Hansen, Flemming Splidsboel
New regional organisations are always interesting to follow as they will tell us more about the things that make or break this type of co-operation. Originally established as “The Shanghai Five” in 1996, The Shanghai Co-operation Organisation (SCO) has been successful at reducing tension between...
provided in the areas where NATO operates, such as Bosnia, Kosovo and. Afghanistan, then a stable and secure situation has been reached. However, in 1949. NATO started as an organisation with an exclusive military objective, namely to deter an eventual attack by the Soviet Union and its satellites against European
James N Mitchell
Full Text Available This article examines the growing infuence of transnational organised crime on the nations of South East Asia. Human trafficking, maritime piracy, terrorism and wildlife trafficking are major transnational crimes that cause significant harm to both individuals and national economies. This article examines the continuing domestic and international legislative, law enforcement and policy efforts of South East Asian nations to address transnational organised crime. it is concluded that to effectively counter transnational organised crime there is a need to employ international cooperation that is focused on addressing the unique factors of each crime.
enforcement and judicial organs at national, regional and local level; employment; housing; education and ... many years to establish its current integrated political-military structure and activities, such as frequent ... Fellow, Netherlands Institute of International Relations at Clingendael in The. Hague. 1 NATO Handbook ...
Haddad, Nora Ourabah; Ton, Giel; Sraïri, Mohamed Taher; Bijman, Jos
Marketing cooperatives in developing and transition countries face challenges when they aim to strengthen their competitiveness. One of these challenges relates to improving the quality of the products delivered by their members. Another challenge relates to the financial sustainability of the
Ponisio, Laura; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Riemens, Lourens; van Eck, Pascal; Krishnamurthy, Sandeep; Isaías, Pedro
Cooperation in inter-organisational networks usually requires considerable up-front investments in information technology (IT) specific for this cooperation. It is therefore of great importance that participants in a network select the partners for which it is most likely that cooperation will
Wessels, Marius Lourens
This study focuses on the compilation of guidelines for the implementation of cooperative education in teaching and learning organisations, in the Gauteng region in South Africa. Since no or limited guidelines exist in cooperative education in such organisations, it was intended to determine the present position or status of cooperative education in such organisations with the concomitant development of a conceptual framework and guidelines that could act as directive in higher...
Agricultural Productivity, Co-Operatives and Organisational Innovations: A Case of Selected Coffee Production Communities in Mbinga District Tanzania. ... The study objectives aimed at establishing coffee production level in the last farming season; examining the contribution of cooperative societies in the production of ...
Moss, Peter; Urban, Mathias
In this article, the authors provide an update on what has happened over recent months with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's proposal for an International Early Learning Study, and review responses to the proposed International Early Learning Study, including the concerns that have been raised about this new venture in…
Full Text Available The transition to a circular economy bodes well for a future of environmentally sustainable growth and economic development. The implications and advantages of a shift to a circular economy have been extensively demonstrated by the literature on the subject. What has not been sufficiently investigated is how this paradigm can be enabled through the inter-organisational cooperation among different business enterprises. In order to illustrate this point, in this paper we aim to contribute to the circular economy debate by describing and discussing such a meta-model of inter-organisational cooperation. The present study is therefore based on the analysis of three cases from an equal number of industries, from which we identified factors of potential impact for the stimulation of cooperation in a circular economy perspective. Last, but not least, we discuss the relations between the case studies and try to formulate all possible implications for both managers and research.
Moss, Peter; Dahlberg, Gunilla; Grieshaber, Susan; Mantovani, Susanna; May, Helen; Pence, Alan; Rayna, Sylvie; Swadener, Beth Blue; Vandenbroeck, Michel
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is initiating the International Early Learning Study, a cross-national assessment of early learning outcomes involving the testing of 5-year-old children in participating countries. The authors use this colloquium to inform members of the early childhood community about this project and to…
Faysse, Nicolas; Srairi, Mohamed Taher; Errahj, Mostafa
Purpose: The study investigated to what extent local farmers' organisations are spaces where farmers discuss, learn and innovate. Design/methodology/approach: Two milk collection cooperatives in Morocco were studied. The study analysed the discussion networks, their impacts on farmers' knowledge and innovation, and the performance of collective…
Morgan, Clara; Volante, Louis
Given the influential role that the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) plays in educational governance, we believe it is timely to provide an in-depth review of its education surveys and their associated human capital discourses. By reviewing and summarizing the OECD's suite of education surveys, this paper identifies the…
José Riera; Marie-Claude Poirier
Since its creation in 1950, UNHCR has engaged with faith-based organisations, faith communities and faith leaders in carrying out its work. Recently, UNHCR has been more actively exploring the role of faith in humanitarian responses.
David De Cremer
Full Text Available The present paper explores how leader prototypicality and procedural fairness connect in stimulating follower cooperation. We, first of all, argue that leader prototypicality (the extent to which a leader represents the group identity enhances positive perceptions about the future. It does so by positively influencing perceptions of the leader's procedural fairness (at least among strongly identifying group members. Such perceptions of procedural fairness, in turn, stimulate follower cooperation. Secondly, we argue that leader prototypicality also facilitates the enactment of fair procedures by increasing the effectiveness that a procedurally fair treatment has on follower cooperation. We present an overview of very recent studies that support both arguments and conclude that group based dynamics, which determine the group prototype, have important influences on the effectiveness with which leaders can stimulate cooperation by means of procedural fairness.
W. de Vries (Walter Timo)
textabstractThis chapter begins with an empirical case where various public sector organisations in the Netherlands have cooperated with a particular type of technology, geoICT, since 1996. Throughout this document, GeoICT refers to the collection of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)
Maruthappu, Mahiben; Zhou, Charlie; Williams, Callum; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat
To determine an association between unemployment rates and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mortality in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Multivariate regression analysis. OECD member states. OECD. World Health Organization HIV mortality. Between 1981 and 2009, a 1% increase in unemployment was associated with an increase in HIV mortality in the OECD (coefficient for men 0.711, 0.334-1.089, p = 0.0003; coefficient for women 0.166, 0.071-0.260, p = 0.0007). Time lag analysis showed a significant increase in HIV mortality for up to two years after rises in unemployment: p = 0.0008 for men and p = 0.0030 for women in year 1, p = 0.0067 for men and p = 0.0403 for women in year 2. Rises in unemployment are associated with increased HIV mortality. Economic fiscal policy may impact upon population health. Policy discussions should take into consideration potential health outcomes.
Maruthappu, Mahiben; Williams, Callum; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat
Objectives To determine an association between unemployment rates and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mortality in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Design Multivariate regression analysis. Participants OECD member states. Setting OECD. Main outcome measures World Health Organization HIV mortality. Results Between 1981 and 2009, a 1% increase in unemployment was associated with an increase in HIV mortality in the OECD (coefficient for men 0.711, 0.334–1.089, p = 0.0003; coefficient for women 0.166, 0.071–0.260, p = 0.0007). Time lag analysis showed a significant increase in HIV mortality for up to two years after rises in unemployment: p = 0.0008 for men and p = 0.0030 for women in year 1, p = 0.0067 for men and p = 0.0403 for women in year 2. Conclusions Rises in unemployment are associated with increased HIV mortality. Economic fiscal policy may impact upon population health. Policy discussions should take into consideration potential health outcomes. PMID:28748096
This thesis is a result of a field study conducted in El Salvador. Its background lies in previous research pointing on co-operative’s potential to lift whole groups of people out of poverty. Gender equality has been included because of the issues’ importance for economic and social sustainable development and increased growth. The questions posed in this study are how a co-operative should be organised and managed to bring about advantages to its members; and how a co-operative can contribut...
Conference RSIS (The role of science in the information society) - Contributions to Economic Development - Building 40 S2 - B01 - Mr. John Dryden, Chairman, Deputy Director, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Conference RSIS (The role of science in the information society) - Contributions to Economic Development - Building 40 S2 - B01 - Mr. John Dryden, Chairman, Deputy Director, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
The purpose of the study is to examine the extent to which schools displayed practices that promoted the notion of schools as learning organisations. The conceptual framework for this study is grounded in the current organisational learning and leadership literature. Cross-sectional survey research design was used to ...
Ponisio, Laura; van Eck, Pascal; Riemens, L.
The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic approach to plan assessment of electronic co-operation between customs organisations of different countries (e-Customs). Thorough assessment is of paramount importance, as co-operation in electronic networks usually requires considerable up-front
Vries, Walter Timo
textabstractThis chapter begins with an empirical case where various public sector organisations in the Netherlands have cooperated with a particular type of technology, geoICT, since 1996. Throughout this document, GeoICT refers to the collection of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) based systems allowing the study of natural and man-made phenomena with an explicit bearing in space (de By, 2004:15). Specific to ‘geo-’ICT is that it creates and manipulates ‘geospatial data.’ Si...
Science at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. His main research interests are in the .... In Table 1 (see page 16) we show the geographical distribution of. 160 disputes in the 1945-1995 ... Regional organisations are co-operative organisations based on geographical proximity, social and political ...
3 July 2007 - Ambassador A. Navarro Llanos, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Bolivia to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing a Co-operation Agreement concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics with CERN Director General R. Aymar.
3 July 2007 - Ambassador A. Navarro Llanos, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Bolivia to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing a Co-operation Agreement concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics with CERN Director General R. Aymar.
Jørgensen, Poul Erik Flyvholm; Isaksson, Maria
Structured Abstract: Purpose – This paper tests whether organisations in the public domain have embraced a corporate type of discourse, mirroring the private sector’s preferred orientation towards expertise, or whether they maintain their traditional discourse of goodwill towards the publics...... they serve. At a critical time for the public sector with inadequate funding and dominance of New Public Management approaches, will it be more motivated to portray itself as expert and efficient rather than altruistic? Design/methodology/approach – The paper applies a rhetorical framework to provide...... a detailed analysis of organisational value statements posted on the websites of public and private organisations. The research considers the value priorities of fifty organisations in the UK and Scandinavia in order to gauge the extent of convergence between the two sectors’ preferred discourses. Findings...
Fikes, James D; Patrick, Daniel J; Francke, Sabine; Frazier, Kendall S; Reindel, James F; Romeike, Annette; Spaet, Robert H; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Schafer, Kenneth A
In 2014, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued guidance no. 16, Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology. The stated purpose of the guidance document is "to provide guidance to pathologists, test facility management, study directors and quality assurance personnel on how the peer review of histopathology should be planned, managed, documented, and reported in order to meet Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) expectations and requirements." On behalf of and in collaboration with the global societies of toxicologic pathology, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology initiated a review of OECD guidance no. 16. The objectives of this review are to provide a unified interpretation of the guidance, to recommend compliant processes for organizations to implement, and to avoid inconsistent process adaptations across the industry. This review of the guidance document is the product of a global collaboration with other societies of toxicologic pathology and provides a section-by-section international consensus view and interpretation of the OECD guidance on peer review. © 2015 by The Author(s).
Schotanus, Fredo; Telgen, Jan
This paper develops a typology for purchasing groups. In the typology, five main forms of cooperative purchasing are distinguished based on seven main dimensions. The forms are positioned in a matrix according to two distinguishing dimensions. These two dimensions are the ‘influence by all members
Full Text Available How to achieve a more efficient, more successful, and above all more competitive organisation in the given environment and equal spare time in everything? One of responses is evidently hidden in the levels added organisation concept, which has already proved its advantages in some domains practice, and now we also try to define and explain them from the organisational and scientific aspect. As briefly presented in this paper, the nucleus is hidden in the evolutionary development of the organisation that adopts innovations, then tests and evaluates them, combines and upgrades them, and consequently it efficiently resolves difficulties of existent organisational concepts.
White, Nigel D
This book provides a concise account of the principles and norms of international law applicable to the main-type of international organisation - the inter-governmental organisation (IGO). That law consists of principles and rules found in the founding documents of IGOs along with applicable principles and rules of international law. The book also identifies and analyses the law produced by IGOs, applied by them and, occasionally, enforced by them. There is a concentration upon the United Nations, as the paradigmatic IGO, not only upon the UN organisation headquartered in New York, but on other IGOs in the UN system (the specialised agencies such as the World Health Organisation).
Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Hein, Lars
The organisational innovation of the product development function is a doubtful affair since we can hardly describe why a specific organisation works. In this article two comprehensive innovation campaigns in Danish industry are described with reference to the nature, content and results of innov...... of innovative processes and as the crux an attempt to explain principal elements in the changes of attitudes and behaviour in companies.......The organisational innovation of the product development function is a doubtful affair since we can hardly describe why a specific organisation works. In this article two comprehensive innovation campaigns in Danish industry are described with reference to the nature, content and results...
In this paper children's accident data are presented. These data were drawn from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) International Road Traffic and Accident Database (IRTAD), completed with data on separate countries drawn from other sources. Gender differences in
Over the past few years a constellation of social movements and organisations concerned with issues of globalisation and world poverty have exploded onto the world stage. They have mobilised demonstrations, organised mass gatherings and conferences, created e-networks and websites and become major players in international political lobbying and…
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this article is to analyse the theoretical views and results of empirical research concerning the relation between organisational learning (OL and organisational performance (OP. Methodology: The study was carried out through extensive literature research, including relevant literature review from databases such as ProQuest, Elsevier, Emerald and EBSCO (the phrases: “organisational learning”, “learning organisation” and “organisational performance” were searched in the keywords, titles or abstracts. Findings: From a theoretical point of view, the relation between OL and OP is neither obvious nor clear, but the analysis of the empirical studies allows one to assume that OL has an essential impact on OP. However, differences in the strength of the relation were shown and some contradictions related to the presence of the relation between OL and selected (mostly financial performance aspects identified. Furthermore, the article discusses the significant differences and inconsistencies in the methods of measuring OL, measuring OP, selecting contextual factors and adopted methods of data analysis. Implications: Inconsistencies and gaps found in the studies of the relationship between OL and OP made it possible to designate the direction for promising further research. Value: The article presents valuable insight through its in-depth, critical analysis of the organisational learning and organisational outcomes. First and foremost, this indicates that the formula of the previous empirical studies does not allow for the development of precise solutions pertaining to organisational learning management for the benefit of OP improvement.
Seeks to clarify the rhetoric about learning organizations; suggests that the term has two senses: an organization that learns and an organization that promotes learning. Asserts that an educational institution's priority is the learning needs of students, who are not analogous to other organization's human resources. (SK)
Schäfer, M; Weiss, K H; Merle, U; Stremmel, W; Rasp, B
The importance of disease-related topics can vary widely between patients and doctors. Patient organisations such as the German Verein Morbus Wilson e. V. can overcome this discrepancy. The goal of the present cooperative study was the collection of topics important to Wilson patients by asking patients to generate paintings about their disease. Patients with Wilson disease were asked by mail to draw paintings about their disease and to donate them to the Verein Morbus Wilson e. V. 32 paintings from 27 patients were donated. The majority of the patients added written comments to their art work. Disease-related topics included in the paintings were as follows: psychological work-up of the disease 33 % (n = 11), presentation of affected organs (liver/brain) 22 % (n = 6), therapy 19 % (n = 5), diagnostic path 15 % (n = 4), inheritance 15 % (n = 4), copper-related diet 11 % (n = 3). 33 % (n = 11) of the paintings were composed of two parts reflecting before and after the disease or presenting the individual time course of the disease. Psychological aspects of disease acceptance are the prominent topic in the paintings. The timepoint of diagnosis is experienced as major change in life. The paintings enable both the patient organisation and the caretakers to put more focus on the psychological aspects of the disease. Asking for paintings opens a new channel for patient-physician contacts and produces a feeling of interest and competence in patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Du vil som læser få et indblik i, hvordan omgivelsernes ændrede krav til virksomhederne ændrer på organisations- og ledelsesteorien. Baggrunden for ”Organisation – videregående uddannelser” er, at give dig egenskaberne til at analysere og vurdere ledelsesmæssige og organisatoriske problemer...
Appropriateness of Prescriptions of Recommended Treatments in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Health Systems: Findings Based on the Long-Term Registry of the European Society of Cardiology on Heart Failure.
Maggioni, Aldo P; Van Gool, Kees; Biondi, Nelly; Urso, Renato; Klazinga, Niek; Ferrari, Roberto; Maniadakis, Nikolaos; Tavazzi, Luigi
This observational study aimed to identify clinical variables and health system characteristics associated with incomplete guideline application in drug treatment of patients with chronic heart failure (HF) across 15 countries. Three data sets were used: European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Registry, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's Health System Characteristics Survey, and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Health Statistics 2013. Patient and country variables were examined by multilevel, multiple logistic regression. The study population consisted of ambulatory patients with chronic HF and reduced ejection fraction. Inappropriateness of prescription of pharmacological treatments was defined as patients not prescribed at least one of the two recommended treatments (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers and beta-blockers) or treated with both medications but at suboptimal dosage and in absence of documented contraindication/intolerance. Of 4605 patients, 1097 (23.8%) received inappropriate drug prescriptions with a large variation within and across countries, with 18.5% of the total variability accounted for by between-country health structure characteristics. Patient-level characteristics such as having mitral regurgitation (odds ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval 1.1-1.7) was significantly associated with inappropriate prescription of recommended drugs, whereas chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (odds ratio 0.7; 95% confidence interval 0.5-0.9) was associated with more appropriate prescriptions. Among the country-level variables, incentives or obligation to comply with guidelines increased the probability of prescription appropriateness. Combining clinical variables with health system characteristics is a promising exercise to explain the appropriateness of recommended drug prescriptions. Such an understanding can help decision makers to design more effective policies to
Elkin, Graham; Cone, Malcolm H.; Liao, Jianqiao
Purpose: For 40 years, it has been widely believed in the West that learning organisations would be healthier, flexible and more competitive than other organisations. By now, one might expect them to be widespread. However, fully developed learning organisations are rare in the West. In contrast, Chinese organisations seem naturally to be learning…
Sanjana Brijball Parumasur
Full Text Available Orientation: Systematic and congruent organisational structures, systems, strategies and designs are necessary for the successful implementation of organisational development (OD interventions.Research purpose: This article examines national and international OD practices. It assesses the effect of diverse cultures and cultural values for determining the effectiveness of OD interventions.Motivation for the study: Most organisational change and development programmes fail and only a few result in increased competitiveness, improvements and profitability. This emphasises the need for change interventions to give sufficient attention to leadership, cultures, managing change and adopting context-based OD interventions.Research design, approach and method: This article is a literature review of the current trends and research in the area of OD interventions. It synthesises the influence that cultures and cultural orientations have on determining which OD intervention strategies organisations should adopt in different cultures.Main findings: The analysis emphasises how important it is to achieve congruence between the OD interventions organisations select and their local cultures.Practical/managerial implications: It is important to note the evolving nature of the political and economic climates that influence national cultures and that they emphasise that interventions that reflect OD values, which are tailor-made and shaped to the needs of local cultures, are necessary.Contribution/value-add: This study links various OD interventions to Hofstede’s dimensions for differentiating national cultures. It provides guidelines for aligning the practices and techniques of OD to the values and cultures of the organisations and societies in which they are to be implemented.
The article considers the many possibilities of bringing the arts into organisations to keep up with the demands of an uncertain and fast-changing environment. It discusses cases of arts-based interventions in companies that reflect the different kinds of arts-based interventions that can be found...
Lindkvist, Pia; Hansen, Kai; Heide, Asbjørn
Bogen giver en indføring i de centrale emner indenfor organisation og ledelse. Bogen henvender sig især til akademi- og diplomuddannelserne samt uddannelser til professionsbachelorer, der alle har et anvendelsesorienteret formål. Endvidere henvender bogen sig til uddannelser og kurser, der...... beskæftiger sig med ledelse og organisation på et videregående niveau. Til bogen er der udarbejdet en lang række supplerende materialer til undervisere og studerende i form af opgaver og cases, test med tilhørende svar, vejledninger i opgaveløsning og projektarbejde. dette univers kan findes på bogens...... hjemmeside på www.organisation.academica.dk...
Ponisio, Laura; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Riemens, Lourens; van Eck, Pascal
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to support understanding of inter-organisational systems. Design/methodology/approach – The approach combines two types of graphical snapshots of relevant properties of each organisation, based on concrete data. The first type
Going, James J
A human breast has many lobes, which are highly variable in size and shape, each with one central duct, its peripheral branches and their associated glandular tissues. Realising the potential of new endoductal approaches to breast diagnosis and improving our understanding of breast cancer precursors will require greatly improved knowledge of this ductal-lobar anatomy and the distribution of cancer precursors within it. This architecture is very challenging to study in its entirety: whole-breast lobe mapping has only been achieved for two human breasts. Clearly, much more efficient techniques are required. Streamlined data capture and visualisation of breast parenchymal anatomy from thin and thick sections in a vector format would allow integrated mapping of whole-breast structure with conventional histology and molecular data. The 'Astley Cooper digital breast mapping project' is proposed as a name for this achievable research objective. Success would offer new insights into the development of breast cancer precursor lesions, allow testing of the important 'sick lobe' hypothesis, improve correlation with imaging studies and provide 'ground truth' for mathematical modelling of breast growth. PMID:16879731
Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Manzey, Dietrich
decision making processes are salient challenges in cooperation both within ESA and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. The importance given to these factors is consistent with results from the broader area of work and organizational psychology. Potential implications for safety operations are discussed
Dagmara Bubel; Sylwia Legowik-Swiacik; Michal Dziadkiewicz; Anna Wisniewska-Salek
The purpose of this paper is to learn about the implementation of the process management concepts in the non-profit organisations and the possible evaluation of effectiveness raise of the organisations' functioning...
Bolmsten, Johan; Dittrich, Yvonne
are likely to take the form of complex, integrated infrastructures, supporting collaboration within and across organisations. This places requirements on the IT infrastructure. As the work practices within an organisation change, the supporting infrastructure also needs to evolve....
Evaluating a Public Sector Organisation for SDI Readiness – The. Case of a South African Government Department. Sibusisiwe Hlela1, Serena Coetzee2 and Antony Cooper3. 1Centre for Geoinformation Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, email@example.com. 2Centre for Geoinformation Science, ...
This article assesses how Kenyan co-operative policies contribute to the development of co-operatives as viable business enterprises and autonomous democratic organisations. The article identifies three policy phases that have guided co-operative development over four decades. Policy engagement with cooperatives ...
Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte; Strunck, Jeanne
or authoritative narratives, attracting attention to the struggles over meanings, values and identities that consistently take place in organisations (Mumby 1987). In the bank, these struggles are exemplified through the discursive construction of recruitment policies and practices, with managers both subscribing...... to dominant narratives and constructing counter-narratives that challenge the very meaning of these as well as invite questions of the relationship between self and the social (Bamberg & Andrews 2004). The paper analyses semi-structured interviews with middle managers, using the combined method of discourse...
Strunck, Jeanne; Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte
or authoritative narratives, attracting attention to the struggles over meanings, values and identities that consistently take place in organisations (Mumby 1987). In the bank, these struggles are exemplified through the discursive construction of recruitment policies and practices, with managers both subscribing...... to dominant narratives and constructing counter-narratives that challenge the very meaning of these as well as invite questions of the relationship between self and the social (Bamberg & Andrews 2004). The paper analyses seventeen semi-structured interviews with middle managers, using a combination...
The Dynamics of Organisation and Work - Measurement framework of the Meadow survey by Peter Nielsen for the MEADOW Consortium Organisational changes and the upcoming of new adaptable work organisations are common in most developed countries regardless of culture and industrial traditions. The main...... and this influences the new ways of configuring the work organisations. However, there is a great diversity in the ways firm develop their organisations and restructure work and not least in the resulting economic and social performance. This diversity means that there is a considerable and urgent need to produce...... international comparative data on organisational changes and economic as well as social performance of the emerging new work organisations. The Meadow project has created instruments to produce such international comparative data and the aim of this paper is to present the measurement framework of Meadow...
Full Text Available Objectives: In this paper, integrated care in an inter-organisational cooperative setting of in-home elderly care is studied. The aim is to explore how home care workers coordinate their daily work, identify coordination issues in situ and discuss possible actions for supporting seamless and integrated elderly care at home. Method: The empirical findings are drawn from an ethnographic workplace study of the cooperation and coordination taking place between home care workers in a Swedish county. Data were collected through observational studies, interviews and group discussions. Findings: The paper identifies a need to support two core issues. Firstly, it must be made clear how the care interventions that are currently defined as ‘self-treatment’ by the home health care should be divided. Secondly, the distributed and asynchronous coordination between all care workers involved, regardless of organisational belonging must be better supported. Conclusion: Integrated care needs to be developed between organisations as well as within each organisation. As a matter of fact, integrated care needs to be built up beyond organisational boundaries. Organisational boundaries affect the planning of the division of care interventions, but not the coordination during the home care process. During the home care process, the main challenge is the coordination difficulties that arise from the fact that workers are distributed in time and/or space, regardless of organisational belonging. A core subject for future practice and research is to develop IT tools that reach beyond formal organisational boundaries and processes while remaining adaptable in view of future structure changes.
Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Holm Pedersen, Lene
This research examines the effects of organisational change on employee health and labour market outcomes. Previous studies looking into organisational change in the private sector indicate that the larger the size and depth of organisational change, the larger the detrimental consequences...... to the employees. This study contributes to the literature on four main dimensions. First, we extend the analysis of organisational change to a public sector setting. Second, while previous findings remain inconclusive regarding causal effects due to problems of endogeneity, our analysis contributes to research...... of causal effects of organisational change by exploiting a large scale public sector reform which can be considered as a quasi-experiment. Third, given that the reform was exogenous and implemented simultaneously in a number of Danish municipalities, we also have an objective measure of organisational...
Going, James J.
A human breast has many lobes, which are highly variable in size and shape, each with one central duct, its peripheral branches and their associated glandular tissues. Realising the potential of new endoductal approaches to breast diagnosis and improving our understanding of breast cancer precursors will require greatly improved knowledge of this ductal-lobar anatomy and the distribution of cancer precursors within it. This architecture is very challenging to study in its entirety: whole-brea...
Abstract Farmer organisations have become the centrepiece of pro-poor market development strategies in Africa. Assumed to facilitate scale, quality of produce and professionalism they are regarded as a solution for farmers that are hampered from economic opportunities. In Mali
Dana R. Fisher; Lindsay Campbell; Erika S. Svendsen
How is the organisational structure of urban environmental stewardship groups related to the diverse ways that civic stewardship is taking place in urban settings? The findings of the limited number of studies that have explored the organisational structure of civic environmentalism are combined with the research on civic stewardship to answer this question. By...
Regional Organisations and International Mediation: The Effectiveness of Insider Mediators. ... African Journal on Conflict Resolution ... the last two decades of the twentieth century, the world witnessed an increasing number of regional conflict management efforts undertaken by regional inter-governmental organisations.
van Klaveren, M.; Tijdens, K.
The over-all picture concerning the diffusion of telework stemming from research undertaken in 2000 and 2001 is rather negative. Teleworking policies of organisations hardly go beyond the minimal definition that we used in analyzing Dutch surveys from these years (organisations offering the
Kolmos, Anette; Gynnild, Vidar; Roxå, Torgny
The article points out the faculty centres ought to be more conscious in their organisational strategies and get to managements support when working on pedagogical changes.......The article points out the faculty centres ought to be more conscious in their organisational strategies and get to managements support when working on pedagogical changes....
Full Text Available Over the last two decades competition amongst organisations including financial institutions has increased tremendously. The value of information is critical to competition in different organisations. In addition, the management of cost of delivery and cohesiveness of information flow and use in the organisations continue a challenge to information technology (IT. In an attempt to address these challenges, many organisations sought various solutions, including enterprise information architecture (EIA. The EIA is intended to address the needs of the organisation for competitive advantage.This research article focused on the role of principles in the development and implementation of EIA. The article aimed to investigate how EIA could be best leveraged, exploited, or otherwise used to provide business value. The research brings about a fresh perspective and new methodological principles required in architecting the enterprise information.
Drawing on interview data from five Danish research sites, the article asks what processes of internationalisation mean for the way universities organise and are organised by language. Following an initial reflection on the nature of a global knowledge market, the discussion centres on the idea of "linguistic organisation", as this has…
Dark, Frances; Whiteford, Harvey; Ashkanasy, Neal M; Harvey, Carol; Harris, Meredith; Crompton, David; Newman, Ellie
Strategies to implement evidence-based practice have highlighted the bidirectional relationship of organisational change on organisational culture. The present study examined changes in perceptions of organisational culture in two community mental health services implementing cognitive therapies into routine psychosis care over 3 years. During the time of the study there were a number of shared planned and unplanned changes that the mental health services had to accommodate. One service, Metro South, had the additional challenge of embarking on a major organisational restructure. A survey of organisational culture was administered to clinical staff of each service at yearly intervals over the 3 years. At baseline assessment there was no significant difference between the two services in organisational culture. At the midpoint assessment, which was conducted at the time the Metro South restructure was operationalized, there were less positive ratings of organisational culture recorded in Metro South compared to the other service. Organisational culture returned to near-baseline levels at endpoint assessment. These findings are consistent with the literature that organisational culture is relatively robust and resilient. It is also consistent with the literature that, at any one time, a service or organisation may have a finite capacity to absorb change. Consequently this limitation needs to be taken into account in the timing and planning of major service reform where possible. The results also extend the literature, insofar as external factors with a high impact on the operation of an organisation may impact upon organisational culture albeit temporarily.
Mendan, Kathleen Cassandra
A social enterprise organisation seeks business solutions to social problems. It identifies social needs and uses the market to address them. Existing literature presents a variety of concepts and frameworks to connect market sector organisations with social amelioration agendas, including corporate social responsibility and stakeholder management. Yet, the demand for such organisations to contribute to resolving social problems remains, and international business and manage...
Janssen, Lodevicus Johannes Henricus
There is reason for concern about the Dutch development cooperation. A survey of some aid evaluations of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) showed that the aid results are limited and that the goals of the programs are not achieved. Management concerns using an organisation's resources to
Marynissen, H M F
Both researchers and managers search for the most appropriate form of organisational communication. The aim of such an organisational communication is to influence the receivers' perception to confirm, adapt or change behaviour according to the sender's intention. This paper argues that to influence the receivers' perception, a specific form of communication that is embedded in a specific organisational culture is required. It also demands prior knowledge of the existing organisational schemata and the current perception concerning the topic that has to be communicated. The rationale is that three obstacles hinder the objectives of traditional communication strategies to influence perception according to the sender's objectives. The first challenge is that a receiver of a certain message never garners one single, clearly pronounced message conveyed by one single person. Yet, few studies are based on multiple messages from various sources. This makes most of the communication strategies in use obsolete. The second strain is the dual mode of thinking that forms organisational members' perceptions: the heuristic and the cogitative (Taleb, 2010). Most organisational communication theories are based on the paradigm in which receivers of information process this information in a rational way, while research in the field of neurobiology (Lehrer, 2009) indicates that rationality is dominated by emotions. The third difficulty is that organisational members constrain to well-established, ingrained schemas (Labianca et al., 2000; Balogun and Johnson, 2004). Based on these existing schemas, the scattered information from multiple sources, and the inability to process that information through cognitive reasoning, organisational members construct perceptions that are not in line with the objectives of the sender's communication. This article reviews different communication theories, points out key concepts in the literature on individual and collective perceptions, and suggests
Jonker, C. M.; Snoep, J. L.; Treur, J.; Westerhoff, H. V.; Wijngaards, W. C. A.
Within the areas of Computational Organisation Theory and Artificial Intelligence, techniques have been developed to simulate and analyse dynamics within organisations in society. Usually these modelling techniques are applied to factories and to the internal organisation of their process flows, thus obtaining models of complex organisations at various levels of aggregation. The dynamics in living cells are often interpreted in terms of well-organised processes, a bacterium being considered a (micro)factory. This suggests that organisation modelling techniques may also benefit their analysis. Using the example of Escherichia coli it is shown how indeed agent-based organisational modelling techniques can be used to simulate and analyse E.coli's intracellular dynamics. Exploiting the abstraction levels entailed by this perspective, a concise model is obtained that is readily simulated and analysed at the various levels of aggregation, yet shows the cell's essential dynamic patterns.
In current literature a new organisational form is presented, the virtual organisation (VO). ms organisational form is a co-operation between a number of companies who combine their strengths to develop a new service or product. The current VO literature is ambiguous about the definition and
Monia L. Castro
Full Text Available Orientation: Organisational climate and job satisfaction are distinct but related constructs, and both appear to influence employees’ understanding of the work environment and their level of job satisfaction.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between organisational climate and job satisfaction to determine whether employees’ perceptions of the work environment influence their level of job satisfaction.Motivation for the study: Organisations are facing more challenges than ever before. These challenges are not unique to any specific organisation or industry, but affect all organisations.Organisational climate in particular is constantly challenged by changes impacting organisations today.Research design, approach and method: An organisational climate questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 696 employees from a population of 1453 employees working in three regions in which the organisation was operational. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to investigate the structure of the climate model.Main findings: The revised 12-factor model (after the confirmatory factor analysis fitted the data best and the researchers therefore decided to proceed with the revised 12-factor model (11 dimensions for further analysis. A stepwise regression was conducted and nine dimensions of organisational climate were found to predict job satisfaction. The results indicated a strong positive correlation (r = 0.813, p< 0.01 between organisational climate and the dependent variable of job satisfaction.Practical implications: This study provided support for the view that line managers and human resource practitioners should be aware that different biographical groups have different needs that can influence their job satisfaction levels and different perceptions of the climate within the organisation and that this impacts on their behaviour.Contribution: The findings of this study indicated a
Full Text Available The vast research on organisational justice has focused on the organisation and the supervisor. This study aims to further this line of research by integrating two trends within organisational justice research: the overall approach to justice perceptions and the multifoci perspective of justice judgments. Specifically, this study aims to explore the effects of two additional sources of justice, coworker-focused justice and customer-focused justice, on relevant employees’ outcomes—burnout, turnover intentions, job satisfaction, and workplace deviance— while controlling the effect of organisation-focused justice and supervisor-focused justice. Given the increased importance attributed to coworkers and customers, we expect coworker-focused justice and customer-focused justice to explain incremental variance in the measured outcomes, above and beyond the effects of organisation-focused justice and supervisor-focused justice. Participants will be university students from Austria and Germany employed by service organisations. Data analysis will be conducted using structural equation modeling.
Garcia, Alessandra Bassalobre; Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Pissinati, Paloma de Souza Cavalcante; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Camelo, Silvia Helena Henriques; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Fernandez Lourenço
This study aimed to analyse the relationship between the organisational culture and feelings of pleasure and suffering among working nursing professionals. This was a cross-sectional correlational study conducted in a tertiary hospital with 214 nursing staff over 3 months using three instruments: professional characterisation, the Brazilian Instrument for Assessment of Organisational Culture, and the Scale of Pleasure and Suffering at Work. The analysis included descriptive statistics and the Spearman correlation test. The external integration practice was the domain most frequently found in the organisational culture and the feeling of pleasure-gratification predominated among the workers. Values of cooperative professionalism and wellbeing, and practices of external integration and relationship promotion, were related to increased pleasure and decreased suffering at work. These aspects depend on the organisational culture of the institution. Investigating organisational culture facilitates the understanding of potential collective coping strategies and the organisational changes that favour good mental health in nurses.
