierarchy and targeted way according to local conditions. Though the construction of index system and comprehensive score,the government should establish the entry and exit mechanism of farmers' cooperative organizations to reasonably guild

  13. Risk is relative: risk aversion yields cooperation rather than defection in cooperation-friendly environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöckner, Andreas; Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2012-06-01

    Previous findings concerning the relation of risk aversion and cooperation in repeated prisoner's dilemma games have been inconclusive. We hypothesized that this was due to an interaction between personality and environment. Specifically, we argued that in cooperation-friendly environments--given certain beliefs--defection is more risky than cooperation. The main reason for this is that, in such a situation, defection potentially yields outcomes of higher variance (and vice versa, for cooperation-unfriendly environments). In line with this hypothesis, we showed, in two experiments and a reanalysis of a study by Fudenberg, Rand, and Dreber (American Economic Review, in press), that the degree of cooperation increases with dispositional risk aversion in cooperation-friendly environments, but not in cooperation-unfriendly environments. We also found similar person-situation interactions for neuroticism and extraversion.

  14. 合作稳定性、参与动机与创新生态系统自组织进化%Cooperative Stability, Participation Motivation and Self-organized Evolution of Innovation Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华

    2016-01-01

    studies of innovation ecosystem have suggested that focus firms are the determinant factors affecting system evolution, and neglect the effects of firm cooperative attitudes or participation motivation on system evolution. In fact, firms’ cooperative behavior also shows the resource dependence relationship to carry out cooperative innovation of bodies with equal status. Based on evolutionary game model, this paper analyzes the self-organized evolutionary process of cooperative innovation between focus firms and supporting enterprise communities in innovation ecosystem through resource dependence relationship. Taking participation motivation for cooperative innovation into account, it divides firm behavior into reciprocal cooperation and opportunistic cooperation strategies, and explores the evolutionary mechanism of innovation ecosystem by combining with technology spillover, cooperative contract etc. Through model analysis and numerical simulation, it comes to the conclusions as follows: firstly, cooperative attitude or participation motivation affect the efficiency and trend of system evolution;secondly, when the increase in losses of technology spillover is harmful to the formation of stable cooperative relationship among firms, and firms tend to select the opportunistic cooperation strategy, leading to the system evolution toward low efficiency;thirdly, the rise in penalties for breaches of cooperative contracts or the increase in innovation capital input are beneficial to the promotion of cooperative innovation among firms, and firms tend to select the reciprocal cooperation strategy, leading to the system evolution toward complete cooperation and all-win achievement. This paper introduces the perspective of resource dependence relationship cooperation, gives a preliminary explanation of self-organized evolution mechanism of innovation ecosystem, and thereby provides theoretical support for firm innovation decisions and the governance of innovation ecosystem.

  15. Survey on Distributed Cooperation Incentive Mechanisms in Self-organized P2P Networks%自组织P2P网络分布式合作激励机制研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于坤; 陈晓兵; 朱全银

    2012-01-01

    自组织P2P网络本质上的节点自治及理性特征决定了网络系统目标与节点自身利益的不一致性,合作激励机制能够引导节点采用利他的行为策略,弥合系统与个体之间的利益冲突.以提高自组织网络可用性为目标,探讨了多种有效的、实用的分布式合作机制,总结了自组织P2P网络合作激励机制的设计中存在的问题和研究方向.%The nature of self-organized P2P network is that most nodes are autonomous and rational which leads to the conflict between the top objective of the system and own interest of the node. An cooperation incentive mechanism can introduce altruistic behaviors, decrease the conflict between the system and the individual. In order to improve network availability, the author discusses a few efficient, practical distributed cooperation mechanisms and points out the pending problems and research directions in the design of cooperation mechanisms in self-organized P2P networks.

  16. Value of American Thoracic Society guidelines in predicting infection or colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms in critically ill patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence rate of infection by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs can affect the accuracy of etiological diagnosis when using American Thoracic Society (ATS guidelines. We determined the accuracy of the ATS guidelines in predicting infection or colonization by MDROs over 18 months at a single ICU in eastern China. METHODS: This prospective observational study examined consecutive patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU in Nanjing, China. MDROs were defined as bacteria that were resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii. Screening for MDROs was performed at ICU admission and discharge. Risk factors for infection or colonization with MDROs were recorded, and the accuracy of the ATS guidelines in predicting infection or colonization with MDROs was documented. RESULTS: There were 610 patients, 225 (37% of whom were colonized or infected with MDROs at ICU admission, and this increased to 311 (51% at discharge. At admission, the sensitivity (70.0%, specificity (31.6%, positive predictive value (38.2%, and negative predictive value (63.5%, all based on ATS guidelines for infection or colonization with MDROs were low. The negative predictive value was greater in patients from departments with MDRO infection rates of 31-40% than in patients from departments with MDRO infection rates of 30% or less and from departments with MDRO infection rates more than 40%. CONCLUSION: ATS criteria were not reliable in predicting infection or colonization with MDROs in our ICU. The negative predictive value was greater in patients from departments with intermediate rates of MDRO infection than in patients from departments with low or high rates of MDRO infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01667991.

  17. The development of online cooperative cataloging in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Jing; XIE; Qinfang; YU; Shuangshuang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the authors introduce and analyze the history and current situation of the online cooperative cataloging in China from several perspectives,such as organization models,operation models,service models,quality control,and the cooperation among online cooperative cataloging organizations.

  18. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation.

  19. Does intermunicipal cooperation create inefficiency? A comparison of interest rates paid by intermunicipal organizations, amalgamated municipalities and not recently amalgamated municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten; van Ommeren, Bernard; Geertsema, Bieuwe

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, local governments operating on a small scale face a choice between amalgamation and cooperation. This paper applies a novel methodology to investigate the implications of this choice for operating efficiency. Using a unique micro-level dataset of over 11,000 loans made to both mun

  20. Fuel irradiation research of Japan at halden reactor. Achievement of cooperative researches between JAERI and several organizations in the period from 1997 to 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    JAERI has performed cooperative researches with several Japanese agencies and companies by means of the Halden Boiling Heavy Water Reactor (HBWR) which is located at Halden in Norway. These researches are carried out based on the contracts of the cooperative researches, which are revised every three years, in accordance with the renewal of the participation of JAERI to the OECD Halden Reactor Project. This report summaries the objectives, contents and the outlines of the achievements of the cooperative researches during the three years from 1997 January to 1999 December. During the period, nine cooperative researches had been carried out. Two of them had been completed and other seven researches has been continued to the next three years period. Most of them are irradiation test researches of advanced fuel and cladding in order to prepare the higher burnup utilization and introduction of LWR fuel and MOX fuel in LWRs of Japan. The researches of fuel irradiation usually take long time for preparing test and irradiation, then three years are usually not enough to obtain some achievements from the irradiation tests. Therefore, seven tests have been continued to the next three year period. In this report, the achievements of the continued researches to the next period are not final one but a kind of progress report. (author)

  1. The effect of irrigation and foliar fertilization on the colonization of american ginseng (Panax quinquefolium l. diseased parts by different micro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Pastucha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on the health of American ginseng cultivated in the Lublin district on poor sandy soil were conducted in the years 2004-2006. The studies involved treatment combinations with irrigation and without irrigation as well as foliar fertilization with Alkalin PK and Resistim of American ginseng plants. Mycological analysis was made of diseased ginseng parts with the aim of determining the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungi-like organisms and fungi threatening the cultivation of this plant. Fungi from the genera of Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium and the following species Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, as well as fungi-like organisms: Pythium irregulare and Phytophthora sp., were isolated from the infected parts of ginseng. The smallest number of fungi was isolated from the plants growing on the plots without irrigation and those where foliar application with Alkalin PK was applied.

  2. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' collaboration with the Association of American Medical Colleges, Medical Library Association, and other organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Carol G; Bader, Shelley A

    2003-04-01

    The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries has made collaboration with other organizations a fundamental success strategy throughout its twenty-five year history. From the beginning its relationships with Association of American Medical Colleges and with the Medical Library Association have shaped its mission and influenced its success at promoting academic health sciences libraries' roles in their institutions. This article describes and evaluates those relationships. It also describes evolving relationships with other organizations including the National Library of Medicine and the Association of Research Libraries.

  3. The cooperative game theory of networks and hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Gilles, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    This book details standard concepts in cooperative game theory with applications to the analysis of social networks and hierarchical authority organizations. It covers the multi-linear extension, the Core, the Shapley value, and the cooperative potential.

  4. NOT A MILITARY ALLIANCE——The SCO should continue to implement its founding principles,based on security and economic cooperation,rather than expanding its membership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In reinventing itself, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization should stick to being a regional cooperative organization guided by a new concept and prioritizing security and economic cooperation. Meanwhile, brash expansion of the organization will cause a lot of problems.

  5. North American Security Cooperation: Prospects for Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    2005, 2). Seventy percent of Mexico’s investment came from the United States ( Krauze 2005, 1). Eighty percent of the overall Canadian and Mexican...Inc., 2001. Kohn, Richard H. “Out of Control: The Crisis in Civil-Military Relations.” The National Interest, (spring 1994): 29-40. Krauze

  6. Agricultural cooperative organizations or be able to break the problem of “Who grain”%农机合作组织或能突破“谁种粮”难题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Analysis the issues and implications of aging grain farmers, discuss how to resolve the issues of aging grain farmers effects on food security. Proposed to improve incentives and vigorously support the development of cooperatives; strengthen personnel training and enhance self-development;strengthen the organization's guidance and guarantee the stable development of cooperatives. Through the above three as-pects, to support the development and expansion of agricultural cooperatives, build the main grain production, and guarantee the safe devel-opment of food production.%  分析种粮农民老龄化问题及其影响,探讨如何化解种粮农民老龄化影响粮食安全的问题,提出从完善优惠政策,大力扶持合作社发展;加强人才培养,提升自我发展能力;强化组织引导,保障合作社稳定发展三个方面扶持农机合作社发展壮大,打造粮食生产主体,保障粮食生产安全发展。

  7. Co-operatives and Normative Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten; Jagd, Søren

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the conditions for applying normative control in co-operatives. For normative control to be effective two conditions are found particularly important: Individuals must be morally involved and the organization must have a system of making it possible to link common norms...... to other organizations because of the special features of co-operative organizations: use of normative control, democratic decision-making, and decentralized organizational structure. On the other hand, however, there may be strong barriers in co-operatives against creating a sufficient information system....

  8. The Delta Cooperative Model: a Dynamic and Innovative Team-Work Activity to Develop Research Skills in Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Rios-Velazquez; Reynaldo Robles-Suarez; GONZALEZ-NEGRON, ALBERTO J.; Ivan Baez-Santos

    2006-01-01

    The Delta Cooperative Model (DCM) is a dynamic and innovative teamwork design created to develop fundamentals in research skills. High school students in the DCM belong to the Upward Bound Science and Math (UBSM) program at the Inter American University, Ponce Campus. After workshops on using the scientific method, students were organized into groups of three students with similar research interests. Each student had to take on a role within the group as either a researcher, data analyst, or ...

  9. Planning Cooperation in Inter-Organizational Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponisio, María Laura; Eck, van Pascal; Riemens, Lourens; Alkhalifa, E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a systematic reasoning framework (called e-Planning) to plan cooperation between organizations in a network. Thorough assessment of opportunities for and obstacles to cooperation is of paramount importance, as setting up electronic networks usually requires

  10. Maritime English for Communication and Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Teresa A.

    Because most maritime accidents are caused by human error, notably breakdowns in communication or cooperation, and because English is the international maritime language, instruction in maritime English for communication and cooperation is an important element in maritime education. The International Maritime Organization, a specialized agency of…

  11. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huide; HUANG; Wanzhen; ZHANG; Enping; LIU; Xizhu; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution,member scale,production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province,and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification,this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations,such as joint production of banana cooperatives,timely planting of banana,brand management,and improvement of production and operation technical level.

  12. Cooperative catalysis designing efficient catalysts for synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, René

    2015-01-01

    Written by experts in the field, this is a much-needed overview of the rapidly emerging field of cooperative catalysis. The authors focus on the design and development of novel high-performance catalysts for applications in organic synthesis (particularly asymmetric synthesis), covering a broad range of topics, from the latest progress in Lewis acid / Br?nsted base catalysis to e.g. metal-assisted organocatalysis, cooperative metal/enzyme catalysis, and cooperative catalysis in polymerization reactions and on solid surfaces. The chapters are classified according to the type of cooperating acti

  13. Sensitivity and specificity of monoclonal and polyclonal immunohistochemical staining for West Nile virus in various organs from American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ping

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on results of earlier studies, brain, heart and kidney are most commonly used for West Nile virus (WNV detection in avian species. Both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies have been used for the immunohistochemical diagnosis of WNV in these species. Thus far, no studies have been performed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies in detecting WNV in American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos. Our objectives were to determine 1 the comparative sensitivities of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for immunohistochemical (IHC diagnosis of WNV infection in free-ranging American crows, 2 which organ(s is/are most suitable for IHC-based diagnosis of WNV, and 3 how real-time RT-PCR on RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues compared to IHC for the diagnosis of WNV infection. Methods Various combinations, depending on tissue availability, of sections of heart, kidney, brain, liver, lung, spleen, and small intestine from 85 free-ranging American crows were stained using a rabbit-polyclonal anti-WNV antibody as well as a monoclonal antibody directed against an epitope on Domain III of the E protein of WNV. The staining intensity and the extent of staining were determined for each organ using both antibodies. Real-time RT-PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from all 85 crows was performed. Results Forty-three crows were IHC-positive in at least one of the examined organs with the polyclonal antibody, and of these, only 31 were positive when IHC was performed with the monoclonal antibody. Real-time RT-PCR amplified WNV-specific sequences from tissue extracts of the same 43 crows that were IHC-positive using the polyclonal antibody. All other 42 crows tested negative for WNV with real-time PCR and IHC staining. Both antibodies had a test specificity of 100% when compared to PCR results. The test sensitivity of monoclonal antibody-based IHC staining was only 72

  14. Risk Evaluation of Farmer Cooperative Organization Based on Main-Composition Analysis%主成分分析法的农民合作组织运营风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 徐莉莉; 娄昭

    2011-01-01

    在农民合作组织运营风险研究过程中,常常需要用多个变量进行综合评价,如涉及自然风险、经济风险、技术风险、组织风险等的众多个指标。通过建立农民合作组织风险评价指标体系,选取了26个可量化指标,应用主成分分析,将26个评价指标简化为10个更具代表性的指标,在实际分析中具有更强的可操作性。%Comprehensive assessment in risk research of operation of farmer cooperation organization has always needed several variables such as natural risk, economical risk, technological risk, organizational risk, and so on. The thesis erected index system of risk assessment of farmer cooperation organization, selected 26 quantitative indexes, and applied principal component analysis, then simplified the 26 indexes into 10 representative indexes. It has maneuverability in actual analysis.

  15. 新型农村专业合作经济组织发展的影响因素及对策分析%Influencing factors and countermeasures of the new rural cooperative economic organization development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林翰雄

    2014-01-01

    改革开放以来,我国新型农村专业合作经济组织实现了快速发展,但是,整体来说,它还处于发展的初期阶段,还存在许多细节方面的不足。文章结合农村专业合作经济组织发展现状,对制约其发展的影响因素进行了分析,并针对问题提出了相应的应对策略。%since the reform and opening up, the new type of rural specialized cooperative economic organizations in China achieved rapid development, but, overall, it is still in the early stages of development, there are still insufficient many details. According to the development situation of rural specialized cooperative economic organizations, restricting the development of the influence factors are analyzed, and puts forward corresponding countermeasures to solve the problem.

