Hansen, Flemming Splidsboel
New regional organisations are always interesting to follow as they will tell us more about the things that make or break this type of co-operation. Originally established as “The Shanghai Five” in 1996, The Shanghai Co-operation Organisation (SCO) has been successful at reducing tension between...... the member states but it has since found it very hard to come up with a more ambitious agenda. Mutual suspicion and zero-sum thinking clearly run deep and the continued development of the organisation has suffered as a result of this. All told, the SCO is much more façade than real policy substance....
James N Mitchell
Full Text Available This article examines the growing infuence of transnational organised crime on the nations of South East Asia. Human trafficking, maritime piracy, terrorism and wildlife trafficking are major transnational crimes that cause significant harm to both individuals and national economies. This article examines the continuing domestic and international legislative, law enforcement and policy efforts of South East Asian nations to address transnational organised crime. it is concluded that to effectively counter transnational organised crime there is a need to employ international cooperation that is focused on addressing the unique factors of each crime.
Do co-operative organisations contribute to a process of democratisation? The Case of Tanzania May co-operative organisations be said to perform a role of any importance in processes of democratisation? The objective of my thesis is to answer this question theoretically and to illustrate with the case of Tanzania. It can thus be formulated in two parts; one theoretical and one empirical; May co-operative organisations contribute to a process of democratisation? Do co-operative organi...
Moss, Peter; Urban, Mathias
In this article, the authors provide an update on what has happened over recent months with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's proposal for an International Early Learning Study, and review responses to the proposed International Early Learning Study, including the concerns that have been raised about this new venture in…
Full Text Available The transition to a circular economy bodes well for a future of environmentally sustainable growth and economic development. The implications and advantages of a shift to a circular economy have been extensively demonstrated by the literature on the subject. What has not been sufficiently investigated is how this paradigm can be enabled through the inter-organisational cooperation among different business enterprises. In order to illustrate this point, in this paper we aim to contribute to the circular economy debate by describing and discussing such a meta-model of inter-organisational cooperation. The present study is therefore based on the analysis of three cases from an equal number of industries, from which we identified factors of potential impact for the stimulation of cooperation in a circular economy perspective. Last, but not least, we discuss the relations between the case studies and try to formulate all possible implications for both managers and research.
and response to emerging technologies and issues o Task length/ turnover (including mortality), restructuring, personnel turnover ...Activity turnover (assignments started, ongoing, reporting and completed) Major Issues - Problem areas worth drawing to the Principals’ attention...Modelling of Air Target Vulnerability/Lethality for Ship Point Defence Personnel Vulnerability Protection of Armoured Vehicles & Occupants from Landmine
Lambooij, Mattijs; Sanders, Karin; Koster, Ferry; Zwiers, Marieke
This paper addresses the question as to whether the linkage between HRM and organisational performance can be explained by the effect of the internal and strategic fit of HRM on the cooperative behaviours of employees. We expect that the more HRM practices are aligned within themselves (internal
Moss, Peter; Dahlberg, Gunilla; Grieshaber, Susan; Mantovani, Susanna; May, Helen; Pence, Alan; Rayna, Sylvie; Swadener, Beth Blue; Vandenbroeck, Michel
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is initiating the International Early Learning Study, a cross-national assessment of early learning outcomes involving the testing of 5-year-old children in participating countries. The authors use this colloquium to inform members of the early childhood community about this project and to…
Faysse, Nicolas; Srairi, Mohamed Taher; Errahj, Mostafa
Purpose: The study investigated to what extent local farmers' organisations are spaces where farmers discuss, learn and innovate. Design/methodology/approach: Two milk collection cooperatives in Morocco were studied. The study analysed the discussion networks, their impacts on farmers' knowledge and innovation, and the performance of collective…
Pond, Bob; McPake, Barbara
The crisis of human resources for health that is affecting low-income countries and especially sub-Saharan Africa has been attributed, at least in part, to increasing rates of migration of qualified health staff to high-income countries. We describe the conditions in four Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) health labour markets that have led to increasing rates of immigration. Popular explanations of these trends include ageing populations, growing incomes, and feminisation of the health workforce. Although these explanations form part of the larger picture, analysis of the forces operating in the four countries suggests that specific policy measures largely unrelated to these factors have driven growing demand for health staff. On this basis we argue that specific policy measures are equally capable of reversing these trends and avoiding the exploitation of low-income countries' scarce resources. These policies should seek to ensure local stability in health labour markets so that shortages of staff are not solved via the international brain drain.
Morgan, Clara; Volante, Louis
Given the influential role that the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) plays in educational governance, we believe it is timely to provide an in-depth review of its education surveys and their associated human capital discourses. By reviewing and summarizing the OECD's suite of education surveys, this paper identifies the…
The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations; Texte des Accords de Cooperation Conclus entre L'Agence et des Organisations Intergouvernementales Regionales
The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency [French] Le present document reproduit le texte des accords de cooperation que l'Agence a conclus avec les organisations intergouvernementales regionales enumerees ci-apres, ainsi que celui des protocoles validant lesdits accords. Le texte de ces instruments, classes dans l'ordre chronologique de leur entree en vigueur, est communique, pour information, a tous les Membres de l'Agence.
José Riera; Marie-Claude Poirier
Since its creation in 1950, UNHCR has engaged with faith-based organisations, faith communities and faith leaders in carrying out its work. Recently, UNHCR has been more actively exploring the role of faith in humanitarian responses.
SCORE stands for Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use. It aims at assisting the social transformation in the Central and Eastern European countries by creating self-supporting structures that are able to stimulate the efficient use of energy in end-user sectors. This document aims at presenting an in-depth institutional analysis of the energy efficiency situation in Bulgaria, including the current situation with regard to energy supply, consumption and environmental aspects, as well as an analysis of energy efficiency policies, instruments and organisations. Also, the document identifies problems related to energy efficiency in Bulgaria and indicates the areas of actions for an integrated SCORE programme in Bulgaria. The input for this process was provided by a survey among the main actors in the field, consisting of a questionnaire and interviews and a review of available information. The results were discussed in a workshop attended by the main stakeholders. The main characteristics of the Bulgarian energy sector are summarised in chapter 2. They indicate a high dependency on imported resources, a low quality of domestic fuels, a relatively high energy intensity of production and a low efficiency at supply and demand side with consider able potential for improvement. The restructuring of the sector has started but the process is far from completed. In the main towns heat is mainly supplied by district heating generated partly in co-generation plants. Gas distribution for public and residential buildings is quickly developing. In Chapter 3 the existing policies and actors are described and a 'roadmap' for energy efficiency actors is given. This provides the basis for defining the priorities for energy efficiency improvements presented in Chapter 4, by analysing the tools, policy instruments and organisations. Barriers and priority actions were defined in relation to the national policy level, the institutional structure, financial and
Energy efficiency improvements in the various end-use sectors constitute a very substantial saving potential, which presently is insufficiently addressed in Central and Eastern Europe. For that reason the SCORE concept has been initiated. SCORE stands for 'Supporting the Cooperative Organisation of Rational Energy Use'. SCORE is a Netherlands society to society programme, aiming at assisting the social transformation in the Central and Eastern European countries through projects and actions aiming at improvements in environmental protection and energy end-use sectors. SCORE is managed by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem) in partnership with local agencies in Central and Eastern Europe. The SCORE Country Document is based on: Survey on the existing policies and measures for energy efficiency, identified barriers, and the priorities for energy efficiency improvement in the country. The survey was carried out among some of the most important actors in this area by interviews, supported by filling in a questionnaire in a common format. Review of the existing strategic and regulatory documents and policy papers, different information sources like studies, reports, Internet sites. In chapter 2 the qualitative and quantitative situation in the field of energy supply and consumption is presented. In chapter 3 several topics will be addressed to provide insight into the national energy efficiency and climate change policy, a review, of the actors, with their tasks and responsibilities, the domestic programmes and initiatives as well as the foreign assistance programmes and initiatives. Chapter 4 includes the bottlenecks and problems identified to improve the energy efficiency situation in Romania. In chapter 5 some remarks are made on the criteria for SCORE projects
David De Cremer
Full Text Available The present paper explores how leader prototypicality and procedural fairness connect in stimulating follower cooperation. We, first of all, argue that leader prototypicality (the extent to which a leader represents the group identity enhances positive perceptions about the future. It does so by positively influencing perceptions of the leader's procedural fairness (at least among strongly identifying group members. Such perceptions of procedural fairness, in turn, stimulate follower cooperation. Secondly, we argue that leader prototypicality also facilitates the enactment of fair procedures by increasing the effectiveness that a procedurally fair treatment has on follower cooperation. We present an overview of very recent studies that support both arguments and conclude that group based dynamics, which determine the group prototype, have important influences on the effectiveness with which leaders can stimulate cooperation by means of procedural fairness.
David De Cremer; Marius van Dijke; Lieven Brebels; Niek Hoogervorst
The present paper explores how leader prototypicality and procedural fairness connect in stimulating follower cooperation. We, first of all, argue that leader prototypicality (the extent to which a leader represents the group identity) enhances positive perceptions about the future. It does so by positively influencing perceptions of the leader's procedural fairness (at least among strongly identifying group members). Such perceptions of procedural fairness, in turn, stimulate follower cooper...
Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania ... can enhance productivity and increase farmers' income by bringing financial services closer. ... of Kimuli Agricultural Marketing Co-operative Society (AMCOS) and Muungano Savings and ...
Marcel Fortuna Biato
Full Text Available Until the 1980s, organised crime and urban violence were not considered a major political challenge in Brazil. This belief was encouraged by a great reluctance to introduce coercive police measures that might act as reminders of the repression experienced under the dictatorial government of the 1960s and 70s. At present, however, the collective strategy for the fight against transnational crime represents a fundamental challenge. Brazil’s domestic successes and its growing influence as a global actor could be tarnished if the country does not succeed in containing the presence of drug trafficking and related crime. The costs of insecurity, furthermore, are calling into question Brazil’s ability to constitute itself as a platform for South American development. The creation of Unasur and its South American Council on the World Drug Problem reflect South America’s commitment to support a forum for dialogue on the subject, and point to the way ahead: consolidating regional multilateralism. More than four years later, effective instruments are still being sought, but the successful experience of collaboration with Bolivia is being presented as a model for future actions. Strengthening coordination in Unasur will bring the added benefit of the ability to make progress in a more mature and balanced dialogue with the United States with respect to a joint hemispheric agenda.
In this report produced for an Accreditation to Supervise Research, the author defines a cooperative phenomenon as a phenomenon occurring each time a cooperation between elementary entities results in a collective property which exceeds the simple addition of disorganised individual properties. He reports works and researches which show that such phenomena can be generated by molecular architectures developed in laboratory, but also requires an appropriate organisation of active elementary entities. This can be obtained by self-organisation in solution. However, many applications assume the use of solid phases, and notably thin layers. In this respect, the Langmuir-Blodgett technique and self-assembly are very interesting techniques to produce mono-molecular thin layers, without however controlling molecule in-plane orientation and organisation. The author propose an overview of his works which aimed at obtaining this control, and reports three examples of cooperative phenomena: the generation of a second harmonic, spin transition with hysteresis, and electron conduction (one-dimensional and bi-dimensional electron transfer). The report also contains articles published in various scientific publications, and contributions to congresses [fr
Maruthappu, Mahiben; Williams, Callum; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat
Objectives To determine an association between unemployment rates and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mortality in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Design Multivariate regression analysis. Participants OECD member states. Setting OECD. Main outcome measures World Health Organization HIV mortality. Results Between 1981 and 2009, a 1% increase in unemployment was associated with an increase in HIV mortality in the OECD (coefficient for men 0.711, 0.334–1.089, p = 0.0003; coefficient for women 0.166, 0.071–0.260, p = 0.0007). Time lag analysis showed a significant increase in HIV mortality for up to two years after rises in unemployment: p = 0.0008 for men and p = 0.0030 for women in year 1, p = 0.0067 for men and p = 0.0403 for women in year 2. Conclusions Rises in unemployment are associated with increased HIV mortality. Economic fiscal policy may impact upon population health. Policy discussions should take into consideration potential health outcomes. PMID:28748096
Maruthappu, Mahiben; Zhou, Charlie; Williams, Callum; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat
To determine an association between unemployment rates and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mortality in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Multivariate regression analysis. OECD member states. OECD. World Health Organization HIV mortality. Between 1981 and 2009, a 1% increase in unemployment was associated with an increase in HIV mortality in the OECD (coefficient for men 0.711, 0.334-1.089, p = 0.0003; coefficient for women 0.166, 0.071-0.260, p = 0.0007). Time lag analysis showed a significant increase in HIV mortality for up to two years after rises in unemployment: p = 0.0008 for men and p = 0.0030 for women in year 1, p = 0.0067 for men and p = 0.0403 for women in year 2. Rises in unemployment are associated with increased HIV mortality. Economic fiscal policy may impact upon population health. Policy discussions should take into consideration potential health outcomes.
Conference RSIS (The role of science in the information society) - Contributions to Economic Development - Building 40 S2 - B01 - Mr. John Dryden, Chairman, Deputy Director, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Conference RSIS (The role of science in the information society) - Contributions to Economic Development - Building 40 S2 - B01 - Mr. John Dryden, Chairman, Deputy Director, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
This article discusses how the public utilities in Hannover, Germany, have developed a strategy for the operation of their power generation facilities and power distribution network as independent yet co-operating units. Three models that were examined are described: 'free-sailing', where generation and distribution were kept completely independent, the 'wedding' model, where they were closely tied together and 'Enercity', a mixture of both models. The various rules necessary and the degrees of freedom needed to implement the 'Enercity' model are discussed, as are the advantages it offers to both the power generation and the sales units
The correlations among indicators of objective well-being, cultural dimensions, and subjective well-being were investigated using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) data from 35 countries. The subjective well-being measures included life satisfaction as well as six positive and six negative indexes of experience. Positive and negative experience scores were subjected to principal component analysis, and two positive experience components (labeled as "positive experiences" and "time management") and two negative experience components (labeled as "pain, worry, and sadness" and "anger and boredom") were extracted. Objective well-being included economic indicators, education, and health. The cultural variables included Hofstede's and Schwartz's cultural dimensions, national Big Five personality scores, and national IQs. High life satisfaction was positively related to Gross Domestic Product, life expectancy, education, individualism, affective and intellectual autonomy, egalitarianism, and conscientiousness, whereas low life satisfaction was related to unemployment, unequal income distribution, power distance, masculinity uncertainty avoidance, embeddedness, hierarchy, and neuroticism.
3 July 2007 - Ambassador A. Navarro Llanos, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Bolivia to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing a Co-operation Agreement concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics with CERN Director General R. Aymar.
3 July 2007 - Ambassador A. Navarro Llanos, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Bolivia to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing a Co-operation Agreement concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics with CERN Director General R. Aymar.
This study is about the process of organisational adaptation and organisational adaptability. The study generates a theoretical framework about organisational adaptation behaviour and conditions that have influence on success of organisational adaptation. The research questions of the study are: How does an organisation adapt through innovations, and which conditions enhance or impede organisational adaptation through innovations? The data were gathered from five case organisations withi...
Jørgensen, Poul Erik Flyvholm; Isaksson, Maria
– The research shows that the public sector sticks to its guns in maintaining a web-transmitted values discourse which forefronts goodwill towards its clients. It also shows that the public and private sectors take different approaches to goodwill. Originality/value – Strategists and communication specialists......Structured Abstract: Purpose – This paper tests whether organisations in the public domain have embraced a corporate type of discourse, mirroring the private sector’s preferred orientation towards expertise, or whether they maintain their traditional discourse of goodwill towards the publics...... a detailed analysis of organisational value statements posted on the websites of public and private organisations. The research considers the value priorities of fifty organisations in the UK and Scandinavia in order to gauge the extent of convergence between the two sectors’ preferred discourses. Findings...
Tolido, R.; Borsoi, P.; Bronk, H.; Elsinga, B.; Greuter, R.; Hafkamp, W.H.M.; Jochem, A.; van der Heide, M.; Rorive, K.; Schiltmans, T.; Schuurman, J.; Reijers, R.
This Expert Letter deals with the increasingly important phenomenon of in-house Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs). The number of internal CERTs in larger, commercial organisations has increased rapidly in the past few years. This is mainly in response to the painful security incidents that
Schotanus, Fredo; Telgen, Jan
This paper develops a typology for purchasing groups. In the typology, five main forms of cooperative purchasing are distinguished based on seven main dimensions. The forms are positioned in a matrix according to two distinguishing dimensions. These two dimensions are the ‘influence by all members
Schröder, Christin Irma
In the course of the EU integration process, Slovakia became a target of choice for German investors. The percentage of German foreign direct investment has increased sharply since 1995. A growing number of German small to medium sized enterprises discover Slovakia as profitable location for outsourcing and offshoring. However, little is known about German-Slovakian corporations and expatriate management in Slovakia. The aim of the study is to get an understanding of the impact of organisa...
Hunter, Ernest; Onnis, Leigh-Ann; Santhanam-Martin, Radhika; Skalicky, Judy; Gynther, Bruce; Dyer, Geraldine
This paper aims to describe the growth of a regionally-based mental health team providing services to remote Indigenous communities in far north Queensland. By drawing on their experience, the authors are able to identify factors supporting the development and sustained capacity of integrated mental health teams, working in challenging remote settings.
Sanjana Brijball Parumasur
Orientation: Systematic and congruent organisational structures, systems, strategies and designs are necessary for the successful implementation of organisational development (OD) interventions. Research purpose: This article examines national and international OD practices. It assesses the effect of diverse cultures and cultural values for determining the effectiveness of OD interventions. Motivation for the study: Most organisational change and development programmes fail and only a ...
Full Text Available How to achieve a more efficient, more successful, and above all more competitive organisation in the given environment and equal spare time in everything? One of responses is evidently hidden in the levels added organisation concept, which has already proved its advantages in some domains practice, and now we also try to define and explain them from the organisational and scientific aspect. As briefly presented in this paper, the nucleus is hidden in the evolutionary development of the organisation that adopts innovations, then tests and evaluates them, combines and upgrades them, and consequently it efficiently resolves difficulties of existent organisational concepts.
Fliedl, Rainer; Sevecke, Kathrin
According to underlying law (Krankenanstaltengesetz) the internal structure of Departments of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) represents a matrix structure, defining formal roles and tasks of the personel. In contrast, external cooperation is defined in several different laws. Furthermore, patients and their systems are exhibiting a high tensional potential. These different influences can cause more or less severe enmeshments. Thus, during the treatment of this patients it is necessary to take into account the possibility of these enmeshments. It should be answered by special forms of care of the relationship between professionals and families. These special forms of relational care can be delivered by clear organizational structures and must undergo reflective processes on a regular basis. The planning and delivery of those structures is clearly seen as a central responsibility of the management of a CAP-Department.
White, Nigel D
This book provides a concise account of the principles and norms of international law applicable to the main-type of international organisation - the inter-governmental organisation (IGO). That law consists of principles and rules found in the founding documents of IGOs along with applicable principles and rules of international law. The book also identifies and analyses the law produced by IGOs, applied by them and, occasionally, enforced by them. There is a concentration upon the United Nations, as the paradigmatic IGO, not only upon the UN organisation headquartered in New York, but on other IGOs in the UN system (the specialised agencies such as the World Health Organisation).
Transgranichnoe sotrudnichestvo nepravitel'stvennyh organizacij v Pomorskom i Varmin'sko-Mazurskom voevodstvah [Cross-border cooperation between nongovernmental organisations in the Pomeranian and Warmian-Masurian voivodeships
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the issues of cross-border cooperation carried out by agents resident in the Pomeranian and Warmian-Masurian voivodeships. Among such agents there are non-governmental organizations. This article aims to identify the role of NGOs in cross-border cooperation and the predominant fields of their cooperation, as well as to assess their activity in attracting funding from European budgets. The article widely applies the results of surveys of NGOs conducted by the author, compares the results of performance reports submitted by these organisations within international projects, and offers the data presented in relevant publications (Euroregion Baltic documents and Phare CBC reports, Interreg IIIA and, Interreg IIIB, NMF, and Polish-Swiss Cooperation reports, as well as the data of the Central Department of Statistics. The research covers the period from the late 90s to 2012. The article highlights the difficulties agents face in forging and implementing cross-border cooperation, resulting from the mismatching definitions of the tertiary sector in Poland’s neighbour states.
The quality of the results of a project or a public programme, as well as the quality of project management consist in management process performance.This analysis tool promotes the idea of initiating a new organisational/functional policy â€“ organisational tools regarding project management, a new standard concerning the complexity of the project and the associated risk, as well as a new standard concerning the project management organisational/functional ability. Political decision makers,...
Frank A.G. den Butter; Jelle Joustra
The organization of Electronic Dance Music (EDM) events has become a major export product in the Netherlands. In order to respond quickly to the new trends and needs, innovative forms of cooperation between producers are to be set up for the organization of exciting new events. A case study on how these EDM events are actually organised in the Netherlands shows that the best way to do it is through hybrid forms of organisation, which combine horizontal forms of organisation through the market...
Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Hein, Lars
The organisational innovation of the product development function is a doubtful affair since we can hardly describe why a specific organisation works. In this article two comprehensive innovation campaigns in Danish industry are described with reference to the nature, content and results...... of innovative processes and as the crux an attempt to explain principal elements in the changes of attitudes and behaviour in companies....
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this article is to analyse the theoretical views and results of empirical research concerning the relation between organisational learning (OL and organisational performance (OP. Methodology: The study was carried out through extensive literature research, including relevant literature review from databases such as ProQuest, Elsevier, Emerald and EBSCO (the phrases: “organisational learning”, “learning organisation” and “organisational performance” were searched in the keywords, titles or abstracts. Findings: From a theoretical point of view, the relation between OL and OP is neither obvious nor clear, but the analysis of the empirical studies allows one to assume that OL has an essential impact on OP. However, differences in the strength of the relation were shown and some contradictions related to the presence of the relation between OL and selected (mostly financial performance aspects identified. Furthermore, the article discusses the significant differences and inconsistencies in the methods of measuring OL, measuring OP, selecting contextual factors and adopted methods of data analysis. Implications: Inconsistencies and gaps found in the studies of the relationship between OL and OP made it possible to designate the direction for promising further research. Value: The article presents valuable insight through its in-depth, critical analysis of the organisational learning and organisational outcomes. First and foremost, this indicates that the formula of the previous empirical studies does not allow for the development of precise solutions pertaining to organisational learning management for the benefit of OP improvement.
Organisational capability is recognised as a key to organisational success. The combination of human capital (peoples' skills and knowledge), social capital (relationships between people) and organisational capital (the organisation's processes), is central to building an organisation's capability. This paper, presented at the 2008 annual…
The purpose of the study is to examine the extent to which schools displayed practices ... Proportional simple random and purposive sampling techniques were ... and documents were used to substantiate and triangulate the quantitative data. ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.
OECD/NEA International Conference on Global Nuclear Safety Enhancement Organised in co-operation with the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) of Japan On the Occasion of the 50. Anniversary of Japan Joining the OECD
Tanaka, Shunichi; Oshima, Kenzo; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Echavarri, Luis E.; ); Ostendorff, William C.; Viktorovich Ferapontov, Alexey; Lachaume, Jean-Luc; Yoo, Guk Hee; Lyons, James E.; ); Weightman, Mike; ); Gurria, Angel; ); Ishihara, Hirotaka
On 8 April 2014 in Tokyo, Japan, an international conference on enhancing global nuclear safety was held by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development(OECD), in co-operation with the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) of Japan. This document brings together the 12 presentations (slides) given at this conference organized in 3 sessions: 1 - Opening Session: Opening Remarks (S. Tanaka); Statement by L.E. Echavarri; Session 1 - Global Safety Enhancements: USNRC Actions in Response to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (W.C. Ostendorff); Synergy of National and International Regulatory Efforts to Enhance Global Nuclear Safety (A. Viktorovich Ferapontov); Global Safety Enhancements, The French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN)'s position (J.L. Lachaume); Nuclear Safety and Security Commission builds up safety and security (G.H. Yoo); Session 2 - Learning from Experience to Improve Safety: Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident and Responses in New Regulatory Requirements (T. Fuketa); NEA Activities to Enhance the Nuclear Regulatory Framework (L.E. Echavarri); Learning from Experience to Improve Safety - its importance, its mechanisms and its challenges (J.E. Lyons); Learning from Experience to Improve Nuclear Safety - A Perspective from the UK (M. Weightman); Conclusions and Closing Remarks (A. Gurria, H. Ishihara)
Hjalager, Anne Mette
The article demonstrates the high rates of organisational turmoil in the restaurant sector. The intensity of natural selection depends mainly on the age and size of the enterprise. Affiliation with other enterprises increases the chances of survival, but only if there is a substantial number...... of units co-operating in a group. Surprisingly, the level of staff competence and managerial capacity - measured in quantitative terms - cannot explain the level of success or failure in the restaurant business to any significant degree. Organisational ecology, which constitutes the theoretical...... and methodological base of this article, is a promising research approach to tourism issues. The article, which focuses on explanations for the occurrence of life events in the restaurant sector, calls for more careful policy considerations than are often the case. In particular, human-resource- and labour...
Du vil som læser få et indblik i, hvordan omgivelsernes ændrede krav til virksomhederne ændrer på organisations- og ledelsesteorien. Baggrunden for ”Organisation – videregående uddannelser” er, at give dig egenskaberne til at analysere og vurdere ledelsesmæssige og organisatoriske problemer...
In this paper, integrated care in an inter-organisational cooperative setting of in-home elderly care is studied. The aim is to explore how home care workers coordinate their daily work, identify coordination issues in situ and discuss possible actions for supporting seamless and integrated elderly care at home. The empirical findings are drawn from an ethnographic workplace study of the cooperation and coordination taking place between home care workers in a Swedish county. Data were collected through observational studies, interviews and group discussions. The paper identifies a need to support two core issues. Firstly, it must be made clear how the care interventions that are currently defined as 'self-treatment' by the home health care should be divided. Secondly, the distributed and asynchronous coordination between all care workers involved, regardless of organisational belonging must be better supported. Integrated care needs to be developed between organisations as well as within each organisation. As a matter of fact, integrated care needs to be built up beyond organisational boundaries. Organisational boundaries affect the planning of the division of care interventions, but not the coordination during the home care process. During the home care process, the main challenge is the coordination difficulties that arise from the fact that workers are distributed in time and/or space, regardless of organisational belonging. A core subject for future practice and research is to develop IT tools that reach beyond formal organisational boundaries and processes while remaining adaptable in view of future structure changes.
The article considers the many possibilities of bringing the arts into organisations to keep up with the demands of an uncertain and fast-changing environment. It discusses cases of arts-based interventions in companies that reflect the different kinds of arts-based interventions that can be foun...
Strunck, Jeanne; Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte
or authoritative narratives, attracting attention to the struggles over meanings, values and identities that consistently take place in organisations (Mumby 1987). In the bank, these struggles are exemplified through the discursive construction of recruitment policies and practices, with managers both subscribing...
Sørensen, Henrik B.; Hansen, Kaj; Heide, Asbjørn
Bogen giver en indføring i de centrale emner indenfor organisation og ledelse. Bogen henvender sig især til akademi- og diplomuddannelserne samt uddannelser til professionsbachelorer, der alle har et anvendelsesorienteret formål. Endvidere henvender bogen sig til uddannelser og kurser, der...... beskæftiger sig med ledelse og organisation på et videregående niveau. Til bogen er der udarbejdet en lang række supplerende materialer til undervisere og studerende i form af opgaver og cases, test med tilhørende svar, vejledninger i opgaveløsning og projektarbejde. dette univers kan findes på bogens...... hjemmeside på www.organisation.academica.dk...
Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Manzey, Dietrich
decision making processes are salient challenges in cooperation both within ESA and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. The importance given to these factors is consistent with results from the broader area of work and organizational psychology. Potential implications for safety operations are discussed
Sanjana Brijball Parumasur
Research purpose: This article examines national and international OD practices. It assesses the effect of diverse cultures and cultural values for determining the effectiveness of OD interventions. Motivation for the study: Most organisational change and development programmes fail and only a few result in increased competitiveness, improvements and profitability. This emphasises the need for change interventions to give sufficient attention to leadership, cultures, managing change and adopting context-based OD interventions. Research design, approach and method: This article is a literature review of the current trends and research in the area of OD interventions. It synthesises the influence that cultures and cultural orientations have on determining which OD intervention strategies organisations should adopt in different cultures. Main findings: The analysis emphasises how important it is to achieve congruence between the OD interventions organisations select and their local cultures. Practical/managerial implications: It is important to note the evolving nature of the political and economic climates that influence national cultures and that they emphasise that interventions that reflect OD values, which are tailor-made and shaped to the needs of local cultures, are necessary. Contribution/value-add: This study links various OD interventions to Hofstede’s dimensions for differentiating national cultures. It provides guidelines for aligning the practices and techniques of OD to the values and cultures of the organisations and societies in which they are to be implemented.
May 25, 1974 ... costs and the long period taken in planning before con- struction (which in itself takes ... in the Peninsula and near metropolitan Cape Town, where the old 'Free ..... At the invitation of the Red Cross War Memorial. Children's ...
De Jonghe, J
The combination of the maturing technology of graphical user interfaces (GUI) with Advanced Information Systems (AIS) based on relational databases has made it possible to design an application which can cope with the document flow within a large organization. Such an application should allow for the creation of electronic documents in a user friendly way, automatic routing of these documents through the bureaucratic chain in the organization, pin-pointing of documents within the chain, detection of bottle necks in the document flow, archival of old documents, etc. The electronic document handling (EDH) application has been developed to address the problem of the flow of paper within CERN (around 500,000 office documents per year). The tool is based on Oracle RDBMS, is fully integrated with our new AIS system and is based on a client-server architecture. The clients run on different platforms: a 'dumb terminal' client running on VM/CMS, and a graphical client running on Apple Macintosh, IBM-compatible PCs (un...
Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte; Strunck, Jeanne
or authoritative narratives, attracting attention to the struggles over meanings, values and identities that consistently take place in organisations (Mumby 1987). In the bank, these struggles are exemplified through the discursive construction of recruitment policies and practices, with managers both subscribing...... to dominant narratives and constructing counter-narratives that challenge the very meaning of these as well as invite questions of the relationship between self and the social (Bamberg & Andrews 2004). The paper analyses semi-structured interviews with middle managers, using the combined method of discourse...... and narrative analysis, which allows for a critical perspective on managers’ constructions of recruitment including the (fragmented) narratives used to establish self and the organisation (Alvesson & Kärreman 2011; Grant & Iedema 2005; Humle & Frandsen 2017). Furthermore, a Critical Discourse Analysis approach...
Selected excerpts from the proceedings of the international symposium on safety cases for deep disposal of radioactive waste: where do we stand? 23-25 January 2007, Paris, France, Organised by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) with the co-operation of the European Commission (EC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Pescatore, Claudio; ); Ruiz, Carmen
Claudio Pescatore from NEA summarised the main results of a workshop organised by the Regulator's Forum in 2006 on Regulating for the Long-Term Safety of Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Waste. Workshop participants demonstrated the diversity of regulatory processes and policies across nations, which can be attributed primarily to the diversity of the socio-economic context. It was recommended that instead of focusing solely on the regulator, it is the regulatory system (i.e. a multi-actor societal decision-making process), which should be internationally compared. It was acknowledged that active institutional control cannot be maintained for the lifetime of long-lived waste, and no verifiable guarantee of safety can be provided for times when controls are no longer in place. Therefore, licensing of a geological disposal facility may be seen as an act of trust in the technology and the regulatory system, taken by the current generation on behalf of future generations. Mr Pescatore set forth further conclusions of the workshop, regarding safety indicators, timescales, and overall approaches. Since quantitative indicators characterising the effectiveness of radiological protection, including dose and risk, are no longer good measures of detriment and are subject to high uncertainty in the long-term, emphasis has been shifted to qualitative process/system indicators, for example, indicators related to the Best Available Techniques (BAT). Concerning timescales, workshop participants viewed that our duty to protect future generations does not weaken over time. Our capacity, however, to fulfil this duty is weaker with respect to far future generations. This discrepancy can be handled by recent generations' carrying out duties that can be reasonably performed, while transferring others to subsequent generations, along with resources needed to fulfil them. Since it seems likely that implementing a disposal facility may involve several generations, stepwise decision making
Full Text Available Objectives: In this paper, integrated care in an inter-organisational cooperative setting of in-home elderly care is studied. The aim is to explore how home care workers coordinate their daily work, identify coordination issues in situ and discuss possible actions for supporting seamless and integrated elderly care at home. Method: The empirical findings are drawn from an ethnographic workplace study of the cooperation and coordination taking place between home care workers in a Swedish county. Data were collected through observational studies, interviews and group discussions. Findings: The paper identifies a need to support two core issues. Firstly, it must be made clear how the care interventions that are currently defined as ‘self-treatment’ by the home health care should be divided. Secondly, the distributed and asynchronous coordination between all care workers involved, regardless of organisational belonging must be better supported. Conclusion: Integrated care needs to be developed between organisations as well as within each organisation. As a matter of fact, integrated care needs to be built up beyond organisational boundaries. Organisational boundaries affect the planning of the division of care interventions, but not the coordination during the home care process. During the home care process, the main challenge is the coordination difficulties that arise from the fact that workers are distributed in time and/or space, regardless of organisational belonging. A core subject for future practice and research is to develop IT tools that reach beyond formal organisational boundaries and processes while remaining adaptable in view of future structure changes.
Pomfret, D.G.; Bradford, S.T.
An aspect of proactive safety management is learning lessons from unforeseen events. As BNFL has expanded and extended its nuclear services to many more sites, the potential for organisational learning has grown, but sharing through informal networking has become progressively harder. This potential problem has been solved by implementing formalised company-wide arrangements to turn incidents and accidents into organisational learning opportunities through a system called 'Learning from Experience' (LFE). LFE enables event causes and corrective actions to be identified and shared across all BNFL's sites, initially in the UK but ultimately throughout the world. The result is prevention of events having similar causes, and development of a learning culture which breaks down the barriers to adopting best practice'. Key aspects of the system are: Applying root cause analysis to all significant events; Logging all events, their causes and corrective actions onto a Company-wide database; Screening the database regularly by locally appointed Feedback Co-ordinators trained in identifying learning opportunities and knowledgeable of their own business area, and; Placing and tracking actions to prevent similar events at local Event Review Meetings. The paper describes the implementation and initial experience in operation of the LFE system, which is seen as a significant step towards becoming an expanding and learning company with no accidents or incidents. (author)
Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Holm Pedersen, Lene
This research examines the effects of organisational change on employee health and labour market outcomes. Previous studies looking into organisational change in the private sector indicate that the larger the size and depth of organisational change, the larger the detrimental consequences...... to the employees. This study contributes to the literature on four main dimensions. First, we extend the analysis of organisational change to a public sector setting. Second, while previous findings remain inconclusive regarding causal effects due to problems of endogeneity, our analysis contributes to research...
"Concepts like Taylorism, lean production and learning organisation draw attention to the point that work organisation can appear in different forms and it is generally recognised that different conditions tend to produce different forms. Still, there is a tendency to underplay how different these generative conditions are. In this article the issue of learning organisation is placed in focus, drawing upon experiences from Scandinavian workplace development programmes. These...
Farmer organisations have become the centrepiece of pro-poor market development strategies in Africa. Assumed to facilitate scale, quality of produce and professionalism they are regarded as a solution for farmers that are hampered from economic opportunities. In
The thesis examines cooperation and participation as modes of institutional action to address women’ social and economic problems and needs in the context of rural Tanzania. It does so against the background of the history of cooperatives in Tanzania and development cooperation. The thesis takes cooperation in a broad sense as the act or process of people working together; cooperative groups and cooperatives thereby become synonyms in this study. In contrast to literature that only recognise...
English, G. (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (United States))
Cooperatives do not ask to be exempted from the law. They do ask that laws and regulations be designed to allow them to meet the needs of their consumer-owners in accordance with cooperative principles, at a time that the marginal consumers being abandoned by for-profit utilities may be ready to gravitate toward cooperatives. The cooperative principles are worth reviewing because they explain the focus on the consumer and the cooperative concept of service: cooperatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership; cooperatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting policies and making decisions, the elected representatives are accountable to the membership; members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative; cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members, if they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy; cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives, they inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of cooperation; cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strength the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures; and while focusing on member needs, cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.