Full Text Available This paper aims to present to the wide public a success story concerning the efficient cooperation between the civil society as a whole (citizens, NGOs, stake holders and public administration authorities. The success consists in using and strengthening dialogue measures within the collaboration of the two actors. The research is based on a study case. This was run through an EU funded project - “Efficient mechanisms of cooperation with public authorities”. The goal of the project was to increase the capacity of non-governmental organizations to cooperate with the public administration institutions. In order to reach the proposed aim there have been organized a series of theoretical and practical training courses, roundtable discussions and study-visits. Through this manner it has been encouraged and practiced the structured dialog on public agenda issues between the representatives of the local and national authorities and the active citizens. The outputs of the project consist in one Public Consultation Guide elaborated on the basis of good practices acknowledged through the project and two local citizens` initiatives on local public administration matters that have been brought into the public attention of the decision-making actors. Active citizenship, structured dialogue between civil society and state actors, developed tools for effective advocacy and lobby that are part of the success story that we intend to present through this study case.
The thesis examines cooperation and participation as modes of institutional action to address women’ social and economic problems and needs in the context of rural Tanzania. It does so against the background of the history of cooperatives in Tanzania and development cooperation. The thesis
Tam, Steven; Gray, David E.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to relate the practice of organisational learning in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to the organisational life cycle (OLC), contextualising the differential aspects of an integrated relationship between them. Design/methodology/approach: It is a mixed-method study with two consecutive phases. In…
Rauffet, Philippe; Cunha, Catherine Da; Bernard, Alain
International audience; Organisational capability management is a recent approach; it enables global and coordinated management of resources and facilitates future synergies within extended organisations. This paper provides a state of the art of organisational capability approach and proposes a management framework. On the one hand, an overview of the theoretical principles and the practical solutions, especially methods for standardising and transferring firms' good practices, points out th...
Houghton, Robert J; Baber, Chris; Stanton, Neville A; Jenkins, Daniel P; Revell, Kirsten
Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) allows complex, sociotechnical systems to be explored in terms of their potential configurations. However, CWA does not explicitly analyse the manner in which person-to-person communication is performed in these configurations. Consequently, the combination of CWA with Social Network Analysis provides a means by which CWA output can be analysed to consider communication structure. The approach is illustrated through a case study of a military planning team. The case study shows how actor-to-actor and actor-to-function mapping can be analysed, in terms of centrality, to produce metrics of system structure under different operating conditions. In this paper, a technique for building social network diagrams from CWA is demonstrated.The approach allows analysts to appreciate the potential impact of organisational structure on a command system.
This essay will study leadership by critically analysing several key theories; it will begin with the concept of leadership to facility an understanding of the subject. Initially, the description of leadership in organisations will be explored to present the development of leadership, and simultaneously identify the purpose of effective leadership. Subse-quently, the demand for good leaders in current business environment will be discussed in order to identify the importance of effective lead-ership. Finally, an empirical case will be discussed to reveal how well the key theories help leaders to address various issues in organisations.
Supra-national Organisations like the United Nations Organisation, Organisation of African Unity now called African Union (AU) and Commonwealth of Nations are inter-state governmental organisations or part of the non-state actors that impinge on the international environment. More importantly, due to the various crises ...
THE SOCIAL ORGANISATION AND POPULATION ECOLOGY OF THE. PLAINS ZEBRA (EQUUS QUAGGA). HANS KLINGEL. Zoologisches Institut. Technische Universitiit,. Braunschweig, Germany. INTRODUCTION. In spite of the fact that the plains (or Burchell's) zebra (Equus quagga) is one of the commonest large wild ...
Roxana Sánchez Boza
Full Text Available This study analyses the role carried out by saving and credit cooperatives in Central America where they have gained momentum, mainly in the past ten years. Cooperatives of this type are called financial intermediation cooperatives due to the influence of various legislative regulations that have placed them in the context of international control, the type of economic activity they perform and the fact that they make profits from both public and private international entities which enable their growth.Many of these organisations can be commended. They are highly competitive on financial markets and strive to extend their profits to increasingly larger parts of the population while also searching for new products to benefit the sector of the population that has chosen the cooperative model as a means to progress in a sphere of equity and respect for the rights of their fellow men.Received: 31.05.2015Accepted: 17.07.2015
Full Text Available The article deals with issues concerning organisational culture and its maintenance in existing conditions in organisations in the Czech Republic. The importance of the topic lies in the fact that organisational culture is a reflection of human dispositions in work activities and strengthens one’s attitude to work and regulates relationships between employees and the management of the organisation. The aim of the article is to identify the importance of organisational culture and to determine the process of its development and its maintaining in organisations in the Czech Republic. Data has been obtained through a questionnaire survey carried out in organisations in the Czech Republic and evaluated using the tools of descriptive statistics. Primary data was evaluated using the tools of descriptive statistics and also the methods of comparison, induction, deduction and synthesis were applied. The results have been compared with the outcomes of a similar survey which took place in the Slovak Republic. At present, the theme of development and maintenance of a suitable organisational culture for the purpose of ensuring the required level of organisations’ performance and gaining a competitive advantage is highly relevant and significant in terms of its possible application in both scientific and practical activities.
Huisman, Marieke; Klebanov, Vladimir; Monahan, Rosemary; Klebanov, Vladimir; Beckert, Bernhard; Biere, Armin; Sutcliffe, Geoff
In this paper, we discuss the challenges that have to be addressed when organising program verification competitions. Our focus is on competitions for verification systems where the participants both formalise an informally stated requirement and (typically) provide some guidance for the tool to
Macroinvertebrate functional organisation along the longitudinal gradient of an austral temperate river. ... The Kowie River, a relatively pristine system in South Africa, was sampled on four occasions over one year to determine if relative abundances of functional feeding groups (FFGs) of invertebrates changed along the ...
Immigrant political organisations in the United States have traditionally built political power by claiming to legitimately represent an ethnically defined group. However, the emergence of a number of multi-ethnic, class-based organisations over the last two decades has challenged this assumption,
Full Text Available Polish public organisations are often perceived as having strong bureaucratic orientation, avoiding both change and risk. However, in the last decade a distinct change in the management model of public organisations can be noticed. Public sector becomes an open ground for mergers and partnerships, entrepreneurial leadership, diversified services and commercialization (Golensky and DeRuiter 1999; Zimmerman and Dart, 1998; Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2004; Walker, 2013]. Public organisations embrace these strategies from the for-profit sector in order to manage change and to be effective. Most importantly, public organisations are adopting these frameworks in order to survive the changing operating environment, including changes in the level of government funding. Our paper draws on the Miles and Snow (1978 typology of generic strategies - prospectors, defenders, analysers, and reactors - to identify different organisational strategies within public organisations providing social services in Poland. In order to assess organisational culture we used the most widespread and used in many empirical studies Cameron and Quinn’s model (2003, the Competing Values Framework (CVF, from which four cultures - adhocracy, clan, market and hierarchy - emerge. The choice of these two providers of social services was dictated by our conviction, that these organisations are critical both for the national economy and for mitigating, counteracting and preventing social exclusion.
ABSTRACT. This article examines the experiences of least developing countries (LDCs) acceded to World Trade Organisation (WTO) in relation to their accession process, terms of accession and implementation of commitments with a view to drawing lessons which could be relevant to Ethiopia to devise successful ...
Regional vs. Global Mediators. International conflict management is conducted by many actors, undertaking different forms of conflict management. Mediation is ... organisations thus have a vested interest in managing a regional conflict. .... rapprochement between Nigeria and the main rebel leader, Charles Taylor, in.
Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris
The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...
The present article attempts to determine the role of principles of good governance in the discussion regarding the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and its human rights accountability. It shows that the WTO as an organisation cannot be compared to other international organisations that are more autonomous such as the ...
of participation. Inspired by American Pragmatism I propose a ‘third way', which encompasses both learning as acquisition and as participation by way of the concepts of inquiry and experience as well as an understanding of the relation between individuals and environment as that of a transaction, i.e. a continual...... and mutual constitution of both. Further, I suggest an understanding of organizational life and work as social worlds as a ‘third way' encompassing both a systemic and a collective understanding of organizations.......In the paper it is shown that learning can be understood by way of two metaphors, acquisition and participation. In the acquisition metaphor, learning is understood as individual acquisition of knowledge whereas the participation metaphor understands learning as the social processes...
Van Holtz, R. C.
The project organisation of IRAS is described, showing the tasks assigned to each project group during post-launch operations. The satellite is described, emphasizing the detectors. In the task division, the role of the U.S. is to construct the telescope and survey instrument, launch the satellite, process final science data for the survey instrument, and provide certain standard satellite items. The Netherlands construct the spacecraft and three additional instruments, integrates and tests the overall satellite, and designs and participates in the development of the operational system. The U.K. provides the operational control center and primary tracking station, generates a system for preliminary science analysis of the survey data, provides housekeeping analysis software and science data distribution software, and staffs the control center operations. The teams involved in mission planning and operations, and their roles, are identified, and a block diagram of the operations organisation is presented.
Lessons CASAC Chief of Army Senior Advisory Committee CAT /A Combat Arms Training - Army CIOG Chief Information Officer Group DAKM Director of Army...Essential, Improve) • Lack of clear doctrine for CAT /A (Essential, Improve) • CIOG access policies, practices – (web enabled PDA, doctrine on PDA’s... cradle to the grave’ philosophy and facilitated by HR strategies. Mentoring should be a feature of all training activities and be recognised/ rewarded
Bioethics and organisational ethics* are applied ethics disciplines with different objects of investigation. Bioethics focuses on the moral aspects of caring for the health of individuals and populations, and organisational ethics on the moral aspects of organisations' strategies and operations. So these two disciplines converge ...
Nkechi Cordelia Ojiagu; Ph.D Charles Onugu; Uchenna Ph.D
ABSTRACT The study examined the effect of membership of cooperative societies on the economic activities of farmers as well as the determinants of their income in rural Nigeria focusing on Anambra State. Data from 2506 members selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling were analyzed. The study found among others that members incomes are dependent upon their socio-economic profile such as age marital status and membership or otherwise of cooperative societies education cooperative...
Barnieh, Lianne; Manns, Braden; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Clement, Fiona
The use of a restrictive formulary, with placement determined through a drug-reimbursement decision-making process, is one approach to managing drug expenditures. To describe the processes in drug reimbursement decision-making systems currently used in national publicly funded outpatient prescription drug insurance plans. By using the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) nations as the sampling frame, a search was done in the published literature, followed by the gray literature. Collected data were verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across countries. All but one country provided at least one publicly funded prescription drug formulary. Many systems have adopted similar processes of drug reimbursement decision making. All but three systems required additional consideration of clinical evidence within the decision-making process. Transparency of recommendations varied between systems, from having no information publicly available (three systems) to all information available and accessible to the public (16 systems). Only four countries did not consider cost within the drug reimbursement decision-making process. There were similarities in the decision-making process for drug reimbursement across the systems; however, only five countries met the highest standard of transparency, requirement of evidence, and ability to appeal. Future work should focus on examining how these processes may affect formulary listing decisions for drugs between countries. © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) Published by International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) All rights reserved.
Giangreco, Antonio; Carugati, Andrea
This is the first of a two-case series (408-026-1 and 408-027-1). Marco Ginola was hired as the Human Resources (HR) Director of a large municipality in central Italy. The organisation had gone through a phase of major expansion which left problems in co-ordination, integration, delegation...... and control. Marco had been called in because of his reputation for being an effective innovator with unconventional ideas for the public sector. Previously, during his long career in the civil service, Marco proved to be an effective leader and negotiator who was open to other people's view points. He would...
Arundel, Anthony; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke
that are used to explore at the level of national innovation systems the relation between innovation and the organisation of work. In order to construct these aggregate measures we make use of micro data from two European surveys: the third European survey of Working Conditions and the third Community......It is widely recognised that while expenditures on research and development are important inputs to successful innovation, these are not the only inputs. Further, rather than viewing innovation as a linear process, recent work on innovation in business and economics literatures characterises...... Innovation Survey (CIS-3). Although our data can only show correlations rather than causality they support the view that how firms innovate is linked to the way work is organised to promote learning and problem-solving....
Goetz, A M
Although the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) maintains a strong commitment to gender equity in its anti-poverty programs, a conservative external environment often impedes efforts to make its organizational structure consistent with this commitment. For example, BRAC's approach to organizing its field operations has been to abolish the distinction between home and office. BRAC's female employees live with male colleagues in their rural offices, travel long distances on bicycles and motorcycles, and reject the sari--practices that are antithetical to the prevailing culture and place tremendous pressure on these field workers. The high work intensity, need to work beyond normal business hours, and lack of on-site child care subjects married female employees to hostility from their husbands and relatives. Single female employees are often regarded as unmarriagable because of their divergent life-styles. Although BRAC makes provisions for employees to take leave for family responsibilities, staff who access this benefit are viewed as more committed to family than their work. The sexual activities of female--but not male--employees are scrutinized. Despite these contradictions, BRAC's innovative arrangements model a new form of gender relations in rural areas. BRAC is enabling its young women employees to postpone marriage and demonstrate a nontraditional role. The extent to which BRAC should take responsibility for compensating for the constraints imposed on women by patriarchy remains problematic. Working conditions could be improved, however, by allowing women to be near their families, domesticating the work environment, and respecting women's personal lives.
Jasni Abdul Latif
Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between the perceptions of the employees about ISO 9000 implementation and perceived organisational outcomes. A conceptual framework linking the level of employee influence and involvement, their perception of ISO 9000 and the perceived impact on their work and the organisational outcomes is posited. Data was collected from a random sample of 64 employees of a service organisation. Contrary to expectations, the work impact of ISO 9000 was not correlated with the efficiency and market outcomes of ISO 9000 certification but the employee involvement, influence and perception of ISO 9000 were. The conceptualization of the influence path of ISO 9000 implementation on the organisational outcomes may require rethinking as perception may have a direct effect on the outcomes without the mediation of the impact on work. In short, employees may report benefits or positive outcomes even though no change is reported in their work.
Exploring the job satisfaction and organisational commitment of employees in the information technology environment. ... Southern African Business Review ... knowledge that can be used to improve organisational practices for the retention of valuable staff members in the information technology environment.
Full Text Available Perception of fairness among employees is a guiding force that influences employee attitude and behaviour. However, the mechanisms associated with justice need to be studied further. This study hypothesises that perceived organisational support (POS mediates the relationship between organisational justice perceptions and affective commitment of employees. The study was conducted in a multi-national organisation operating in India in the service sector; the sample size was 71 employees. Baron and Kenny's model of studying the mediating relationship was used. The findings showed that POS fully mediates the relationship between distributive justice and affective commitment as well as partially mediates the relationship between procedural justice and affective commitment. This study highlights the importance of fairness and justice in organisations and identifies the mechanism by which employee perceptions of justice influence their loyalty and involvement.
Functional strategic plans help in implementation by organising and activating specific units of the business strategy. (marketing, finance, production, etc) in order to pursue the business strategy in daily activities. THE PLACE OF ORGANISATIONAL CAPABILITIES IN STRATEGY FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION.
S. Ongkittikul (Sumet)
textabstractThis thesis is a result from a project funded by the co-operative research programme T3 of the Netherlands Organisation of Applied Scientific Research TNO and the Netherlands Research School for Transport, Infrastructure, and Logistics TRAIL TRAIL Thesis Series no. 2006/5, The
Full Text Available In circumstances governed by consistent change in all aspects of business, trust represents a significant factor in the behavioural patterns of organisations. Of great importance for a successful communication in organisations is understanding the levels of trust among staff, employees and their management, and trust in the organisation itself. Trust is a cohesive and motivating factor in work groups. Also, based on trust are identification and commitment to the organisation, as well as the relationships of employees. In successful organisations special attention is given to the problems of trust and mistrust. This work considers different theoretical concepts of how trust is created and maintained in organisations, different dimensions of organisational trust, as well as the effects of trust in organisational performance.
Matsudaira, Yoshito; Fujinami, Tsutomu
Our goal in this paper is to understand, in the light of intuition and emotion, the problem-finding and value judgments by organisational members that are part of organisational knowledge creation. In doing so, we emphasise the importance of embodied knowledge of organisations as an explanatory concept. We propose ways of approaching intuition and sense of value as these are posited as objects of research. Approaches from the first, second, and third-person viewpoints result in a deeper grasp of embodied knowledge of organisations. Important in organisational knowledge creation is embodied knowledge of organisations, which has a bearing on problem-finding before any problem-solving or decision making takes place, and on value judgments about the importance of problems that have been found. This article proposes the concept of embodied knowledge, and, by introducing it, gives a profound understanding of that facet of organisational knowledge creation characterised by tacit knowledge held by organisational individuals.
Raminta Pucetaite; Aurelija Novelskaite; Laura Markunaite
... and cognitive components in public and private sector organisations in Lithuania. The empirical data were collected with an electronic and paper survey using a standardised questionnaire in 2013-2014 (n...
Full Text Available As societies develop, the tourism industry has become one of the most powerful and largest industries in the global economy. The industrial status and economic function of the tourism industry have increased in the economic development of cities. The tourism industry has helped to drive the city economy, create employment, and facilitate culture and the environment The tourism industry, as one of the supporting industries for economic development in China, presents diverse services that are not only competitive within the industry, but could also increase national consumption. In addition to the professional service items and quality, the adjustment of business strategies aimed at the changeable environment are considered as key success factors in the tourism industry. This study analyzes the effect of business strategies on organisational performance in the tourism industry. Owners, managers, and employees from the top ten travel agencies in Taiwan were selected as the research subjects and a total of 600 questionnaires were distributed. Within the retrieved 438 surveys, 43 were incomplete and removed to yield a total of 395 valid questionnaires. Within the empirical analyses business strategies appear to have significant positive correlations with job satisfaction, organisational objective and job performance in organisational performance. Moreover, organisational culture presents a partially moderating effect for the relations between business strategies and organisational performance.
This paper provides an overview of the history of the user organisation of homeless persons in Denmark. The first part of the paper seeks to identify some of the processes and actors who facilitated the formation of the organisation, and it seeks to discuss why a user organisation of homeless...
5Knowledge loss poses a challenge to organisations that wish to remain competitive. The meaning of knowledge that exists in the minds of people and its manifestation in organisations is examined to provide a framework for the investigation of organisational human input factors and strategic risks of knowledge loss.
Schuring, R.W.; Harbers, Clementine; Harbers, C.C.E.; Kruiswijk, M.; Kruiswijk, Martine; Rijnders, Sander; Boer, Harm
Neither science nor practice seems to regard the implementation of a continuous improvement (CI) programme as a problematic organisational innovation. Many organisations do not regard CI implementation as a major change and tend to use their existing hierarchy to organise and manage the process.
(Wagner & Spencer, 1996: 67-8). It holds employees together and stimulates employees to commit and perform. Organisational culture has the potential to set the tone in organisations. Managing cultural units has become increasingly important, due to: •. Mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures that require organisations to ...
Engel, H O
To review the essential principles involved in rescue missions for natural and man-made disasters. A description of the relief of a concentration camp in 1945 as an example of the logistics required in any major disaster or rescue. The arrival of trained Army rescue teams on the first day and dealing systematically with priorities in salvage, treatment and nursing saved many lives, even of desperately ill patients. A centralised administration and organisation of supplies is the first priority. Suitable intravenous and very light nutrients, and the prevention and combating of infections are more urgent than the provision of shelter and clothing.
transition towards renewable energies as a case the article integrates material aspects into the theory on the narration of organisational identities. Following Czarniawska (1997) the concept of organisational identity is viewed as an evolving organisational narrative. Following Law (1994....... The article concludes to that end that both social and material aspects add to the endurance of organisational identities.......This article contributes to the emerging body of work in organisational theory that seeks to include materiality in conceptualising processes of organizing (e.g. Law, 1994; Doolin, 2003; Czarniawska and Gustavsson, 2004; Dale, 2005). Using the four largest multinational oil companies' green...
Jalleh, Geoffrey; Anwar-McHenry, Julia; Donovan, Robert J; Laws, Amberlee
A primary aim of the pilot phase of the Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion campaign was to form partnerships with community organisations. As a component of the broader campaign strategy, collaborating organisations promoted their activities under the Act-Belong-Commit banner in exchange for resources, promotional opportunities and capacity building in event management and funding. The impact of the Act-Belong-Commit campaign on the capacity and activities of collaborating organisations during the pilot phase was evaluated using self-completed mail surveys in 2006 and 2008. Collaboration with the campaign had a positive impact on community organisations' capacity, including staff expertise, media publicity and funding applications. Collaborating organisations had strong positive perceptions of Act-Belong-Commit officers and all expressed a willingness to collaborate in future events and activities. The partnership model used during the pilot phase of the Act-Belong-Commit campaign was successful in creating mutually beneficial exchanges with collaborating organisations. So what? Community partnerships are necessary for the effective delivery of mental health promotion campaigns at a local level. Successful partnerships involve the provision of real and valuable benefits to collaborating organisations in return for their cooperation in promoting health messages.
Full Text Available This article shows how institutionalism, a theory in organisational social science, provides a model for diagnosing organisational challenges that influence the ethical practices and integration in the Norwegian Army. Institutionalism provides tools for analysing the differences between expressed values and actual practices and for understanding the organisational dynamics that unfold at the crossroads of the organisation's formal structure, informal culture and stakeholder relations. In this article we present and discuss such differences and dynamics in the Norwegian Army based on findings from a survey and a number of workshops. We also provide some suggestions for effective implementation of strategies for strengthening ethics in such an organisation. We argue that the perspective taken in this project is also relevant for other highly professionalised complex organisations and that such interdisciplinary research will strengthen practical ethics' potential for real impact.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v6i1.1779
Nkechi Cordelia Ojiagu; Ph.D Charles Onugu; Uchenna Ph.D
ABSTRACT The study examined the effect of membership of cooperative societies on the economic activities of farmers as well as the determinants of their income in rural Nigeria focusing on Anambra State...
Rietjens, S.J.H.; Verlaan, Kirsten; Brocades Zaalberg, Thijs W.; de Boer, S.J.
This paper seeks to contribute to an improved information management and exchange between humanitarian organisations and military agents in complex emergencies. To do so, a theoretical information management process model was developed and applied to the case of information management between
C L Van Tonder
Full Text Available The identity concept has been around in the form of “corporate identity" for some time, but its appearance as “organisation identity" is more recent. Emerging theory and initial empirical research suggest that an identity approach and “identity interventions" in particular, offer promising avenues to the organisation development practitioner for enhancing organisational focus, building resilience in the face of major change, and improving performance. Identity interventions in and of themselves, but also employed as pre-change interventions, build organisational capacity that would stave off premature organisational “death" and extend the organisation’s life expectancy. Opsomming Die identiteitskonsep is in die vorm van korporatiewe identiteit reeds ’n geruime tyd in omgang, maar die verskyning daarvan as “organisasie-identiteit? is meer onlangs. Ontluikende teorie en aanvanklike empiriese navorsing suggereer dat ’n identiteitsbenadering en "identiteitsintervensies" in die besonder, belowende geleenthede aan die organisasie- ontwikkelingspraktisyn bied om organisasiefokus te verbeter, die organisasie se veerkragtigheid ten aanskoue van omvangryke verandering te bou, en prestasie te verbeter. Identiteitsintervensies op sigself bou organisasiekapasiteit, maar kan ook as voorveranderingsintervensies aangewend word wat premature organisasie "sterftes" sal vermy en die organisasie se lewensverwagting sal verleng.
Kipp, Margaret E. I.
This talk (the public talk for my thesis) examines the phenomenon of social tagging from its early beginnings to its current level of prominence on a wide variety of websites in a series of linked studies examining the structures and patterns of tag term use to determine whether regular patterns appear that would support information organisation and retrieval.
Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo
Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.
Havaei, Farinaz; Dahinten, V Susan; MacPhee, Maura
The purpose of this study was to examine the main and interaction effects of perceived organisational support, span of control and leadership rank on novice nurse leaders' organisational commitment. As nurse leaders' organisational commitment is eroded at times of healthcare restructuring, it is important to study factors associated with organisational commitment. Cross-sectional data from 69 novice nurse leaders, collected via mailed surveys at two time points, were analysed using hierarchical regression. The findings supported our hypotheses about the positive effect of perceived organisational support, the positive effect of leadership rank and the negative effect of span of control on novice nurse leaders' organisational commitment. In addition, perceived organisational support was shown to moderate the negative effect of span of control on novice nurse leaders' organisational commitment at time 2. Organisational strategies aimed at supporting nurse leaders, and attention to span of control, are required to enhance the organisational commitment of novice nurse leaders. Nurse leaders with a wide span of control, in particular those with little leadership experience, need to adopt leadership strategies that maximise their effectiveness, such as organising smaller work groups or teams within their wide span of control. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Per Anker; Jensen, Jesper Ole
Two houses in the same street can be built in the same year, they can look the same, and still they might provide very different support for sustainable living. This article points to the Strategic Facilities Management Organisation (SFMO) as the most important concept, to understand and manage...... implementation of sustainable facilities management in housing administration. The concept provides a frame for understanding the roles and relations of tenants, owners, administrators and operators. The paper is based on a Danish research project on environmentally sound building operation including literature...... literature on sustainable facilities management, where it fills a gap as it deals with housing and strategic FM. Intended readers are those interested in housing administration and especially the transition of existing housing into more sustainable housing. Intended readers include building owners, policy...
Rietjens, Sebastiaan J H; Verlaan, Kirsten; Zaalberg, Thijs W Brocades; de Boer, Sirp J
This paper seeks to contribute to an improved information management and exchange between humanitarian organisations and military agents in complex emergencies. To do so, a theoretical information management process model was developed and applied to the case of information management between International Security Assistance Force troops and humanitarian organisations such as Cordaid, DACAAR and the International Office for Migration in Kabul, Afghanistan. Based on this analysis the main shortcomings and problems in each stage of the information management process were identified. These include a lack of structured information databases, the absence of identification of information needs, and an over-classification of documents by the military. Using a logical framework analysis, six major improvement tactics were developed, including the creation of more overlap in rotations of personnel, the specification of aims and tasks regarding information management, the improvement of skills and competences of personnel involved, and the introduction of regular joint civil-military evaluations.
The Prevention of Organised Crime Act 121 of 1998 [POCA] embodies a serious attempt by the South African government to effectively police and curb organised crime, money laundering and criminal gang activities in South Africa. The Act provides inter alia for a range of crippling fines and for orders such as confiscation ...
Nkechi Cordelia Ojiagu
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined the effect of membership of cooperative societies on the economic activities of farmers as well as the determinants of their income in rural Nigeria focusing on Anambra State. Data from 2506 members selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling were analyzed. The study found among others that members incomes are dependent upon their socio-economic profile such as age marital status and membership or otherwise of cooperative societies education cooperative marketing credit gender and business expertise. Also respondents depend largely on farming related activities for generation of income in the study area. Furthermore it was found that the major challenge of the farmer-members is inadequate fund poor education and illiteracy among most members conflict among members and lack of access to farm input. The Nigerian government is advised to formulate policies that will incorporate information from the local level that can support planning implementation and evaluation of programmes that can enhance farmers income this however will influence the pattern of agricultural growth in ways that can change income level of rural farmers to grow fast. The study recommends that cooperatives should intensify their education of members to gain more benefits and that government non-governmental organizations and international development agencies should show interest in supervising and providing development support to Farmers Cooperative Societies in rural Nigeria.
such as conflict resolution, employee participation, human resource orientation, goal clarity, identification with the organisation, locus of control and management style were examined. Participants expressed their views as to what constructs of organisational culture had a positive or a negative impact on their adjustment to ...
Viljoen, K.; H.B. Klopper
M. Comm. South Africa finds itself in the midst of a turbulent environment. Organisations are seeking ways and methods to achieve better results for its stakeholders by being more competitive through for example addressing customer needs. Furthermore, organisations are focusing on adapting to the changing economic and social environment. Suddenly, after many years where the political dispensation only provided protection and benefits to certain groups, organisations now have to comply with...
Whitman, Zachary; Stevenson, Joanne; Kachali, Hlekiwe; Seville, Erica; Vargo, John; Wilson, Thomas
This paper presents the preliminary findings of a study on the resilience and recovery of organisations following the Darfield earthquake in New Zealand on 4 September 2010. Sampling included organisations proximal and distal to the fault trace, organisations located within central business districts, and organisations from seven diverse industry sectors. The research captured information on the challenges to, the impacts on, and the reflections of the organisations in the first months of recovery. Organisations in central business districts and in the hospitality sector were most likely to close, while organisations that had perishable stock and livestock were more heavily reliant on critical services. Staff well-being, cash flow, and customer loss were major concerns for organisations across all sectors. For all organisations, the most helpful factors in mitigating the effects of the earthquake were their relationship with staff members, the design and type of buildings, and critical service continuity or swift reinstatement of services. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.
Smith, Pernille; Carugati, Andrea; Giangreco, Antonio
This is the third of a four-case series (408-115-1, 908-025-1, 308-343-1 and 608-037-1). This case is about resistance to organisational change in relation to a merger. The case describes a major organisational change in a newly established department, which has been instituted to speed up...... the integration process of the merger. The main issue is how a middle manager constitutes an obstacle to this organisational change by re-inforcing the 'old' ways of working in his group. To solve this case satisfactorily students should be able to see the organisation from several different layers (employee...
Portia J. Jordan
Full Text Available Orientation: Organisational change outcomes in private intensive care units are linked to higher patient satisfaction, improved quality of patient care, family support, cost-effective care practices and an increased level of excellence. Transformational leadership and fostering a positive organisational culture can contribute to these change outcomes.Research purpose: The study determined whether transformational leadership and a supportive organisational culture were evident in six private intensive care units in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. A conceptual framework to investigate the relationship between transformational leadership, organisational culture, and organisational change outcomes, was proposed and tested.Motivation for the study: The prevalence of transformational leadership, a positive organisational culture and their effect on organisational change outcomes in private healthcare industries require further research in order to generate appropriate recommendations.Research design, approach and method: A positivistic, quantitative design was used. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire which, in previous studies, produced scores with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients greater than 0.80, to collect data from a sample of 130 professional nurses in private intensive care units.Main findings: Transformational leadership and a positive organisational culture were evident in the private intensive care units sampled. A strong, positive correlation exists between transformational leadership, organisational culture, and organisational change outcomes. This correlation provides sufficient evidence to accept the postulated research hypotheses. Innovation and intellectual stimulation were identified as the factors in need of improvement.Practical or managerial implications: The findings of the study may be used by managers in intensive care units to promote organisational change outcomes, linked to transformational leadership and a positive
Explaining cooperation is one of the greatest challenges for basic scientific research. We proposed an agent-based model to study co-evolution of memory and cooperation. In our model, reciprocal agents with limited memory size play Prisoner's Dilemma Game iteratively. The characteristic of the environment, whether it is threatening or not, is embedded in the payoff matrix. Our findings are as follows. (i) Memory plays a critical role in the protection of cooperation. (ii) In the absence of threat, subsequent generations loose their memory and are consequently invaded by defectors. (iii) In contrast, the presence of an appropriate level of threat triggers the emergence of a self-protection mechanism for cooperation within subsequent generations. On the evolutionary level, memory size acts like an immune response of the population against aggressive defection. (iv) Even more extreme threat results again in defection. Our findings boil down to the following: The dose of the threat makes the cooperation.
Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.
A developmental guide to close relationships is presented. Parent-child, sibling, friend, and romantic relationships are described along dimensions that address permanence, power, and gender. These dimensions describe relationship differences in organisational principles that encompass internal representations, social understanding, and interpersonal experiences. The concept of domain specificity is borrowed from cognitive development to address the shifting developmental dynamics of close relationships. Distinct relationships are organised around distinct socialisation tasks, so each relationship requires its own organisational system. As a consequence, different principles guide different relationships, and these organisational principles change with development. PMID:20090927
Svetlana E. Maykova
Full Text Available Introduction: higher education institutions are currently going through intensive reorganization processes that also have effect on university organisational management structures. This is caused by the mismatch between traditional linear-functional structures of management and current situation in the market of educa¬tional services and by the inability to respond flexibly to changes in the external environment. The purpose of the article is to develop a conceptual model of the university management organisational structure as well as alternative scenarios for transition to the above model based on the analysis of domestic and foreign approaches pertaining to the development of university management structures formed due to the merging of separate universities, scientific organisations, institutions and colleges. Materials and Methods: the conceptual article is based on the analysis of works by domestic and foreign authors in the field of development of organisational design and management structure of a modern university. To achieve this goal, the authors made a comparative analysis between organizational management structures of domestic federal universities and international universities, reorganized in the process of merging. The scenario approach allowed to determine various versions of the organisational management structure model that ensures positive results following the integration of vari ous scientific and educational organisations. Results: the analysis of approaches to designing organisational management structures of an educational institution was made, including: organisational management structures of federal universities, implemented approaches to development of management structures of leading foreign universities. The goals and tasks of the transition to the new organisational design of the university, the principles and requirements for the formation of an effective organisational structure of management are substantiated
Wiegers, Therese A; de Borst, Julia
to gain more insight in the perceptions and experiences of care providers and clients with the organisation of emergency transfer in maternity care, with regard to transportation, responsibilities and communication between caregivers. in the Netherlands a woman with an uncomplicated pregnancy can choose to give birth at home, assisted by her own midwife. However, when complications arise, she needs to be referred to a hospital. In case of an emergency this referral must be effectuated quickly, often with ambulance support. a mixed methods' study consisting of semi-structured interviews and surveys. qualitative data of the current organisation of emergency transfer in maternity care, including experiences of caregivers were collected through 21 semi-structured interviews. On the basis of the qualitative data questionnaires for a survey were developed. These questionnaires were sent to 181 caregiver organisations and an unknown number of clients. The response among caregivers was 108 (60%), the response among clients was 42. the overall result from the interviews as well as from the questionnaires is that at the personal level cooperation is often adequate, but mostly informal. Care providers from different professions explained in the study that in emergency situations they usually know how to find each other but they are not always aware of existing agreements or protocols, are unsure of each other's competencies and do not always know what to expect from other care providers. Looking back at their experiences the majority of the clients responded that they were taken very good care of at the hospital. because transfer of care from one care provider to another during labour or birth is not unusual in the Dutch maternity care system it is necessary for care providers involved in this transfer to know and trust each other, to be able to give an adequate reaction when needed. Recommendations given are to devise a protocol for midwives when calling an ambulance
A sport-historical enquiry, for the period January till June 1920, into the official mouthpiece of the African People's Organisation (APO), the A.P.O. Official Organ of the African People's Organisation (APO), was undertaken. Research in this area was previously conducted for the period 1909 – 1914; 1914 – 1915 and 1919 ...
Svendsen, Adam David Morgan
"Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...
Bobe, Belete J.; Kober, Ralph
Purpose: Drawing on the resource-based view (RBV), the purpose of this paper is to develop a framework and instrument to measure the organisational capabilities of university schools/departments. In doing so, this study provides evidence of the way competitive resources are bundled to generate organisational capabilities that give university…
This book studies the organisation of transactions in supply networks. More specifically it investigates the influence of social structure on the mode of organisation in supply networks. To gain new insights, the results in this book have been gathered using gaming simulation as a research method.
on the conceptualisation and implementation of South-South Development projects. Specifically, the second article investigates how the Brazilian government under President Lula (2003-2011), in this case the agent, conceptualised its 'soft empowerment' with the help of its cooperation agency by influencing its organisation...
legal order, but it is unclear how disputes between international organisations are to be resolved. The International Court of Justice ..... constant practice, and thus interpretation, both of the institution itself and of member states and others in relation to it' ...... Schermers, Henry G. 1988. Liability of International Organisations.
Bennebroek Gravenhorst, K.M.; Werkman, R.A.; Boonstra, J.J.
Realizing major organisational change and innovation is a complex process and many organisations do not obtain the outcomes they desire. The purpose of this study is to investigate which factors hinder or contribute to far-reaching change. These factors are sought in characteristics of
Ratajczyk, Mikołaj Andrzej
Aviation safety is of global concern. Yet 43% of countries worldwide lack the expertise and administrative capacity to ensure effective safety oversight of the aviation activities for which they are responsible under international law. With air traffic predicted to double in the next 15 years and increasing pressure on public administrations budgets, countries are increasingly pooling their resources to improve aviation safety. One of the ways States can achieve regulatory efficiencies and in...