  16. Okay, Seminoles, Take over from Here: Native American Mascot and Nickname as Organization Builders at Florida State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletics is a very important part in American higher education both financially and symbolically. One of the most distinct features of college sports is athletic mascots and nicknames of colleges and universities represent not only the athletic programs but also the whole institutions and communities. As they were deeply ingrained…

  17. Incorporating Traditional Healing into an Urban American Indian Health Organization: A Case Study of Community Member Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William E.; Gone, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Facing severe mental health disparities rooted in a complex history of cultural oppression, members of many urban American Indian (AI) communities are reaching out for indigenous traditional healing to augment their use of standard Western mental health services. Because detailed descriptions of approaches for making traditional healing available…

  18. 昭通市农机专业合作组织现状及发展对策%Current Situation and Development Countermeasures of Agricultural Specialized Cooperative Organization in Zhaotong City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾帮文

    2014-01-01

    介绍了昭通市农机专业合作组织发展的现状,分析其中存在的问题,并从组织领导、宣传培训、制度规范、引导扶持、投入机制等方面提出对策,以期为昭通市农业机械健康有序发展提供参考。%The current development situation of agricultural machinery specialized cooperative organization in Zhaotong City were introduced,the existing problems were analyzed. The countermeasures were put forward from the following aspects,such as organization and leadership,advocacy training,system specification,guidance and support,input mechanism,etc,in order to provide reference for the healthy and orderly development of agricultural machinery in Zhaotong City.

  19. Co-operatives and Normative Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten; Jagd, Søren

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the conditions for applying normative control in co-operatives. For normative control to be effective two conditions are found particularly important: Individuals must be morally involved and the organization must have a system of making it possible to link common norms...... and individual action. If these conditions are not fulfilled, as may be the case in many co-operatives, normative control cannot be expected to work. The problems of normative control in co-operatives may then not be caused by the use of normative control as such, but may instead be a problem of securing...... the conditions necessary for normative control. This is illustrated by a case study of control in a Danish producers co-operative. The analysis of the case study leads to the hypothesis of a paradox of normative control in co-operatives: The need of information tends to be greater in co-operatives comparet...

  20. COOPERATION & INNOVATION FOR A BETTER TOMORROW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On March 29, Sweden-China Business Cooperation and Innovation Forum, jointly organized by CCPIT, Swedish Trade Council and Sweden-China Trade Council, was held in the city hall of Stockholm in Sweden.

  1. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    with the competitive realities of a global market and decreasing product life cycles. In this environment, the coordination and integration of the myriads of interdependent and yet distributed and concurrent design activities becomes enormously complex. It thus seems as if CSCW technologies may be indispensable...... they are facing. On one hand, designers need highly flexible ‘coordination mecha-nisms’ that can support horizontal coordination of large-scale distributed design projects, and on the other hand design organizations require versatile and ubiquitous infrastructures to be able to manage their ‘common informa...

  2. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    In the contemporary world, engineers and designers face huge challenges as they shift towards novel organizational concepts such as ‘concurrent engineering’ in order to manage increasing product diversity so as to satisfy customer demands while trying to accelerate the design process to deal...... they are facing. On one hand, designers need highly flexible ‘coordination mecha-nisms’ that can support horizontal coordination of large-scale distributed design projects, and on the other hand design organizations require versatile and ubiquitous infrastructures to be able to manage their ‘common informa...

  3. Supply and Marketing Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Supply and Marketing Cooperatives Council of CCPIT was established in March 1996. It is an institution under direct leadership of China Supply and Market-ing Cooperatives and at the same time a branch of China Council for Promotion of International Trade, with its major task to promoting and facilitating export-oriented economic trade and technological cooper-ation of the national supply and marketing cooperative system.

  4. How Can I Trust You if You Don’t Know Who You Are? The Consequences of a Fluid Identity on Cross-Racial Organizing between African American Women and Latinas in Atlanta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belisa González

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Scholarship in the area of cross-racial organizing between Latina/o and African Americans has increased substantially over the past ten years. Within that literature, scholars have identified many reasons why cross-racial coalitions both succeed and fail. Among the factors most often cited is the issue of trust. Despite the recognition of the crucial role trust plays in cross-racial organizing, little attention has been paid to what contributes to actually building trust between African Americans and Latina/o. I argue that one factor contributing to the distrust of Latinas among African American women involved in cross-racial organizing in Atlanta is the perceived discrepancy between Latinas’ own asserted identity and the identity assigned to them by African American women organizers. Using data gathered from six years of participant observation and forty interviews conducted with African American women and Latinas organizing in Georgia, I discuss the consequences of identity construction for cross-racial organizing. I find that within cross-racial organizing spaces in Atlanta, perceived racial identities are used by African American women as proxies for determining Latina organizers’ commitment to social justice and, correspondingly, how much individual Latinas can be trusted. Specifically, I find that African American respondents view Latina identity as optional and potentially white. Latina respondents, on the other hand, assert strong identities and contend that their perceived “optional” identities are a function of what Anzaldúa calls a mestiza consciousness or the straddeling of multiple identities. I argue that understanding how these identities are assigned and asserted by Latinas and African American women is a crucial and often-overlooked component to building trust, and by extension, to building sustainable cross-racial coalitions.

  5. The Research of Cooperation Governance Mechanism Between the Government and the Social Organization%政府与社会组织合作治理机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田小彪

    2013-01-01

    建设服务型政府是当前公共行政管理研究的一个热点问题。政府与社会组织合作共同提供公共物品在公共行政学理论界已经达成基本共识。文章就此从政府与社会组织之间权力调整及运行、社会组织参与政府公共决策、政府与社会组织的利益协调、政府与社会组织的监督管理四个方面对两者之间的合作治理机制进行探讨。认为构建政府与社会组织的合作治理机制,两者都需要不断提高自身的能力。政府应积极地转变职能,合理界定公权力、制定法律法规、加强沟通,促进信任。社会组织要强化自律,提高社会公信力,回应社会的需求,更好地与政府一起实现对整个国家的治理。%The construction of service-oriented government is a hot issue of the current public administrative management. The government and social organizations to provide public goods together in public administrative science theorists have reached a basic consensus. This article discussed four aspects of the cooperation between governance mechanism,such as the government and social organization power adjustment and operation,between social organizations to participate in the government public decision-making,government and social organization's interest coordination,government and social organization of the supervision and management. In order to build the cooperation governance mechanism between government and social organizations,we need both of them to improve their own ability. The government should actively change the function,reasonably define public power,formulate laws and regulations,strengthen communication,and promote the trust. Social organizations should strengthen self-discipline,improve the social credibility,meet the needs of the society, and better govern the whole country with the government.

  6. Sub-Cultural Determinants of Cooperative and Competitive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Millard

    The three studies involved attempt to assess the nature of cooperative and competitive behavior of young children in different socioeconomic classes. In the first study, 36 pairs of Head Start children, representing Mexican-American, Negro and Caucasian ethnic groups, were investigated concerning their cooperative-competitive behavior in relation…

  7. Gredos San Diego Cooperative. Cooperate to undertake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de la Higuera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the cooperative experience through Gredos San Diego model, its institutional approaches and its history from the point of view of management, focusing on the variables that enable the success of a collective ownership institution. First, the author makes a brief analysis of the principles that guide the cooperative, its origins and its current situation, including the development of GSD Cooperative Group. It continues exploring the evolution of management, dividing it into four distinct stages, and concludes with a summary with the findings of the previous president of the cooperative.Received: 23.07.2012Accepted: 10.09.2012

  8. Education, Cooperation and Development: The Latin American Situation at the Beginning of the XXI Century Educación, cooperación y desarrollo: La situación Latinoamericana a comienzos del Siglo XXI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Neira Gómez

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the basic educational needs of the countries of Latin America, the education policies that are evolving within the region, and the policies that are proposed by the developed countries to meet these needs in the future. Educational aid for development will be the focus of this study. The first section contains an analysis of the basic needs in these countries, complemented by an analysis of the policies proposed by international organizations to resolve those needs. Finally, we discuss the influence that education exerts on economic growth and the role placed by international aid to education in the process of development of Latin American countries. En este artículo analizamos cuáles son las necesidades básicas que los países de América Latina presentan en educación, y cuáles son las políticas que desde la propia región, y desde los países más desarrollados se están llevando a cabo para paliar estas necesidades en el futuro.

  9. Co-operative groups in their environments : a population-ecological model for co-operative membership and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lasowski, Ophir

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an alternative evolutionary approach to assessing the performance of co-operative organizations. The focus of investigation is turned to the co-operative organization as a group of members in a market environment containing non-members. Significant unique features of the co-operative organization is illustrated at first. After reviewing historical aspects of evolution theories and their positioning in biology, economic and social sciences, alternative notion...

  10. Cooperation in Offshore Oil Deal Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ The China National Offshore Oil Corp.(CNOOC), a pioneer prospector of the country's maritime bonanza, has expanded foreign cooperation by signing another contract with the American firm Chevron Overseas Petroleum Ltd.and Malaysian State Oil Firm Petronas to explore a block in the Liaodong Bay of Bohai Sea.

  11. Cooperative Microform Publishing: The Law Library Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Jerry

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the Hawaii-based Law Library Microform Consortium (LLMC), a nonprofit interlibrary cooperative microfiche project involving several hundred American and foreign law libraries, outlines LLMC's history, organizational structure, operations, publishing record, marketing efforts, and prospects for the future. (EJS)

  12. Cooperation for direct fitness benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimar, Olof; Hammerstein, Peter

    2010-09-12

    Studies of the evolution of helping have traditionally used the explanatory frameworks of reciprocity and altruism towards relatives, but recently there has been an increasing interest in other kinds of explanations. We review the success or otherwise of work investigating alternative processes and mechanisms, most of which fall under the heading of cooperation for direct benefits. We evaluate to what extent concepts such as by-product benefits, pseudo-reciprocity, sanctions and partner choice, markets and the build-up of cross-species spatial trait correlations have contributed to the study of the evolution of cooperation. We conclude that these alternative ideas are successful and show potential to further increase our understanding of cooperation. We also bring up the origin and role of common interest in the evolution of cooperation, including the appearance of organisms. We note that there are still unresolved questions about the main processes contributing to the evolution of common interest. Commenting on the broader significance of the recent developments, we argue that they represent a justified balancing of the importance given to different major hypotheses for the evolution of cooperation. This balancing is beneficial because it widens considerably the range of phenomena addressed and, crucially, encourages empirical testing of important theoretical alternatives.

  13. Quantifying Glosair™ 400 efficacy for surface disinfection of American Type Culture Collection strains and micro-organisms recently isolated from intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, R; Vizcaíno, M J; Herruzo, I

    2014-07-01

    Microbial contamination of hospital surfaces may be a source of infection for hospitalized patients. We evaluated the efficacy of Glosair™ 400 against two American Type Culture Collection strains and 18 clinical isolates, placed on glass germ-carriers. Carriers were left to air-dry for 60 min and then exposed to a cycle before detection of any surviving micro-organisms. Antibiotic-susceptible Gram-negative bacilli were less susceptible (although not significantly) to this technique than resistant Gram-negative bacilli or Gram-positive cocci and yeasts (3, 3.4 and 4.6 log10 reduction, respectively). In conclusion, in areas that had not been cleaned, aerosolized hydrogen peroxide obtained >3 log10 mean destruction of patients' micro-organisms.

  14. Cooperative Online Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Flate Paulsen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. The pedagogical and administrative challenges with regard to accommodating both individual freedom and cooperation are explained in the Theory of Cooperative Freedom. This article shows that cooperative learning can be implemented successfully through a set of instruments or means. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article also discusses how issues such as web 2.0, transparency, learning partners and individual progression plans relate to cooperative online education.

  15. Land Credit Cooperatives Help Construction of New Countryside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨扬

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the experience of Pingluo County of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, where "land credit cooperatives" have thrived. Based on a survey of the background, function, business scope, structure, supportive policy and the performance of "land credit cooperatives", the author believes that the essence of the cooperative is a "land joint-stock cooperation organization" whose experience may be of particular relevance to the building of a "new socialist countryside".

  16. Optimization of cooperation modern public child-youth organizations and schools in the national-patriotic education by means of physical culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mischenko O.O.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the problem of interaction between school and community organizations in the modern conditions of development of civil society. We consider the optimization of content and institutional framework of the interaction of public associations, and schools by means of physical culture, and also provide information about the place the team in the national-patriotic education of teenagers. The experiment involved children from schools in which the present operation of public children's and youth organizations and activities of these organizations was not detected.

  17. 中亚恐怖主义与上海合作组织的创立%On the Historical Basckground, Founding and Impact of Shanghai Cooperation Organization in Its Counter-Terrorism Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王献志

    2012-01-01

    冷战结束后,中亚地区的恐怖主义、分裂主义和极端主义这“三股势力”乘势兴风作浪,对本地区和平、安全与稳定构成严重威胁。上海合作组织组织的创立,顺应国际和地区反恐潮流,创立区域反恐机构和机制,全方位展开多边反恐合作,有效地遏制和打击了中亚地区恐怖主义的蔓延,为中亚乃至世界的和平发展与稳定做出了巨大的贡献。%Since the end of the Cold War,the forces of terrorism,separatism and extremism have stirred up trouble and unrest in Central Asia,posing a grave threat to the peace,security and stability of this region. Following the trend of international and regional anti-terrorism, Shanghai Cooperation Organization is founded. It has established regional anti-terrorism institution and mechanism, launched all-round anti-terrorism cooperation, and effectively suppressed and combated the spread of terrorism in Central Asia, resulting in great contributions to the peaceful development and stability of this region and even the world.

  18. Collapse of cooperation in evolving games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2014-12-09

    Game theory provides a quantitative framework for analyzing the behavior of rational agents. The Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma in particular has become a standard model for studying cooperation and cheating, with cooperation often emerging as a robust outcome in evolving populations. Here we extend evolutionary game theory by allowing players' payoffs as well as their strategies to evolve in response to selection on heritable mutations. In nature, many organisms engage in mutually beneficial interactions and individuals may seek to change the ratio of risk to reward for cooperation by altering the resources they commit to cooperative interactions. To study this, we construct a general framework for the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in arbitrary iterated games. We show that, when there is a tradeoff between the benefits and costs of cooperation, coevolution often leads to a dramatic loss of cooperation in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. The collapse of cooperation is so extreme that the average payoff in a population can decline even as the potential reward for mutual cooperation increases. Depending upon the form of tradeoffs, evolution may even move away from the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game altogether. Our work offers a new perspective on the Prisoner's Dilemma and its predictions for cooperation in natural populations; and it provides a general framework to understand the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in iterated interactions.

  19. ORGANIC CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION IN SEDIMENTS, POLYCHAETES (NEREIS VIRENS) AND THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS IN A LABORATORY FOOD CHAIN EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of organic contaminants from an environmentally contaminated marine sediment through a simple marine food chain. The infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens, was exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passa...