Dana R. Fisher; Lindsay Campbell; Erika S. Svendsen
How is the organisational structure of urban environmental stewardship groups related to the diverse ways that civic stewardship is taking place in urban settings? The findings of the limited number of studies that have explored the organisational structure of civic environmentalism are combined with the research on civic stewardship to answer this question. By...
This paper delivered at the Symposium organised on the XXth anniservary of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency recalls the historical background of nuclear cooperation which went through three stages : European collaboration, U.S. isolationist policy and finally, openness. Cooperation took place at three levels: bilateral and multilateral technical cooperation; creation of joint multinational undertakings; trade relations. The paper then examines three particular areas which illustrate the evolution of international nuclear cooperation, i.e., organisation of the uranium market, uranium enrichment and the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. (NEA) [fr
Sep 21, 1974 ... PRINCIPLES OF ORGANISATION. There are three possible ways of organising the accident services of a hospital. Firstly, the general principle of a casualty department can be maintained, but the efficiency of the department can be improved. This means placing experienced senior surgeons in the casualty ...
Regional Organisations and International Mediation: The Effectiveness of Insider Mediators. ... During the last two decades of the twentieth century, the world witnessed an increasing number of regional conflict management efforts undertaken by regional inter-governmental organisations. There are therefore strong reasons ...
Baxter, Gavin J.; Connolly, Thomas M.
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the "state of art" of organisational blogging. It also aims to provide a critical review of the literature on organisational blogging and propose recommendations on how to advance the subject area in terms of academic research. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review…
Pedler, Mike; Burgoyne, John G.
Purpose: It has recently been suggested that the learning organisation (LO) is dead (Pedler, 2013). The authors make the case here that it is still alive. This paper provides a brief history of LO and organisational learning, follows this with some survey findings, a discussion and an exploration of some related contemporary issues and concludes…
The Dynamics of Organisation and Work - Measurement framework of the Meadow survey by Peter Nielsen for the MEADOW Consortium Organisational changes and the upcoming of new adaptable work organisations are common in most developed countries regardless of culture and industrial traditions. The main...... of globalisation in combination with technology developments mean that instability and changing conditions are more the rule than the exception and management are forced to find new ways to cope with this instability. Generally it has meant that knowledge and innovation has become more important for firms...... and this influences the new ways of configuring the work organisations. However, there is a great diversity in the ways firm develop their organisations and restructure work and not least in the resulting economic and social performance. This diversity means that there is a considerable and urgent need to produce...
Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langå
Research from several countries indicates that the internal health and safety organisation in most companies is placed in an appendix position. Introduc-tion of learning is a possibility for the development of a stronger and more ef-fective health and safety organisation. This approach has been...
Janssen, Lodevicus Johannes Henricus
There is reason for concern about the Dutch development cooperation. A survey of some aid evaluations of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) showed that the aid results are limited and that the goals of the programs are not achieved. Management concerns using an organisation's resources to
M.Comm. The primary purpose of the present study was to identify whether the organisational culture of the Transmission Division of Eskom is aligned to its stated values. In seeking to reach this objective, it was necessary to assess the gap between espoused and practised organisational values. The study also sought to identify the Transmission Division’s organisational culture. A correlation between the stated values and identified organisational culture was calculated and this was used t...
Dark, Frances; Whiteford, Harvey; Ashkanasy, Neal M; Harvey, Carol; Harris, Meredith; Crompton, David; Newman, Ellie
Strategies to implement evidence-based practice have highlighted the bidirectional relationship of organisational change on organisational culture. The present study examined changes in perceptions of organisational culture in two community mental health services implementing cognitive therapies into routine psychosis care over 3 years. During the time of the study there were a number of shared planned and unplanned changes that the mental health services had to accommodate. One service, Metro South, had the additional challenge of embarking on a major organisational restructure. A survey of organisational culture was administered to clinical staff of each service at yearly intervals over the 3 years. At baseline assessment there was no significant difference between the two services in organisational culture. At the midpoint assessment, which was conducted at the time the Metro South restructure was operationalized, there were less positive ratings of organisational culture recorded in Metro South compared to the other service. Organisational culture returned to near-baseline levels at endpoint assessment. These findings are consistent with the literature that organisational culture is relatively robust and resilient. It is also consistent with the literature that, at any one time, a service or organisation may have a finite capacity to absorb change. Consequently this limitation needs to be taken into account in the timing and planning of major service reform where possible. The results also extend the literature, insofar as external factors with a high impact on the operation of an organisation may impact upon organisational culture albeit temporarily.
Bolmsten, Johan; Dittrich, Yvonne
Modern organisations need to be able to adjust to changes in the environment, changes which are ever more rapid, and in doing so capitalise on the creativity and innovations of their employees. As suggested by Boulus-Rødje and Bjørn (Chap. 14), information technology (IT) applications today...... are likely to take the form of complex, integrated infrastructures, supporting collaboration within and across organisations. This places requirements on the IT infrastructure. As the work practices within an organisation change, the supporting infrastructure also needs to evolve....
Murashov, Vladimir; Engel, Stefan; Savolainen, Kai; Fullam, Brian; Lee, Michelle; Kearns, Peter
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), an intergovernmental organization, is playing a critical global role in ensuring that emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology, are developed responsibly. This article describes OECD activities around occupational safety and health of nanotechnology and provides state-of-the-science overview resulting from an OECD workshop on exposure assessment and mitigation for nanotechnology workplace.
The cognitive psychological processes related to learning and change behaviour are factors that impact on organisational strategy development. Strategy development is dependent on strategic thinking that is reciprocally influenced by shared mental models, organisational learning and organisational change. Although strategy development, shared…
Marynissen, H M F
Both researchers and managers search for the most appropriate form of organisational communication. The aim of such an organisational communication is to influence the receivers' perception to confirm, adapt or change behaviour according to the sender's intention. This paper argues that to influence the receivers' perception, a specific form of communication that is embedded in a specific organisational culture is required. It also demands prior knowledge of the existing organisational schemata and the current perception concerning the topic that has to be communicated. The rationale is that three obstacles hinder the objectives of traditional communication strategies to influence perception according to the sender's objectives. The first challenge is that a receiver of a certain message never garners one single, clearly pronounced message conveyed by one single person. Yet, few studies are based on multiple messages from various sources. This makes most of the communication strategies in use obsolete. The second strain is the dual mode of thinking that forms organisational members' perceptions: the heuristic and the cogitative (Taleb, 2010). Most organisational communication theories are based on the paradigm in which receivers of information process this information in a rational way, while research in the field of neurobiology (Lehrer, 2009) indicates that rationality is dominated by emotions. The third difficulty is that organisational members constrain to well-established, ingrained schemas (Labianca et al., 2000; Balogun and Johnson, 2004). Based on these existing schemas, the scattered information from multiple sources, and the inability to process that information through cognitive reasoning, organisational members construct perceptions that are not in line with the objectives of the sender's communication. This article reviews different communication theories, points out key concepts in the literature on individual and collective perceptions, and suggests
Islamic organisations’ role in improving women’s position in society is often dismissed. Instead, they are believed to be devoted to charitable work and entrench patriarchal structures in line with traditional religious norms rather than challenge them. This brief nuances this picture, and describes some of the goals and activities of Islamic women’s organisations on the West Bank. In addition, the brief highlights factors that challenge the allegations that Islamic women’s organisations are ...
Santos, Ana L; Preta, Giulio
Lipids are fundamental building blocks of all cells and play important roles in the pathogenesis of different diseases, including inflammation, autoimmune disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The lipid composition of different organelles can vary substantially from cell to cell, but increasing evidence demonstrates that lipids become organised specifically in each compartment, and this organisation is essential for regulating cell function. For example, lipid microdomains in the plasma membrane, known as lipid rafts, are platforms for concentrating protein receptors and can influence intra-cellular signalling. Lipid organisation is tightly regulated and can be observed across different model organisms, including bacteria, yeast, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting that lipid organisation is evolutionarily conserved. In this review, we summarise the importance and function of specific lipid domains in main cellular organelles and discuss recent advances that investigate how these specific and highly regulated structures contribute to diverse biological processes.
Jonker, C. M.; Snoep, J. L.; Treur, J.; Westerhoff, H. V.; Wijngaards, W. C. A.
Within the areas of Computational Organisation Theory and Artificial Intelligence, techniques have been developed to simulate and analyse dynamics within organisations in society. Usually these modelling techniques are applied to factories and to the internal organisation of their process flows, thus obtaining models of complex organisations at various levels of aggregation. The dynamics in living cells are often interpreted in terms of well-organised processes, a bacterium being considered a (micro)factory. This suggests that organisation modelling techniques may also benefit their analysis. Using the example of Escherichia coli it is shown how indeed agent-based organisational modelling techniques can be used to simulate and analyse E.coli's intracellular dynamics. Exploiting the abstraction levels entailed by this perspective, a concise model is obtained that is readily simulated and analysed at the various levels of aggregation, yet shows the cell's essential dynamic patterns.
Full Text Available This paper aims to present to the wide public a success story concerning the efficient cooperation between the civil society as a whole (citizens, NGOs, stake holders and public administration authorities. The success consists in using and strengthening dialogue measures within the collaboration of the two actors. The research is based on a study case. This was run through an EU funded project - “Efficient mechanisms of cooperation with public authorities”. The goal of the project was to increase the capacity of non-governmental organizations to cooperate with the public administration institutions. In order to reach the proposed aim there have been organized a series of theoretical and practical training courses, roundtable discussions and study-visits. Through this manner it has been encouraged and practiced the structured dialog on public agenda issues between the representatives of the local and national authorities and the active citizens. The outputs of the project consist in one Public Consultation Guide elaborated on the basis of good practices acknowledged through the project and two local citizens` initiatives on local public administration matters that have been brought into the public attention of the decision-making actors. Active citizenship, structured dialogue between civil society and state actors, developed tools for effective advocacy and lobby that are part of the success story that we intend to present through this study case.
In current literature a new organisational form is presented, the virtual organisation (VO). ms organisational form is a co-operation between a number of companies who combine their strengths to develop a new service or product. The current VO literature is ambiguous about the definition and
Full Text Available The vast research on organisational justice has focused on the organisation and the supervisor. This study aims to further this line of research by integrating two trends within organisational justice research: the overall approach to justice perceptions and the multifoci perspective of justice judgments. Specifically, this study aims to explore the effects of two additional sources of justice, coworker-focused justice and customer-focused justice, on relevant employees’ outcomes—burnout, turnover intentions, job satisfaction, and workplace deviance— while controlling the effect of organisation-focused justice and supervisor-focused justice. Given the increased importance attributed to coworkers and customers, we expect coworker-focused justice and customer-focused justice to explain incremental variance in the measured outcomes, above and beyond the effects of organisation-focused justice and supervisor-focused justice. Participants will be university students from Austria and Germany employed by service organisations. Data analysis will be conducted using structural equation modeling.
Crespo León, F; Ruiz Mercader, J; Sabater Sánchez, R; Rodríguez Ferri, E F; Crespo Azofra, L
The authors analyse the organisational structure of the OIE (World organisation for animal health), highlighting the roles of the Central Bureau, the Specialist Commissions, Regional Commissions, working groups and ad hoc groups, Regional Representations, Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres. The paper also includes some suggestions as to how the OIE could work more closely with its 'customers', that is, the Member Countries. These suggestions are based on current theories of organisational flexibility, and take into account not only the current organisational structure of the OIE, but also the Strategic Plan and the Working Plan, which were adopted at the 69th General Session of the OIE International Committee in 2001.
Garcia, Alessandra Bassalobre; Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Pissinati, Paloma de Souza Cavalcante; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Camelo, Silvia Helena Henriques; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Fernandez Lourenço
This study aimed to analyse the relationship between the organisational culture and feelings of pleasure and suffering among working nursing professionals. This was a cross-sectional correlational study conducted in a tertiary hospital with 214 nursing staff over 3 months using three instruments: professional characterisation, the Brazilian Instrument for Assessment of Organisational Culture, and the Scale of Pleasure and Suffering at Work. The analysis included descriptive statistics and the Spearman correlation test. The external integration practice was the domain most frequently found in the organisational culture and the feeling of pleasure-gratification predominated among the workers. Values of cooperative professionalism and wellbeing, and practices of external integration and relationship promotion, were related to increased pleasure and decreased suffering at work. These aspects depend on the organisational culture of the institution. Investigating organisational culture facilitates the understanding of potential collective coping strategies and the organisational changes that favour good mental health in nurses.
The thesis examines cooperation and participation as modes of institutional action to address women’ social and economic problems and needs in the context of rural Tanzania. It does so against the background of the history of cooperatives in Tanzania and development cooperation. The thesis takes
Monia L. Castro
Research purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between organisational climate and job satisfaction to determine whether employees’ perceptions of the work environment influence their level of job satisfaction. Motivation for the study: Organisations are facing more challenges than ever before. These challenges are not unique to any specific organisation or industry, but affect all organisations.Organisational climate in particular is constantly challenged by changes impacting organisations today. Research design, approach and method: An organisational climate questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 696 employees from a population of 1453 employees working in three regions in which the organisation was operational. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to investigate the structure of the climate model. Main findings: The revised 12-factor model (after the confirmatory factor analysis fitted the data best and the researchers therefore decided to proceed with the revised 12-factor model (11 dimensions for further analysis. A stepwise regression was conducted and nine dimensions of organisational climate were found to predict job satisfaction. The results indicated a strong positive correlation (r = 0.813, p< 0.01 between organisational climate and the dependent variable of job satisfaction. Practical implications: This study provided support for the view that line managers and human resource practitioners should be aware that different biographical groups have different needs that can influence their job satisfaction levels and different perceptions of the climate within the organisation and that this impacts on their behaviour. Contribution: The findings of this study indicated a positive relationship between organisational climate scores and job satisfaction scores and thus, regardless of how the dimensions are perceived, organisational climate has an influence on job satisfaction.
Kluyver, J C
Tabulates details of major accelerator laboratories in western Europe, USA, and USSR, and describes the various organisations concerned with high-energy physics. The Dutch organisation uses the NIKHEF laboratory in Amsterdam and cooperates with CERN. (0 refs).
Houghton, Robert J; Baber, Chris; Stanton, Neville A; Jenkins, Daniel P; Revell, Kirsten
Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) allows complex, sociotechnical systems to be explored in terms of their potential configurations. However, CWA does not explicitly analyse the manner in which person-to-person communication is performed in these configurations. Consequently, the combination of CWA with Social Network Analysis provides a means by which CWA output can be analysed to consider communication structure. The approach is illustrated through a case study of a military planning team. The case study shows how actor-to-actor and actor-to-function mapping can be analysed, in terms of centrality, to produce metrics of system structure under different operating conditions. In this paper, a technique for building social network diagrams from CWA is demonstrated.The approach allows analysts to appreciate the potential impact of organisational structure on a command system.
Perception of fairness among employees is a guiding force that influences employee attitude and behaviour. However, the mechanisms associated with justice need to be studied further. This study hypothesises that perceived organisational support (POS) mediates the relationship between organisational justice perceptions and affective commitment of employees. The study was conducted in a multi-national organisation operating in India in the service sector; the sample size was 71 employees. Baron...
Tam, Steven; Gray, David E.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to relate the practice of organisational learning in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to the organisational life cycle (OLC), contextualising the differential aspects of an integrated relationship between them. Design/methodology/approach: It is a mixed-method study with two consecutive phases. In…
Burnett, Susan; Benn, Jonathan; Pinto, Anna; Parand, Anam; Iskander, Sandra; Vincent, Charles
Patient safety has been high on the agenda for more than a decade. Despite many national initiatives aimed at improving patient safety, the challenge remains to find coherent and sustainable organisation-wide safety-improvement programmes. In the UK, the Safer Patients' Initiative (SPI) was established to address this challenge. Important in the success of such an endeavour is understanding 'readiness' at the organisational level, identifying the preconditions for success in this type of programme. This article reports on a case study of the four NHS organisations participating in the first phase of SPI, examining the perceptions of organisational readiness and the relationship of these factors with impact by those actively involved in the initiative. A mixed-methods design was used, involving a survey and semistructured interviews with senior executive leads, the principal SPI programme coordinator and the four operational leads in each of the SPI clinical work areas in all four organisations taking part in the first phase of SPI. This preliminary work would suggest that prior to the start of organisation-wide quality- and safety-improvement programmes, organisations would benefit from an assessment of readiness with time spent in the preparation of the organisational infrastructure, processes and culture. Furthermore, a better understanding of the preconditions that mark an organisation as ready for improvement work would allow policymakers to set realistic expectations about the outcomes of safety campaigns.
What features of institutional change do voluntary organisations contain? This question is debated in the civil society literature, but often under different headlines, like social entrepreneurship or social movement theory. The question of voluntarism is often not taken into account. This paper...... organisations. I establish a theoretical frame of institutional dynamic, build primarily on J.G. March's theory on exploration and exploitation. I focus on two organisational arrangements drawn from the theory: The degree of strategic decision-making and the degree of diversity among the volunteers. I use...... builds upon the premise that institutional dynamic is connected to peoples ability to act according to their free will. But only in the ideal version are they able to make a complete connection between free will and action. This is also the case for volunteers. The loose-coupled connection...
Roxana Sánchez Boza
Full Text Available This study analyses the role carried out by saving and credit cooperatives in Central America where they have gained momentum, mainly in the past ten years. Cooperatives of this type are called financial intermediation cooperatives due to the influence of various legislative regulations that have placed them in the context of international control, the type of economic activity they perform and the fact that they make profits from both public and private international entities which enable their growth.Many of these organisations can be commended. They are highly competitive on financial markets and strive to extend their profits to increasingly larger parts of the population while also searching for new products to benefit the sector of the population that has chosen the cooperative model as a means to progress in a sphere of equity and respect for the rights of their fellow men.Received: 31.05.2015Accepted: 17.07.2015
This essay will study leadership by critically analysing several key theories; it will begin with the concept of leadership to facility an understanding of the subject. Initially, the description of leadership in organisations will be explored to present the development of leadership, and simultaneously identify the purpose of effective leadership. Subse-quently, the demand for good leaders in current business environment will be discussed in order to identify the importance of effective lead-ership. Finally, an empirical case will be discussed to reveal how well the key theories help leaders to address various issues in organisations.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate organisational commitment in an organisation that had recently experienced organisational restructuring (a merger. The psychological contract that exists between employees and organisations is brittle due to many organisational changes that stem from organisational restructuring. When psychological contracts are breached, employees may experience reduced commitment to the organisation. The target population for this study consisted of all employees working at three recently-merged higher education institutions in the Nelson Mandela Metropolis (n=100 and a self-administered questionnaire was distributed amongst staff. The results indicated that an increase in the number of positive human resource management (HRM practices reported by respondents correlated with a decrease in violation and breach of the psychological contract, despite organisational restructuring. It was further revealed that effective management of the psychological contract is crucial during organisational restructuring, in order to maintain the commitment and loyalty of employees.
Full Text Available Background: Innovation is recognised as one of the most important determinant of organisational performance. Yet, the results of studies that investigate the relationship between innovation and organisational performance are inconclusive. The inconsistency has been attributed to a number of factors, which include, among others, the measures used to evaluate organisational performance. Aim: This study was set out to identify, categorise and critically analyse the instruments used to assess organisational performance when investigating the relationship between innovation and organisational performance. Setting: The study focuses on all scientific publications reporting on organisational performance, inclusive of both financial and non-financial indicators of performance, and are not limited to any specific country or industry. Methods: The systematic literature review methodology was used to identify studies which investigated the relationship between innovation and organisational performance. Once identified, articles were analysed on the way organisational performance was measured. Classification was done with reference to financial and non-financial indicators, accounting and market-based, as well as objective and subjective measures. Results: The findings show that profitability, sales growth and return on assets (ROA are the most preferred accounting-based financial measures of organisation performance. In addition, Tobin’s Q was found to be the most favoured market-based financial measure of organisational performance. The study further reveals that market share, customer satisfaction and productivity are the most popular non-financial-based measures of organisational performance. Conclusion: The use of measures of organisational performance is often left to the discussion of the researcher, which is not implicitly wrong, but does little to contribute to the body of knowledge on this important topic. Researchers are firstly urged to
Full Text Available Interaksi Cina dan Rusia di kawasan Asia Tengah, khususnya dalam kerangka kerjasama Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO, merupakan fenomena yang menarik untuk dikaji mengingat kedua negara tersebut tergolong sebagai great power, memiliki kepentingan yang hampir serupa di bidang energi dalam kawasan tersebut, namun memiliki political goals yang cukup berbeda. Tulisan ini mencoba mengkaji secara mendalam tentang bagaimana kesetimbangan kepentingan (balance of interest dari Cina dan Rusia di bidang energi beserta besarnya kapabilitas nasional dari kedua negara tersebut menjadi faktor penentu dalam pembentukan SCO bersama Kazakstan, Kirgistan, Tajikistan, dan Uzbekistan. Tulisan ini juga menunjukkan bagaimana political goals yang berbeda dapat dikesampingkan oleh negara-negara demi tercapainya kepentingan nasional mereka.
field of study which is concerned with the control and communication in animal and ... process upon which cybernetics is based has proved enormous, and over the ... the epistemological implications deriving from the Cybernetic perspective. .... the manner in which we conceive of organisations and their contexts has so.
The steadily increasing degree of globalisation of enterprises implies development of many skills, among which the skills to learn are among the most important. Learning takes place at the individual level, but collective learning and organisational learning are also important. Learning styles of individuals are different and learning styles are…
The twentieth century has been the century of complex organisations. However, most contemporary political currents act as if we were still living in the nineteenth century. For many modern liberals, social democrats, and communitarians, the contrast between public and private, between government and
Full Text Available Organisations have over the years implemented many improvement initiatives, many of which were applied individually with no real, lasting improvement. Approaches such as quality control, team activities, setup reduction and many more seldom changed the fundamental constitution or capability of an organisation. Leading companies in the world have come to realise that an integrated approach is required which focuses on improving more than one factor at the same time - by recognising the importance of synergy between different improvement efforts and the need for commitment at all levels of the company to achieve total system-wide improvement.
The 20 Keys approach offers a way to look at the strenqth of organisations and to systemically improve it, one step at a time by focusing on 20 different but interrelated aspects. One feature of the approach is the benchmarking system which forms the main focus of this paper. The benchmarking system is introduced as an important part of the 20 Keys philosophy in measuring organisational strength. Benchmarking results from selected South African companies are provided, as well as one company's results achieved through the adoption of the 20 Keys philosophy.
Schulkind, Matthew D; Rahhal, Tamara A; Klein, Megan R; Lacher, Samantha R
Previous research suggests that autobiographical memories are over-general and are organised according to life periods. One experiment assessed the specificity and organisation of autobiographical memory by manipulating two variables. The retrieval cues were either a set of three words (a theme, a time period, and an emotional valence) or a short narrative that included a specific theme, time period, and emotional valence. The instructions either encouraged the participants to respond as though they were conversing with a friend (social instructions) or did not specify a target audience (standard instructions). Narrative cues and standard instructions elicited more specific responses than word cues and social instructions, respectively. Whereas word cues elicited memories that were most likely to match the cues in terms of time period, narrative cues elicited memories that were most likely to match the cues in terms of theme. These data suggest that previous research underestimated the specificity of the autobiographical knowledge base and overestimated the importance of temporally defined life periods for organising autobiographical memory. Previous conclusions regarding the specificity and organisation of autobiographical memory may reflect the structure of autobiographical narratives and the methodologies used to collect such narratives rather than the content of autobiographical memory itself.
Huisman, Marieke; Klebanov, Vladimir; Monahan, Rosemary; Klebanov, Vladimir; Beckert, Bernhard; Biere, Armin; Sutcliffe, Geoff
In this paper, we discuss the challenges that have to be addressed when organising program verification competitions. Our focus is on competitions for verification systems where the participants both formalise an informally stated requirement and (typically) provide some guidance for the tool to
Bipath, Keshni; Adeyemo, Kolawole Samuel
One of the more frequently cited cultural dimensions within the field of cultural research is that of cultural strength (Cameron & Ettington, 1998). Early published works on organisational culture argue that there is an absolute need for a "strong" culture for organisations to be effective. This study has examined the contradiction…
Full Text Available Polish public organisations are often perceived as having strong bureaucratic orientation, avoiding both change and risk. However, in the last decade a distinct change in the management model of public organisations can be noticed. Public sector becomes an open ground for mergers and partnerships, entrepreneurial leadership, diversified services and commercialization (Golensky and DeRuiter 1999; Zimmerman and Dart, 1998; Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2004; Walker, 2013]. Public organisations embrace these strategies from the for-profit sector in order to manage change and to be effective. Most importantly, public organisations are adopting these frameworks in order to survive the changing operating environment, including changes in the level of government funding. Our paper draws on the Miles and Snow (1978 typology of generic strategies - prospectors, defenders, analysers, and reactors - to identify different organisational strategies within public organisations providing social services in Poland. In order to assess organisational culture we used the most widespread and used in many empirical studies Cameron and Quinn’s model (2003, the Competing Values Framework (CVF, from which four cultures - adhocracy, clan, market and hierarchy - emerge. The choice of these two providers of social services was dictated by our conviction, that these organisations are critical both for the national economy and for mitigating, counteracting and preventing social exclusion.
This paper portrays the inferences that employers in Greece draw from particular aspects of study programmes, as recorded on educational qualifications. Based on semi-structured interviews with human resource managers in 37 industrial and service organisations and general directors of careers offices in eight higher education institutions, and…
Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris
The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...
Petridou, Eugenia; Chatzipanagiotou, Paraskevi
The aim of this article is to offer a framework model of the planning of the activities of organisations of continuing education and training, which gives the opportunity to determine their mission, to seek specific aims, to develop the available resources and to create a cooperative operating climate. Adopting this recommended model would help…
Eijnatten, van F.M.; Wäfler, T.; Eijnatten, van F.M.
This conceptual contribution explores the added value of Chaordic System Thinking (CST) for organisational renewal, and its consequences for future research. The paper starts with some essentials of CST (concepts of attractor, holon, discontinuous development, nonlinearity, chaordic properties). In
de la Rosa, Laura Nuño
Despite the radical importance of embryology in the development of organicism, developmental biology remains philosophically underexplored as a theoretical and empirical resource to clarify the nature of organisms. This paper discusses how embryology can help develop the organisational definition of the organism as a differentiated, functionally integrated, and autonomous system. I distinguish two conceptions of development in the organisational tradition that yield two different conceptions of the organism: the life-history view claims that organisms can be considered as such during their whole ontogeny; the constitutive view distinguishes two periods in the life history, a period of generation and a period of self-maintenance of a constitutive organisation. Arguing in favour of the constitutive view, it will be claimed that the organisational criteria for the definition of organism (i.e., differentiation, functional integration, and autonomy) can only be applied to the developmental system when it has entered the period of self-maintenance of a constitutive organisation. Under the light of current research in developmental biology, it is possible to make explicit how organisms come to be as organisms. To this end, I explore key ontogenetic events that help us clarify the core aspects of animal organisation and allow us to identify the developmental stage that marks the ontological transition between an organism in potency and an organism in actuality. The structure of this ontogenetic unfolding parallels the conceptual structure of the very notion of organism; the generation of the being of a particular organism parallels its definition.
learning • Sharing information • Learning resulting in purposeful action • Creating environments that promote learning • Technology and resources...individual and collective learning • Exploiting and investing in technology to facilitate learning (i.e. blended and E- learning ) • Lifelong or...opportunities provided by training and education programs. More significantly, participants noted the multi-layered nature of informal and formal learning
persons emerges in these years. The second part of the paper provides a more detailed description of the organisation, its aims, strategies and organisational structure. Some of the dilemmas and difficulties of the user organisation are finally mentioned at the end of the paper.......This paper provides an overview of the history of the user organisation of homeless persons in Denmark. The first part of the paper seeks to identify some of the processes and actors who facilitated the formation of the organisation, and it seeks to discuss why a user organisation of homeless...
Bioethics and organisational ethics* are applied ethics disciplines with different objects of investigation. Bioethics focuses on the moral aspects of caring for the health of individuals and populations, and organisational ethics on the moral aspects of organisations' strategies and operations. So these two disciplines converge ...
Giangreco, Antonio; Carugati, Andrea
This is the first of a two-case series (408-026-1 and 408-027-1). Marco Ginola was hired as the Human Resources (HR) Director of a large municipality in central Italy. The organisation had gone through a phase of major expansion which left problems in co-ordination, integration, delegation...... and control. Marco had been called in because of his reputation for being an effective innovator with unconventional ideas for the public sector. Previously, during his long career in the civil service, Marco proved to be an effective leader and negotiator who was open to other people's view points. He would...
Drejer, Ina; Leiponen, Aija
finds that not only are innovation modes very similar across manufacturing and service sectors, the same main modes are also identified in the two countries analysed. Furthermore, the innovation modes identified are very similar to the modes expressed in the well-known Pavitt Taxonomy. Second......, the relation between innovation modes and innovation outcome are investigated through regression analysis. The analysis confirms that the way innovation is organised matters for outcome, in terms of type of innovation, as well as in terms of share of sales stemming from innovation. Finally, we explore whether...... innovation modes are aligned with industry classifications, as it is assumed in the original work on technological regimes. Contrary to these assumptions we find that industries by no means are uniform in terms of organisation of innovation; in most cases two or three regimes are represented in a single...
Arundel, Anthony; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke
It is widely recognised that while expenditures on research and development are important inputs to successful innovation, these are not the only inputs. Further, rather than viewing innovation as a linear process, recent work on innovation in business and economics literatures characterises...... that are used to explore at the level of national innovation systems the relation between innovation and the organisation of work. In order to construct these aggregate measures we make use of micro data from two European surveys: the third European survey of Working Conditions and the third Community...... Innovation Survey (CIS-3). Although our data can only show correlations rather than causality they support the view that how firms innovate is linked to the way work is organised to promote learning and problem-solving....
Goetz, A M
Although the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) maintains a strong commitment to gender equity in its anti-poverty programs, a conservative external environment often impedes efforts to make its organizational structure consistent with this commitment. For example, BRAC's approach to organizing its field operations has been to abolish the distinction between home and office. BRAC's female employees live with male colleagues in their rural offices, travel long distances on bicycles and motorcycles, and reject the sari--practices that are antithetical to the prevailing culture and place tremendous pressure on these field workers. The high work intensity, need to work beyond normal business hours, and lack of on-site child care subjects married female employees to hostility from their husbands and relatives. Single female employees are often regarded as unmarriagable because of their divergent life-styles. Although BRAC makes provisions for employees to take leave for family responsibilities, staff who access this benefit are viewed as more committed to family than their work. The sexual activities of female--but not male--employees are scrutinized. Despite these contradictions, BRAC's innovative arrangements model a new form of gender relations in rural areas. BRAC is enabling its young women employees to postpone marriage and demonstrate a nontraditional role. The extent to which BRAC should take responsibility for compensating for the constraints imposed on women by patriarchy remains problematic. Working conditions could be improved, however, by allowing women to be near their families, domesticating the work environment, and respecting women's personal lives.
Matthew D. Phillips
Full Text Available 'Cooperation and imitation among crime and terror groups in recent years has given rise to a crime-terror nexus. A linear conceptualisation of a crime-terror spectrum, suggests that complete convergence of crime and terror in a failed state can give rise to a ‘black hole.’ Theoretical models of the crime-terror nexus, however, do not specify the means by which a crime-terror group enters this black hole state, yet others do not. Using the Taliban movement as a case study, this article presents a theoretical extension of black hole theory, using organisation-level characteristics to merge black hole theory with the crime-terror continuum.'
Jasni Abdul Latif
Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between the perceptions of the employees about ISO 9000 implementation and perceived organisational outcomes. A conceptual framework linking the level of employee influence and involvement, their perception of ISO 9000 and the perceived impact on their work and the organisational outcomes is posited. Data was collected from a random sample of 64 employees of a service organisation. Contrary to expectations, the work impact of ISO 9000 was not correlated with the efficiency and market outcomes of ISO 9000 certification but the employee involvement, influence and perception of ISO 9000 were. The conceptualization of the influence path of ISO 9000 implementation on the organisational outcomes may require rethinking as perception may have a direct effect on the outcomes without the mediation of the impact on work. In short, employees may report benefits or positive outcomes even though no change is reported in their work.
This documents provides information on how the work of the NEA/RWMC supports the needs of NEA member countries and how it differs from, and complements, the related work of the IAEA and EC. In particular, the document reviews the respective roles and specificities of these organisations and their modus operandi, including co-operation and co-ordination mechanisms. (authors)
Supra-National Organisations and Conflict Resolution during the Nigeria Civil War: ... or part of the non-state actors that impinge on the international environment. ... the importance or roles of Supra-national organisations in conflict resolution ...
Full Text Available Perception of fairness among employees is a guiding force that influences employee attitude and behaviour. However, the mechanisms associated with justice need to be studied further. This study hypothesises that perceived organisational support (POS mediates the relationship between organisational justice perceptions and affective commitment of employees. The study was conducted in a multi-national organisation operating in India in the service sector; the sample size was 71 employees. Baron and Kenny's model of studying the mediating relationship was used. The findings showed that POS fully mediates the relationship between distributive justice and affective commitment as well as partially mediates the relationship between procedural justice and affective commitment. This study highlights the importance of fairness and justice in organisations and identifies the mechanism by which employee perceptions of justice influence their loyalty and involvement.
This study has been undertaken with the specific objective of acquiring an insight into the concept “organisational culture” within a business strategic management context, as well as the role played by the organisation in the formulation and implementation of organisational strategy and culture. In this study an integrated approach is followed in order to describe and analyse the concepts within the context of business strategic management. The study confirms the importance of organisational...
Full Text Available As societies develop, the tourism industry has become one of the most powerful and largest industries in the global economy. The industrial status and economic function of the tourism industry have increased in the economic development of cities. The tourism industry has helped to drive the city economy, create employment, and facilitate culture and the environment The tourism industry, as one of the supporting industries for economic development in China, presents diverse services that are not only competitive within the industry, but could also increase national consumption. In addition to the professional service items and quality, the adjustment of business strategies aimed at the changeable environment are considered as key success factors in the tourism industry. This study analyzes the effect of business strategies on organisational performance in the tourism industry. Owners, managers, and employees from the top ten travel agencies in Taiwan were selected as the research subjects and a total of 600 questionnaires were distributed. Within the retrieved 438 surveys, 43 were incomplete and removed to yield a total of 395 valid questionnaires. Within the empirical analyses business strategies appear to have significant positive correlations with job satisfaction, organisational objective and job performance in organisational performance. Moreover, organisational culture presents a partially moderating effect for the relations between business strategies and organisational performance.
Full Text Available In circumstances governed by consistent change in all aspects of business, trust represents a significant factor in the behavioural patterns of organisations. Of great importance for a successful communication in organisations is understanding the levels of trust among staff, employees and their management, and trust in the organisation itself. Trust is a cohesive and motivating factor in work groups. Also, based on trust are identification and commitment to the organisation, as well as the relationships of employees. In successful organisations special attention is given to the problems of trust and mistrust. This work considers different theoretical concepts of how trust is created and maintained in organisations, different dimensions of organisational trust, as well as the effects of trust in organisational performance.
Matsudaira, Yoshito; Fujinami, Tsutomu
Our goal in this paper is to understand, in the light of intuition and emotion, the problem-finding and value judgments by organisational members that are part of organisational knowledge creation. In doing so, we emphasise the importance of embodied knowledge of organisations as an explanatory concept. We propose ways of approaching intuition and sense of value as these are posited as objects of research. Approaches from the first, second, and third-person viewpoints result in a deeper grasp of embodied knowledge of organisations. Important in organisational knowledge creation is embodied knowledge of organisations, which has a bearing on problem-finding before any problem-solving or decision making takes place, and on value judgments about the importance of problems that have been found. This article proposes the concept of embodied knowledge, and, by introducing it, gives a profound understanding of that facet of organisational knowledge creation characterised by tacit knowledge held by organisational individuals.
Ana Nešić; Danijela Lalić
In circumstances governed by consistent change in all aspects of business, trust represents a significant factor in the behavioural patterns of organisations. Of great importance for a successful communication in organisations is understanding the levels of trust among staff, employees and their management, and trust in the organisation itself. Trust is a cohesive and motivating factor in work groups. Also, based on trust are identification and commitment to the organisation, as well as the r...
Schuring, R.W.; Harbers, Clementine; Harbers, C.C.E.; Kruiswijk, M.; Kruiswijk, Martine; Rijnders, Sander; Boer, Harm
Neither science nor practice seems to regard the implementation of a continuous improvement (CI) programme as a problematic organisational innovation. Many organisations do not regard CI implementation as a major change and tend to use their existing hierarchy to organise and manage the process.
Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo
Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.
The questionnaire about the experience with electronic, web tools for communicating on radioactive waste management (RWM) was sent to a number of RWM organisations and 5 contributions were received and analysed. All responding organisations indicate that ideas and plans involving electronic media are in constant active development. In each organisation there is usually a small, specialised team to run the web, often in close cooperation with the media department of the Organisation and technical units, but the technical implementation of electronic tools may be out-sourced. On the whole, the use of web systems is seen as very efficient, as an instrument for passing information and maintaining a link with active stakeholders, but less appropriate to create the confidence you can develop in a person to person communication
This article contributes to the emerging body of work in organisational theory that seeks to include materiality in conceptualising processes of organizing (e.g. Law, 1994; Doolin, 2003; Czarniawska and Gustavsson, 2004; Dale, 2005). Using the four largest multinational oil companies' green...... transition towards renewable energies as a case the article integrates material aspects into the theory on the narration of organisational identities. Following Czarniawska (1997) the concept of organisational identity is viewed as an evolving organisational narrative. Following Law (1994....... The article concludes to that end that both social and material aspects add to the endurance of organisational identities....
Rocha, L. E. C.; Holme, P.
Interaction between consumers and companies can create conflict. When a consensus is unreachable there are legal authorities to resolve the case. This letter is a study of data from the Brazilian Department of Justice from which we build a bipartite network of categories of complaints linked to the companies receiving those complaints. We find the complaint categories organised in an hierarchical way where companies only get complaints of lower degree if they already got complaints of higher degree. The fraction of resolved complaints for a company appears to be nearly independent of the equity of the company but is positively correlated with the total number of complaints received. We construct feature vectors based on the edge-weight —the weight of an edge represents the times complaints of a category have been filed against that company— and use these vectors to study the similarity between the categories of complaints. From this analysis, we obtain trees mapping the hierarchical organisation of the complaints. We also apply principal component analysis to the set of feature vectors concluding that a reduction of the dimensionality of these from 8827 to 27 gives an optimal hierarchical representation.
Full Text Available This article shows how institutionalism, a theory in organisational social science, provides a model for diagnosing organisational challenges that influence the ethical practices and integration in the Norwegian Army. Institutionalism provides tools for analysing the differences between expressed values and actual practices and for understanding the organisational dynamics that unfold at the crossroads of the organisation's formal structure, informal culture and stakeholder relations. In this article we present and discuss such differences and dynamics in the Norwegian Army based on findings from a survey and a number of workshops. We also provide some suggestions for effective implementation of strategies for strengthening ethics in such an organisation. We argue that the perspective taken in this project is also relevant for other highly professionalised complex organisations and that such interdisciplinary research will strengthen practical ethics' potential for real impact.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v6i1.1779
C L Van Tonder
Full Text Available The identity concept has been around in the form of “corporate identity" for some time, but its appearance as “organisation identity" is more recent. Emerging theory and initial empirical research suggest that an identity approach and “identity interventions" in particular, offer promising avenues to the organisation development practitioner for enhancing organisational focus, building resilience in the face of major change, and improving performance. Identity interventions in and of themselves, but also employed as pre-change interventions, build organisational capacity that would stave off premature organisational “death" and extend the organisation’s life expectancy. Opsomming Die identiteitskonsep is in die vorm van korporatiewe identiteit reeds ’n geruime tyd in omgang, maar die verskyning daarvan as “organisasie-identiteit? is meer onlangs. Ontluikende teorie en aanvanklike empiriese navorsing suggereer dat ’n identiteitsbenadering en "identiteitsintervensies" in die besonder, belowende geleenthede aan die organisasie- ontwikkelingspraktisyn bied om organisasiefokus te verbeter, die organisasie se veerkragtigheid ten aanskoue van omvangryke verandering te bou, en prestasie te verbeter. Identiteitsintervensies op sigself bou organisasiekapasiteit, maar kan ook as voorveranderingsintervensies aangewend word wat premature organisasie "sterftes" sal vermy en die organisasie se lewensverwagting sal verleng.
The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program
Havaei, Farinaz; Dahinten, V Susan; MacPhee, Maura
The purpose of this study was to examine the main and interaction effects of perceived organisational support, span of control and leadership rank on novice nurse leaders' organisational commitment. As nurse leaders' organisational commitment is eroded at times of healthcare restructuring, it is important to study factors associated with organisational commitment. Cross-sectional data from 69 novice nurse leaders, collected via mailed surveys at two time points, were analysed using hierarchical regression. The findings supported our hypotheses about the positive effect of perceived organisational support, the positive effect of leadership rank and the negative effect of span of control on novice nurse leaders' organisational commitment. In addition, perceived organisational support was shown to moderate the negative effect of span of control on novice nurse leaders' organisational commitment at time 2. Organisational strategies aimed at supporting nurse leaders, and attention to span of control, are required to enhance the organisational commitment of novice nurse leaders. Nurse leaders with a wide span of control, in particular those with little leadership experience, need to adopt leadership strategies that maximise their effectiveness, such as organising smaller work groups or teams within their wide span of control. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rietjens, Sebastiaan J H; Verlaan, Kirsten; Zaalberg, Thijs W Brocades; de Boer, Sirp J
This paper seeks to contribute to an improved information management and exchange between humanitarian organisations and military agents in complex emergencies. To do so, a theoretical information management process model was developed and applied to the case of information management between International Security Assistance Force troops and humanitarian organisations such as Cordaid, DACAAR and the International Office for Migration in Kabul, Afghanistan. Based on this analysis the main shortcomings and problems in each stage of the information management process were identified. These include a lack of structured information databases, the absence of identification of information needs, and an over-classification of documents by the military. Using a logical framework analysis, six major improvement tactics were developed, including the creation of more overlap in rotations of personnel, the specification of aims and tasks regarding information management, the improvement of skills and competences of personnel involved, and the introduction of regular joint civil-military evaluations.
Jacke, S.; Stein, G.
The article in hand reviews the scenario and organisation of the conference together with the results achieved (non-proliferation strategies with regard to technological cooperation in the nuclear field, feasible means of cooperation), saying that judged by the non-favourable conditions at the start, the fruitful dialogue between developing countries and highly industrialised countries that has set in at this conference will have to be filed on the credit side. Another important result is that one came to realize that the transfer of know-how must be very carefully prepared and accompanied by very close cooperation right from the start. (orig./DG) [de
Nkechi Cordelia Ojiagu
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined the effect of membership of cooperative societies on the economic activities of farmers as well as the determinants of their income in rural Nigeria focusing on Anambra State. Data from 2506 members selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling were analyzed. The study found among others that members incomes are dependent upon their socio-economic profile such as age marital status and membership or otherwise of cooperative societies education cooperative marketing credit gender and business expertise. Also respondents depend largely on farming related activities for generation of income in the study area. Furthermore it was found that the major challenge of the farmer-members is inadequate fund poor education and illiteracy among most members conflict among members and lack of access to farm input. The Nigerian government is advised to formulate policies that will incorporate information from the local level that can support planning implementation and evaluation of programmes that can enhance farmers income this however will influence the pattern of agricultural growth in ways that can change income level of rural farmers to grow fast. The study recommends that cooperatives should intensify their education of members to gain more benefits and that government non-governmental organizations and international development agencies should show interest in supervising and providing development support to Farmers Cooperative Societies in rural Nigeria.
Purpose - The literature on managing inter-organisational relationships typically suggests managing these relationships based on the formalised exchange of information across the organisational boundary with due respect to trust build-up through successive interactions. This article argues...... that a focus on trust reduces the flexibility and accessibility of resources and hence ruins the advantages of inter-organisational relationships. The article focuses on power as a means for absorbing uncertainty when managing inter-organisational relationships. Methodology - The article is based on findings...... from a case study of inter-organisational relationships. Governmentality is used as a framework for analysing the practise of managing inter-organisational relationships. Findings - A number of representations are employed along the boundary between the case study parties and thereby the boundary...
The Prevention of Organised Crime Act 121 of 1998 [POCA] embodies a serious attempt by the South African government to effectively police and curb organised crime, money laundering and criminal gang activities in South Africa. The Act provides inter alia for a range of crippling fines and for orders such as confiscation ...
Greasley, Andrew; Wang, Yucan
This research traces the implementation of an information system in the form of ERP modules covering tenant and contract management in a Chinese service company. Misalignments between the ERP system specification and user needs led to the adoption of informal processes within the organisation. These processes are facilitated within an informal organisational structure and are based on human interactions undertaken within the formal organisation. Rather than to attempt to suppress the emergenc...
Svendsen, Adam David Morgan
"Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...
The Agora of Techno-Organisational Change refers to the global emergence and expansion of a marketplace for the resources necessary to carry out technological changes in business organisations. These resources include technologies such as information systems and software packages, specialised technical and business expertise, change methodologies, project management, etc. The Agora of Techno-Organisational Change is populated by various diverse and heterogeneous actors (suppliers, users, inte...
such as conflict resolution, employee participation, human resource orientation, goal clarity, identification with the organisation, locus of control and management style were examined. Participants expressed their views as to what constructs of organisational culture had a positive or a negative impact on their adjustment to ...
Whitman, Zachary; Stevenson, Joanne; Kachali, Hlekiwe; Seville, Erica; Vargo, John; Wilson, Thomas
This paper presents the preliminary findings of a study on the resilience and recovery of organisations following the Darfield earthquake in New Zealand on 4 September 2010. Sampling included organisations proximal and distal to the fault trace, organisations located within central business districts, and organisations from seven diverse industry sectors. The research captured information on the challenges to, the impacts on, and the reflections of the organisations in the first months of recovery. Organisations in central business districts and in the hospitality sector were most likely to close, while organisations that had perishable stock and livestock were more heavily reliant on critical services. Staff well-being, cash flow, and customer loss were major concerns for organisations across all sectors. For all organisations, the most helpful factors in mitigating the effects of the earthquake were their relationship with staff members, the design and type of buildings, and critical service continuity or swift reinstatement of services. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.
Portia J. Jordan
Full Text Available Orientation: Organisational change outcomes in private intensive care units are linked to higher patient satisfaction, improved quality of patient care, family support, cost-effective care practices and an increased level of excellence. Transformational leadership and fostering a positive organisational culture can contribute to these change outcomes. Research purpose: The study determined whether transformational leadership and a supportive organisational culture were evident in six private intensive care units in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. A conceptual framework to investigate the relationship between transformational leadership, organisational culture, and organisational change outcomes, was proposed and tested. Motivation for the study: The prevalence of transformational leadership, a positive organisational culture and their effect on organisational change outcomes in private healthcare industries require further research in order to generate appropriate recommendations. Research design, approach and method: A positivistic, quantitative design was used. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire which, in previous studies, produced scores with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients greater than 0.80, to collect data from a sample of 130 professional nurses in private intensive care units. Main findings: Transformational leadership and a positive organisational culture were evident in the private intensive care units sampled. A strong, positive correlation exists between transformational leadership, organisational culture, and organisational change outcomes. This correlation provides sufficient evidence to accept the postulated research hypotheses. Innovation and intellectual stimulation were identified as the factors in need of improvement. Practical or managerial implications: The findings of the study may be used by managers in intensive care units to promote organisational change outcomes, linked to transformational leadership and a
Matula, Linda; Badham, Richard; Meisiek, Stefan
This paper details the conditions leading up to and influencing an organisational theatre intervention as part of an organisational change program at a newly established cancer clinic. The paper explores the social and political interactions and negotiations shaping the structure and conditions...... of the organisational theatre event. It focuses in particular on the alignments and clashes between the different human resource voices in defining the ‘surface’ formal purpose for the intervention and the embeddedness of such interactions and negotiations in ‘deeper’ cultural and social conditions. The paper provides...... the first in-depth longitudinal study of shaping and negotiation of an organisational theatre event and the ways in which it is influenced by a polyphonic multivocality and takes the form of selective and partial forms of harmonious expression in establishing meaningful cooperation. The paper reveals...
In 1999, National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) from some 39 countries signed the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM) Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) in Paris. The MRA, drawn up by the CIPM, under the authority given to it in the Metre Convention, was in response to requirements of Governments and Regulators to provide a sound technical foundation for trade agreements. Core objectives of the MRA are to allow for the establishment of the degree of equivalence of national measurement standards and to provide for mutual recognition of calibration certificates issued by NMIs. This presentation will detail the evolution of the MRA. Globally, NMIs are affiliated to Regional Metrology Organisations (RMOs). The key role of the RMOs in the MRA process will be discussed along with the structure and objectives of the various RMOs worldwide. The Joint Committee of the RMOs and the BIPM (JCRB) plays a central part in the effective operation of the MRA. Its tasks, membership and output will also be described
Ana Belén Escrig-Tena
The objective of this paper deals with the influence exerted by TQM on the capability to promote the process of organisational learning, as one of the competencies that the introduction of TQM helps to develop, We discuss the extent to which the critical factors of TQM favour both the exploration of new knowledge that can modify organisational behaviour, and the exploitation of current learning,
M. R. LUCA
Full Text Available The paper presents the main theoretical issues of the organisational socialization: theoretical models as well as instruments used in the field research. The research in the field of organisational socialization is important mainly in the context of changes in career paths in recent times, the output of the socialization process being related to work performance, job satisfaction and organizational involvement.
Burau, Viola; Overgaard, Charlotte
The large obstetric units typical of industrialised countries have come under criticism for fragmented and depersonalised care and heavy bureaucracy. Interest in midwife-led continuity models of care is growing, but knowledge about the accompanying processes of organisational change is scarce. This study focuses on midwives' role in introducing and developing caseload midwifery. Sociological studies of midwifery and organisational studies of professional groups were used to capture the strong interests of midwives in caseload midwifery and their key role together with management in negotiating organisational change. We studied three hospitals in Denmark as arenas for negotiating the introduction and development of caseload midwifery and the processes, interests and resources involved. A qualitative multi-case design was used and the selection of hospitals aimed at maximising variance. Ten individual and 14 group interviews were conducted in spring 2013. Staff were represented by caseload midwives, ward midwives, obstetricians and health visitors, management by chief midwives and their deputies. Participants were recruited to maximise the diversity of experience. The data analysis adopted a thematic approach, using within- and across-case analysis. The analysis revealed a highly interdependent interplay between organisational and professional projects in the change processes involved in the introduction and development of caseload midwifery. This was reflected in three ways: first, in the key role of negotiations in all phases; second, in midwives' and management's engagement in both types of projects (as evident from their interests and resources); and third in a high capacity for resolving tensions between the two projects. The ward midwives' role as a third party in organisational change further complicated the process. For managers tasked with the introduction and development of caseload midwifery, our study underscores the importance of understanding the
Ratajczyk, Mikołaj Andrzej
Aviation safety is of global concern. Yet 43% of countries worldwide lack the expertise and administrative capacity to ensure effective safety oversight of the aviation activities for which they are responsible under international law. With air traffic predicted to double in the next 15 years and
Environmental problems such as climate change, pollution, non-sustainable energy, resource depletion, and recycling Information Technology (IT) devices considered the biggest glitches which are facing developed and developing countries. IT devices have become a critical issue due to the great amount of environmental damage caused by IT companies…
The author presents the international control system implemented by the CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) organisation to permanently control the globe and to detect any indicator of a nuclear explosion from war or civil origin or seismic activities. He briefly indicates how many countries are members of this organisation, and positions of some others. He describes how a North-Korean explosion has been detected in January 2016. He evokes the existence of validation techniques, and comments the relationship between the European Union and this organisation. He outlines the role played by France, and outlines the need for a world-based control system
Frischknecht, Albert; Baumont, Genevieve
The purpose of this paper is to present the achievements of a group of human factor specialists known as Expanded Task Force on Human Factors (ETF). ETF is part of the Principal Working Group No.1 (PWG1) on 'Operating Experience and Human Factors' of the Committee on Nuclear Safety Installations (CSNI) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Today, as shown by incident analysis, technology is so far developed that human behaviour and organisational deficiencies can contribute to a major part of the root causes of incidents in nuclear power plants. The influence of the organisation on the safe behaviour and performance of individuals is recognised as a relevant issue for the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The need for an up-to-date basis of knowledge in this area was recognised by CSNI and therefore the ETF organised a workshop, in Switzerland, in 1998, on Organisational Factors. During the workshop, different aspects of organisational influences on the safe operation of NPPs were discussed and twelve important organisational factors concerning safety related activities in a NPP were identified. The result of the workshop is summarised in a state-of-the-art Report (SOAR) 'Identification and Assessment of Organisational Factors Related to the Safety of NPPs' issued by the OECD/NEA. The present paper gives an overview on the main findings of the workshop and conclusions concerning the evaluation of organisational factors. (author)
There is concern in educational ranks pertaining to the organisational climate in schools in the. North West Province of South ... In the Report of the Task Team on Education Develop- ment (Department of ... establish a more effective organisational climate is therefore of critical importance for the educational leader, in this ...
Green knowledge exchange Turkey-The Netherlands : priority issues identified for cooperation in the field of biodiversity protection and conservation : interviews with experts from Governmental and Non-Governmental Organisations based in Turkey and based in The Netherlands
Klok, C.; Koopmanschap, E.M.J.
As a consequence of its geographical location Turkey is very rich in biodiversity; its flora is richest, both in terms of overall plant diversity and level of endemism compared to Europe, North Africa, or countries in the Middle East. This report gives an overview of important biodiversity issues in
Lima, de T.; Royakkers, L.M.M.; Dignum, F.P.M.; Coelho, H.; Studer, R.; Woodridge, M.J.
In this paper we provide a formalism to reason about the problem of many hands in organisations. This is a problem that arises whenever the organisation is responsible for some undesirable outcome but none of its members can be held responsible for the outcome. The formalism proposed here is a logic
Elstad, Eyvind; Christophersen, Knut-Andreas; Turmo, Are
Purpose: Organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) involves discretionary behaviour advantageous to the organisation that goes beyond existing role expectations. The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between the strength of accountability and teachers' OCB within three different management systems in which teachers are working: a…
Bobe, Belete J.; Kober, Ralph
Purpose: Drawing on the resource-based view (RBV), the purpose of this paper is to develop a framework and instrument to measure the organisational capabilities of university schools/departments. In doing so, this study provides evidence of the way competitive resources are bundled to generate organisational capabilities that give university…
This book studies the organisation of transactions in supply networks. More specifically it investigates the influence of social structure on the mode of organisation in supply networks. To gain new insights, the results in this book have been gathered using gaming simulation as a research method.
Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Costa, Dolors; Busqué, Anna; Lacasa, Carme
Strategic planning designs the general setting and the strategic principles of a healthcare system, as well as the general guidelines that govern the development of a health system. Strategic service-organisation plans deal with translating healthcare policies into service policies and respond, principally, to the need for services; these give rise to problems that require a solution. They are developed in line with advances in scientific knowledge, the implementation and current characteristics of the healthcare services and the evolution in the competences of professional teams. There are five stages for their development: identification of health/service requirements; prioritisation of needs in health/services; definition of and agreement on service organisation models (care model and service portfolio); the preparation of and agreement on territorial action plans; introduction and evaluation. A conceptual framework is presented along with practical applications carried out in Catalonia.
Full Text Available Concern for adequate funding, both at birth and consolidation of the cooperative enterprise, has been, is and will be a constant concern in the cooperative world. So, have emerged in the legal field, a number of financial instruments of various kinds: as equity securities or special interests that seek to cover traditional financing gaps.
Ntaios, George; Bornstein, Natan M; Caso, Valeria
pace with this progress and driven by the strong determination of the European Stroke Organisation to further promote stroke management, education, and research, the European Stroke Organisation decided to delineate a detailed standard operating procedure for its guidelines. There are two important...... cornerstones in this standard operating procedure: The first is the implementation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology for the development of its Guideline Documents. The second one is the decision of the European Stroke Organisation to move from the classical...... and significant input from European Stroke Organisation members as well as methodologists and analysts, this document presents the official standard operating procedure for the development of the Guideline Documents of the European Stroke Organisation....
Kodwani, Amitabh Deo
Purpose: Organisations invest heavily in training and development initiatives (Miller, 2012). However, a small percentage of what is learnt by the trainees from training gets transferred to the job (Mackay, 2007). The purpose of this study is to extend previous findings and examine various organisational factors, which have not been studied…
Ntaios, George; Bornstein, Natan M.; Caso, Valeria; Christensen, Hanne; De Keyser, Jacques; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio; Ferro, Jose M.; Ford, Gary A.; Grau, Armin; Keller, Emanuella; Leys, Didier; Russell, David; Toni, Danilo; Turc, Guillaume; Van der Worp, Bart; Wahlgren, Nils; Steiner, Thorsten
In 2008, the recently founded European Stroke Organisation published its guidelines for the management of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. This highly cited document was translated in several languages and was updated in 2009. Since then, the European Stroke Organisation has published
Smith, Pernille; Carugati, Andrea; Giangreco, Antonio
This is the third of a four-case series (408-115-1, 908-025-1, 308-343-1 and 608-037-1). This case is about resistance to organisational change in relation to a merger. The case describes a major organisational change in a newly established department, which has been instituted to speed up the in...
Employee retention is an increasingly important challenge for organisations as the age of the knowledge worker unfolds. The 21st century world of work is characterised by unprecedented levels of talent mobility as employees seek to satisfy their own individual demands, leading to growing concern among organisations ...
structures to resolve disputes between states. Uncertainty remains, however, on the availability of effective structures within the system to resolve disputes between international organisations. It is important to note that international organisations were, prior to 1945, not considered subjects of international law so as to be ...
Full Text Available Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.
Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus
Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.
Organisations worldwide have acknowledged the connection between corporate learning, development and business sustainability. Emphasis is being laid on creating and designing a learning organisation "that is skilled at creating, acquiring, interpreting, transferring and retaining knowledge" [Garvin, (2000), p.32]. Extensive literature…
This study examined whether organisational change, including restructuring of top leadership, is related to the effectiveness of organisational management. Data were collected from a sample of 177 participants, including students (120); senior members of staff (made up of 24 lecturers, 21 administrative staff) and Heads of ...
FIML Full Information Maximum Likelihood KMO Kaiser-Meyer-Oklin LEQ Learning Environment Questionnaire LO Learning Organisation LOS Learning...adequacy of the correlations’ magnitude was initially tested by using Kaiser-Meyer-Oklin ( KMO ) (Kaiser, 1974) and Bartlett’s test of sphericity (see...Table 4). Table 4: EFA assumption testing of ALOQ: Adequacy of correlation strength Assumption tests 44 item set* 21 item set KMO measure of
Full Text Available Faith-based organisations (FBOs have increasingly become important actors in international development cooperation. Many international institutions recognise them as valuable partners and declare to have ‘mainstreamed faith’ within their own activities. But is this really the case? And how has this happened? Focusing on the activities of the World Bank in the 1995–2005 period, when, under the leadership of President James Wolfensohn and Katherine Marshall, then Head of the Bank’s Development Dialogue on Values and Ethics (DDVE, the institution engaged with some selected FBOs, this chapter enquires into the reasons for the Bank’s interest in faith as well as its sudden disappearance. It argues that the main rationale for engagement with faith lay in the disappointing results of previous secular strategies and the feeling that religion had a positive role to play in fighting poverty. However, diverging perceptions of poverty and development between states and religious entities, along with lingering suspicions among state officials about dealing with faith in the public realm, derailed the collaboration.
Kazemipour, Farahnaz; Mohd Amin, Salmiah
To investigate the relationship between workplace spirituality dimensions and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) among nurses through the mediating effect of affective organisational commitment. Nurses' OCB has been considered recently to improve the quality of services to patients and subsequently, their performance. As an influential attitude, affective organisational commitment has been recognized to influence OCB, and ultimately, organisational performance. Meanwhile, workplace spirituality is introduced as a new organisational behaviour concept to increase affective commitment influencing employees' OCB. The cross-sectional study and the respective data were collected with a questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaires were distributed to 305 nurses employed in four public and general Iranian hospitals. To analyse the data, descriptive statistics, Pearson coefficient, simple regression, multiple regression and path analyses were also conducted. The results indicated that workplace spirituality dimensions including meaningful work, a sense of community and an alignment with organisational values have a significant positive relationship with OCB. Moreover, affective organisational commitment mediated the impact of workplace spirituality on OCB. The concept of workplace spirituality through its dimensions predicts nurses' OCB, and affective organisational commitment partially mediated the relationship between workplace spirituality and OCB. Nurses' managers should consider the potentially positive influence of workplace spirituality on OCB and affective commitment among their nurses. With any plan to increase workplace spirituality, the respective managers can improve nurses' performance and would be of considerable importance in the healthcare system. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
de Waal, André A.; van der Heijden, Beatrice I.J.M.
The allegiance of partnering organisations and their employees to an Extended Enterprise performance is its proverbial sword of Damocles. Literature on Extended Enterprises focuses on collaboration, inter-organizational integration and learning to avoid diminishing or missing allegiance becoming an
Francis-Smythe, Jan; Prof. Ivan Robertson
In 1991 Kaufman, Lane, and Lindquist proposed that time congruity in terms of an individual's time preferences and the time use methods of an organisation would lead to satisfactory performance and enhancement of quality of work and general life. The research reported here presents a study which uses commensurate person and job measures of time personality in an organisational setting to assess the effects of time congruity on one aspect of work life, job-related affective well-being. Results...
Andrew Oyen Arewa
Full Text Available The culture of an organisation is a vital element of business competency that must align with its strategic goals, and enhance peoples’ perceptions, feelings and behaviour in adapting to the world around them. Organisational culture may also bring about negative practices such as dishonesty and unethical behaviours. Recently the culture of some construction organisations has been called into question. For example, major construction projects around the globe have become involved in allegations of fraud and corruption. The cost is currently estimated at US$860 billion globally; with forecasts that it may rise to US$1.5 trillion by 2025. Hitherto the role of the culture of construction organisations in fraud and corruption activities has been largely hidden. The study aim is to establish whether the culture of construction organisations promotes corrupt practices in the UK construction and infrastructure sector. The study employed mixed research methods with interviews supported by a questionnaire and an examination of five case studies in different countries. Findings show that the culture of construction organisations together with the nature of the industry promotes fraud and corruption. The study subsequently highlights key cultural factors that support fraud and corruption in a way that is almost institutionalised.
Kolisang, Lebamang Octavia
This research explores the relationship between leadership and organisational culture in an organisation. Organisational culture is often an important factor influencing the competitive strength of an organisation. Leadership is also a critical component in the success of an organisation. It is important to understand how these two powerful determinants of organisational performance affect each other. Research determining that specific types of organisational culture favour particular styles ...
creation of a practical utopia (?heterotopia?) in the organisational context. The case study makes use of both art- and organisational theory. The thesis concludes with an outline of a framework for OA that is derived from contemporary theory of mainly Relational Aesthetics (Bourriaud), Conceptual Art......University of Copenhagen / Learning Lab Denmark. 2005 Kort beskrivelse: Organisational Art is a tentative title for an art form that works together with organisations to produce art. This is most often done together with non-artist members of the organisation and on-site in their social context. OA...... is characterised as socially engaged, conceptual, discursive, site-specific and contextual. Abstract: This investigation is about Organisational Art (OA), which is a tentative title for an art form that works together with organisations (companies, institutions, communities, governments and NGOs) to produce art...
Full Text Available Orientation: The unconscious impact of organisational transformation is often neglected and even denied. This research revealed the manifestation and impact of high levels and different forms of anxiety experienced by employees during transformation. Research objective: The objective was to study and describe the manifesting systems psychodynamic behaviour amongst support staff during organisational transformation. Motivation for the study: Organisational transformation is mostly researched from a leadership viewpoint. Little research data are available on the experiences of support staff on the receiving end of decisions about and implementation of transformation. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative approach within the phenomenological hermeneutic interpretive stance was used. The research was set in a government organisation. A semi-structured interview with four conveniently and purposefully chosen support staff members was thematically analysed using systems psychodynamics as theoretical paradigm. Main findings: Four themes manifested, namely de-authorisation and detachment, being bullied and seduced by leadership, the organisation in the mind as incompetent, and a dangerous and persecutory system. In the discussion, the basic assumptions and relevant constructs are interpreted. Practical implications: Understanding the transformation experiences of support staff could assist the industrial psychologist to facilitate appropriate support in coaching more junior staff towards increasing wellness and work performance. Contribution: Organisational transformation is highlighted as an anxiety provoking experience especially on the lower levels of the organisation. Its potentially deep and complex psychological impact could possibly derail parts of the system if not managed in a psychologically contained manner.
Clemmer, T P; Spuhler, V J; Berwick, D M; Nolan, T W
Cooperation--working together to produce mutual benefit or attain a common purpose--is almost inseparable from the quest for improvement. Although the case for cooperation can be made on ethical grounds, neither the motivation for nor the effects of cooperation need to be interpreted solely in terms of altruism. Cooperation can be a shrewd and pragmatic strategy for accomplishing personal goals in an interdependent system. Earlier papers in this series have explored the conceptual roots of modern approaches to improvement, which lie in systems theory. To improve systems, we must usually attend first and foremost to interactions. Among humans, "better interaction" is almost synonymous with "better cooperation." Physicians have ample opportunities and, indeed, an obligation to cooperate with other physicians in the same or different specialties, with nurses and other clinical workers, with administrators, and with patients and families. Many intellectual disciplines have made cooperation an object of study. These include anthropology; social psychology; genetics; biology; mathematics; game theory; linguistics; operations research; economics; and, of course, moral and rational philosophy. Scientifically grounded methods to enhance cooperation include developing a shared purpose; creating an open, safe environment; including all who share a common purpose and encouraging diverse viewpoints; negotiating agreement; and insisting on fairness and equity in the application of rules. These methods apply at the organizational level and at the level of the individual physician. This paper describes the application of these methods at the organizational level and focuses on one especially successful example of system-level cooperation in a care delivery site where interactions matter a great deal: the modern intensive care unit.
Ntaios, George; Bornstein, Natan M; Caso, Valeria; Christensen, Hanne; De Keyser, Jacques; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio; Ferro, Jose M; Ford, Gary A; Grau, Armin; Keller, Emanuella; Leys, Didier; Russell, David; Toni, Danilo; Turc, Guillaume; Van der Worp, Bart; Wahlgren, Nils; Steiner, Thorsten
In 2008, the recently founded European Stroke Organisation published its guidelines for the management of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. This highly cited document was translated in several languages and was updated in 2009. Since then, the European Stroke Organisation has published guidelines for the management of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, for the establishment of stroke units and stroke centers, and recently for the management of intracerebral hemorrhage. In recent years, the methodology for the development of guidelines has evolved significantly. To keep pace with this progress and driven by the strong determination of the European Stroke Organisation to further promote stroke management, education, and research, the European Stroke Organisation decided to delineate a detailed standard operating procedure for its guidelines. There are two important cornerstones in this standard operating procedure: The first is the implementation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology for the development of its Guideline Documents. The second one is the decision of the European Stroke Organisation to move from the classical model of a single Guideline Document about a major topic (e.g. management of ischemic stroke) to focused modules (i.e. subdivisions of a major topic). This will enable the European Stroke Organisation to react faster when new developments in a specific stroke field occur and update its recommendations on the related module rather swiftly; with the previous approach of a single large Guideline Document, its entire revision had to be completed before an updated publication, delaying the production of up-to-date guidelines. After discussion within the European Stroke Organisation Guidelines Committee and significant input from European Stroke Organisation members as well as methodologists and analysts, this document presents the official standard operating procedure for
W.J.J. Bijman (Jos); G.W.J. Hendrikse (George)
textabstractCo-operatives play a major role in the agricultural and food industry. Co-operatives, by the very nature, are producer-oriented firms. As market conditions for food products have changed in recent decades, the question is raised whether co-operatives are still efficient organisations for
Yolandi van der Berg
Full Text Available Orientation: Managers within organisations should be more attentive regarding their managerial practices, the quality of work life (QWL and trust relationships, as experienced by employees.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between organisational trust and QWL.Motivation for the study: Recent organisational changes have refocused attention on the productivity and performance of sales representatives. These changes have brought about a re-evaluation of their QWL and the organisational trust they experience.Research design, approach and method: An Internet-based survey methodology was used to collect primary data from a probability sample of 282 sales representatives; a 72% response rate was obtained. Responses were analysed using quantitative techniques and structural equation modelling.Main findings: Results confirmed a positive relationship between managerial practices with organisational trust and QWL and a lower relationship between the personality dimensions, organisational trust and the QWL.Practical/managerial implications: The study accentuated how important it is for management to be constantly aware of employees’ trust and their experience of a QWL, as these factors can lead to severe consequences if not properly managed.Contribution/value add: The study focused attention on the importance of building good trust relationships within an organisation, as it seems as though the personality traits and managerial practices of managers influence not only the trust relationship experienced by employees, but also their experience of a QWL.
Full Text Available The trend towards green information technology (IT over the last few years is a result of an acknowledgement of both the environmental impact of IT and the role IT plays as a potential source of solutions to environmental concerns. As organisations are under increasing pressures to act sustainably, environmental considerations are taking greater importance for organisations and the organisations’ information systems (IS and IT. This paper introduces a model proposing competitive pressures, legitimation pressures, social responsibility pressures, organisational factors and technological constraints as factors which influence the extent of green IT in organisations. An online survey was developed and tested with IT practitioners. Regression analysis revealed that the extent of green IT in organisations is influenced by a combination of these factors. Foremost of the factors is the capability of the organisation to adapt. Other factors which account for differences in the extent of green IT in organisations include legitimation and social responsibility pressures. The regression indicated a good fit for the developed model, providing a basis for further research.
This paper presents the situation and the perspectives of the nuclear cooperation between USSR and the different countries participating in the CAEM (USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, German Democratic Republic, Poland, Romania and Cuba) and Yugoslavia [fr
This paper explores the reasons for the sometimes seemingly irrational and dysfunctional organisational behaviour within the NHS. It seeks to provide possible answers to the persistent historical problem of intimidating and negative behaviour between staff, and the sometimes inadequate organisational responses. The aim is to develop a model to explain and increase understanding of such behaviour in the NHS. This paper is conceptual in nature based upon a systematic literature review. The concepts of organisational silence, normalised organisational corruption, and protection of image, provide some possible answers for these dysfunctional responses, as does the theory of selective moral disengagement. The NHS exhibits too high a level of collective ego defences and protection of its image and self-esteem, which distorts its ability to address problems and to learn. Organisations and the individuals within them can hide and retreat from reality and exhibit denial; there is a resistance to voice and to "knowing". The persistence and tolerance of negative behaviour is a corruption and is not healthy or desirable. Organisations need to embrace the identity of a listening and learning organisation; a "wise" organisation. The "Elephant in the room" of persistent negative behaviour has to be acknowledged; the silence must be broken. There is a need for cultures of "respect", exhibiting "intelligent kindness". A model has been developed to increase understanding of dysfunctional organisational behaviour in the NHS primarily for leaders/managers of health services, health service regulators and health researchers/academics. Research, with ethical approval, is currently being undertaken to test and develop the conceptual model to further reflect the complexities of the NHS culture.
Purpose:\\ud – The purpose of this paper is to explore the notion of effectiveness in the context of organisational crisis. It considers the “darker” side of organisational effectiveness by exploring the processes by which effectiveness can be eroded as an organisation moves from an ordered state, through a complex one, and into a state of chaos, or crisis. It brings together complementary literatures on risk, crisis management, and complexity, and uses those lenses to frame some of the key pr...
Colakoglu, Ulker; Culha, Osman; Atay, Hakan
Previous studies mainly analysed the relationship between perceived organisational support and organisational commitment in a direct way. Limited studies of tourism, however, have found that job satisfaction is a mediator variable in the relationship between perceived organisational support and organisational commitment. The aim of this study is, (i) to analyse the effect of organisational support on job satisfaction, (ii) to analyse the effect of organisational support on the dimensions of o...
Steven Vos; Jeroen Scheerder
This paper explores inter-organisational relationships, in terms of cooperation, between three main types of sport providers at the local level: voluntary sport clubs, for-profit fitness and health clubs, and local sports authorities. Both withinand cross-sector cooperation are analysed and related
Dormann, Julian; Ehrmann, Thomas
Management scholars have long stressed the importance of evolutionary processses for inter-firm cooperation but have mostly missed the promising opportunity to incorporate ideas from evolutionary theories into the analysis of collaborative arrangements. In this paper, we first present three rules for the evolution of cooperation - kinship selection, direct reciprocity, and indirect reciprocity. Second, we apply our theoretical considerations, enriched with ideas from cultural anthropology, to...