Ratajczyk, Mikołaj Andrzej
Aviation safety is of global concern. Yet 43% of countries worldwide lack the expertise and administrative capacity to ensure effective safety oversight of the aviation activities for which they are responsible under international law. With air traffic predicted to double in the next 15 years and
Rimmington, Glyn M.; Alagic, Mara
Learning organisations face new challenges in the 21st century. Increased flow of trade in commodities, manufactured goods and information as well as mobility of people have led to increased global interdependence, interconnectedness and cultural diversity. People and teams within learning organisations have become globally distributed with the…
This study examined whether organisational change, including restructuring of top leadership, is related to the effectiveness of organisational management. Data were collected from a sample of 177 participants, including students (120); senior members of staff (made up of 24 lecturers, 21 administrative staff) and Heads of ...
Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.
In this paper a modelling approach to the dynamics within a multi-agent organisation is presented. A declarative, executable specification language for dynamics within an organisation is proposed as a basis for simulation. Moreover, to be able to specify and analyse dynamic properties within an
Organisations worldwide have acknowledged the connection between corporate learning, development and business sustainability. Emphasis is being laid on creating and designing a learning organisation "that is skilled at creating, acquiring, interpreting, transferring and retaining knowledge" [Garvin, (2000), p.32]. Extensive literature…
Jonker, Catholijn; Treur, Jan; Wijngaards, Wouter
In this paper a modelling approach to the dynamics within a multi-agent organisation is presented. A declarative, executable specification language for dynamics within an organisation is proposed as a basis for simulation. Moreover, to be able to specify and analyse dynamic properties within an
C. L. Van Tonder
Full Text Available Postmodern society is predominantly viewed as a consumption- oriented society that developed as a reaction to the more traditional, modern society. The observed divide between modern and postmodern societies suggests different consumption patterns and consumer profiles which could have significant implications for service organisations. The discussion contrasted the modern and postmodern eras and societies, and isolated the main characteristics and service expectations of the postmodern consumer. The implications for organisation development (OD in service organisations, notably in terms of the changes that are required, are highlighted. Opsomming Die postmodernistiese samelewing word hoofsaaklik as ‘n verbruikersgeoriënteerde samelewing gesien, wat in reaksie op die meer tradisionele modernistiese samelewing ontwikkel het. Die waargenome gaping tussen modernistiese en postmodernistiese samelewings suggereer verskillende verbruikspatrone en verbruikersprofiele wat beduidende implikasies vir diensorganisasies kan inhou. Die bespreking het die modernistiese en postmodernistiese eras en samelewings gekontrasteer en die hoof eienskappe en diensverwagtinge van die postmodernistiese verbruiker geïsoleer. Implikasies vir organisasie-ontwikkeling in diensorganisasies, veral in terme van die veranderinge wat benodig word, word aangedui.
Full Text Available Faith-based organisations (FBOs have increasingly become important actors in international development cooperation. Many international institutions recognise them as valuable partners and declare to have ‘mainstreamed faith’ within their own activities. But is this really the case? And how has this happened? Focusing on the activities of the World Bank in the 1995–2005 period, when, under the leadership of President James Wolfensohn and Katherine Marshall, then Head of the Bank’s Development Dialogue on Values and Ethics (DDVE, the institution engaged with some selected FBOs, this chapter enquires into the reasons for the Bank’s interest in faith as well as its sudden disappearance. It argues that the main rationale for engagement with faith lay in the disappointing results of previous secular strategies and the feeling that religion had a positive role to play in fighting poverty. However, diverging perceptions of poverty and development between states and religious entities, along with lingering suspicions among state officials about dealing with faith in the public realm, derailed the collaboration.
Kolisang, Lebamang Octavia
This research explores the relationship between leadership and organisational culture in an organisation. Organisational culture is often an important factor influencing the competitive strength of an organisation. Leadership is also a critical component in the success of an organisation. It is important to understand how these two powerful determinants of organisational performance affect each other. Research determining that specific types of organisational culture favour particular styles ...
Portia J Jordan; Amanda Werner; Danie Venter
Orientation: Organisational change outcomes in private intensive care units are linked to higher patient satisfaction, improved quality of patient care, family support, cost-effective care practices and an increased level of excellence. Transformational leadership and fostering a positive organisational culture can contribute to these change outcomes.Research purpose: The study determined whether transformational leadership and a supportive organisational culture were evident in six private i...
Andrew Oyen Arewa
Full Text Available The culture of an organisation is a vital element of business competency that must align with its strategic goals, and enhance peoples’ perceptions, feelings and behaviour in adapting to the world around them. Organisational culture may also bring about negative practices such as dishonesty and unethical behaviours. Recently the culture of some construction organisations has been called into question. For example, major construction projects around the globe have become involved in allegations of fraud and corruption. The cost is currently estimated at US$860 billion globally; with forecasts that it may rise to US$1.5 trillion by 2025. Hitherto the role of the culture of construction organisations in fraud and corruption activities has been largely hidden. The study aim is to establish whether the culture of construction organisations promotes corrupt practices in the UK construction and infrastructure sector. The study employed mixed research methods with interviews supported by a questionnaire and an examination of five case studies in different countries. Findings show that the culture of construction organisations together with the nature of the industry promotes fraud and corruption. The study subsequently highlights key cultural factors that support fraud and corruption in a way that is almost institutionalised.
University of Copenhagen / Learning Lab Denmark. 2005 Kort beskrivelse: Organisational Art is a tentative title for an art form that works together with organisations to produce art. This is most often done together with non-artist members of the organisation and on-site in their social context. OA...... is characterised as socially engaged, conceptual, discursive, site-specific and contextual. Abstract: This investigation is about Organisational Art (OA), which is a tentative title for an art form that works together with organisations (companies, institutions, communities, governments and NGOs) to produce art....... This is most often done together with non-artist members of the organisation and on-site in their social context. OA is characterised as socially engaged, conceptual, discursive, site-specific and contextual. It is argued that OA seeks to advance both art and the organisation of human work/life by crossing...
Full Text Available Orientation: The unconscious impact of organisational transformation is often neglected and even denied. This research revealed the manifestation and impact of high levels and different forms of anxiety experienced by employees during transformation.Research objective: The objective was to study and describe the manifesting systems psychodynamic behaviour amongst support staff during organisational transformation.Motivation for the study: Organisational transformation is mostly researched from a leadership viewpoint. Little research data are available on the experiences of support staff on the receiving end of decisions about and implementation of transformation.Research design, approach and method: A qualitative approach within the phenomenological hermeneutic interpretive stance was used. The research was set in a government organisation. A semi-structured interview with four conveniently and purposefully chosen support staff members was thematically analysed using systems psychodynamics as theoretical paradigm.Main findings: Four themes manifested, namely de-authorisation and detachment, being bullied and seduced by leadership, the organisation in the mind as incompetent, and a dangerous and persecutory system. In the discussion, the basic assumptions and relevant constructs are interpreted.Practical implications: Understanding the transformation experiences of support staff could assist the industrial psychologist to facilitate appropriate support in coaching more junior staff towards increasing wellness and work performance.Contribution: Organisational transformation is highlighted as an anxiety provoking experience especially on the lower levels of the organisation. Its potentially deep and complex psychological impact could possibly derail parts of the system if not managed in a psychologically contained manner.
Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos
within a member-driven food cooperative in Copenhagen, Denmark, and the changes in decision making and the organisational structure of the cooperative. We illustrate the application of the VSM and in particular the methodology for organisational self-transformation within ‘localist green communitarianism...
Ntaios, George; Bornstein, Natan M; Caso, Valeria; Christensen, Hanne; De Keyser, Jacques; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio; Ferro, Jose M; Ford, Gary A; Grau, Armin; Keller, Emanuella; Leys, Didier; Russell, David; Toni, Danilo; Turc, Guillaume; Van der Worp, Bart; Wahlgren, Nils; Steiner, Thorsten
In 2008, the recently founded European Stroke Organisation published its guidelines for the management of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. This highly cited document was translated in several languages and was updated in 2009. Since then, the European Stroke Organisation has published guidelines for the management of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, for the establishment of stroke units and stroke centers, and recently for the management of intracerebral hemorrhage. In recent years, the methodology for the development of guidelines has evolved significantly. To keep pace with this progress and driven by the strong determination of the European Stroke Organisation to further promote stroke management, education, and research, the European Stroke Organisation decided to delineate a detailed standard operating procedure for its guidelines. There are two important cornerstones in this standard operating procedure: The first is the implementation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology for the development of its Guideline Documents. The second one is the decision of the European Stroke Organisation to move from the classical model of a single Guideline Document about a major topic (e.g. management of ischemic stroke) to focused modules (i.e. subdivisions of a major topic). This will enable the European Stroke Organisation to react faster when new developments in a specific stroke field occur and update its recommendations on the related module rather swiftly; with the previous approach of a single large Guideline Document, its entire revision had to be completed before an updated publication, delaying the production of up-to-date guidelines. After discussion within the European Stroke Organisation Guidelines Committee and significant input from European Stroke Organisation members as well as methodologists and analysts, this document presents the official standard operating procedure for
Yolandi van der Berg
Full Text Available Orientation: Managers within organisations should be more attentive regarding their managerial practices, the quality of work life (QWL and trust relationships, as experienced by employees.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between organisational trust and QWL.Motivation for the study: Recent organisational changes have refocused attention on the productivity and performance of sales representatives. These changes have brought about a re-evaluation of their QWL and the organisational trust they experience.Research design, approach and method: An Internet-based survey methodology was used to collect primary data from a probability sample of 282 sales representatives; a 72% response rate was obtained. Responses were analysed using quantitative techniques and structural equation modelling.Main findings: Results confirmed a positive relationship between managerial practices with organisational trust and QWL and a lower relationship between the personality dimensions, organisational trust and the QWL.Practical/managerial implications: The study accentuated how important it is for management to be constantly aware of employees’ trust and their experience of a QWL, as these factors can lead to severe consequences if not properly managed.Contribution/value add: The study focused attention on the importance of building good trust relationships within an organisation, as it seems as though the personality traits and managerial practices of managers influence not only the trust relationship experienced by employees, but also their experience of a QWL.
Full Text Available Concern for adequate funding, both at birth and consolidation of the cooperative enterprise, has been, is and will be a constant concern in the cooperative world. So, have emerged in the legal field, a number of financial instruments of various kinds: as equity securities or special interests that seek to cover traditional financing gaps.
Full Text Available The trend towards green information technology (IT over the last few years is a result of an acknowledgement of both the environmental impact of IT and the role IT plays as a potential source of solutions to environmental concerns. As organisations are under increasing pressures to act sustainably, environmental considerations are taking greater importance for organisations and the organisations’ information systems (IS and IT. This paper introduces a model proposing competitive pressures, legitimation pressures, social responsibility pressures, organisational factors and technological constraints as factors which influence the extent of green IT in organisations. An online survey was developed and tested with IT practitioners. Regression analysis revealed that the extent of green IT in organisations is influenced by a combination of these factors. Foremost of the factors is the capability of the organisation to adapt. Other factors which account for differences in the extent of green IT in organisations include legitimation and social responsibility pressures. The regression indicated a good fit for the developed model, providing a basis for further research.
This paper explores the reasons for the sometimes seemingly irrational and dysfunctional organisational behaviour within the NHS. It seeks to provide possible answers to the persistent historical problem of intimidating and negative behaviour between staff, and the sometimes inadequate organisational responses. The aim is to develop a model to explain and increase understanding of such behaviour in the NHS. This paper is conceptual in nature based upon a systematic literature review. The concepts of organisational silence, normalised organisational corruption, and protection of image, provide some possible answers for these dysfunctional responses, as does the theory of selective moral disengagement. The NHS exhibits too high a level of collective ego defences and protection of its image and self-esteem, which distorts its ability to address problems and to learn. Organisations and the individuals within them can hide and retreat from reality and exhibit denial; there is a resistance to voice and to "knowing". The persistence and tolerance of negative behaviour is a corruption and is not healthy or desirable. Organisations need to embrace the identity of a listening and learning organisation; a "wise" organisation. The "Elephant in the room" of persistent negative behaviour has to be acknowledged; the silence must be broken. There is a need for cultures of "respect", exhibiting "intelligent kindness". A model has been developed to increase understanding of dysfunctional organisational behaviour in the NHS primarily for leaders/managers of health services, health service regulators and health researchers/academics. Research, with ethical approval, is currently being undertaken to test and develop the conceptual model to further reflect the complexities of the NHS culture.
Full Text Available This article is a case study focusing on employer organisations and business organisations in the Czech Republic. In legal terms, employer organisations are a specific type of interest group with special regimes of registration and record keeping. Unlike business groups, they are endowed with certain privileges and, in particular, can participate in collective bargaining. This study analyses the relations between these two types of groups. The database originates from a questionnaire-based survey undertaken in 2010 among 91 groups representing businesses and employers. The analysis focuses on the relationship between a group’s registration as an employer organisation and its orientation towards employer and business interests. It also investigates similarities between the two organisation types in terms of secondary organisation and strategies used. The analysis suggests that the differences between these two types are minimal and that the possibility of participating in collective bargaining and in tripartite counselling bodies remains the only relevant distinction. This holds true even when we take into account these groups’ self-perceived primary role, i.e. defending their members as employer or as business organisations.
Karimi, Leila; Leggat, Sandra G; Cheng, Cindy; Donohue, Lisa; Bartram, Timothy; Oakman, Jodi
Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of work organisation on the emotional labour withdrawal behaviour of Australian community nurses.Methods Using a paper-based survey, a sample of 312 Australian community nurses reported on their emotional dissonance, withdrawal behaviours (i.e. job neglect, job dissatisfaction, stress-related presenteeism) and work organisation. A model to determine the partial mediation effect of work organisation was developed based on a literature review. The fit of the proposed model was assessed via structural equation modelling using Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS; IMB).Results Community nurses with higher levels of emotional dissonance were less likely to be satisfied with their job and work organisation and had a higher tendency to exhibit withdrawal behaviours. Work organisational factors mediated this relationship.Conclusion Emotional dissonance can be a potential stressor for community nurses that can trigger withdrawal behaviours. Improving work organisational factors may help reduce emotional conflict and its effect on withdrawal behaviours.What is known about the topic? Although emotional labour has been broadly investigated in the literature, very few studies have addressed the effect of the quality of work organisation on nurses' withdrawal behaviours in a nursing setting.What does this paper add? This paper provides evidence that work organisation affects levels of emotional dissonance and has an effect on job neglect through stress-related presenteeism.What are the implications for practitioners? In order to minimise stress-related presenteeism and job neglect, healthcare organisations need to establish a positive working environment, designed to improve the quality of relationships with management, provide appropriate rewards, recognition and effective workload management and support high-quality relationships with colleagues.
Purpose:\\ud – The purpose of this paper is to explore the notion of effectiveness in the context of organisational crisis. It considers the “darker” side of organisational effectiveness by exploring the processes by which effectiveness can be eroded as an organisation moves from an ordered state, through a complex one, and into a state of chaos, or crisis. It brings together complementary literatures on risk, crisis management, and complexity, and uses those lenses to frame some of the key pr...
C L Van Tonder
Full Text Available During the past two decades a steady increase in scholarly contributions in the area of organisation identity have been observed – to the point that the phenomenon is now the subject of a sustainable discourse in several disciplines. Many theoretical and conceptual dilemmas however remain, largely as a result of the low incidence of empirical research in the area. This study reports the results of an exploratory investigation that adapted Schley and Wagenfield’s (1979 concept of identity for use in an organisational setting. Interviews were conducted with 152 top managers representing 10 companies. The results indicate that organisational responses to the question “who am I?�? elicit distinctive organisational self-descriptions and some awareness of identity issues.
This article aims to define organisational culture and explain why it is important to patients, carers and those working in healthcare environments. Organisational culture is not a new concept and the literature on the subject is well-established. However, because of the changing dynamics of the NHS, there has been a shift away from 'what' the NHS stands for, often relating to its history and rituals, to 'who' it functions for, including how healthcare professionals such as nurses can develop and drive the organisational culture. The article seeks to assist nurses in understanding the role of organisational culture, as well as implementing its main principles in the workplace. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Full Text Available Recently there have been several examples of different regional integration systems intervening to prevent unconstitutional events. The interventions can be based on explicit powers or be developed in response to events. This happens despite most regional integration systems having economic cooperation rather than explicit democratisation aims. Organs that issue laws or take constraining decisions must have a clear right to do this and a basis for exercising power-in other words, be legitimate. Where legitimacy comes from is debated, but as most countries today are democracies or purport to be, it somehow emanates from the people. National governments have a higher degree of legitimacy than regional integration organisations, possibly except the European Union. Regional integration organisations have to prove their legitimacy. The article examines if, to what extent, and on what basis regional integration systems have the right to exercise an independent role on the global stage. Legitimacy is a precondition for effective application of decisions of the organisation. Given the frequent lack of strong enforcement mechanisms, the question of legitimacy becomes even more important. With strong legitimacy, decisions taken by the regional integration organisation will be followed to a large extent even despite absence of effective enforcement mechanisms.
Scott Reitz; Andrea Hille; Susan Stout
The long history of deer overabundance in Pennsylvania is associated with very high reforestation costs and substantial threats to diversity and sustainability. In response to this legacy, several landowners and agency personnel formed the Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative (KQDC) in partnership with the Sand County Foundation. This Cooperative focuses on about 74,000...
Steven Vos; Jeroen Scheerder
This paper explores inter-organisational relationships, in terms of cooperation, between three main types of sport providers at the local level: voluntary sport clubs, for-profit fitness and health clubs, and local sports authorities. Both withinand cross-sector cooperation are analysed and related
Czárán, T.; Aanen, Duur K.
The evolution of cooperation is difficult to understand, because cheaters-individuals who profit without cooperating themselves-have a benefit in interaction with cooperators. Cooperation among humans is even more difficult to understand, because cooperation occurs in large groups, making
Sinnett, Danielle E; Lawrence, Victoria K; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) terrestrial plant test is often used for the ecological risk assessment of contaminated land. However, its origins in plant protection product testing mean that the species recommended in the OECD guidelines are unlikely to occur on contaminated land. Six alternative species were tested on contaminated soils from a former Zn smelter and a metal fragmentizer with elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The response of the alternative species was compared with that of two species recommended by the OECD: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Trifolium pratense (red clover). Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) had low emergence rates in the control soil and so may be considered unsuitable. Festuca rubra (Chewings fescue), Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire fog), Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel), and Verbascum thapsus (great mullein) offer good alternatives to the OECD species. In particular, H. lanatus and S. vulgaris were more sensitive to the soils with moderate concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the OECD species. © 2010 SETAC.
Tretyakov, Yuri D [Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
The review concerns conservative and dissipative self-organisation phenomena in those physicochemical systems, whose evolution involves formation of diverse chemically complex products, including functional ceramics, supramolecular compounds, and nanocomposites as well as fractal, template and epitaxial structures. It is demonstrated that the use of nonlinear dynamics approaches facilitates organisation of the reaction zone during the synthesis of materials under nonequilibrium conditions in an optimum manner and that biomimetism and biomineralisation processes open up new prospects for materials design.
Tretyakov, Yuri D.
The review concerns conservative and dissipative self-organisation phenomena in those physicochemical systems, whose evolution involves formation of diverse chemically complex products, including functional ceramics, supramolecular compounds, and nanocomposites as well as fractal, template and epitaxial structures. It is demonstrated that the use of nonlinear dynamics approaches facilitates organisation of the reaction zone during the synthesis of materials under nonequilibrium conditions in an optimum manner and that biomimetism and biomineralisation processes open up new prospects for materials design.
Razvan-Nicolae, DECUSEARA; Sorin-Daniel, MANOLE
Cooperatives have proven to be a business model that has endured over time, even during the economic crisis. Even if they don’t have the scale of large companies, they manage, through their ability to adapt, to overcome challenges offered by the market they are acting. The fact that their members are working in these cooperatives makes them to engage more actively in cooperative work and also to be more responsible, in the end, working for them. Even if they don’t have marketing budgets, coop...
Full Text Available Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia (COP, also called idiopathic Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organising Pneumonia( BOOP, is a distinct entity among the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias defined histopathologically by intraalveolar buds of granulation tissue. The etiology includes idiopathic, infectious, drug induced radiation induced and connective tissue diseases. Organising pneumonia occurs particularly in patients with dermatomyositis-polymyositis where it may be the presenting manifestation, and rarely in SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma and other connective tissue diseases. We describe a 30 yr old lady who initially presented with respiratory symptoms, not responding to antibiotics. She was subsequently diagnosed as SLE and HRCT thorax showed consolidation involving both lung fields. A percutaneous lung biopsy revealed features of Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia.
Lau, Ying Hung
The current study seeks to uncover the process underlying the renegotiation process of organisational identity orientation, a framework proposed by Brickson (2005), as well as the change on the level of organisational identification in relation to corporate volunteerism, from the perspective of internal stakeholders and community groups. In the course of studying inductively two cases which employ different sets of strategy on corporate volunteerism, a framework on different stages of c...
Advocacy organisations have traditionally played a prominent role in shaping corporate social responsibility (CSR) management and reporting practices through organisational-level and institutional-level engagement. Recent years have seen advocacy organisations expand the nature and content of their
Wolff, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)
The use of wind energy is expanding rapidly worldwide. At the end of 1996 over 6000 MW was installed and the annual increase has during the last years exceeded 1000 MW. The development is also reaching more and more countries. In order to maintain technical and commercial development international co-operation is needed to secure cost-effectiveness, reliability and safety of the technology. International recommendations, harmonisation and standardisation is promoted by several international organizations like IEA, IEC and the classification organisations
Full Text Available To better understand why cooperation between health care professionals is still often problematic, we carried out 25 semistructured face-to-face expert interviews with physicians and nurses in different rural and urban areas in northern Germany. Using Mayring’s qualitative content analysis method to analyze the data collected, we found that doctors and nurses interpreted interprofessional conflicts differently. Nursing seems to be caught in a paradoxical situation: An increasing emphasis is placed on achieving interprofessional cooperation but the core areas of nursing practice are subject to increasing rationalization in the current climate of health care marketization. The subsequent and systematic devaluation of nursing work makes it difficult for physicians to acknowledge nurses’ expertise. We suggest that to ameliorate interprofessional cooperation, nursing must insist on its own logic of action thereby promoting its professionalization; interprofessional cooperation cannot take place until nursing work is valued by all members of the health care system.
Full Text Available Electronic trade and commerce have brought inter organisational co-operation to the forefront of organisational strategies. However, inter-organisational systems (IOS planning lacks appropriate methodological guidelines, and tends to be practised in an insular manner. This paper examines the development of systems in three interorganisational networks in Ireland in order to ascertain the planning that went into them. The networks studied are representative of three types of structural interdependencies - pooled, reciprocal and sequential. Although it is difficult to identify an activity that can be clearly labelled IOS planning, planning is integral to the development of all networks. The interdependencies influence planning processes and outcomes. For the pooled and reciprocal networks, the planning process gives a focus. For the sequential network, the main planning is done by the hub organisation, and extended to the spokes. Planning interactions across all networks illustrate similarities that reveal that existence of planning environments within which IOS planning takes place. These planning environments are proposed as being an appropriate basis for the development of IOS planning guidelines.
This article reconceptualises the meaning of critical theory and its tools of emancipation and critique within the subjective content of cross-cultural literature, globalisation and learning organisation. The first part of the article reviews literature on globalisation and learning companies. The second part discusses the critical approach and…
Boude, B. [Secretariat General de la Defense Nationale, 31 - Toulouse (France)
To meet the goal of population protection, the response that the authorities will have to implement in the event of a radiological emergency has to be organised. In a context of significant change at the beginning of this century, the response organisation was revised in depth. This article aims to describe the roles, structures and methods of action of the various parties involved in the current emergency response system. (author)
Josimovski Aleksandar G.
Full Text Available Countries have possibility to choose between several alternatives for cooperation in international tax matters at global level. They can decide not to cooperate or provide some form of tax cooperation. Because of harmful tax competition among countries and efforts of international organizations, all countries in the world are oblidged to comply with one of multiple alternatives for tax cooperation. Situation in European Union (hereinafter EU is specific. EU is not country or classic international organization. By the reason of its successful functioning, EU has need for tax cooperation. EU has attempted to harmonise tax policies of member states, but member states did not approve that. Only indirect taxes are harmonized on EU level, direct taxes are harmonized only to the point necessarily for functioning of single market. That is why tax cooperation instruments are so important. Object of this paper are procedures and measures, stipulated by the most important instrument in the field of tax cooperation enacted by institutions of EU, its development and status in international tax law. Regulatives and directives in field of tax cooperation in the EU are 'pioneers' in tax matters. EU instruments provide standards which are subsequently accepted by several international organizations - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and United Nations (UN. Our purpose is to present positive and negative aspects of tax cooperation in the EU. In time of crisis efficient tax cooperation provides higher revenues for the member states, on the other hand, taxpayers and tax administrations have increased expenses as result of tax cooperation which are not fairly distributed.
Full Text Available This paper aims to reflect the importance of a knowledge management strategy for organisations facing organisational change, as response to crisis. As resource for development, for sure knowledge becomes an inexhaustible power. It is also one of the most important forms of capital - the foundation for innovation and also the drivers that lead to growth and expansion. An organization cannot compete with others in this ever-changing environment without proper knowledge and lack of capacity for renewal. Many managers would like to have a strategic approach in preparing the organisation to avoid crisis. There is a lack of strategic information management and the effect is the degradation of information resources and failure in strengthening employee’s potential. It is vital for the companies to develop a dynamic knowledge management strategy to be integrated into the organization, enhancing the performance of the system and processes. However, organizations need to see knowledge management as a strategy, because knowledge is the key to making the right decisions in guiding the organization. One of the key benefits of approaching knowledge management strategy within organisations is its positive impact on organisational performance, ensuring not only the survival during crisis but even providing a competitive advantage.
Full Text Available This paper deals with the topical issues of age management and population ageing in the Czech Republic and Europe. The main objective of the paper is to evaluate the importance of individual visions of age management according to Ilmarinen (2006 and Cimbálníková et al. (2012 in organisations in the Czech Republic and to identify factors that influence the implementation of individual visions in the organisation. The primary data (n = 549 was collected by means of a questionnaire technique. The research results have shown that the most important visions are as follows: (1 a fair attitude towards age, (2 knowledge about age issues and (3 a happy life and motivation. In order to evaluate the implementation of age management visions, a factor analysis was performed, on the basis of which two significant factors were identified: (1 organisational culture and (2 job performance and relationships. Based on the research results, organisations are recommended to focus on continuous analysis of their organisational culture, to adapt to changes in their environment, also to implement an effective employee performance appraisal system, and to explore the development of employees and relationships among generations of employees with emphasis on eliminating ageism.
A descriptive quantitative survey was employed to explore the constructs of organisational culture that have a positive or a negative impact on the adaptation of newly employed nurses to the work setting. Constructs such as conflict resolution, employee participation, human resource orientation, goal clarity, identification ...
Full Text Available As theory still lacks consistent definition of successful talent management, the praxis is characterized by dissimilar interpretations of the term talent. The lack of integrity of definitions appears to be the reason to analyse talent management practices. The article focuses on consistency of suggested practices in management of organisational strategies. The aim is to reveal current approach of Czech organisations towards talent management practices and to specify the main factors affecting employee development in talent management in the tested organisations. Bivariate and multivariate statistical methods and analyses were used to lower the number of possible single approaches and practices. Analyses formed valid factors, which influence and determine employee development as key principles of talent management: alignment with strategy, internal consistency, cultural embeddedness, management involvement, and employer branding through differentiation. Results identified and verified different ways of support of talented employees. Firstly, it is Talent management in its original shape (25.9%, secondly, Learning organisation based on common learning (23.5% and the third factor name is Plain promises (12.4%. Organisations grouped in the factor only declare possibility of development, but do not practically use it.
Carlton, Sally; Mills, Colleen E
This paper seeks to contribute to understanding of the factors associated with an effective emergent emergency response organisation and to provide new insights into this understudied area. It examines, through an analysis of a range of textual resources, the emergence and re-emergence of the Student Volunteer Army (SVA) during the devastating earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010-11. This evaluation is conducted in relation to the four key features of an effective emergency response organisation: adaptability; direction; leadership; and communication. In addition, the paper aims to further understanding of 'emergency entrepreneurship' and thus of the values and strategies that underpin social entrepreneur organisations in times of normalcy. The paper concludes that the unique position of the SVA as a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation enabled it to innovate continually and to improve repeatedly its systems, relationships, and image, such that it exhibited features common to emergent and established emergency response organisations. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.
Arnold, Rachel; Wagstaff, Christopher R D; Steadman, Lauren; Pratt, Yasmin
Organisational stressors have been found to be prevalent and problematic for sport performers, with research identifying demographic differences in the stressors encountered. Nevertheless, extant sport psychology research on the topic of stress has generally focused on able-bodied athletes; whilst that which has been conducted on performers with a disability has typically recruited relatively small samples to explore a narrow selection of organisational stressors, or examined other components of the stress process. The purpose of the present study was to explore the various organisational stressors that athletes with a disability encounter. The sample comprised 18 elite athletes with a disability (10 male, 8 female) who had a classified disability and experience of competing at a major championships in their sport (e.g., Paralympic Games, World Championships). Participants took part in a semi-structured interview which was analysed by drawing from grounded theory procedures. A total of 316 organisational stressors were identified, which were abstracted into 31 concepts and four, previously conceptualised, exploratory schemes: leadership and personnel issues, cultural and team issues, logistical and environmental issues, and performance and personal issues. This study not only provides the first illustration of the prevalence of organisational stressors for athletes with a disability, but also significantly points to salient similarities and distinct differences between the stress experiences of performers with and without a disability.
Full Text Available This paper investigates organisational-level attributes that allow European SMEs to choose equity-based modes of entry to foreign markets, thus becoming micro-multinationals. We hypothesize that international R&D cooperation (hypothesis 1 and using digital marketing (hypothesis 2 by SMEs increase their likelihood of becoming a mMNE. These hypotheses are tested through a logistic regression analysis based on a large sample of European companies drawn from the Flash Eurobarometer study. Separate regression models are estimated for companies originating from EU-13 and EU-15. Hypothesis 1 is supported by both samples. Hypothesis 2 is supported in the EU-15 sample. Our identification of organisational-level attributes that increase the likelihood of SMEs choosing equity-based internationalisation contributes to International Entrepreneurship entry mode literature.
Dr Tanya du Plessis
WTO should be seen as an organisation that facilitates the reduction of trade barriers and pursues equality in market access between members.10. 8 Emphasis added. Marrakesh Agreement establishing the World Trade Organization,. United Nations Treaty Series, 33 International Legal Materials 1125 (1994), entered into.
Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D
The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper reviews a selection of the comparative research on the organisation of skills and work in different countries. It argues that despite differences in institutional means, such as keiretsu and structured apprenticeship, the ends, in terms of a capacity to organise skills, is similar....... It is suggested that the British institution of craft control of skills should be understood as the default state of organisation of skills and work. This state may be likely to develop anywhere where there is an absence of coercive control over the free rider effect. It is argued that the free rider effect...... is likely to have worse effect than is usually assumed in the case of the diffusion of innovative new technologies. The benefits of coercive arrangements to suppress free rider effects on skills should include the prevention of the development of craft control of work. The paper ends with a discussion...
Hart, P M; Wearing, A J; Conn, M; Carter, N L; Dingle, R K
A growing body of empirical evidence suggests that organisational factors are more important than classroom specific issues in determining teacher morale. Accordingly, it is necessary to have available measures that accurately assess morale, as well as the organisational factors that are likely to underpin the experience of morale. Three studies were conducted with the aim of developing a psychometrically sound questionnaire that could be used to assess teacher morale and various dimensions of school organisational climate. A total of 1,520 teachers from 18 primary and 26 secondary schools in the Australian state of Victoria agreed to participate in three separate studies (N = 615, 342 and 563 in Studies 1, 2 and 3, respectively) that were used to develop the questionnaire. The demographic profile of the teachers was similar to that found in the Department as a whole. All teaching staff in the participating schools were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire as part of the evaluation of an organisational development programme. A series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to establish the questionnaire's factor structure, and correlation analyses were used to examine the questionnaire's convergent and discriminant validity. The three studies resulted in the 54-item School Organisational Health Questionnaire that measures teacher morale and 11 separate dimensions of school organisational climate: appraisal and recognition, curriculum coordination, effective discipline policy, excessive work demands, goal congruence, participative decision-making, professional growth, professional interaction, role clarity, student orientation, and supportive leadership.
Ntaios, George; Bornstein, Natan M; Caso, Valeria
cornerstones in this standard operating procedure: The first is the implementation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology for the development of its Guideline Documents. The second one is the decision of the European Stroke Organisation to move from the classical...... on the related module rather swiftly; with the previous approach of a single large Guideline Document, its entire revision had to be completed before an updated publication, delaying the production of up-to-date guidelines. After discussion within the European Stroke Organisation Guidelines Committee...
Full Text Available The purpose of this small-scale study was to explore how people perceived Personal Knowledge Management (PKM, whether people were aware of the PKM concept, and how PKM can have an impact on organisational knowledge management and productivity. A questionnaire survey with quantitative and qualitative questions was used. The study revealed that a majority (63% of respondents were not aware of the PKM concept; 33% were aware, while 2% had a vague idea about it. Eighty three (83% felt that it was important to manage personal knowledge and that PKM could increase individual productivity and organisational performance. The major recommendations included creating awareness about PKM. It should be at the heart of each employee-development programme, alignment of personal and organisational goals and adequate facilities and training in PKM.
Full Text Available The article deals with different factors determining relationships of large Slovenian organisations (with more than 500 employees with their strategic suppliers and their influence on the frequency of implementations of purchasing marketing strategies. The factors dealt with are: the quality of the relationship between the organisation and its strategic supplier (supplier activities, attractiveness of supply for the organisation and the competitive position of the organisation on the supply market, bargaining power of the organisation with respect to the supplier (the organisation's risk orientation, its orientation towards cooperation and the size of its bargaining power and the quantity of the relationship (the size of transactional assets. The research showed that large organisations in Slovenia are unlikely to develop such purchasing marketing strategies, characteristic of the so-called »relationship marketing« with their strategic suppliers (with whom they have a long-term business relationship. The influence of measured factors on the frequency of the implementation of individual purchasing marketing strategies exists, with a stronger impact of factors with short-term effects on the organisation; hence the surveyed organisations are still more oriented towards reaching short-term efficiency instead of long-term success.
Brehony, Kevin J.; Deem, Rosemary
This paper examines claims that recent reforms to UK education have led to significant organisational changes in primary school and higher education. It also examines two main theoretical explanations for these, namely post-Fordism and New Managerialism. Examples of changes in both schools and universities, including flexibility and teamwork, are…
The APO provides sport historians with a panoramic view of participation practices of historically marginalized communities in urban centres, as well as in obscure rural villages. The newspaper also provides a comprehensive overview of sport participation levels during the early years of the 20th century. Keywords: African ...