  20. Teleworking through cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Minervini

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available La diffusion des TIC a des effets majeurs sur la société et sur l’économie. L’effet des nouvelles technologies sur le travail est évident dans les transformations de l’organisation du travail et des pratiques dans les organisations. Le télétravail est un bon exemple de ces nouvelles pratiques. Le présent texte expose les résultats d’un projet de recherche récemment mené sur le télétravail. Contrairement à l’approche qui présente un modèle d’avantages pour les acteurs économiques et sociaux, notre hypothèse est que le schème dialogique est lié aux nouvelles technologies et que la coopération est une dimension importante du télétravail. Dans notre étude, la coopération est observée à la fois dans les relations sociales entre employeurs et employés, et dans l’institutionnalisation de relations entre managers et syndicats. Bien que les deux formes de coopération, appelées ici coopération sociale et coopération institutionnelle, soient souvent considérées comme des prérequis aux « meilleures pratiques » en matière de nouvelles organisations du travail, nos études de cas montrent que la coopération n’est pas toujours au rendez-vous, ce qui rend difficile la mise en place des pratiques de télétravail. Nous discutons des résultats de diverses études de cas dans l’industrie et les services en nous centrant sur les relations de coopération et ce, afin de contribuer au débat sociologique sur le télétravail.The diffusion of ICT has massive effects on society and economy. The impact of the new technologies on work is apparent in new ways of organizing work and in new practices introduced in organizations. Telework is one good example within these. In this paper, we present the results of a recent research project on telework, in which we have been engaged. Differently from the approach referring to a model of benefits for economic and social actors, our hypothesis is that the dialogical

  1. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  2. Cooperation in changing environments: Irreversibility in the transition to cooperation in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gracia-Lázaro, C; Gómez-Gardeñes, J; Moreno, Y

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the evolutionary dynamics of the Prisoner's Dilemma game on complex networks, we investigate the possibility that the average level of cooperation shows hysteresis under quasi-static variations of a model parameter (the "temptation to defect"). Under the "discrete replicator" strategy updating rule, for both Erd\\"os -R\\'enyi and Barab\\'asi-Albert graphs we observe cooperation hysteresis cycles provided one reaches tipping point values of the parameter; otherwise, perfect reversibility is obtained. The selective fixation of cooperation at certain nodes and its organization in cooperator clusters, that are surrounded by fluctuating strategists, allows the rationalization of the "lagging behind" behavior observed.

  3. 跨界合作理念下高职师资队伍建设研究%The Study on the Organization of Teachers' Team in Higher Vocational Schools under the Conception of Cross-border Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书润

    2012-01-01

    通过对近十多年来高职师资队伍建设实践的研究发现,“跨界合作”已经成为引领和指导高职师资队伍建设新理念,提出“跨界合作”理念是在我国社会经济发展方式转型升级、高职教育事业自身不断发展和对高职教育规律深刻认识的背景下逐渐明晰起来的观点,梳理了在“跨界合作”理念的引领和指导下,高职师资队伍建设经历的从“双师型”到“双师素质”再到“双师结构”的各具特色的三个不同发展阶段。%Over a decade, the studies on the practice of the organization of teachers' team in higher vocational schools show that "cross-border cooperation" has become a new conception leading and guiding the organization of teachers' team. The conception of "cross-border cooperation" gradually surfaced with the transformation and upgrade of China's social and economic developing model when higher vocational schools had been developing and the laws of education had been fully learned. This paper elaborates the three different phases of the organiza- tion of teachers' team in higher vocational schools, under the leadership and guidance of "cross-border coopera- tion", from "double qualification" to "the quality of double qualification" and then to "the construction of double qualification".

  4. Development Mode and Risk Analysis of Farmers’Capital Mutual Cooperation Organizations in Anhui Province%安徽农民资金互助合作组织的发展模式及风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何频

    2015-01-01

    近年来,各地发展的各种类型的农民资金互助合作组织在一定程度上缓和了农村金融资源供需不平衡的状况,为农村的发展提供了支持。但是由于资金互助是个新的金融模式,在发展过程中,无章可循,缺乏监督管理,潜藏着诸多风险和社会不安定因素,包括信用风险、流动性风险、法律风险、运营风险、操作风险和异化风险等。必须规范互助金融行为,降低金融风险,保护农民资金互助合作组织及社员的合法权益。%In recent years,the development of various types of farmers’capital mutual cooperation organizations,to a cer⁃tain extent,has eased the imbalance between supply and demand of rural financial resources,and provided support to the ag⁃ricultural development. But the capital mutual cooperation has many hidden risks and social unrests because it is a new finan⁃cial mode and lacks of regulations and supervision in the process of development,including credit risk,liquidity risk,legal risk,operational risk,handling risk and alienation risk,etc. Therefore,it is necessary to standardize mutual financial co⁃operation behavior,reduce financial risk and protect the legitimate rights and interests of farmers’ capital mutual coopera⁃tion organizations and their members.

  5. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperato...

  6. International cooperation in water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.R.; Beall, R.M.; Giusti, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    Advancements in hydrology proceeded slowly until the late 1800's when new ventures created a surge of interest and accomplishment. Progress waned again until the middle 20th century when an International Hydrological Decade was conceived, eventually receiving wide multinational support from governmental agencies and nongovernmental institutions. Organized by UNESCO, the Decade program was launched January 1, 1965. Participation included 107 nations, six United Nations agencies, and more than a dozen international scientific organizations. The initial program emphasized scientific research, and international cooperation; the second half of the Decade, emphasized technical assistance and technology transfer, largerly through education, training and demonstration. The success of the Decade led to the establishment of the International Hydrological Program, again under the aegis of UNESCO, to continue the work of the Decade indefinitely. The five major program activities, now involving about 90 countries and several international organizations, include: the scientific program, the promotion of education and training, the enhancement of information exchange, support of technical assistance, and the enlargement of regional cooperation. A significant amount of activity related to hydrological data networks and forecasting is carried on in an Operational Hydrology Programme by the WMO, chiefly through its Commission for Hydrology. Other international governmental organizations with a strong interest in water include the UN, the UN Development Programme, the FAO, the WHO, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the UN Environment Programme, the International Standardization Organization, and developmental institutions such as the World Bank. The specialized interests of researchers outside of the governmental structure, are met through association in various scientific and technical organizations which are world wide in scope and membership. Notwithstanding a sometimes

  7. Climate, soil organic layer, and nitrogen jointly drive forest development after fire in the North American boreal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trugman, A. T.; Fenton, N. J.; Bergeron, Y.; Xu, X.; Welp, L. R.; Medvigy, D.

    2016-09-01

    Previous empirical work has shown that feedbacks between fire severity, soil organic layer thickness, tree recruitment, and forest growth are important factors controlling carbon accumulation after fire disturbance. However, current boreal forest models inadequately simulate this feedback. We address this deficiency by updating the ED2 model to include a dynamic feedback between soil organic layer thickness, tree recruitment, and forest growth. The model is validated against observations spanning monthly to centennial time scales and ranging from Alaska to Quebec. We then quantify differences in forest development after fire disturbance resulting from changes in soil organic layer accumulation, temperature, nitrogen availability, and atmospheric CO2. First, we find that ED2 accurately reproduces observations when a dynamic soil organic layer is included. Second, simulations indicate that the presence of a thick soil organic layer after a mild fire disturbance decreases decomposition and productivity. The combination of the biological and physical effects increases or decreases total ecosystem carbon depending on local conditions. Third, with a 4°C temperature increase, some forests transition from undergoing succession to needleleaf forests to recruiting multiple cohorts of broadleaf trees, decreasing total ecosystem carbon by ˜40% after 300 years. However, the presence of a thick soil organic layer due to a persistently mild fire regime can prevent this transition and mediate carbon losses even under warmer temperatures. Fourth, nitrogen availability regulates successional dynamics; broadleaf species are less competitive with needleleaf trees under low nitrogen regimes. Fifth, the boreal forest shows additional short-term capacity for carbon sequestration as atmospheric CO2 increases.

  8. Global Stability Through Security Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    operations via piracy , smuggling of weapons, narcotics, human trafficking, conducting terrorist operations, and if possible terrorist operations with...sovereign state and region. This collaboration, coordination, and cooperation require a unity of purpose and reading from the “same sheet of music .” The...requirement for three distinct organizations to operate together and be on the same “sheet of music ” must demand a strategic, comprehensive assessment

  9. Challenges to evaluate the impact of the Internet: The case of the organizations of the Central American civil society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemly Camacho Jiménez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main methodological and conceptual challenges when doing research on the impact of the Internet on civil society organizations in Central America. It also presents a summary of the nine most important findings. The main purpose of this research, undertaken since the end of 1999, is to assess how technology has transformed civil society organizations and their ability to fulfill their missions. This work is led by the Social Impact of ICTs Research Area in Fundación Acceso based in Costa Rica

  10. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  11. Cooperative Projects - Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubotz, Wiebke; Brücher, Tim; Vamborg, Freja

    2017-04-01

    Today's research in Germany is often organized in large projects and collaborations, so-called cooperative projects ("Verbundprojekte" in German). These projects are defined by a large number of members (more than 50) and participating institutes, e.g. institutes of research organizations such as the Max-Planck society and the Leibniz association, Helmholtz centres, and universities. For coordination purposes these projects usually have a general project manager or project coordinator close to the speaker of the project. Despite this overarching position, it is often challenging for the project manager to really overview the entire project as he is, for example, not involved in the individual institute's recruitment processes or research connections to other institutes via other projects. Additionally, there is neither a formal obligation for the principal investigators and project scientists to report changes within their sub-projects, nor any formal dependency between these sub-projects and the coordination office to ensure a contemporary update of changes and progress in their specific tasks of the project. Therefore, the idea of a coordinating position to oversee the entire cooperative project is sometimes difficult to reach. Furthermore, project managers usually have no formal connection to other project managers. This means that recurrent tasks, for which cooperation between project managers would be helpful, need to be reinvented for each project anew. Due to the lack of this more formalized cooperation between project managers, acquired expertise is often lost. We will illustrate the challenges of this kind of project management based on projects at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (Hamburg) and the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research (GEOMAR, Kiel), but also point out opportunities that arise within a large collaboration of partners. Moreover, we present an approach to coordinate management processes in order to overcome some of the aforementioned

  12. North American networking activities on non-wood forest products by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul. Vantomme

    2001-01-01

    FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, is the largest autonomous agency within the United Nations system dealing with agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and related disciplines. FAO provides a neutral forum for policy dialogue, a source of information and knowledge, technical assistance, and advice to 180 member countries. Technical...

  13. Monitoring and evaluation of the PAHO/WHO cooperation project, the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program: a mid-term assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Joaquín; Tasca, Renato; Suárez, Julio

    2016-09-01

    Working relations between the Pan- American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) and Brazilian health institutions accumulated a long history of cooperation with mutual benefits, which in many cases were shared with other nations under various cooperation frameworks among countries for health development. A milestone in this relationship is the technical cooperation provided by PAHO/WHO to the More Doctors Program (Programa Mais Médicos - PMM). This cooperation has added both strategic value in reducing gaps in health equality and has capitalized on the unique nature of the Cuba-Brazil South-South cooperation experience, triangulated through PAHO/WHO. This paper discusses PAHO/WHO's role in the evaluation of its technical cooperation within PMM. A Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Framework has been developed in order to progressively identify the advances in coverage and quality of primary health care provided by the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) through the PMM. Special attention was given to identify best practices in health services, to analyze results and impacts of the PMM, and to manage and share knowledge that has been produced by its implementation, through a web-based knowledge platform. Some relevant results of PMM are briefly presented and discussed.

  14. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  15. Can German wine cooperatives compete on quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how German cooperative wineries compete with private (i.e. non-cooperative wineries regarding reputation, quality categorization and varietal selection. Among the reasons why German cooperatives lag behind in terms of reputation for quality wine are organization principles of cooperatives and the difficulty to manage growers supplying grapes of different qualities. Cooperatives turn their supply of grapes into wine often classified as quality wine without much distinction. Conversely, privately owned wineries growing their own grapes may have more control over quality along their production chain and are able to produce more distinctive wines. In turn, they gain more reputation with final consumers with respect to quality. We analyze data for private and cooperative wineries from Germany. Our objective is to identify key differences in terms of reputation for quality wine production. Specifically, we look at interaction effects based on organizational form (cooperative vs. private and the German wine quality categorization (i.e. basic quality wine vs. Kabinett, Spätlese, or Auslese as well as varietal effects. We employ a hedonic pricing model to test the hypothesis that wines produced by private producers receive a reputation premium relative to cooperatives. Moreover, we hypothesize that private wineries receive a price premium relative to coopera- tives for other than basic quality wines and distinct varieties such as Riesling and Pinot Noir. The empirical analysis confirms both hypotheses. The estimated coefficients indicate that cooperatives are unable to gain quality premium for most quality cat- egories and gain price premiums only for non-distinct varieties such as Lemberger and Dornfelder. We can argue that German cooperatives are stuck in the low quality corner of the quality and variety spectrum and are currently not able to compete with private wineries in terms of quality. This result supports the observation

  16. Dilemmas of partial cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Related to the often applied cooperation models of social dilemmas, we deal with scenarios in which defection dominates cooperation, but an intermediate fraction of cooperators, that is, "partial cooperation," would maximize the overall performance of a group of individuals. Of course, such a solution comes at the expense of cooperators that do not profit from the overall maximum. However, because there are mechanisms accounting for mutual benefits after repeated interactions or through evolutionary mechanisms, such situations can constitute "dilemmas" of partial cooperation. Among the 12 ordinally distinct, symmetrical 2 x 2 games, three (barely considered) variants are correspondents of such dilemmas. Whereas some previous studies investigated particular instances of such games, we here provide the unifying framework and concisely relate it to the broad literature on cooperation in social dilemmas. Complementing our argumentation, we study the evolution of partial cooperation by deriving the respective conditions under which coexistence of cooperators and defectors, that is, partial cooperation, can be a stable outcome of evolutionary dynamics in these scenarios. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such models for research on the large biodiversity and variation in cooperative efforts both in biological and social systems.

  17. 美国非营利组织的运作管理及其启示%The Management of Nonprofit Organization in American and Its Inspiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亚惠

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces relatively the management of Nonprofit Organization in American.Nonprofit Organization has active functions in promoting social autonomy and harmonizing her relations with the government and its people.In addition,the author gives us some references for developing Nonprofit Organization in China.%美国的非营利组织在美国社会的文化教育、技术进步、医疗保健、市场监督、环境保护等方方面面发挥作用,在整个国家经济发展和社会保障中占据着非常重要的位置。考察美国的非营利组织的发展与管理,从中吸取有益的经验做法,有助于加快中国非营利组织的健康发展。

  18. Regional Cooperation in Central Asia & Shanghai Cooperation Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Of all the post-Soviet states, the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan experienced at the dawn of independence the most acute crisis in regime-building, economic self-support and security assurance. The risk of marginalization derived from inborn weakness of geo-political seclusion coupled with widening gap with the world mainstream has caused widespread concern.