Sinnett, Danielle E; Lawrence, Victoria K; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) terrestrial plant test is often used for the ecological risk assessment of contaminated land. However, its origins in plant protection product testing mean that the species recommended in the OECD guidelines are unlikely to occur on contaminated land. Six alternative species were tested on contaminated soils from a former Zn smelter and a metal fragmentizer with elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The response of the alternative species was compared with that of two species recommended by the OECD: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Trifolium pratense (red clover). Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) had low emergence rates in the control soil and so may be considered unsuitable. Festuca rubra (Chewings fescue), Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire fog), Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel), and Verbascum thapsus (great mullein) offer good alternatives to the OECD species. In particular, H. lanatus and S. vulgaris were more sensitive to the soils with moderate concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the OECD species. © 2010 SETAC.
This report highlights the political factors underlying nuclear cooperation in the European context. It analyses the institutional structure for such cooperation and describes the different vocations of international organisations in the nuclear field (NEA, IAEA, Euratom). Finally the report gives concrete examples of international nuclear cooperation, with an emphasis on its legal aspects. (NEA) Le present expose fait ressortir les facteurs politiques de la cooperation nucleaire notamment dans le contexte europeen. Il analyse la structure institutionnelle de cette cooperation et evoque les differentes vocations des organismes internationaux dans le domaine nucleaire (AEN, AIEA, Euratom). Il donne enfin des exemples concrets en mettant l'accent sur ses aspects juridiques
Andersen, Jonas Valbjørn; Bogusz, Claire Ingram
Digital infrastructures play an increasingly central role in shaping existing organisations and creating new ones. Research on digital infrastructure has rested on the assumption that infrastructures are developed to support pre-existing organised activities. However, with the rise of new digital
The business world started to integrate internationally; therefore, it is likely to say that the multinational companies have become one of the key actors in international business. Since the multinational companies operate in many countries simultaneously; they face to multicultural challenges. The organisational culture is also influenced by the cultural diversity. It is possible to state that the transfer of the organisational culture is essential for the creation of the compatibility in t...
Civil Society Organisations and Conflict Management: The Nigerian ... and since violence begets violence, the approach has not really resulted in ... Christian religion and modern conflict resolution mechanism to intervene in the conflicts.
Raduan Che Rose
Full Text Available The main objective that business organisations in particular should strive to attain is achieving a competitive advantage position relative to their competitors.. This research empirically examined the importance of and emphasis placed on organisational resources, capabilities and systems in their relationships with competitive advantage. The overall findings indicated significant, positive effects of organisational resources, capabilities and systems collectively on competitive advantage, providing support and corroboration to the resource-based view (RBV. The total variance in competitive advantage accounted for by the multiple linear regression (MLR model was 56.2%. In short, the findings from this study have not only contributed to the literature on the issue of the relationship between organisational resources, capabilities, systems and competitive advantage, but also provided vital information to both practitioners and policy makers on the subject matter.
Full Text Available During the past few decades, organised crime has grown considerably as a consequence of political transformations and global economics. The countries of the European Union are very much aware of this situation, and are taking steps to coordinate strategies and boost cooperation in the fight against the problem. This article attempts, firstly, to explain the phenomenon in its present dimensions and in those facets that most affect the EU Member States. The author then goes on to tackle the aspects concerning cooperation, in all its different areas, within the sphere of the EU, before finally carrying out a prospective and proactive examination of the foreseeable evolution of the phenomenon, and the measures necessary to tackle it in all its magnitude.
This article aims to define organisational culture and explain why it is important to patients, carers and those working in healthcare environments. Organisational culture is not a new concept and the literature on the subject is well-established. However, because of the changing dynamics of the NHS, there has been a shift away from 'what' the NHS stands for, often relating to its history and rituals, to 'who' it functions for, including how healthcare professionals such as nurses can develop and drive the organisational culture. The article seeks to assist nurses in understanding the role of organisational culture, as well as implementing its main principles in the workplace. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
C L Van Tonder
Full Text Available During the past two decades a steady increase in scholarly contributions in the area of organisation identity have been observed – to the point that the phenomenon is now the subject of a sustainable discourse in several disciplines. Many theoretical and conceptual dilemmas however remain, largely as a result of the low incidence of empirical research in the area. This study reports the results of an exploratory investigation that adapted Schley and Wagenfield’s (1979 concept of identity for use in an organisational setting. Interviews were conducted with 152 top managers representing 10 companies. The results indicate that organisational responses to the question “who am I?�? elicit distinctive organisational self-descriptions and some awareness of identity issues.
Andersson, Olle; Rollenhagen, Carl
The term 'MTO' (Man-Technology-Organisation) has been widely used by Swedish utilities and regulators to describe knowledge and analytical techniques that focus on human and organisational factors and their relationship with nuclear safety. MTO was introduced in Sweden after the TMI accident as a concept similar to the 'Human Factors' (HF) concept developed in the USA. It was the intent that the explicit mention of the three interrelated elements in the concept - Man, Technology and Organisation - would stimulate a comprehensive 'system view' on nuclear safety. This view should go beyond a strict technological perspective to recognise and highlight human and organisational factors as important moderators of risk. In retrospect, the MTO concept has been successful in stimulating a socio-technological view of nuclear safety in Sweden - a general trend supported by international developments. A further step along this path has been taken with the LearnSafe project. (author)
Wolff, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)
The use of wind energy is expanding rapidly worldwide. At the end of 1996 over 6000 MW was installed and the annual increase has during the last years exceeded 1000 MW. The development is also reaching more and more countries. In order to maintain technical and commercial development international co-operation is needed to secure cost-effectiveness, reliability and safety of the technology. International recommendations, harmonisation and standardisation is promoted by several international organizations like IEA, IEC and the classification organisations
Full Text Available The phenomenological picture of crime is constantly changing. In modern times an increase in criminal behaviour as a whole and in the number of new forms of crimes, in particular grave criminal offences, has been noted. New and especially dangerous forms of crime are considered to be: organised crime, terrorism, business crime, corruption, illegal trafficking of drugs, weapons and people, and grave forms of violence. Recently, the particular attention of all democratic world powers and their special services has been seized by the ever increasing and more intensive collusion of organised crime and terrorism. This is a symbiosis which, apart from the need to create new and specialised services, could even result in some changes to criminal legal theory and practice. In this paper, within the analysis of the collusion between terrorism and organised crime, only one aspect is problematised. This aspect deals with financing terrorism and the measures which the international community and national legislation undertake in the fight against terrorism. The intention of the measures is to prevent not only the collusion of terrorist groups and organised crime in the commission of criminal offences but also the disposal of funds acquired by such means as financial transactions and ‘money laundering’. These measures do not only have a direct effect on the survival and activity of future terrorist groups. They also have a direct influence on the comprehensive fight against organised crime which poses fundamental threats to contemporary civilisation.
women in rural areas to examine the effort of women organisations (NGOs) in improving environmental education .... environmental condition and factors militating .... future to pay the bills for today. ... elimination of poverty and inequality in an.
Walker, Arlene; Costa, Beth M
Health graduates face personal and work-related stressors during the graduate year. The extent to which employers and health graduates have a shared understanding of graduate stressors is unclear but may impact graduate support and transition into the health profession. Aim and design: The aim of this exploratory qualitative study was to identify factors that impact health graduates' transition and integration into the workplace, comparing the perspectives of health graduates and organisational representatives. Individual and small group semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 medical and 26 nursing graduates and five organisational representatives from a regional health organisation in Victoria, Australia. A thematic analysis was undertaken on the data. Five main categories were identified: dealing with change, dealing with conflict, workload, taking responsibility and factors that influence performance. Similarities and differences in the perspectives of health graduates and organisational representatives were identified. These findings have implications for current graduate support programs.
and economic development. This article critically reviews the most recent developments in Chinese and Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) approaches to development finance to Africa. It argues that although we can detect a number of incidents that point towards more policy space...... for African governments, the revival of China's development finance does not fundamentally alter the power relations between African countries and their financiers, as the tendency now is towards convergence and cooperation between China and Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donors—not divergence...
This paper focuses on the World Bank/IMF (International Monetary Fund), the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and the WTO (World Trade Organisation) as institutions of transnational policy making. They are all at present making education policies which are decisively shaping current directions and developments in…
Jacquart, G.; Guelfi, A.; Vanhoenacker, L.; Pouget-Abadie, X.; Engstroem, J.
's EU-APR1400 and AEP's VVER TOI). The paper briefly recalls the EUR design assessment objectives and process and the progress of the different assessment projects. The third topic to be covered by this paper is the interaction between the EUR and the other stakeholders, in particular the other international organisations (ENISS, WNA/CORDEL, WENRA, IAEA, EPRI). The paper describes how the EUR organisation is connected to these stakeholders and the corresponding cooperation results and future projects. (authors)
Koster, Ferry; Sanders, Karin
Purpose: This paper aims at contributing to the debate on organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) by developing a theory‐driven measure of cooperative behaviour within organisations, called organisational solidarity (OS). Design/methodology/approach: Data are gathered through a survey among 674
Tretyakov, Yuri D
The review concerns conservative and dissipative self-organisation phenomena in those physicochemical systems, whose evolution involves formation of diverse chemically complex products, including functional ceramics, supramolecular compounds, and nanocomposites as well as fractal, template and epitaxial structures. It is demonstrated that the use of nonlinear dynamics approaches facilitates organisation of the reaction zone during the synthesis of materials under nonequilibrium conditions in an optimum manner and that biomimetism and biomineralisation processes open up new prospects for materials design.
women in rural areas to examine the effort of women organisations (NGOs) in improving environmental education and .... all lives on earth are parts of one single interdependent ... corruption initiatives, freedom of information and enhancing ...
Hottenrott, Hanna; Rexhäuser, Sascha; Veugelers, Reinhilde
This study investigates induced productivity effects of firms introducing new environmental technologies. The literature on within-firm organisational change and productivity suggests that firms can achieve higher productivity gains from adopting new technologies if they adapt their organisational structures. Such complementarity effects may be of particular importance for the adoption of greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement technologies. The adoption of these technologies is often induced by publi...
Full Text Available Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia (COP, also called idiopathic Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organising Pneumonia( BOOP, is a distinct entity among the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias defined histopathologically by intraalveolar buds of granulation tissue. The etiology includes idiopathic, infectious, drug induced radiation induced and connective tissue diseases. Organising pneumonia occurs particularly in patients with dermatomyositis-polymyositis where it may be the presenting manifestation, and rarely in SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma and other connective tissue diseases. We describe a 30 yr old lady who initially presented with respiratory symptoms, not responding to antibiotics. She was subsequently diagnosed as SLE and HRCT thorax showed consolidation involving both lung fields. A percutaneous lung biopsy revealed features of Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia.
Claudio Alberto Rivera Rodríguez
Full Text Available The present work has the purpose to approach the theoretical and methodological foundations of the rise of the cooperatives. In this article are studied the logical antecedents of the cooperativism, the premises establish by the Industrial Revolution for the emergence of the first modern cooperative “The Pioneers of Rochdale” that is the inflection point of cooperativism, until analyzing the contributions of the whole thinking of the time that maintain this process.
Yolandi van der Berg
Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between organisational trust and QWL. Motivation for the study: Recent organisational changes have refocused attention on the productivity and performance of sales representatives. These changes have brought about a re-evaluation of their QWL and the organisational trust they experience. Research design, approach and method: An Internet-based survey methodology was used to collect primary data from a probability sample of 282 sales representatives; a 72% response rate was obtained. Responses were analysed using quantitative techniques and structural equation modelling. Main findings: Results confirmed a positive relationship between managerial practices with organisational trust and QWL and a lower relationship between the personality dimensions, organisational trust and the QWL. Practical/managerial implications: The study accentuated how important it is for management to be constantly aware of employees’ trust and their experience of a QWL, as these factors can lead to severe consequences if not properly managed. Contribution/value add: The study focused attention on the importance of building good trust relationships within an organisation, as it seems as though the personality traits and managerial practices of managers influence not only the trust relationship experienced by employees, but also their experience of a QWL.
Outsourcing has been around for over twenty years and is still growing, while outsourcing of recruitment is a relatively new phenomenon. Organisations outsource primarily because of the cost benefit and time saving, since there are also several reasons to outsource, there are also several types of outsourcing. Business process outsourcing is when an organisation outsources a whole business process such as Human Resources, which Recruitment Process Outsourcing is a part of. Recruitment Process...
Cal, C. de la; Gil, B.; Sola, R.; Vaquero, C.; Garces, M. I.
The direct influence of organisational and managerial factors on safety performance in nuclear power plants has been widely proved by two findings, the analysis of their operating experience and the differences in safety levels reached by similar installations. Specially, the study of majors accidents such as TMI-2 and Chernobyl have demonstrated that the technical deficiencies are not the only root causes, but there are a whole set of human, organisational, managerial and social factors which are the origin from most of these deficiencies. In recent years, this fact is emphasised with the nuclear industry involved a process of change. The deregulation of the electricity market, which has increased the economic pressures to the companies and has driven in many cases to restructures in ownership (mergers, acquisitions), downsizing processes and outsourcing parts of the work, jointly with the development of information technologies and computer networks and with a change in the regulatory and social climates are some of the nre factors affecting the performance of nuclear power plants that have addressed, even more, to the need of re-viewing and assessing the impact of organisational aspects on their safe performance. There have been international efforts to analyse the influence of organisational factors in the safety of nuclear power plants following different approaches. Research institutions, utilities and regulatory bodies. individually or in co-operation, have tried to develop practical tools for taking into account the organisation. According to these international efforts the Association of Spanish Utilities, UNESA, and the Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Body, CSN, have included in 1998, for the first time in their Co-ordinated Plan for Research, an innovative five years R and D project entitled Development of methods to evaluate and model the impact of organisation on nuclear poer plants safety whose main objectives are to analyse the impact of organisation and
Hoogervorst, J.A.P.; van der Flier, H.; Koopman, P.L.
Organisations engage in explicit and intentional communication with employees in various ways. However, communication will not be received in a "neutral" context. Employees operate in an organisational (or behavioural) context determined by the organisational culture, structures and systems, and the
Elovainio, Marko; Ferrie, Jane E; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Gimeno, David; De Vogli, Roberto; Shipley, Martin; Vahtera, Jussi; Brunner, Eric; Marmot, Michael G; Kivimäki, Mika
Low organisational justice has been shown to be associated with increased risk of various health problems, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We tested whether organisational injustice contributes to chronic inflammation in a population of middle-aged men and women. This prospective cohort study uses data from 3205 men and 1204 women aged 35-55 years at entry into the Whitehall II study (phase 1, 1985-1988). Organisational justice perceptions were assessed at phase 1 and phase 2 (1989-1990) and circulating inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6 at phase 3 (1991-1993) and phase 7 (2003-2004). In men, low organisational justice was associated with increased CRP levels at both follow-ups (phase 3 and 7) and increased IL-6 at the second follow-up (phase 7). The long term (phase 7) associations were largely independent of covariates, such as age, employment grade, body mass index and depressive symptoms. In women, no relationship was found between organisational justice and CRP or IL-6. This study suggests that organisational injustice is associated with increased long-term levels of inflammatory markers among men.
Advocacy organisations have traditionally played a prominent role in shaping corporate social responsibility (CSR) management and reporting practices through organisational-level and institutional-level engagement. Recent years have seen advocacy organisations expand the nature and content of their
Full Text Available Starting from the most important Publications of the International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (1925-1946 we will explore the ideas concerning culture and personalities involved in the intellectual cooperation during the Interwar Period. Pointing out the role that the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation had and the Romanian contribution to this cooperation is another purpose of this article.
Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D
The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W.; Dancey, Janet E.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Horvath, L. Elise; Perez, Edith A.; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M.; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D.
The National Cancer Institute-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a long-standing history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the U.S. based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the U.S., and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the U.S. or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the U.S. and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to U.S. policies that restrict drug distribution outside the U.S. This manuscript serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. PMID:26433551
Josimovski Aleksandar G.
Full Text Available Countries have possibility to choose between several alternatives for cooperation in international tax matters at global level. They can decide not to cooperate or provide some form of tax cooperation. Because of harmful tax competition among countries and efforts of international organizations, all countries in the world are oblidged to comply with one of multiple alternatives for tax cooperation. Situation in European Union (hereinafter EU is specific. EU is not country or classic international organization. By the reason of its successful functioning, EU has need for tax cooperation. EU has attempted to harmonise tax policies of member states, but member states did not approve that. Only indirect taxes are harmonized on EU level, direct taxes are harmonized only to the point necessarily for functioning of single market. That is why tax cooperation instruments are so important. Object of this paper are procedures and measures, stipulated by the most important instrument in the field of tax cooperation enacted by institutions of EU, its development and status in international tax law. Regulatives and directives in field of tax cooperation in the EU are 'pioneers' in tax matters. EU instruments provide standards which are subsequently accepted by several international organizations - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and United Nations (UN. Our purpose is to present positive and negative aspects of tax cooperation in the EU. In time of crisis efficient tax cooperation provides higher revenues for the member states, on the other hand, taxpayers and tax administrations have increased expenses as result of tax cooperation which are not fairly distributed.
Full Text Available Electronic trade and commerce have brought inter organisational co-operation to the forefront of organisational strategies. However, inter-organisational systems (IOS planning lacks appropriate methodological guidelines, and tends to be practised in an insular manner. This paper examines the development of systems in three interorganisational networks in Ireland in order to ascertain the planning that went into them. The networks studied are representative of three types of structural interdependencies - pooled, reciprocal and sequential. Although it is difficult to identify an activity that can be clearly labelled IOS planning, planning is integral to the development of all networks. The interdependencies influence planning processes and outcomes. For the pooled and reciprocal networks, the planning process gives a focus. For the sequential network, the main planning is done by the hub organisation, and extended to the spokes. Planning interactions across all networks illustrate similarities that reveal that existence of planning environments within which IOS planning takes place. These planning environments are proposed as being an appropriate basis for the development of IOS planning guidelines.
In 2004, the EU has opened its commercial natural gas industry to competition, while eight former socialist countries have become member states. This ongoing institutional evolution is expected to have a great impact on the industrial organisation of the East European natural gas markets. Specificities and rigidities of the transport networks, as well as strong import dependency may in fact weaken the security of supply and confirm that natural gas is strongly affected by geopolitical constraints. By levering on an analysis of structure and strategies across natural gas markets in Eastern Europe, this dissertation explores the stakes of integration and liberalization on the industrial organisation of European natural gas and reveals the risk of an emerging oligopoly, and the cooperation between dominant players. Our main contention is that this evolution could possibly hinder network interconnection thereby thwarting the achievement of an integrated and single competitive natural gas market in the Union. (author)
Jonker, C.M.; Schut, M.C.; Treur, J.
For an information-agent-based system to support virtual (Internet-supported) organisations, changes in environmental conditions often demand changes in organisational behaviour, i.e., organisational changes. As organisational behaviour relates to organisational structure, rethinking the structure
Usually newly employed nurses find adjusting to a work setting a challenging experience. Their successful adaptation to their work situation is greatly influenced by the socialisation process inherent in the organisational culture. The newly employed nurse often finds that the norms are unclear, confusing and restrictive.
This contribution attempts to make clear what these activities are and how they may affect the protection of human rights. The implementation of good governance principles in international organisations can be considered a sine qua non for the realisation of human rights. Therefore, it will be examined what role the ...
Full Text Available With classic statistical approaches and novel machine learning methods, we attempt to improve insight into the connections between the quality of an organisation of firms as a type of formal social unit and the business results of firms. The research used a data set with 72 extensive and very difficult-to-obtain assessments of the quality of an organisation (recorded only once 2007 and their business results, traced in four successive business years (2006–2009. We hypothesize that a causal relationship exists between the latter and the former. Only the final conclusions will be presented, together with some excerpts of the most interesting findings in the selected years of observation. A novel general explanation method from the computer science field of machine learning and data mining can be used to explain the influence of individual relevant organisational elements on the business results. Our findings confirm that traditional statistics and machine-learning approaches are successful at modelling this dependency relationship. Furthermore, the explanation of the influence of the organisational elements on the predicted business results provides insights that have meaningful scientific interpretations and proves the important meaning of good organisation for its firm.
Full Text Available The increasingly complex challenges of making water management more sustainable require a critical and detailed understanding of the social organisation of water. This paper examines the hitherto neglected role that 'intermediary' organisations play in reshaping the relations between the provision and use of water and sanitation services. In response to new regulatory, environmental, social, and commercial pressures the relationships between water utilities, consumers, and regulators are changing, creating openings for both new and existing organisations to take on intermediary functions. Drawing on recent EU-funded research we provide the first systematic analysis of intermediary organisations in the European water sector, examining the contexts of their emergence, the ways they work, the functions they perform, and the impacts they can have. With a combination of conceptual and empirical analysis we substantiate and elaborate the case for appreciating the often hidden work of intermediaries. We caution, however, against over-simplistic conclusions on harnessing this potential, highlighting instead the need to reframe perspectives on how water is organised to contemplate actor constellations and interactions beyond the common triad of provider, consumer, and regulator.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop an organisational team sport scale (OTSS. A series of projects was undertaken before the development of this organisational team sport scale. The initial phase, which consisted of a qualitative study, was done to get an in-depth understanding of how employees perceive organisational team sport interventions in their organisations through focus group interviews and individual interviews (n = 72 and through the literature review. In phase 2, information obtained from phase 1 was used to develop a scale which consisted of 53 items. In phase 3, a total of 209 respondents completed the scale. The number of items was reduced to 52 through principal component analyses and a five-factor structure was suggested. The final version of the OTSS contains 52 items that assess coping skills or achieve goals, relationships among participants, physical activity and health, benefits of sport for the organisation and work/life balance. Specific issues with regard to the five-factor structure are discussed and suggestions for future research are made. The findings of this study will contribute valuable new knowledge to the literature on the development of the OTSS.
Stadie, Klaus B. [OECD, Paris (France). Safety and Regulation
The nuclear atomic association NEA of the OECD, to which 23 western industrial countries belong to, was established 25 years ago (1959) as ''Nuclear Energy Agency'', almost simultaneously with other large international nuclear energy organisations. The NEA undertook special tasks during the international cooperation, which have shifted over time. A special feature today is the cooperation by means of international committees, which are supported by a small own staff of the organisation. The focus points lie within the area of safety and regimentation and on chosen scientific and technical studies.
Carlton, Sally; Mills, Colleen E
This paper seeks to contribute to understanding of the factors associated with an effective emergent emergency response organisation and to provide new insights into this understudied area. It examines, through an analysis of a range of textual resources, the emergence and re-emergence of the Student Volunteer Army (SVA) during the devastating earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010-11. This evaluation is conducted in relation to the four key features of an effective emergency response organisation: adaptability; direction; leadership; and communication. In addition, the paper aims to further understanding of 'emergency entrepreneurship' and thus of the values and strategies that underpin social entrepreneur organisations in times of normalcy. The paper concludes that the unique position of the SVA as a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation enabled it to innovate continually and to improve repeatedly its systems, relationships, and image, such that it exhibited features common to emergent and established emergency response organisations. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.
Full Text Available As theory still lacks consistent definition of successful talent management, the praxis is characterized by dissimilar interpretations of the term talent. The lack of integrity of definitions appears to be the reason to analyse talent management practices. The article focuses on consistency of suggested practices in management of organisational strategies. The aim is to reveal current approach of Czech organisations towards talent management practices and to specify the main factors affecting employee development in talent management in the tested organisations. Bivariate and multivariate statistical methods and analyses were used to lower the number of possible single approaches and practices. Analyses formed valid factors, which influence and determine employee development as key principles of talent management: alignment with strategy, internal consistency, cultural embeddedness, management involvement, and employer branding through differentiation. Results identified and verified different ways of support of talented employees. Firstly, it is Talent management in its original shape (25.9%, secondly, Learning organisation based on common learning (23.5% and the third factor name is Plain promises (12.4%. Organisations grouped in the factor only declare possibility of development, but do not practically use it.
Arnold, Rachel; Wagstaff, Christopher R D; Steadman, Lauren; Pratt, Yasmin
Organisational stressors have been found to be prevalent and problematic for sport performers, with research identifying demographic differences in the stressors encountered. Nevertheless, extant sport psychology research on the topic of stress has generally focused on able-bodied athletes; whilst that which has been conducted on performers with a disability has typically recruited relatively small samples to explore a narrow selection of organisational stressors, or examined other components of the stress process. The purpose of the present study was to explore the various organisational stressors that athletes with a disability encounter. The sample comprised 18 elite athletes with a disability (10 male, 8 female) who had a classified disability and experience of competing at a major championships in their sport (e.g., Paralympic Games, World Championships). Participants took part in a semi-structured interview which was analysed by drawing from grounded theory procedures. A total of 316 organisational stressors were identified, which were abstracted into 31 concepts and four, previously conceptualised, exploratory schemes: leadership and personnel issues, cultural and team issues, logistical and environmental issues, and performance and personal issues. This study not only provides the first illustration of the prevalence of organisational stressors for athletes with a disability, but also significantly points to salient similarities and distinct differences between the stress experiences of performers with and without a disability.
Full Text Available This paper investigates organisational-level attributes that allow European SMEs to choose equity-based modes of entry to foreign markets, thus becoming micro-multinationals. We hypothesize that international R&D cooperation (hypothesis 1 and using digital marketing (hypothesis 2 by SMEs increase their likelihood of becoming a mMNE. These hypotheses are tested through a logistic regression analysis based on a large sample of European companies drawn from the Flash Eurobarometer study. Separate regression models are estimated for companies originating from EU-13 and EU-15. Hypothesis 1 is supported by both samples. Hypothesis 2 is supported in the EU-15 sample. Our identification of organisational-level attributes that increase the likelihood of SMEs choosing equity-based internationalisation contributes to International Entrepreneurship entry mode literature.
Hart, P M; Wearing, A J; Conn, M; Carter, N L; Dingle, R K
A growing body of empirical evidence suggests that organisational factors are more important than classroom specific issues in determining teacher morale. Accordingly, it is necessary to have available measures that accurately assess morale, as well as the organisational factors that are likely to underpin the experience of morale. Three studies were conducted with the aim of developing a psychometrically sound questionnaire that could be used to assess teacher morale and various dimensions of school organisational climate. A total of 1,520 teachers from 18 primary and 26 secondary schools in the Australian state of Victoria agreed to participate in three separate studies (N = 615, 342 and 563 in Studies 1, 2 and 3, respectively) that were used to develop the questionnaire. The demographic profile of the teachers was similar to that found in the Department as a whole. All teaching staff in the participating schools were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire as part of the evaluation of an organisational development programme. A series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to establish the questionnaire's factor structure, and correlation analyses were used to examine the questionnaire's convergent and discriminant validity. The three studies resulted in the 54-item School Organisational Health Questionnaire that measures teacher morale and 11 separate dimensions of school organisational climate: appraisal and recognition, curriculum coordination, effective discipline policy, excessive work demands, goal congruence, participative decision-making, professional growth, professional interaction, role clarity, student orientation, and supportive leadership.
Professor Richard Taylor, from the University of Bristol, gave a presentation on the causes and potential ways of reducing the risk of Organisational Accidents. The presentation described a research study that was conducted to analyse and identify lessons from 12 major events in the nuclear and other sectors. The study was funded by ONR and BNFL. Although the events occurred in different sectors and circumstances, the analysis identified many common issues. The findings from the analysis were grouped into the following eight themes: leadership issues, operational attitudes and behaviours, business environment, competence, risk assessment and management, oversight and scrutiny, organisational learning and external regulation. Examples of issues identified under each of the themes are provided in Appendix 2. The presentation discussed learning for regulatory bodies from the events studied. This includes the need for regulators to move beyond technical/procedural issues to thinking about leadership commitment, business pressures and the underlying culture of the organisations they regulate. Regulators should take an 'overview' and actively explore organisational causes of problems rather than focusing on the symptoms. The analysis of events also revealed that regulators sometimes picked up emerging issues but did not act. This highlights the importance of good internal communication and discussion of issues within the regulatory body. The findings from the study have been used to develop expectations/objectives for good performance and develop a draft set of questions that regulators could use to assess vulnerability. Further work with industry and regulatory bodies is planned to encourage a better understanding of the organisational issues identified, improve cross industry sector learning, and develop new tools to reduce vulnerability to organisational accidents
In the cell nucleus chromosomes have a complex architecture serving vital functional purposes. Recent experiments have started unveiling the interaction map of DNA sites genome-wide, revealing different levels of organisation at different scales. The principles, though, which orchestrate such a complex 3D structure remain still mysterious. I will overview the scenario emerging from some classical polymer physics models of the general aspect of chromatin spatial organisation. The available experimental data, which can be rationalised in a single framework, support a picture where chromatin is a complex mixture of differently folded regions, self-organised across spatial scales according to basic physical mechanisms. I will also discuss applications to specific DNA loci, e.g. the HoxB locus, where models informed with biological details, and tested against targeted experiments, can help identifying the determinants of folding.
As an IT Manager of nine years in a small healthcare organisation, which has transitioned from a minimal base of IT to fully fledged systems in place, I have discovered two structures which have helped enormously in this transition. These structures are firstly, the focus group, which looks at the IT requirements of the business, and secondly the user group, or a group of super users, which help in the day to day running of the systems. I have put together a number of lessons, which I have learnt over the years through experience of the workings of these groups, the benefits of them and the value they bring to the organisation.
Gibson, S.; Reiersen, Craig
The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) is responsible for the licensing and regulatory oversight of new nuclear power reactors in the UK. NII recognises that effective licensee leadership and management for safety are instrumental in the safety of new and existing nuclear installations. NII is consequently placing considerable emphasis on seeking assurance that prospective licensees develop an adequate organisational capability to manage and deliver nuclear safety in addition to constructing a design that has passed through a rigorous assessment process. In order to make NII's expectations clear, and support a consistent approach to interactions with prospective licensees, NII has produced a suite of related guidance to help its Inspectors assess and influence the development of licensee organisational capability. This includes: 1. The safety management prospectus; 2. The 'nuclear baseline'; 3. Intelligent Customer capability and use of contractors; 4. Design Authority; 5. Licence Condition Compliance Arrangements; 6. Development of Organisational Capability
Full Text Available The purpose of this small-scale study was to explore how people perceived Personal Knowledge Management (PKM, whether people were aware of the PKM concept, and how PKM can have an impact on organisational knowledge management and productivity. A questionnaire survey with quantitative and qualitative questions was used. The study revealed that a majority (63% of respondents were not aware of the PKM concept; 33% were aware, while 2% had a vague idea about it. Eighty three (83% felt that it was important to manage personal knowledge and that PKM could increase individual productivity and organisational performance. The major recommendations included creating awareness about PKM. It should be at the heart of each employee-development programme, alignment of personal and organisational goals and adequate facilities and training in PKM.
This paper reviews a selection of the comparative research on the organisation of skills and work in different countries. It argues that despite differences in institutional means, such as keiretsu and structured apprenticeship, the ends, in terms of a capacity to organise skills, is similar. It ...... of what makes an effective technology manager. The conclusion is that in the most effective cases, whatever the institutional means that allows training, the object is the integration of formal academic knowledge with a structured and broad base of work experience...
Full Text Available Lipids and proteins in biological membranes are arranged in a mosaic of domains in the membrane. These domains represent small-scale heterogeneities in composition, shape and fluidity within the plane of the membrane, over the range of hundreds of nanometers to a few micrometers. They arise from the complex interactions of the heterogeneous mixtures of phospholipids, sterols, and proteins that make up all biological membranes.Los lípidos y las proteínas en las membranas biológicas están dispuestos en un mosaico de campos en la membrana. Estos campos representan heterogeneidades a pequeña escala en la composición, forma y fluidez dentro del plano de la membrana, en un rango que va de los cientos de nanómetros a los pocos micrómetros. Estos campos se originan de las complejas interacciones de las mezclas heterogéneas de fosfolípidos, esteroles y proteínas de las que están hechas todas y cada una de las membranas biológicas.
Domingues, Ana Rita; Lozano, Rodrigo; Ceulemans, Kim; Ramos, Tomás B
Sustainability Reporting has become a key element in different organisations. Although there have been a number of academic publications discussing the adoption of sustainability reports in the public sector, their numbers have been quite low when compared to those focussing on corporate reports. Additionally, there has been little research on the link between sustainability reporting in Public Sector Organisations (PSOs) and Organisational Change Management for Sustainability (OCMS). This paper focuses on the contribution of sustainability reporting to OCMS. A survey was sent to all PSOs that have published at least one sustainability report based on the GRI guidelines. The study provides a critical analysis of the relation between sustainability reporting and OCMS in PSOs, including the drivers for reporting, the impacts on organisation change management, and the role of stakeholders in the process. Despite still lagging in sustainability reporting journey, PSOs are starting to use sustainability reporting as a communication tool, and this could drive organisational changes for sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alcides López Labrada
Before the arising of the cooperative movement in the world, cooperation already existed. So, it is logical to affirm that there can be cooperation without cooperative movement. But there cannot be cooperative movement without cooperation, because cooperation is an indispensable premise for the existence of cooperative movement. Both the precursors of the cooperative movement and the classics of Marxism agreed on the necessity of cooperative formation. Lenin called socialism “the regime o...
Full Text Available The article deals with different factors determining relationships of large Slovenian organisations (with more than 500 employees with their strategic suppliers and their influence on the frequency of implementations of purchasing marketing strategies. The factors dealt with are: the quality of the relationship between the organisation and its strategic supplier (supplier activities, attractiveness of supply for the organisation and the competitive position of the organisation on the supply market, bargaining power of the organisation with respect to the supplier (the organisation's risk orientation, its orientation towards cooperation and the size of its bargaining power and the quantity of the relationship (the size of transactional assets. The research showed that large organisations in Slovenia are unlikely to develop such purchasing marketing strategies, characteristic of the so-called »relationship marketing« with their strategic suppliers (with whom they have a long-term business relationship. The influence of measured factors on the frequency of the implementation of individual purchasing marketing strategies exists, with a stronger impact of factors with short-term effects on the organisation; hence the surveyed organisations are still more oriented towards reaching short-term efficiency instead of long-term success.
Nystad, E.; Szőke, I.
The oil & gas industry is a safety-critical industry where errors or accidents may potentially have severe consequences. Offshore oil & gas installations are complex technical systems constructed to pump hydrocarbons from below the seabed, process them and pipe them to onshore refineries. Hydrocarbon leaks may lead to major accidents or have negative environmental impacts. The industry must therefore have a strong focus on safety. Safety barriers are devices put into place to prevent or reduce the effects of unwanted incidents. Technical barriers are one type of safety barrier, e.g., blow-out preventers to prevent uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons from a well. Human operators may also have an important function in maintaining safety. These human operators are part of a larger organisation consisting of different roles and responsibilities and with different mechanisms for ensuring safety. This paper will present two research projects from the Norwegian oil & gas industry that look at the role of humans and organisations as safety barriers. The first project used questionnaire data to investigate the use of mindful safety practices (safety-promoting work practices intended to prevent or interrupt unwanted events) and what contextual factors may affect employees’ willingness to use these safety practices. Among the findings was that employees’ willingness to use mindful safety practices was affected more by factors on a group level than factors at an individual or organisational level, and that the factors may differ depending on what is the object of a practice—the employee or other persons. It was also suggested that employees’ willingness to use mindful safety practices could be an indicator used in the assessment of the safety level on oil & gas installations. The second project is related to organisational safety barriers against major accidents. This project was based on a review of recent incidents in the Norwegian oil & gas industry, as well as
Full Text Available The article analyses the obstacles of the cooperative movement in Lithuania and proposes new insights for the development of their activities. Analysis was based on and carried out using the Delphi survey methodological approach. The experience of a transnational Association of Producers Organisation “First International Association Fruit” was investigated as a relevant example. Suggestions for the development of Lithuanian cooperatives were worked out.
Kalinova, Desislava; Kolarov, Zlatimir; Rashkov, Rasho
Organising pneumonia (OP) is a distinct type of interstitial lung disease, because it can also be seen in association with several conditions such as infections, drugs, and connective tissue diseases. An association of OP with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has also been described. Joint manifestations of RA usually precede lung involvements by several years; however, in less than 10% of cases of RA, interstitial lung disease may be the initial feature of RA. Organising pneumonia as the initial manifestation or developed simultaneously of RA is extremely rare, and its clinical features remain unknown. We present a 56-year-old woman with OP as the first manifestation of RA.