Domingues, Ana Rita; Lozano, Rodrigo; Ceulemans, Kim; Ramos, Tomás B
Sustainability Reporting has become a key element in different organisations. Although there have been a number of academic publications discussing the adoption of sustainability reports in the public sector, their numbers have been quite low when compared to those focussing on corporate reports. Additionally, there has been little research on the link between sustainability reporting in Public Sector Organisations (PSOs) and Organisational Change Management for Sustainability (OCMS). This paper focuses on the contribution of sustainability reporting to OCMS. A survey was sent to all PSOs that have published at least one sustainability report based on the GRI guidelines. The study provides a critical analysis of the relation between sustainability reporting and OCMS in PSOs, including the drivers for reporting, the impacts on organisation change management, and the role of stakeholders in the process. Despite still lagging in sustainability reporting journey, PSOs are starting to use sustainability reporting as a communication tool, and this could drive organisational changes for sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
No copies appeared between December 1915 and July 1919. The APO provides sport historians with a panoramic view of participation practices of historically marginalised communities in urban centres, as well as in obscure rural villages. The newspaper also provides a comprehensive overview of sport participation ...
A study investigated the processes used by bilinguals for organizing vocabulary by presenting subjects with bilingual word recognition tasks in two modalities (aural and visual) and using a repetition paradigm. Subjects were asked to decide whether a word presented to them was a nonsense word or a real word. Two separate experiments are described.…
Mc Manus, Paul
Abstract In a global economy, knowledge may be a company’s greatest competitive advantage (Davenport & Prusak 2000). As such, competition for this resource has driven an increased demand for “a conscious strategy [by organisations] of getting the right knowledge to the right people at the right time and helping people share and put information into action in ways that strive to improve organisational performance” (O’Dell et al. 1998). Thus, it is the aim of this paper to provide an investi...
Therefore, it locates this to be within a legal rather than political impasse. The paper argues that the general rules of the law of international organisations may provide the key to resolving the impasse. And that accordingly, the general principles of the regime of international law point to the interpretation of the provisions of ...
Alaszewski, A; Manthorpe, J
The third paper in the series on sociology discusses the work of Max Weber. It traces the origins and main themes of his work. The parallels between his work and contemporary issues in the organisation of health care are outlined, in particular, the insights provided into bureaucracy and authority.
Lucardie, Anthonie; Voerman, Gerrit; Botella, Joan; Ramiro, Luis
In 1991 the Communist Party of the Netherlands (CPN) dissolved itself into the new organisation GreenLeft, founded in 1990. Thus, GreenLeft may be considered the major ‘post-communist party’ in the Netherlands. Yet it is not the only one. A minority of former CPN-members established in 1992 the New
This article presents an historical overview of the establishment of the association and ends with an assessment of the future, as the survival of the area is threatened by urban encroachment, and, as in other rural areas, by high levels of crime. The role of organised agriculture to ensure a healthy, sustainable agricultural ...
In this article, the work of three international governmental organisations (IGOs) dealing with human rights will be discussed, namely the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Council of Europe (CoE). In the first section, the main characteristics of the…
The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the respective national and supranational actors (i.e. trade unions and employer organisations) in the field of industrial relations in the civil aviation industry in the Netherlands. In order to determine their relative importance in the
Tan, Cheng Yong
This paper analyses the perceived organisational legitimacy of the Singapore Ministry of Education (MOE) in preparing the population for work in the knowledge-based economy (KBE). It is argued that challenges to MOE's legitimacy are emerging with ramifications that are difficult to ignore. These challenges relate to equipping the population with…
Jantzen, Jan; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
This simulation study provides an analysis of the adaptation mechanism in the self-organising fuzzy controller, SOC. The approach is to apply a traditional adaptive control viewpoint. A simplified performance measure in the SOC controller is used in a loss function, and thus the MIT rule implies...
of the project in focus. In the construction of the price for the product, open book and benchmark data are used. Information does not cross organisational boundaries at face value. Information is applied to the representations and brought into play during negotiations. Thereby managing and management accounting...
Constant change and globalisation of the construction industry has prompted an international query into the understanding of organisations' culture, highlighting its impact on effectiveness and performance. Assessment of the likely culture type of the South African construction industry has been conducted. The aim of this ...
In view of the dramatically changing environment within which public administrators work, bureaucracies seem inadequate to meet the new and anticipated challenges facing the public sector. The solution, however, is not abandoning the reform of bureaucratic organisations, but channeling such reform in a way that it ...
Feinstein, Marc B; DeSouza, Shilpa A; Moreira, Andre L; Stover, Diane E; Heelan, Robert T; Iyriboz, Tunç A; Taur, Ying; Travis, William D
Cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) and acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia (AFOP) are recognised patterns of organising pneumonia (OP), a condition that resembles pneumonia but is not caused by infection. We have recognised granulomatous organising pneumonia (GOP) to be a similar histopathological entity where non-necrotising granulomata are intimately associated with the organising connective tissue. To what degree COP, AFOP and GOP represent distinct clinical and pathological disorders is unknown. This cross-sectional study sought to compare the pathological, clinical, and radiographical features of these OP patterns. Surgical lung biopsy specimens were reviewed for consecutive patients referred with OP to a metropolitan cancer centre. Clinical information and CT images were acquired from the hospital electronic medical record to determine the clinical and CT characteristics of each OP pattern. Sixty-one patients (35 men, 26 women), mean age 61.5 years (range 8-85 years), were available for analysis. Of these, 43 patients (70%) had at least one prior cancer; 27 (44%) had received chemotherapy and 18 (30%) had received radiation. Approximately, half (32 patients) had respiratory symptoms, most commonly cough, dyspnoea and/or wheezing. While symptoms and mortality rates were not different among OP groups, AFOP patients more commonly had fever (p=0.04). GOP patients less commonly had received chemotherapy (p=0.03) and were more likely to present as masses/nodules (p=0.04). AFOP and GOP, a newly described OP form, possess clinical and pathological findings that set it apart from a COP, suggesting an emerging spectrum of OP. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of selected organisational-based factors on the perceived success of agribusinesses in South Africa. Business success, for the purposes of this study, was measured by means of two dependent variables, namely Business development and improvement and ...
Bain, Alan; Walker, Allan; Chan, Anissa
Purpose: The paper aims to describe the application of theoretical principles derived from a study of self-organisation and complex systems theory and their application to school-based capacity building to support planned change. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a case example in a Hong Kong School to illustrate the application of…
Objective. To evaluate the World Health Organisation. (WHO) antibody testing strategy for the individual patient diagnosis of HIV infection (strategy Ill). Design. Evaluation of a combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELlSAs) for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. The WHO strategy.
B.S. Kuipers (Ben); M.J. Higgs (Malcolm); W.J.M. Kickert (Walter); L.G. Tummers (Lars); J. Grandia (Jolien); J. van der Voet (Joris)
textabstractThis article presents a review of the recent literature on change management in public organisations and sets out to explore the extent to which this literature has responded to earlier critiques regarding the lack of (public) contextual factors. The review includes 133 articles
Full Text Available The author’s purpose in this article is to ascertain the differences in the attitude to innovativeness between bureaucratic and non-bureaucratic hotel organisations. He defines as bureaucratic the organisations establishing standards. As a separate issue he wishes to find out whether bureaucratic organisations employ properly educated staff or not. For this purpose he defines basic terminology: hotel industry, innovativeness, bureaucracy and knowledge, general and knowledge of tourism and hotel trade. He points out that the government is aware of the importance of innovativeness in hotel industry and tourism, whence a number of measures. In the empirical part, using statistical methods, such as the descriptive analysis and the Bonferroni test, the author establishes that there are no statistically significant differences between bureaucratic and non-bureaucratic organisations either with regard to innovativeness or the level of staff education. In this way, by using scientific method, the author rejects the often misinterpreted opinion on the influence of bureaucracy on innovativeness.
Yurdakul, Mine; Beşen, Meltem Aydin; Erdoğan, Semra
The study was conducted to determine the issues about which nurses and midwives remain silent and the reasons for it and the perceived results of silence. Organisational silence is a vitally important issue in the health sector, due to the risks and mistakes that are not reported, and proposals for improvement that are not made. The sample of this descriptive survey, which investigated a cause and effect relationship, was 159 nurses and midwives. The data were collected using a questionnaire and the organisational silence scale. Of the study participants, 84.9% were nurses and 15.1% were midwives. Of all participants 88.7% were women. 8.8% of participants stated that they never remained silent about issues related to work and the workplace. Respondents most often remained silent about issues related to ethics and responsibility. 'Limited improvement and development' was frequently mentioned as a perceived result of organisational silence. Our study determined that organisational silence is quite common among nurses and midwives. Activities that raise the awareness of hospital administrations and employees about preventing the factors that cause and maintain silence in hospitals should be planned. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Engfeldt, Lars-Göran; Kjellén, Bo; Liefferink, Duncan
European Environmental Programme was written. Environmental work in the Authors of this chapter European context was initially based on economic cooperation and not until much later did it achieve a status of its own in the Maastricht and Amsterdam treaties. The second large UN conference for environment...
Vaughan, Jerry L.
Competitive athletes' scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test create an iceberg-like pattern known as the "Iceberg Profile." Their scores for tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion are low while their scores on vigor juts upward creating the "Iceberg Profile." Persons in a cooperative relationship are often…
Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: The research question is whether managers in organisations recognize the benefits of knowledge management. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify the factors of knowledge which have a significant impact on the organisation. Method: We reviewed the relevant literature in the field of knowledge management. On this basis, we summarized the factors of knowledge. We performed a survey among the 69 biggest Slovenian commercial companies (public and banking sectors were excluded. Results: Research has shown that managers recognize the positive effects of knowledge. Factor analysis, with the discovery of latent variables, additionally confirmed already established facts from the research literature. This led us to the discovery that knowledge is the common denominator of all companies, regardless of the business in which they operate. Organisation: From the examined literature, we can conclude that knowledge management has a positive impact on the company's results. Identification of knowledge factors allows a more efficient use of company’s resources and enables further development of the organisation. Society: Knowledge has become a highly appreciated "resource", therefore it is necessary to be able to manage it. Knowledge is the foundation of progress, not only for the development of the company but for the entire civilization. Originality: We see the original contribution in the identification of dilemmas in building connections between knowledge management and the company's success. Limitations / further research: The research matter is extremely difficult because the evidence that knowledge is the most influencing matter of a company’s success can not be easily confirmed. The connection (we remain inside the topic of human capital between knowledge and company's result is also manifested with other elements of the business, such as organisational culture, public relations, etc. Additional question is
Yongqian, Liu; Dongyuan, Cheng; Xinli, Liu
Having started early in the 1920s as a spontaneously launched educational activity by civil organisations under the influence of American audio-visual theory and practice, Chinese educational technology was later put under governmental management. This paper is composed of five parts covering mainly the historical development of educational…
This study examined the extent of Job Satisfaction, Organisational Commitment and Self-esteem of university lecturers in the Faculty of Humanities at one of the Universities of Technology in South Africa. A quantitative design was used in this study. To this end, a questionnaire was used in a survey for collecting data.
Raes M; Henken AM; MGB
At 18 and 19 September 2000 a workshop was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) in Bilthoven, the Netherlands. All National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the EU Member States and Norway participated (in total 38 participants).
The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the respective national and supranational actors (i.e. trade unions and employer organisations) in the field of industrial relations. This study will, in particular, focus on their representational quality as well as on their role in collective
This article aims to investigate the challenges facing organised community agricultural projects to alleviate income poverty in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. After a brief analysis of income- approaches to poverty, to set the analytic framework of and background to national income-generation projects in general, this ...
Drug Abuse: A seminar organised at the Government Secondary School, Aliero, Kebbi State, Nigeria as a community development service Summary: Drug abuse is the use against its action. It is worst when hard drugs are used and this is common among the youths and schoolchildren resulting in untoward effects and even ...
Barker, J; Anderson, P
A study was undertaken to identify the "Business Idea", as defined by van der Heijden (1996), in The Family Planning Association of WA Inc (FPWA) which is a Non-Government Organisation (NGO) in Perth, Western Australia. This organisation was chosen as, along with many other NGOs, it was undergoing major changes in its funding, role and required outcomes. A qualitative interpretivist single case study methodology employing grounded theory research principles and methods was used to study the Business Idea framework in this setting. Thirty-four members of FPWA's staff were interviewed and data was managed using NUD*IST4 and Decision Explorer data storage, data retrieval and graphical reproduction facilities. Results indicated that images of the Business Idea model within FPWA were largely consistent across all staff levels excepting members of the Board of Management. Changes within the organisation were impacting heavily on staff, who needed to be assisted over the transitional phase. Strong leadership and corporate direction were identified as essential if the FPWA was to balance the strongly held sense of social justice amongst its staff with a need for greater productivity efficiency and accountability across the organisation.
The key findings show that non-governmental organisations focused on imparting practical entrepreneurial skills and technical knowledge. However, participants encountered several challenges such as lack of access to capital for scaling up the projects, poor quality of finished products and limited access to markets. In turn ...
and political problems thereof, bureaucratic organisations should be given first consideration in view of the ... three arms of government and other governmental agencies. This is perhaps why they ..... *Dr Sulaiman Balarabe Kura is of the Department of Political Science, Usmanu Dan Fodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria. E-.
Mar 9, 2013 ... A REPORT OF THE LECTURE PROGRAMME organised by. INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES BANGALORE. DATE : March 9 th. 2013. VENUE: MOUNT CARMEL COLLEGE, BANGALORE. Science Career Initiative-Women in Science. The Lecture Programme started with a welcome address by Sr.
Teeters, Leah A.; Jurow, A. Susan
This article examines the social and cultural organisation of learning and community change in a largely new immigrant and under-resourced neighbourhood in the US. Situating our investigation within a local social movement for food justice, we use an ethnographic lens to study how learning is made to become consequential across relationships…
This study examined the influence of length of unemployment and perceived organisational support on employee's socio-emotional needs. Two hundred participating employees for this study were from Petroleum servicing companies in South Western Nigeria. One hundred and fourteen (57%) of the subjects were males ...
Davendra, Donald; Zelinka, Ivan; Senkerik, Roman
An approach of population dynamics and clustering for permutative problems is presented in this paper. Diversity indicators are created from solution ordering and its mapping is shown as an advantage for population control in metaheuristics. Self Organising Migrating Algorithm (SOMA) is modified using this approach and vetted with the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP). Extensive experimentation is conducted on benchmark problems in this area.
Four organisational factors, which includes goals, commitment, structure and networking believed to influence quality of manufactured products have been examined in the context of Ghanaian firms and ranked in ascending order. A survey approach using a questionnaire was adopted and a non-parametric quantitative ...
Department of Social Work, Faculty of Education, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Tel. No. +2348035653135 Email: ..... organisational justice and employee turnover in Malaysia established that there is significant, strong and positive ... STATEMENT OF PROBLEM. Employees in the manufacturing sectors are usually.
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (1979) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Re-organising the active citizen force.
The organisation of pedagogy in a learnership model of teacher education. Monica Mawoyo* and Maureen Robinson. Faculty of Education, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Private Bag 652, Cape Town, 8000 South Africa firstname.lastname@example.org; RobinsonM@cput.ac.za. * To whom correspondence should be ...
Burnett, Sally-Ann; Huisman, Jeroen
This study sought to assess how and why some higher education institutions have responded to aspects of globalisation and, in particular how organisational culture influences universities' responses to globalisation. Using a predominantly qualitative, mixed-methods approach, empirical research was used to explore the impact of globalisation at…
Background: In Sweden, as in many other countries, there has been a succession of trends in the organisation of health care and other welfare services. These trends have had different implications for the integration of services in the health and welfare system. Aims: One aim is to discuss...... the implications of different organisational trends for the integration of health and welfare services. Another aim is to introduce a Swedish model of financial coordination as a flexible way to organise integration. Organisational trends: In the 1960’s there was an expansion of health and welfare services leading...... an increasing lack of integration in the health and welfare system. In the 2000’s, there has been a re-centralisation through mergers of hospitals, regions and state agencies. It has become clear, however, that mergers do not promote integration but rather increase the bureaucratisation of the system. Model...
Full Text Available Using a multi-source field study design with 184 unique triads of employees-supervisor dyads, this paper examines whether servant leaders install a serving attitude among employees. That is, servant leaders aim to encourage employees to take responsibility, to cooperate and to create high quality interactions with each other (team-member exchange; TMX. We hypothesise that servant leadership will have an influence on Organisational Citizenship Behavior (OCB and creativity through team-member exchange. Two facets of OCB are distinguished: organisational citizenship behaviour towards individuals (OCBI, on the one hand, and taking up extra tasks that benefit the organisation (OCBO, on the other hand. The results show that servant leadership is positively related to team-member exchange, and that team-member exchange is positively related to OCBI, OCBO and creativity. The bootstrapping estimates indicated significant indirect effects of servant leadership on the three target variables through team-member exchange. The study’s findings add to the body of literature on servant leadership, OCB and creativity at the workplace, and underline the importance of creating favourable working conditions that foster positive and high quality team-member exchange. This study also broadens our understanding on the importance of co-workers on the relation between servant leadership and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB and creativity.
Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the public health impacts of the income-generating activities of organised crime. These range from the traditional vice activities of running prostitution and supplying narcotics, to the newer growth areas of human trafficking in its various forms, from international supply of young people and children as sex workers through deceit, coercion or purchase from family, through to smuggling of migrants, forced labour and the theft of human tissues for transplant, and the sale of fake medications, foodstuffs and beverages, cigarettes and other counterfeit manufactures. It looks at the effect of globalisation on integrating supply chains from poorly-regulated and impoverished source regions through to their distant markets, often via disparate groups of organised criminals who have linked across their traditional territories for mutual benefit and enhanced profit, with both traditional and newly-created linkages between production, distribution and retail functions of cooperating criminal networks from different cultures. It discusses the interactions between criminals and the structures of the state which enable illegal and socially undesirable activities to proceed on a massive scale through corruption and subversion of regulatory mechanisms. It argues that conventional approaches to tackling organised crime often have deleterious consequences for public health, and calls for an evidence-based approach with a focus on outcomes rather than ideology.
Reynolds, Lucy; McKee, Martin
This paper considers the public health impacts of the income-generating activities of organised crime. These range from the traditional vice activities of running prostitution and supplying narcotics, to the newer growth areas of human trafficking in its various forms, from international supply of young people and children as sex workers through deceit, coercion or purchase from family, through to smuggling of migrants, forced labour and the theft of human tissues for transplant, and the sale of fake medications, foodstuffs and beverages, cigarettes and other counterfeit manufactures. It looks at the effect of globalisation on integrating supply chains from poorly-regulated and impoverished source regions through to their distant markets, often via disparate groups of organised criminals who have linked across their traditional territories for mutual benefit and enhanced profit, with both traditional and newly-created linkages between production, distribution and retail functions of cooperating criminal networks from different cultures. It discusses the interactions between criminals and the structures of the state which enable illegal and socially undesirable activities to proceed on a massive scale through corruption and subversion of regulatory mechanisms. It argues that conventional approaches to tackling organised crime often have deleterious consequences for public health, and calls for an evidence-based approach with a focus on outcomes rather than ideology.
Unphon, Hataichanok; Dittrich, Yvonne
Our work aims at understanding the design rationale for product line architecture by focusing on the design of common data access modules for complex simulation software products. This paper presents empirical evidence of organisational and business domain aspects that influence the development...... of product line architecture. We suggest that the assessment of use-situation and his tory of organisational structure should be considered when creating product line architectures, especially for products that are tailored and used interactively....
The purpose of this conceptual paper is to reveal how organising can enable innovation across organisational layers and organisational units. This approach calls for a cross-disciplinary literature review. The aim is to provide an integrated understanding of innovation in an organisational approach....... The findings reveal a continous organising process between individual/ team creativity and organisational structures/control to enable innovation at firm level. Organising provides a dynamic approach and contains the integrated reconstruction of creativity, structures and boundaries for enhanced balance...... of explorative and exploitative learning in uncertain environments. Shedding light on the cross-disciplinary theories to organise innovation provides a contribution at the firm level to enable innovation....
Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech
Investigation of the textile production in af tekstilprodutionen in Linear B archives. The administration of the textile prodution is compared to the administration of land holdings.......Investigation of the textile production in af tekstilprodutionen in Linear B archives. The administration of the textile prodution is compared to the administration of land holdings....
Dolan, L.; Janmaat, K.; Willemsen, V.; Linstead, P.; Poethig, S.; Roberts, R.; Scheres, B.J.G.
The anatomy of the developing root of Arabidopsis is described using conventional histological techniques, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The root meristem is derived from cells of the hypophysis and adjacent cells of the embryo proper. The postembryonic organization of the root is
Full Text Available The objectives of energy management are resource conservation, climate protection and cost savings, while the users have permanent access to the energy they need. Much of the importance of energy saving stems from the global need to save energy - this global need affects energy prices, emissions targets, and legislation. Many companies are trying to promote its image and time protect the climate through a proactive and public energy strategy. In a divisional organization, there should be a central and several sector-specific energy management units. So the diverse needs of the individual sectors and the coordination between the branches and the head office can be fulfilled. There are basically 4 steps to the energy management process and we will explore them in turn, before looking at the impact of energy management on information technology and the ethics behind such an approach.
This research article focused on the role of principles in the development and implementation of EIA. The article aimed to investigate how EIA could be best leveraged, exploited, or otherwise used to provide business value. The research brings about a fresh perspective and new methodological principles required in architecting the enterprise information.
1961) for example, reports on the direct links between the study of the nervous system of cats, the design of anti-aircraft guns, and learning machines based upon cybernetic principles. Early computers were directly modeled upon the analogy ...
(Ohio State University) (email@example.com) for the purpose of obtaining permission to use their OCDQ-RE as instrument in this study. The necessary permission was granted by Hoy. The Superintendent-General of the North-West Department of Education as well as the applicable Area project manager were approached in ...
economic categories and different demographic fields) of the OCDQ-RE questionnaire constitute a favourable point of ... as the applicable Area project manager were approached in writing to obtain permis- sion to apply the adapted ... principal) as in the OCDQ-RE. Item 24 (the principal corrects educators' mistakes),.
The relationship between leadership practice of the principal and school culture was investigated and recommendations on the skills principals need to establish a school culture conducive to teaching and learning are provided. Two standardised questionnaires were used to measure the existing leadership practices and ...
Jong, Stefan de
Globally, the call for impact of science on society is louder than ever. The Netherlands is no exception. In 2004, valorisation was introduced as a core element of Dutch science policy, aiming to increase the societal benefits of academic research. In scientific practice, the introduction
Hjalager, Anne Mette
and methodological base of this article, is a promising research approach to tourism issues. The article, which focuses on explanations for the occurrence of life events in the restaurant sector, calls for more careful policy considerations than are often the case. In particular, human-resource- and labour...
Increased national and international competition within higher education has triggered an interest in branding within the sector. Higher education institutions are, as a consequence, currently re-examining their profile and image. This article addresses the problems higher education institutions face in this process, and points to the benefits and…
Peter John Snow
Full Text Available This paper proposes that what have been historically and contemporarily defined as different domains of human cognition are served by one of four functionally- and structurally-distinct areas of the prefrontal cortex. Their contributions to human intelligence are as follows: (a BA9, enables our emotional intelligence, engaging the psychosocial domain, (b BA47, enables our practical intelligence, engaging the material domain, (c BA46 (or BA46-9/46, enables our abstract intelligence, engaging the hypothetical domain and (d BA10, enables our temporal intelligence, engaging in planning within any of the other three domains. Given their unique contribution to human cognition, it is proposed that these areas be called the, social (BA9, material (BA47, abstract (BA46-9/46 and temporal (BA10 mind. The evidence that BA47 participates strongly in verbal and gestural communication suggests that language evolved primarily as a consequence of the extreme selective pressure for practicality; an observation supported by the functional connectivity between BA47 and orbital areas that negatively reinforce lying. It is further proposed that the abstract mind (BA46-9/46 is the primary seat of metacognition charged with creating adaptive behavioral strategies by generating higher-order concepts (hypotheses from lower-order concepts originating both from our perceptual representations and the other three domains of cognition.
Abstract. Cybernetics is the metaphorical term that describes and characterises the field of study which is concerned with the control and communication in animal and machine. Broadly speaking, developments have occurred in two directions, one of which builds upon early cybernetic insights which sought to build ...
Cybernetics is the metaphorical term that describes and characterises the field of study which is concerned with the control and communication in animal and machine. Broadly speaking, developments have occurred in two directions, one of which builds upon early cybernetic insights which sought to build machines upon ...
Full Text Available The objective of this study was twofold: Firstly, to explore and describe the perceived fairness of a disciplinary procedure in the workplace and, secondly, to develop guidelines that could be used by managers to provide a fairer experience of the disciplinary procedure. A qualitative research design was employed. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants who were purposely divided into two groups (an employee participant group and an expert participant group. Results indicated that employees experienced the disciplinary procedure as traumatic, unfair and not reliable. Guidelines were formulated to manage employee discipline more effectively.
Frédéric Laloux works as an adviser, coach, and facilitator for corporate leaders who feel called to explore fundamentally new ways of organizing. A former associate partner with McKinsey & Co., he holds an MBA from INSEAD. Frédéric Laloux is the author of the much talked about book "Reinventing Organizations". His fundamental research in the field of emerging organizational models has been described as ground-breaking, brilliant, spectacular, impressive, and world changing by some of the most respected scholars in the field of human development. youtu.be/gcS04BI2sbk
Resource inequity and disparity between nations and communities is a significant social problem. The consequences of such inequities are immense and are compounded by governments' failure to find lasting solutions. International organizations have stepped in to fill the gap; however, their efficacy is fairly ...
In the last decade technology exploded into libraries. It impacted not only library work processes but imported also new strategic options. Library systems, i.e. databases, imported notions of project management and efficiency and resulted in catalog sharing. The Internet with Gopher and Veronica,
Kloprogge, Eddy; Gleeson, Peter; Clarkson, Petruska
This paper describes a tool for thinking and developing consciousness about the epistemology contained and revealed in our discourse about psychology and complexity theory. It is concerned with knowledge, with how we can know and with how we can sensibly speak about knowing. The model is not intended to express any values in itself and it sets no…
Englmaier, Florian; Kolaska, Thomas; Leider, Stephen
Recent laboratory evidence suggests that personality traits, in particular social preferences, may affect contractual outcomes under moral hazard. Using the British Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2004 we find that behaviour of employers and employees is consistent with the presence of gift-exchange motives: firms that screen applicants for personality are less likely to pay low wages and more likely to provide (non-pecuniary) benefits. Firms likewise benefit from employee screening as ...
Florian Englmaier; Thomas Kolaska; Stephen G. Leider
Recent laboratory evidence suggests that social preferences may affect contractual outcomes under moral hazard. In accordance with previous research, this paper uses written personality tests for job candidates as a proxy for whether firms care about personality traits of employees, in particular whether these employees are inclined towards reciprocity. Using the British Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2004 (WERS) we find that behavior of employers and employees is consistent with the p...
Martinsen, Bodil; Dubslaff, Friedel
interaction, is determined by the inherent institutional power differential, it is appropriate to describe it in terms of cooperativeness. The conflict regarding the interpreter's non-normative behaviour is negotiated and settled by way of consensus, and the trial is carried through with the same...
Kniffin, Kevin M; Yan, Jubo; Wansink, Brian; Schulze, William D
Music as an environmental aspect of professional workplaces has been closely studied with respect to consumer behavior while sparse attention has been given to its relevance for employee behavior. In this article, we focus on the influence of music upon cooperative behavior within decision-making groups. Based on results from two extended 20-round public goods experiments, we find that happy music significantly and positively influences cooperative behavior. We also find a significant positive association between mood and cooperative behavior. Consequently, while our studies provide partial support for the relevance of affect in relation to cooperation within groups, we also show an independently important function of happy music that fits with a theory of synchronous and rhythmic activity as a social lubricant. More generally, our findings indicate that music and perhaps other atmospheric variables that are designed to prime consumer behavior might have comparably important effects for employees and consequently warrant closer investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Karlsson, Patrik; Bergmark, Anders; Lundström, Tommy
We explore how four evidence-producing organisations in the US go ahead when they rate the evidence base for psychosocial interventions, using the Incredible Years programme as our case study. The findings demonstrate variation in the procedures and resulting evidence claims across the organisations, with some organisations being strict and some…
Javier Divar Garteiz-Aurrecoa
Full Text Available The new Spanish General Law regulates cooperatives and qualifies them as economic entities for conducting business, so its commercial nature is recognized aside positions that defend the absence of profit in cooperatives.
Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward
In this article we clarify the historical roots of stakeholder theory to establish that a much larger role was played by Scandinavian thinkers in its development than is currently acknowledged. We show that important contributions to the stakeholder concept were being made by Eric Rhenman and his...
Segal, JoAn S.
Discussion of the management of not-for-profit corporations which provide computerized library networks highlights marketing, nonprofit constraints, multiple goals, consumer demands, professional commitment, external influences, motivation and control, dependence on charisma, management and altruism, hybrid organizations, and rational management.…
Deverell, Andrea; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann
Ideas are no longer generated solely within a firm’s internal boundaries but also sourced from the external knowledge environment. Therefore, firms can no longer rely solely on internal knowledge to develop new ideas or solve problems. This paper is based on empirical research which investigates...... different knowledge acquisition strategies utilised by firms during the innovation process. It suggests that there is a relationship between the kind of innovative activity (cumulative or radical) and the sourcing of knowledge i.e. the internal and/or external environment. Two hypotheses are derived from...... the literature and tested empirically. These hypotheses are based on the premises that cumulative type organisations focus primarily on internal knowledge or existing core competencies within the firm and are less likely to scan the external environment for ideas and knowledge. Whereas radical type organisations...
Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian
We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm......We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm...
Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard
“Sustainable transport” has become a headline for transport planning and policy making around the world. While there are many different definitions of what Sustainable Transport means, it commonly includes efforts to improve the environmental performance of transport systems, and to promote...... depends on how the bus sector is organised. By organisation we adopt an institutional point of view and consider basic modes of governance. Basic modes of governance include the forms “market”, “hierarchy” and “network” (Powell 1990). So-called New Public Management (NPM) reforms have changed the modes......: Public bus transport in England, exemplified by Greater Manchester. England represents a situation where - compared to continental Europe including Denmark - the NPM reforms have been particularly radical. In no other European country the market forces has achieved a role as dominant as in England...
Vezzani, Stefano; Marino, Barbara F M; Giora, Enrico
Wertheimer's (1923, Psychologische Forschung 4 301 - 350) idea that the perceptual world is articulated according to factors of organisation is widely acknowledged as one of the most original contributions of Gestalt psychology and stands as a milestone in the history of vision research. An inquiry focused on the forerunners of some of Wertheimer's factors of perceptual organisation is documented here. In fact, in 1900 Schumann described grouping by proximity and by vertical symmetry, and in 1903 G E Müller identified the factors of sameness/similarity and contour. Other authors contributed to the early description of these factors, such as Rubin, who in 1922 originally illustrated grouping by similarity. Even though Wertheimer himself granted these authors due recognition, later psychologists have paid little attention to their contributions. Some possible reasons for this negligence are briefly discussed.
Mills, Cliff; Swarbrick, Gareth
In looking at reform, it is important to understand the longer heritage of the public sector. This suggests a future drawing on mutual ideas and principles as a powerful alternative to private ownership. It involves a new approach to organisational design which underpins a reformed service delivery model. This is examined through the example of Rochdale Boroughwide Housing, the UK's first mutual social housing provider, owned and controlled by its tenant and employee members.
Eveslage, Ingmar; Fischer, Joachim; Kühnlenz, Frank; Lichtblau, Björn; Milkereit, Claus; Picozzi, Matteo
The Self-Organising Seismic Early Warning Information Network (SOSEWIN) represents a new approach for Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS), consisting in taking advantage of novel wireless communications technologies without the need of a planned, centralised infrastructure. It also sets out to overcome problems of insufficient node density, which typically affects present existing early warning systems, by having the SOSEWIN seismological sensing units being comprised of low-cost components (generally bought "off-the-shelf"), with each unit initially costing 100's of Euros, in contrast to 1,000's to 10,000's for standard seismological stations. The reduced sensitivity of the new sensing units arising from the use of lower-cost components will be compensated by the network's density, which in the future is expected to number 100's to 1000's over areas served currently by the order of 10's of standard stations. The robustness, independence of infrastructure, spontaneous extensibility due to a self-healing/self-organizing character in the case of removing/failing or adding sensors makes SOSEWIN potentially useful for various use cases, e.g. monitoring of building structures (as we could proof during the L'Aquila earthquake) or technical systems and most recently for seismic microzonation. Nevertheless the main purpose SOSEWIN was initially invented for is the earthquake early warning and rapid response, for which reason the ground motion is continuously monitored by conventional accelerometers (3-component) and processed within a station. Based on this, the network itself decides whether an event is detected cooperatively in a two-level hierarchical alarming protocol. Experiences and experiment results with the SOSEWIN-prototype installation in the Ataköy district of Istanbul (Turkey) are presented. The limited size of this installation with currently 20 nodes allows not answering certain questions regarding the useful or possible size of a SOSEWIN installation
Husu, Liisa; Hearn, Jeff; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Vanhala, Sinikka
Leadership and management remain highly gendered. Recent decades have seen a major international growth of studies on gender relations in leadership, organisations and management, in both empirical research and theoretical analysis. The differential relations of women and men to leadership and management are a key question for both theory and practice. Recent research and discussion on the gendering of leadership have been influenced by and have addressed: feminism; recognition of women and w...
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ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Production systems have undergone dramatic changes in recent years. Many companies have implemented new technologies such as flexible manufacturing systems. There is therefore a shift in focus to maintenance and the effective management thereof. Maintenance is a dynamic activity and is comprised of a large number of interacting variables. An effective maintenance organisation is required to control these variables .
This paper discusses the building of a maintenance organisation and the aspects that should be considered during the design. The way in which five companies that operate hot rolling mills apptoached the problem of building an effective maintenance organisation was investigated.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: y eryaardigingstelsels het drastiese veranderinge ondergaan die afgelope aantal jaar. Verskeie Il1~atskappyemaak nou gebruik van nuwe tegnologiee, soas byvoorbeeld aanpasbare vervaardigingstelsels. Daar is gevolglik 'n verskuiwing in fokus na instandhouding en die effektiewe bestuur daarvan. lnstandhouding is 'n dinamiese aktiwiteit en behels 'n groot aantal ' gekoppelde veranderlikes. 'n Effektiewe instandhoudingsorganisasie word benodig om hierdie v'eranderlikes te beheer.
Hierdie artikel bespreek die daarstelling van die instandhoudingsorganisasie en die parameters V~toorweeg moet word tydens die ontwerp. Die wyse waarop vyf maatskappye wat }V~rIl1walse bedryf die ontwikkeling van 'neffektiewe organisasie vir instandhouding benader hc(is ondersoek .