  19. Reducing Low Birth Weight among African Americans in the Midwest: A Look at How Faith-Based Organizations Are Poised to Inform and Influence Health Communication on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) rates remain the highest among African Americans despite public health efforts to address these disparities; with some of the highest racial disparities in the Midwest (Kansas). The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) perspective offers an explanation for how LBW contributes to racial health disparities among African Americans and informs a community directed health communication framework for creating sustainable programs to address these disparities. Trusted community organizations such as faith-based organizations are well situated to explain health communication gaps that may occur over the life course. These entities are underutilized in core health promotion programming targeting underserved populations and can prove essential for addressing developmental origins of LBW among African Americans. Extrapolating from focus group data collected from African American church populations as part of a social marketing health promotion project on cancer prevention, we theoretically consider how a similar communication framework and approach may apply to address LBW disparities. Stratified focus groups (n = 9) were used to discover emergent themes about disease prevention, and subsequently applied to explore how faith-based organizations (FBOs) inform strategic health care (media) advocacy and health promotion that potentially apply to address LBW among African Americans. We argue that FBOs are poised to meet health promotion and health communication needs among African American women who face social barriers in health. PMID:28165368

  20. Reducing Low Birth Weight among African Americans in the Midwest: A Look at How Faith-Based Organizations Are Poised to Inform and Influence Health Communication on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Y. Lumpkins

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW rates remain the highest among African Americans despite public health efforts to address these disparities; with some of the highest racial disparities in the Midwest (Kansas. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD perspective offers an explanation for how LBW contributes to racial health disparities among African Americans and informs a community directed health communication framework for creating sustainable programs to address these disparities. Trusted community organizations such as faith-based organizations are well situated to explain health communication gaps that may occur over the life course. These entities are underutilized in core health promotion programming targeting underserved populations and can prove essential for addressing developmental origins of LBW among African Americans. Extrapolating from focus group data collected from African American church populations as part of a social marketing health promotion project on cancer prevention, we theoretically consider how a similar communication framework and approach may apply to address LBW disparities. Stratified focus groups (n = 9 were used to discover emergent themes about disease prevention, and subsequently applied to explore how faith-based organizations (FBOs inform strategic health care (media advocacy and health promotion that potentially apply to address LBW among African Americans. We argue that FBOs are poised to meet health promotion and health communication needs among African American women who face social barriers in health.

  1. Reducing Low Birth Weight among African Americans in the Midwest: A Look at How Faith-Based Organizations Are Poised to Inform and Influence Health Communication on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Saint Onge, Jarron M

    2017-02-04

    Low birth weight (LBW) rates remain the highest among African Americans despite public health efforts to address these disparities; with some of the highest racial disparities in the Midwest (Kansas). The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) perspective offers an explanation for how LBW contributes to racial health disparities among African Americans and informs a community directed health communication framework for creating sustainable programs to address these disparities. Trusted community organizations such as faith-based organizations are well situated to explain health communication gaps that may occur over the life course. These entities are underutilized in core health promotion programming targeting underserved populations and can prove essential for addressing developmental origins of LBW among African Americans. Extrapolating from focus group data collected from African American church populations as part of a social marketing health promotion project on cancer prevention, we theoretically consider how a similar communication framework and approach may apply to address LBW disparities. Stratified focus groups (n = 9) were used to discover emergent themes about disease prevention, and subsequently applied to explore how faith-based organizations (FBOs) inform strategic health care (media) advocacy and health promotion that potentially apply to address LBW among African Americans. We argue that FBOs are poised to meet health promotion and health communication needs among African American women who face social barriers in health.

  2. Climate controls on C3 vs. C4 productivity in North American grasslands from carbon isotope composition of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fischer, J.C.; Tieszen, L.L.; Schimel, D.S.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the ??13 C of soil organic matter (SOM) and fine roots from 55 native grassland sites widely distributed across the US and Canadian Great Plains to examine the relative production of C3 vs. C4 plants (hereafter %C4) at the continental scale. Our climate vs. %C4 results agreed well with North American field studies on %C4, but showed bias with respect to %C4 from a US vegetation database (statsgo) and weak agreement with a physiologically based prediction that depends on crossover temperature. Although monthly average temperatures have been used in many studies to predict %C4, our analysis shows that high temperatures are better predictors of %C4. In particular, we found that July climate (average of daily high temperature and month's total rainfall) predicted %C4 better than other months, seasons or annual averages, suggesting that the outcome of competition between C3 and C4 plants in North American grasslands was particularly sensitive to climate during this narrow window of time. Root ??13 C increased about 1??? between the A and B horizon, suggesting that C 4 roots become relatively more common than C3 roots with depth. These differences in depth distribution likely contribute to the isotopic enrichment with depth in SOM where both C3 and C4 grasses are present. ?? 2008 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Evolution of cooperation in multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Reinares, Irene; Arenas, Alex; Floría, Luis Mario

    2012-01-01

    We study evolutionary game dynamics on structured populations in which individuals take part in several layers of networks of interactions simultaneously. This multiplex of interdependent networks accounts for the different kind of social ties each individual has. By coupling the evolutionary dynamics of a Prisoner's Dilemma game in each of the networks, we show that the resilience of cooperative behaviors for extremely large values of the temptation to defect is enhanced by the multiplex structure. Furthermore, this resilience is intrinsically related to a non-trivial organization of cooperation across the network layers, thus providing a new way out for cooperation to survive in structured populations.

  4. Cooperation and discord in global climate policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Robert O.; Victor, David G.

    2016-06-01

    Effective mitigation of climate change will require deep international cooperation, which is much more difficult to organize than the shallow coordination observed so far. Assessing the prospects for effective joint action on climate change requires an understanding of both the structure of the climate change problem and national preferences for policy action. Preferences have become clearer in light of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties in December 2015. Although deep cooperation remains elusive, many partial efforts could build confidence and lead to larger cuts in emissions. This strategy of decentralized policy coordination will not solve the climate problem, but it could lead incrementally to deeper cooperation.

  5. Comparison of values derived from selected flours by fat acidity methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists and the International Organization for Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R H; Erickson, R L

    1988-01-01

    Fat acidity values were determined on 8 commercially available flours by the American Association of Cereal Chemists method (AACC-02-01A) and by the International Organization for Standardization method (ISO-7305). Comparisons of means obtained by these 2 methods indicated that the ISO method produced results that were 1.4-2.5 times greater (P less than 0.001) than those for the AACC method. These data are consistent with a previous report which indicated that acidic materials (phosphates and amino acids) other than fatty acids are extracted by 95% alcohol (ISO method), whereas fatty acids alone are extracted by petroleum ether (AACC method). Fat acidity values obtained by AACC methodology employing Soxhlet and continuous extraction were also compared. No difference in fat acidity means existed with respect to extraction technique except for an aged whole wheat flour sample which produced a higher value (P = 0.05) by continuous extraction.

  6. Statistical physics of human cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž; Jordan, Jillian J.; Rand, David G.; Wang, Zhen; Boccaletti, Stefano; Szolnoki, Attila

    2017-05-01

    Extensive cooperation among unrelated individuals is unique to humans, who often sacrifice personal benefits for the common good and work together to achieve what they are unable to execute alone. The evolutionary success of our species is indeed due, to a large degree, to our unparalleled other-regarding abilities. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of human cooperation remains a formidable challenge. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that it is important to focus on the collective behavior that emerges as the result of the interactions among individuals, groups, and even societies. Non-equilibrium statistical physics, in particular Monte Carlo methods and the theory of collective behavior of interacting particles near phase transition points, has proven to be very valuable for understanding counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes. By treating models of human cooperation as classical spin models, a physicist can draw on familiar settings from statistical physics. However, unlike pairwise interactions among particles that typically govern solid-state physics systems, interactions among humans often involve group interactions, and they also involve a larger number of possible states even for the most simplified description of reality. The complexity of solutions therefore often surpasses that observed in physical systems. Here we review experimental and theoretical research that advances our understanding of human cooperation, focusing on spatial pattern formation, on the spatiotemporal dynamics of observed solutions, and on self-organization that may either promote or hinder socially favorable states.

  7. Non-cooperative planning theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogetoft, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Planning in a general sense is concerned with the design of communication and decision making mechanisms in organizations where information and choice are decentralized. Non-cooperative planning theory as it is developed in this book treats the incentive aspects hereof. It stresses how strategic behavior and opportunism may impede planning, and how this can be coped with via the organization of communication and decision making, the design of information and control systems, and the development of incentive schemes. In particular, the book contains a thorough investigation of incentive provision in information production.

  8. Financial cooperation benefits China and Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Xinhua,financial cooperation between China and Latin American coun.tries has created substantial benefits for both sides,the president of the China Development Bank (CDB)said in Beijing.Chen Yang,president of the CDB,made the remarks ahead of Vice President Xi Jinping's upcoming visits to Cuba,Uruguay and Chile.Xi will visit the three countries between June 4 and 13.“Xi's visits will be of great importance in further promoting economic and financial cooperation between China and these three countries,” Chen said.

  9. Designing Cooperative Gamification: Conceptualization and Prototypical Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Morschheuser, Benedikt; Maedche, Alexander; Walter, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    Organizations deploy gamification in CSCW systems to enhance motivation and behavioral outcomes of users. However, gamification approaches often cause competition between users, which might be inappropriate for working environments that seek cooperation. Drawing on the social interdependence theory, this paper provides a classification for gamification features and insights about the design of cooperative gamification. Using the example of an innovation community of a German engineering compa...

  10. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed their li......To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...... of this research project. The main objective of this research is to better understand the proces of collective maintenance of these ancient water tunnels. The study evaluates the social, cultural, political and environmental factors that have driven abandonment and decay of qanats in Syria. It tries to reconcile...

  11. Qualitative analysis of halogenated organic contaminants in American eel by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Jonathan D; Pacepavicius, Grazina; Lebeuf, Michel; Brown, R Stephen; Backus, Sean; Hodson, Peter V; Alaee, Mehran

    2014-12-01

    Target compound analysis with scanning mass spectrometers such as quadrupole or magnetic sector instruments is used extensively in environmental chemistry because of the selectivity, sensitivity, and robustness. Yet, target compound analysis selectively ignores the majority of compounds present in a sample, especially in complex matrices like fish. In this study, time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to screen for and identify halogenated compounds in American eels (Anguilla rostrata). Individual and then pooled eel samples were analysed using electron ionization and electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) modes. Eels were differentiated by principal component analysis of chemical profiles and were grouped corresponding to their capture location, all with a single instrument injection per sample. Bromine containing compounds were further investigated by taking advantage of the selectivity of ECNI by utilizing the Br(-) ion m/z 79 and 81. A total of 51 brominated compounds were detected and their identities were attempted by authentic standards, library searching, and/or chemical formula prediction based on accurate mass measurements. Several PBDEs were identified in the samples, and the majority of the non-PBDEs identified were bromophenols, bromoanisoles, and bromobenzenes. These classes of compounds are synthesized for use in flame retardant production either as intermediates or as final products. However, their occurrence in eels was most likely the result of metabolism or break-down products of high production volume flame retardants like polybrominated diphenyl ethers and bromophenoxy compounds. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cooperation and Consensus Seeking for Teams of Unmanned Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-30

    Proceedings of the American Control Conference , 2005. [2] B. A. White, A. Tsourdos, I. Ashokoraj, S. Subchan, and R...Li, R. W. Beard, T. W. McLain, and R. K. Mehra, "Forest fire monitoring using multiple small UAVs," in Proceedings of the American Control Conference , 2005...for cooperative boundary tracking," in Proceedings of the American Control Conference , 2005. [15] S. Susca, S.

  13. 基于样本相关度和SOM的改进型Wang-Mendel算法%An Improved Wang-Mendel Method Based on Cooperation Degree of Sample and Self-Organizing Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缑锦; 陈文瑜

    2013-01-01

    Wang-Mendel algorithm is commonly used as a classic method to generate fuzzy rule base. But rules with low confidence are usually extracted when noise appears in the sample data set, while its efficiency also often drops fast when the scale of sample data increases. To solve those problems, two methods, cooperation relationship and self-organizing mapping ( SOM) neural network, are introduced. Cooperation relationship among sample data improves the accuracy of rules and approximation ability to the original model. On the other hand, SOM can well preprocess sample data for denoising and reduce its scale through a self-adaptive learning procedure of weights network. Then an improved Wang-Mendel algorithm is proposed based on cooperation relationship degree of sample data and SOM. The experimental results, including trigonometric function approximation and artificial driving simulation of a train operation control system, show its completeness, robustness and operating efficiency.%Wang-Mendel算法是生成模糊规则库的经典算法。处理过程中,当样本数据存在噪声时,该算法易提取出可信度较低的规则;当样本数据规模增大时,算法效率易快速下降。针对这两个问题,引入样本间协调关系可提高结果的准确性,改善逼近性能。利用SOM算法对样本预处理可有效去噪,且其对样本分布的自适应学习能力可在一定程度上减小样本规模。基于样本相关度和SOM算法,文中提出一种Wang-Mendel模糊规则提取算法,函数逼近和列车控制系统的仿真实验结果表明其具有较好的完备性、鲁棒性和效率。

  14. Genetic Enhancer Analysis Reveals that FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 and OsMADS3 Co-operatively Regulate Maintenance and Determinacy of the Flower Meristem in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yukiko; Tanaka, Wakana; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Kurata, Tetsuya; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2017-05-01

    Meristems such as the shoot apical meristem and flower meristem (FM) act as a reservoir of stem cells, which reproduce themselves and supply daughter cells for the differentiation of lateral organs. In Oryza sativa (rice), the FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 (FON2) gene, which is similar to Arabidopsis CLAVATA3, is involved in meristem maintenance. In fon2 mutants, the numbers of floral organs are increased due to an enlargement of the FM. To identify new factors regulating meristem maintenance in rice, we performed a genetic screening of mutants that enhanced the fon2 mutation, and found a mutant line (2B-424) in which pistil number was dramatically increased. By using a map-based approach and next-generation sequencing, we found that the line 2B-424 had a complete loss-of-function mutation (a large deletion) in OsMADS3, a class C MADS-box gene that is known to be involved in stamen specification. Disruption of OsMADS3 in the fon2 mutant by CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated protein 9) technology caused a flower phenotype similar to that of 2B-424, confirming that the gene responsible for enhancement of fon2 was OsMADS3. Morphological analysis showed that the fon2 and osmads3 mutations synergistically affected pistil development and FM determinacy. We also found that whorl 3 was duplicated in mature flowers and the FM was enlarged at an early developmental stage in severe osmads3 single mutants. These findings suggest that OsMADS3 is involved not only in FM determinacy in late flower development but also in FM activity in early flower development. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Competitive Relation and Mutual Cooperation of Digital Publishing Organization and Digital Library%数字出版机构与数字图书馆的竞争关系及相互合作的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 张凌

    2015-01-01

    随着数字出版机构的出现,图书馆在信息交流中的地位受到了前所未有的挑战。然而,数字出版机构和图书馆都有各自的优劣势,应该在认清其竞争关系的基础上,努力寻求两者之间的合作。文章从价格、资源、读者、服务这四个方面切入,深入研究和了解数字出版机构和数字图书馆之间的竞争关系,并在此基础上,就两者在内容和服务两个方面的合作可行性进行了探讨并提出了具体的思路和措施。%Along with the emergence of digital publishing organization, position of library in information communication has been hitherto unknown challenge. However, digital publishing institutions and libraries, have their respective advantages and disadvantages, We should be based on the competition relationship, seek the cooperation between the two. Therefore, this paper starts from the price, resources, reader service, these four aspects, the relationship between competitive in-depth study and understanding of digital publishing and digital library, and on this basis, the feasibility of cooperation in two aspects of content and services are discussed and put forward some proposals and measures.