Büchner, Vera Antonia; Hinz, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas
Several public policy initiatives, particularly those involving managed care, aim to enhance cooperation between partners in the health care sector because it is expected that such cooperation will reduce costs and generate additional revenue. However, empirical evidence regarding the effects of cooperation on hospital performance is scarce, particularly with respect to creating a comprehensive measure of cooperation behavior. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of hospital cooperation behavior on organizational performance. We differentiate between horizontal and vertical cooperation using two alternative measures-cooperation depth and cooperation breadth-and include the interaction effects between both cooperation directions. Data are derived from a survey of German hospitals and combined with objective performance information from annual financial statements. Generalized linear regression models are used. The study findings provide insight into the nature of hospitals' cooperation behavior. In particular, we show that there are negative synergies between horizontal administrative cooperation behavior and vertical cooperation behavior. Whereas the depth and breadth of horizontal administrative cooperation positively affect financial performance (when there is no vertical cooperation), vertical cooperation positively affects financial performance (when there is no horizontal administrative cooperation) only when cooperation is broad (rather than deep). Horizontal cooperation is generally more effective than vertical cooperation at improving financial performance. Hospital managers should consider the negative interaction effect when making decisions about whether to recommend a cooperative relationship in a horizontal or vertical direction. In addition, managers should be aware of the limited financial benefit of cooperation behavior.
Vermeulen, F.; Brünger, M.
This article analyses the organising process of Turkish and Moroccan immigrant groups in Amsterdam over a long-term period. In it, we argue that organisational legitimacy is the driving factor of an organisational process. We understand legitimacy as a generalised belief that an organisation's
Baumont, Genevieve; Bourrier, Mathilde; Frischknecht, Albert; Schoenfeld, Isabelle; Weber, Mike J.
applications. The first application of the assessment method results from detection of organisational weaknesses in events or inspections, or from continuing deteriorating performance. The assessment tries to find root causes and contributing causes of the identified weaknesses in the organisation. This application is considered 'reactive'. The references for this approach are requirements of the regulatory body or utility commitments, or the legal framework. The second application assesses the organisational factors as leading indicators of performance problems. This application is considered 'proactive', integrating information on organisational factors in order to capture mechanisms which are very important for the reliability of the organisation. This could be the decision-making process, change process, coherence of the organisation with the policy, etc. Lastly, the participants identified several research needs for the identification and assessment of organisational factors, including the importance of international co-operation: - assessing the impact of organisational factors on human safety performance; - transferring of knowledge and developing a common metric amongst Member countries for comparing methods and audit practices; - establishing a common understanding of specific organisational mechanisms, features and patterns; - exchanging operational performance data for analysing the risk significance of organisational factors; - exchanging information in two to three years to discuss progress in concepts; - establishing theories and methodology, identifying risk significance and quantifying organisational factors
Baumont, Genevieve; Bourrier, Mathilde; Frischknecht, Albert; Schoenfeld, Isabelle; Weber, Mike J.
participants identified several research needs for the identification and assessment of organisational factors, including the importance of international co-operation: - assessing the impact of organisational factors on human safety performance; - transferring of knowledge and developing a common metric amongst Member countries for comparing methods and audit practices; - establishing a common understanding of specific organisational mechanisms, features and patterns; - exchanging operational performance data for analysing the risk significance of organisational factors; - exchanging information in two to three years to discuss progress in concepts; - establishing theories and methodology, identifying risk significance and quantifying organisational factors. This report is divided in three volumes: Volume I: 'Introduction' provides background information on the development of the workshop and how the workshop was organized. 'Organisational Factors' provides a description of the twelve factors identified in the workshop. 'Assessment Approaches' discusses various methods for assessing organisational factors. 'Future Needs' describes research needs to enhance understanding and knowledge of organisational factors and its contribution to human safety performance and risk. Volume II: Methods and frameworks used in different countries by utilities, regulators and researchers. Volume III: Papers contributed by the participants
Lucardie, Anthonie; Voerman, Gerrit; Botella, Joan; Ramiro, Luis
In 1991 the Communist Party of the Netherlands (CPN) dissolved itself into the new organisation GreenLeft, founded in 1990. Thus, GreenLeft may be considered the major ‘post-communist party’ in the Netherlands. Yet it is not the only one. A minority of former CPN-members established in 1992 the New
Alaszewski, A; Manthorpe, J
The third paper in the series on sociology discusses the work of Max Weber. It traces the origins and main themes of his work. The parallels between his work and contemporary issues in the organisation of health care are outlined, in particular, the insights provided into bureaucracy and authority.
Park, Yang Taek
This book gives descriptions of technical cooperation, which is about why does technology transfer?, process of technology transfer with model, decisive cause and cooperation of technology transfer, cost and effect of technology transfer, historical experience of technology transfer, cases of technology transfer by field such as rubber tire, medicine and computer industry and automobile industry, technology transfer process and present condition of technical cooperation, and strategy for rising of technical cooperation : selection of technology for object of cooperation and development of human resources.
The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the respective national and supranational actors (i.e. trade unions and employer organisations) in the field of industrial relations in the contract catering sector in the Netherlands. In order to determine their relative importance in the
In this article, the work of three international governmental organisations (IGOs) dealing with human rights will be discussed, namely the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Council of Europe (CoE). In the first section, the main characteristics of the…
Fan, Ee Mei
There are various factors that contribute to the delivery of organisational outcomes but in order to survive and succeed while maintaining long lasting advantage and competitive position, knowledge-based organisations today must depend on its workforce to cross new performance thresholds. In the past, organisational variables and personality have been found to be a valid predictor of organisational outcomes such as job satisfaction and commitment. However, the impact of job task variety and p...
In view of the dramatically changing environment within which public administrators work, bureaucracies seem inadequate to meet the new and anticipated challenges facing the public sector. The solution, however, is not abandoning the reform of bureaucratic organisations, but channeling such reform in a way that it ...
Tan, Cheng Yong
This paper analyses the perceived organisational legitimacy of the Singapore Ministry of Education (MOE) in preparing the population for work in the knowledge-based economy (KBE). It is argued that challenges to MOE's legitimacy are emerging with ramifications that are difficult to ignore. These challenges relate to equipping the population with…
five manufacturing firms from Industrial Estates in Ibadan, Oyo. States. ... payment for the performance of concrete tasks are basis ... discussions in the utilisation of organisational justice in the work place ... rules are to be applied, they are equality (to each the same) .... organization, and has implication for the decision to.
Feinstein, Marc B; DeSouza, Shilpa A; Moreira, Andre L; Stover, Diane E; Heelan, Robert T; Iyriboz, Tunç A; Taur, Ying; Travis, William D
Cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) and acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia (AFOP) are recognised patterns of organising pneumonia (OP), a condition that resembles pneumonia but is not caused by infection. We have recognised granulomatous organising pneumonia (GOP) to be a similar histopathological entity where non-necrotising granulomata are intimately associated with the organising connective tissue. To what degree COP, AFOP and GOP represent distinct clinical and pathological disorders is unknown. This cross-sectional study sought to compare the pathological, clinical, and radiographical features of these OP patterns. Surgical lung biopsy specimens were reviewed for consecutive patients referred with OP to a metropolitan cancer centre. Clinical information and CT images were acquired from the hospital electronic medical record to determine the clinical and CT characteristics of each OP pattern. Sixty-one patients (35 men, 26 women), mean age 61.5 years (range 8-85 years), were available for analysis. Of these, 43 patients (70%) had at least one prior cancer; 27 (44%) had received chemotherapy and 18 (30%) had received radiation. Approximately, half (32 patients) had respiratory symptoms, most commonly cough, dyspnoea and/or wheezing. While symptoms and mortality rates were not different among OP groups, AFOP patients more commonly had fever (p=0.04). GOP patients less commonly had received chemotherapy (p=0.03) and were more likely to present as masses/nodules (p=0.04). AFOP and GOP, a newly described OP form, possess clinical and pathological findings that set it apart from a COP, suggesting an emerging spectrum of OP. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Vonk Noordegraaf, D.; Malone, K.M.; Katwijk, R. van; Gerrits, A.
Cooperative driving systems comprise an important research area. They are considered a promising solution for reducing traffic congestion, reducing environmental impact and improving traffic safety and driver comfort. The key to these systems is the communication and interaction between vehicles and
B.S. Kuipers (Ben); M.J. Higgs (Malcolm); W.J.M. Kickert (Walter); L.G. Tummers (Lars); J. Grandia (Jolien); J. van der Voet (Joris)
textabstractThis article presents a review of the recent literature on change management in public organisations and sets out to explore the extent to which this literature has responded to earlier critiques regarding the lack of (public) contextual factors. The review includes 133 articles
Martinsen, Bodil; Dubslaff, Friedel
's performance is perceived by participants as inadequate in order to achieve the communicative goal of the event. The model of translation culture, in which cooperativeness, loyalty and transparency are key concepts, is used as an explanatory tool. Although the interaction under study, like all courtroom...... interpreter despite doubt about her competence. The paper concludes by discussing the effect of special contextual conditions on the proceedings, as well as ethical implications....
Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward
In this article we clarify the historical roots of stakeholder theory to establish that a much larger role was played by Scandinavian thinkers in its development than is currently acknowledged. We show that important contributions to the stakeholder concept were being made by Eric Rhenman and his...... Scandinavian contemporaries in parallel to the contributions from the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) in the early 1960s and thereafter and thus are not a “historical trail” as they are currently labeled. Therefore we offer a significant modification to the historical narrative as presented in Strategic...... Management: A Stakeholder Approach (Freeman, 1984). These important Scandinavian contributions include the first publication and description of the expression „stakeholder‟ in management literature accessible to scholars throughout the world and the introduction of the first stakeholder map to the management...
Renzi, Jr, Alfred E
.... This thesis will describe a structure to assist with both those needs. The premise is that an expanded and improved network of US Military Groups is the weapon of choice for the war on terror, and beyond...
Full Text Available The author’s purpose in this article is to ascertain the differences in the attitude to innovativeness between bureaucratic and non-bureaucratic hotel organisations. He defines as bureaucratic the organisations establishing standards. As a separate issue he wishes to find out whether bureaucratic organisations employ properly educated staff or not. For this purpose he defines basic terminology: hotel industry, innovativeness, bureaucracy and knowledge, general and knowledge of tourism and hotel trade. He points out that the government is aware of the importance of innovativeness in hotel industry and tourism, whence a number of measures. In the empirical part, using statistical methods, such as the descriptive analysis and the Bonferroni test, the author establishes that there are no statistically significant differences between bureaucratic and non-bureaucratic organisations either with regard to innovativeness or the level of staff education. In this way, by using scientific method, the author rejects the often misinterpreted opinion on the influence of bureaucracy on innovativeness.
Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward
In this article we clarify the historical roots of stakeholder theory to establish that a much larger role was played by Scandinavian thinkers in its development than is currently acknowledged. We show that important contributions to the stakeholder concept were being made by Eric Rhenman and his Scandinavian contemporaries in parallel to the contributions from the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) in the early 1960s and thereafter and thus are not a “historical trail” as they ...
Yurdakul, Mine; Beşen, Meltem Aydin; Erdoğan, Semra
The study was conducted to determine the issues about which nurses and midwives remain silent and the reasons for it and the perceived results of silence. Organisational silence is a vitally important issue in the health sector, due to the risks and mistakes that are not reported, and proposals for improvement that are not made. The sample of this descriptive survey, which investigated a cause and effect relationship, was 159 nurses and midwives. The data were collected using a questionnaire and the organisational silence scale. Of the study participants, 84.9% were nurses and 15.1% were midwives. Of all participants 88.7% were women. 8.8% of participants stated that they never remained silent about issues related to work and the workplace. Respondents most often remained silent about issues related to ethics and responsibility. 'Limited improvement and development' was frequently mentioned as a perceived result of organisational silence. Our study determined that organisational silence is quite common among nurses and midwives. Activities that raise the awareness of hospital administrations and employees about preventing the factors that cause and maintain silence in hospitals should be planned. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: The research question is whether managers in organisations recognize the benefits of knowledge management. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify the factors of knowledge which have a significant impact on the organisation. Method: We reviewed the relevant literature in the field of knowledge management. On this basis, we summarized the factors of knowledge. We performed a survey among the 69 biggest Slovenian commercial companies (public and banking sectors were excluded. Results: Research has shown that managers recognize the positive effects of knowledge. Factor analysis, with the discovery of latent variables, additionally confirmed already established facts from the research literature. This led us to the discovery that knowledge is the common denominator of all companies, regardless of the business in which they operate. Organisation: From the examined literature, we can conclude that knowledge management has a positive impact on the company's results. Identification of knowledge factors allows a more efficient use of company’s resources and enables further development of the organisation. Society: Knowledge has become a highly appreciated "resource", therefore it is necessary to be able to manage it. Knowledge is the foundation of progress, not only for the development of the company but for the entire civilization. Originality: We see the original contribution in the identification of dilemmas in building connections between knowledge management and the company's success. Limitations / further research: The research matter is extremely difficult because the evidence that knowledge is the most influencing matter of a company’s success can not be easily confirmed. The connection (we remain inside the topic of human capital between knowledge and company's result is also manifested with other elements of the business, such as organisational culture, public relations, etc. Additional question is
The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the respective national and supranational actors (i.e. trade unions and employer organisations) in the field of industrial relations. This study will, in particular, focus on their representational quality as well as on their role in collective
other things, that organization do periodic organizational capability audit in order to be always proactive enough to meet its ... can put an organization at risk of becoming obsolete. .... organisation's strategic planning framework. The ... All the variables in the model are .... pattern of decision in a company that determines.
Drug Abuse: A seminar organised at the Government Secondary School, Aliero, Kebbi State, Nigeria as a community development service Summary: Drug abuse is the use against its action. It is worst when hard drugs are used and this is common among the youths and schoolchildren resulting in untoward effects and even ...
Finally, based on the findings of this research, it was recommended that since perceived organisational support has been revealed to increase employees socio-emotional needs, employers should care for the well being of their employees as it will be a bonus towards motivating them to be able to actualise the set goals ...
Yongqian, Liu; Dongyuan, Cheng; Xinli, Liu
Having started early in the 1920s as a spontaneously launched educational activity by civil organisations under the influence of American audio-visual theory and practice, Chinese educational technology was later put under governmental management. This paper is composed of five parts covering mainly the historical development of educational…
Nowak, Martin A.
Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation means that selfish replicators forgo some of their reproductive potential to help one another. But natural selection implies competition and therefore opposes cooperation unless a specific mechanism is at work. Here I discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation.
Barker, J; Anderson, P
A study was undertaken to identify the "Business Idea", as defined by van der Heijden (1996), in The Family Planning Association of WA Inc (FPWA) which is a Non-Government Organisation (NGO) in Perth, Western Australia. This organisation was chosen as, along with many other NGOs, it was undergoing major changes in its funding, role and required outcomes. A qualitative interpretivist single case study methodology employing grounded theory research principles and methods was used to study the Business Idea framework in this setting. Thirty-four members of FPWA's staff were interviewed and data was managed using NUD*IST4 and Decision Explorer data storage, data retrieval and graphical reproduction facilities. Results indicated that images of the Business Idea model within FPWA were largely consistent across all staff levels excepting members of the Board of Management. Changes within the organisation were impacting heavily on staff, who needed to be assisted over the transitional phase. Strong leadership and corporate direction were identified as essential if the FPWA was to balance the strongly held sense of social justice amongst its staff with a need for greater productivity efficiency and accountability across the organisation.
Kniffin, Kevin M; Yan, Jubo; Wansink, Brian; Schulze, William D
Music as an environmental aspect of professional workplaces has been closely studied with respect to consumer behavior while sparse attention has been given to its relevance for employee behavior. In this article, we focus on the influence of music upon cooperative behavior within decision-making groups. Based on results from two extended 20-round public goods experiments, we find that happy music significantly and positively influences cooperative behavior. We also find a significant positive association between mood and cooperative behavior. Consequently, while our studies provide partial support for the relevance of affect in relation to cooperation within groups, we also show an independently important function of happy music that fits with a theory of synchronous and rhythmic activity as a social lubricant. More generally, our findings indicate that music and perhaps other atmospheric variables that are designed to prime consumer behavior might have comparably important effects for employees and consequently warrant closer investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Teeters, Leah A.; Jurow, A. Susan
This article examines the social and cultural organisation of learning and community change in a largely new immigrant and under-resourced neighbourhood in the US. Situating our investigation within a local social movement for food justice, we use an ethnographic lens to study how learning is made to become consequential across relationships…
The paper focuses on women in rural areas to examine the effort of women organisations (NGOs) in improving environmental education and economic empowerment of people in rural area sin Oyo State, ... They lack funds, special training to improve their practical indigenous expertise and talents in local economies. Nearly ...
Oplatka, Izhar; Stundi, Masada
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the components and determinants of preschool teacher organisational citizenship behaviours (OCB), i.e. role behaviours that are discretionary, unrewarded and beyond formal-role expectations. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 12 Israeli kindergarten teachers and four supervisors participated in…
Framework, with its measurement scale, the Organisational Culture Assessment. Instrument. ... systematic sampling method was used and every third participant from a list of quantity ... enhance performance, quality and customer satisfaction ensuring .... The CVF has two major dimensions and four main clusters (cf.
Traeger, James; Norgate, Carolyn
This is an account of practice. It explores the meeting point between action learning and action research, as a way of doing capacity building in organisational development (OD) in the NHS in the UK. The authors were part of a short cooperative inquiry (Heron, J. 1996. "Co-operative Inquiry: Research into the Human Condition." London:…
Segal, JoAn S.
Discussion of the management of not-for-profit corporations which provide computerized library networks highlights marketing, nonprofit constraints, multiple goals, consumer demands, professional commitment, external influences, motivation and control, dependence on charisma, management and altruism, hybrid organizations, and rational management.…
Martin, Susan K.
Discusses the pros and cons of library cooperation as exemplified by interlibrary loan and OCLC. Moving away from cooperation toward the more intensive use of local systems is suggested as one alternative for the future. (MES)
Rokholt, Per Ove; Borgen, Svein Ole
Much of the current research on agricultural cooperatives is biased towards weaknesses of the cooperative organization form. The literature says very little about the strengths and advantages of the cooperative form and what is necessary to develop the form's uniqueness into a sustainable competitive advantage. We argue that for cooperatives to remain viable and competitive, the advantages of the form must be clearly manifested. There is now a lack of systematic theorizing in this field. Typi...
This article examines the experiences of least developing countries (LDCs) acceded to World Trade Organisation (WTO) in relation to their accession process, terms of accession and implementation of commitments with a view to drawing lessons which could be relevant to Ethiopia to devise successful strategies and avoid ...
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (1979) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Re-organising the active citizen ...
Burnett, Sally-Ann; Huisman, Jeroen
This study sought to assess how and why some higher education institutions have responded to aspects of globalisation and, in particular how organisational culture influences universities' responses to globalisation. Using a predominantly qualitative, mixed-methods approach, empirical research was used to explore the impact of globalisation at…
Javier Divar Garteiz-Aurrecoa
Full Text Available The new Spanish General Law regulates cooperatives and qualifies them as economic entities for conducting business, so its commercial nature is recognized aside positions that defend the absence of profit in cooperatives.
Martínez-Blanco, Julia; Finkbeiner, Matthias
environmental performance over time, supporting strategic decisions, and informing corporate sustainability reporting. Several initiatives are on the way for the LCA of organisations: the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative published the ‘Guidance on organizational LCA’, using ISO/TS 14072 as a backbone; moreover......, when the unit of analysis and the system boundaries are defined. Also, the approach for data collection needs to be fixed. Organisational LCA is a compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and potential environmental impacts of the activities associated with the organisation adopting a life...... cycle perspective. It includes not only the facilities of the organisation itself, but also the activities upstream and downstream the value chain. This methodology is capable of serving multiple goals at the same time, like identifying environmental hotspots throughout the value chain, tracking...
Full Text Available Pricing decision has been a crucial decision made by all business enterprises at all levels and has posed a great challenge for Small and Medium Enterprises in Nigeria. This research work treats the role of competition on the pricing decision of an organisation and the attainment of the Organisational Objective, a study of SMEs in Nigeria. The methodology adopted was the survey and empirical approach, with the administration of questionnaires to some SMEs in Nigeria, evaluating the effect competition has on pricing decision (change in product price and its overall effect on the attainment of organizational objective (profitability. Primary and secondary sources were used in collecting data. It was discovered that competition plays a major role in pricing decision and that there is a relationship between pricing decision and the attainment of organizational objective. Recommendations were made for the close monitoring of SMEs and that SMEs should employ the service of price experts when making pricing decisions.
Full Text Available Using a multi-source field study design with 184 unique triads of employees-supervisor dyads, this paper examines whether servant leaders install a serving attitude among employees. That is, servant leaders aim to encourage employees to take responsibility, to cooperate and to create high quality interactions with each other (team-member exchange; TMX. We hypothesise that servant leadership will have an influence on Organisational Citizenship Behavior (OCB and creativity through team-member exchange. Two facets of OCB are distinguished: organisational citizenship behaviour towards individuals (OCBI, on the one hand, and taking up extra tasks that benefit the organisation (OCBO, on the other hand. The results show that servant leadership is positively related to team-member exchange, and that team-member exchange is positively related to OCBI, OCBO and creativity. The bootstrapping estimates indicated significant indirect effects of servant leadership on the three target variables through team-member exchange. The study’s findings add to the body of literature on servant leadership, OCB and creativity at the workplace, and underline the importance of creating favourable working conditions that foster positive and high quality team-member exchange. This study also broadens our understanding on the importance of co-workers on the relation between servant leadership and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB and creativity.
Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian
We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm......We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm...
Davies, Philip; Valuta, Diana; Cojohari, Natalia; Sancho-Garnier, Helene
Successfully implementing cervical screening programmes requires them to be adapted to the local context and have broad stakeholder support. This can be achieved by actively engaging local stakeholders in planning as well as implementing the programmes. The Moldovan government started implementing an organised cervical screening programme in 2010 with the first step being stakeholder identification and engagement. This process started by contacting easily identified stakeholders with each asked to recommend others and the process continued until no new ones were identified. Stakeholders were then involved in a series of individual and group meetings over a 2-year period to build confidence and encourage progressively greater engagement. In total, 87 individuals from 46 organisations were identified. Over the 2-year process, the individual and group meetings facilitated a change in stakeholder attitudes from disinterest, to acceptance and finally to active cooperation in designing the screening programme and preparing an implementation plan that were both well adapted to the Moldovan context. Developing the broad support needed to implement cervical screening programmes required ongoing interaction with stakeholders over an extended period. This interaction allowed stakeholder concerns to be identified and addressed, progress to be demonstrated, and stakeholders to be educated about organised screening programmes so they had the knowledge to progressively take greater responsibility and ownership. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background: In Sweden, as in many other countries, there has been a succession of trends in the organisation of health care and other welfare services. These trends have had different implications for the integration of services in the health and welfare system. Aims: One aim is to discuss...... the implications of different organisational trends for the integration of health and welfare services. Another aim is to introduce a Swedish model of financial coordination as a flexible way to organise integration. Organisational trends: In the 1960’s there was an expansion of health and welfare services leading...... an increasing lack of integration in the health and welfare system. In the 2000’s, there has been a re-centralisation through mergers of hospitals, regions and state agencies. It has become clear, however, that mergers do not promote integration but rather increase the bureaucratisation of the system. Model...
Reynolds, Lucy; McKee, Martin
This paper considers the public health impacts of the income-generating activities of organised crime. These range from the traditional vice activities of running prostitution and supplying narcotics, to the newer growth areas of human trafficking in its various forms, from international supply of young people and children as sex workers through deceit, coercion or purchase from family, through to smuggling of migrants, forced labour and the theft of human tissues for transplant, and the sale of fake medications, foodstuffs and beverages, cigarettes and other counterfeit manufactures. It looks at the effect of globalisation on integrating supply chains from poorly-regulated and impoverished source regions through to their distant markets, often via disparate groups of organised criminals who have linked across their traditional territories for mutual benefit and enhanced profit, with both traditional and newly-created linkages between production, distribution and retail functions of cooperating criminal networks from different cultures. It discusses the interactions between criminals and the structures of the state which enable illegal and socially undesirable activities to proceed on a massive scale through corruption and subversion of regulatory mechanisms. It argues that conventional approaches to tackling organised crime often have deleterious consequences for public health, and calls for an evidence-based approach with a focus on outcomes rather than ideology.
This paper considers the public health impacts of the income-generating activities of organised crime. These range from the traditional vice activities of running prostitution and supplying narcotics, to the newer growth areas of human trafficking in its various forms, from international supply of young people and children as sex workers through deceit, coercion or purchase from family, through to smuggling of migrants, forced labour and the theft of human tissues for transplant, and the sale of fake medications, foodstuffs and beverages, cigarettes and other counterfeit manufactures. It looks at the effect of globalisation on integrating supply chains from poorly-regulated and impoverished source regions through to their distant markets, often via disparate groups of organised criminals who have linked across their traditional territories for mutual benefit and enhanced profit, with both traditional and newly-created linkages between production, distribution and retail functions of cooperating criminal networks from different cultures. It discusses the interactions between criminals and the structures of the state which enable illegal and socially undesirable activities to proceed on a massive scale through corruption and subversion of regulatory mechanisms. It argues that conventional approaches to tackling organised crime often have deleterious consequences for public health, and calls for an evidence-based approach with a focus on outcomes rather than ideology. PMID:21078158
Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the public health impacts of the income-generating activities of organised crime. These range from the traditional vice activities of running prostitution and supplying narcotics, to the newer growth areas of human trafficking in its various forms, from international supply of young people and children as sex workers through deceit, coercion or purchase from family, through to smuggling of migrants, forced labour and the theft of human tissues for transplant, and the sale of fake medications, foodstuffs and beverages, cigarettes and other counterfeit manufactures. It looks at the effect of globalisation on integrating supply chains from poorly-regulated and impoverished source regions through to their distant markets, often via disparate groups of organised criminals who have linked across their traditional territories for mutual benefit and enhanced profit, with both traditional and newly-created linkages between production, distribution and retail functions of cooperating criminal networks from different cultures. It discusses the interactions between criminals and the structures of the state which enable illegal and socially undesirable activities to proceed on a massive scale through corruption and subversion of regulatory mechanisms. It argues that conventional approaches to tackling organised crime often have deleterious consequences for public health, and calls for an evidence-based approach with a focus on outcomes rather than ideology.
Thomsen, M.; Karsten, S.; Oort, F.J.
This study aimed to examine the relationship between teachers’ perceived psychological distance and structural distance from management and teachers’ affective organisational commitment (AOC) and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). Teachers’ trust in management was expected to mediate these
Netten, B.D.; Wedemeijer, H.
The complexity of cooperative systems makes the use of high fidelity simulation essential in the development and testing of cooperative applications and their interactions with other cooperative systems. In SAFESPOT a simulator test bench is setup to test the safety margin applications running on
Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech
Investigation of the textile production in af tekstilprodutionen in Linear B archives. The administration of the textile prodution is compared to the administration of land holdings.......Investigation of the textile production in af tekstilprodutionen in Linear B archives. The administration of the textile prodution is compared to the administration of land holdings....
Steenis, van C.G.G.J.
From the new (quarto 2-column) journal ”Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India”, initiated to supplement the ’Records’ and ’Annual Reports’ and to e cited as Bull. Bot. Surv. India, we are now informed about the shape of the studies of the Indian flora, since the reorganisation in 1954-55. Three
The Industry Commission has carried out Australia's largest inquiry into charities. It was, from the point of view of charities, an unsatisfactory operation, all the more so since it was not clear why the task had been given to the commission. This article examines the commission's work in three ways: the overall relationship between government and charities; the commission's proposed major reforms; and the minor reforms.
Unphon, Hataichanok; Dittrich, Yvonne
Our work aims at understanding the design rationale for product line architecture by focusing on the design of common data access modules for complex simulation software products. This paper presents empirical evidence of organisational and business domain aspects that influence the development...... of product line architecture. We suggest that the assessment of use-situation and his tory of organisational structure should be considered when creating product line architectures, especially for products that are tailored and used interactively....
This chapter introduces a notion of social/ethical norm that integrates its description as a self- sustaining regularity of behavior with the normative meanings of the statements by which a norm is formulated in the moral language. This definition is applied to organizational ethics where the main problem Ð abuse of authority - is identified with the help of a critical reading of the new-institutional economic theory of the firm. Given a game theoretical definition of an institution, it is th...
to build machines upon the principles which characterise organisms, and another which follows the epistemological implications deriving from the cybernetic perspective. The former line of development has given rise to a number of theories and techniques, which facilitate the achievement of regulation and control in social ...
... Climate Description. Questionnaire – Rutgers Elementary: a South African case study ... educators of their work are determinants for the organizational climate of school. ... The article concludes with a number of recommendations on the use of the ... Region, one an Afrikaans- and the other an English-medium school.
The subject matter of this paper is workplace diversity. The study is conducted to explore how companies manage workforce diversity and its consequences to the company’s existence as well as examine how companies’ deal with challenges that comes with employees from diverse cultural backgrounds. The research therefore answers the question `Has workplace diversity contributed to organizational success`. Because diversity covers a wide range of human attrib-utes and qualities, The research is ...
Hicks, R.; Ringer, S.
Full text: As a Major National Research Facility (MNRF), NANO unites five Australian microscopy and microanalysis centres to form the peak Australian facility for nanometric analysis of the structure and chemistry of materials. NANO is headquartered at the Australian Key Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis at the University of Sydney and involves the Centres for Microscopy and Microanalysis at the Universities of Queensland and Western Australia, the Electron Microscope Unit at the University of New South Wales and the Microanalytical Research Centre at the University of Melbourne. Together these major centres maintain a wide range of complementary instrumentation for the characterisation of nanostructure. NANO links them into a co-ordinated national facility with unified charges and booking systems. The facility will provide open access to a wide range of present and future partners involving local and international linkages. For this reason, NANO is designed to allow the incorporation of other groups as additional nodes. All Australian researchers are eligible to apply for support to use NANO through the Travel and Access Program (NANO-TAP), which will support basic travel and accommodation costs as well as instrument time. Access to the national grid may involve on-site presence at a particular node or remote telemicroscopy. Both passive (observation) and active (operation) modes of telemicroscopy are available. This presentation will address the NANO-TAP application procedure, the use of remote telemicroscopy and the formation of additional nodes. Copyright (2003) Australian Microbeam Analysis Society
Albion, Majella J.; Chee, Munli
The availability of flexible work options provides an opportunity for individuals to shape their careers in order to optimise their work and life goals. This study takes a systems theory approach to examine how the use of flexible work options influences relationships and interactions in the workplace. The "Flexible Work Options…
Jong, Stefan de
Globally, the call for impact of science on society is louder than ever. The Netherlands is no exception. In 2004, valorisation was introduced as a core element of Dutch science policy, aiming to increase the societal benefits of academic research. In scientific practice, the introduction
The purpose of this conceptual paper is to reveal how organising can enable innovation across organisational layers and organisational units. This approach calls for a cross-disciplinary literature review. The aim is to provide an integrated understanding of innovation in an organisational approach....... The findings reveal a continous organising process between individual/ team creativity and organisational structures/control to enable innovation at firm level. Organising provides a dynamic approach and contains the integrated reconstruction of creativity, structures and boundaries for enhanced balance...... of explorative and exploitative learning in uncertain environments. Shedding light on the cross-disciplinary theories to organise innovation provides a contribution at the firm level to enable innovation....
increasing number of regional conflict management efforts undertaken by ... to study the advantages and disadvantages of mediation efforts by regional ... Elgström is Professor at the Department of Political Science, Lund University,. Sweden. .... partial or full settlement) in 42.1 per cent of cases; the UN achieved success.
Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Per Anker; Jensen, Jesper Ole
implementation of sustainable facilities management in housing administration. The concept provides a frame for understanding the roles and relations of tenants, owners, administrators and operators. The paper is based on a Danish research project on environmentally sound building operation including literature...
Increased national and international competition within higher education has triggered an interest in branding within the sector. Higher education institutions are, as a consequence, currently re-examining their profile and image. This article addresses the problems higher education institutions face in this process, and points to the benefits and…
Peter John Snow
Full Text Available This paper proposes that what have been historically and contemporarily defined as different domains of human cognition are served by one of four functionally- and structurally-distinct areas of the prefrontal cortex. Their contributions to human intelligence are as follows: (a BA9, enables our emotional intelligence, engaging the psychosocial domain, (b BA47, enables our practical intelligence, engaging the material domain, (c BA46 (or BA46-9/46, enables our abstract intelligence, engaging the hypothetical domain and (d BA10, enables our temporal intelligence, engaging in planning within any of the other three domains. Given their unique contribution to human cognition, it is proposed that these areas be called the, social (BA9, material (BA47, abstract (BA46-9/46 and temporal (BA10 mind. The evidence that BA47 participates strongly in verbal and gestural communication suggests that language evolved primarily as a consequence of the extreme selective pressure for practicality; an observation supported by the functional connectivity between BA47 and orbital areas that negatively reinforce lying. It is further proposed that the abstract mind (BA46-9/46 is the primary seat of metacognition charged with creating adaptive behavioral strategies by generating higher-order concepts (hypotheses from lower-order concepts originating both from our perceptual representations and the other three domains of cognition.
Frédéric Laloux works as an adviser, coach, and facilitator for corporate leaders who feel called to explore fundamentally new ways of organizing. A former associate partner with McKinsey & Co., he holds an MBA from INSEAD. Frédéric Laloux is the author of the much talked about book "Reinventing Organizations". His fundamental research in the field of emerging organizational models has been described as ground-breaking, brilliant, spectacular, impressive, and world changing by some of the most respected scholars in the field of human development. youtu.be/gcS04BI2sbk
Full Text Available The objective of this study was twofold: Firstly, to explore and describe the perceived fairness of a disciplinary procedure in the workplace and, secondly, to develop guidelines that could be used by managers to provide a fairer experience of the disciplinary procedure. A qualitative research design was employed. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants who were purposely divided into two groups (an employee participant group and an expert participant group. Results indicated that employees experienced the disciplinary procedure as traumatic, unfair and not reliable. Guidelines were formulated to manage employee discipline more effectively.
Henri L.F. de Groot; Anton B.T.M. van Schaik
We develop a two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market resulting from the presence of an effort extraction function in one sector. Effort of workers can be influenced by pay and monitoring. This results in an endogenous non-competitive wage differential between sectors and a monitoring intensity that is a source of fixed costs for the firm. Growth is driven by investments in R&D performed in the high-wage sector. Unemployment is determined by the costs and benefits of waiti...
Lachaume, J.L.; Mamoru, M.
The Regulatory Cooperation Forum (RCF) is a member-driven forum of nuclear power regulators created in 2010 that promotes the sharing of regulatory knowledge and experience through international cooperation and collaboration using the IAEA Safety Standards as its basis. The RCF involves countries with advanced nuclear power programmes, countries embarking on nuclear power for the first time and countries with smaller programmes considering expansion. The primary objectives of the RCF are: • To promote collaboration and cooperation among RCF members to improve coordination of support for regulatory infrastructure development; • To contribute to achieving and sustaining a high level of nuclear safety, consistent with the IAEA Safety Standards and Guidance; • To optimize resources among RCF members and avoid unnecessary support duplication through improved coordination. Membership of the RCF is open to all Member States of the IAEA. Participants in RCF activities will normally be senior representatives from regulatory bodies in Member States and from other providers, including the IAEA, European Commission (EC) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). So far, more than 30 countries are members of the RCF. The RCF has developed Action Plans to support Jordan, Vietnam, Belarus and Poland. The IAEA’s Nuclear Safety Action Plan urges Member States to strengthen the effectiveness of national regulatory bodies as well as base the development of their nuclear infrastructures on IAEA Safety Standards. The RCF assists Member States in implementing both of these actions for embarking, existing and expanding nuclear programmes. (author)
In the last decade technology exploded into libraries. It impacted not only library work processes but imported also new strategic options. Library systems, i.e. databases, imported notions of project management and efficiency and resulted in catalog sharing. The Internet with Gopher and Veronica,
The Cogema group hopes to find a second business, being awaiting the nuclear area starts again. It needs eighteen months to find it. It must have an empathy with its first business and does not be in competition with its customers. (N.C.)