Bradley, Dominique Kim Frances; Griffin, Murray
The English National Health Service Institute for Innovation and Improvement designed a series of programmes called The Productive Series. These are innovations designed to help healthcare staff reduce inefficiency and improve quality, and have been implemented in healthcare organisations in at least 14 different countries. This paper examines an implementation of the first module of the Productive Community Services programme called 'The Well Organised Working Environment'. The quantitative component aims to identify the quantitative outcomes and impact of the implementation of the Well Organised Working Environment module. The qualitative component aims to describe the contexts, mechanisms and outcomes evident during the implementation, and to consider the implication of these findings for healthcare staff, commissioners and implementation teams. Mixed methods explanatory sequential design. Community Healthcare Organisation in East Anglia, England. For the quantitative data, participants were 73 staff members that completed End of Module Assessments. Data from 25 services that carried out an inventory of stock items stored were also analysed. For the qualitative element, participants were 45 staff members working in the organisation during the implementation, and four members of the Productive Community Services Implementation Team. Staff completed assessments at the end of the module implementation, and the value of items stored by clinical services was recorded. After the programme concluded, semi-structured interviews with staff and a focus group with members of the Productive Community Services implementation team were analysed using Framework Analysis employing the principles of Realist Evaluation. 62.5% respondents (n=45) to the module assessment reported an improvement in their working environment, 37.5% (n=27) reported that their working environment stayed the same or deteriorated. The reduction of the value of items stored by services ranged from £4 to
Edward O. Akoto
Full Text Available Orientation: An emerging stream of research employs a configural or profile approach to the study of organisational commitment, by focusing on and placing individuals at the centre of data analysis. This approach signals the importance of taking a holistic view of individuals’commitment mind-set, unlike the variable-centred approach.Research purpose: To test the theory on profiles of commitment in an African context (Ghana.Motivation for the study: Although the three-component model of organisational commitment has been extended to several regions of Africa, there is a paucity of research on profiles of commitment on the continent.Research approach, design and method: Cross-sectional data from two studies, with samples of 187 and 218, were analysed using k-means clusters. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was then used to test the differences amongst profiles in their association with contextual variables, such as pay satisfaction, job security, strike propensity and two demographic factors.Main findings: In the k-means cluster analysis, a six-cluster solution emerged in both studies;the profiles include the highly committed and the uncommitted groups, as well as the profiles based on normative commitment and continuance commitment. Overall, the MANOVA post hoc outcome shows that the highly committed group reports higher mean scores on the positive outcome variables (e.g. job security than the uncommitted group. Conversely, the uncommitted group scored relatively higher on the negative organisational outcome (propensity to strike. Other mean differences were found in the respective studies on pay satisfaction, collectivism and the demographic factors.Practical/managerial implications: Employing the configural approach to the study of commitment in this region should increase our understanding of the patterns of attachment and their influence on behaviour. Different patterns of attachment exist within the organisation that may be
Chen, Sheng-Hwang; Yu, Hsing-Yi; Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Lin, Fang-Chen; Lou, Jiunn-Horng
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organisational support, organisational identification, and organisational citizenship behaviour and the predictors of organisational citizenship behaviour in Taiwanese male nurses. The turnover rate among male nurses is twice that of female nurses. Organisational citizenship behaviour is the predictor of turnover intention. Little information is available on the relationship between organisational support, organisational identification and organisational citizenship behaviour, particularly for male nurses. Data were collected in 2010 from a questionnaire mailed to 167 male nurses in Taiwan. A cross-sectional survey with simple sampling was used in this study. The results showed that organisational identification and organisational support were correlated with organisational citizenship behaviour. Organisational distinctiveness, organisational support of work conditions and the type of organisation were the main predictors of organisational citizenship behaviour. Together they accounted for 40.7% of the total variation in organisational citizenship behaviour. Organisational distinctiveness was the most critical predictor, accounting for 29.6% of the variation. Organisational support and organisational identification have positive relationships with organisational behaviour. Organisational distinctiveness is an important factor in explaining organisational citizenship behaviour in male nurses. This finding provides concrete directions for managers to follow when providing organisational identification, in particular, the organisational distinctiveness will help male nurses to display increasingly more organisational citizenship behaviour. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dunn, Steven E.; Wilson, Rolayne
Presents guidelines for promoting and using cooperative learning in physical education. To establish cooperative learning, teachers must plan for specific group dynamics. Physical educators need to understand their roles with groups and how groups should be structured. The article offers two cooperative learning lesson examples. (SM)
Berigan, Nick; Irwin, Kyle
Solutions to social dilemmas require cooperation. Given that there are commonly multiple avenues for cooperation, sometimes social dilemmas require coordination of strategies in addition to sufficient cooperation to be successful. This study examines one social dilemma where such coordination is necessary: supporting the general welfare. Using…
Bystrov Anton G.
Full Text Available The article justifies importance of the leader when supporting changes that accompany innovations. It offers to study favourable attitude to introduction of innovations in the organisation on the basis of assessment of innovation potential of employees and their motivation. The result of the latter is marking out situations by the level of favourable attitude to the changes, which are grouped in so-called zones: green zone is maximally attractive, yellow zone has an average level of attractiveness and red zone is the most risky state for introduction of innovations. In order to increase favourable attitude of the personnel to changes, which accompany innovations, the article gives such ways of the leader’s impact on this process, which cover the style of interaction with the employees, degree of structuredness of work, use of functional powers, development and motivation. Application of this approach to management of introduction of innovations in the organisation, depending on the level of innovation potential and motivation of the personnel, would allow: assessment of the favourable attitude to changes or, vice versa, riskiness; reduction of costs and terms of introduction of innovations; and increase of the level of innovation potential and motivation of the employees.
Full Text Available The development of the world economy and the globally accelerated diversification of production led to the need of widening the economic cooperation. The need of cooperation increased in various sectors of the global economy, such as the transport industry, IT and commercial sector. The aeronautics industry is a representative sector of cooperation, where the exchange of knowledge and technology, the cooperation between universities, industries, research organizations, small and medium enterprises (SMEs, etc. and the free flow of ideas are crucial factors for the implementation and sustainability of a unique innovation system. The main objective of this paper is to identify the main forms of cooperation in the aircraft industry. The paper includes two important parts: the first part contains an analysis of the US and Europe aeronautics industry evolution, highlighting the cooperation forms and fields that emerged over time; and the second part comprises an analysis of the Romanian aircraft industry cooperation.
Chang, Che-Wei; Wu, Cheng-Ru; Liao, Chia-Chun
Abstract This study examines the use of the virtual enterprise network supplier supply-chain model of business behavior in creating synergies of cooperation. To explore virtual network behavior, it evaluates 60 samples, taken from of a few supply chains, and 17 items meeting certain behavioral criteria. Such an analysis may help to reduce costs and processing time effectively, as well as promote effective communication. Furthermore, the study of behavior in this electronic setting is a reliable and useful assessment method.
There have been many high-profile incidents in recent times that have affected both individual organisations and large parts of society. In response to these disasters and their consequences, there has been increasing focus on the concept of 'resilience'. Airmic worked with Cranfield School of Management to investigate the features of resilient organisations and whether common characteristics could be identified. The research summarised in this paper discovered five principles that increase an organisation's level of resilence. The paper also reports on the actions taken by organisations to embed these resilience principles into four main business enablers. These business enablers in combination represent the business model of the organisation. The overall conclusion of the research was that, in order to achieve a state of enhanced resilience, organisations need to be aware of risks and threats they face and then combine the actions required to be 'risk compliant' with the ability to be 'risk responsive'.
project contributes toorganisational learning. The point of departure is a municipality in Denmark workingtoward digitalising its administration. The conclusion is that the success of such aprocess very much depends on an organisation's ability to encompass severalunderstandings of organisational...
Lischka, Juliane A
This study investigates the relations between the corporate culture, organisational sensemaking of environmental changes, strategy responses, and market performance of news media organisations in a time of technological change and the financial crisis in the UK and Switzerland. This study asks the key question whether news media organisations should adapt quickly or incrementally to environmental change in order to remain functional to the audience and advertiser markets. Analysis is base...
This Ph.D. research is carried out for the business unit at LEGO concerned with Internet shopping (e-business) called LEGO Direct. The research is concerned with the issues of organisational change and management. The research is partly sponsored by LEGO Company and Aalborg University The research......, ranging from areas such as engineering, psychology, management, and sociology. We also learnt that all of the theories were adding bits and pieces to our understanding of organisational change. During the search and selection, we found that it would be interesting to analyse what can be gained from...... understanding of organizational change and its processes both theoretical as well as empirical. In the search for interesting and relevant theories that would fulfill the goal of thesis, we learnt that the field of organisational change was complex and widely spread across lots of disciplines and paradigms...
Douglas, Simon; Wilson, Rob
Purpose To enable an understanding of the complexities involved in evaluating and improving the partnerships between organisations involved in integrated working. Theory Network organisations provide a unique challenge to understanding and evaluating the processes and mechanisms through which organisations integrate. Through integrating research into this interface we propose a methodology for evaluation. Methods A Grounded Theory study of partnership working in network organisations, with da...
Zambonelli, F.; Jennings, N.R.; Wooldridge, M.
Multi-agent systems can very naturally be viewed as computational organisations. For this reason, we believe organisational abstractions offer a promising set of metaphors and models that can be exploited in the analysis and design of such systems. To this end, the concept of role models is increasingly being used to specify and design multi-agent systems. However, this is not the full picture. In this paper we introduce three additional organisational concepts - organisational rules , organi...
Full Text Available Orientation: There appears to be a dearth of literature that addresses the relationship between employee satisfaction and organisational performance in South African public organisations. Motivation for the study: This study attempted to contribute to the discourse on the influence of human resources to organisational performance.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between employee satisfaction and organisational performance in a public sector organisation.Research design: A three-section survey questionnaire was used to collect data from a conveniently recruited sample of 272 members of a South African government department. Pearson’s correlation test as well as a regression analysis were employed to test the existence of a relationship between employee satisfaction and organisational performance. The mean score ranking technique was used to compare the impact of the individual employee satisfaction factors on organisational performance.Main findings: Positive correlations were observed between organisational performance and all five employee satisfaction factors, namely working conditions, ability utilisation, creativity, teamwork and autonomy. Amongst the five factors, teamwork had the greatest impact on organisational performance, followed by ability utilisation, creativity, autonomy, with working conditions exerting the least influence.Practical and/or managerial implications: Strategic interventions involving positive adjustments on the five employee satisfaction dimensions examined in this study may be initiated and applied to improve overall organisational performance in public organisations.Contributions and/or value add: The study endorses the notion that a satisfied workforce could be the key to enhanced organisational performance.
Full Text Available Social changes dictating business dynamics in the new century, a growing complexity of business processes as well as job complexity nowadays demands networking of human resources in order to achieve organisational goals. Synergy and cohesion created by teamwork are the key to the success of any organisation. Team organisation represents organisational structure that can be embedded in the existing organisational form in a very simple way. This results in a productive and flexible environment coordinated by efficient teams. Since the beginning of time, human beings have not functioned as se- parate individuals. Modern times provide the best account of the time where complicated hierarchical organisations are simplified in a very plain way and they ensure their work efficiency by reorganizing jobs and networking human resources. Complex and difficult tasks are solved by sharing responsibili- ties in a simple way; therefore, teamwork and team-oriented organisational structure offer numerous advantages. In addition to the theoretical overview, research was conducted on a selected economic operator in one of its business units. The obtained results point to a high level of teamwork and satisfaction in carrying out the work. The research results confirmed the fact that teamwork is nowadays increasingly present in organisations. Efficient teams representing intellectual capital of any organisation create a more productive and a more innovative organisation with all its special features. Thus, survival condi- tions are created and competitive advantages are achieved in a very demanding and turbulent market.
The revival of China's interest in Africa is often highlighted as being an opportunity to provide African governments with a choice between development partners that may strengthen negotiation leverage and thereby carve out policy space to define and implement policies that affect social...... and economic development. This article critically reviews the most recent developments in Chinese and Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) approaches to development finance to Africa. It argues that although we can detect a number of incidents that point towards more policy space...... for African governments, the revival of China's development finance does not fundamentally alter the power relations between African countries and their financiers, as the tendency now is towards convergence and cooperation between China and Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donors—not divergence...
The article presents and illustrates the learning journey (LJ)--a new management development approach to inter-organisational learning based on observation, reflection and problem-solving. The LJ involves managers from different organisations and applies key concepts of action learning and systemic organisational development. Made up of…
Full Text Available The logistics industry has been attracting the attention of researchers in management for several years. Their focus is increasingly on interorganisational relationships between logistics service providers and their customers, examining the modes of interaction occurring between them. An abundant literature emphasises the importance of cooperative strategies in the logistics industry, hinting that this is a dominant requirement, destined for inevitable development. This article presents a more qualified position and proposes that cooperative strategies are most likely a transition step between arm’s-length competition periods, and resorts to the entrenchment theory, imported from organisational finance, to propose a sequential cooperation-competition model.
Full Text Available This paper illustrates how the New Zealand Police use non-financial annual report disclosures in response toadverse media publicity. This longitudinal case study spans the reporting periods ending 30 June 2000through to 30 June 2007. It involves a detailed examination of the narrative disclosures and images containedin the annual reports, including the Commissioner’s Overview and the Outcome Reports during this time.Three controversial items covered by the media were traced through the annual reports to establish whetherthe New Zealand Police use image repair discourse supplemented by semiotics in non-financial annual reportdisclosures to repair organisational legitimacy. The analysis found that non-financial disclosures together withimage repair discourse strategies were used by the New Zealand Police, a public sector agency, to repairorganisational legitimacy. This paper provides a valuable contribution to researchers and practitioners as itextends the understanding of how public sector agencies use non-financial annual report disclosures.
Kaufman, Gerri; McCaughan, Dorothy
This article explores the links between organisational culture and patient safety. The key elements associated with a safety culture, most notably effective leadership, good teamwork, a culture of learning and fairness, and fostering patient-centred care, are discussed. The broader aspects of a systems approach to promoting quality and safety, with specific reference to clinical governance, human factors, and ergonomics principles and methods, are also briefly explored, particularly in light of the report of the public inquiry into care failings at Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust.
M.Phil. The objective of this study was to explore a group of key employees’ experiences and perceptions at the Government Funded Organisation (GFO) of the service performance of the GFO they work for, as well as to develop a social tool –a model – that could be used to help both the public fulfil its role of developing workable strategies aimed at ensuring that they deliver services according to their mandate. A combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods (mixed method ap...
Wilson, Stuart P
A thermodynamic model of thermoregulatory huddling interactions between endotherms is developed. The model is presented as a Monte Carlo algorithm in which animals are iteratively exchanged between groups, with a probability of exchanging groups defined in terms of the temperature of the environment and the body temperatures of the animals. The temperature-dependent exchange of animals between groups is shown to reproduce a second-order critical phase transition, i.e., a smooth switch to huddling when the environment gets colder, as measured in recent experiments. A peak in the rate at which group sizes change, referred to as pup flow, is predicted at the critical temperature of the phase transition, consistent with a thermodynamic description of huddling, and with a description of the huddle as a self-organising system. The model was subjected to a simple evolutionary procedure, by iteratively substituting the physiologies of individuals that fail to balance the costs of thermoregulation (by huddling in groups) with the costs of thermogenesis (by contributing heat). The resulting tension between cooperative and competitive interactions was found to generate a phenomenon called self-organised criticality, as evidenced by the emergence of avalanches in fitness that propagate across many generations. The emergence of avalanches reveals how huddling can introduce correlations in fitness between individuals and thereby constrain evolutionary dynamics. Finally, a full agent-based model of huddling interactions is also shown to generate criticality when subjected to the same evolutionary pressures. The agent-based model is related to the Monte Carlo model in the way that a Vicsek model is related to an Ising model in statistical physics. Huddling therefore presents an opportunity to use thermodynamic theory to study an emergent adaptive animal behaviour. In more general terms, huddling is proposed as an ideal system for investigating the interaction between self-organisation
Stuart P Wilson
Full Text Available A thermodynamic model of thermoregulatory huddling interactions between endotherms is developed. The model is presented as a Monte Carlo algorithm in which animals are iteratively exchanged between groups, with a probability of exchanging groups defined in terms of the temperature of the environment and the body temperatures of the animals. The temperature-dependent exchange of animals between groups is shown to reproduce a second-order critical phase transition, i.e., a smooth switch to huddling when the environment gets colder, as measured in recent experiments. A peak in the rate at which group sizes change, referred to as pup flow, is predicted at the critical temperature of the phase transition, consistent with a thermodynamic description of huddling, and with a description of the huddle as a self-organising system. The model was subjected to a simple evolutionary procedure, by iteratively substituting the physiologies of individuals that fail to balance the costs of thermoregulation (by huddling in groups with the costs of thermogenesis (by contributing heat. The resulting tension between cooperative and competitive interactions was found to generate a phenomenon called self-organised criticality, as evidenced by the emergence of avalanches in fitness that propagate across many generations. The emergence of avalanches reveals how huddling can introduce correlations in fitness between individuals and thereby constrain evolutionary dynamics. Finally, a full agent-based model of huddling interactions is also shown to generate criticality when subjected to the same evolutionary pressures. The agent-based model is related to the Monte Carlo model in the way that a Vicsek model is related to an Ising model in statistical physics. Huddling therefore presents an opportunity to use thermodynamic theory to study an emergent adaptive animal behaviour. In more general terms, huddling is proposed as an ideal system for investigating the interaction
A thermodynamic model of thermoregulatory huddling interactions between endotherms is developed. The model is presented as a Monte Carlo algorithm in which animals are iteratively exchanged between groups, with a probability of exchanging groups defined in terms of the temperature of the environment and the body temperatures of the animals. The temperature-dependent exchange of animals between groups is shown to reproduce a second-order critical phase transition, i.e., a smooth switch to huddling when the environment gets colder, as measured in recent experiments. A peak in the rate at which group sizes change, referred to as pup flow, is predicted at the critical temperature of the phase transition, consistent with a thermodynamic description of huddling, and with a description of the huddle as a self-organising system. The model was subjected to a simple evolutionary procedure, by iteratively substituting the physiologies of individuals that fail to balance the costs of thermoregulation (by huddling in groups) with the costs of thermogenesis (by contributing heat). The resulting tension between cooperative and competitive interactions was found to generate a phenomenon called self-organised criticality, as evidenced by the emergence of avalanches in fitness that propagate across many generations. The emergence of avalanches reveals how huddling can introduce correlations in fitness between individuals and thereby constrain evolutionary dynamics. Finally, a full agent-based model of huddling interactions is also shown to generate criticality when subjected to the same evolutionary pressures. The agent-based model is related to the Monte Carlo model in the way that a Vicsek model is related to an Ising model in statistical physics. Huddling therefore presents an opportunity to use thermodynamic theory to study an emergent adaptive animal behaviour. In more general terms, huddling is proposed as an ideal system for investigating the interaction between self-organisation
'SWOT' is a familiar term used in the development of business strategy. It is based on the identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats as part of a strategic analysis approach. While there are a range of more sophisticated models for analysing and developing business strategy, it is a useful model for general practice as it is less time consuming than other approaches. The following article discusses some ways to apply this framework to assess organisational strengths (and weaknesses). It is based on The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners' "General practice management toolkit".
Hoshino, Chisho; Satoh, Noriyuki; Narita, Masashi; Kikuchi, Akio; Inoue, Minoru
Organising pneumonia (OP) is an inflammatory lung disease with distinctive clinicopathological features. OP can be evident during the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with increased disease activity. The authors report an OP associated with RA case in which pulmonary symptoms preceded the onset of joint symptoms. An OP patient with elevated serum anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody is likely to manifest RA in the near future, reflecting its high disease activity. Thus, an early rheumatologic consultation should be taken into consideration to make an early decision to initiate disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs therapy. PMID:22699479
Smith, Daniel; Schlaepfer, Philip; Major, Katie; Dyble, Mark; Page, Abigail E; Thompson, James; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Mace, Ruth; Astete, Leonora; Ngales, Marilyn; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg
Storytelling is a human universal. From gathering around the camp-fire telling tales of ancestors to watching the latest television box-set, humans are inveterate producers and consumers of stories. Despite its ubiquity, little attention has been given to understanding the function and evolution of storytelling. Here we explore the impact of storytelling on hunter-gatherer cooperative behaviour and the individual-level fitness benefits to being a skilled storyteller. Stories told by the Agta, a Filipino hunter-gatherer population, convey messages relevant to coordinating behaviour in a foraging ecology, such as cooperation, sex equality and egalitarianism. These themes are present in narratives from other foraging societies. We also show that the presence of good storytellers is associated with increased cooperation. In return, skilled storytellers are preferred social partners and have greater reproductive success, providing a pathway by which group-beneficial behaviours, such as storytelling, can evolve via individual-level selection. We conclude that one of the adaptive functions of storytelling among hunter gatherers may be to organise cooperation.
Greenhalgh, Trisha; Procter, Rob; Wherton, Joe; Sugarhood, Paul; Shaw, Sara
To (1) map how different stakeholders understand telehealth and telecare technologies and (2) explore the implications for development and implementation of telehealth and telecare services. Discourse analysis. 68 publications representing diverse perspectives (academic, policy, service, commercial and lay) on telehealth and telecare plus field notes from 10 knowledge-sharing events. Following a familiarisation phase (browsing and informal interviews), we studied a systematic sample of texts in detail. Through repeated close reading, we identified assumptions, metaphors, storylines, scenarios, practices and rhetorical positions. We added successive findings to an emerging picture of the whole. Telehealth and telecare technologies featured prominently in texts on chronic illness and ageing. There was no coherent organising vision. Rather, four conflicting discourses were evident and engaged only minimally with one another's arguments. Modernist discourse presented a futuristic utopian vision in which assistive technologies, implemented at scale, would enable society to meet its moral obligations to older people by creating a safe 'smart' home environment where help was always at hand, while generating efficiency savings. Humanist discourse emphasised the uniqueness and moral worth of the individual and tailoring to personal and family context; it considered that technologies were only sometimes fit for purpose and could create as well as solve problems. Political economy discourse envisaged a techno-economic complex of powerful vested interests driving commodification of healthcare and diversion of public funds into private business. Change management discourse recognised the complicatedness of large-scale technology programmes and emphasised good project management and organisational processes. Introduction of telehealth and telecare is hampered because different stakeholders hold different assumptions, values and world views, 'talk past' each other and compete for
Full Text Available Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, this study seeks to explore the diversity of culture amongst the staff of a business school in Hungary and then examine how this diversity may impact upon the organisation’s orientations towards three aspects of market orientation: interfunctional cooperation; competition and the student orientation. The diversity of culture is found through the identification of five subcultures. These subcultures exhibit signs of both heterogeneity and homogeneity as two pairs of subcultures are divided not by differences in values themselves but by the expressed strength of values. The empirical findings indicate that each subculture varies in perception of the dominant cultures of the organisation and its particular market orientation in relation to culture type. Furthermore, some subcultures perceive themselves as enhancing, when this may not be the case and others perceive themselves as counter cultures. The qualitative study confirms that subcultures have both homogenous and heterogeneous aspects in relation to other subcultures as well as the perceived dominant culture. This greater complexity gives an extension to the existing perspectives taken on organisation culture, although this would need to be confirmed with generalizable research.
Full Text Available Considered a fundamental element of human existence, communication has been used since ancient times for the purpose of “transmitting something to the others also”. Although the term of “communication” has Latin origin, the first practical preoccupations for this issue are found in the Ancient Greeks’ works and were related to oratory which, in its turn, was promoted as “art of the word”. Even if in the literature the notion of “communication” was defined in a complex manner, being assigned numerous valences. Theoreticians found that, on the level of human communication, two common elements clearly appear for each of the meanings of this term. Thus, on the one hand, communication is perceived as a true process of information transmission, and on the other hand no human action, irrespective of the level of its realisation, can be conceived outside this process. Beyond the completion of the main theoretical models for the phenomena of organisational communication, the present article attempts to forward the author's personal diagnosis of a child protection institution, more precisely the General Division for Social Work/Assistance and Child Protection Caraş-Severin (DGASPC, valuing a wide-range methodology (analysis of social documents, interview, and structured observation. Thus, by combining the quantitative endeavour with the qualitative one, we highlighted the existence of a formal ascendant vertical communication, opposed or complementary to the descendant vertical one characterising most of Romanian organisational practices. The special institutional specificity of DGASPC turns this organisational territory into a possible model of interpersonal relationing, different from the general specificity existing in Romanian public institutions where the boss dictates.
Y. Tham; T. Muneer
The UK is implementing different types of policies to encourage the use of renewable energy for electricity generation. Currently, the UK is falling behind other European countries in this respect. Hence, co-operatives play an important role in helping the UK to move forward. Co-operatives are of interest to the Government in respect of economic development in the community. Co-operatives keep both the business, or entity, and the wealth it creates locally, which also supports the local econo...
Martínez-Blanco, Julia; Finkbeiner, Matthias
environmental performance over time, supporting strategic decisions, and informing corporate sustainability reporting. Several initiatives are on the way for the LCA of organisations: the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative published the ‘Guidance on organizational LCA’, using ISO/TS 14072 as a backbone; moreover...
Full Text Available The author focuses on revealing the identity and essence of cooperatives, ignoring the principles of identity which have arisen from and been set by the International Cooperative Alliance. In this work of fiction, the author approaches the subject supposing that cooperatives did not exist and uses intuitive methods to deduce the universal principles that are common guidelines for these types of organisations.Received: 15.05.2012Accepted: 20.06.2012
Sabina Jelenc Krašovec
Full Text Available A vast array of economical, social, political, cultural and other factors influences the transformed role of learning and education in the society, as well as the functioning of local community and its social and communication patterns. The influences which are manifested as global problems can only be successfully solved on the level of local community. Analogously with the society in general, there is a great need of transforming a local community into a learning, flexible and interconnected environment which takes into account different interests, wishes and needs regarding learning and being active. The fundamental answer to changes is the strategy of lifelong learning and education which requires reorganisation of all walks of life (work, free time, family, mass media, culture, sport, education and transforming of organisations into learning organisations. With learning society based on networks of knowledge individuals are turning into learning individuals, and organisations into learning organisations; people who learn take the responsibility of their progress, learning denotes partnership among learning people, teachers, parents, employers and local community, so that they work together to achieve better results.
Danie J. Nel
Full Text Available Organisations can use supply chain strategies to gain a competitive advantage for the supply chain. A competitive advantage can be achieved by means of low cost or by means of differentiation. However, organisations have to implement the correct supply chain strategy. Returns on investment can be compromised if organisations implement an incorrect supply chain strategy. The objective of the article is to analyse the differences between theoretically implied and implemented supply chain strategies within selected organisations. The differences between supply chain strategies implied by literature and those implemented by selected organisations are analysed by determining how the organisations are managing their supply chain drivers. Organisations with lean supply chains should manage their supply chain drivers to achieve efficiency, while organisations with agile supply chains should manage their supply chain drivers with responsiveness towards customers' needs in mind. Non-probability sampling was used to include 13 organisations in the research. Six organisations are implementing different supply chain strategies to what literature principles are suggesting to them based on specific supply chain characteristics. An analysis is done on how these six organisations are managing their supply chain drivers.
C. L. Van Tonder
Full Text Available The view that corporate and/or organisation identity is a contributing factor to organisational success, is increasingly observed in the media. At the same time research interest in the concept appears to be on the increase. While identity is not a novel concept and has presented in different forms, it remains shrouded in ambiguity and is in need of more precise articulation. The present study revisited the origins of the identity concept and reviewed various perspectives on identity. A specific meaning structure and theoretical framework for the organization identity concept is proposed and it is concluded that contemporary views of identity are increasingly embracing earlier psychological perspectives. Opsomming Die siening dat korporatiewe en/of organisasie-identiteit ’n bydraende faktor tot organisasiesukses is, word toenemend in die media waargeneem. Navorsingsbelangstelling in die konsep skyn terselfdertyd toe te neem. Terwyl identiteit geensins ’n nuwe konsep is nie en in verskillende vorme voorkom, bly dit in vaagheid gehul en word ’n meer duidelike omskrywing daarvan benodig. Die huidige studie het die oorsprong van die indentiteitskonsep nagespeur en verskeie perspektiewe op identiteit in oënskou geneem. ’n Bepaalde betekenisstruktuur en teoretiese raamwerk word vir die identiteitskonsep voorgestel en die gevolgtrekking word gemaak dat kontemporêre sienings van identiteit toenemend besig is om vroeëre psigologiese perspektiewe te omsluit.
Boulos, Rasha E; Tremblay, Nicolas; Arneodo, Alain; Borgnat, Pierre; Audit, Benjamin
Structural interaction frequency matrices between all genome loci are now experimentally achievable thanks to high-throughput chromosome conformation capture technologies. This ensues a new methodological challenge for computational biology which consists in objectively extracting from these data the structural motifs characteristic of genome organisation. We deployed the fast multi-scale community mining algorithm based on spectral graph wavelets to characterise the networks of intra-chromosomal interactions in human cell lines. We observed that there exist structural domains of all sizes up to chromosome length and demonstrated that the set of structural communities forms a hierarchy of chromosome segments. Hence, at all scales, chromosome folding predominantly involves interactions between neighbouring sites rather than the formation of links between distant loci. Multi-scale structural decomposition of human chromosomes provides an original framework to question structural organisation and its relationship to functional regulation across the scales. By construction the proposed methodology is independent of the precise assembly of the reference genome and is thus directly applicable to genomes whose assembly is not fully determined.
Hart, Colin Anthony
Full Text Available There is a need to determine the performance benefits that firms gain from enterprise resource planning (ERP systems, and the factors that contribute to success. Consequently, the central research problem is: To determine the impact of ERP systems on organisational performance by analysing achieved ERP benefits within the framework of a suitable performance measurement system (PMS, and to investigate the association between critical success factors (CSFs and ERP benefits. A list of expected ERP benefits and CSFs is compiled. Performance measurement models are evaluated, and one model is designed to evaluate ERP impact. ERP experts refine identified ERP benefits and CSFs using structured interviews. These are built into a questionnaire, and used to survey South African (SA companies in manufacturing, mining, and power generation. Results indicate that business benefits are realised by companies that implement ERP systems. By building benefits into the performance measurement model, a positive impact on organisational performance is observed. Although a core list of CSFs is identified, and three associations are found between CSFs and ERP benefits, further research is needed.
Full Text Available This study had a dual purpose: firstly, to integrate the wide variety of seemingly diverse theoretical perspectives of various theorists with respect to organisational inertia into a single umbrella theoretical model. Secondly, to develop a measuring instrument that is based on the aforesaid theoretical model. The instrument was completed by 617 respondents in various industrial sectors undergoing transformation. Responses obtained on the 109 items were then subjected to a factor analysis and the two scales obtained were subjected to further iterative item analyses. Results indicate that organisational inertia is a oneimensional construct. The implications of these findings are further discussed. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was tweeledig, naamlik om in die eerste plek, die groot verskeidenheid van oënskynlik ulteenlopende teoretiese perspektiewe van verskillende teoretici rakende organisatoriese traagheid in 'n enkele sambreelmodel te integreer. Tweedens om 'n meetinstrument te ontwikkel wat op die voorgenoemde teoretiese model gebaseer is. Die instrument is deur 617 proefpersone ingevul/ in verskeie bedryfsektore wat tans transformasie ondergaan. Response op 109 items is hierna aan 'n faktorontledmg onderwerp en die twee verkree skale is aan verdere iteratiewe-itemontledings onderwerp. Resultate dui daarop dat organisatoriese traagheid 'n eendimensionele konstruk is. Die implikasies van die bevindinge word verder bespreek.
Full Text Available Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab subjects to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter—the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions—observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment.
Zhou, Xinyue; Liu, Yan; Ho, Benjamin
Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab participants to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter-the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions-observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment.
textabstractThe preventive approach against organised crime has gained much attention since the early 1990s. On an international level as well as on a national one various preventive measures against organised crime have been developed. This is certainly true in the European Union and the Netherlands. This introduction chapter is divided into three sections. The first looks at the developments that led to the preventive approach to organised crime, focusing on the growing enthusiasm for the p...
Jongeneel, R.A.; Polman, N.B.P.; Slangen, L.H.G.
Although the family farm remains the dominant organisational form for farms there are changes in the legal mode of organisation. Applying the new institutional economics and economic organisation theory the different organisation modes are explained, mainly in terms of control and income rights.
Full Text Available In nonhuman primates a scheme for the organisation of the auditory cortex is frequently used to localise auditory processes. The scheme allows a common basis for comparison of functional organisation across nonhuman primate species. However, although a body of functional and structural data in nonhuman primates supports an accepted scheme of nearly a dozen neighbouring functional areas, can this scheme be directly applied to humans? Attempts to expand the scheme of auditory cortical fields in humans have been severely hampered by a recent controversy about the organisation of tonotopic maps in humans, centred on two different models with radically different organisation. We point out observations that reconcile the previous models and suggest a distinct model in which the human cortical organisation is much more like that of other primates. This unified framework allows a more robust and detailed comparison of auditory cortex organisation across primate species including humans.
Yarym-Agayev Oleksandr M.
Full Text Available The article considers main issues of organisation of Internet marketing at small and medium enterprises of Ukraine, shows a necessity of development and marketing support of the site and provides recommendations on development, implementation and maintenance of corporate sites for marketing and advertising managers. The article considers such directions of operation with the site as analysis of sites of competitors, development of a corporate site, information provision of the site, site indexation and its promotion in search engines, placing site links at information portals, creation of pages in social networks, work at forums, information mailings, operation with site analytics and ensuring feedback with the site visitors. The listed recommendations would allow increase the site image, attract new clients, organise efficient co-operation with specialists on development and promotion of the site and achieve the maximal effect from this source of advertisement and sales.
Full Text Available Orientation: Previous research has highlighted the need to examine the relationship between people and organisations. This perspective facilitates the study of organisational energy.Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to validate a measure of organisational energy in the South African context and to investigate whether there are differences in organisational energy as perceived by employees based on their demographic characteristics and lifestyle variables.Motivation for the study: Managing energy in organisations is important as it drives motivation, powers teamwork, fosters creativity and gives organisations a competitive edge (Schiuma, Mason & Kennerley, 2007. Limited empirical research currently exists on the phenomenon of energy in organisations.Research design/approach method: The researchers used a cross-sectional survey design, with a convenience sample (N = 520 of employees in a South African financial institution. The researchers administered the EnergyScapes Profile.Main findings: Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a one-factor structure for the EnergyScapes Profile. The scale, labelled organisational energy, showed acceptable internal consistency. The researchers found statistically significant differences in the organisational energy levels of employees based on age, tenure, geographical region, relaxation, hypertension and diabetes, depression or psychosis.Practical/managerial implications: The research provides valuable insight for practicing managers about understanding the concept of organisational energy and encourages leaders to question the energy of their employees.Contribution/value-add: The insight the researchers gained by studying the concept of organisational energy contributed in a unique way and showed the importance of considering organisations as dynamic and interactive with the people that work for them.
Shubin Aleksandr A.
Full Text Available The article studies cognitive component of the “organisational culture” category and marks our three groups of approaches to the aspect description of the studied category: aspects of the organisational culture formed by the control system; aspects of the organisational culture inherent in the controlled system; and universal aspects inherent in both control and controlled systems. The article provides the authors’ definition of the organisational culture as a complex element of the internal environment of the organisation that has certain phenomenological properties (synergy, dynamics, uniqueness, adaptability, mentality, hierarchy, aggregation, communicativeness and sociality; integrating spiritual, material, static and procedural elements with the aim of formation of a single management philosophy for ensuring external adaptation and efficient functioning of an enterprise. The article establishes the role and place of the organisational culture as a socio-economic phenomenon in the context of the modern management paradigm through specification of prerequisites of formation and development of the neo-classical concept of the organisational culture; features of the modern management paradigm; phenomenological properties of the culture; factors of influence upon the organisational culture and tendencies of development of the phenomenon of the national organisational culture.