  16. American Scholars Visited SCUN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuChengfa

    2004-01-01

    On October 18, South-Central University for Nationalities (SCUN)welcomed an American academic delegation headed by Professor David Van Buren, vice chancellor of Platteville Campus of University of Wisconsin(UW-P). At the reception ceremony,Professor Li Buhai, Party Chairman of SCUN, and Professor Chen Dayun,president of the university made a brief introduction to the school, and then both parties reached a preliminary agreement on the cooperative education.

  17. 论东亚区域合作中的美国因素和主导权问题%On the American factors and the Questions of the Leading Power in East Asia Area Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英英

    2012-01-01

    The idea of the East Asian community means that the countries of East Asia which are adjacent geologically, hoped to cooperate with each other for a long time and developed integration process, so as to form an integrative mechanism. Paying attention to the regional cooperation in East Asia is the key of our country's big neighborhood strategy. But unlike Asia Pacific cooperation and the Asia Pacific Union, there are more difficul- ties in developing the regional cooperation of East Asia and in constructing East Asian Community. The most dif- ficult problems for East Asian Community are how to deal with the U. S. factor and the leading power in Asia- Pacific region.%东亚区域合作是我国所在的亚太和东亚地区的两大机制(以APEC为代表的亚太合作机制和以东盟+3、东亚峰会为代表的东亚合作机制)之一。重视东亚区域合作是我国大周边战略的关键,但是,相对于亚太合作或亚太合作机制,东亚合作机制的建设难度更大,东亚一体化的目标更加遥不可及,主要难题是如何处理美国因素和解决主导权问题。

  18. Comparative analysis of moral distress and values of the work organization between American and Spanish podiatric physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo; Fuentes, Paloma Salvadores; Trepal, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Moral distress is a stress symptom arising from situations that involve ethical dimensions where the health-care provider believes that he or she is unable to preserve all interests and values at stake. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impact of, and identify possible differences in, moral distress in podiatric physicians in the United States and Spain and to determine the ethical principles most closely related to moral distress. A 2008 e-mail survey of 93 US podiatric physicians and 93 Spanish podiatric physicians (N = 186) presented statements about different ethical dilemmas, values, and goals in the workplace. Although moral distress is strongly present across the sample for all of the questions, the US sample shows higher levels of any kind of moral distress concerning questions about patients' treatment and economic constraints, overload of paperwork, and acting against one's conscience. In the US sample, 91.4% of physicians agreed mostly or completely with the statement that they often had to compromise their own values to cope with the demands of the workplace; 89.25% of US podiatric physicians indicated that their own professional values were congruent with the values of the organization; and a similar percentage (77.5%) reported a strong identification with the goals and framework of their work organization. The Spanish sample had similar results. The results underline the significance of moral distress for both samples, mainly related to time constraints and organizational aspects concerning patients and lack of resources.

  19. The role of cooperation for improved stewardship of marine social-ecological systems in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Villasante

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Latin American and Caribbean (LAC countries are among the worlds' richest in marine biodiversity. Fish stocks in these regions are important for fishing communities, and fishing activities engage several million people. These fisheries depend on the natural services provided by a diverse range of marine social-ecological systems, but many LAC fisheries are in a degraded state, and concerns about overexploitation are widespread. With most fishery resources fully exploited or overexploited, opportunities for development lie primarily in restoring depleted stocks and using stocks more efficiently. The papers published in the Special Feature "Cooperation, Local Communities, and Marine Social-Ecological Systems: New Findings from Latin America" present a range of experiences with ecosystem stewardship in the region and highlight promising perspectives for the future. The Special Feature consists of papers that deal with new findings from case studies which show how cooperation is key for building resilience in LAC fisheries. These case studies illustrate the effects of different types of cooperation and the roles of diverse stakeholders (fishers, scientists, environmental nongovernmental organizations, and national administrations, among others in different countries of the region. Combined, these papers describe social processes, leadership, and institutional and organizational changes of relevance for stewardship of marine social-ecological systems in Latin America. The field of resilience research is still in an explorative phase in the region, and our ambition with this Special Feature is that the new discoveries presented may stimulate additional research in this field, including increased international cooperation with LAC scientists.

  20. Workshops with expedition trips organized by the Central Botanical Gardens of NAS of Belarus - an effective instrument of international cooperation between botanical gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridovich Elena Vladimirovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available NASB Central Botanical Garden (CBG in 2013-2016 made by the lead agency, the organizer of four international scientific workshops with with expedition trips "Strategies and methods of botanical gardens for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of the natural flora" (Minsk, protected nature areas (PNAs of the Republic of Belarus, which was attended by representatives of leading botanical gardens of the US, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Poland and Lithuania. During the scientific seminars discussions and expeditions at 2013-2015 the overall goal of joint work - addressing the conservation of biodiversity of flora and strengthening the role of scientific support for optimal implementation of the Global Strategy Plant Conservation (GSPC were defined, as well as specific joint projects are elaborated.

  1. 农民专业合作组织对河北省棉农收入的影响%Effect of Farmer’s Specialized Cooperative Organization on Income of Cotton Growers in Hebei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑云; 袁伟民; 陈曦; 陶佩君

    2014-01-01

    为了给河北棉花产业的可持续发展提供参考,通过实地问卷方式对河北省中南部棉花主产区的南宫、威县、景县、冀州4县(市)的400户棉农进行调查,并采用多元线性回归分析农民专业合作组织对河北省棉农收入的影响。结果表明:1)在农户基本特征变量和棉农种植情况变量中,文化程度、种植规模、每hm2总成本、农户是否参加合作组织对棉农收入的影响达显著水平,性别和家庭人口对棉农收入的影响不显著。2)在合作组织提供的服务项目变量中,生产资料供应和病虫害防治服务功能对棉农收入的影响达极显著,即在其他条件不变的情况下,农户通过合作组织每购买1000元生产资料,其收入相应增加78元;每增加1次服务,棉农的收入增加69元。%The effect of farmer’s specialized cooperative organization on income of cotton growers was analyzed by the multiple linear regression model based on the data of questionnaire survey from 400 growers,10 villages of Nangong,Wei,Jing and Ji counties in South Central Hebei to provide a reference for sustainable development of cotton industry in Hebei.Cultural degree,planting scale,total cost/hm2 and farmers whether to participate in cooperation organization had the significant effect on income of cotton growers but gender and family members had no significant effect on income of cotton growers in variables of farmers'basic characteristics and planting condition.Supply of productive means and pest control had very significant effect on income of cotton growers in variable of service item,which indicates that the grower’s income can be increased by 78 Yuan and 69 Yuan by purchasing 1000 Yuan productive means and each service from specialized cooperative organization respectively without any changes of other conditions.

  2. Cooperative wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative devices and mechanisms are increasingly important to enhance the performance of wireless communications and networks, with their ability to decrease power consumption and packet loss rate and increase system capacity, computation, and network resilience. Considering the wide range of applications, strategies, and benefits associated with cooperative wireless communications, researchers and product developers need a succinct understanding of relevant theory, fundamentals, and techniques to navigate this challenging field. ""Cooperative Wireless Communications"" provides just that. I

  3. Differences in dissolved organic matter lability between alpine glaciers and alpine rock glaciers of the American West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E.; Fegel, T. S., II; Baron, J.; Boot, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    While alpine glaciers in montane regions represent the largest flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from global ice melt no research has examined the bioavailability of DOM melted out of glacial ice in the western continental United States. Furthermore, rock glaciers are an order of magnitude more abundant than ice glaciers in U.S., yet are not included in budgets for perennial ice carbon stores. Our research aims to understand differences in the bioavailability of carbon from ice glaciers and rock glaciers along the Central Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Identical microbial communities were fed standardized amounts of DOM from four different ice glacier-rock glaciers pairs. Using laboratory incubations, paired with mass spectrometry based metabolomics and 16S gene sequencing; we were able to examine functional definitions of DOM lability in glacial ice. We hypothesized that even though DOM quantities are similar in the outputs of both glacial types in our study area, ice glacial DOM would be more bioavailable than DOM from rock glaciers due to higher proportions of byproducts from microbial metabolism than rock glacier DOM, which has higher amounts of "recalcitrant" plant material. Our results show that DOM from ice glaciers is more labile than DOM from geologically and geographically similar paired rock glaciers. Ice glacier DOM represents an important pool of labile carbon to headwater ecosystems of the Rocky Mountains. Metabolomic analysis shows numerous compounds from varying metabolite pathways, including byproducts of nitrification before and after incubation, meaning that, similar to large maritime glaciers in Alaska and Europe, subglacial environments in the mountain ranges of the United States are hotspots for biological activity and processing of organic carbon.

  4. Cooperation Networks: Endogeneity and Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, S

    2006-01-01

    Insights from the Complex Systems literature are employed to develop a computational model of truly endogenous strategic network formation. Artificial Adaptive Agents, implemented as Finite State Automata (FSA), play a modified two-player IPD game with an option to further develop the interaction space as part of their strategy. Several insights result from this minor modification: first, I find that network formation is a necessary condition for cooperation to be sustainable but that both the frequency of interaction and the degree to which edge formation impacts agent mixing are both necessary conditions for cooperative networks. Second, within the FSA-modified IPD frame-work, a rich ecology of agents and network topologies is observed and described. Third, the system dynamics are investigated and reveal that initially simple dynamics with small interaction length between agents gives way to complex, a-periodic dynamics with self-organized critical properties when interaction lengths are increased by a sing...

  5. Farmers, cooperatives, new food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy

    Executive Summary 1. Innovation intensity varies by several orders of magnitude across economic sectors. According to the evidence presented in Chapter 1, this is mainly due to differences in the demand for innovation. Thus, the relatively low levels of product orientated R & D for the food sectors...... of most countries are consistent with the comparatively long penetration periods and low success rates experienced with many new food products. 2. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that the demand for innovation within the food sector is positively related to the degree of processing. 3. The constitutive...... cooperative is invested with limited authorities and does not normally control the production of its membership. Also, the well-known equal-treatment proviso serves to secure the cohesion of the organization by preventing the distribution of the cooperative gain from being politicized. As a result...

  6. Cooperation between CERN and ITER

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN and the International Fusion Organisation ITER have just signed a first cooperation agreeement. Kaname Ikeda, the Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organisation (ITER) (on the right) and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN, signing the agreement.The Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organization, Mr Kaname Ikeda, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement at a meeting on the Meyrin site on Thursday 6 March. One of the main purposes of this agreement is for CERN to give ITER the benefit of its experience in the field of technology as well as in administrative domains such as finance, procurement, human resources and informatics through the provision of consultancy services. Currently in its start-up phase at its Cadarache site, 70 km from Marseilles (France), ITER will focus its research on the scientific and technical feasibility of using fusion energy as a fu...

  7. American Board of Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... separate application is no longer required. The American Board of Surgery is an independent, nonprofit organization founded in 1937 to provide board certification to individuals who have met a defined ...

  8. American Academy of Audiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News News Audiology Today Journal of the American Academy of Audiology Books Brochures Multimedia Guidelines and Standards ... October 4, 2017. VIEW ALL CORPORATE PARTNERS The Academy and affiliated organizations extend a warm thank you ...

  9. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... in the future? How and why do they have so much influence over us, and what influences them? How do they contribute to and detract from the meaningfulness of lives, and how might we improve them so they better serve our needs and desires? This Very Short Introductions addresses all of these questions...

  10. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  11. Futures for energy cooperatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A listing of Federal agencies and programs with potential funding for community-scale cooperatives using conservation measures and solar technologies is presented in Section 1. Section 2 presents profiles of existing community energy cooperatives describing their location, history, membership, services, sources of finance and technical assistance. A condensed summary from a recent conference on Energy Cooperatives featuring notes on co-op members' experiences, problems, and opportunities is presented in Section 3. Section 4 lists contacts for additional information. A National Consumer Cooperative Bank Load Application is shown in the appendix.

  12. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    a gravitational pull which goes beyond economic problems. Furthermore, the EU has gradually built up a coherent policy on many fields. The EU has become the “reform anchor” and most important cooperation partner for Egypt. The progress towards increasing Egypt’s “Stake in the Internal Market” places cooperation...... on an increasingly institutionalized basis. In terms of military cooperation the US is still the partner for Egypt. But outside the military sphere institutionalized cooperation is comparatively week. In particular the failure of the US to conclude a free-trade agreement has been crucial. But it would be wrong...

  13. An official American Thoracic Society/International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation/Society of Critical Care Medicine/Association of Organ and Procurement Organizations/United Network of Organ Sharing Statement: ethical and policy considerations in organ donation after circulatory determination of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Cynthia J; White, Douglas B; Truog, Robert D; Dubois, James; Cosio, Carmen C; Dhanani, Sonny; Chan, Kevin M; Corris, Paul; Dark, John; Fulda, Gerald; Glazier, Alexandra K; Higgins, Robert; Love, Robert; Mason, David P; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Shapiro, Ron; Shemie, Sam; Tracy, Mary Fran; Travaline, John M; Valapour, Maryam; West, Lori; Zaas, David; Halpern, Scott D

    2013-07-01

    Donation after circulatory determination of death (DCDD) has the potential to increase the number of organs available for transplantation. Because consent and management of potential donors must occur before death, DCDD raises unique ethical and policy issues. To develop an ethics and health policy statement on adult and pediatric DCDD relevant to critical care and transplantation stakeholders. A multidisciplinary panel of stakeholders was convened to develop an ethics and health policy statement. The panel consisted of representatives from the American Thoracic Society, Society of Critical Care Medicine, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, Association of Organ Procurement Organizations, and the United Network of Organ Sharing. The panel reviewed the literature, discussed important ethics and health policy considerations, and developed a guiding framework for decision making by stakeholders. A framework to guide ethics and health policy statement was established, which addressed the consent process, pre- and post mortem interventions, the determination of death, provisions of end-of-life care, and pediatric DCDD. The information presented in this Statement is based on the current evidence, experience, and clinical rationale. New clinical research and the development and dissemination of new technologies will eventually necessitate an update of this Statement.

  14. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  15. Organic salts formed by 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine and selected carboxylic acids via a variety of hydrogen bonds: Synthons cooperation, and crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Peiqi; Li, Qingyun; Li, Yingying; Wang, Kunpeng; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    By using solvent evaporation method, 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (TAPI) is employed to crystallize with a variety of acids, including 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (HDHBA), 3-nitrophthalic acid (H2NPA), 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid (H2ATIPIA), 2,5-dibromoterephthalic acid (H2DBTPA), 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid (H2NDSA), sebacic acid (H2SA), 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid (H3BTA), and biphenyl-2,2‧,5,5'-tetracarboxylic acid (H4BPTA). In all eight complexes, protons are completely exchanged from O atom of acid to nitrogen of TAPI in 1, 3, 4, and, 5, partly transferred in 2, 6, 7, and 8. The crystal structure of all eight complexes exhibit that classical robust hydrogen bonds X-H⋯X (X = O/N) direct the molecular crystals to bind together in a stacking modes. Classical hydrogen bond Nsbnd H⋯O is participated in forming all eight organic salts, while hydrogen bonding Osbnd H⋯O are found in constructing the diversity structures in salts 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7. The analysis shows that some classical supramolecular synthons, such as I R22(8), V R24(12), and VI S(6), are observed again in the construction of hydrogen-bonding networks. In the formation of layered and reticular structure, strong hydrogen bonds between water molecules and ligands having well-refined hydrogen atoms have been considered. Water molecules play an important role in building supramolecular structures of 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8. Moreover, salts 1-8 are further characterized and analyzed by element analysis, infrared radiation, thermogravimetric analysis, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and mass spectra.