Keywords:Sustainable development, governance, co-operative governance, integrated,organising, and communication. Disciplines:Public Administration, Public Management, Social Welfare, Environmental Management, Municipal public service delivery, Social Development, Organisational Behaviour, Co-operative Governance, Communication, Sustainable Development, Sustainable Organisational Development
Engfeldt, Lars-Göran; Kjellén, Bo; Liefferink, Duncan
global environmental conference, the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, was convened on 5 June 1972 in Stockholm. This day in June is now yearly celebrated as the World Environment Day. The motto of the Conference “Only One Earth,” was a revolutionary concept for its time, but is today...... go on without concern for the environment. The international agenda for the environment influences the life of everyone: it determines the price for gasoline, where we can build summer houses, and what food we can buy. This chapter will describe how international cooperation for the environment has...
This article describes three aspects of the author's early work on the evolution of the cooperation. First, it explains how the idea for a computer tournament for the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma was inspired by the artificial intelligence research on computer checkers and computer chess. Second, it shows how the vulnerability of simple reciprocity of misunderstanding or misimplementation can be eliminated with the addition of some degree of generosity or contrition. Third, it recounts the unusual collaboration between the author, a political scientist, and William D. Hamilton, an evolutionary biologist. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jantzen, Jan; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
This simulation study provides an analysis of the adaptation mechanism in the self-organising fuzzy controller, SOC. The approach is to apply a traditional adaptive control viewpoint. A simplified performance measure in the SOC controller is used in a loss function, and thus the MIT rule implies...... an update mechanism similar to the SOC update mechanism. Two simulations of proportionally controlled systems show the behaviour of the proportional gain as it adapts to a specified behaviour....
Karlsson, Patrik; Bergmark, Anders; Lundström, Tommy
We explore how four evidence-producing organisations in the US go ahead when they rate the evidence base for psychosocial interventions, using the Incredible Years programme as our case study. The findings demonstrate variation in the procedures and resulting evidence claims across the organisations, with some organisations being strict and some…
Küng, L.; Leandros, N.; Picard, R.G.; Schroeder, R.; van der Wurff, R.; Küng, L.; Picard, R.G.; Towse, R.
This chapter explores the effect on the Internet on organisations in the media sector from the perspective of theories of strategy and organisation. By extension its focus is the media organisation itself, specifically the interrelated phenomena of strategy, structure, processes and business models.
Mijuin, Dominique; Carros, Helene; Sevestre, Bernard
This paper deals with the organisation of criticality hazard prevention at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). This new organization has been experimented since the end of year 2000. During the first semester of year 2002, the CEA nuclear inspection team, who is in charge of the control function at the CEA general administration level, has performed an inquiry to check the effectiveness of the new organization. The conclusions of this inquiry are very positive; a few recommendations are now taken in to account to further improve the efficiency of this organization. (J.P.N.)
Full Text Available The rise of aesthetics in medicine has resulted from society′s acknowledgement of the importance of physical beauty. This has led to an emerging conflict between allied specialties. The author introduces the concept of "Aesthetic Socialism" according to which everyone should have an opportunity to enhance or restore the beauty where it is missing or when it is lost due to disease, trauma or ageing. However, there are multiple aspects of aesthetics, which can not be addressed by a single specialty, therefore author recommends interdisciplinary cooperation rather than conflict to achieve aesthetic socialism.
The rise of aesthetics in medicine has resulted from society's acknowledgement of the importance of physical beauty. This has led to an emerging conflict between allied specialties. The author introduces the concept of "Aesthetic Socialism" according to which everyone should have an opportunity to enhance or restore the beauty where it is missing or when it is lost due to disease, trauma or ageing. However, there are multiple aspects of aesthetics, which can not be addressed by a single specialty, therefore author recommends interdisciplinary cooperation rather than conflict to achieve aesthetic socialism.
Edward O. Akoto
Research purpose: To test the theory on profiles of commitment in an African context (Ghana. Motivation for the study: Although the three-component model of organisational commitment has been extended to several regions of Africa, there is a paucity of research on profiles of commitment on the continent. Research approach, design and method: Cross-sectional data from two studies, with samples of 187 and 218, were analysed using k-means clusters. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was then used to test the differences amongst profiles in their association with contextual variables, such as pay satisfaction, job security, strike propensity and two demographic factors. Main findings: In the k-means cluster analysis, a six-cluster solution emerged in both studies;the profiles include the highly committed and the uncommitted groups, as well as the profiles based on normative commitment and continuance commitment. Overall, the MANOVA post hoc outcome shows that the highly committed group reports higher mean scores on the positive outcome variables (e.g. job security than the uncommitted group. Conversely, the uncommitted group scored relatively higher on the negative organisational outcome (propensity to strike. Other mean differences were found in the respective studies on pay satisfaction, collectivism and the demographic factors. Practical/managerial implications: Employing the configural approach to the study of commitment in this region should increase our understanding of the patterns of attachment and their influence on behaviour. Different patterns of attachment exist within the organisation that may be beneficial or detrimental to behaviour on the job. It is, therefore, important for managers to identify these patterns and target organisational policy and resources appropriately. Contribution/value-add: This study applies the concept of commitment profiles to an untested region: an African context. It, therefore, adds to the literature on the
Anagnostopoulos, Christos; Winand, Mathieu; Papadimitriou, Demetra
Although sport management scholars have focused on a fairly wide number of psychologically-related constructs in the workplace, passion has not been part of this research agenda. The present study is the first attempt to fill this gap by exploring employees’ passion in the workplace setting of sport organisations. It does so by applying for the first time the dualistic model of passion developed by Vallerand et al. (2003), which measures two distinct types of passion: harmonious and obsessive...
Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard
alternative modes of transport to private cars, such as public transport. In this paper we focus only on the potential of bus transport services in cities for attracting travellers from cars. It is a basic assumption behind this paper that the ability of public bus transport to attract travellers from cars...... depends on how the bus sector is organised. By organisation we adopt an institutional point of view and consider basic modes of governance. Basic modes of governance include the forms “market”, “hierarchy” and “network” (Powell 1990). So-called New Public Management (NPM) reforms have changed the modes...... of governance of bus transport in several countries, including Denmark and the United Kingdom. Our focus is on how New Public Mangement Reforms have changed the mix of governance modes and thus may have influenced the ability of urban bus transport to attract travellers from cars. We focus on a particular case...
Pei, Lei; Gaisser, Sibylle; Schmidt, Markus
We analysed the decisions of major European public funding organisations to fund or not to fund synthetic biology (SB) and related ethical, legal and social implication (ELSI) studies. We investigated the reaction of public organisations in six countries (Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the UK) towards SB that may influence SB’s further development in Europe. We examined R&D and ELSI communities and their particular funding situation. Our results show that the funding situation for SB varies considerably among the analysed countries, with the UK as the only country with an established funding scheme for R&D and ELSI that successfully integrates these research communities. Elsewhere, we determined a general lack of funding (France), difficulties in funding ELSI work (Switzerland), lack of an R&D community (Austria), too small ELSI communities (France, Switzerland, Netherlands), or difficulties in linking existing communities with available funding sources (Germany), partly due to an unclear SB definition. PMID:22586841
Full Text Available Over the last 2-3 decades, investments in the new information technology (NIT have left a deep impression on the life of organisations, that goes beyond ample differences in each organisation’s degree of automatisation. Furthermore, although the generalisation of NIT investment has not produced, on short and medium term, the expected effects on financial and organisational performance, its trend has remained on the increase, and the preoccupation with the development and the implementation of new technologies remains associated with the 'ice-breaker' imagine in almost any field. The ensuing connection between NIT investment and performance is compressed in the celebrated productivity paradox (Solow’s paradox: 'We can see the computer age everywhere, except for productivity statistics'. Solow contradicts the supposition that the large scale use of computers will radically and directly influence productivity. Research has demonstrated that although technology is one of the most important factors that influence productivity and that, although at least in theory, all countries have equal access to technological innovation, in fact, productivity is influenced by many other factors (acquiring physical and human capital, infrastructure, the structure of the market, demographic evolutions, the degree of competition etc. NIT has radically changed the business environment, and consequently, the organisational culture; however, this change cannot be equated with increased efficiency or increased welfare.
Various data are collected for 15 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) that have to do with the practising of astronomy: (1) using the report of the Astronomy expert meeting of the Megascience Forum of the OECD, the level of astronomy funding, size of
This report describes the cooperation between the site and the public fire and safety services in case of an incident. As an example, the measures and facilities of the Hoechst site of the Hoechst AG and the organisational and technical background are presented. (orig.) [de
N. Lord (Nicholas); C.G. van Wingerde (Karin); L. Campbell (Liz)
textabstractThis article analyses how the monies generated for, and from, corporate financial crimes are controlled, concealed, and converted through the use of organisational structures in the form of otherwise legitimate corporate entities and arrangements that serve as vehicles for the
This paper draws on a diverse range of research literature addressing workplace violence, which constitutes one component of the dark side of organisational life. This selective review of the literature has been drawn from the disciplines of nursing, management, psychology and organisational culture. The paper focuses bullying and mobbing in the workplace, addressing its types, causes, the characteristics of bullies and targets and the generalised impact of bullying and mobbing. It also examines whether there are gender issues pertinent to the health care sector. Consideration will also be given to the impact on the individual, group and organization, given the apparent epidemic proportions workplace violence has reached. Ultimately, the question will arise: how can the workplace violence be abolished, specifically within the health care sector, given that we live in a global environment characterised by international bullying (Crawford 1999)? This is a challenge because workplace violence is perpetuated within organisations, due either to cultures of acceptance, or fear of retribution should it be acknowledged and acted upon (or both).
In the paper, the idea is explored of organisational learning as the opening andclosure of organisational space for inquiry or reflective thinking, as a way toconstruct organisational learning as an object for research. This is done by asking thequestion of whether an organisational development...... project contributes toorganisational learning. The point of departure is a municipality in Denmark workingtoward digitalising its administration. The conclusion is that the success of such aprocess very much depends on an organisation's ability to encompass severalunderstandings of organisational...... development and digital administration and tosustain them in a productive form of tension instead of pursuing only one of them....
Husu, Liisa; Hearn, Jeff; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Vanhala, Sinikka
Leadership and management remain highly gendered. Recent decades have seen a major international growth of studies on gender relations in leadership, organisations and management, in both empirical research and theoretical analysis. The differential relations of women and men to leadership and management are a key question for both theory and practice. Recent research and discussion on the gendering of leadership have been influenced by and have addressed: feminism; recognition of women and w...
Bystrov Anton G.
Full Text Available The article justifies importance of the leader when supporting changes that accompany innovations. It offers to study favourable attitude to introduction of innovations in the organisation on the basis of assessment of innovation potential of employees and their motivation. The result of the latter is marking out situations by the level of favourable attitude to the changes, which are grouped in so-called zones: green zone is maximally attractive, yellow zone has an average level of attractiveness and red zone is the most risky state for introduction of innovations. In order to increase favourable attitude of the personnel to changes, which accompany innovations, the article gives such ways of the leader’s impact on this process, which cover the style of interaction with the employees, degree of structuredness of work, use of functional powers, development and motivation. Application of this approach to management of introduction of innovations in the organisation, depending on the level of innovation potential and motivation of the personnel, would allow: assessment of the favourable attitude to changes or, vice versa, riskiness; reduction of costs and terms of introduction of innovations; and increase of the level of innovation potential and motivation of the employees.
This section treats of the following activities, sorted by Organisation: 1 - European Atomic Energy Community: Proposed binding instruments, Adopted legally binding instruments, Non-legally binding instruments; 2 - International Atomic Energy Agency: Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability, Legislative assistance activities; 3 - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Appointment of new Director-General, International experts in Japan to review safety after Fukushima Daiichi, China Atomic Energy Authority co-operation workshop
Chen, Sheng-Hwang; Yu, Hsing-Yi; Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Lin, Fang-Chen; Lou, Jiunn-Horng
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organisational support, organisational identification, and organisational citizenship behaviour and the predictors of organisational citizenship behaviour in Taiwanese male nurses. The turnover rate among male nurses is twice that of female nurses. Organisational citizenship behaviour is the predictor of turnover intention. Little information is available on the relationship between organisational support, organisational identification and organisational citizenship behaviour, particularly for male nurses. Data were collected in 2010 from a questionnaire mailed to 167 male nurses in Taiwan. A cross-sectional survey with simple sampling was used in this study. The results showed that organisational identification and organisational support were correlated with organisational citizenship behaviour. Organisational distinctiveness, organisational support of work conditions and the type of organisation were the main predictors of organisational citizenship behaviour. Together they accounted for 40.7% of the total variation in organisational citizenship behaviour. Organisational distinctiveness was the most critical predictor, accounting for 29.6% of the variation. Organisational support and organisational identification have positive relationships with organisational behaviour. Organisational distinctiveness is an important factor in explaining organisational citizenship behaviour in male nurses. This finding provides concrete directions for managers to follow when providing organisational identification, in particular, the organisational distinctiveness will help male nurses to display increasingly more organisational citizenship behaviour. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The fight against organised crime generally requires a high degree of cooperation between states. In the case of the European Union, whose internal space is borderless on almost every issue, this level of cooperation is unavoidable. Being aware of this, member states have made efforts to move forward in this fight together. The creation of new cooperation tools and the use of certain agencies have been important steps, but are far from enough. To make progress on this issue, it is essential to overcome the distrust grown out of defending a sovereignty that is, today, more imaginary than real and to bring about greater harmonisation of security standards, protection of fundamental rights and guarantees of the rule of law. The resulting increase in mutual trust is crucial for more effective joint action against this type of crime.
There have been many high-profile incidents in recent times that have affected both individual organisations and large parts of society. In response to these disasters and their consequences, there has been increasing focus on the concept of 'resilience'. Airmic worked with Cranfield School of Management to investigate the features of resilient organisations and whether common characteristics could be identified. The research summarised in this paper discovered five principles that increase an organisation's level of resilence. The paper also reports on the actions taken by organisations to embed these resilience principles into four main business enablers. These business enablers in combination represent the business model of the organisation. The overall conclusion of the research was that, in order to achieve a state of enhanced resilience, organisations need to be aware of risks and threats they face and then combine the actions required to be 'risk compliant' with the ability to be 'risk responsive'.
Biljana Bogićević Milikić
The paper intends to investigate how companies can efficiently manage their organisational cultures through changes in the reward system. The paper is based on a research which has taken place in one Serbian company which decided to change its organisational culture, as a prerequisite for further organisational changes. As the main instrument for changing organisational culture, the top management used changes in the reward system. The findings suggest that in the short run only narrow change...
Cano Berlanga, Sebastian; Vilella, Cori
The current paper studies the attribution model used by Google Analytics. Precisely, we use the Cooperative Game Theory to propose a fair distribution of the revenues among the considered channels, in order to facilitate the cooperation and to guarantee stability. We define a transferable utility convex cooperative game from the observed frequencies and we use the Shapley value to allocate the revenues among the di erent channels. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of an advertising...
M.Ing. The purpose of the research was to determine the relationship, between the innovative culture and employee retention within the organisation. High labour turnover impacts on organisational performance and survival. Despite an organisation’s level of development, many organisations face employee retention challenges. Therefore devising strategies to improve employee retention has become a priority for most organisations. The problem of high labour turnover was also observed during a ...
Smith, Daniel; Schlaepfer, Philip; Major, Katie; Dyble, Mark; Page, Abigail E; Thompson, James; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Mace, Ruth; Astete, Leonora; Ngales, Marilyn; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg
Storytelling is a human universal. From gathering around the camp-fire telling tales of ancestors to watching the latest television box-set, humans are inveterate producers and consumers of stories. Despite its ubiquity, little attention has been given to understanding the function and evolution of storytelling. Here we explore the impact of storytelling on hunter-gatherer cooperative behaviour and the individual-level fitness benefits to being a skilled storyteller. Stories told by the Agta, a Filipino hunter-gatherer population, convey messages relevant to coordinating behaviour in a foraging ecology, such as cooperation, sex equality and egalitarianism. These themes are present in narratives from other foraging societies. We also show that the presence of good storytellers is associated with increased cooperation. In return, skilled storytellers are preferred social partners and have greater reproductive success, providing a pathway by which group-beneficial behaviours, such as storytelling, can evolve via individual-level selection. We conclude that one of the adaptive functions of storytelling among hunter gatherers may be to organise cooperation.
Larsson, Adam; Schiehle, Simon
Nowadays, multinational organisations face the challenge of managing a diverse workforce. The role of diversity has become increasingly important in a world that is influenced by the outcomes of globalisation. Organisations operate worldwide and therefore recruit their employees from all around the world, which leads to diverse workforces. It is essential for an organisation to be aware of differences within the workforce and to manage diversity actively in order to benefit from its positive ...
The consequences of organisational commitment (OC) are of great importance to organisations. Considering the effect of teacher commitment on student success and the increasing teacher turnover rates in the world, studies focusing on the organisational commitment of teachers gained more importance. However there is still a significant gap about the…
Spiegelberg-Planer, R.; Juhn, P.E.; Gueorguiev, B.
One of the most important aims of the IAEA is to support national efforts promoting improvements in the safe, reliable and economic performance of nuclear power plants. IAEA also provides an international forum for exchange, collection and dissemination of information in many areas related to nuclear energy. In most of the analyses promoted by the IAEA there are a wide variation of differences in the institutional, technical, energy and economic area from country to country which have a substantial impact on those analyses and should be considered. In 1994, the IAEA started the preparation of a technical document and a data base, which comprise of a comprehensive information package on the industrial and organisational aspects of nuclear power and which is planned to be made available through the INTERNET by the end of 1997. The work performed by the IAEA in co-operation with the Member States and the current status of the project is presented. (R.P.)
Full Text Available Social changes dictating business dynamics in the new century, a growing complexity of business processes as well as job complexity nowadays demands networking of human resources in order to achieve organisational goals. Synergy and cohesion created by teamwork are the key to the success of any organisation. Team organisation represents organisational structure that can be embedded in the existing organisational form in a very simple way. This results in a productive and flexible environment coordinated by efficient teams. Since the beginning of time, human beings have not functioned as se- parate individuals. Modern times provide the best account of the time where complicated hierarchical organisations are simplified in a very plain way and they ensure their work efficiency by reorganizing jobs and networking human resources. Complex and difficult tasks are solved by sharing responsibili- ties in a simple way; therefore, teamwork and team-oriented organisational structure offer numerous advantages. In addition to the theoretical overview, research was conducted on a selected economic operator in one of its business units. The obtained results point to a high level of teamwork and satisfaction in carrying out the work. The research results confirmed the fact that teamwork is nowadays increasingly present in organisations. Efficient teams representing intellectual capital of any organisation create a more productive and a more innovative organisation with all its special features. Thus, survival condi- tions are created and competitive advantages are achieved in a very demanding and turbulent market.
The article presents and illustrates the learning journey (LJ)--a new management development approach to inter-organisational learning based on observation, reflection and problem-solving. The LJ involves managers from different organisations and applies key concepts of action learning and systemic organisational development. Made up of…
Vaughan, J P; Mogedal, S; Kruse, S; Lee, K; Walt, G; de Wilde, K
From 1948, when WHO was established, the Organisation has relied on the assessed contributions of its member states for its regular budget. However, since the early 1980s the WHO World Health Assembly has had a policy of zero real growth for the regular budget and has had to rely increasingly, therefore, on attracting additional voluntary contributions, called extrabudgetary funds (EBFs). Between 1984-85 and 1992-93 the real value of the EBFs apparently increased by more than 60% and in the 1990-91 biennium expenditure of extrabudgetary funds exceeded the regular budget for the first time. All WHO programmes, except the Assembly and the Executive Board, receive some EBFs. However, three cosponsored and six large regular programmes account for about 70% of these EBFs, mainly for vertically managed programmes in the areas of disease control, health promotion and human reproduction. Eighty percent of all EBFs received by WHO for assisted activities have been contributed by donor governments, with the top 10 countries (in Europe, North America and Japan) contributing about 90% of this total, whereas the UN funds and the World Bank have donated only about 6% of the total to date. By contrast, about 70% of the regular budget expenditure has been for organisational expenses and for the support of programmes in the area of health systems. Despite the fact that the more successful programmes are heavily reliant on EBFs, there are strong indications that donors, particularly donor governments, are reluctant to maintain the current level of funding without major reforms in the leadership and management of the Organisation. This has major implications for WHO's international role as the leading UN specialised agency for health.
Zhang Jianlei; Zhang Chunyan; Chu Tianguang
Research highlights: → We propose a model of evolutionary games in which individuals are organized into networked groups. → We show that the social dilemma can be resolved and high cooperation levels are attained. → Larger average group size would lead to lower cooperation level but higher average payoffs. → The results show that higher expectations can bring the system with larger average payoffs. - Abstract: Much of human cooperation remains an evolutionary riddle. There is evidence that individuals are often organized into groups in many social situations. Inspired by this observation, we propose a simple model of evolutionary public goods games in which individuals are organized into networked groups. Here, nodes in the network represent groups; the edges, connecting the nodes, refer to the interactions between the groups. Individuals establish public goods games with partners in the same group and migrate among neighboring groups depending on their payoffs and expectations. We show that the paradigmatic public goods social dilemma can be resolved and high cooperation levels are attained in structured groups, even in relatively harsh conditions for cooperation. Further, by means of numerical simulations and mean-field analysis, we arrive at the result: larger average group size and milder cooperation environment would lead to lower cooperation level but higher average payoffs of the entire population. Altogether, these results emphasize that our understanding of cooperation can be enhanced by investigations of how spatial groups of individuals affect the evolution dynamics, which might help in explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation.
Full Text Available The phenomenon exists that organisations do not do much to ensure the institutionalisation of business ethics in general, and more specifically, to facilitate employees’ ethical behaviour. The possibility that mentoring may be utilised as a vehicle to institutionalise corporate ethical practices is proposed as a possible solution to the aforementioned problem. By means of a qualitative study, interviews were conducted to determine whether mentoring is used to institutionalise business ethics, and if not, how it can be utilised. An integrated model of mentoring in the institutionalisation of business ethics was generated. It highlighted the compatibility of the mentoring- and institutionalisation of ethics processes. The implications are discussed.
This paper describes the rise of nuclear controversy in France and the organisation of pressure groups in a political context. The author points out that public opinion became alerted to the dangers of nuclear energy much later in France than for example in the United States and highlights the action of ecologist groups. He concludes that contrary to the case in Australia, the FRG and Sweden anti-nuclear pressure groups have not been successful in truly influencing French governmental policy in that area. (NEA) [fr
Morgan, Gareth G
The specific legal forms available for charitable organisations have received much less attention by scholars as compared to work on the definition of charity, the boundaries of charitable status and the duties of charity trustees.\\ud \\ud Under each of the three UK jurisdictions, it could be argued that all charitable property is held on trust (in the sense that it is held for interests of the charity’s\\ud beneficiaries) but many charities are no longer formed using the structure of a trust. ...
Brigatti, E.; Hernández, A.
We investigate the emergence of self-organised trails between two specific target areas in collective motion of social organisms by means of an agent-based model. We present numerical evidences that an increase in the efficiency of navigation, in dependence of the colony size, exists. Moreover, the shift, from the diffusive to the directed motion can be quantitatively characterised, identifying and measuring a well defined crossover point. This point corresponds to the minimal number of individuals necessary for the onset of collective cooperation. Finally, by means of a finite-size scaling analysis, we describe its scaling behaviour as a function of the environment size. This last result can be of particular interest for interpreting empirical observations or for the design of artificial swarms.
Full Text Available This paper illustrates how the New Zealand Police use non-financial annual report disclosures in response toadverse media publicity. This longitudinal case study spans the reporting periods ending 30 June 2000through to 30 June 2007. It involves a detailed examination of the narrative disclosures and images containedin the annual reports, including the Commissioner’s Overview and the Outcome Reports during this time.Three controversial items covered by the media were traced through the annual reports to establish whetherthe New Zealand Police use image repair discourse supplemented by semiotics in non-financial annual reportdisclosures to repair organisational legitimacy. The analysis found that non-financial disclosures together withimage repair discourse strategies were used by the New Zealand Police, a public sector agency, to repairorganisational legitimacy. This paper provides a valuable contribution to researchers and practitioners as itextends the understanding of how public sector agencies use non-financial annual report disclosures.
Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar
Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit m...
Kaufman, Gerri; McCaughan, Dorothy
This article explores the links between organisational culture and patient safety. The key elements associated with a safety culture, most notably effective leadership, good teamwork, a culture of learning and fairness, and fostering patient-centred care, are discussed. The broader aspects of a systems approach to promoting quality and safety, with specific reference to clinical governance, human factors, and ergonomics principles and methods, are also briefly explored, particularly in light of the report of the public inquiry into care failings at Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust.
Brown, Christopher; Pappous, Athanasios
Austerity measures implemented by the UK Coalition government have had a negative impact on disabled people (Cross 2013). This article utilises the resource dependence theory to explore the challenges national disability sport organisations (NDSOs) have faced in their attempts to achieve growth, whilst discussing some of the tactics used to overcome these challenges. Secondary quantitative data from the 2011-2015 NDSO accounts was analysed, which suggests increased income has been accompanied...
Stuart P Wilson
Full Text Available A thermodynamic model of thermoregulatory huddling interactions between endotherms is developed. The model is presented as a Monte Carlo algorithm in which animals are iteratively exchanged between groups, with a probability of exchanging groups defined in terms of the temperature of the environment and the body temperatures of the animals. The temperature-dependent exchange of animals between groups is shown to reproduce a second-order critical phase transition, i.e., a smooth switch to huddling when the environment gets colder, as measured in recent experiments. A peak in the rate at which group sizes change, referred to as pup flow, is predicted at the critical temperature of the phase transition, consistent with a thermodynamic description of huddling, and with a description of the huddle as a self-organising system. The model was subjected to a simple evolutionary procedure, by iteratively substituting the physiologies of individuals that fail to balance the costs of thermoregulation (by huddling in groups with the costs of thermogenesis (by contributing heat. The resulting tension between cooperative and competitive interactions was found to generate a phenomenon called self-organised criticality, as evidenced by the emergence of avalanches in fitness that propagate across many generations. The emergence of avalanches reveals how huddling can introduce correlations in fitness between individuals and thereby constrain evolutionary dynamics. Finally, a full agent-based model of huddling interactions is also shown to generate criticality when subjected to the same evolutionary pressures. The agent-based model is related to the Monte Carlo model in the way that a Vicsek model is related to an Ising model in statistical physics. Huddling therefore presents an opportunity to use thermodynamic theory to study an emergent adaptive animal behaviour. In more general terms, huddling is proposed as an ideal system for investigating the interaction
Hoshino, Chisho; Satoh, Noriyuki; Narita, Masashi; Kikuchi, Akio; Inoue, Minoru
Organising pneumonia (OP) is an inflammatory lung disease with distinctive clinicopathological features. OP can be evident during the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with increased disease activity. The authors report an OP associated with RA case in which pulmonary symptoms preceded the onset of joint symptoms. An OP patient with elevated serum anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody is likely to manifest RA in the near future, reflecting its high disease activity. Thus, an early rheumatologic consultation should be taken into consideration to make an early decision to initiate disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs therapy. PMID:22699479
Hein Jessen, Mathias
This paper argues that civil society is something that must be produced and constructed in order to come into existence. This construction entails a specific production of what civil society is, which values are (and should be) present in it, what the common good is and how civil society and civil...... with specific (good) values, but is at the same time instrumentalised to provide welfare services the state can and will no longer provide. Civil society, civil society organisations and the common good are not given entities, but constantly produced and mobilised in different political conjunctures....
Full Text Available The author focuses on revealing the identity and essence of cooperatives, ignoring the principles of identity which have arisen from and been set by the International Cooperative Alliance. In this work of fiction, the author approaches the subject supposing that cooperatives did not exist and uses intuitive methods to deduce the universal principles that are common guidelines for these types of organisations.Received: 15.05.2012Accepted: 20.06.2012
Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to validate a measure of organisational energy in the South African context and to investigate whether there are differences in organisational energy as perceived by employees based on their demographic characteristics and lifestyle variables. Motivation for the study: Managing energy in organisations is important as it drives motivation, powers teamwork, fosters creativity and gives organisations a competitive edge (Schiuma, Mason & Kennerley, 2007. Limited empirical research currently exists on the phenomenon of energy in organisations. Research design/approach method: The researchers used a cross-sectional survey design, with a convenience sample (N = 520 of employees in a South African financial institution. The researchers administered the EnergyScapes Profile. Main findings: Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a one-factor structure for the EnergyScapes Profile. The scale, labelled organisational energy, showed acceptable internal consistency. The researchers found statistically significant differences in the organisational energy levels of employees based on age, tenure, geographical region, relaxation, hypertension and diabetes, depression or psychosis. Practical/managerial implications: The research provides valuable insight for practicing managers about understanding the concept of organisational energy and encourages leaders to question the energy of their employees. Contribution/value-add: The insight the researchers gained by studying the concept of organisational energy contributed in a unique way and showed the importance of considering organisations as dynamic and interactive with the people that work for them.
Greenhalgh, Trisha; Procter, Rob; Wherton, Joe; Sugarhood, Paul; Shaw, Sara
To (1) map how different stakeholders understand telehealth and telecare technologies and (2) explore the implications for development and implementation of telehealth and telecare services. Discourse analysis. 68 publications representing diverse perspectives (academic, policy, service, commercial and lay) on telehealth and telecare plus field notes from 10 knowledge-sharing events. Following a familiarisation phase (browsing and informal interviews), we studied a systematic sample of texts in detail. Through repeated close reading, we identified assumptions, metaphors, storylines, scenarios, practices and rhetorical positions. We added successive findings to an emerging picture of the whole. Telehealth and telecare technologies featured prominently in texts on chronic illness and ageing. There was no coherent organising vision. Rather, four conflicting discourses were evident and engaged only minimally with one another's arguments. Modernist discourse presented a futuristic utopian vision in which assistive technologies, implemented at scale, would enable society to meet its moral obligations to older people by creating a safe 'smart' home environment where help was always at hand, while generating efficiency savings. Humanist discourse emphasised the uniqueness and moral worth of the individual and tailoring to personal and family context; it considered that technologies were only sometimes fit for purpose and could create as well as solve problems. Political economy discourse envisaged a techno-economic complex of powerful vested interests driving commodification of healthcare and diversion of public funds into private business. Change management discourse recognised the complicatedness of large-scale technology programmes and emphasised good project management and organisational processes. Introduction of telehealth and telecare is hampered because different stakeholders hold different assumptions, values and world views, 'talk past' each other and compete for
Ruiz, Francisco; Soto, David
This article notices the importance of the environmental issue for the international cooperation and the legislative progress about it in Colombia. Also, it study the changes in the cooperation system, from one based in quotas to other based in the demand, and the adjustments required in developing countries to adapt to the new scheme
Full Text Available Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, this study seeks to explore the diversity of culture amongst the staff of a business school in Hungary and then examine how this diversity may impact upon the organisation’s orientations towards three aspects of market orientation: interfunctional cooperation; competition and the student orientation. The diversity of culture is found through the identification of five subcultures. These subcultures exhibit signs of both heterogeneity and homogeneity as two pairs of subcultures are divided not by differences in values themselves but by the expressed strength of values. The empirical findings indicate that each subculture varies in perception of the dominant cultures of the organisation and its particular market orientation in relation to culture type. Furthermore, some subcultures perceive themselves as enhancing, when this may not be the case and others perceive themselves as counter cultures. The qualitative study confirms that subcultures have both homogenous and heterogeneous aspects in relation to other subcultures as well as the perceived dominant culture. This greater complexity gives an extension to the existing perspectives taken on organisation culture, although this would need to be confirmed with generalizable research.
Full Text Available and retention of documents. 18) Incident response. The policy discusses issues concerning how an organisation responds quickly and effectively to a system or network security breach . 19) Contingency planning. The policy needs to address contingency... _ 17. Document destruction and retention X _ X X 18. Incident response X X X X 19. Contingency planning X _ X X 20. Telecommuting and mobile computing _ _ X _ 21. Intrusion Detection Systems X X X X From Table 1 it can be detained that not all...
Latin America undoubtedly has comparative advantages in the fields of animal production, animal health and the production of food of animal origin. However, countries in Latin America must build on these strengths if the continent is to become more competitive and be able to deal with the complexities of world markets. To do this, Veterinary Services must define their objectives and establish quality standards on which to base their work. For this to occur, the State must create well-defined regulations, establish systems of audit and find ways of working which allow for a high degree of coordination and collaboration between the public and private sectors. This should be done within a framework of a quality assurance system, which allows for responsible accreditation and independent audit and evaluation. The author discusses the approaches of the different countries in the region to animal health, zoonosis, food safety, veterinary drugs control, animal welfare and export-import control. All programmes relating to these issues must be based on technical information gained through epidemiological surveillance, the network of diagnostic laboratories, quarantine systems, risk analysis, identification and traceability of animals and animal products, registration and control of veterinary drugs, and food safety research. In some countries these systems are already being developed. Maintaining good international relations and cooperating with neighbouring countries is always a challenge for official Veterinary Services and international organisations such as the OIE (World organisation for animal health) have a key role to play in facilitating these relationships.
Slovenske elektrarne considers a specific training and education of experienced experts to be a key issue. The company gradually undergoes quite demanding change in the field of education and training of the nuclear power plants staff. We have an ambitious vision - to create one of the best training organisations in Europe by the means of systematic approach to the training. (author)
Full Text Available We consider stochastic cooperative game and give it the definition of the Owen value, which is obtained by extending the classical case. Then we provide explicit expression for the Owen value of the stochastic cooperative game and discuss its existence and uniqueness.
Constantinescu, M.; Bouwman, H.; Djurica, M.; Durmus, Y.; Onur, E.; Reuver, M. de
We propose an analysis of cooperation for data sharing and the behavioral aspects involved in the process of decision making. Starting with the tethering capabilities of recent devices we apply game theoretical principles and models, inquire what makes the cooperation work, and what are the
This essay examines the environmental worthiness of James Fenimore Cooper's "The Pioneers" and analyzes the various and competing environmental ethics that Cooper introduces in this novel through his descriptions of the different relationships between humans and the natural world. Among these different environmental ethics are the…
Jenks, G.J.; O'Donovan, E.J.B.
Very few organisations have to address such a diverse and complex range of radiation safety matters as the Australian Defence Organisation. The Australian Defence Force and the Department of Defence (its military and civilian branches) have to comply with strict regulations in normal peace time activities. The Surgeon-General, to whom responsibility for policy in radiation protection and safety falls, has established a Defence Radiation Safety Committee, which in turn oversees four specialist subcommittees. Their tasks include recommending policy and doctrine in relation to radiation safety, overseeing the implementation of appropriate regulations, monitoring their compliance. generating the relevant documentation (particularly on procedures to be followed), developing and improving any necessary training courses, and providing sound technical advice whenever and to whomever required. The internal Defence regulations do not permit radiation doses to exceed those limits recommended by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and precautions are taken to ensure during normal peace time duties that these levels are not exceeded. At times of national emergency, the Surgeon-General provides guidance and advice to military commanders on the consequences of receiving dose levels that would not be permitted during normal peace time activities. The paper describes the methods adopted to implement such arrangements
The article is a summary of a small-scale research project which considers the formation of Co-operative Trust Schools. This was carried out in 2013 at a time when the number of schools becoming Academies and Trust Schools through the Co-operative College was burgeoning. Through questionnaire, interview, documentary analysis and exploration of…
the combined use of contingency theory, strategic choice theory and structuration theory. The intention is analyse whether one of the paradigms would emerge as “dominant”, i.e. produce superior explanation of organisational change, or if a multi-paradigmatic view would be more beneficial in understanding...
Boulos, Rasha E; Tremblay, Nicolas; Arneodo, Alain; Borgnat, Pierre; Audit, Benjamin
Structural interaction frequency matrices between all genome loci are now experimentally achievable thanks to high-throughput chromosome conformation capture technologies. This ensues a new methodological challenge for computational biology which consists in objectively extracting from these data the structural motifs characteristic of genome organisation. We deployed the fast multi-scale community mining algorithm based on spectral graph wavelets to characterise the networks of intra-chromosomal interactions in human cell lines. We observed that there exist structural domains of all sizes up to chromosome length and demonstrated that the set of structural communities forms a hierarchy of chromosome segments. Hence, at all scales, chromosome folding predominantly involves interactions between neighbouring sites rather than the formation of links between distant loci. Multi-scale structural decomposition of human chromosomes provides an original framework to question structural organisation and its relationship to functional regulation across the scales. By construction the proposed methodology is independent of the precise assembly of the reference genome and is thus directly applicable to genomes whose assembly is not fully determined.