Forestier, Colleen; Cox, A T; Horne, S
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) crisis in West Africa began in March 2014. At the beginning of the outbreak, no one could have predicted just how far-reaching its effects would be. The EVD epidemic proved to be a unique and unusual humanitarian and public health crisis. It caused worldwide fear that impeded the rapid response required to contain it early. The situation in Sierra Leone (SL) forced the formation of a unique series of civil-military interagency relationships to be formed in order to halt the epidemic. Civil-military cooperation in humanitarian situations is not unique to this crisis; however, the slow response, the unusual nature of the battle itself and the uncertainty of the framework required to fight this deadly virus created a situation that forced civilian and military organisations to form distinct, cooperative relationships. The unique nature of the Ebola virus necessitated a steering away from normal civil-military relationships and standard pillar responses. National and international non-governmental organisations (NGOs), Department for International Development (DFID) and the SL and UK militaries were required to disable this deadly virus (as of 7 November 2015, SL was declared EVD free). This paper draws on personal experiences and preliminary distillation of information gathered in formal interviews. It discusses some of the interesting features of the interagency relationships, particularly between the military, the UK's DFID, international organisations, NGOs and departments of the SL government. The focus is on how these relationships were key to achieving a coordinated solution to EVD in SL both on the ground and within the larger organisational structure. It also discusses how these relationships needed to rapidly evolve and change along with the epidemiological curve. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available Background/Aim. The optic nerve is anatomically observed in four segments: intrabulbar, orbital, canalicular, and cranial. According to the literature, the surface of the transversal cut of the nerve is different through it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fascicular organisation of the optic nerve, throughout its three segments from the eye. Methods. Five pairs of optic nerves, obtained from the autopsies were examined. Using Heidenhain's (azan staining, the cuts were prepared for microscopy. Morphometric analysis was performed using the stereological methods for morphometric cytology - the Weible’s testing system M42. The following measures were established: the surface of the transverse cut of the nerve, the entire surface of fasciculi, the entire surface of connective tissue and blood vessels, the number of fasciculi, the surface of a single fasciculus. Results. The surface of the transverse cut of the nerve was found to grow from the orbital to the cranial segment, as well as the entire surface of fasciculi. While their number is significantly lower in the cranial segment, the number of fasciculi varied slightly between the orbital and the canalicular segment. The surface of a single fasciculus grows from the bulb to the chiasma. There is probable a cause to believe that this may be due to fusion of the “small” fasciculi in the orbitocranial direction. Conclusion. There are significant differences among the examined parameters of the different parts of the optic nerve.
Full Text Available Research question (RQ: What is discrepancy between status and role of quality managers in the Slovenian organisations now and what will be role and status of quality managers of the future? Aim: The aim of this paper is to show divergence between current and expected future status and role of quality managers (QM. Methods: Within the research of characteristics of quality management system (QMS in the Slovenian organisations a survey among the QM and the directors was conducted as well as the correlation analysis between the role of the QM and the results achieved by the organisations. Results: It was shown that »the advisor to the management« is the only role of the QM that has a significant positive correlation with the results achieved by the organisation. Organisation: The results of this research enable management to take appropriate steps in organisational development and integration of all projects on organisational changes leading to a common and comprehensive long-term concept. Society/Environment: The research offers some answers to the expected influence of changes in the environment on the future organisation of QMS. Originality: This research represents the first example of research of status and role of QM in the Slovenian organisations. Limitations / further research: This research project is limited to the Slovenian organisations with a certified QMS. In future, similar surveys could also be spread to other social environments such as Germany, Austria and the Czech Republic.
Balmer, JMT; Burghausen, M
In this article we formally introduce and explicate the organisational heritage notion. The authors conclude organisational heritage can be designated in three broad ways as: (1) organisational heritage identity as the perceived and reminisced omni-temporal traits – both formal/normative and utilitarian/societal – of organisational members’ work organisation; (2) organisational heritage identification as organisational members’ identification/self-categorisation vis-à-vis these perceived and ...
D. Litt. et Phil.(Leadership in Performance and Change) The aim of this study was to develop an organisation development model to support organisational change and transformation in a dynamic, continuously changing business environment, specifically for the mining industry in South Africa. Literature revealed that there is a tendency to employ universal and generic models to challenges of organisational change, whereas successful 00 needs a situation specific or contextualised approach. Th...
Somunoğlu, Sinem; Erdem, Erhan; Erdem, Ummühan
It is stated that in this century not only the societies, but also the communities have to confront with a reconstruction process due to the rapid developments and reformations. It is believed that it is only possible for the organisations to achieve their goals as long as they adapt to the changes, and they continue the learning process. Based on these ideas, this study aims to determine the perceptions of a learning organisation's applications by the workers at Health Centre in Denizli. In order to achieve this goal, a questionnaire method was used and in the questionnaire, questions inquiring about the examples from learning organisation processes as well as the questions representing socio-demographic characteristics of the workers were included. When the obtained results were analyzed, the health sector workers stated that there were some applications in their organisations intended for knowing, understanding and thinking organisation models which were among the learning organisation phases. The workers also stated that they thought their organisation implemented some applications such as "Each individual in my organisation has an equal chance to learn (33.3 %)", "Knowledge reaches every part of the organisation quickly and effectively (31.3 %)", "Our organisation provides the necessary environment for learning (37.5 %)" etc. Besides, they thought that the process of being a learning organisation was not totally completed. The workers pointed out the main obstacles to be a learning organisation and to organisational learning process as communication problems (46.9 %), factors originating from managers (37.5 %), learning obstacles originating from the individual himself (32.3 %) etc.
'The Netherlands Yearbook on International Cooperation 2008' is a second of the series yearbooks. The Yearbook has as objectives: to stimulate and feed the scientific and political debate on the Dutch international cooperation; to offer opportunities for publication for researchers in the field of
Ivana B. Petrevska
Full Text Available Criminal activities and organised crime became the main generators of social and state instability in the recent years, much more that the wars. They generate significant illegal money and need to launder this money so that they can be integrated into the legitimate financial system. Economic and financial crimes that called white collar crimes, typically has diffuse costs to society and concentrated benefits for the perpetrators. The social expectations are that the auditors should play an effective role in reducing, if not eliminating, these crimes.New auditing standards require auditors to take a proactive approach to assessing whether management has in place appropriate systems and controls to manage the risk of fraud.This paper shed light on nature, impacts and types of economic and financial crimes, and then the role of auditing profession in fighting against them.
Fink, Jørgen Troelssøn
the role of the business organisations of tyhe urban trades in the democratisation of Denmark 1830- 1915......the role of the business organisations of tyhe urban trades in the democratisation of Denmark 1830- 1915...
The article is a summary of a small-scale research project which considers the formation of Co-operative Trust Schools. This was carried out in 2013 at a time when the number of schools becoming Academies and Trust Schools through the Co-operative College was burgeoning. Through questionnaire, interview, documentary analysis and exploration of…
Jensen, Per Anker
business orientation, while the relationship between core business and non-strategic functions is identified as mainly a specific customer orientation. It is concluded that a market relationship – internally or externally – is appropriate for non-strategic functions, while it is important to create a kind......The paper is based on research for a MBA thesis. The purpose is to clarify the organisational relationships between support functions and core business and how these relationships vary for strategic and operational support functions. The value chains for core businesses and support functions...... are analysed and related to empirical data from a case study on Danish Broadcasting Corporation. A particular support value chain is identified and a typology of archetypes of support functions is developed. The relationship between core business and strategic support is identified as primarily a general...
Full Text Available The ability of individuals to interpret change is considered to be a criterion for successful organisational change. Accordingly the influence of a specific infra-individual variable, i.e. cognitive style (field dependence and independence on the sensitivity to identify change needs, was assessed. For this purpose the Organisational Change Interpretation Scale (OCIS was constructed. The OCIS in conjunction with the Hidden Figures Test, a measure of field independence, and the Field Dependence Questionnaire, a measure of field dependence, were administered to 307 managers within 14 industries. It was found that the cognitive restructuring process as measured by the Hidden Figures Test, explains 72% of the variance of the interpretation of change, as measured by the OCIS. It was concluded that the OCIS could be utilised as a selection instrument for the identification of change agents.Opsomming Die vermoe van individue om verandering te interpreteer, kan as kriterium vir suksesvolle organisasie verandering beskou word. Op grond hiervan is die invloed van 'n spesifieke intra-individuele veranderlike, naamlik kognitiewe styl (veldafhanklikheid en -onafhanklikheid op die sensitiwiteit vir die identifisering van veranderingsbehoeftes, ondersoek. Vir hierdie doel is die Organisasie Verandering Interpretasieskaal (OVIS gekonstrueer. Die OVIS is in samehang met die Versteekte Figure Toets as meting van veldonafhanklikheid, en die Veldafhanklikheidsvraelys as meting van veldafhanklikheid, op 307 bestuurders in 14 industriee geadministreer. Daar is bevind dat die kognitiewe herstruktureringsproses, soos gemeet deur die Versteekte Figure Toets, 72% van die variansie in die interpretasie van verandering, soos gemeet deur die OVIS, verklaar. Die afleiding word gemaak dat die OVIS onder andere nuttig as keuringsinstrument ter identifisering van veranderingsagente gebruik kan word.
Hilsted, Jannik C; Krogsgaard, Kim
The paper describes the current organisation of clinical trials in Danish hospitals, with particular emphasis on the relationship between hospitals and the pharmaceutical industry. Legal responsibilities as well as mutual agreements on collaboration and organisation are described and discussed....
Over the past decades, the seriousness with which organisational crises have developed has, in part, been contingent on public access to social media platforms. Analysing two Danish organisational crises, the article explores whether the conceptual repertoires that underlie public evaluation...
Whereas strategic management in the U.S. has traditionally focused on competition and a competitive advantage, Scandinavian strategic management has long centered on effective cooperation. In light of recent calls in the U.S. to shift toward cooperation to realize opportunities for shared value...
Enhanced cooperation is often regarded as being a way out of EU decision-making deadlock and as a major possibility of proceeding with European integration in selected areas. Although the mechanism has been in place since the Treaty of Amsterdam, enhanced cooperation has only recently become a
The exclusion of freeriders from common privileges or public acceptance is widely found in the real world. Current models on the evolution of cooperation with incentives mostly assume peer sanctioning, whereby a punisher imposes penalties on freeriders at a cost to itself. It is well known that such costly punishment has two substantial difficulties. First, a rare punishing cooperator barely subverts the asocial society of freeriders, and second, natural selection often eliminates punishing cooperators in the presence of non-punishing cooperators (namely, "second-order" freeriders). We present a game-theoretical model of social exclusion in which a punishing cooperator can exclude freeriders from benefit sharing. We show that such social exclusion can overcome the above-mentioned difficulties even if it is costly and stochastic. The results do not require a genetic relationship, repeated interaction, reputation, or group selection. Instead, only a limited number of freeriders are required to prevent the secon...
Hernandez, Mayra Lee
Written in Spanish and English (on facing pages), this manual is a practical guide for those interested in forming a worker-owned cooperative. It includes examples based on the personal experience of teaching about cooperativism and worker-owned cooperatives to a group of construction workers with diverse levels of education; vocabulary and…
Madsen, Charlotte Øland
Research scope: The scope of the research project is to investigate the role information technology plays in forming the organisational reputation/image (Dutton & Duckerich, 1991), identity (Albert & Whetten, 1985) and competitiveness (Rindova & Fombrun, 1999). The aim is to investigate the dual ...... results in emerging changes in the organisation's social networks and roles and how these changes affect the organisation's choice and use of new information technologies. (Barley 1986, 1990, Compton, White & DeWine 1991, Orlikowski 2000)....
Onyishi, Ike E.; Elizabeth Ogbodo
Orientation: Taking charge as an extra role in the workplace is necessary for the survival of modern firms. Therefore, understanding the personal and organisational factors when one takes charge is critical for organisations.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the contributions of self-efficacy and perceived organisational support when taking charge at work.Motivation for the study: Although many previous studies have examined the antecedents of taking charge in North Am...
Ken Charles; Chris E Cloete
Outsourcing has become one of the most powerful, organisation-shaping management tools available today. However, the UN’s experience in outsourcing is limited to providing troops for peacekeeping operations. The purpose of the paper is to develop an outsourcing scorecard for the UN and similar organisations. Forty national and international organisations were surveyed through questionnaires, review of relevant literatures and records. The research established that by identifying core compet...
Koch, Christian; Thuesen, Christian; Gottlieb, Stefan
This paper discusses management of partnering projects where construction companies and clients cooperate in developing buildings and services. Taking a practice based theory and political process approach, partnering is seen as an example of a complex project operation, characterised by processual...... level these elements is continuously mobilized, negotiated and stabilized in their intersection with the practices and skill basis for the project. It is thus shown how incentives becomes especially problematic for the architects due to tensions between new and old contractual forms, and that project...
Danie J. Nel; Johanna A. Badenhorst-Weiss
Organisations can use supply chain strategies to gain a competitive advantage for the supply chain. A competitive advantage can be achieved by means of low cost or by means of differentiation. However, organisations have to implement the correct supply chain strategy. Returns on investment can be compromised if organisations implement an incorrect supply chain strategy. The objective of the article is to analyse the differences between theoretically implied and implemented supply chain strate...
Li, Chao-Hua; Su, Kun-Shan
Generalisability of a learning organisation (LO) for cross-cultural applications is doubtful. Some cultural values may be opposed to the nature in a LO which calls for voluntary participation in learning activities by all employees. The study reveals a dynamic analysis of a LO with the sense of the difficulties organisations typically face and how…
C.R.A. van der Schoot
textabstractThe preventive approach against organised crime has gained much attention since the early 1990s. On an international level as well as on a national one various preventive measures against organised crime have been developed. This is certainly true in the European Union and the
Casteleyn, Jordi; Mottart, Andre; Valcke, Martin
Instead of the traditional set of slides, the visual aids of a presentation can now be graphic organisers (concept maps, knowledge maps, mind maps) on an infinite canvas. Constructing graphic organisers has a beneficial impact on learning, but this topic has not been studied in the context of giving a presentation. The present study examined this…
Burtonwood, A.; Hocking, P.; Elwyn, G.
Primary health care in the UK is currently centred around independent contractor organisations (general practices). Although the development of these organisations is considered necessary to improve the quality of health care, no structures exist to support the systematic development necessary to
...--Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford Formation and... seq. (``the Act''), Southwest Research Institute-- Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...
Li, Yixiao; Wang, Yi; Sheng, Jichuan
We study evolutionary public goods game on geographical networks, i.e., complex networks which are located on a geographical plane. The geographical feature effects in two ways: In one way, the geographically-induced network structure influences the overall evolutionary dynamics, and, in the other way, the geographical length of an edge influences the cost when the two players at the two ends interact. For the latter effect, we design a new cost function of cooperators, which simply assumes that the longer the distance between two players, the higher cost the cooperator(s) of them have to pay. In this study, network substrates are generated by a previous spatial network model with a cost-benefit parameter controlling the network topology. Our simulations show that the greatest promotion of cooperation is achieved in the intermediate regime of the parameter, in which empirical estimates of various railway networks fall. Further, we investigate how the distribution of edges' geographical costs influences the evolutionary dynamics and consider three patterns of the distribution: an approximately-equal distribution, a diverse distribution, and a polarized distribution. For normal geographical networks which are generated using intermediate values of the cost-benefit parameter, a diverse distribution hinders the evolution of cooperation, whereas a polarized distribution lowers the threshold value of the amplification factor for cooperation in public goods game. These results are helpful for understanding the evolution of cooperation on real-world geographical networks.
Full Text Available The present article attempts to determine the role of principles of good governance in the discussion regarding the World Trade Organisation (WTO and its human rights accountability. It shows that the WTO as an organisation cannot be compared to other international organisations that are more autonomous such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF or the World Bank. This does not mean, however, that the WTO has no autonomous powers at all. This contribution attempts to make clear what these activities are and how they may affect the protection of human rights. The implementation of good governance principles in international organisations can be considered a sine qua non for the realisation of human rights. Therefore, it will be examined what role the principles of good governance plays within the WTO. More specifically, the focus will be on how the good governance principles of transparency and participation can contribute to sensitising the organisation for human rights considerations.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the construct validity of an instrument for assessing organisational socialisation. A purposive sample of 170 respondents completed the socialisation instrument. Scale reliabilities and a confrmatory factor analysis confrmed six constructs (History, Language, Politics, People, Organisational Goals and Values, and Performance Profciency as measures of this domain. The signifcance of the fndings of this study is that from a South African perspective, the socialisation instrument can be useful in measuring organisational socialisation. This instrument can also be valuable in assessing the effectiveness of the socialisation tactics used by organisations.
Organisations initiate and execute projects at an ever-increasing rate in order to achieve their strategic intentions. Many of these, however, find it difficult to measure the contribution that these projects make towards the realisation of the organisational vision. In order to effect these changes in a cumulatively beneficial way, ...
Jacobs, Sally; Ashcroft, Darren; Hassell, Karen
The aim of this paper is to report on the findings of a systematic literature review-seeking to elicit existing evidence of the nature of organisational culture in community pharmacy organisations. This review takes a novel approach to systematically identifying and synthesising the peer-reviewed research literature pertaining to organisational culture in this setting, its antecedents and outcomes. The review provides an overview of the scope of and research methods used in the identified literature, together with a narrative synthesis of its findings, framed within five dimensions of organisational culture: the professional-business role dichotomy; workload, management style, social support and autonomy; professional culture; attitudes to change and innovation; and entrepreneurial orientation. There is a need for more detailed and holistic exploration of organisational culture in community pharmacy, using a greater diversity of research methods and a greater focus on patient-related outcomes. This paper demonstrates that, whilst little research has explicitly investigated organisational culture in this context, there exists a range of evidence describing aspects of that culture, some of the environmental and organisational factors helping to shape it, and its impact on the pharmacy workforce, services delivered and business outcomes. It highlights the importance of the business-professional role dichotomy in community pharmacy; the influence of individual pharmacists' characteristics and organisational setting; and the impact on pharmacists' wellbeing and job satisfaction and the services delivered. It provides less evidence of the impact of organisational culture on the quality and safety of service provision.
Wai Yee Betty Chiu; Fung FaI Ng
Some researchers claimed that job satisfaction directly affected organisational commitment but others considered it had a mediation effect on the relationship between some independent variables and organisational commitment. Thus, this paper aimed to examine whether job satisfaction mediated the relationship between work group identification and the two forms of organisational commitment amongst quantity surveyors. A quantitative approach with questionnaire survey was employed for data collec...
Nordaune, Kristin; Skarpaas, Lisebet S; Sagvaag, Hildegunn; Haveraaen, Lise; Rimstad, Silje; Kinn, Liv G; Aas, Randi W
Alcohol is one of the leading causes of ill health and premature death in the world. Several studies indicate that working life might influence employees' alcohol consumption and drinking patterns. The aim of this study was to explore work-related drinking situations, with a special focus on answering who initiates and organises these situations. Data were collected through semi-structured group interviews in six Norwegian companies from the private ( n=4) and public sectors ( n=2), employing a total of 3850 employees. The informants ( n=43) were representatives from management and local unions, safety officers, advisers from the social insurance office and human-resource personnel, health, safety and environment personnel, and members from the occupational environment committee. Both qualitative and quantitative content analyses were applied in the analyses of the material. Three different initiators and organisers were discovered: the employer, employees and external organisers. External organisers included customers, suppliers, collaborators, sponsors, subcontractors, different unions and employers' organisations. The employer organised more than half of the situations; external organisers were responsible for more than a quarter. The differences between companies were mostly due to the extent of external organisers. The employer initiates and organises most situations for work-related alcohol use. However, exposure to such situations seems to depend on how many external relations the company has. These aspects should be taken into account when workplace health-promotion initiatives are planned.
119. Southern African Business Review Volume 13 Number 3 2009. Deriving projects from the organisational vision using the Vision-to-Projects (V2P) Framework. C. Marnewick & L. Labuschagne. ABSTRACT. Organisations initiate and execute projects at an ever-increasing rate in order to achieve their strategic intentions.
Lee-Kelley, Liz; Blackman, Deborah A.; Hurst, Jeffrey Peter
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a relationship between learning organisation theory and the potential to retain knowledge workers. It emphasises that human resource (HR) managers must recognise specific relationships between learning organisation elements, job satisfaction facets and turnover intent as they emerge for their…
Full Text Available In India's IT services sourcing industry, female employees are often considered to be a key talent pool enabling the industry to grow further. In this empirical study of IT employees in India (N = 330, we analyse the relationships between organisational climate, employee climate, and organisational commitment using gender as a dichotomous moderator. While female employees appear to have a higher level of organisational commitment than their male colleagues, the results show that organisational and employee climate do not motivate them in the same way.
Kelebogile D. Magano
Full Text Available Orientation: Over a period of 6 years, a South African pharmaceutical company had been involved in several mergers and acquisitions. These changes had proved difficult for staff and staff attrition had risen.Research purpose: The objective of the study was to explore the perceptions of senior managers about the impact of change on the psychological contract. The sub-objectives were to determine what organisational factors contribute to changes in the psychological contract during periods of change, and the implications of the breach of the psychological contract for the company and its employees.Motivation for the study: As the company was set to embark on further mergers and acquisitions, the opinions of senior managers about how such changes should be addressed are important for the company.Research design, approach and method: A case study approach was used in this qualitative study. The population comprised 60 senior managers of whom 12 were purposefully selected for inclusion in the study. A semistructured interview schedule was used to capture the views of these managers and themes were extracted by means of content analysis.Main findings: Seven themes emerged which encapsulated the perceptions of senior managers about the impact of change on the psychological contract during periods of mergers and acquisitions – lack of communication, an absence of planning, lack of employee engagement, less than optimal human resources involvement, lack of preparation of the organisational culture and poor change management processes. These factors need to be addressed to strengthen the psychological contract of employees during periods of change.Practical/managerial implications: The study highlighted areas that leaders and managers of the company should consider when embarking on mergers and acquisitions if the psychological contract of employees is not to be negatively impacted.Contribution: While caution must be exercised in the generalisation of
Full Text Available The new geopolitical reality that resulted from the dissolution of the USSR created the conditions for the establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO in 2001. The successful settlement of border issues between Russia and Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan and Tajikistan as well as with China also facilitated the process. With Uzbekistan joining the “Shanghai Five,” a new regional organization emerged. The SCO’s priorities were in the security sphere and the fight against the proliferation of drugs, illegal migration and organized crime, given the requirements of the times and the specific regional situation (including that in Afghanistan. As one of the active founders, Russia has always taken a leading role in the SCO’s organizational, political and legal formation, including setting specific trends and forms of cooperation, taking common measures, and holding events. During its presidency in 2008–2009 and 2014–2015, Moscow made additional efforts to strengthen cooperation among the SCO members in meeting new regional security challenges and to agree on coordinated positions on the key issues on the international and regional agenda. To increase the SCO’s credibility and political significance, Moscow emphasized its expansion, particularly with regard to the Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt. With global political and economic development growing more complicated, in order to revitalize Russia’s role in the SCO it is necessary to strengthen cooperation with China. The strategic character of bilateral relations reaffirmed at the Russian-Chinese summit in the summer of 2016 set a solid foundation.
Blackstock, Sheila; Harlos, Karen; Macleod, Martha L P; Hardy, Cindy L
To examine the impact of organisational factors on bullying among peers (i.e. horizontal) and its effect on turnover intentions among Canadian registered nurses (RNs). Bullying among nurses is an international problem. Few studies have examined factors specific to nursing work environments that may increase exposure to bullying. An Australian model of nurse bullying was tested among Canadian registered nurse coworkers using a web-based survey (n = 103). Three factors - misuse of organisational processes/procedures, organisational tolerance and reward of bullying, and informal organisational alliances - were examined as predictors of horizontal bullying, which in turn was examined as a predictor of turnover intentions. The construct validity of model measures was explored. Informal organisational alliances and misuse of organisational processes/procedures predicted increased horizontal bullying that, in turn, predicted increased turnover intentions. Construct validity of model measures was supported. Negative informal alliances and misuse of organisational processes are antecedents to bullying, which adversely affects employment relationship stability. The results suggest that reforming flawed organisational processes that contribute to registered nurses' bullying experiences may help to reduce chronically high turnover. Nurse leaders and managers need to create workplace processes that foster positive networks, fairness and respect through more transparent and accountable practices. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Christ, Oliver; van Dick, Rolf; Wagner, Ulrich; Stellmacher, Jost
Psychological variables should play an important role in determining teachers' involvement in behaviours not directly or formally forced by contracts. Organisational identification as proposed from the Social Identity Approach is examined as a possible determinant of organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) among schoolteachers. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationships between different foci of organisational identification and different forms of OCB in schools. Data sets of altogether 447 German school teachers who filled in all relevant items in a cross-sectional questionnaire are used for analyses in the present study. Standardised questionnaires measuring organisational identification and OCB were administered. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed the proposed foci of identification (i.e., career identification, team identification, and organisational identification), as well as different forms of OCB (i.e., OCB towards the own qualification, towards the team, and towards the organisation). Structural equation modelling supports the main hypothesis that foci of identification relate differentially to forms of OCB. The results emphasise the importance of organisational identification as a determinant of OCB in schools. Practical implications are discussed.
Although cooperation is central to the organisation of many social systems, relatively little is known about cooperation in situations of collective emergency. When groups of people flee from a danger such as a burning building or a terrorist attack, the collective benefit of cooperation is important, but the cost of helping is high and the temptation to defect is strong. To explore the degree of cooperation in emergencies, we develop a new social game, the help-or-escape social dilemma. Under time and monetary pressure, players decide how much risk they are willing to take in order to help others. Results indicated that players took as much risk to help others during emergencies as they did under normal conditions. In both conditions, most players applied an egalitarian heuristic and helped others until their chance of success equalled that of the group. This strategy is less efficient during emergencies, however, because the increased time pressure results in fewer people helped. Furthermore, emergencies te...
Hancock, Helen; Campbell, Steve
To evaluate the impact of the Leading an Empowered Organisation (LEO) programme on the role of grade G nurses and their multidisciplinary colleagues in one NHS trust. The LEO programme encourages and promotes leadership skills among NHS staff. A purposive sample of four grade G nurses, one from each of the hospital's four clinical divisions, was included. Each grade G nurse, and his or her matron, nominated eight colleagues for interview. The final sample comprised four grade G nurses and 32 of their colleagues. Data were analysed using the principles of thematic analysis described by Attride-Stirling (2001). The LEO programme improved the grade G nurses' approach to their work in relation to competence, communication strategies, problem solving, risk taking, leadership and management style. Factors that affected the grade G nurses' implementation of the LEO principles included: relationships, personality, experience, work context, staffing levels, autonomy and authority. This study provided insight into how the grade G nurses applied the principles of the LEO programme in their daily work. Their ability to apply the LEO principles was both restricted and assisted by the culture in which they worked. A partnership between theory and practice is needed. This finding has implications for the LEO programme and the need for it to be implicit in the local working philosophy, that is, the context in which its principles are to be used. This is so that the working context and people within it are intimately engaged with the individual undertaking the course.
Rodriguez Padron, B.; Ruben, R.; Burger, C.P.J.
We identify key factors influencing membership of co-operative organisations in Mexico's coffee sector. We also determine the impact of membership on the incomes that are derived from coffee cultivation. Factors at all levels are found to be relevant: individual factors, family characteristics, farm
The Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) is the principal government agency for international development. Being organised as a directorate under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, its main tasks are to provide advisory services to the Ministry, to embassies in developing countries and to multilateral development organizations. Through a framework agreement, NVE has assisted NORAD in its many endeavours within its specialities, namely the fields of water resources and energy assessment and management. The engagements have varied from appraisals of projects and evaluation of reports, to planning and preparatory work for new projects, and project implementation. Additionally, NVE has directly assisted the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in projects in the Balkan states, specifically on energy efficiency and environmental impact assessment in Montenegro. (AG)
Full Text Available This paper wants to propose a way of dealing with the reality of difference within churches that allows for unity amidst diversity. It argues for the adoption of institutional frameworks that function as guiding and unifying forces without becoming repressing, totalising structures. The presence of dissensus and difference does not necessarily have to result in the fragmentation of churches. In fact, when harnessed effectively, difference and dissensus can become a valuable resource for renewal and realignment within churches. The paper develops a framework for dealing with diversity that binds people to the church as organisation in a way that respects their individual value-configurations and input. In the first place, it argues for a holistic view of the relationship between bodiliness, nature, technology, language, and truth statements. In the second place, it insists that confessional, spiritual and moral guidelines should neither be totalising structures that repress difference, nor oppositional differences that exclude commonality. In the third place, it argues that ongoing connectedness between individual members of the church is necessary. Individuals must see themselves as part of an everchanging, ever-evolving web of relations. Guidelines for dialogue within the church therefore become essential.
psychometric properties were evaluated. The ALOQ statistical reliability was found to be acceptable; Cronbach alphas were found to be over 0.7 for...1 Acceptable level of reliability set as achieving 0.70 Cronbach alpha as a minimum (Nunnally, 1978... alpha ( Cronbach , 1951; De Vellis, 2003; Nunnally, 1978; Pallant, 2007; Streiner & Norman, 2003, 2008). Cronbach’s alpha builds on the utility of the
The Cogema group hopes to find a second business, being awaiting the nuclear area starts again. It needs eighteen months to find it. It must have an empathy with its first business and does not be in competition with its customers. (N.C.)
McNally, Luke; Brown, Sam P; Jackson, Andrew L
The high levels of intelligence seen in humans, other primates, certain cetaceans and birds remain a major puzzle for evolutionary biologists, anthropologists and psychologists. It has long been held that social interactions provide the selection pressures necessary for the evolution of advanced cognitive abilities (the 'social intelligence hypothesis'), and in recent years decision-making in the context of cooperative social interactions has been conjectured to be of particular importance. Here we use an artificial neural network model to show that selection for efficient decision-making in cooperative dilemmas can give rise to selection pressures for greater cognitive abilities, and that intelligent strategies can themselves select for greater intelligence, leading to a Machiavellian arms race. Our results provide mechanistic support for the social intelligence hypothesis, highlight the potential importance of cooperative behaviour in the evolution of intelligence and may help us to explain the distribution of cooperation with intelligence across taxa.
Lewis, Tania; Marginson, Simon; Snyder, Ilana
This paper discusses the concept of the network organisation in relation to the technologised university. Drawing upon the early findings of a study that examines the impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on both organisational and teaching and learning issues in five Australian universities, the authors discuss the way in…
Although it here concerns the planning and management of the Bureau of the WAT, the views expressed can also be applied to other lexicographical projects. The designing of an organisational and post structure of any institution is closely related to its strategic planning. The decision to adjust the organisational and post ...
We consider the strategic interplay between international monetary and fiscal cooperation in a world of interdependent economies. Motivated by the ongoing discussion of monetary unification of Europe, focus is on monetary cooperation, and in particular how its performance is altered by the introd...... by the introduction of fiscal (tax) cooperation. Our main result is that fiscal cooperation may be disadvantageous when monetary cooperation lacks credibility with private sectors. On the other hand, fiscal cooperation under a rule based monetary regime is always advantageous...
Attwood, Teresa K; Atwood, Teresa K; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Brazas, Michelle E; Corpas, Manuel; Gaudet, Pascale; Lewitter, Fran; Mulder, Nicola; Palagi, Patricia M; Schneider, Maria Victoria; van Gelder, Celia W G
In recent years, high-throughput technologies have brought big data to the life sciences. The march of progress has been rapid, leaving in its wake a demand for courses in data analysis, data stewardship, computing fundamentals, etc., a need that universities have not yet been able to satisfy--paradoxically, many are actually closing "niche" bioinformatics courses at a time of critical need. The impact of this is being felt across continents, as many students and early-stage researchers are being left without appropriate skills to manage, analyse, and interpret their data with confidence. This situation has galvanised a group of scientists to address the problems on an international scale. For the first time, bioinformatics educators and trainers across the globe have come together to address common needs, rising above institutional and international boundaries to cooperate in sharing bioinformatics training expertise, experience, and resources, aiming to put ad hoc training practices on a more professional footing for the benefit of all.
GOVERNANCE : THE MISSING INGREDIENT IN SECURITY COOPERATION A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General...graphics, and any other works incorporated into this manuscript. A work of the United States Government is not subject to copyright, however further... Governance : The Missing Ingredient in Security Cooperation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S
Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the co-evolution of fast and slow strategy spread and game strategies in populations of spatially distributed agents engaged in a one off evolutionary dilemma game. Agents are characterized by a pair of traits, a game strategy (cooperate or defect and a binary 'advertising' strategy (advertise or don't advertise. Advertising, which comes at a cost [Formula: see text], allows investment into faster propagation of the agents' traits to adjacent individuals. Importantly, game strategy and advertising strategy are subject to the same evolutionary mechanism. Via analytical reasoning and numerical simulations I demonstrate that a range of advertising costs exists, such that the prevalence of cooperation is significantly enhanced through co-evolution. Linking costly replication to the success of cooperators exposes a novel co-evolutionary mechanism that might contribute towards a better understanding of the origins of cooperation-supporting heterogeneity in agent populations.
In this paper, I investigate the co-evolution of fast and slow strategy spread and game strategies in populations of spatially distributed agents engaged in a one off evolutionary dilemma game. Agents are characterized by a pair of traits, a game strategy (cooperate or defect) and a binary ‘advertising’ strategy (advertise or don’t advertise). Advertising, which comes at a cost , allows investment into faster propagation of the agents’ traits to adjacent individuals. Importantly, game strategy and advertising strategy are subject to the same evolutionary mechanism. Via analytical reasoning and numerical simulations I demonstrate that a range of advertising costs exists, such that the prevalence of cooperation is significantly enhanced through co-evolution. Linking costly replication to the success of cooperators exposes a novel co-evolutionary mechanism that might contribute towards a better understanding of the origins of cooperation-supporting heterogeneity in agent populations. PMID:23861752
Following the end of apartheid, the South African state has faced a number of challenges. One of these has been the growing spectre of organised crime, which has weighed heavily on the public consciousness. The narrative has been one of organised crime, which is becoming increasingly sophisticated and dangerous, ...
This article informs school improvement and educational change from a radically different perspective. Building upon work done recently in neural psychology, primatology and ethology, the article examines four common and general types of organisational form: the cell, the silo, the pyramidal, and the network types of organisational structures.…
Full Text Available Orientation: The positive organisation creates a framework in which its elements can be investigated in relation to the retention of talent.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate if leader empowering behaviour can positively impact on role clarity, psychological empowerment and work engagement, with the final outcome being the retention of talent.Motivation for the study: In the ever changing work environment organisations place great emphasis on their human capital. The positive organisation utilises specific elements to optimise human capital’s potential. It is therefore important to identify the elements contributing to a positive organisation as well as the elements which lead to the retention of talent.Research design, approach and method: A survey research design was used. A convenience sample (n = 179 was taken from a business unit in a chemical organisation. The Leader Empowering Behaviour Questionnaire, Measures of Role Clarity and Ambiguity Questionnaire, Measuring Empowerment Questionnaire, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Intention to Leave Scale were administered.Main findings: Leader empowering behaviour, role clarity and psychological empowerment predicted work engagement. Role clarity interacted with competence to affect employees’ dedication and interacted with the development of employees to affect absorption. Work engagement predicted employees’ intention to leave.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should foster the elements of a positive organisation if they want to retain their talent.Contribution/value-add: The results of this research contribute to scientific knowledge about the effects of a positive organisation on retention.