  16. A Study of Student Affairs: The Principal Student Affairs Officer, the Functions, the Organization at American Colleges and Universities 1967-1972. A Preliminary Summary Report. Technical Report No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookston, Burns B.; Atkyns, Glenn C.

    This is a preliminary report of a major research project to study the changes in leadership, organization, and function that took place in the student affairs sector of American higher education during the period 1967-1972. The report is presented in summary fashion with emphasis on the survey, the principal student affairs officer, organizational…

  17. American Library Directory[TM], 2002-2003. Vol. 1: Libraries in the United States [and] Vol. 2: Libraries in Canada, Library Networks, Consortia & Schools, Organization Index, Personnel Index. 55th Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    The "American Library Directory[TM] 2002-2003," in two volumes, provides access to comparative data, additional resources, and sales prospects for the United States and Canadian library communities. Containing full profiles on public, academic, government, and special libraries, the totally updated 55th edition is organized by state and city. Each…

  18. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    on an increasingly institutionalized basis. In terms of military cooperation the US is still the partner for Egypt. But outside the military sphere institutionalized cooperation is comparatively week. In particular the failure of the US to conclude a free-trade agreement has been crucial. But it would be wrong...

  19. Readings in Cooperative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Jerome I.

    Twenty-three journal articles on cooperative education were selected in a review of the literature by two Temple University graduate classes in the fall of 1975 and the spring of 1976 for those interested in the role of coordinating cooperative education programs. The journal readings consist of articles on theory/planning (6), implementation…

  20. Coordination and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can be rationalized on individualistic grounds. Finally, psychological game theory should consider how players perceive their gaming situation. ---------------------------------------------------------...

  1. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own di

  2. Cooperative Science Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperative Learning, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Offers several elementary level cooperative science lesson plans. The article includes a recipe for cooperative class learning, instructions for making a compost pile, directions for finding evidence of energy, experiments in math and science using oranges to test density, and discussions of buoyancy using eggs. (SM)

  3. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Buckley; O'Farrell, Gail

    1990-01-01

    Presents essential characteristics and types of cooperative learning strategies for use in elementary social studies. Outlines exercises for forming teams and building team spirit. Points out such methods promote group interdependence and student responsibility for learning and teaching others. Highlights two cooperative group strategies, Jigsaw…

  4. Coordination and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can

  5. Coordination and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can

  6. [South-South cooperation to strengthen the medicines control laboratories of the Caribbean community (CARICOM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, José María; Castro, José Luis; Luque, María Celina; Spinetto, Marta; Saidón, Patricia; Fitzgerald, James

    2016-05-01

    Objective To describe the benefits obtained through South-South and triangular cooperation as a potential tool for strengthening medicine quality control in official medicines control laboratories (OMCLs) of the Region of the Americas. Methods Descriptive study of the project for strengthening drug quality control in OMCLs of the Caribbean community (CARICOM). Results Staff members of Argentina's National Administration for Drugs, Food, and Medical Technology (ANMAT) provided training to professionals from Guyana, Jamaica, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago. The project was funded by the Argentine Fund for South-South and Triangular Cooperation (FO.AR) and coordinated by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Documents on good laboratory practice (GLP) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Pan American Network for Drug Regulatory Harmonization (PANDRH) were reviewed, and the area of physical and chemical controls was strengthened, primarily for drugs to treat tuberculosis, malaria, and HIV/AIDS, all of which are strategically important to those countries. Conclusion This type of collaboration makes it possible to share experiences, optimize resources, harmonize procedures and regulations, and strengthen human resource capacities. In addition, it is a valuable tool for reducing asymmetries in various areas among the different countries of our Region.

  7. 农民专业合作组织知识网络及其运行机制研究%Study on Farmers' Professional Cooperative Organizations Knowledge Network and its Operation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤; 许晓丹

    2014-01-01

    提出农民专业合作组织通过联合政府、企业、高校科研院所等知识主体构建知识网络进行知识的共享和创新,从而提升自身能力。通过梳理农民专业合作组织知识网络的构成要素,明确定位其功能和利益诉求,进一步分析知识网络的知识创新机制、学习共享机制、信任约束机制、利益分配机制4个运行机制。%This paper presents farmer'professional cooperative organizations through joint government,enterprises,univer-sities and research institutions to build knowledge network for knowledge sharing and innovation so as to enhance their capa-bilities. This paper combing through FPAs knowledge network elements,clearly positions its function and interest demands, further analyzes the mechanism of knowledge network from four aspects:knowledge innovation mechanism,learning sharing mechanism,trust constraint mechanism,and interest distribution mechanism.

  8. Principle of «concern for community»: beyond «social responsibility» in cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Airton Cardoso Cançado; Maria de Fátima Arruda Souza; Ariádne Sclafoni Rigo; Jeová Torres Silva Junior

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the principle of cooperatives Concern for Community represents the way cooperatives interact to its community, especially in a social aspect. Thus there is no need of using the terminology «Social Responsibility for Cooperatives» once the cooperative principle already encompasses the social actions of the cooperative in a more complete and organic way. This discussion is related to traditional mimicry of cooperatives management (technics and tools) from manage...

  9. Culture and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-09-12

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities.

  10. 78 FR 49726 - International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation Finance/Regulatory/Energy Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... International Trade Administration International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation Finance/ Regulatory... International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC)--to organize participation by representatives of... power projects, including national energy planning authorities, nuclear regulatory institutions, energy...

  11. FEATURES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF ACTIONS OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES TO MAINTAIN LAW AND ORDER ON THE TERRITORY OF KRASNODAR REGION AS THE BASIS FOR A STABLE COOPERATION OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES WITH CIVIL SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kasyanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the coordination meeting of the region is the improvement of the activities of law enforcement and efficient interaction of Executive authorities with public organizations of the region. Currently the focus is on police cooperation with security agencies and Executive bodies to obtain information and exchange information about the phenomenon in General. During the celebrations is the involvement of law enforcement voluntary national and Cossack teams. Employees of road patrol services region in a timely manner ensures road safety, organized by the prevention and suppression of offenses. For the purpose of anti-terrorist security of the population and socio-infrastructure facilities, law enforcement officers, using technical means, service dogs in advance to survey the territory of places of mass public events. Currently in Krasnodar monitored more than 85 road intersections, public transport stops, transport stations of the city of Krasnodar, at the bus station, the airport and at the state, municipal educational institutions, administrative buildings, parks, squares, shopping, entertainment centers, temples. One of the main directions in 2014 - 2015 was the task of increasing the effectiveness of investigative activities. It was directly related to the implementation of the basic principle of justice – ensuring the inevitability of punishment for the committed crime. Technical possibilities of the modern cameras allow you to set even the personality of the person. Examples of successful work on disclosing especially grave crimes can be facts the disclosure of various crimes in the districts and localities of Krasnodar region. Examples of effective work on disclosing especially grave crimes can be facts the disclosure of various crimes in Krasnoarmeysky district, in cities of Krasnodar, Armavir, Kropotkin and Novorossiysk. A full-fledged activity of civil society depends on the social environment, lack of criminality.

  12. ADB Cooperation with Civil Society Annual Report 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2012-01-01

    Civil society organizations, including nongovernment organizations (NGOs), are important stakeholders of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The ADB Cooperation with Civil Society Annual Report 2010 presents an overview of the year’s work in cooperating with civil society organizations, including NGOs, in country and regional programming work, project operations, as well as in policy and strategy development. Through ADB’s NGO and Civil Society Center, ADB is strengthening its partnership with ...

  13. China Seeks Closer Oil Cooperation with SCO Nations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China hopes to intensify cooperation with other members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) in the oil sector, in which its own advantages will also benefit international partners, said vice president of CNPC Zhou Jiping, adding that “Cooperation in the oil sector enjoys rosy prospects and will benefit all the SCO members.” He made those remarks at a business forum held in Beijing in mid-June.

  14. Development of cooperative system bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; WAN Qi-bai; SHI Lei

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative system bridges comprise several basic structures that act jointly to improve structural characteristics. We delved into the historical development of cooperative system bridges. Cooperative systems are classified as different-load cooperative systems and same-load cooperative systems by distinguishing the modes of load distribution. For different-load cooperation, individual basic structures are at different positions in the direction along bridge axis and carry the loads separately. While for same-load cooperation, all basic structures overlap in geometrical locations and support the entire loads conjointly. The choosing of span ratios between basic structures, the design of connections of different-load cooperative systems were discussed as well as optimizations of relative rigidity for same-load cooperative systems which greatly influence structural characteristics. The general situation and several structural measurements of several cooperative bridges were demonstrated. This information can assist engineers in developing their concepts in cooperative systems and can lead to more efficient and economical cooperative bridges.

  15. Network modularity promotes cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-05-01

    Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported.

  16. Globalization and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  17. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....... of relationships to these historical contributions. Thus, we propose that Scandinavia offers a particularly promising context from which to draw inspiration regarding effective company-stakeholder cooperation and where ample of examples of what is more recently referred to as “creating shared value” can be found...

  18. Shaping the Future: Asia-Pacific and Latin America-Caribbean Cooperation: ADB and IDB Partnership for South-South Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation between Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is rapidly increasing in the spirit of South-South cooperation. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) enter into a new chapter of cooperation in areas such as sustainable integration corridors (trade facilitation, transportation, energy, and telecommunications, including broadband investment and regulation); sustainable cities and climate change; institutional development; social policy...

  19. The SISTA pilot project: understanding the training and technical assistance needs of community-based organizations implementing HIV prevention interventions for African American women--implications for a capacity building strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Taleria R; Brown, Mari; King, Winifred; Prather, Cynthia; Cazaubon, Janine; Mack, Justin; Russell, Brandi

    2007-01-01

    The disproportionate rates of HIV/AIDS among African American women in the U.S. signify the ongoing need for targeted HIV prevention interventions. Additionally, building the capacity of service providers to sustain prevention efforts is a major concern. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted a pilot project to disseminate the Sisters Informing Sisters about Topics on AIDS (SISTA), an HIV prevention intervention designed for African American women. The project was to inform the diffusion process and examine the training and technical assistance needs of participating community-based organizations. Results demonstrated a need for extensive pre-planning and skills-building prior to implementation.

  20. Coaction versus reciprocity in continuous-time models of cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, G. Sander; Riebli, Thomas; Taborsky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cooperating animals frequently show closely coordinated behaviours organized by a continuous flow of information between interacting partners. Such real-time coaction is not captured by the iterated prisoner's dilemma and other discrete-time reciprocal cooperation games, which inherently feature a d

  1. Incorporation, Cooperation and Participant :A Summary of Annual American Anthropology Association Meeting,2008%包纳、合作、参与:美国人类学学会2008年年会综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛荣玲

    2009-01-01

    美国人类学学会(American Anthropological Association)第107届年会于2008年11月19日至23日在美国旧金山市举行。美国人类学学会建立于1902年,是目前全球人类学界最大的学术组织,注册成员已经超过一万人,来自于各地的高校、研究机构、博物馆、政府部门、公

  2. SCO:Mutual Trust,Mutual Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On October 15,after the one-day session of the eighth annual prime ministers’meeting of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization(SCO)member states in Beijing had drawn to a close,Beijing Review reporter Zhou Jianxiong spoke with Pakistani Prime Minister Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani on SCO-related issues.

  3. International Cooperation at CAS Since 1998

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since 1998 when the Knowledge Innovation Program (KIP) was launched,the rapid development of CAS has offered great opportunities to forge international cooperation.Focusing on capacity building to effectively absorb global innovation resources and through organizing major innovative activities,CAS has increasingly expanded and intensified international partnerships.

  4. Validation of Interdisciplinary Cooperative Education Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Sheila D.

    A field test examined the validity of the "Interdisciplinary Cooperative Education Curriculum Manual." (Among those topics covered in the manual are the following: vocational student organizations, leadership, civic responsibility, health and safety, human relations, communications, resource management, consumer skills, consumer law,…

  5. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    Slovenia, Spain , Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States. While all of the member countries are considered to be... India , Indonesia, and South Africa with a view toward possible membership. The member countries rely on the OECD Secretariat in Paris to collect...employment, migration, education, energy, taxation, tourism , and environment. The OECD also initiated and coordinates the work of the International

  6. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    investment. Work is also being conducted on the areas of export credit policies, electronic commerce, corporate governance and codes of conduct...the areas of market reform and corporate governance . In particular, the OECD focused its response on two priority areas: (1) finance, competition...such issues as: transparency; corporate governance ; competition; tax; pensions; and financial education. In the second area, restoring sustainable long

  7. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  8. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  9. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  10. Solar cooperatives; Genosse Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Dierk

    2010-06-15

    Not a boom but a trend: Increasingly, solar power plants and other renewables-based systems are financed by cooperatives. This organizational structure requires long-term strategies and some idealism. (orig.)

  11. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  12. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  13. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  14. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  15. Cooperative Purchasing Reduces Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Edwin J.

    1981-01-01

    Several suburban Chicago (Illinois) school districts are members of the South Suburban School Purchasing Cooperative, which serves as a conduit for volume purchases of educational supplies. (Author/MLF)

  16. Cooperative Fire Protection Agreement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Agreement is to provide for cooperation in the prevention, detection and suppression of wildland fires within the protection areas designated in...

  17. Cooperation Beats Conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China and the Philippines agree to strengthen economic and trade cooperation while minimizing disputes Philippine President Benigno Aquino III recently completed a five-day visit to China, his first state visit to China since he took office last year.

  18. Cooperating mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  19. Cooperation Without Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In January, China announced its desire to increase cooperation with African countries by issuing China's African Policy, a paper intended to guide relations with the continent by continuing a non-interventionist and non-ideological strategy. Christopher Mutsvangwa, Zimbabwean Ambassador to China, shared his views of the policy with Beijing Review reporter Ni Yanshuo and answered criticisms of the China-Africa relationship by Western countries that tie cooperation to democracy and human rights.

  20. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed....... The management logic of the main contractor is interpreted as based on a sociology-inspired understanding focusing on norms and social values rather than on contractual (law) and functional (engineering) logic, which had hitherto been prevalent in Danish construction management....

  1. Global Reserve Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t GLOBAL RESERVE COOPERATION BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL PAMELA L. MCGAHA United States Army National Guard...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Reserve Cooperation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...decade, the United States, its allies, and partner nations have greatly increased their reliance on Reserve Component forces. This global

  2. JUDICIAL COOPERATION IN THE CRIMINAL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Karceva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of crime throughout the eras has increased at an alarming rate. It has expanded, evolved and gone through many different forms and stages. With the formation of the EU and the expulsion of internal borders, as well as the insurance of greater liberty and freedom of movement, acts of crime and the number of criminals have drastically increased. Its enormous growth and expansion, especially in the form of crime betwixt country borders (within EU territory, has desperately called for change and development within the norms of criminal law. However, with the view that criminal law in most EU nations has its own specific and varied markings, and since a supranational criminal law does not exist, there has arisen a dire need for cooperation within this sphere. The globalization of transnational organized crime and its entry within the legal sector of these member countries has been the reason for the development of court cooperation within Europe. Cooperation between the courts was achieved through a tight collaboration between the court services and other regulatory organs/authorities of the member countries. This court cooperation is conducted through very varied activities carried out by the different countries, which are in turn guaranteed through different conventions, bilateral and multilateral agreements/treaties. There exist many other kinds of legal support when viewing court cooperation that one member country can provide to another member country, for which information will be provided further in the text.