Lange, V de [Amsterdam University, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Interfaculty Dept. of Environmental Science
For centuries there has been international trade, but since the enormous growth in production, the goods we produce have begun to pollute the global environment. Feed for Dutch cattle is grown in South-East Asia, leading to a manure surplus here and soil erosion there. To provide the Dutch with aluminium for their beer cans, large areas of Brazilian rainforest have been cleared, while the waste mountain grows ever larger in Netherlands. It has been clear since the 1970s that the countries of the world are working in tandem to pollute the environment we all rely on. Similarly, we have to work together to clean it up. Although we are nowhere near a solution, many forms of cooperation have seen the light of day, from global agreements like Agenda 21 to simple declarations by the governments of two countries. The Netherlands has entered into thirteen such small-scale environmental agreements, or memoranda of understanding as they are known. The aim of these agreements is to reinforce each others' environmental management structure. In practice, this modest approach has been found to suit ambitious aims like redistribution of environmental space. The motto is 'small is beautiful'.
Lange, V. de
For centuries there has been international trade, but since the enormous growth in production, the goods we produce have begun to pollute the global environment. Feed for Dutch cattle is grown in South-East Asia, leading to a manure surplus here and soil erosion there. To provide the Dutch with aluminium for their beer cans, large areas of Brazilian rainforest have been cleared, while the waste mountain grows ever larger in Netherlands. It has been clear since the 1970s that the countries of the world are working in tandem to pollute the environment we all rely on. Similarly, we have to work together to clean it up. Although we are nowhere near a solution, many forms of cooperation have seen the light of day, from global agreements like Agenda 21 to simple declarations by the governments of two countries. The Netherlands has entered into thirteen such small-scale environmental agreements, or memoranda of understanding as they are known. The aim of these agreements is to reinforce each others' environmental management structure. In practice, this modest approach has been found to suit ambitious aims like redistribution of environmental space. The motto is 'small is beautiful'
The study prepared by order of the Federal Office for Environmental Protection describes the cooperation principle in German environmental policy. It presents examples from various areas of environmental protection, i.a. the participation of third-parties in government decisions. The functions, advantages, problems and risks of cooperation are dealt with. The study focuses on the constitutional and administrative fundamentals for the evaluation of the admissibility and limits of cooperation. On the one hand, there has to be cooperation between State and Society, on the other, there is a normative separation of the two in accordance with constitutional law. The study points out scopes of action for cooperation between State and Society. (RST) [de
Sabina Jelenc Krašovec
Full Text Available A vast array of economical, social, political, cultural and other factors influences the transformed role of learning and education in the society, as well as the functioning of local community and its social and communication patterns. The influences which are manifested as global problems can only be successfully solved on the level of local community. Analogously with the society in general, there is a great need of transforming a local community into a learning, flexible and interconnected environment which takes into account different interests, wishes and needs regarding learning and being active. The fundamental answer to changes is the strategy of lifelong learning and education which requires reorganisation of all walks of life (work, free time, family, mass media, culture, sport, education and transforming of organisations into learning organisations. With learning society based on networks of knowledge individuals are turning into learning individuals, and organisations into learning organisations; people who learn take the responsibility of their progress, learning denotes partnership among learning people, teachers, parents, employers and local community, so that they work together to achieve better results.
Hart, Colin Anthony
Full Text Available There is a need to determine the performance benefits that firms gain from enterprise resource planning (ERP systems, and the factors that contribute to success. Consequently, the central research problem is: To determine the impact of ERP systems on organisational performance by analysing achieved ERP benefits within the framework of a suitable performance measurement system (PMS, and to investigate the association between critical success factors (CSFs and ERP benefits. A list of expected ERP benefits and CSFs is compiled. Performance measurement models are evaluated, and one model is designed to evaluate ERP impact. ERP experts refine identified ERP benefits and CSFs using structured interviews. These are built into a questionnaire, and used to survey South African (SA companies in manufacturing, mining, and power generation. Results indicate that business benefits are realised by companies that implement ERP systems. By building benefits into the performance measurement model, a positive impact on organisational performance is observed. Although a core list of CSFs is identified, and three associations are found between CSFs and ERP benefits, further research is needed.
Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Wengström, Erik Roland
effects and the heterogeneity of cooperation behavior. We find that framing only has a small effect on the average level of cooperation but a substantial effect on behavioral heterogeneity explained almost exclusively by a corresponding change in the heterogeneity of beliefs about other subjects' behavior...
Enhanced cooperation is often regarded as being a way out of EU decision-making deadlock and as a major possibility of proceeding with European integration in selected areas. Although the mechanism has been in place since the Treaty of Amsterdam, enhanced cooperation has only recently become a
Whereas strategic management in the U.S. has traditionally focused on competition and a competitive advantage, Scandinavian strategic management has long centered on effective cooperation. In light of recent calls in the U.S. to shift toward cooperation to realize opportunities for shared value...
Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar
Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit memory of previous game plays. Our model is based on the notion of inequity aversion, a concept introduced within behavioral economics, whereby individuals care about payoff equality in outcomes. Here we explore the effect of using income inequality to guide partner selection and interaction. We study our model by considering both the well-mixed and the spatially structured population and present the conditions under which cooperation becomes dominant. Our results support the hypothesis that inequity aversion promotes cooperative relationship among nonkin.
Meng-Lin Shih; Shu-Hui Chuang; Chechen Liao
Previous studies have examined the relationship between knowledge management (KM) infrastructure capabilities and organisational performance. However, most studies neglect the mediating effect of organisational learning by KM practices (OLKMP) in the relationship between KM infrastructure capabilities and organisational performance. This study uses the survey method to discuss the relationships governing KM infrastructure capabilities, OLKMP and organisational performance. Results of the anal...
The analysis of this chapter starts from organisational theory, and from this it draws conclusions for the design, and possible organisational applications, of Distributed AI systems. We first review how the concept of organisations has emerged from non-organised black-box entities to so-called computerised organisations. Within this context, organisational researchers have started to redesign their models of intelligent organisations with respect to the availability of advanced computing tec...
Yarym-Agayev Oleksandr M.
Full Text Available The article considers main issues of organisation of Internet marketing at small and medium enterprises of Ukraine, shows a necessity of development and marketing support of the site and provides recommendations on development, implementation and maintenance of corporate sites for marketing and advertising managers. The article considers such directions of operation with the site as analysis of sites of competitors, development of a corporate site, information provision of the site, site indexation and its promotion in search engines, placing site links at information portals, creation of pages in social networks, work at forums, information mailings, operation with site analytics and ensuring feedback with the site visitors. The listed recommendations would allow increase the site image, attract new clients, organise efficient co-operation with specialists on development and promotion of the site and achieve the maximal effect from this source of advertisement and sales.
Shubin Aleksandr A.
Full Text Available The article studies cognitive component of the “organisational culture” category and marks our three groups of approaches to the aspect description of the studied category: aspects of the organisational culture formed by the control system; aspects of the organisational culture inherent in the controlled system; and universal aspects inherent in both control and controlled systems. The article provides the authors’ definition of the organisational culture as a complex element of the internal environment of the organisation that has certain phenomenological properties (synergy, dynamics, uniqueness, adaptability, mentality, hierarchy, aggregation, communicativeness and sociality; integrating spiritual, material, static and procedural elements with the aim of formation of a single management philosophy for ensuring external adaptation and efficient functioning of an enterprise. The article establishes the role and place of the organisational culture as a socio-economic phenomenon in the context of the modern management paradigm through specification of prerequisites of formation and development of the neo-classical concept of the organisational culture; features of the modern management paradigm; phenomenological properties of the culture; factors of influence upon the organisational culture and tendencies of development of the phenomenon of the national organisational culture.
Kees, Marlis; Feldmann, Lisa
This article focuses on cooking energy and the role of donor organisations in the introduction and dissemination of improved stoves. After presenting some basic facts on cooking energy, the article discusses the cooking energy–poverty nexus and possible reasons for the often neglect of this topic in the context of development cooperation. Clean and efficient technologies for cooking are presented and a short introduction to different dissemination approaches shows the changes that occurred in the last years. The importance of public sector investments to increase the supply and use of clean cooking energy technologies in developing countries is analysed and underlined by GTZ’s experiences in this field. The case study of Uganda finally demonstrates how cooking energy interventions work in the field and points out that investment pays off. - Highlights: ► Cooking energy is a neglected topic in the context of development cooperation. ► Political frameworks do not reflect social and economic relevance of biomass energy. ► Scaling up the dissemination of cookstoves requires public sector investment. ► Investments in efficient and clean stoves pay-off.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. The optic nerve is anatomically observed in four segments: intrabulbar, orbital, canalicular, and cranial. According to the literature, the surface of the transversal cut of the nerve is different through it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fascicular organisation of the optic nerve, throughout its three segments from the eye. Methods. Five pairs of optic nerves, obtained from the autopsies were examined. Using Heidenhain's (azan staining, the cuts were prepared for microscopy. Morphometric analysis was performed using the stereological methods for morphometric cytology - the Weible’s testing system M42. The following measures were established: the surface of the transverse cut of the nerve, the entire surface of fasciculi, the entire surface of connective tissue and blood vessels, the number of fasciculi, the surface of a single fasciculus. Results. The surface of the transverse cut of the nerve was found to grow from the orbital to the cranial segment, as well as the entire surface of fasciculi. While their number is significantly lower in the cranial segment, the number of fasciculi varied slightly between the orbital and the canalicular segment. The surface of a single fasciculus grows from the bulb to the chiasma. There is probable a cause to believe that this may be due to fusion of the “small” fasciculi in the orbitocranial direction. Conclusion. There are significant differences among the examined parameters of the different parts of the optic nerve.
Forestier, Colleen; Cox, A T; Horne, S
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) crisis in West Africa began in March 2014. At the beginning of the outbreak, no one could have predicted just how far-reaching its effects would be. The EVD epidemic proved to be a unique and unusual humanitarian and public health crisis. It caused worldwide fear that impeded the rapid response required to contain it early. The situation in Sierra Leone (SL) forced the formation of a unique series of civil-military interagency relationships to be formed in order to halt the epidemic. Civil-military cooperation in humanitarian situations is not unique to this crisis; however, the slow response, the unusual nature of the battle itself and the uncertainty of the framework required to fight this deadly virus created a situation that forced civilian and military organisations to form distinct, cooperative relationships. The unique nature of the Ebola virus necessitated a steering away from normal civil-military relationships and standard pillar responses. National and international non-governmental organisations (NGOs), Department for International Development (DFID) and the SL and UK militaries were required to disable this deadly virus (as of 7 November 2015, SL was declared EVD free). This paper draws on personal experiences and preliminary distillation of information gathered in formal interviews. It discusses some of the interesting features of the interagency relationships, particularly between the military, the UK's DFID, international organisations, NGOs and departments of the SL government. The focus is on how these relationships were key to achieving a coordinated solution to EVD in SL both on the ground and within the larger organisational structure. It also discusses how these relationships needed to rapidly evolve and change along with the epidemiological curve. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
International cooperation of the Republic of Croatia in the field of radiological and nuclear safety can be divided in two parts - political part, for which the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration is responsible, and technical part, for which the State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety is responsible. According to the Radiological and Nuclear Safety Act (OG 28/10) the State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety: ''coordinates technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency for all participants from the Republic of Croatia''; ''fulfils the obligations which the Republic of Croatia has assumed through international conventions and bilateral agreements concerning protection against ionising radiation, nuclear safety and the application of protective measures aimed at the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons'' and ''cooperates with international and domestic organisations and associations in the area of protection against ionising radiation and nuclear safety, and appoints its own expert representatives to take part in the work of such organisations and associations or to monitor their work''. In this paper various aspects of the technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as international conventions and bilateral agreements in the field of radiological and nuclear safety, are presented. Also, cooperation with other international organizations and associations in the area of radiological and nuclear safety, such as Nuclear Suppliers Group, the Zangger Committee, the Wassenaar Arrangement, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, Euratom and certain civil expert groups of NATO, is described. (author)
Johnstone, Rufus A; Rodrigues, António M M
In this paper, we draw the attention of biologists to a result from the economic literature, which suggests that when individuals are engaged in a communal activity of benefit to all, selection may favour cooperative sharing of resources even among non-relatives. Provided that group members all invest some resources in the public good, they should refrain from conflict over the division of these resources. The reason is that, given diminishing returns on investment in public and private goods, claiming (or ceding) a greater share of total resources only leads to the actor (or its competitors) investing more in the public good, such that the marginal costs and benefits of investment remain in balance. This cancels out any individual benefits of resource competition. We illustrate how this idea may be applied in the context of biparental care, using a sequential game in which parents first compete with one another over resources, and then choose how to allocate the resources they each obtain to care of their joint young (public good) versus their own survival and future reproductive success (private good). We show that when the two parents both invest in care to some extent, they should refrain from any conflict over the division of resources. The same effect can also support asymmetric outcomes in which one parent competes for resources and invests in care, whereas the other does not invest but refrains from competition. The fact that the caring parent gains higher fitness pay-offs at these equilibria suggests that abandoning a partner is not always to the latter's detriment, when the potential for resource competition is taken into account, but may instead be of benefit to the 'abandoned' mate. © 2016 The Author(s).
Full Text Available Research question (RQ: What is discrepancy between status and role of quality managers in the Slovenian organisations now and what will be role and status of quality managers of the future? Aim: The aim of this paper is to show divergence between current and expected future status and role of quality managers (QM. Methods: Within the research of characteristics of quality management system (QMS in the Slovenian organisations a survey among the QM and the directors was conducted as well as the correlation analysis between the role of the QM and the results achieved by the organisations. Results: It was shown that »the advisor to the management« is the only role of the QM that has a significant positive correlation with the results achieved by the organisation. Organisation: The results of this research enable management to take appropriate steps in organisational development and integration of all projects on organisational changes leading to a common and comprehensive long-term concept. Society/Environment: The research offers some answers to the expected influence of changes in the environment on the future organisation of QMS. Originality: This research represents the first example of research of status and role of QM in the Slovenian organisations. Limitations / further research: This research project is limited to the Slovenian organisations with a certified QMS. In future, similar surveys could also be spread to other social environments such as Germany, Austria and the Czech Republic.
Zotti, A M; Omarini, G; Ragazzoni, P
The aim of this study was to analyse the perceived stress and individual resources of people involved in health and social welfare occupations, and evaluate whether belonging to different organisational structures leads to different reactions. To this end, we used the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Team Climate Inventory. The sample consisted of 327 subjects (67% females) with a mean age of 35.9 +/- 8.8 years; most had a middle or high school diploma (63%), and they had been employed in the same place for about four years (47.5 +/- 7.3 months): 103 worked for health and social welfare cooperatives, and 224 for a local health authority. The results showed average burnout values and coping strategies prevalently aimed at directly solving the stressing situation in both working contexts. In comparison with the variables expressing the perceived organisational climate, sociodemographic characteristics did not seem to have a determining influence on the perception of individual stress. Comparison of the subjects employed in the two settings showed that organisational vision and a sense of belonging significantly determined subjective well-being, with the healthcare workers showed greater individual ill-being and a worse vision (i.e. an unclear perception of hospital choices and objectives). Our findings confirm that subjective well-being in high-touch occupations may be determined by the organisational culture: a mutual aid culture such as that of a cooperative has a protective effect despite the fact that the employment situation of the workers is more precarious and flexible than that of workers employed in highly structured environments such as that of a hospital.
Lux, I.; Borsi, L.; Feher, I.; Ronaky, J.
The third exercise in the INEX2 series organised under the auspices of OECD NEA was held in November 1998 in Hungary, with the participation of 4000 members of the Hungarian Emergency Response Organisation (HERO), 32 countries and 4 international organisations. The main goal of the INEX2 series was to exercise emergency preparedness activity with limited knowledge on the accident situation, to test the international notification schemes and to gain experience in informing the media and the population. The INEX2-HUN exercise assumed a medium severe accident in the Hungarian nuclear power plant with relatively high release of radioactive material that could reach also the territory of the neighbouring countries. The scenario of the accident has been elaborated by power plant experts and was played by the full scope simulator of the plant during the exercise. The nuclear emergency organisations were alerted and set up, and a full range exercise was held. The Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) Centre of Emergency Response Training and Analysis (CERTA) obtained on-line data from the power plant, performed source term calculations, prepared progression forecast and even analysis. The radiological monitoring network of the Emergency Information Centre (EIC) of the Secretariat to the Governmental Commission for Nuclear Emergency Preparedness (GCNEP) collected and analysed (simulated) radiological data. EIC received also the meteorological data and - making use of the source term estimates obtained from CERTA - run the specific program that gave detailed description of the radiological situation over the affected area and generated proposals to the decision-makers on the interventions to be performed. The results of the analysis and simulation were used to compile the information to be communicated to the leading organs of HERO, to the neighbouring countries and to the international community by the International Contact Point situated in the HAEA. Technical questions
Li, Yixiao; Wang, Yi; Sheng, Jichuan
We study evolutionary public goods game on geographical networks, i.e., complex networks which are located on a geographical plane. The geographical feature effects in two ways: In one way, the geographically-induced network structure influences the overall evolutionary dynamics, and, in the other way, the geographical length of an edge influences the cost when the two players at the two ends interact. For the latter effect, we design a new cost function of cooperators, which simply assumes that the longer the distance between two players, the higher cost the cooperator(s) of them have to pay. In this study, network substrates are generated by a previous spatial network model with a cost-benefit parameter controlling the network topology. Our simulations show that the greatest promotion of cooperation is achieved in the intermediate regime of the parameter, in which empirical estimates of various railway networks fall. Further, we investigate how the distribution of edges' geographical costs influences the evolutionary dynamics and consider three patterns of the distribution: an approximately-equal distribution, a diverse distribution, and a polarized distribution. For normal geographical networks which are generated using intermediate values of the cost-benefit parameter, a diverse distribution hinders the evolution of cooperation, whereas a polarized distribution lowers the threshold value of the amplification factor for cooperation in public goods game. These results are helpful for understanding the evolution of cooperation on real-world geographical networks.
Kelebogile D. Magano
Full Text Available Orientation: Over a period of 6 years, a South African pharmaceutical company had been involved in several mergers and acquisitions. These changes had proved difficult for staff and staff attrition had risen. Research purpose: The objective of the study was to explore the perceptions of senior managers about the impact of change on the psychological contract. The sub-objectives were to determine what organisational factors contribute to changes in the psychological contract during periods of change, and the implications of the breach of the psychological contract for the company and its employees. Motivation for the study: As the company was set to embark on further mergers and acquisitions, the opinions of senior managers about how such changes should be addressed are important for the company. Research design, approach and method: A case study approach was used in this qualitative study. The population comprised 60 senior managers of whom 12 were purposefully selected for inclusion in the study. A semistructured interview schedule was used to capture the views of these managers and themes were extracted by means of content analysis. Main findings: Seven themes emerged which encapsulated the perceptions of senior managers about the impact of change on the psychological contract during periods of mergers and acquisitions – lack of communication, an absence of planning, lack of employee engagement, less than optimal human resources involvement, lack of preparation of the organisational culture and poor change management processes. These factors need to be addressed to strengthen the psychological contract of employees during periods of change. Practical/managerial implications: The study highlighted areas that leaders and managers of the company should consider when embarking on mergers and acquisitions if the psychological contract of employees is not to be negatively impacted. Contribution: While caution must be exercised in the
José Eduardo Souza de Miranda
Full Text Available Regarding the administrative management of cooperative enterprises, the various cooperative laws establish the need to organize a social-democratic structure formed by all members of society.
The idea of a common specification for the development and construction of new nuclear power plants appeared in Usa in the eighties in the framework of the ALWR program (Advanced Light Water Reactors). Several European electricity producers had participated in the writing of the EPRI -Utility Requirement Document (URD)- together with a group of American and Asian companies, but in the early nineties, they also agreed to produce a European document. The point was to write a more open specification (open to non-US designs) that would take into account specific European requirements, in nuclear safety in particular, while still keeping strong references to the EPRI URD. In late 1991, five of the major European electricity producers set up an organisation to develop the EUR document. Their primary objective was to produce a common set of requirements that could be endorsed by the major European electricity producers and that would provide clear guidance to the designers. The EUR document (EUR stands for European Utility Requirements) was born. Building new nuclear plants would require undisputable competitiveness vs. alternate production sources. For that only standardisation could bring an adequate answer in the coming years. Standardisation of the designs call for harmonization of the design rules, especially the ones related to nuclear safety. The EUR utilities support the initiatives that would pave the way to harmonization of the safety design rules at European level. They nevertheless think that it may be needed to go further and eventually consider an overall re-optimisation of the safety design rules. All these developments shall be organised at European level, keeping strong connections with the other methodological works undertaken outside Europe. The European utilities and the vendors have now an updated and well-tuned tool that allows them to develop, to assess and to order modern LWR designs well fitted to their actual needs. It has been used as the base
Balmer, JMT; Burghausen, M
In this article we formally introduce and explicate the organisational heritage notion. The authors conclude organisational heritage can be designated in three broad ways as: (1) organisational heritage identity as the perceived and reminisced omni-temporal traits – both formal/normative and utilitarian/societal – of organisational members’ work organisation; (2) organisational heritage identification as organisational members’ identification/self-categorisation vis-à-vis these perceived and ...
Ivana B. Petrevska
Full Text Available Criminal activities and organised crime became the main generators of social and state instability in the recent years, much more that the wars. They generate significant illegal money and need to launder this money so that they can be integrated into the legitimate financial system. Economic and financial crimes that called white collar crimes, typically has diffuse costs to society and concentrated benefits for the perpetrators. The social expectations are that the auditors should play an effective role in reducing, if not eliminating, these crimes.New auditing standards require auditors to take a proactive approach to assessing whether management has in place appropriate systems and controls to manage the risk of fraud.This paper shed light on nature, impacts and types of economic and financial crimes, and then the role of auditing profession in fighting against them.
This essay discusses how the organisation of mental material within the cognitive system can influence consciousness and awareness, and presents a theory of dissociation based on the premise that awareness is relative, contingent on the activated representation of the ongoing event being linked to the activated self-representation. It allows four possible variations of integration: (i) non-integrated experience--perceptions about an object/event are either not perceived or they remain at the sensory level: traditional dissociative states, amnesia, depersonalisation etc; (ii) variably integrated experience--activation of information of a specific valence about an object blocks activation of information of contrasting valence: splitting; (iii) alternatively integrated experience--experience is integrated into a specific, limited active self-representation: fugue and multiple identity states; (iv) dis-integrated experience-the ongoing experience of innate drives and needs is no longer consistently activated in the core self-representation: repression and isolation.
Full Text Available Abstract:Domains are present in every natural membrane. They are characterised by a distinctive protein and/or lipid composition. Their size is highly variable from the nano- to the micrometer scale. The domains confer specific properties to the membrane leading to original structure and function. The determinants leading to domain organisation are therefore important but remain obscure. This review presents how the ability of lipids to organize into hexagonal II or lamellar phases can promote particular local structures within membranes. Since biological membranes are composed of a mixture of lipids, each with distinctive biophysical properties, lateral and transversal sorting of lipids can promote creation of domains inside the membrane through local modulation of the lipid phase. Lipid biophysical properties have been characterized for long based on in vitro analyses using non-natural lipid molecules; their re-examinations using natural lipids might open interesting perspectives on membrane architecture occurring in vivo in various cellular and physiological contexts.
Full Text Available In the Knowledge Age, effective Knowledge Management (KM is seen as fundamental to the survival of many organisations. Information Systems (IS increasingly underpin KM in such organisations. The value of the contribution of IS to the goals of these organisations depends on balancing various conflicting requirements. For example, stable, robust and reliable business processes are often fundamental to their efficient operation. However, less structured environments are conducive to the innovation and knowledge creation that are considered to be fundamental to their on-going effective operation. The paper presents a model developed to relate these conflicting requirements to organisational effectiveness and describes how it was used to examine the outcomes of a Knowledge Management study conducted in the Australian Defence Organisation.
Cooper, Simon J
To evaluate outcomes from the NHS leadership development programme Leading an Empowered Organisation (LEO). A prospective case study based on a pre- and post-course quantitative analysis with interpretative methodological support. Role conflict, whether nurse or manager, was apparent in nurses' perceptions of their roles. Respondents claimed many positive leadership attributes but lacked assertiveness and the skills for handling conflict. The LEO programme had a statistically significant effect on workplace leadership performance and positive benefits related to communication competence, articulation of goals, networking, assertiveness, zones of responsibility and problem solving. LEO is having an effect on workplace performance. However it could be improved by considering the package holistically, including not only the course content, but the entry level, pre-course preparation and post-course mentorship.
Jensen, Per Anker
The paper is based on research for a MBA thesis. The purpose is to clarify the organisational relationships between support functions and core business and how these relationships vary for strategic and operational support functions. The value chains for core businesses and support functions...... are analysed and related to empirical data from a case study on Danish Broadcasting Corporation. A particular support value chain is identified and a typology of archetypes of support functions is developed. The relationship between core business and strategic support is identified as primarily a general...... business orientation, while the relationship between core business and non-strategic functions is identified as mainly a specific customer orientation. It is concluded that a market relationship – internally or externally – is appropriate for non-strategic functions, while it is important to create a kind...
Having in mind the basic aim of the CTBTO this presentation covers the fields of international co-operation as one of the most important and the cooperation of China and some International research and development institutions concerning the related subjects. One of the most important among international organizations being the IAEA, detailed list of general circumstances in the Chinese cooperation with IAEA is presented. It covers nuclear power plants construction and operation, safety of nuclear facilities, nuclear fuel cycle, radiation protection and waste management, industrial application, agricultural application, human health, fundamental research and information dissemination
Jenks, G.J.; O'Donovan, E.J.B.; Wood, W.B.
Training personnel in ionising radiation safety within the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) requires addressing some unique features of an organisation employing both military and civilian personnel. Activities may include those of a civil nature (such as industrial and medical radiography), specific military requirements (for training and emergency response) and scientific research and development. Some personnel may be assigned to full-time duties associated with radiation. However, most are designated as radiation protection officers as a secondary duty. A further complication is that most military personnel are subjected to postings at regular intervals. The ADO's Directorate of Defence Occupational Health and Safety has established an Ionising Radiation Safety Subcommittee to monitor not only the adequacy of the internal Ionising Radiation Safety Manual but also the training requirements. A Training Course, responding to these requirements, has been developed to emphasize, basic radiation theory and protection, operation of radiation monitors available in the ADO, an understanding of the Ionising Radiation Safety Manual, day-to-day radiation safety in units and establishments, and appropriate responses to radiation accidents and emergencies. In addition, students are briefed on a limited number of peripheral topics and participate in some site visits. Currently, two Courses are held annually, each with about twenty students. Most of the material is presented by ADO personnel with external contractor support. The three Courses held to date have proved successful, both for the students and the ADO generally. To seek national accreditation of the course through the Australian National Training Authority, as a first step, competency standards have been proposed. (authors)
Jenks, G.J.; O'Donovan, E.J.B.; Wood, W.B.
Full text: Training personnel in ionising radiation safety within the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) requires addressing some unique features of an organisation employing both military and civilian personnel. Activities may include those of a civil nature (such as industrial and medical radiography), specific military requirements (for training and emergency response) and scientific research and development. Some personnel may be assigned to full-time duties associated with radiation, while others may be designated as radiation protection officers in remote units with few duties to perform in this role. A further complication is that most military personnel are subjected to postings at regular intervals. The ADO's Directorate of Defence Occupational Health and Safety has established an Ionising Radiation Safety Subcommittee to monitor not only the adequacy of the internal Ionising Radiation Safety Manual but also the training requirements. A training course, responding to these requirements, has been developed to emphasise: basic radiation theory and protection; operation of radiation monitors available in the ADO; an understanding of the Safety Manual; day-to-day radiation safety in units and establishments; and appropriate responses to radiation accidents and emergencies. In addition, students are briefed on a limited number of peripheral topics and participate in some site visits. Currently, two Courses are held annually, each with about twenty students. Most of the material is presented by ADO personnel with external contractor support. The three Courses held to date have proved sufficiently successful, both for the students and the ADO generally, to seek national accreditation through the Australian National Training Authority and, as a first step, competency standards have been identified
Thomsen, Maren; Karsten, Sjoerd; Oort, Frans J.
This study aimed to examine the relationship between teachers' perceived psychological distance and structural distance from management and teachers' affective organisational commitment (AOC) and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). Teachers' trust in management was expected to mediate these relationships. Furthermore, the adequacy and…
Full Text Available The new geopolitical reality that resulted from the dissolution of the USSR created the conditions for the establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO in 2001. The successful settlement of border issues between Russia and Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan and Tajikistan as well as with China also facilitated the process. With Uzbekistan joining the “Shanghai Five,” a new regional organization emerged. The SCO’s priorities were in the security sphere and the fight against the proliferation of drugs, illegal migration and organized crime, given the requirements of the times and the specific regional situation (including that in Afghanistan. As one of the active founders, Russia has always taken a leading role in the SCO’s organizational, political and legal formation, including setting specific trends and forms of cooperation, taking common measures, and holding events. During its presidency in 2008–2009 and 2014–2015, Moscow made additional efforts to strengthen cooperation among the SCO members in meeting new regional security challenges and to agree on coordinated positions on the key issues on the international and regional agenda. To increase the SCO’s credibility and political significance, Moscow emphasized its expansion, particularly with regard to the Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt. With global political and economic development growing more complicated, in order to revitalize Russia’s role in the SCO it is necessary to strengthen cooperation with China. The strategic character of bilateral relations reaffirmed at the Russian-Chinese summit in the summer of 2016 set a solid foundation.
Hilsted, Jannik C; Krogsgaard, Kim
The paper describes the current organisation of clinical trials in Danish hospitals, with particular emphasis on the relationship between hospitals and the pharmaceutical industry. Legal responsibilities as well as mutual agreements on collaboration and organisation are described and discussed....
Paqui Santonja Mayor
Full Text Available The growing participation of Spain’s regions, provinces and municipalities in international cooperation has had and continues to have a particular importance in the Mediterranean area, though this has not always been sufficiently acknowledged and supported by the relevant Mediterranean and European authorities. In this cooperation space, two key elements are conjugated: firstly, the process of regional integration in the European space and, secondly, thepromotion of a common area around the Mediterranean. At a time in which foreign policies and classic means of cooperation have shown signs of limitation in terms of the way in which they operate in the region, it seems a suitable moment to reflect on the role that public decentralised cooperation organised by Spain’s local governments could have in the framework of the EU’s new European Policy of Neighbourhood and Association.
Edward, G. M.; Biervliet, J. D.; Hollmann, M. W.; Schlack, W. S.; Preckel, B.
The preoperative assessment clinic (PAC) has been implemented in most major hospitals. However, there is no uniformity in the way PACs are organised. We compared the organisational structure of the PACs from all eight university hospitals in The Netherlands, looking at the following variables:
knowledge is emphasised by a European survey of 100 European business leaders, in ..... to an organisation are expatriates who work on global assignments or contract .... 'Collaborate today, compete tomorrow: Techniques for KM in inter-.
Greenan , Nathalie; Messe , Pierre-Jean
The main contribution of this paper is to study empirically how the horizon effect and the technological or organisational changes interact to explain the probability of being an internal trainer at the end of career. We use data from a French matched employer-employee survey on Organisational Changes and Computerisation (COI) conducted in 2006. It contains information both on employees’ knowledge transmission practices and employers’ technological or organisational changes. We find that the ...
McNally, Luke; Brown, Sam P; Jackson, Andrew L
The high levels of intelligence seen in humans, other primates, certain cetaceans and birds remain a major puzzle for evolutionary biologists, anthropologists and psychologists. It has long been held that social interactions provide the selection pressures necessary for the evolution of advanced cognitive abilities (the 'social intelligence hypothesis'), and in recent years decision-making in the context of cooperative social interactions has been conjectured to be of particular importance. Here we use an artificial neural network model to show that selection for efficient decision-making in cooperative dilemmas can give rise to selection pressures for greater cognitive abilities, and that intelligent strategies can themselves select for greater intelligence, leading to a Machiavellian arms race. Our results provide mechanistic support for the social intelligence hypothesis, highlight the potential importance of cooperative behaviour in the evolution of intelligence and may help us to explain the distribution of cooperation with intelligence across taxa.
Fejerskov, Adam Moe
This article explores how ideas and practices may find their way into and entail significant changes in organisations as these enter into new fields and are increasingly confronted with dominant normative frameworks. Drawing on sociological institutional perspectives, I conceptualise three...... analytical processes occurring as ideas find their way into development organisations: i) emergence; ii) international negotiation and consensus production; and iii) external negotiation and appropriation. I then empirically explore these processes through a case study of how ideas and practices on gender...
Danie J. Nel; Johanna A. Badenhorst-Weiss
Organisations can use supply chain strategies to gain a competitive advantage for the supply chain. A competitive advantage can be achieved by means of low cost or by means of differentiation. However, organisations have to implement the correct supply chain strategy. Returns on investment can be compromised if organisations implement an incorrect supply chain strategy. The objective of the article is to analyse the differences between theoretically implied and implemented supply chain strate...
Burtonwood, A.; Hocking, P.; Elwyn, G.
Primary health care in the UK is currently centred around independent contractor organisations (general practices). Although the development of these organisations is considered necessary to improve the quality of health care, no structures exist to support the systematic development necessary to
Based on data from 700 companies in 20 countries, this paper records the research that investigates the contribution of organisational and technological practices to speed up New Product Development (NPD). The organisational practice is found positively correlated with the speed of NPD. However, no significant direct relationship was found between…
C.R.A. van der Schoot
textabstractThe preventive approach against organised crime has gained much attention since the early 1990s. On an international level as well as on a national one various preventive measures against organised crime have been developed. This is certainly true in the European Union and the
Full Text Available The present article attempts to determine the role of principles of good governance in the discussion regarding the World Trade Organisation (WTO and its human rights accountability. It shows that the WTO as an organisation cannot be compared to other international organisations that are more autonomous such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF or the World Bank. This does not mean, however, that the WTO has no autonomous powers at all. This contribution attempts to make clear what these activities are and how they may affect the protection of human rights. The implementation of good governance principles in international organisations can be considered a sine qua non for the realisation of human rights. Therefore, it will be examined what role the principles of good governance plays within the WTO. More specifically, the focus will be on how the good governance principles of transparency and participation can contribute to sensitising the organisation for human rights considerations.
Susanna M. O’Neil; Andre L. Horne
Orientation: Fully entrenched and internalised organisational values have proved a competitive advantage for many leading organisations. The benefits range from higher profit margins to the improvement of employees’ commitment and ethical performance. Nevertheless, the process of value shaping is often no more than a management goal. It is rarely truly internalised by the whole organisation. Research purpose: This article presents an effort to describe a value internalisation effort w...
Carroll, Brendan J.; Rasmussen, Anne
Drawing on a new dataset the article investigates a case study of the population of interest representatives lobbying the European Parliament. It examines the role of economic and cultural resources to account for the representation of organised interests from different EU member states. It adds...... to the existing literature on the density of organised interests by showing that in addition to economic resources, cultural capital plays a significant role in stimulating the activity of organised interests. Whether countries have a high number of organised interests in the parliament’s interest group community...... depends on both whether they are economically prosperous and how large a share of their citizens participate in associational life. In addition, the findings demonstrate how the ranking of countries in the population of organised interests lobbying the parliament depends on the benchmark used to measure...
Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the co-evolution of fast and slow strategy spread and game strategies in populations of spatially distributed agents engaged in a one off evolutionary dilemma game. Agents are characterized by a pair of traits, a game strategy (cooperate or defect and a binary 'advertising' strategy (advertise or don't advertise. Advertising, which comes at a cost [Formula: see text], allows investment into faster propagation of the agents' traits to adjacent individuals. Importantly, game strategy and advertising strategy are subject to the same evolutionary mechanism. Via analytical reasoning and numerical simulations I demonstrate that a range of advertising costs exists, such that the prevalence of cooperation is significantly enhanced through co-evolution. Linking costly replication to the success of cooperators exposes a novel co-evolutionary mechanism that might contribute towards a better understanding of the origins of cooperation-supporting heterogeneity in agent populations.