Stewart Alexander J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in gene regulatory networks drive the evolution of phenotypic diversity both within and between species. Rewiring of transcriptional networks is achieved either by changes to transcription factor binding sites or by changes to the physical interactions among transcription factor proteins. It has been suggested that the evolution of cooperative binding among factors can facilitate the adaptive rewiring of a regulatory network. Results We use a population-genetic model to explore when cooperative binding of transcription factors is favored by evolution, and what effects cooperativity then has on the adaptive re-writing of regulatory networks. We consider a pair of transcription factors that regulate multiple targets and overlap in the sets of target genes they regulate. We show that, under stabilising selection, cooperative binding between the transcription factors is favoured provided the amount of overlap between their target genes exceeds a threshold. The value of this threshold depends on several population-genetic factors: strength of selection on binding sites, cost of pleiotropy associated with protein-protein interactions, rates of mutation and population size. Once it is established, we find that cooperative binding of transcription factors significantly accelerates the adaptive rewiring of transcriptional networks under positive selection. We compare our qualitative predictions to systematic data on Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factors, their binding sites, and their protein-protein interactions. Conclusions Our study reveals a rich set of evolutionary dynamics driven by a tradeoff between the beneficial effects of cooperative binding at targets shared by a pair of factors, and the detrimental effects of cooperative binding for non-shared targets. We find that cooperative regulation will evolve when transcription factors share a sufficient proportion of their target genes. These findings help to
Full Text Available Orientation: Professionals, employed in organisations, operate within professional andorganisational contexts serving different stakeholders. Subsequently, professionals mayexperience tension or conflict between their role as professional and employee.Research purpose: To establish the measurement of the perceptions and experiences ofindustrial psychology (IP professionals, employed in South African organisations, withregard to Organisation-Professional Conflict (OPC as well as the antecedents associated withthis phenomenon.Motivation for the study: Although the extent to which professionals experience OPC is welldocumentedfor medical and accountancy professionals, the extent to which IP professionalsexperience this phenomenon remains unclear.Research design, approach and method: A structured questionnaire was developed andapplied as a cross-sectional survey to all registered South African IP professionals employedin organisations. Responses based on the N = 143 self-selecting respondents were captured andutilised for statistical analysis.Main findings: OPC in the IP profession can be considered as the incongruence betweenprofessional organisational roles and duties, and their responsibility to adhere to professionalobligations. Professional autonomy and strategic alignment were found to mitigate theoccurrence of OPC, whereas power tension and compromise of professionalism seem toexacerbate the occurrence thereof.Practical/managerial implications: The research might create an awareness of the existenceof OPC amongst the respective stakeholders. Knowledge of OPC may have implications forprofessionals who render their professional services to organisations.Contribution/value-add: The findings may inform formal professional associations, industrialpsychologists employed by organisations, their employing organisations, and the governingboard, about the nature and extent of OPC.
Ramsdal, Helge; Hansen, Gunnar Vold
This article addresses questions about health authorities' recommendations on the local organisation of services for people with mental health disorders in Norway. Analysis is made of the dynamic relationship between different evaluations, national guidelines and other knowledge that influence the organisation of services. The analysis is based…
Based on employees selected from four different companies in Lesotho, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of the person-organisation fit on organisational commitment, job satisfaction and turnover intentions within uncertain work environments. Correlation and regression analyses confirmed that the ...
Xu, Bo; Wang, Jianwei
This paper investigates the emergence of relationship-based cooperation by coupling two simple mechanisms into the model: tie strength based investment preference and homophily assumption. We construct the model by categorizing game participants into four types: prosocialists (players who prefers to invest in their intimate friends), antisocialists (players who prefer to invest in strangers), egoists (players who never cooperate) and altruists (players who cooperate indifferently with anyone). We show that the relationship-based cooperation (prosocialists) is favored throughout the evolution if we assume players of the same type have stronger ties than different ones. Moreover, we discover that strengthening the internal bonds within the strategic clusters further promotes the competitiveness of prosocialists and therefore facilitates the emergence of relationship-based cooperation in our proposed scenarios. The robustness of the model is also tested under different strategy updating rules and network structures. The results show that this argument is robust against the variations of initial conditions and therefore can be considered as a fundamental theoretical framework to study relationship-based cooperation in reality.
Goduscheit, René Chester; Bergenholtz, Carsten; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj
Traditionally, the literature on action research has been aimed at intra-organisational issues. These studies have distinguished between two researcher roles: The problem-solver and the observer. This article addresses the distinct challenges of action research in inter-organisational projects....... In addition to the problem-solver and observer roles, the researcher in an inter-organisational setting can serve as a legitimiser of the project and manage to involve partners that, in an ordinary business-to-business setting, would not have participated. Based on an action research project in a Danish inter......-organisational network, this article discusses potential pitfalls in the legitimiser role. Lack of clarity in defining the researcher role and project ownership in relation to the funding organisation and the rest of the network can jeopardise the project and, potentially, the credibility of the researchers. The article...
Goduscheit, René Chester; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj
Traditionally, the literature on action research has been aimed at intra-organisational issues. These studies have distinguished between two researcher roles: The problem-solver and the observer. This article addresses the distinct challenges of action research in inter-organisational projects....... In addition to the problem-solver and observer roles, the researcher in an inter-organisational setting can serve as a legitimiser of the project and manage to involve partners that in an ordinary business-to-business setting would not have participated. Based on an action research project in a Danish inter......-organisational network, this article discusses potential pitfalls in the legitimiser role. Lack of clarity in defining the researcher role and project ownership in relation to the funding organisation and the rest of the network can jeopardise the project and potentially the credibility of the researchers. The article...
Full Text Available This article examines the development of a new process within Russian-Belarusian-Kazakh integration — interregional transborder cooperation. Network modelling is suggested as a mechanism for its regulation. The authors present a network model of transborder cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus based on the case of the Kaliningrad and Grodno regions. The model is developed on the basis of the well-known and widely accepted PERT. It covers the three main stages of the whole transborder cooperation process identified in the case of the two regions — the Kaliningrad and Grodno: organisational and analytical support, methodological and technological support, and the development of a complex cooperation programme. The working version of the model includes approximately 150 events. As to its purpose, it is a representation of a well-balanced established international coordination programme of transboundary cooperation at a level of two regions.
This study investigates the influence of organisational factors and work-family role conflict on organisation commitment among working parents. The participants in the study comprise 200 employees of banking, armed forces, educational, and health institutions with a mean age 37.52 years. About 57% are men while 43.5% ...
Hruschka, Daniel J; Henrich, Joseph
The evolution of cooperation is a central problem in biology and the social sciences. While theoretical work using the iterated prisoner's dilemma (IPD) has shown that cooperation among non-kin can be sustained among reciprocal strategies (i.e. tit-for-tat), these results are sensitive to errors in strategy execution, cyclical invasions by free riders, and the specific ecology of strategies. Moreover, the IPD assumes that a strategy's probability of playing the PD game with other individuals is independent of the decisions made by others. Here, we remove the assumption of independent pairing by studying a more plausible cooperative dilemma in which players can preferentially interact with a limited set of known partners and also deploy longer-term accounting strategies that can counteract the effects of random errors. We show that cooperative strategies readily emerge and persist in a range of noisy environments, with successful cooperative strategies (henceforth, cliquers) maintaining medium-term memories for partners and low thresholds for acceptable cooperation (i.e. forgiveness). The success of these strategies relies on their cliquishness-a propensity to defect with strangers if they already have an adequate number of partners. Notably, this combination of medium-term accounting, forgiveness, and cliquishness fits with empirical studies of friendship and other long-term relationships among humans.
Wai Yee Betty Chiu
Full Text Available Some researchers claimed that job satisfaction directly affected organisational commitment but others considered it had a mediation effect on the relationship between some independent variables and organisational commitment. Thus, this paper aimed to examine whether job satisfaction mediated the relationship between work group identification and the two forms of organisational commitment amongst quantity surveyors. A quantitative approach with questionnaire survey was employed for data collection. Questionnaires were sent to the chartered quantity surveyors and 71 valid responses were obtained for analysis. A bootstrapping approach was applied to the survey data to test the mediating effect of job satisfaction between work group identification and organisational commitment. The bootstrapping results supported most hypotheses. The findings suggested that surveying companies should focus their efforts on improving quantity surveyors’ job satisfaction through the organisation of social activities. Special measures should also be taken by the work group leaders to improve the working relationship among quantity surveyors to foster job satisfaction. Paper Type: Research article
David Cesarini; Christopher T. Dawes; James H. Fowler; Magnus Johannesson; Paul Lichtenstein; Björn Wallace
Although laboratory experiments document cooperative behavior in humans, little is known about the extent to which individual differences in cooperativeness result from genetic and environmental variation...
Library and information management (LIM) organisations are on an almost continual path of change driven by changes in technology, service models, staffing structures, and financial allocations. The way in which LIM organisations approach change varies, as does the success rate of change management procedures undertaken. One particular approach to…
Shollo, Arisa; Galliers, Robert D.
Recent advances in information technology (IT), such as the advent of business intelligence (BI) systems, have increased the ability of organisations to collect and analyse data to support decisions. There is little focus to date, however, on how BI systems might play a role in organisational...
Krams, Indrikis; Bērziņš, Arnis; Krama, Tatjana; Wheatcroft, David; Igaune, Kristīne; Rantala, Markus J.
Theory predicts that animals in adverse conditions can decrease individual risks and increase long-term benefits by cooperating with neighbours. However, some empirical studies suggest that animals often focus on short-term benefits, which can reduce the likelihood that they will cooperate with others. In this experimental study, we tested between these two alternatives by evaluating whether increased predation risk (as a correlate of environmental adversity) enhances or diminishes the occurrence of cooperation in mobbing, a common anti-predator behaviour, among breeding pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. We tested whether birds would join their mobbing neighbours more often and harass a stuffed predator placed near their neighbours' nests more intensely in areas with a higher perceived risk of predation. Our results show that birds attended mobs initiated by their neighbours more often, approached the stuffed predator significantly more closely, and mobbed it at a higher intensity in areas where the perceived risk of predation was experimentally increased. In such high-risk areas, birds also were more often involved in between-pair cooperation. This study demonstrates the positive impact of predation risk on cooperation in breeding songbirds, which might help in explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation. PMID:19846454
Anne Mette Thorhauge
Full Text Available In this article, I will analyse and discuss two qualitative case studies concerning ICT in the study environment at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark. I will place special focus on the way in which organisational perspectives as well as technological affordances shape how communication technologies are integrated into organisational structures and practices on campus. This involves a comparison between course management systems on the one hand and students’ personal media (mobile phones, e-mails on the other hand, with regard to how these are used on campus. On the basis of this analysis, I will argue that the ways in which these technologies are used reflects two different perspectives on the interplay between communication technology and organisational structure: organisational structure as an anticipation of communication patterns implied in course management system’s design and implementation as well as organisational structure as a product of the use of personal media.
Holm Andreasen, Peter; Gammelgaard, Britta
It is a wide-held assumption that professional development and change within purchasing and supply management (PSM) organisations can be explained and guided by a maturity model. In this paper the guidance which the maturity model concept offers to understand a PSM organisation's performance...... an organisational change framework, composing 1) movement transitions, 2) scalability of change, 3) acceptability of change, and 4) the substantive element of change. The research found that extant PSM maturity models are too rigid for PSM managers to apply, and although maturity models are commonly accepted in PSM...... is assessed. The methodology is based on the outcomes of a literature review of PSM maturity models, development of an organisational change framework and the learning from three qualitative case studies. An alternative understanding of the development of the PSM organisation is offered through...
Full Text Available Since the mid-1980s a growing body of leadership research has focused on strategic leadership, in contrast to managerial and visionary leadership. It focused on how top leadership makes decisions in the short term that guarantees the long-term viability of the organisation. The best performing organisations are consciously strategic in their leadership planning. These top leaders also have the ability to align human resources in an effective way directly to the business strategy. This article identifies some of the direct and indirect pathways in which strategic leadership influences the operational strategy and performance of business organisations in South Africa. This research pinpointed theoretical and substantively meaningful endogenous organisational capabilities that mediated this relationship and exogenous organisational factors that moderated this relationship.
Full Text Available Demanding surrounding makes it necessary for an organisation to adapt and restructure constantly. Therefore, it is essential for an organisation to acquire competence allowing to use opportunities and avoid dangers which happen, among others, because of changeability of relations between it and people interested. Adaptation to the changes which occur in the spheres mentioned in the following lines constitutes the challenge. The changes refer to the following spheres: economical, technological, international or legal and political. It requires systematic and comprehensive organisation development, which becomes possible due to the use of The Management Model of the Polish Quality Award which is perceived as a tool optimising the quality of functioning and development of an organisation. The use of the model's criteria as a tool supporting development and mistake correction gives a chance to gain competitive predominance of an organisation. This leads to effective and efficient way of conducting self-assessment as well as systematic identification of weak points of an organisation, which, in turn, directs towards the facilitation of pinpointing the direction of its functioning.
The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011 shook the radiological protection world. All major organisations in the radiological protection field turned their eyes to Japan. Their actions, driven by their mandates, are reflected in their respective landmark reports on the accident. Reports of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, World Health Organisation, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and International Atomic Energy Agency are summarised. Collaboration between key international organisations is strong, based in part on informal interactions which need to be backed up with formal relations to ensure solid long-term collaboration.
Why do 'crime bosses' settle in one place and not another? It is an intriguing and under-researched question, and not much has been written about it. In South Africa a cluster of individuals associated with organised crime moved into, or were associated with, a particular suburb: Bedfordview, south-east of Johannesburg.
Adrián Gurza Lavalle
Full Text Available This article examines the new forms of political representation civil organisations are constructing in their relation with the State, and some of the possible consequences for the quality of democracy. There are no historical or theoretical established models of representation which enable one to explore how civil organisations, in the absence of the elections or formal membership, can construct their political representativeness. For this reason, political representation by civil organisations has received little attention despite its growing importance. Extensive fieldwork in São Paulo, Brazil, reveals that political representation by civil organisations is closely connected to the dynamics of institutions of representative democracy. Furthermore, it reveals that alongside notions of representation that are clearly irreconcilable with democratic standards, a new notion of representation is emerging among civil organisations which is specifically political and compatible with democracy.
Full Text Available The focal point of this study is organisational citizenship behaviour notion that came into prominence after the study about in this subject researched by Bateman and Organ in 1983. In this study we aim to research the effect of leadership practises on organisational citizenship behaviour and how organisational justice affects the relationship between leadership practises and organisational citizenship behaviour as an intervening variable. We collected data about leadership practices and organizational justice perceptions and organizational citizenship behaviour. According to findings, most related leadership practices with organizational citizenship behaviour are enable others to act, model to way and inspire a shared vision. Finally we evaluate intervening variable role of organizational justice perceptions on relationship between leadership practices and organizational citizenship behaviour. According to findings, organizational justice has partially an intervening variable role on relationship between leadership practices and organizational citizenship behaviour. Organizational justice intensifies positive effects of leadership practices on organizational citizenship behaviour
Vass, Mikkel; Holmberg, Rasmus; Fiil-Nielsen, Henrik; Lauridsen, Jørgen; Avlund, Kirsten; Hendriksen, Carsten
The organisational influence on benefits of preventive home visitation programmes for older people has escaped scientific evaluation. This study aims to investigate organisational structures and processes in relation to preventive home visits. As part of a randomised controlled trial investigating whether educational intervention towards municipality health care professionals could enhance active life expectancy, information of municipality leadership, home visit approach, strengths and limit...
Rhydderch, S.M.; Elwyn, G.; Marshall, M.N.; Grol, R.P.T.M.
General practices are making greater use of indicators to help shape and develop organisational arrangements supporting the delivery of health care. Debate continues concerning what exactly such indicators should measure and how they should be used to achieve improvement. Organisational theories can
Lukies, John; Graffam, Joseph; Shinkfield, Alison J
The authors tested the premise that organisational context variables (i.e., size of organisation, industry type, location, and respondent's position in organisation) had significant effects on employer (N = 596) attitudes toward employability of ex-offenders. They also examined whether organisational context variables had an equivalent effect on employer attitudes to that of job-seeker criminal history and employer personal characteristics (e.g., respondent age and gender). Using linear regression (HLM 6.02a), organisational context variables were shown to have a significant effect on employer attitudes. In addition, organisational context variables had a significantly greater effect on employer attitudes than did employer personal characteristics. However, job-seeker criminal history contributed more to respondent ratings of ex-offender employability than did organisational context variables. The finding that judgements of employability are influenced by organisational context variables has implications for future research relevant to reintegration. Stakeholder attitudes toward the reintegration success of ex-offenders may be generally influenced by context variables.
Reddish Vale Technology College was the first co-operative trust in England. The democratic and co-operative nature of the experiment mean that students have gained a greater voice in the organisation of the school. As a result, new social enterprises, environmental interventions, connections with the community and with the wider co-operative…
Harvey, Gill; Jas, Pauline; Walshe, Kieran
Organisational context is frequently cited as an important consideration when implementing and evaluating quality improvement interventions in healthcare, but limited guidance is available on which aspects of context are most influential or modifiable. This paper examines how internal and external contextual factors mediate organisational-level performance improvement through applying the knowledge-based theory of absorptive capacity (AC). Three healthcare case studies are presented. Each case is a UK National Health Service organisation that had been identified as having performance problems. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with general and clinical managers within the organisation and members of external teams supporting or overseeing performance improvement (n=22). Interview data were analysed using an existing AC framework from the literature. The organisation with the highest AC showed the quickest and most comprehensive performance improvement. Internal characteristics including strategic priorities, processes for managing information, communication and orientation to learning and development impacted on the organisation's ability to engage successfully with external stakeholders and make use of available knowledge. This enabled the organisation to thrive despite the challenging external environment. Lower levels of AC appeared to delay or limit the improvement trajectory. Developing a more detailed and nuanced understanding of how context influences improvement is an important step towards achieving more effective and sustainable quality improvement programmes in healthcare. AC, with its focus on knowledge and organisational learning, provides a useful way to explore the relationship between context and quality improvement and represents a potentially valuable area for future research and development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go
Henrico, Hendrik Salidoor
The new millennium will be characterised by more and more companies attempting fundamental changes in the way they do business. This study focuses on sCH~~MANNSA SOL SA (PTY) LTD, a typical South African chemical organisation in a third world country that has to face its challenges and globally compete against organisations of the first world. To enable the successful integration of this transforming organisation with its global market, specific focus is on a dynamic three tier approach. This...
Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden); Paeivioe, Josefin [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)
This workshop was the final one in a series of three workshops within the RISCOM II project. It was an event where the RISCOM group of researchers disseminated the results to a wider circle of the nuclear waste management community in Europe with the focus on their own 'peers' in participating countries. However, the aim was not just to present RISCOM II results but also to see them in the context of adjacent projects. Especially, the workshop was set up in cooperation with the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) since this was seen as a good opportunity for exchange of experiences between the two activities. There was also participation by representatives from the EC COWAM Concerted Action and one presentation was devoted to this activity. There was thus an opportunity to discuss the three activities together. A draft of the RISCOM II Final Report had been made available for workshop participants before the meeting. The first part of the workshop entitled Transparency and citizen participation was moderated by Yves Le Bars, FSC chairman, and president of ANDRA. The second part dealt with Outcomes of the RISCOM Project and was moderated by Elizabeth Atherton from UK Nirex. Magnus Westerlind (SKI), the RISCOM-II coordinator, moderated the third part that dealt with Organisation and roles.
Tzouvelekis, Argyris; Koutsopoulos, Anastasios; Oikonomou, Anastasia; Froudarakis, Marios; Zarogoulidis, Pavlos; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Mikroulis, Dimitrios; Antoniades, Antonis; Bouros, Demosthenes
Organising pneumonia is a distinct histopathological entity characterized by intra-alveolar buds of granulation tissue, called Masson bodies, which mainly comprise of activated fibroblasts and loose connective tissue. This histopathologic pattern has been described in idiopathic cases, characterizing cryptogenic organising pneumonia as well as in the context of pulmonary infection, drug-induced pneumonitis and following lung transplantation. Although distinct as a clinical and pathological entity, community organising pneumonia may present with atypical clinical and pathological features, such as intra-alveolar fillings of fibrin balls and organising tissue that resembles acute respiratory distress syndrome or diffuse alveolar damage. The latter characteristics constitute a recently described anatomoclinical entity called acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia. Here, we describe a rare case of acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia, in an otherwise healthy 65-year-old Greek woman who complained of dry cough, fever, weight loss and progressive dyspnoea. She had never been a smoker. Her clinical symptoms showed a rapid deterioration in the two weeks before admission, despite a course of oral antibiotics. After excluding infection and malignancy with routine laboratory tests and flexible bronchoscopy, high resolution computed tomography and video assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy were performed. Diagnosis was based on radiological features typical of community organising pneumonia coupled with pathologic features characteristic of acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and showed excellent clinical and radiological response three months after treatment initiation. Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia is an extremely rare pathologic entity, often misdiagnosed as typical community organising pneumonia. To our knowledge, this is the seventh case of acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia in the literature, with no
Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Frattasi, Simone; Figueiras, Joao
for mobile devices using the Java Platform, Micro Edition (Java ME) in particular, and how/when to use them. Sample applications and services will be demoed during the tutorial. The list of topics to be discussed include: - Application platforms (WAP, Java ME, BREW) - Designing wireless applications...... on a totally different platform like a mobile phone or a BlackBerry device. While wireless applications can be much smaller than conventional desktop applications, developers should think in the small in terms of the devices on which the applications will run and the environment in which they will operate...... - Wireless application programming models - Testing and deploying wireless applications - Applying the Service-Oriented Architecture - Web services for mobile devices - Securing wireless applications and service...
In the past forty years, numerous proposals to improve the fragmented international environmental governance (IEG) system have been developed, many of which call for the establishment of an international environment organisation. Although governments and scholars agree that the system needs
Full Text Available Change is a way of life and the ability to manage change is a key factor in organisational survival and effectiveness. This article evaluates the ‘survivor syndrome’ and assesses the impact of the process of downsizing and transformation on communication, trust, survivor commitment and loyalty, morale and career advancement opportunities. The study was conducted using a stratified random sample of 361 employees/survivors in a branch of a motor manufacturer that had undergone major transformation. Data was collected using a self-developed questionnaire and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study generates a framework/model of critical change implementation factors and recommendations that will enable change managers to sense, adjust, respond and implement change timeously so as to gain strategic and competitive advantage. Opsomming Verandering is ’n lewenswyse en die vermoë om te verander is ’n kernaspek in organisasieverandering en -oorlewing. In hierdie artikel word die ‘oorlewingsindroom’ beoordeel en word die impak van die afskalingsproses en transformasie op kommunikasie, vertroue, ‘oorlewende’ toewyding en lojaliteit, moraal en loopbaanvorderingsgeleenthede takseer. Die studie is uitgevoer, met die gebruik van ’n gestratifiseerde ewekansige steekproef van 361 werknemers/’oorlewendes’ in ’n afdeling van ’n motorvervaardiger wat ingrypende transformasie ondergaan het. Data is ingesamel by wyse van ’n selfontwikkelde vraelys en ontleed aan die hand van beskrywende en inferensiële statistiek. Die studie het ’n raamwerk/model van kritieke veranderingsimplementeringsfaktore en aanbevelings gegenereer wat veranderingsbestuurders in staat sal stel om die gewaarwording, aanpassing, reaksie en implementering van verandering tydig te doen sodat strategiese en mededingingsvoordeel behaal kan word.
D. Van Elst; D.N.D. Meurs
Purpose: To analyse the connection between the psychological contract, employee engagement and organisational commitment in the context of positive management and to create a theoretical background for future research.
Rinas V. Kashbraziyev
Full Text Available Objective to analyze the contradictions of international industrial cooperation as a driving force for its development. Methods identification and analysis of contradictions in international cooperation were carried out using systematic approach based on general scientific methods of theoretical and empirical research analysis synthesis scientific observation measurement and comparison. On the basis of generalization and analysis of the information contained in the statistical system of the Organization for economic cooperation and development and the global competitiveness reports of the world economic forum the author presents assessment of the level of technological and knowledgeintensity of the economies of certain developed and developing transition countries investment efficiency in science and research their influence on the technological level of production and the degree of technological sovereignty of the mentioned countries. Results the study of the industrialized countriesrsquo experience has shown that the production of hightech products is impossible without integration into a global cooperative network of industrial companies and research institutes. However being included into the global production chains and attracting advanced technologies of production marketing and management the national companies inevitably fall into dependence on foreign import supply. An economic axiom is formulated modern hightech production requires a dramatic expansion of international production cooperation. The main ontological contradiction of international industrial cooperation is revealed characterized by the impact on the improvement of the technological level of production and innovativeness of the national economy on the one hand and simultaneous strengthening of its dependence on foreign partners on the other hand. Scientific novelty on the basis of systematic approach the article reveals contradictions in international cooperation in the
Kilsdonk, M. J.; van Dijk, B. A. C.; Otter, R.; Siesling, S.; van Harten, W. H.
Background: Organisational external peer review was introduced in 1994 in the Netherlands to improve multidisciplinary cancer care. We examined the clinical impact of this programme on colorectal cancer care. Methods: Patients with primary colorectal cancer were included from 23 participating
Scholars and researchers are currently looking into the ways in which design thinking and design methods serve the organisation in reorienting and changing itself around the needs of the people they serve [1,2,3,4]. However, there are still few examples that allow us to gain insights of how this works in practice. This paper explores how design thinking can enable and contribute to the process of change implementation throughout the organisation building on insights and lessons learned from a...
Full Text Available Nowadays it has been already recognized that the primary source of organisational development is knowledge and organisation’s ability to learn. Those two sources refer to employees who generate knowledge and determine the extent and manner how to use it. Taking this into account we can say that today each organisation strives for having the best possible, that means talented, employees. In contemporary economy organisations undertake some advanced activities in order to: attract, identify, recruit, keep and exploit talented employees in an optimal way. Such advanced activities are the components of the process called talent management. Talent management has become one of the most important trends and concepts in the field of contemporary enterprise management. It results from the fact that this concept offers companies the opportunity to create business models driven not by cost effectiveness but by new ideas and developing their intellectual potential. The idea of talent management has become very popular due to permanent enterprises’ struggle for the best employees. The issues underlying the necessity to focus on discovering and using the potential of talented employees is the central point of Positive Organisational Scholarship concept. However, both research and practical experience prove that talent management is extremely difficult process and many enterprises are getting into trouble while trying to implement this concept. This situation results from the fact that talent management depends not only on material assets of a firm but also on several intangible areas such as: organisational culture, relationships between employees, the level of organisational trust that are difficult to shape and monitor. Over the past decades, researchers have observed that some specific features of employees attitudes such as: altruism, conscientiousness, kindness or carrying about organisation can be helpful in talent management implementation. These
Pedersen, Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum; Gwozdz, Wencke; Hvass, Kerli Kant
The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between business model innovation, corporate sustainability, and the underlying organisational values. Moreover, the paper examines how the three dimensions correlate with corporate financial performance. It is concluded that companies...... with innovative business models are more likely to address corporate sustainability and that business model innovation and corporate sustainability alike are typically found in organisations rooted in values of flexibility and discretion. Business model innovation and corporate sustainability thus seem to have...
Casteleyn, Jordi; Mottart, Andre; Valcke, Martin
Instead of the traditional set of slides, the visual aids of a presentation can now be graphic organisers (concept maps, knowledge maps, mind maps) on an infinite canvas. Constructing graphic organisers has a beneficial impact on learning, but this topic has not been studied in the context of giving a presentation. The present study examined this issue by having 199 students prepare a presentation. The control sample created visual aids that are similar to a deck of slides with text and pictu...
Křížková, Alena; Maříková, Hana; Dudová, Radka; Sloboda, Zdeněk
Roč. 45, č. 3 (2009), s. 519-547 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS700280503; GA AV ČR IAA700280804; GA ČR GA403/05/2474; GA ČR GA403/09/1839 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : organisations * family-friendly policies * work Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2009
Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Mash, Robert; Phaladze, Nthabiseng
Botswana has a shortage of health care workers, especially in primary healthcare. Retention and high performance of employees are closely linked to job satisfaction and motivation, which are both highest where employees' personal values and goals are realised. The aim of the study was to evaluate employees' personal values, and the current and desired organisational culture of the district health services as experienced by the primary health care workers. The study was conducted in the Ngamiland and Mahalapye health districts. This was a cross sectional survey. The participants were asked to select 10 values that best described their personal, current organisational and desired organisational values from a predetermined list. Sixty and 67 health care workers completed the survey in Mahalapye and Ngamiland districts, respectively. The top 10 prevalent organisational values experienced in both districts were: teamwork, patient satisfaction, blame, confusion, job insecurity, not sharing information and manipulation. When all the current values were assessed, 32% (Mahalapye) and 36% (Ngamiland) selected by health care workers were potentially limiting organisational effectiveness. The organisational values desired by health care workers in both districts were: transparency, professional growth, staff recognition, shared decision-making, accountability, productivity, leadership development and teamwork. The experience of the primary health care workers in the two health districts were overwhelmingly negative, which is likely to contribute to low levels of motivation, job satisfaction, productivity and high attrition rates. There is therefore urgent need for organisational transformation with a focus on staff experience and leadership development.
Full Text Available Purpose: The article focuses on organisations' capability to deliver their vision and strategies through the use of project management and, in particular, the project delivery capability of organisations themselves. Problem investigated: Although quantitative evidence does exist that organisations do receive value from project management, the track record of failed projects shows the opposite. This can be attributed to the fact that there is no holistic approach in the implementation of project management, which means that organisations do not receive the value they are supposed to get from project management. Design and/or methodology: The problem of a holistic approach is addressed through a theoretical framework that shows the various building blocks of project delivery capability as well as the relationship between the various components within the building blocks. The benefits of such a holistic framework are the improvement of project delivery capability and an understanding of what is required by organisations to ensure that the value is realised. Findings: The article lists three levels of management as well as two dimensions, i.e. proficiency and organisational requirements, that form the Project Management Capability Delivery Framework. The PMCDF provides a holistic framework that can be utilised to increase project success within organisations. Originality/value: The value of this article is that the holistic view provides organisations and the project management office ultimately with a way to manage projects, programmes and portfolios within the organisation, taking into account the synergy that is required. Components can no longer be managed in isolation. Conclusion: The conclusion can be drawn that although there are various aspects and components within the PM discipline, these affect other components and are interrelated. Without this holistic view, efforts to improve delivery capability could prove to be fruitless.
Atwood, Teresa K.; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Brazas, Michelle E.; Corpas, Manuel; Gaudet, Pascale; Lewitter, Fran; Mulder, Nicola; Palagi, Patricia M.; Schneider, Maria Victoria; van Gelder, Celia W. G.
In recent years, high-throughput technologies have brought big data to the life sciences. The march of progress has been rapid, leaving in its wake a demand for courses in data analysis, data stewardship, computing fundamentals, etc., a need that universities have not yet been able to satisfy—paradoxically, many are actually closing “niche” bioinformatics courses at a time of critical need. The impact of this is being felt across continents, as many students and early-stage researchers are being left without appropriate skills to manage, analyse, and interpret their data with confidence. This situation has galvanised a group of scientists to address the problems on an international scale. For the first time, bioinformatics educators and trainers across the globe have come together to address common needs, rising above institutional and international boundaries to cooperate in sharing bioinformatics training expertise, experience, and resources, aiming to put ad hoc training practices on a more professional footing for the benefit of all. PMID:25856076
Teresa K Attwood
Full Text Available In recent years, high-throughput technologies have brought big data to the life sciences. The march of progress has been rapid, leaving in its wake a demand for courses in data analysis, data stewardship, computing fundamentals, etc., a need that universities have not yet been able to satisfy--paradoxically, many are actually closing "niche" bioinformatics courses at a time of critical need. The impact of this is being felt across continents, as many students and early-stage researchers are being left without appropriate skills to manage, analyse, and interpret their data with confidence. This situation has galvanised a group of scientists to address the problems on an international scale. For the first time, bioinformatics educators and trainers across the globe have come together to address common needs, rising above institutional and international boundaries to cooperate in sharing bioinformatics training expertise, experience, and resources, aiming to put ad hoc training practices on a more professional footing for the benefit of all.
de Faria, Pedro; Lima, Francisco; Santos, Rui
This paper analyses the importance of cooperation partners for the development of innovation activities. We contribute to the literature on cooperation in innovation activities that seeks to identify the characteristics differentiating cooperative from non-cooperative firms by proposing a different
Udo R. Averweg
Full Text Available Background: The age of technology, where information and knowledge perform important roles in the organisational context, creates an opportunity for local government organisations (such as metropolitan municipalities in South Africa to support knowledge–sharing. One such technology that supports knowledge–sharing is an intranet. If an intranet is not effectively managed, knowledge–sharing in an organisation shall not be augmented.Objective: To investigate whether or not an intranet augments knowledge–sharing in the selected organisation of eThekwini Municipality.Methods: In this study a quantitative research approach was adopted.Results: The results of this survey suggest that firstly the intranet appears to be at a medium maturity level; secondly, whilst there is information sharing, the intranet does not appear to be effective as a knowledge–sharing structure; and thirdly there appears to be scope for improvement of the content on the intranet. The implication thereof is that eThekwini Municipality’s recently formed Municipal Institute of Learning (MILE may be ideally poised to address the identified shortcomings.Conclusion: Intranet technology plays an important role in an organisation by enabling the effective acquisition, sharing and presentation of knowledge. Because of this an intranet must be effectively managed to readily augment knowledge–sharing in the organisational context of local government organisations (such as metropolitan municipalities in South Africa.
O. Y. Pakhomov
Full Text Available Study results of the spatial organisation of urbozem mesofauna are presented. We used the OMI-analysis methods. Field research was made in June, 1st, 2011 inthe Botanical Gardenof Dnipropetrovsk National University(DNU (earlier – the territoryof Y. Gagarinpark, Dnipropetrovsk. The studied plot is situated at a distance of 220 mfrom the Building 1 of DNU and at a distance of 60 mfrom Y. Gagarin Avenue(the Southeast direction. The plot consists of 15 transects directed in a perpendicular manner in relation to the Avenue. Each transect is made of seven sample points. The distance between points is 2 m. The coordinates of lower left point have been taken as (0; 0. The plot represents artificial forest-park planting. The vegetation has typically wood mesotrophic mesophilic character (93.3% – silvants, 90.0% – mesotrophes, 81.7% – mesophiles. In each point the soil mesofauna was studied; temperature, electrical conductivity and soil penetration resistance, dead leaves layer and herbage height were measured. Soil-zoological test area had a size of 25 × 25 cm. We found that earthworms are numerous and saprohages are presented by 5 species. The Aporrectodea caliginosa trapezoides (Duges, 1828 is a dominant species. Along with that species an ecological group of endogeic earthworms is presented by A. rosea rosea (Savigny, 1826 and Octolasion lacteum (Oerley, 1885. An ecological diversity of earthworms is supplemented by epigeic Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 and anecic Octodrilus transpadanus (Rosa, 1884. The hygromorphs of earthworms range from ultrahygrophiles to mesophiles. The coenomorphic spectrum of earthworms is also rather wide and presented by “pratants”, “stepants”, “palludants” and “silvants”. The complex of earthworms in studied area is taxonomically and ecologically diverse. The ecological structure of soil animal community is presented by such dominant ecological groups as saprohages, pratants, hygrophiles
Doris Gomezelj Omerzel
Full Text Available Entrepreneurial characteristics and organisational culture have an impact on the innovative capability of a company. Therefore, our research tries to examine the influence of different individual entrepreneurial characteristics and organisational culture dimensions on corporate innovativeness and any direct subsequent company growth. This paper proposes the classification and measurement of five dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation; risk taking, proactiveness, competitive aggressiveness, autonomy and customer orientation and 3 dimensions of organisational culture; power distance, uncertainty/avoidance and individualism/collectivism with the objective of explaining service innovation performance. Specifically, we try to show the differences between the importance of different entrepreneurial characteristic and each organisational culture dimension on a product/service innovation. To this end, a survey was performed on a sample of tourism companies in Slovenia. The data was analysed by employing univariate and multivariate data analyses techniques. Data gathered fromthe survey suggests that entrepreneurial orientation and organisational culture dimensions positively influence innovativeness in tourism companies. Empirical evidence supports the view that a company with more developed entrepreneurial characteristics and organisational culture will be more innovative. This paper is one of the first to find empirical support for the role of entrepreneurial characteristics and organisational culture in tourism companies in Slovenia. Despite a number of limitations, it offers a picture of how these dimensions should be developed in order to enhance innovation. It also presents managerial implications, as managers are responsible for the forming of these dimensions.