  3. Intuition, deliberation, and the evolution of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Adam; Rand, David G

    2016-01-26

    Humans often cooperate with strangers, despite the costs involved. A long tradition of theoretical modeling has sought ultimate evolutionary explanations for this seemingly altruistic behavior. More recently, an entirely separate body of experimental work has begun to investigate cooperation's proximate cognitive underpinnings using a dual-process framework: Is deliberative self-control necessary to reign in selfish impulses, or does self-interested deliberation restrain an intuitive desire to cooperate? Integrating these ultimate and proximate approaches, we introduce dual-process cognition into a formal game-theoretic model of the evolution of cooperation. Agents play prisoner's dilemma games, some of which are one-shot and others of which involve reciprocity. They can either respond by using a generalized intuition, which is not sensitive to whether the game is one-shot or reciprocal, or pay a (stochastically varying) cost to deliberate and tailor their strategy to the type of game they are facing. We find that, depending on the level of reciprocity and assortment, selection favors one of two strategies: intuitive defectors who never deliberate, or dual-process agents who intuitively cooperate but sometimes use deliberation to defect in one-shot games. Critically, selection never favors agents who use deliberation to override selfish impulses: Deliberation only serves to undermine cooperation with strangers. Thus, by introducing a formal theoretical framework for exploring cooperation through a dual-process lens, we provide a clear answer regarding the role of deliberation in cooperation based on evolutionary modeling, help to organize a growing body of sometimes-conflicting empirical results, and shed light on the nature of human cognition and social decision making.

  4. The level of influence of trust, commitment, cooperation, and power in the interorganizational relationships of Brazilian credit cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Maria Martins

    Full Text Available Abstract This article aims to analyze the level of influence of trust, commitment, cooperation, and power in the interrelationships of individual credit cooperatives and their central organization in Brazil. The quantitative and descriptive research was developed in unique credit unions linked to the Central Bank of Brazil and the Organization of Brazilian Cooperatives. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, with the estimation through partial least squares. The results obtained for the coefficients of determination (R2 of the endogenous latent variables confirmed the assumptions found in the theoretical models of Morgan and Hunt (1994 and Coote, Forrest, and Tam (2003. Statistical significance was also found in the relationships between power and trust, commitment and cooperation, trust and commitment, trust and cooperation, and power and commitment. However, in this study the relationship between power and commitment characterized the significance and was positive between the individual credit cooperatives and their central organization. This is in line with the understanding that power is the solution to resolving conflicts. The research identifies how the constructs of trust, commitment, cooperation, and power show relevance to the alignment of relations between individual credit cooperatives and their central organization.

  5. Cooperation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan Clark, C; Thorne, Christopher B; Hardy, Sonya; Cropsey, Karen L

    2013-09-25

    Deficits in pro-social cooperation are common in many individuals with mental illnesses such as depression. For decades, researchers have used economic game paradigms to compare cross-cultural cooperative behavior. However, research using economic games to assess cooperative behavior in clinical populations is in the early stages. We hypothesized that individuals with greater depressive symptoms would struggle to maintain reciprocity in iterative games, but not in single-iteration games measuring personal values. Participants (n=41) played four computer-based economic games (prisoner's dilemma, the public goods game, the ultimatum game, and the trust game) measuring different aspects of cooperation. Participants completed the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and other measures of personality and demographics. Analyses assessed the relationships between game performance and psychological distress as measured by the DASS. Significant correlations were found between game performance and depressive symptoms, but not symptoms of anxiety or stress. Performance in the prisoner's dilemma and public goods game was significantly related to depression in a linear regression even when known associations with depressive affect such as age, gender, race, education, marital status, and neuroticism were controlled for. Depressive symptoms were associated with an inability to sustain reciprocal cooperation. Participants showed the predicted deficits in cooperation in these economic games. Economic games show the potential for assessing the social deficits associated with depressive symptoms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tax cooperation among member states of European Union and Directive on administrative cooperation in the field of taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimovski Aleksandar G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries have possibility to choose between several alternatives for cooperation in international tax matters at global level. They can decide not to cooperate or provide some form of tax cooperation. Because of harmful tax competition among countries and efforts of international organizations, all countries in the world are oblidged to comply with one of multiple alternatives for tax cooperation. Situation in European Union (hereinafter EU is specific. EU is not country or classic international organization. By the reason of its successful functioning, EU has need for tax cooperation. EU has attempted to harmonise tax policies of member states, but member states did not approve that. Only indirect taxes are harmonized on EU level, direct taxes are harmonized only to the point necessarily for functioning of single market. That is why tax cooperation instruments are so important. Object of this paper are procedures and measures, stipulated by the most important instrument in the field of tax cooperation enacted by institutions of EU, its development and status in international tax law. Regulatives and directives in field of tax cooperation in the EU are 'pioneers' in tax matters. EU instruments provide standards which are subsequently accepted by several international organizations - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and United Nations (UN. Our purpose is to present positive and negative aspects of tax cooperation in the EU. In time of crisis efficient tax cooperation provides higher revenues for the member states, on the other hand, taxpayers and tax administrations have increased expenses as result of tax cooperation which are not fairly distributed.

  7. Dynamic influences of culture on cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rosanna Yin-Mei; Hong, Ying-Yi

    2005-06-01

    This study tested whether priming of cultural symbols activates cultural behavioral scripts and thus the corresponding behaviors, and also whether the behaviors activated are context-specific. Specifically, to activate the cultural knowledge of Chinese-American bicultural participants, we primed them with Chinese cultural icons or American cultural icons. In the control condition, we showed them geometric figures. Then, the participants played the Prisoner's Dilemma game with friends or strangers (the context manipulation). As expected, participants showed more cooperation toward friends when Chinese cultural knowledge was activated than when American cultural knowledge was activated. By contrast, participants showed a similarly low level of cooperation toward strangers after both Chinese and American culture priming. These findings not only support previous evidence on culture priming of social judgment and self-construals, but also (a) provide the first evidence for the effects of culture priming on behaviors and (b) demonstrate the boundary condition of culture priming.

  8. Protocol to the 2001 Co-Operation Agreement between the European Organization For Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Development of the Republic of Serbia

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    On 8 June 2001, on the basis of the mandate given by Council in 1989 to the Director-General to enter into Co-operation Agreements following a defined text model, CERN and the Government of the Republic of Serbia have entered into a Co-operation Agreement on the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy physics. As usual, the concrete implementation of the Co-operation Agreement is foreseen to take place through the conclusion of Protocols. Agreement has now been reached on the text of a Protocol concerning the Serbian participation in the CMS Collaboration. Annex I to the Protocol, which defines the technical specification of the Serbian contribution, is still under preparation. Although the Protocol contains no concrete financial commitment by CERN, pending a decision by the Committee of Council on procedures for agreements and protocols, the Management proposes that the Finance Committee takes note of the text of the Protocol.

  9. North American neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) devices and team roles: 2008 survey results of Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, D Scott; Lawson, Andrea F; Walczak, Rich; McRobb, Craig; McDermott, Patty; Shearer, Ian R; Lodge, Andrew; Jaggers, James

    2008-09-01

    In early 2008, surveys of active extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) centers in North America were conducted by electronic mail regarding neonatal ECMO equipment and professional staff. Eighty of 103 (78%) North American ECMO centers listed in the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization directory as neonatal centers responded to the survey. Of the responding centers, 82.5% routinely used roller pumps for neonatal ECMO, and the remaining 17.5% used centrifugal pumps. Silicone membrane oxygenators were used by 67% of the respondents, whereas 19% used micro-porous hollow fiber oxygenators, and 14% used polymethylpentene hollow fiber oxygenators. Of the silicone membrane oxygenator users, 86% used the Medtronic Ecmotherm heat exchanger, 10% used the Gish HE-4 heat exchanger, and 4% used the Terumo Conducer device. Sixty-four percent of the responding centers used some form of in-line blood gas monitoring. Six percent of the centers used a bubble trap in the arterial line, and 5% used an arterial line filter. A bladder was used by 85% of the centers, and 4% of these used a mechanical bladder box for servo regulation; the remaining 96% used pressure servo regulation. An air bubble detector was used by 88% of the responding centers. A surface coating was used by 44% of the centers on all their neonatal ECMO patients. Thirty-one percent of the centers use an activated clotting time of 180-220 seconds. At 54% of the responding centers, perfusionists were involved with the ECMO program, registered nurses were involved at 70% of the centers, and respiratory therapists were involved at 46% of the centers. Compared with a 2002 survey, silicone membrane use is declining, and the use of centrifugal blood pumps and coated ECMO circuits is becoming more apparent. ECMO teams are still multidisciplinary, made up of combinations of registered nurses, respiratory therapists, and perfusionists.

  10. Survival Analyses for Patients With Surgically Resected Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors by World Health Organization 2010 Grading Classifications and American Joint Committee on Cancer 2010 Staging Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Ke, Neng-wen; Zeng, Lin; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Chun-lu; Zhang, Hao; Mai, Gang; Tian, Bo-le; Liu, Xu-bao

    2015-12-01

    In 2010, World Health Organization (WHO) reclassified pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (p-NETs) into 4 main groups: neuroendocrine tumor G1 (NET G1), neuroendocrine tumor G2 (NET G2), neuroendocrine carcinoma G3 (NEC G3), mixed adeno and neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Clinical value of these newly updated WHO grading criteria has not been rigorously validated. The authors aimed to evaluate the clinical consistency of the new 2010 grading classifications by WHO and the 2010 tumor-node metastasis staging systems by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) on survivals for patients with surgically resected p-NETs. Moreover, the authors would validate the prognostic value of both criteria for p-NETs.The authors retrospectively collected the clinicopathologic data of 120 eligible patients who were all surgically treated and histopathologically diagnosed as p-NETs from January 2004 to February 2014 in our single institution. The new WHO criteria were assigned to 4 stratified groups with a respective distribution of 62, 35, 17, and 6 patients. Patients with NET G1 or NET G2 obtained a statistically better survival compared with those with NEC G3 or MANEC (P systems were respectively defined in 61, 36, 12, and 11 patients for each stage. Differences of survivals of stage I with stage III and IV were significant (P systems were both significant in univariate and multivariate analysis (P systems could consistently reflect the clinical outcome of patients with surgically resected p-NETs. Meanwhile, both criteria could be independent predictors for survival analysis of p-NETs.

  11. The Environmental Justice Collaborative Problem-Solving Cooperative Agreement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Justice Collaborative Problem-Solving (CPS) Cooperative Agreement Program provides financial assistance to eligible organizations working on or planning to work on projects to address local environmental and/or public health issues

  12. International Cooperation Strengthened to Develop Liaohe Oilfield's Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Dequn; LI Zhanshan

    1996-01-01

    @@ Liaohe Petroleum Exploration Bureau (hereinafter called Liaohe Oilfields) has paid great attention to setting up projects with organizations from outside China to conduct economic and technical exchange and cooperation in all fields, trying to enter the world market.

  13. The evolution of cooperation by negotiation in a noisy world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K; McNamara, J M; Yamauchi, A; Higginson, A D

    2017-03-01

    Cooperative interactions among individuals are ubiquitous despite the possibility of exploitation by selfish free riders. One mechanism that may promote cooperation is 'negotiation': individuals altering their behaviour in response to the behaviour of others. Negotiating individuals decide their actions through a recursive process of reciprocal observation, thereby reducing the possibility of free riding. Evolutionary games with response rules have shown that infinitely many forms of the rule can be evolutionarily stable simultaneously, unless there is variation in individual quality. This potentially restricts the conditions under which negotiation could maintain cooperation. Organisms interact with one another in a noisy world in which cooperative effort and the assessment of effort may be subject to error. Here, we show that such noise can make the number of evolutionarily stable rules finite, even without quality variation, and so noise could help maintain cooperative behaviour. We show that the curvature of the benefit function is the key factor determining whether individuals invest more or less as their partner's investment increases, investing less when the benefit to investment has diminishing returns. If the benefits of low investment are very small then behavioural flexibility tends to promote cooperation, because negotiation enables cooperators to reach large benefits. Under some conditions, this leads to a repeating cycle in which cooperative behaviour rises and falls over time, which may explain between-population differences in cooperative behaviour. In other conditions, negotiation leads to extremely high levels of cooperative behaviour, suggesting that behavioural flexibility could facilitate the evolution of eusociality in the absence of high relatedness.

  14. Coaction versus reciprocity in continuous-time models of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, G Sander; Riebli, Thomas; Taborsky, Michael

    2014-09-07

    Cooperating animals frequently show closely coordinated behaviours organized by a continuous flow of information between interacting partners. Such real-time coaction is not captured by the iterated prisoner's dilemma and other discrete-time reciprocal cooperation games, which inherently feature a delay in information exchange. Here, we study the evolution of cooperation when individuals can dynamically respond to each other's actions. We develop continuous-time analogues of iterated-game models and describe their dynamics in terms of two variables, the propensity of individuals to initiate cooperation (altruism) and their tendency to mirror their partner's actions (coordination). These components of cooperation stabilize at an evolutionary equilibrium or show oscillations, depending on the chosen payoff parameters. Unlike reciprocal altruism, cooperation by coaction does not require that those willing to initiate cooperation pay in advance for uncertain future benefits. Correspondingly, we show that introducing a delay to information transfer between players is equivalent to increasing the cost of cooperation. Cooperative coaction can therefore evolve much more easily than reciprocal cooperation. When delays entirely prevent coordination, we recover results from the discrete-time alternating prisoner's dilemma, indicating that coaction and reciprocity are connected by a continuum of opportunities for real-time information exchange.

  15. 78 FR 51131 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 697 RIN 0648-BD45 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  16. Ninety Years of International Cooperation in Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Beer, T.