In this paper, I investigate the co-evolution of fast and slow strategy spread and game strategies in populations of spatially distributed agents engaged in a one off evolutionary dilemma game. Agents are characterized by a pair of traits, a game strategy (cooperate or defect) and a binary ‘advertising’ strategy (advertise or don’t advertise). Advertising, which comes at a cost , allows investment into faster propagation of the agents’ traits to adjacent individuals. Importantly, game strategy and advertising strategy are subject to the same evolutionary mechanism. Via analytical reasoning and numerical simulations I demonstrate that a range of advertising costs exists, such that the prevalence of cooperation is significantly enhanced through co-evolution. Linking costly replication to the success of cooperators exposes a novel co-evolutionary mechanism that might contribute towards a better understanding of the origins of cooperation-supporting heterogeneity in agent populations. PMID:23861752
In this paper, I investigate the co-evolution of fast and slow strategy spread and game strategies in populations of spatially distributed agents engaged in a one off evolutionary dilemma game. Agents are characterized by a pair of traits, a game strategy (cooperate or defect) and a binary 'advertising' strategy (advertise or don't advertise). Advertising, which comes at a cost [Formula: see text], allows investment into faster propagation of the agents' traits to adjacent individuals. Importantly, game strategy and advertising strategy are subject to the same evolutionary mechanism. Via analytical reasoning and numerical simulations I demonstrate that a range of advertising costs exists, such that the prevalence of cooperation is significantly enhanced through co-evolution. Linking costly replication to the success of cooperators exposes a novel co-evolutionary mechanism that might contribute towards a better understanding of the origins of cooperation-supporting heterogeneity in agent populations.
Organisations initiate and execute projects at an ever-increasing rate in order to achieve their strategic intentions. Many of these, however, find it difficult to measure the contribution that these projects make towards the realisation of the organisational vision. In order to effect these changes in a cumulatively beneficial way, ...
The Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) is the principal government agency for international development. Being organised as a directorate under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, its main tasks are to provide advisory services to the Ministry, to embassies in developing countries and to multilateral development organizations. Through a framework agreement, NVE has assisted NORAD in its many endeavours within its specialities, namely the fields of water resources and energy assessment and management. The engagements have varied from appraisals of projects and evaluation of reports, to planning and preparatory work for new projects, and project implementation. Additionally, NVE has directly assisted the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in projects in the Balkan states, specifically on energy efficiency and environmental impact assessment in Montenegro. (AG)
Nordaune, Kristin; Skarpaas, Lisebet S; Sagvaag, Hildegunn; Haveraaen, Lise; Rimstad, Silje; Kinn, Liv G; Aas, Randi W
Alcohol is one of the leading causes of ill health and premature death in the world. Several studies indicate that working life might influence employees' alcohol consumption and drinking patterns. The aim of this study was to explore work-related drinking situations, with a special focus on answering who initiates and organises these situations. Data were collected through semi-structured group interviews in six Norwegian companies from the private ( n=4) and public sectors ( n=2), employing a total of 3850 employees. The informants ( n=43) were representatives from management and local unions, safety officers, advisers from the social insurance office and human-resource personnel, health, safety and environment personnel, and members from the occupational environment committee. Both qualitative and quantitative content analyses were applied in the analyses of the material. Three different initiators and organisers were discovered: the employer, employees and external organisers. External organisers included customers, suppliers, collaborators, sponsors, subcontractors, different unions and employers' organisations. The employer organised more than half of the situations; external organisers were responsible for more than a quarter. The differences between companies were mostly due to the extent of external organisers. The employer initiates and organises most situations for work-related alcohol use. However, exposure to such situations seems to depend on how many external relations the company has. These aspects should be taken into account when workplace health-promotion initiatives are planned.
Henry, Sarah K; Sandler, Joanne; Passerini, Luca; Darmstadt, Gary L
Clear patterns emerged and are summarised on conditions for success in integrating a gender equality perspective across organisational programmes and culture. In short, organisations should consider five key 'ingredients' when designing their approach to integrating a gender equality perspective: (1) have a clear vision of success with measurable indicators; (2) have high-level, consistent, visible support; (3) take an intentional approach deeply rooted in the organisational culture and competencies; (4) ensure accountability at all levels and (5) invest both financial and technical resources. A vibrant community exists in virtually every region of the world of highly experienced gender equality experts that can support organisations on this path. Late adopters of integrating a gender equality perspective can benefit from decades of practice and a robust evidence base which has shifted focus among development organisations from asking 'why' addressing gender inequalities is important to learning 'how' to most effectively do this in programmes, policies, research and organisational culture while building a strong results framework.
Xu, Bo; Wang, Jianwei
This paper investigates the emergence of relationship-based cooperation by coupling two simple mechanisms into the model: tie strength based investment preference and homophily assumption. We construct the model by categorizing game participants into four types: prosocialists (players who prefers to invest in their intimate friends), antisocialists (players who prefer to invest in strangers), egoists (players who never cooperate) and altruists (players who cooperate indifferently with anyone). We show that the relationship-based cooperation (prosocialists) is favored throughout the evolution if we assume players of the same type have stronger ties than different ones. Moreover, we discover that strengthening the internal bonds within the strategic clusters further promotes the competitiveness of prosocialists and therefore facilitates the emergence of relationship-based cooperation in our proposed scenarios. The robustness of the model is also tested under different strategy updating rules and network structures. The results show that this argument is robust against the variations of initial conditions and therefore can be considered as a fundamental theoretical framework to study relationship-based cooperation in reality.
The paper draws on B.N.F.L.'s wide experience of international collaboration in nuclear fuel process activities to examine the pros and cons of international agreements. Initially, the factors that influence the need to co-operate, the extent of possible co-operation and the alternative types of agreement are reviewed. Next, the benefits, problems and risks associated with each function, such as managmenet, financial, R and D, marketing and operations that could be covered within the scope of an international agreement, are examined in detail. The paper continues by calling upon specific experience obtained by B.N.F.L. in co-operation with other organisations over several years in operating both major and much smaller agreements illustrating the rationale behind the co-operation, the resolution of 'teething' troubles and the current status of these organisations. In conclusion, the paper comments upon the effectiveness of collaboration agreements and identifies several requirements for internation co-operation to succeed
Research purpose: The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between employee satisfaction and organisational performance in a public sector organisation. Research design: A three-section survey questionnaire was used to collect data from a conveniently recruited sample of 272 members of a South African government department. Pearson’s correlation test as well as a regression analysis were employed to test the existence of a relationship between employee satisfaction and organisational performance. The mean score ranking technique was used to compare the impact of the individual employee satisfaction factors on organisational performance. Main findings: Positive correlations were observed between organisational performance and all five employee satisfaction factors, namely working conditions, ability utilisation, creativity, teamwork and autonomy. Amongst the five factors, teamwork had the greatest impact on organisational performance, followed by ability utilisation, creativity, autonomy, with working conditions exerting the least influence. Practical and/or managerial implications: Strategic interventions involving positive adjustments on the five employee satisfaction dimensions examined in this study may be initiated and applied to improve overall organisational performance in public organisations. Contributions and/or value add: The study endorses the notion that a satisfied workforce could be the key to enhanced organisational performance.
Employees are increasingly concerned of managing their own career and are thus becoming less loyal. However, to stay competitive organisations need to retain their best talents. The present study examined the relationship between organisational support for development and intentions to turnover, as well as affective commitment. Previous research has indicated inconsistent results between employee development and turnover, suggesting that organisational support for development might increase o...
Mafini, Chengedzai; Dlodlo, Nobukhosi
Orientation: There is much research on extrinsic motivation, job satisfaction and life satisfaction in organisations. However, empirical evidence on how such factors affect employees in public organisations in developing countries is lacking. Research purpose: To examine the relationships between extrinsic motivation, job satisfaction and life satisfaction amongst employees in a public organisation. Motivation for the study: Labour strife is an endemic phenomenon in South Africa’s publ...
Goulden, Murray; Spence, Alexa
This study analyses the role of the Facilities Manager [FM] as a key actor in organisational energy management. This builds on the idea that ‘middle’ agents in networks can be an important lever for socio-technical change. The study demonstrates the considerable impact the FM can have on workplace energy consumption, whilst identifying a number of factors that constrain their agency and capacity to act. These include demands to meet workforce expectations of comfort; a lack of support from senior management; and a shortage of resources. Underlying these challenges, the study identifies three different energy rationales – that is to say conceptual frameworks – which are deployed by different groups of organisational actors. The challenges of reconciling these at-times-contradictory rationales results in a picture of energy management which to the outsider can appear highly irrational. The paper concludes with a consideration of how policy makers can apply these insights to support energy reduction in workplaces. -- Highlights: •Facilities Managers are increasingly critical node in organisational use of energy. •Potential for FMs to make significant reductions to organisational energy use. •Their ability to do so is constrained by the organisational environment. •Three ‘energy rationales’ which the shape organisational context are identified. •Opportunities exist for policy makers to improve organisational energy management
Alcides López Labrada
Full Text Available Before the arising of the cooperative movement in the world, cooperation already existed. So, it is logical to affirm that there can be cooperation without cooperative movement. But there cannot be cooperative movement without cooperation, because cooperation is an indispensable premise for the existence of cooperative movement. Both the precursors of the cooperative movement and the classics of Marxism agreed on the necessity of cooperative formation. Lenin called socialism “the regime of cultured cooperators” and the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA contemplated the following, among the seven universal principles of the cooperative movement: education, formation and training of cooperative members, as one of the most important and strategic principles. They have been recognized as the golden rule of the cooperative movement. The changes occurred in Cuba (the existence and evolution of different types of cooperatives, the updating of the economic model, the dynamics of the agrarian sector and the opening of the cooperative movement towards other sectors of the National Economy fully justify the achievement of a cooperative culture, not only of cooperative members but also the actors that perform around cooperatives, the decision- makers and all society. Among the most significant proposals for the achievement of a cooperative culture in Cuba the following can be found: to integrate the different actors that participate in the cooperative formation by means of a national network for cooperative formation by identifying the training demand and training the people that should really implement the change, while building capacities of all the individuals involved in the cooperative movement in a direct or indirect way.
Churchill, G.F.; Rippon, D.J.
The CEGB standard QA 42-1 quality assurance programme requires purchasers to establish supplier selection and assessment procedures either by previous continuous record of supplying identical or equivalent material satisfactorily, or by an evaluation of the sub-contractors quality system. In order to avoid the multiple evaluations that the latter would involve for projects such as nuclear power stations, which concern a hierarchy of organisations, the idea of co-operative evaluations was suggested. The requirements involved in establishing co-operative evaluations are discussed. Some potential difficulties which have been identified from experience are described. (U.K.)
Iriadna Marín de León
Full Text Available The cooperative constitutes one of the most important sectors in the economy in any economic formation - social, its fundamental cell is the man's integral development who should be capable for, from a reflexive and creative position, to assume the challenges that it implies an efficient and effective administration in function of the cooperative company. It is the educational dimension in cooperative values the key for the future, conceived in a systematic way and assuming an appropriate methodological conception. In this perspective, leaving of the theoretical foundation of the administration of the human resources in general, he intends to be carried out an integral analysis of the formation processes and education for the cooperative with the purpose of valuing the central aspects of this thematic one, leaving of the fact that the education constitutes the medullary element that leads to a true cooperative formation.
Bear, Adam; Rand, David G
Humans often cooperate with strangers, despite the costs involved. A long tradition of theoretical modeling has sought ultimate evolutionary explanations for this seemingly altruistic behavior. More recently, an entirely separate body of experimental work has begun to investigate cooperation's proximate cognitive underpinnings using a dual-process framework: Is deliberative self-control necessary to reign in selfish impulses, or does self-interested deliberation restrain an intuitive desire to cooperate? Integrating these ultimate and proximate approaches, we introduce dual-process cognition into a formal game-theoretic model of the evolution of cooperation. Agents play prisoner's dilemma games, some of which are one-shot and others of which involve reciprocity. They can either respond by using a generalized intuition, which is not sensitive to whether the game is one-shot or reciprocal, or pay a (stochastically varying) cost to deliberate and tailor their strategy to the type of game they are facing. We find that, depending on the level of reciprocity and assortment, selection favors one of two strategies: intuitive defectors who never deliberate, or dual-process agents who intuitively cooperate but sometimes use deliberation to defect in one-shot games. Critically, selection never favors agents who use deliberation to override selfish impulses: Deliberation only serves to undermine cooperation with strangers. Thus, by introducing a formal theoretical framework for exploring cooperation through a dual-process lens, we provide a clear answer regarding the role of deliberation in cooperation based on evolutionary modeling, help to organize a growing body of sometimes-conflicting empirical results, and shed light on the nature of human cognition and social decision making.
Full Text Available Intensity of the farm production organisation in relation to soil organic matter balance in different degree of mechanization process of work for 42 farms situated in different regions of Poland was analysed. Coefficients agricultural production process in ecological, economic and social aspects were presented also. It was shown that indexes; intensity farm production organisation and soil organic matter balance are correlated.
Intensity of the farm production organisation in relation to soil organic matter balance in different degree of mechanization process of work for 42 farms situated in different regions of Poland was analysed. Coefficients agricultural production process in ecological, economic and social aspects were presented also. It was shown that indexes; intensity farm production organisation and soil organic matter balance are correlated.
Blackstock, Sheila; Harlos, Karen; Macleod, Martha L P; Hardy, Cindy L
To examine the impact of organisational factors on bullying among peers (i.e. horizontal) and its effect on turnover intentions among Canadian registered nurses (RNs). Bullying among nurses is an international problem. Few studies have examined factors specific to nursing work environments that may increase exposure to bullying. An Australian model of nurse bullying was tested among Canadian registered nurse coworkers using a web-based survey (n = 103). Three factors - misuse of organisational processes/procedures, organisational tolerance and reward of bullying, and informal organisational alliances - were examined as predictors of horizontal bullying, which in turn was examined as a predictor of turnover intentions. The construct validity of model measures was explored. Informal organisational alliances and misuse of organisational processes/procedures predicted increased horizontal bullying that, in turn, predicted increased turnover intentions. Construct validity of model measures was supported. Negative informal alliances and misuse of organisational processes are antecedents to bullying, which adversely affects employment relationship stability. The results suggest that reforming flawed organisational processes that contribute to registered nurses' bullying experiences may help to reduce chronically high turnover. Nurse leaders and managers need to create workplace processes that foster positive networks, fairness and respect through more transparent and accountable practices. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Krams, Indrikis; Bērziņš, Arnis; Krama, Tatjana; Wheatcroft, David; Igaune, Kristīne; Rantala, Markus J.
Theory predicts that animals in adverse conditions can decrease individual risks and increase long-term benefits by cooperating with neighbours. However, some empirical studies suggest that animals often focus on short-term benefits, which can reduce the likelihood that they will cooperate with others. In this experimental study, we tested between these two alternatives by evaluating whether increased predation risk (as a correlate of environmental adversity) enhances or diminishes the occurrence of cooperation in mobbing, a common anti-predator behaviour, among breeding pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. We tested whether birds would join their mobbing neighbours more often and harass a stuffed predator placed near their neighbours' nests more intensely in areas with a higher perceived risk of predation. Our results show that birds attended mobs initiated by their neighbours more often, approached the stuffed predator significantly more closely, and mobbed it at a higher intensity in areas where the perceived risk of predation was experimentally increased. In such high-risk areas, birds also were more often involved in between-pair cooperation. This study demonstrates the positive impact of predation risk on cooperation in breeding songbirds, which might help in explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation. PMID:19846454
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006
Structural change is seen as a way to meet the challenges of the future that face many organisations. While some writers agree that broad-ranging structural change may not always transform an organisation or enhance its performance, others claim that innovation will be a major source of competitive advantage to organisations, particularly when…
Hansen, D.H.J.M.; Lavrijsen, T.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.
From scientific literature and policy memoranda it appears that sustainable industrial cooperatives result into economical and ecological benefits. However, little empirical data on practical results is available. Therefore, recently, an analysis has been carried out determining the benefit of industrial cooperation. The economical and ecological offer businesses a cost-effective option to reduce the environmental burden. Still, real implementation of such cooperatives is only realized yet by forerunners in the field of environmental management [nl
Halepota, JA; Irani, Z
Human resource development is one of the important issues in the field of organisational behaviour. It affects employee performance in the organisation. Job satisfaction is one of the important issues in the developing country particularly for Pakistan. This study focuses on the employee perception towards job satisfaction. In this regard procedural justices, on job training, esprit de corps and job clarity variables have been examined. This study is a cross sectional study which ...
Hancock, Helen; Campbell, Steve
To evaluate the impact of the Leading an Empowered Organisation (LEO) programme on the role of grade G nurses and their multidisciplinary colleagues in one NHS trust. The LEO programme encourages and promotes leadership skills among NHS staff. A purposive sample of four grade G nurses, one from each of the hospital's four clinical divisions, was included. Each grade G nurse, and his or her matron, nominated eight colleagues for interview. The final sample comprised four grade G nurses and 32 of their colleagues. Data were analysed using the principles of thematic analysis described by Attride-Stirling (2001). The LEO programme improved the grade G nurses' approach to their work in relation to competence, communication strategies, problem solving, risk taking, leadership and management style. Factors that affected the grade G nurses' implementation of the LEO principles included: relationships, personality, experience, work context, staffing levels, autonomy and authority. This study provided insight into how the grade G nurses applied the principles of the LEO programme in their daily work. Their ability to apply the LEO principles was both restricted and assisted by the culture in which they worked. A partnership between theory and practice is needed. This finding has implications for the LEO programme and the need for it to be implicit in the local working philosophy, that is, the context in which its principles are to be used. This is so that the working context and people within it are intimately engaged with the individual undertaking the course.
Tattegrain, A.; Hardt, P. von der
PHEBUS Fission Product (FP) Research Programme developed from the initial French design study into a European project, and further into an international programme by agreements with overseas partners during the past two years. The programme is supervised by a Steering Committee which reviews the technical-scientific options and the results. The executive body under the Committee, the Project Group, includes a Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and Commission of the European Communities (CEC) manager as well as three (CEA) project leaders for design and manufacture, experiment operation, and interpretation of test results. The Steering Committee can request expertise from the two working groups the Analytical Group (SAWG) (elaborating test objectives, carrying out reactor calculations and test precalculations) and the Technical Group (TG) (assessing the designs proposed and the results obtained by the Project Group). A third group looks into financial aspects of the CEA-CEC contract only. The two working groups, SAWG and TG, play an important role in the exchange of information and of expertise between all partners. The paper reviews the internal Project organisation and the collaboration network, inside the European Community and through CEA overseas. (author)
socialisatlon, an eq*msis on " belongingness " goals and a desire to maintain social solidarity in an increasingly individualistic social envirment. Cohm...statistical quality control and where employees often meet in their am time and usually receive a financial bcnus for the performance of the organisation. In...companies with more than 500 employees had QC programmes. ihle QCs have no decision making powrs, managers in many cases felt pressured to accept all
Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Frattasi, Simone; Figueiras, Joao
Conventional software applications are usually operated on a platform similar to the one on which they were developed and tested. Wireless application development, on the other hand, is more challenging because applications are developed on one platform (like UNIX or Windows) and deployed on a to...
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006
An understanding of organisational structure can provide guidance for organisations that want to change and innovate. Many writers agree that this understanding allows organisations to shape how their work is done to ultimately achieve their business goals--and that too often structure is given little consideration in business strategy and…
Historical, political, international, and structural aspects of all OPEC states are presented. The history of the OPEC is reviewed, its charta is discussed, and the conditions of membership are presented. Special characteristics of the member states are presented in short separate chapters. OPEC and international law is the subject of another chapter. The future prospects of the OPEC are discussed in the form of an interview.
Full Text Available The supraoptic nucleus (SON is part of the central osmotic circuitry that synthesises the hormone vasopressin (Avp and transports it to terminals in the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Following osmotic stress such as dehydration, this tissue undergoes morphological, electrical and transcriptional changes to facilitate the appropriate regulation and release of Avp into the circulation where it conserves water at the level of the kidney. Here, the organisation of the whole transcriptome following dehydration is modelled to fit Zipf's law, a natural power law that holds true for all natural languages, that states if the frequency of word usage is plotted against its rank, then the log linear regression of this is -1. We have applied this model to our previously published euhydrated and dehydrated SON data to observe this trend and how it changes following dehydration. In accordance with other studies, our whole transcriptome data fit well with this model in the euhydrated SON microarrays, but interestingly, fit better in the dehydrated arrays. This trend was observed in a subset of differentially regulated genes and also following network reconstruction using a third-party database that mines public data. We make use of language as a metaphor that helps us philosophise about the role of the whole transcriptome in providing a suitable environment for the delivery of Avp following a survival threat like dehydration.
Corrigall, R S; Martin, C J; Watson, I
An amnesty for disposal of sealed radioactive sources from Scottish hospitals has been funded by the Scottish Executive to address problems arising from accumulation of sources. The contract was awarded to a company involved in radioactive source recycling. Coordination of uplifts from several hospitals allowed considerable financial savings to be made, so source amnesties could offer monetary advantages to Health and Education Departments elsewhere in the UK, as well as alleviating the problem from security and storage of sources that are no longer required. The sources originated in 14 hospitals, but were uplifted from five pick-up points. There were a total of 246 sources with 167 of these being caesium-137. The total activity was 16.2 TBq with one large 16.1 TBq blood irradiator source and the activities of all the other sources adding up to 167 GBq. This paper describes organisation of the collection. Options for achieving compliance with the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 are discussed, although in the event, special authorisations were obtained for each hospital. Arrangements for transport of the sources and source security were drawn up including emergency procedures for dealing with foreseeable incidents. The police provided secure overnight storage for the loaded truck and assistance in directing and monitoring progress of the load
Van Baare, J.
skin to any hospital around the world. In this presentation the Organisation of the Euro Skin Bank and their specific techniques will be presented, also describing a short over-view of the performed research projects during the last years
Koch, Christian; Thuesen, Christian; Gottlieb, Stefan
This paper discusses management of partnering projects where construction companies and clients cooperate in developing buildings and services. Taking a practice based theory and political process approach, partnering is seen as an example of a complex project operation, characterised by processual...... level these elements is continuously mobilized, negotiated and stabilized in their intersection with the practices and skill basis for the project. It is thus shown how incentives becomes especially problematic for the architects due to tensions between new and old contractual forms, and that project...... management levels are more successful in one case in mediating between operations and governance frames than in the other The research imply that the governance frame and the operations of the projects are mutually interacting throughout the projects, in contrast to the traditional sequential phase breakdown...
Sai, F. L.; Shahrill, M.; Tan, A.; Han, S. H.
For this study, Zollman’s four corners-and-a-diamond mathematics graphic organiser embedded with Polya’s Problem Solving Model was used to investigate secondary school students’ performance in arithmetic word problems. This instructional learning tool was used to help students break down the given information into smaller units for better strategic planning. The participants were Year 7 students, comprised of 21 male and 20 female students, aged between 11-13 years old, from a co-ed secondary school in Brunei Darussalam. This study mainly adopted a quantitative approach to investigate the types of differences found in the arithmetic word problem pre- and post-tests results from the use of the learning tool. Although the findings revealed slight improvements in the overall comparisons of the students’ test results, the in-depth analysis of the students’ responses in their activity worksheets shows a different outcome. Some students were able to make good attempts in breaking down the key points into smaller information in order to solve the word problems.
Jones, Megan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Environmental and Conservation Sciences, Murdoch University (Australia); Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: email@example.com [Environmental and Conservation Sciences, Murdoch University, Australia, Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa)
This research is an attempt to verify the notion postulated by Robert Bartlett and Lynton Caldwell that the full benefits of environmental impact assessment (EIA) would take decades to be realized. While EIA is intended to directly influence decision-making regarding new development proposals, the process is also expected to lead to organisational learning and transformation over time. Our aim was to examine the influence of EIA on a single Western Australian proponent with sustained experience in the process to understand how EIA is used within the organisation and to seek evidence of transformation of the organisation's purpose and mission. The research reviewed literature in order to identify key influences of EIA on organisations, along with semi-structured staff interviews and document analysis for the case study organisation. Ascertaining causality that involvement in EIA processes influences or effects organisational learning and transformation is a challenge in the face of other societal events. Document analysis and interviewee data indicates that the action-forcing nature of EIA did influence proponent behavior through the creation of internal processes seeking to ensure robust design of new projects that would satisfy environmental protection expectations, without the need to trigger formal EIA. Evidence of EIA values and thinking were apparent within internal documentation, including the evolving mission statement. Our research indicates that participation in the EIA process can positively influence organisational learning and transformation by guiding internal change for decision-making. - Highlights: • The long-term influence of EIA on a proponent organisation is investigated. • EIA promotes internal organisational learning and transformation. • Analysis of mission statements can indicate the influence of EIA on organisations. • Organisations aligned with EIA values can reduce the need to engage in formal EIA.
Jones, Megan; Morrison-Saunders, Angus
This research is an attempt to verify the notion postulated by Robert Bartlett and Lynton Caldwell that the full benefits of environmental impact assessment (EIA) would take decades to be realized. While EIA is intended to directly influence decision-making regarding new development proposals, the process is also expected to lead to organisational learning and transformation over time. Our aim was to examine the influence of EIA on a single Western Australian proponent with sustained experience in the process to understand how EIA is used within the organisation and to seek evidence of transformation of the organisation's purpose and mission. The research reviewed literature in order to identify key influences of EIA on organisations, along with semi-structured staff interviews and document analysis for the case study organisation. Ascertaining causality that involvement in EIA processes influences or effects organisational learning and transformation is a challenge in the face of other societal events. Document analysis and interviewee data indicates that the action-forcing nature of EIA did influence proponent behavior through the creation of internal processes seeking to ensure robust design of new projects that would satisfy environmental protection expectations, without the need to trigger formal EIA. Evidence of EIA values and thinking were apparent within internal documentation, including the evolving mission statement. Our research indicates that participation in the EIA process can positively influence organisational learning and transformation by guiding internal change for decision-making. - Highlights: • The long-term influence of EIA on a proponent organisation is investigated. • EIA promotes internal organisational learning and transformation. • Analysis of mission statements can indicate the influence of EIA on organisations. • Organisations aligned with EIA values can reduce the need to engage in formal EIA.
The Cogema group hopes to find a second business, being awaiting the nuclear area starts again. It needs eighteen months to find it. It must have an empathy with its first business and does not be in competition with its customers. (N.C.)
Attwood, Teresa K; Atwood, Teresa K; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Brazas, Michelle E; Corpas, Manuel; Gaudet, Pascale; Lewitter, Fran; Mulder, Nicola; Palagi, Patricia M; Schneider, Maria Victoria; van Gelder, Celia W G
In recent years, high-throughput technologies have brought big data to the life sciences. The march of progress has been rapid, leaving in its wake a demand for courses in data analysis, data stewardship, computing fundamentals, etc., a need that universities have not yet been able to satisfy--paradoxically, many are actually closing "niche" bioinformatics courses at a time of critical need. The impact of this is being felt across continents, as many students and early-stage researchers are being left without appropriate skills to manage, analyse, and interpret their data with confidence. This situation has galvanised a group of scientists to address the problems on an international scale. For the first time, bioinformatics educators and trainers across the globe have come together to address common needs, rising above institutional and international boundaries to cooperate in sharing bioinformatics training expertise, experience, and resources, aiming to put ad hoc training practices on a more professional footing for the benefit of all.
Virtanen, M; Kivimäki, M; Singh-Manoux, A; Gimeno, D; Shipley, M J; Vahtera, J; Akbaraly, T N; Marmot, M G; Ferrie, J E
Privatisation and private sector practices have been increasingly applied to the public sector in many industrialised countries. Over the same period, long-term work disability has risen substantially. We examined whether a major organisational change--the transfer of public sector work to executive agencies run on private sector lines--was associated with an increased risk of work disability. The study uses self-reported data from the prospective Whitehall II cohort study. Associations between transfer to an executive agency assessed at baseline (1991-1994) and work disability ascertained over a period of approximately 8 years at three follow-up surveys (1995-1996, 1997-1999 and 2001) were examined using Cox proportional hazard models. In age- and sex-adjusted models, risk of work disability was higher among the 1263 employees who were transferred to an executive agency (HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.46 to 2.48) compared with the 3419 employees whose job was not transferred. These findings were robust to additional adjustment for physical and mental health and health behaviours at baseline. Increased work disability was observed among employees exposed to the transfer of public sector work to executive agencies run on private sector lines. This may highlight an unintentional cost for employees, employers and society.
Visscher, Klaasjan; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petronella C.
This paper presents a case history of an Ericsson design centre in the Netherlands, from its founding in 1990 till its dramatic end in 2003. The paper describes the development of the organisation over the years—its origins, the abundant growth, the many organisational and technological
Rinas V. Kashbraziyev
Full Text Available Objective to analyze the contradictions of international industrial cooperation as a driving force for its development. Methods identification and analysis of contradictions in international cooperation were carried out using systematic approach based on general scientific methods of theoretical and empirical research analysis synthesis scientific observation measurement and comparison. On the basis of generalization and analysis of the information contained in the statistical system of the Organization for economic cooperation and development and the global competitiveness reports of the world economic forum the author presents assessment of the level of technological and knowledgeintensity of the economies of certain developed and developing transition countries investment efficiency in science and research their influence on the technological level of production and the degree of technological sovereignty of the mentioned countries. Results the study of the industrialized countriesrsquo experience has shown that the production of hightech products is impossible without integration into a global cooperative network of industrial companies and research institutes. However being included into the global production chains and attracting advanced technologies of production marketing and management the national companies inevitably fall into dependence on foreign import supply. An economic axiom is formulated modern hightech production requires a dramatic expansion of international production cooperation. The main ontological contradiction of international industrial cooperation is revealed characterized by the impact on the improvement of the technological level of production and innovativeness of the national economy on the one hand and simultaneous strengthening of its dependence on foreign partners on the other hand. Scientific novelty on the basis of systematic approach the article reveals contradictions in international cooperation in the
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set the scene for some radical epochal thinking about the approach and future strategic directions in the management of organisational learning, following the author's earlier editorial theme concerning the need for exploration and innovation in organisational learning management.…
The NHS in England is an organisation undergoing substantial change. The passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, consolidates and builds on previous health policies and introduces further 'market-style' reforms of the NHS. One of the main aspects of these reforms is to encourage private and third sector providers to deliver NHS services. The rationale for this is to foster a more competitive market in healthcare to encourage greater efficiency and innovation. This changing healthcare environment in the English NHS sharpens the need for attention to be paid to the ethical operation of healthcare organisations. All healthcare organisations need to consider the ethical aspects of their operation, whether state or privately run. However, the changes in the type of organisations used to provide healthcare (such as commercial companies) can create new relationships and ethical tensions. This paper will chart the development of organisational ethics as a concern in applied ethics and how it arose in the USA largely owing to changes in the organisation of healthcare financing and provision. It will be argued that an analogous transition is happening in the NHS in England. The paper will conclude with suggestions for the development of organisational ethics programmes to address some of the possible ethical issues raised by this new healthcare environment that incorporates both private and public sector providers.
Moyassar Zuhair Al-Taie
Full Text Available The organisational strategic IT vision has been considered as a key contingency that affects the role of Information Technology (IT leadership in organisations. Using the theoretical lens of the contingency approach to leadership, this study investigates the influence of strategic IT vision of an organisation on the Chief Information Officer (CIO role and structural power. A large-scale survey was conducted with CIOs of Australian organizations. The results of the data analysis show that the Educator role of the CIO seems to be more important in organisations that articulated a ‘transform’ vision of IT compared to organisations that focus on IT for automation. The results also show that CIOs in organisations that strategically view IT as a transformation or informate-down orientation gave the role of Information Steward more attention than CIOs working in organisations where IT is viewed as a means to automate processes. The findings also show that there is significant positive association between the organisation’s strategic IT vision and the CIO’s structural power in terms of reporting structure and CIO job title. This study has implications for practitioners as the findings indicate the necessity for CIOs to align their roles with their firm’s IT vision and suggest that Chief Executive Officers (CEOs should empower their firm’s CIOs in terms of their reporting structure and job title as the role of IT in the organisation progresses from the lower strategic vision of IT (automate to the highest vision (transform.
Full Text Available The object of this study is the system of amoebas founded originally in Japanese Kyocera. The study aims to identify milestones of the transformation in a company organisational system to the Amoeba Management System (AMS. The study takes a conceptual research approach. It starts from the analysis of available sources on the AMS, identifies the most challenging points of this system, and afterwards, based on organisational change literature, formulates the main steps of transformation towards AMS. The following milestones of AMS implementation emerge from organisational change theories: (1 the preparation for AMS, (2 the change of organisational structure, (3 the design and introduction of a new accounting system, (4 the introduction of inner prices between amoebas, and (5 the transformation of the organisational culture. At the end of the study, the most important issues for future research are listed.
Scaratti, Giuseppe; Gorli, Mara; Ripamonti, Silvio
Purpose: This paper seeks to provoke thoughts around the possibility of using the lever of practices and situated knowledge to trigger organisational change and to redesign it with the involvement of the whole organisation. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents connections between a psychosociological approach and a practice-based…
This article informs school improvement and educational change from a radically different perspective. Building upon work done recently in neural psychology, primatology and ethology, the article examines four common and general types of organisational form: the cell, the silo, the pyramidal, and the network types of organisational structures.…
Montgomery, Anthony; Panagopoulou, Efharis; Kehoe, Ian; Valkanos, Efthymios
To date, relatively little evidence has been published as to what represents an effective and efficient way to improve quality of care and safety in hospitals. In addition, the initiatives that do exist are rarely designed or developed with regard to the individual and organisational factors that determine the success or failure of such initiatives. One of the challenges in linking organisational culture to quality of care is to identify the focal point at which a deficient hospital culture and inadequate organisational resources are most evident. The accumulated evidence suggests that such a point is physician burnout. This paper sets out to examine this issue. The paper reviews the existing literature on organisational culture, burnout and quality of care in the healthcare sector. A new conceptual approach as to how organisational culture and quality of care can be more effectively linked through the physician experience of burnout is proposed. Recommendations are provided with regard to how future research can approach quality of care from a bottom-up organisational change perspective. In addition, the need to widen the debate beyond US and North European experiences is discussed. The present paper represents an attempt to link organisational culture, job burnout and quality of care in a more meaningful way. A conceptual model has been provided as a way to frame and evaluate future research.
Simpson, Andrea; Fitzgerald, Tanya
The effects of gender on organisational structures for professional university staff have been largely overlooked in the literature. Using data from one Australian university, we examine the location of professional female staff in the organisational hierarchy. Our analysis indicated that significant gendered segregation existed within and across…
Ramsdal, Helge; Hansen, Gunnar Vold
This article addresses questions about health authorities' recommendations on the local organisation of services for people with mental health disorders in Norway. Analysis is made of the dynamic relationship between different evaluations, national guidelines and other knowledge that influence the organisation of services. The analysis is based…
Goduscheit, René Chester; Bergenholtz, Carsten; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj
Traditionally, the literature on action research has been aimed at intra-organisational issues. These studies have distinguished between two researcher roles: The problem-solver and the observer. This article addresses the distinct challenges of action research in inter-organisational projects. I...
The author critically examines the role of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). In recent years, it is noted, the organisation's agenda of trade liberalisation, its perceived lack of accountability and insensitivity to human rights have attracted intense criticism. It has been asserted that provisions of WTO agreements concerning ...
Goduscheit, René Chester; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj
Traditionally, the literature on action research has been aimed at intra-organisational issues. These studies have distinguished between two researcher roles: The problem-solver and the observer. This article addresses the distinct challenges of action research in inter-organisational projects....... In addition to the problem-solver and observer roles, the researcher in an inter-organisational setting can serve as a legitimiser of the project and manage to involve partners that in an ordinary business-to-business setting would not have participated. Based on an action research project in a Danish inter......-organisational network, this article discusses potential pitfalls in the legitimiser role. Lack of clarity in defining the researcher role and project ownership in relation to the funding organisation and the rest of the network can jeopardise the project and potentially the credibility of the researchers. The article...
Full Text Available Background. It is not possible to isolated ethical aspects and norms in the work of physician from the professional and scientific ones. The physician will not act contrary to ethical principles if he will work for the interests of the patient and in accordance with scientific knowledge.Present situation and possible solutions. Every physician, especially if working in university institution is co-operating with pharmaceutical industry, at least he is makes the prescriptions and chooses one drug of the possible ones. There are also other aspects of co-operation: clinical trials, writing expertise and lectures at scientific meetings, sponsored by pharmaceutical industry. There are guidelines and codex in Western countries for more than ten years, which regulate the relation between physician and pharmaceutical industry. The most important ones are those from World Health Organisation, European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries’ Associations’, and International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations’. Scientific independence of lecturers and writers is tried to be achieved by disclosure of relevant financial relation with pharmaceutical corporation in advance.Conclusions. Physician working with pharmaceutical industry has o follow the guidelines of international professional associations. He/she has to be independent relaying only upon scientific and professional principles seeing primary the benefit of the patient.