Susan Tee Suan Chin
Full Text Available As with diversity, collaboration, co-operation and teamwork havebecome increasingly important issues for management to handle.The purpose of this study is to analyse the level of Emotional Intelligenceand Organisational Citizenship Behaviour among middlemanagement employees in the Malaysian manufacturing sector.A total of 536 employees from different organisations and industriestook part in this survey. Based on the descriptive analysis,employees in some industries tended to have a lower level ofemotional intelligence and organisational citizenship behaviour.
Chu, Samuel Kai Wah; Woo, Matsuko; King, Ronnel B; Choi, Stephen; Cheng, Miffy; Koo, Peggy
This study surveyed Web 2.0 application in three types of selected health or medical-related organisations such as university medical libraries, hospitals and non-profit medical-related organisations. Thirty organisations participated in an online survey on the perceived purposes, benefits and difficulties in using Web 2.0. A phone interview was further conducted with eight organisations (26.7%) to collect information on the use of Web 2.0. Data were analysed using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Results showed that knowledge and information sharing and the provision of a better communication platform were rated as the main purposes of using Web 2.0. Time constraints and low staff engagement were the most highly rated difficulties. In addition, most participants found Web 2.0 to be beneficial to their organisations. Medical-related organisations that adopted Web 2.0 technologies have found them useful, with benefits outweighing the difficulties in the long run. The implications of this study are discussed to help medical-related organisations make decisions regarding the use of Web 2.0 technologies. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.
Bibi Straatman; Dr. Anke Coumans
The Artist Organisations International conference, organised by Florian Malzacher, Jonas Staal and Joanna Warsza, took place in Berlin’s HAU theatre from 9 to 11 January 2015. The organisers emphasised how it seems that more and more activist artists are creating organisational structures that
Sørensen, Henrik; Wandahl, Søren
-driven innovation (EDI) could be such a methodology to implicate the spoken and tacit knowledge of the employees that would strengthen the innovative capabilities of the project organisations. To investigate the theoretical field around EDI a literature study was conducted. The overall objective was to develop...... a theoretical framework based on the field of EDI and related methodologies. This research resulted in two main findings. First; identification of the overall themes of the EDI field of research. Second; definition of an overall framework of methodologies to conduct EDI in project organisations. Furthermore...... this research aims to derive a framework that is transferable to other types of organisations....
Full Text Available Orientation: The 21st century has presented challenges and opportunities to organisations. Although South Africa is the most competitive economy in sub-Saharan Africa, the country needs to focus on these opportunities to improve competitiveness. Although there is research on leadership and organisational climate, a debate continues about the contribution of organisational climate and the role of leadership to creating the desired organisational climate.Research purpose: The aim was to explore the relationship between leadership and organisational climate in a South African fast moving consumer goods (FMCG organisation.Motivation for the study: Few studies focus on leadership and organisational climate in South Africa. This study builds on the knowledge that exists. An understanding of the effect of leadership on organisational climate in South Africa allows for customised solutions to the problems of leadership, organisational climate and business performance.Research design, approach and method: Using a descriptive, cross-sectional field survey approach, 896 participants (all of whom worked in one organisation participated in the survey.Main findings: An exploratory factor analysis (EFA and structural equation modelling (SEM multivariate analyses revealed a new set of organisational dimensions, confirmed the relationship between leadership and organisational climate as well as the relationship between organisational climate and its various dimensions.Practical/managerial implications: The findings emphasised the importance of certain generic and specific leadership practices for creating the desired organisational climate in South Africa and in the FMCG environment.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the body of knowledge about the relationship between leadership and organisational climate in South Africa.
In England recent health reforms have resulted in a shift of emphasis from targets to outcomes, and to the provision of healthcare by any willing provider. The outcomes described encompass clinical and public service outcomes such as choice and access. The range of organisations providing healthcare services is large and increasing. Whilst many are clearly located in either the public or private sectors, others have features of both public and private organisations, and are not easily characterised as either one or the other. Analytical frameworks are generally underdeveloped, and have not kept pace with changes in organisation forms. This article reviews how public and private organisations have been compared in organisation theory, describes previous work on dimensional publicness in both non-healthcare and healthcare organisations, and presents a publicness grid for hospitals in England. Publicness is defined as a characteristic of an organisation which reflects the extent to which the organisation is influenced by political authority. In establishing a link between publicness and public service outcomes it is suggested that core publicness, dimensional publicness (consisting of political and economic authority) and normative publicness (public sector values) all have to be taken into account, since all have an impact on these outcomes. A framework is described that can be used to map the relationships between public service outcomes and publicness. How the framework can be applied in practice to healthcare organisations is described through the development of appropriate indicators and measures. Publicness theory can help health administrators and researchers understand and better manage public service outcomes. Some of the research questions that might be addressed using this approach are considered. Further development of the publicness concept in healthcare is advocated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schultz Kirkegaard, Henriette; Valentin, Finn
Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic and organisational sustainability. We take that angle in an in-depth study of four prominent ADDCs. Our findings indicate that there are clear similarities in the way sustainable centres are organised, managed and financed. We also identify factors in the frameworks of academia and research funding affecting their performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Zhou, Wen-Bin; Qu, Hui
Research findings have shown that job satisfaction of Chinese nurses is at a low level. Limited studies have focused on the impact of psychological empowerment and organisational commitment on job satisfaction of Chinese nurses. The aim of this study is to describe job satisfaction, psychological empowerment and organisational commitment of Chinese nurses and to explore the impact of psychological empowerment and organisational commitment on the nurses' job satisfaction. A total of 726 nurses were recruited in a convenience sample from 10 tertiary hospitals. Data were collected using four questionnaires including Job Satisfaction Survey, Psychological Empowerment Scale, Organisational Commitment Scale and Demographic Questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, correlation and stepwise multiple regression were used for data analysis. Nurses' job satisfaction, psychological empowerment and organisational commitment were identified at moderate levels. Nurses' job satisfaction and psychological empowerment were significantly different in terms of age and length of service; nurse job satisfaction varied with respect to marital status. Findings further indicated that nurse job satisfaction was positively correlated with psychological empowerment and organisational commitment. Psychological empowerment, organisational commitment and marital status were significant predicting factors of nurse job satisfaction. This study provides evidence to help nursing managers and health policy-makers to develop intervention programs aimed at enhancing nurse job satisfaction and retaining nurses.
Full Text Available Whistleblowing is a form of pro-social behaviour that occurs when an employee reports organisational wrongdoing to an authority able to implement corrective action. While a number of social factors may infuence an employee’s decision to blow the whistle, very little cognisance is given to the role of organisational trust. Since whistleblowing situations often pose problems for whistleblowers, organisational trust becomes an important facilitator for the decision to blow the whistle. Drawing on a case study, this paper shows that when trust exists, employees are more likely to blow the whistle and to do so internally rather than externally.
Amosov Oleg Yu.
Full Text Available In order to achieve efficient functioning of modern production based on application of complex equipment and technology, which is characterised with a big number of internal production links, it is necessary to have an accurate organisation of the working place. The article considers the working place notion not from the position of a portion of space, which is adjusted for performance of production functions by a worker, but as an organisational form of the process of labour, which integrates its following components: organisational, technical, economic, social security of labour and intellectualisation of labour.
Full Text Available Information is the glue in any organization. It is needed for policy, decision-making, control, and co-ordination. If an organisation's information systems are disrupted or destroyed, then damage to the whole inevitably follows. This paper uses a proven systemic, analytic framework the Viable System Model (VSM - in a functionalist mode, to analyse the vulnerabilities of an organisation's information resources to this form of aggression. It examines the tactics available, and where they can be used to effectively attack an organisation.
Dirk J. Geldenhuys
Full Text Available Orientation: This article is about introducing social constructionism and relational practices as a paradigm perspective to organisational psychology, especially as these are applied in organisation development. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of social constructionism and relational practices as a paradigm perspective for studying and practising organisational psychology in the South African context. Motivation for the study: The relevance of the paradigm perspective that is currently used in studying and practising organisational psychology in South Africa seems to be biased towards an individual perspective of human behaviour that is incongruent with the African context, which asks for an Afro-centric approach with the emphasis on human relationships. It was argued that social constructionism and relational practices could provide a relevant perspective that can help to transform workplace relationships in the South African context. Research approach, design and method: This study was based on a non-empirical, theoretical research design. Articles written in English and published between 2002 and 2013 using specific keywords relating to social constructionism and organisational psychology were retrieved. This was supplemented by other relevant electronic and hardcopy resources. The main findings are reported and discussed and recommendations made. Main findings: Although the literature on social constructionism and relational practices is limited in organisational psychology, it does provide an additional perspective, not only on the mainstream theory, but also as a practice in organisation development for transforming workplace relationships in the South African context. Practical/managerial implications: Organisational psychology should be cautious about the possibility of constructing a monologue at the expense of introducing new perspectives on behaviour in the workplace. Organisational
Full Text Available The participation of Hungary and Hungarian regions outside of Hungary in transnational and interregional programmes within the framework of the third objective (European Territorial Cooperation of the European Union's Cohesion Policy 2007-2013 is an indicator suitable for analysing the international networking activity of Central European national minorities. These programme areas are very well in alignment with the settlement areas of Hungarians and thus it provides a great opportunity for cooperation in the field of regional developments. The study on the participation of Hungarian organizations in and outside of Hungary in the programming period of 2007-2013 shows; however, that Hungarian organizations outside of Hungary only partly utilize their networking potential and they worked with organisations of the mother country in only a few projects. Policies on cooperation may contribute to further utilize this networking potential.
Bagorogoza, J.; de Waal, A.; van den Herik, H.J.; van de Walle, B.A.
Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the knowledge management practices of financial institutions in Uganda, in order to understand how these practices influence the high performance organisation factors and thereby the performance of the financial institutions.
Full Text Available Ever since it has been founded, the Montenegrin Olympic Committee has registered international cooperation followed thorough principles of olympism development as well as its important role in the international cooperation and strengthening of interstate friendly relations. The Olympic Games have always been consisted of a lot of programs having the common aim-making the world a better place through sports. Most of them are continual, and without press. A lot of programs involve close international cooperation with different sports organisations, governmental and non-governmental sector, sportsmen, businessmen, etc. In spite of the popularity enjoyed by the Olympic Games, they were never imagined to be the purpose for themselves. Also, they represent means for achieving other, socially very important aims promoting sports activity, especially among the youths, with an accent on friendship, fair play, respecting other nations and other values.
Egas, M.; Riedl, A.
Explaining the evolution and maintenance of cooperation among unrelated individuals is one of the fundamental problems in biology and the social sciences. Recent findings suggest that altruistic punishment is an important mechanism maintaining cooperation among humans. We experimentally explore the
Andrew, Simon; Arlikatti, Sudha; Siebeneck, Laura; Pongponrat, Kannapa; Jaikampan, Kraiwuth
Based on the Institutional Collective Action framework, this research tests the impact of two competing hypotheses--bonding and bridging--on enhancing organisational resiliency. The bonding hypothesis posits that organisational resiliency can be achieved if an organisation works closely with others, whereas the bridging hypothesis argues that such a structure places considerable stress on an organisation and advocates for an organisation to position itself as a central actor to gain access to novel resources from a diverse set of entities to achieve resiliency. The paper analyses data gathered from semi-structured interviews with 44 public, private, and non-profit organisations serving communities affected by the Great Floods of 2011 in the Thai capital, Bangkok (urban), and in Pathum Thani (suburban) and Ayutthaya (rural) provinces. The findings suggest that: organisational resiliency was associated with the bridging effect; organisations in the rural province were more resilient than those in the suburban and urban centres; and private and non-governmental organisations generally were more resilient than public sector organisations. The findings highlight the importance of fostering multi-sector partnerships to enhance organisational resiliency for disaster response. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.
Ereen Mclaggan; Adéle Bezuidenhout; Chris T Botha
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the transformational and transactional leadership styles and organisational commitment in the coal mining industry at a specific site in Phola...
Perehudoff, Katrina; Alves, Teresa Leonardo
Background: The transparency criteria adopted by the European Medicines Agency require eligible patient and consumer organisations to disclose the names and contributions of their public and private revenue sources. Despite various transparency initiatives, the exact funding sources of, and amounts
De Villiers, Jacob Rudolph
Organisations of today demand efficiency, rationality and personal sacrifice to achieve company goals and profit margins. The integral part that leader relations play in organisations is becoming more evident in the current economic climate. It is therefore vital that organisations focus on good relations in order to achieve engagement, resulting in lower levels of turnover intention. Organisations can be viewed as positive when leaders focus on the importance of people to enha...
De Jaegher, K.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836842; Hoyer, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32205446X
This paper presents a game-theoretic rationale for the beneficial effect of a common enemy on cooperation. In a defence game against a common natural threat, the value of the public good of defence is equal to the sum of the players’ defensive efforts. The game therefore takes the form of a
Wienand, Ulrich; Cinotti, Renata; Nicoli, Augusta; Bisagni, Miriam
...) to assess the differences among employees with different contractual positions. The anonymous questionnaire containing 50 items, each with a scale from 1 to 10, was offered to the healthcare organisations, to be compiled during ad hoc meetings...
Josepa Alemany; Joaquim Rabaseda
.... The 6th International Conference on Accounting which took place in Barcelona coinciding with the International Exhibition of 1929, was organised by the Association Internationale de Comptabilité of Brussels...
Talent management has been an area of significant organisational focus since 1997 when McKinsey and Company first introduced the concept of the ‘war for talent’. What appears to have been neglected in many subsequent talent management publications, however, is the tension between the rhetoric and reality of talent management. The objective of the research is to explore this tension in the context of the social and political aspects of managing talent in organisations and to gain a deeper unde...
Struelens, M.J.; Wagner, D.; Bruce, J.; MacKenzie, F.M.; Cookson, B.; Voss, A.; Broek, P.J.J.A. van den; Gould, I.
Patient safety in hospital care depends on effective infection control (IC) programmes. The Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control (ARPAC) study assessed the organisation, components and human resources of IC programmes in European hospitals. A questionnaire survey of policies and
Jeanette N Cleveland; Bryanne Cordeiro; Glenda Fisk; Rebecca Harris Mulvaney
The present study examines the individual, additive and interactive effects of employee gender and two organisational climate variables on employee ratings of role conflict, work-family conflict...
Qu, Wen Guang; Ding, Yajing; Shou, Yongyi; Zhou, Honggeng; Du, Hong
In light of the current dynamic business environment, companies nowadays need to respond rapidly to changes. Companies often invest heavily in enterprise systems in the hope that these can improve their flexibility in coping with such changes. However, previous studies have shown that the impact of enterprise systems on flexibility can be either positive or negative. To resolve this inconsistency in the existing research, this paper suggests that a company's flexibility should be distinguished between process level and organisational level. Specifically, this paper proposes that enterprise systems will affect process flexibility negatively but affect organisational flexibility positively. The analysis results show that enterprise systems have different effects on process and organisational flexibility. Furthermore, industry clockspeed sets a boundary for the effect on process flexibility but not for that on organisational flexibility. Research and practical implications of this study are discussed.
Thabile Chawane; L. J. Van Vuuren; G. Roodt
The purpose of this study was to investigate the critical role of personal change, and its inherent elements, in determining the outcomes of organisational transformation interventions. The purposeful sampling method was used to involve expert organisational transformation consultants as participants (N=10). A qualitative content analysis technique was applied to infer meaningful explanations to the research problem. It was found that although personal change formed an integral part of transf...
Luciano Czermainski Gonçalves
Full Text Available As organizações vêm desenvolvendo um profundo processo de mudança na maneira como concebem e realizam as suas estratégias de negócio. Particular atenção vem sendo dada à gestão do conhecimento, em função do valor estratégico que este recurso pode assumir. Este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa cujo objetivo é determinar o posicionamento de um conjunto de organizações cooperativas em relação à adoção de práticas de gestão do conhecimento. São apresentados os resultados de cinco estudos de caso em um universo de vinte e duas unidades de negócio de cooperativas do Sudoeste do Paraná. O estudo apresenta o desenvolvimento e o teste de um procedimento de análise denominado 'Matriz de Adoção'. Dos resultados, identificam-se a presença de funções e práticas de gestão do conhecimento em todas as organizações cooperativas estudadas, sendo que, em sua ampla maioria, incompletas no que se refere à implantação de um modelo de gestão do conhecimento.Organisations are developing an in-dept change process on how they design and implement their business strategies. A special attention is given to knowledge management, as they recognize the potential strategic value that this resource could have. This paper presents the results of a research project, which main goal is to identify and represent the positioning of a set of cooperative organizations related to the adoption of knowledge practices. The results of five case studies are presented; they are defined in a universe of twenty two cooperatives business units in Parana South East region. The study presents the development and test of an analysis procedure named 'Adoption Matrix'. Based on results, it is identified the knowledge management functions and practices presence, however, they are incomplete in the sense of a knowledge management model implementation.
Ike E. Onyishi
Full Text Available Orientation: Taking charge as an extra role in the workplace is necessary for the survival of modern firms. Therefore, understanding the personal and organisational factors when one takes charge is critical for organisations.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the contributions of self-efficacy and perceived organisational support when taking charge at work.Motivation for the study: Although many previous studies have examined the antecedents of taking charge in North American business environments, we know little about taking charge in the developing economies of Africa. Research about taking charge will provide valuable information for managers of businesses in developing countries in Africa.Research design, approach and method: This study used a cross-sectional survey design to examine the contributions of self-efficacy and perceived organisational support to taking charge at work amongst 201 bank workers in Nsukka, Southeast Nigeria.Main findings: Regression analysis results showed that self-efficacy had a significant relationship with taking charge at work. The results also showed a statistically significant relationship between perceived organisational support and taking charge at work.Practical/managerial implications: The implications of the results are that interventions that focus on improving self-efficacy will contribute to the behaviours of employees who take charge. In addition, organisations that develop strategies to make employees perceive the organisation as supportive will also have members that engage in more supervisory behaviours.Contribution/value-add: This study was one of the first attempts to investigate taking charge at work in a developing economy of Africa. The results of the study, that self-efficacy and perceived organisational support have relationships with taking charge at work, will contribute to a better understanding of the concept and to building robust theories.
A number of models of evaluation exist in the education and training domain, yet most are rarely cited in studies of the effectiveness of management and leadership development. Given the vast sums of money that continue to be invested by organisations in management development, we must assume that organisations are perceiving value and that this is identified, in the main, through processes other than formal evaluation. Relatively little attention has been paid to how organisat...
Shen, Sheng-Feng; Emlen, Stephen T; Koenig, Walter D; Rubenstein, Dustin R
Ecology is a fundamental driving force for the evolutionary transition from solitary living to breeding cooperatively in groups. However, the fact that both benign and harsh, as well as stable and fluctuating, environments can favour the evolution of cooperative breeding behaviour constitutes a paradox of environmental quality and sociality. Here, we propose a new model - the dual benefits framework - for resolving this paradox. Our framework distinguishes between two categories of grouping benefits - resource defence benefits that derive from group-defended critical resources and collective action benefits that result from social cooperation among group members - and uses insider-outsider conflict theory to simultaneously consider the interests of current group members (insiders) and potential joiners (outsiders) in determining optimal group size. We argue that the different grouping benefits realised from resource defence and collective action profoundly affect insider-outsider conflict resolution, resulting in predictable differences in the per capita productivity, stable group size, kin structure and stability of the social group. We also suggest that different types of environmental variation (spatial vs. temporal) select for societies that form because of the different grouping benefits, thus helping to resolve the paradox of why cooperative breeding evolves in such different types of environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.
Andreassen, Mads R.
study using semi-structured interviews and observation techniques this paper explores exploitation and exploration in a Danish industrial manufacture. Findings suggest that conditions affecting the balance between exploitation and exploration activities would depend on how an organisational member...
Tsai, Yafang; Wu, Shih-Wang
This study aims to explore the relationships between organisational citizenship behaviour, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Because of the changing health policies landscape, Taiwan's hospital administrators are facing major cost reduction challenges. Specifically, the high turnover rate of nurses represents a hindrance and a human resource cost. This study focuses on ways of reducing the employee turnover rate through enhanced organisational citizenship behaviour and job satisfaction. A cross-sectional study. This study focuses on hospital nurses in Taiwan. Our research samples were obtained from one medical centre, three regional hospitals and seven district hospitals. Out of 300 questionnaires distributed among samples, 237 were completed and returned. Pearson's correlation was used to test for relationships among the main variables. One-way analysis of variance and Scheffé's post hoc analysis were employed to test the influence of demographic data on the main variables. The results reveal that the nurses' job satisfaction has a significantly positive correlation with organisational citizenship behaviour and a negative correlation with turnover intention. This study has proven that the turnover intention of clinical nurses is related to their organisational citizenship behaviour and job satisfaction. Hospital administrators can reduce the turnover intention by meeting nurses' needs and by promoting their organisational citizenship behaviour. Organisational citizenship behaviour involves behaviour that encourages staff to endeavour to voluntarily improve organisational performance without lobbying for compensation. Employees' job satisfaction includes satisfaction with the working environment or welfare programme in the context of human resource initiatives. Similarly, human resource protocols may serve as the starting point for promoting staff organisational citizenship behaviour. Administrators in clinical healthcare are encouraged to meet their
Franco, Mário; Pais, Leonor
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to deepen and contribute to knowledge of the use of social network sites (SNSs) in organisations, and more precisely, identify the advantages. Design/methodology/approach To reach this objective, a cross-section study was adopted based on application of a questionnaire, the final sample consisting of 78 dental medicine organisations in Portugal. Findings The results obtained lead to the conclusion that a great number of the organisations studied are connected to SNSs, particularly Facebook. The advantages associated with marketing tools and breaking down barriers between the organisation and the world are those highlighted most in this study. Practical implications According to the empirical evidence obtained, organisations are found to use these sites for other purposes, such as communicating with clients/patients and receiving feedback on the service provided to increase satisfaction and improve the quality of services. Originality/value The study contributes to advancing theory in the field of internet research strategic. More precisely, this study is associated with the creation of a theoretical framework that shows the advantages of using SNSs in an innovative context: dental medicine organisations. A categorisation of these advantages and some implications for theory and practice are also some contributions of this study.
Carim, L.; Warwick, C.
Existing literature on the corporate use of social media did not appear to examine the activity of organisations that fund academic research, nor to explore the variety of implications for an organisation’s business functions of adopting these channels. This study sought to shed light on these areas through primary research involving a survey and focus groups. Findings showed that most UK-based research-funding organisations have adopted social media channels for corporate communications p...
organisations decide to outsource services and labour . Possibly the most well known reason for outsourcing anything regarded as not a core organisational...competency, is to access cheaper labour and cut costs (Eliot 1998). Although the interviews did not probe this issue and the data does not provide specific...is followed up by formal means • Degree of risks • Relies on personal judgment • Lack of auditability of informal Coexistence or
Full Text Available Purpose: Business cases are an integral part of information technology (IT projects, providingthe linkage between the organisational strategies and the promised benefits. Most majorproject management standards and methodologies make reference to the business case andits intended usage. Problem investigated: The success of IT projects is measured based on the benefits they deliver; anecdotal evidence states that IT projects fail at an alarming rate. The benefits are promised in the business case and should be delivered. This study focuses on whether there is a gap between theory and practice with regard to the way that organisations use the business case to approve, manage and track the promised benefits throughout an IT project. Methodology: This article reports on exploratory research that was initiated to establish the current practice of business case application. Four research questions were developed based on an extensive literature review to support or debunk the anecdotal evidence. Semi-structured interviews were used to gather evidence from organisations based on these research questions. Findings: The results suggest that organisations make use of business cases for various reasons and mostly in line with theory. There are, however, aspects that need to be addressed, such as the linkage between the business case and the harvesting of promised benefits. Value of research: This article confirms the theoretical aspects of the business case but highlights some deviations from practice. Organisations need to be more vigilant in the management of the business case to ensure the tracking and realisation of promised benefits.
Gillies, R.; Ashman, A.; Terwel, J.
The teacher’s role in implementing cooperative learning in the classroom provides a comprehensive overview of the theories, research outcomes, challenges and issues in guided cooperative learning. In many chapters there are clear guidelines and discussion about how cooperative learning practices can
Gillies, R.; Ashman, A.; Terwel, J.
The teacher’s role in implementing cooperative learning in the classroom provides a comprehensive overview of the theories, research outcomes, challenges and issues in guided cooperative learning. In many chapters there are clear guidelines and discussion about how cooperative learning practices can
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Lindebaum, Dirk; Geddes, Deanna; Gabriel, Yiannis
The aim of our special issue is to deepen our understanding of the role moral emotions play in organisations as part of a wider discourse on organisational ethics and morality. Unethical workplace behaviours can have far-reaching consequences—job losses, risks to life and health, psychological damage to individuals and groups, social injustice and exploitation and even environmental devastation. Consequently, determining how and why ethical transgressions occur with surprising regularity, des...
Bekker, Sheree; Paliadelis, Penny; Finch, Caroline F
A recognised research-to-practice gap exists in the health research field of sports injury prevention and safety promotion. There is a need for improved insight into increasing the relevancy, accessibility and legitimacy of injury prevention and safety promotion research knowledge for sport settings. The role of key organisations as intermediaries in the process of health knowledge translation for sports settings remains under-explored, and this paper aims to determine, and describe, the processes of knowledge translation undertaken by a set of key organisations in developing and distributing injury prevention and safety promotion resources. The National Guidance for Australian Football Partnerships and Safety (NoGAPS) project provided the context for this study. Representatives from five key NoGAPS organisations participated in individual face-to-face interviews about organisational processes of knowledge translation. A qualitative descriptive methodology was used to analyse participants' descriptions of knowledge translation activities undertaken at their respective organisations. Several themes emerged around health knowledge translation processes and considerations, including (1) identifying a need for knowledge translation, (2) developing and disseminating resources, and (3) barriers and enablers to knowledge translation. This study provides insight into the processes that key organisations employ when developing and disseminating injury prevention and safety promotion resources within sport settings. The relevancy, accessibility and legitimacy of health research knowledge is foregrounded, with a view to increasing the influence of research on the development of health-related resources suitable for community sport settings.
Martin, Graham P; Currie, Graeme; Finn, Rachael; McDonald, Ruth
There is a growing recognition of the importance of introducing new ways of working into the UK's National Health Service (NHS) and other health systems, in order to ensure that patient care is provided as effectively and efficiently as possible. Researchers have examined the challenges of introducing new ways of working--'organisational innovations'--into complex organisations such as the NHS, and this has given rise to a much better understanding of how this takes place--and why seemingly good ideas do not always result in changes in practice. However, there has been less research on the medium- and longer-term outcomes for organisational innovations and on the question of how new ways of working, introduced by frontline clinicians and managers, are sustained and become established in day-to-day practice. Clearly, this question of sustainability is crucial if the gains in patient care that derive from organisational innovations are to be maintained, rather than lost to what the NHS Institute has called the 'improvement-evaporation effect'. The study will involve research in four case-study sites around England, each of which was successful in sustaining its new model of service provision beyond an initial period of pilot funding for new genetics services provided by the Department of Health. Building on findings relating to the introduction and sustainability of these services already gained from an earlier study, the research will use qualitative methods--in-depth interviews, observation of key meetings, and analysis of relevant documents--to understand the longer-term challenges involved in each case and how these were surmounted. The research will provide lessons for those seeking to sustain their own organisational innovations in wide-ranging clinical areas and for those designing the systems and organisations that make up the NHS, to make them more receptive contexts for the sustainment of innovation. Through comparison and contrast across four sites, each
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing recognition of the importance of introducing new ways of working into the UK's National Health Service (NHS and other health systems, in order to ensure that patient care is provided as effectively and efficiently as possible. Researchers have examined the challenges of introducing new ways of working--'organisational innovations'--into complex organisations such as the NHS, and this has given rise to a much better understanding of how this takes place--and why seemingly good ideas do not always result in changes in practice. However, there has been less research on the medium- and longer-term outcomes for organisational innovations and on the question of how new ways of working, introduced by frontline clinicians and managers, are sustained and become established in day-to-day practice. Clearly, this question of sustainability is crucial if the gains in patient care that derive from organisational innovations are to be maintained, rather than lost to what the NHS Institute has called the 'improvement-evaporation effect'. Methods The study will involve research in four case-study sites around England, each of which was successful in sustaining its new model of service provision beyond an initial period of pilot funding for new genetics services provided by the Department of Health. Building on findings relating to the introduction and sustainability of these services already gained from an earlier study, the research will use qualitative methods--in-depth interviews, observation of key meetings, and analysis of relevant documents--to understand the longer-term challenges involved in each case and how these were surmounted. The research will provide lessons for those seeking to sustain their own organisational innovations in wide-ranging clinical areas and for those designing the systems and organisations that make up the NHS, to make them more receptive contexts for the sustainment of innovation. Discussion
Tombak, Busra; Altun, Sertel
Problem Statement: Motivation is a significant component of success in education, and it is best achieved by constructivist learning methods, especially cooperative Learning (CL). CL is a popular method among primary and secondary schools, but it is rarely used in higher education due to the large numbers of students and time restrictions. The…
Hadzibeganovic, Tarik; Stauffer, Dietrich; Han, Xiao-Pu
Tag-based ethnocentric cooperation is a highly robust behavior which can evolve and prevail under a wide variety of conditions. Recent studies have demonstrated, however, that ethnocentrism can temporarily be suppressed by other competing strategies, especially in its early evolutionary stages. In a series of computational experiments, conducted with an agent-based evolutionary model of tag-mediated cooperation, we addressed the question of whether a stochastically established and once dominant non-ethnocentric strategy such as indiscriminate altruism can stably persist and permanently outweigh ethnocentrism. Our model, simulated on various complex network topologies, employs simple haploid genetics and asexual reproduction of computational agents equipped with memory and heritable phenotypic traits. We find that in combination with an implemented memory mechanism and tags, random bias acting in favor of altruists can lead to their long-lasting victory over all other types of strategists. The difference in density between altruistic and ethnocentric cooperators increases with greater rewiring of the underlying network, but decreases with growing population size. These findings suggest that randomness plays an important role in promoting non-ethnocentric cooperation and contributes to our understanding of how other than adaptive mechanisms can initiate the design of novel behavioral phenotypes, thereby shaping surprisingly new evolutionary pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
To highlight the organisation-level management's role in building leadership capacity in advanced nurse practitioners and the need for appropriate supports to increase their becoming leaders. Little is published about the role of organisation-level management in building leadership capacity and in developing the next generation of nurse leaders. In times of economic constraint, organisations need to focus their efforts on targeted leadership initiatives. Advanced nurse practitioners are ideally positioned to act as leaders both within and beyond the health care organisation. From the available research evidence, several support structures and mechanisms are identified as enablers for advanced nurse practitioners to enact their leadership role. Health care organisations need to include building leadership capacity as a priority in their strategic plan and take action to build-up the level of advanced nurse practitioner leadership. Nurse executives have a vital role in influencing the organisation's strategic plan and making a business case for prioritising leadership capacity building within advanced nurse practitioners. A challenge for nurse executives faced with competing service and leadership development demands, involves strategic decision-making regarding whether the advanced nurse practitioner's role is limited to service delivery or its potential in leading health care reforms is realised. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative Research Group on Pre-Ignition Prevention Program... Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Southwest Research Institute... area of P3's planned activity is to develop a fundamental understanding of the factors that lead to low...
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... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993..., 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S... plaintiffs to actual damages under specified circumstances. Specifically, Toyota Motor Corporation, Shizuoka...
L B Mzini
Full Text Available Globally, there is growing recognition of participatory public expenditure management (PPEM. PPEM is seen as the process whereby citizens and civil society organisations participate in the management of public expenditures. The adoption of PPEM is aimed at ensuring greater transparency, better targeting and tracking of resources, and increased overall responsiveness. The Gauteng Department of Health and Social Development (GDHSD is committed to co-operative governance; this includes working with different spheres of government and civil society or non-profit organisations (NPOs. NPOs are required to have a governing committee to manage funds allocated by GDHSD. The committee has the capacity to hold the NPO management accountable for the resources (financial and material entrusted to it by the GDHSD. The effectiveness of NPOs is challenged by poor attendance of board members at meetings, poor understanding of the board’s mandate and responsibilities and lack of experience amongst members. The paradigm of PPEM is still faced with challenges to ensure that significant flows of revenue are accounted for and used effectively for growth and poverty reduction. This study is divided into three components. The first section focuses on the background, the introduction and the conceptual framework. The second part focuses on the empirical study for deriving a benchmark for the South African NPO sector. The third section highlights good practices as well as governance-related challenges. Finally, for further consideration by the GDHSD, a series of recommendations is provided, focusing on how key domestic stakeholders can better contribute to successful participatory budgeting programmes. Keywords: Participatory public expenditure management, non-profit organisations, pro-poor spending, public finance, public financial management, early childhood development. Disciplines: Public Management and Administration, Public Financial Management
Janine Victor; Crystal Hoole
Orientation: In volatile and competitive business environments, organisations are faced with challenges to retain talented workers. Employees are increasingly leaving their jobs for a number of reasons, one of them being a perceived lack of adequate reward practices. Consequently, this has impacted on employee work engagement and confidence and trust in organisations.Research purpose: The study sought to determine whether there is a relationship between rewards, trust and engagement, as well ...
Metzger, F; Pernet, D; Manzoni, P; Ranfaing, E; Dalphin, J-C
Organising pneumonia is a pulmonary disease with variable clinical and radiological features and with many differential diagnoses. Diagnosis is based on histology obtained by either transbronchial or surgical lung biopsy but these techniques have several disadvantages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy in organising pneumonia and to compare it to the usual diagnostic tools. Six cases of organising pneumonia diagnosed with CT-guided lung biopsy are reported and discussed. The role of CT-guided lung biopsy in the diagnosis of organising pneumonia was also reviewed in the literature. CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsies provided a higher rate of adequate samples than transbronchial biopsies (92-100% versus 77-86%). The samples were larger, which reduced the risks of misdiagnosis and increased the diagnostic yield (88-97% versus 26-55% in pulmonary nodules and 42-100% versus 66-75% in diffuse pulmonary disease). Complications were rare and generally not serious. CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy may be considered in place of transbronchial biopsy in the diagnosis of organising pneumonia. Surgical lung biopsy remains the gold standard method for diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
McAuliffe, Katherine; Wrangham, Richard; Glowacki, Luke; Russell, Andrew F
Life abounds with examples of conspecifics actively cooperating to a common end, despite conflicts of interest being expected concerning how much each individual should contribute. Mathematical models typically find that such conflict can be resolved by partial-response strategies, leading investors to contribute relatively equitably. Using a case study approach, we show that such model expectations can be contradicted in at least four disparate contexts: (i) bi-parental care; (ii) cooperative breeding; (iii) cooperative hunting; and (iv) human cooperation. We highlight that: (a) marked variation in contributions is commonplace; and (b) individuals can often respond positively rather than negatively to the contributions of others. Existing models have surprisingly limited power in explaining these phenomena. Here, we propose that, although among-individual variation in cooperative contributions will be influenced by differential costs and benefits, there is likely to be a strong genetic or epigenetic component. We then suggest that selection can maintain high investors (key individuals) when their contributions promote support by increasing the benefits and/or reducing the costs for others. Our intentions are to raise awareness in--and provide testable hypotheses of--two of the most poorly understood, yet integral, questions regarding cooperative ventures: why do individuals vary in their contributions and when does cooperation beget cooperation? © 2015 The Author(s).