    2009-05-01

    Because applicable physical, chemical, and mathematical studies of the Earth system must be both interdisciplinary and international, the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) was formed in 1919 as an non-governmental, non-profit organization dedicated to advancing, promoting, and communicating knowledge of the Earth system, its space environment, and the dynamical processes causing change. The Union brings together eight International Associations that address different disciplines of Earth sciences. Through these Associations, IUGG promotes and enables studies in the geosciences by providing a framework for collaborative research and information exchange, by organizing international scientific assemblies worldwide, and via research publications. Resolutions passed by assemblies of IUGG and its International Associations set geophysical standards and promote issues of science policy on which national members agree. IUGG has initiated and/or vigorously supported collaborative international efforts that have led to highly productive worldwide interdisciplinary research programs, such as the International Geophysical Year and subsequent International Years (IPY, IYPE, eGY, and IHY), International Lithosphere Programme, World Climate Research Programme, Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, and Integrated Research on Risk Disaster. IUGG is inherently involved in the projects and programs related to climate change, global warming, and related environmental impacts. One major contribution has been the creation, through the International Council for Science (ICSU), of the World Data Centers and the Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Data Analysis Services. These are being transformed to the ICSU World Data System, from which the data gathered during the major programs and data products will be available to researchers everywhere. IUGG cooperates with UNESCO, WMO, and some other U.N. and non-governmental organizations in the study of natural catastrophes

  17. Foundation Networks and American Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjeet Parmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The major American foundations constructed and sustained the rich texture of cooperative social, intellectual and political relations between key actors and institutions supportive of specific modes of thought that promoted US hegemony. Foundations also fostered and developed the attractive power-knowledge networks that not only radiated intellectual influence but also attracted some of the most creative minds. Finally, liberal internationalist foundations fostered globalism even when the American state was ‘isolationist’, and when US influence abroad unwelcome. Their significance in American hegemony building lay in their sustained, long-term cooperative relationship with the American state through which they helped build national, international and global institutions and networks. The latter process evidences the most significant impact of US foundations – the building of the domestic and international infrastructure for liberal internationalism which has transformed into a kind of “social neoliberalism”. Theoretical conclusions follow from these claims: the sustained and deep cooperation between the state and foundations suggests that we must revise our views of “how power works” in the United States and therefore influences its foreign relations. Therefore, the article shows that elite networks, consisting of state officials and private citizens are powerful means by which foreign policy shifts may be prepared, elite and mass opinion primed and mobilised, new consensus built, ‘old’ forces marginalised, and US hegemony constructed.

  18. Lessons from the Internal Control System of the CoCoA Aceh Utara Cooperative

    OpenAIRE

    Novrizal

    2014-01-01

    The organic cacao cultivation practice at the CoCoA Aceh Utara Cooperative was started in 2007, with the foundation of the organic cacao cooperative. The foundation was facilitated by the government of Indonesia, in collaboration with the German agency for technical cooperation (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, GTZ), under the “Organic and Fairtrade Cacao in Aceh” Program. Through the GTZ program, the farmers received training on sustainable cacao cultivation system, which...

  19. Fundamental Limits of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, Angel; Andrews, Jeffrey G

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation is viewed as a key ingredient for interference management in wireless systems. This paper shows that cooperation has fundamental limitations. The main result is that even full cooperation between transmitters cannot in general change an interference-limited network to a noise-limited network. The key idea is that there exists a spectral efficiency upper bound that is independent of the transmit power. First, a spectral efficiency upper bound is established for systems that rely on pilot-assisted channel estimation; in this framework, cooperation is shown to be possible only within clusters of limited size, which are subject to out-of-cluster interference whose power scales with that of the in-cluster signals. Second, an upper bound is also shown to exist when cooperation is through noncoherent communication; thus, the spectral efficiency limitation is not a by-product of the reliance on pilot-assisted channel estimation. Consequently, existing literature that routinely assumes the high-power spect...

  20. Analysis of the Relationship between American Non-governmental Organizations and Government and the Enlightenment to China%美国非政府组织与政府间的关系分析及对我国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冬蕾

    2014-01-01

    在当今美国,政府与非政府组织之间更多采取的是合作和补充的伙伴关系。美国公民普遍对非政府组织给予高度的信任。在基层社区,非政府组织为公民提供的服务往往是直接而有力的,因此与政府提供的服务相比,有部分美国公民甚至更为喜欢非政府组织提供的服务。所以美国政府在许多服务项目上,比如卫生、慈善和社会服务方面都非常依赖非政府组织。而在基础设施的建设和维修等公共问题上,如果政府和非政府组织能够对此进行商讨,提出最佳的解决方案,往往可以收到更好的效果。%Nowadays, in America the relationship between the government and non-governmental organizations is cooperative and complementary partnership. Generally American citizens highly trust the non-governmental organizations. In the community, non-governmental organizations provide services for citizens directly and powerfully. To compare with the services provided by the government, some US citizens even more like the services provided by non-governmental organizations. So in many service projects the United States government is heavily dependent on the non government organization, such as health, charity and social services. It can get better effect if the government and non-governmental organizations can discuss and put forward the best solution on the problems of the construction and maintenance of public infrastructure.

  1. COOPERATION VS. COMPETITION IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica MIHALACHE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study highlights the cooperation-competition ratio in the Central Asia region aiming at maintaining a force balance between Russia and China – as main state actors of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO, and avoiding the dominance of a state over the other member states of the Organization. Our paper attempts to identify the theoretical arguments that might render a better insight in this organization as a framework meant to mutually balance influence between Russia and China, with the purpose of reciprocally monitoring and limiting their power in a region considered the core of SCO – from a geographical point of view and from the point of view of the two powers’ interest. On the other hand, we should take into account that promoting multipolarity in the global politics is a common interest of China and Russia; both countries started to exclude, to various extents, the Western powers’ interests in Central Asia.

  2. 48 CFR 245.603-71 - Disposal of contractor inventory for NATO cooperative projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of contractor inventory for NATO cooperative projects. 245.603-71 Section 245.603-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations... inventory for NATO cooperative projects. (a) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative...

  3. Promotion of cooperation by selective group extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Marvin A.; Nagler, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Multilevel selection is an important organizing principle that crucially underlies evolutionary processes from the emergence of cells to eusociality and the economics of nations. Previous studies on multilevel selection assumed that the effective higher-level selection emerges from lower-level reproduction. This leads to selection among groups, although only individuals reproduce. We introduce selective group extinction, where groups die with a probability inversely proportional to their group fitness. When accounting for this the critical benefit-to-cost ratio is substantially lowered. Because in game theory and evolutionary dynamics the degree of cooperation crucially depends on this ratio above which cooperation emerges, previous studies may have substantially underestimated the establishment and maintenance of cooperation.

  4. Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J.L. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Nuclear Power Group

    1998-03-01

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) describes intergranular environmental cracking of material exposed to ionizing radiation. The implications of IASCC are significant, both in terms of repair and outage costs as well as the potential for cracking in components that may be extremely difficult to repair or replace. Significant advancements have been made in the understanding of IASCC. However, it is clear that major unknowns persist and must be understood and quantified before the life of a reactor component at risk from IASCC can be predicted or significantly extended. Although individual organizations are continuing to effectively address IASCC, it became apparent that a more direct form of cooperation would be more timely and efficient in addressing the technical issues. Thus in 1995 EPRI formed the Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR) Program. This is a cooperative, jointly funded effort with participants from eight countries providing financial support and technical oversight. The efforts of the CIR Program are directed at the highest priority questions in the areas of material susceptibility, water chemistry and material stress. Major research areas of the Program are: (1) evaluation of IASCC mechanisms, (2) development of methodology for predicting IASCC, and (3) quantification of irradiation effects on metallurgy, mechanics and electrochemistry. Studies to evaluate various IASCC mechanisms include work to better understand the possible roles of radiation-induced segregation (RIS), radiation microstructure, bulk and localized deformation effects, overall effects on strength and ductility, hydrogen and helium effects, and others. Experiments are being conducted to isolate individual effects and determine the relative importance of each in the overall IASCC mechanism. Screening tests will be followed by detailed testing to identify the contribution of each effect over a range of conditions. The paper describes the completed and ongoing work being

  5. An Analysis of Verbal Humor in Friends from the Perspective of Coopera-tive Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷宏

    2014-01-01

    Friends is a classical situation comedy in America in which humorous dialogues abound. With the theoretical frame-work of Cooperative Principle, this thesis extracts typical dialogues in American situation comedy Friends as data and discusses the characters’violation of maxims of Cooperative Principle together with the derived humorous effect.

  6. Dr. Anna Julia Cooper, 1858-1964: Teacher, Scholar, and Timeless Womanist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the various accomplishments and achievements of Dr. Anna Julia Cooper, a social activist-educator, scholar and an early model for African-American feminist theory. Cooper was a great public intellectual and teacher, as she highly attacked the prevalence of racism, sexism and poverty through her writings and by working with…

  7. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... these experiences we discuss problems in the process, requirements for design tools, and issues involved in getting going with cooperative prototyping with active user involvement....

  8. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  9. Education, Cooperation and Development: The Latin American Situation at the Beginning of the XXI Century Educación, cooperación y desarrollo: La situación Latinoamericana a comienzos del Siglo XXI.

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Neira Gómez; Marta Portela Maseda

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the basic educational needs of the countries of Latin America, the education policies that are evolving within the region, and the policies that are proposed by the developed countries to meet these needs in the future. Educational aid for development will be the focus of this study. The first section contains an analysis of the basic needs in these countries, complemented by an analysis of the policies proposed by international organizations to resolve those needs...

  10. From the American Psychological Association to the American Psychology Association--An Organization for Psychologists or for the Discipline? 2007 Annual Report of the APA Policy and Planning Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Each year, the American Psychological Association's Policy and Planning Board takes the pulse of the Association and the discipline as a whole and writes a report that represents the Board's best appraisal of a fundamental policy. Our main objective, however, is not simply to assess the current situation but to look forward on behalf of the…

  11. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  12. Cooperative internal conversion process

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, called cooperative internal conversion process, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron exchange if it is allowed by energy conservation, is discussed theoretically. General expression of the cross section of the process is reported in one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. The case of $Ne$ is investigated numerically. The process may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production.

  13. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    the borders long before the politicians supported and pushed for further cooperation. Energy efficiency was addressed by a portfolio of activities ranging from knowledge-sharing, public campaigns, labelling and standardisation of products. The need to address environmental degradation was inspired by the UN...... officials. With the consolidation of Nordic Energy Research in 1999, the cooperation benefitted from having an institution that exclusively could focus on Nordic energy policy issues and deliver research-based decision support to decision makers in the Nordic energy sector....

  14. Cooperative strategies in innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratner Svetlana Valerevna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge economy one of the conventional ways to obtain economic agents access to new knowledge and technology is the creation and implementation of specific cooperative strategies, such as the formation of alliances with other economic agents. Combining competencies partners in joint research and development has a positive impact on innovation, but it is a partial convergence of competences partners that in the long term can lead to the unification of competences agents economic system and reduce their innovative activity. In this paper, we propose an effective method of information management in the implementation of a cooperative strategy of innovation.

  15. Proto-cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Read, James E; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Stefan;

    2016-01-01

    beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre...... in an increase of injured fish in the school with the number of attacks. How quickly prey are captured is positively correlated with the level of injury of the school, suggesting that hunters can benefit from other conspecifics' attacks on the prey. To explore this, we built a mathematical model capturing...

  16. Cooperatives between truth and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Krueger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current declaration of the International Cooperative Alliance on cooperative identity since its 1995 Centennial Conference (which was held in Manchester makes no distinction between cooperation and cooperative. The lack of distinction between cooperation and cooperative has caused the Decennial Cooperative Action Plan to define cooperatives as a form, while their materiality is regarded as managerial: a business (activity under a cooperative form. An identity that is close to us cannot be reduced to form, without this being a problem. Therefore, the value underlying this identity —cooperation— must have a substantial basis, even if it is idealised, if it is to affect us.Received: 27.03.2014Accepted: 12.05.2014

  17. Collective chasing behavior between cooperators and defectors in the spatial prisoner's dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genki Ichinose

    Full Text Available Cooperation is one of the essential factors for all biological organisms in major evolutionary transitions. Recent studies have investigated the effect of migration for the evolution of cooperation. However, little is known about whether and how an individuals' cooperativeness coevolves with mobility. One possibility is that mobility enhances cooperation by enabling cooperators to escape from defectors and form clusters; the other possibility is that mobility inhibits cooperation by helping the defectors to catch and exploit the groups of cooperators. In this study we investigate the coevolutionary dynamics by using the prisoner's dilemma game model on a lattice structure. The computer simulations demonstrate that natural selection maintains cooperation in the form of evolutionary chasing between the cooperators and defectors. First, cooperative groups grow and collectively move in the same direction. Then, mutant defectors emerge and invade the cooperative groups, after which the defectors exploit the cooperators. Then other cooperative groups emerge due to mutation and the cycle is repeated. Here, it is worth noting that, as a result of natural selection, the mobility evolves towards directional migration, but not to random or completely fixed migration. Furthermore, with directional migration, the rate of global population extinction is lower when compared with other cases without the evolution of mobility (i.e., when mobility is preset to random or fixed. These findings illustrate the coevolutionary dynamics of cooperation and mobility through the directional chasing between cooperators and defectors.

  18. Collective chasing behavior between cooperators and defectors in the spatial prisoner's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Genki; Saito, Masaya; Suzuki, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation is one of the essential factors for all biological organisms in major evolutionary transitions. Recent studies have investigated the effect of migration for the evolution of cooperation. However, little is known about whether and how an individuals' cooperativeness coevolves with mobility. One possibility is that mobility enhances cooperation by enabling cooperators to escape from defectors and form clusters; the other possibility is that mobility inhibits cooperation by helping the defectors to catch and exploit the groups of cooperators. In this study we investigate the coevolutionary dynamics by using the prisoner's dilemma game model on a lattice structure. The computer simulations demonstrate that natural selection maintains cooperation in the form of evolutionary chasing between the cooperators and defectors. First, cooperative groups grow and collectively move in the same direction. Then, mutant defectors emerge and invade the cooperative groups, after which the defectors exploit the cooperators. Then other cooperative groups emerge due to mutation and the cycle is repeated. Here, it is worth noting that, as a result of natural selection, the mobility evolves towards directional migration, but not to random or completely fixed migration. Furthermore, with directional migration, the rate of global population extinction is lower when compared with other cases without the evolution of mobility (i.e., when mobility is preset to random or fixed). These findings illustrate the coevolutionary dynamics of cooperation and mobility through the directional chasing between cooperators and defectors.

  19. Cooperation and popularity in spatial games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Jin, Zhen; Wang, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    Selection of the competition opponent is crucial for the evolution of cooperation in evolutionary games. In this work, we introduce a simple rule, incorporating individual popularity via the single parameter α, to study how the selection of the potential strategy sources influences individual behavior traits. For positive α players with high popularity will be considered more likely, while for negative α the opposite holds. Setting α equal to zero returns the frequently adopted random selection of the opponent. We find that positive α (namely, adopting the strategy from a more popular player) promotes the emergence of cooperation, which is robust against different interaction networks and game classes. The essence of this boosting effect can be attributed to the fact: increasing α accelerates the microscopic organization of cooperator clusters to resist the exploitation of defectors. Moreover, we also demonstrated that the introduction of a new mechanism alters the impact of uncertainty by strategy adoption on the evolution of cooperation. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous cooperative behaviors in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social dilemmas.

  20. Evolution of Cooperation in Adaptive Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segbroeck, Sven Van; Santos, Francisco C.; Traulsen, Arne; Lenaerts, Tom; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    Humans are organized in societies, a phenomenon that would never have been possible without the evolution of cooperative behavior. Several mechanisms that foster this evolution have been unraveled over the years, with population structure as a prominent promoter of cooperation. Modern networks of exchange and cooperation are, however, becoming increasingly volatile, and less and less based on long-term stable structure. Here, we address how this change of paradigm aspects the evolution of cooperation. We discuss analytical and numerical models in which individuals can break social ties and create new ones. Interactions are modeled as two-player dilemmas of cooperation. Once a link between two individuals has formed, the productivity of this link is evaluated. Links can be broken off at different rates. This individual capacity of forming new links or severing inconvenient ones can effectively change the nature of the game. We address random formation of new links and local linking rules as well as different individual capacities to maintain social interactions. We conclude by discussing how adaptive social networks can become an important step towards more realistic models of cultural dynamics.