WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooling water treatment

  1. [Immediate cooling with water: emergency treatment of burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J

    1990-01-01

    Experimental data have demonstrated that prolonged immediate cooling with cold water is the best first-aid treatment for burn injuries. However in France, this treatment is rarely applied; instead old, inefficient and aggravating methods are still very popular. Pediatricians must help to change this practice by recommending immediate cold water treatment for burns in children.

  2. Advances in alkaline cooling water treatment technology: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaffer, A.E. Jr.; Klatskin, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    A series of chromate and non-chromate treatment programs, specifically designed for alkaline pH cooling waters, have been developed. The treatments provide excellent corrosion and scale control over a broad range of water chemistries and are applicable to high conductivity and iron contaminated waters. Low levels of zinc are used to reduce the dependency on alkalinity, chromate and calcium carbonate supersaturation for corrosion control. The precipitation and fouling problems previously encountered with zinc containing treatments have been eliminated by the use of polymeric dispersants.

  3. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. King

    2000-06-19

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  4. Chemical treatment of slime in industrial cooling water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Noriyuki

    1987-07-01

    Chemical suppression test was made for slime produced in pipes of the industrial water cooling systems. The 3 month chemical slime treatment test in 1984 proved to be effective, and the test has been carried out since July, 1985. The objective was to suppress the generation of slime by decreasing the number of general bacteria by slime treatment agent (fungicide of chloride group). The number of bacteria in the supplied water was compared for the time and day of the week when samples were collected. It was found that there was no regular rule in the variation of the number of bacteria, with measured result of 30-10/sup 6/ variation range. From the variation in the number of bacteria and the sticking conditions of slime on the test board, it became clear that suppression was possible by drastically decreasing the bacteria number in cooling water in the early stage of chemical supply, followed by resupply of treatment agent in a week when the bacteria would be restored to its original amount by supplied water. However, the method is to suppress the slime generation, and is unable to stop the generation completely. (9 figs, 3 tabs)

  5. 40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems. 749.68 Section 749.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning and Cooling Systems § 749.68 Hexavalent...

  6. Automatic devices for electrochemical water treatment with cooling of electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trišović Tomislav Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common disinfectants for water treatment are based on chlorine and its compounds. Practically, water treatments with chlorine compounds have no alternative, since they provide, in comparison to other effective processes such as ozonization or ultraviolet irradiation, high residual disinfection capacity. Unfortunately, all of chlorine-based compounds for disinfection tend to degrade during storage, thus reducing the concentration of active chlorine. Apart from degradation, additional problems are transportation, storage and handling of such hazardous compounds. Nowadays, a lot of attention is paid to the development of electrochemical devices for in situ production of chlorine dioxide or sodium hypochlorite as efficient disinfectants for water treatment. The most important part of such a device is the electrochemical reactor. Electrochemical reactor uses external source of direct current in order to produce disinfectants in electrochemical reactions occurring at the electrodes. Construction of an electrochemical device for water treatment is based on evaluation of optimal conditions for electrochemical reactions during continues production of disinfectants. The aim of this study was to develop a low-cost electrochemical device for the production of disinfectant, active chlorine, at the place of its usage, based on newly developed technical solutions and newest commercial components. The projected electrochemical device was constructed and mounted, and its operation was investigated. Investigations involved both functionality of individual components and device in general. The major goal of these investigations was to achieve maximal efficiency in extreme condition of elevated room temperature and humidity with a novel device construction involving coaxial heat exchanger at the solution inlet. Room operation of the proposed device was investigated when relative humidity was set to 90% and the ambient temperature of 38°C. The obtained

  7. Cooling water treatment - Processes and regulations; Kuehlwasserbehandlung - Verfahren und Vorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsten, J. [Aquatech GmbH, Nieder-Olm (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Determination of optimal water treatment methods is to be based on requirements set by technical specifications, economic efficiency aspects, and legal regulations. It is an important task and should be done by experts in cooperation with the responsible supervisory bodies. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Zusammenfassend kann gesagt werden, dass bei der Auswahl des optimalen Verfahrens einer Kuehlwasserbehandlung technische Anforderungen, wirtschaftliche Vorgaben und behoerdliche Auflagen gleichermassen beruecksichtigt werden muessen. Diese Aufgabe sollte von Fachleuten wahrgenommen und mit den zustaendigen Behoerden abgestimmt werden. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of laboratory and field observations: Ozone water treatment for cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, K.P. [Marley Cooling Tower Co., Mission, KS (United States)

    1996-11-01

    This evaluation, comparing laboratory- and field-generated data, explains the functional results of ozone water treatment use for operating heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) cooling water systems. These effects are classified in the areas of biological growth control, corrosion rate control, and scale control or retardation. Limitations on the application of ozone are discussed. Field results from multiple sites are examined and compared to laboratory-generated data. Theories as to mechanisms are discussed based on the accumulated information. Specific situations such as under-ozonation, and soft and hard water are discussed.

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Three Water Treatment Programs for Cooling Tower Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Gallic Acid Powder (item 2063) METHOD: It is necessary to follow the instructions furnished with the conductivity meter that is being used . The...the location and costs of AFLC towers. 2 Definition of Terms Terms commonly used in cooling tower water treatment. Acid : A substance that dissolves...the sulfuric acid program. This program is still indorsed by Air Force Regulation 91-40. System operators use sulfuric acid to lower the pH and

  10. Environmental compatible cooling water treatment chemicals; Umweltvertraegliche Chemikalien in der Kuehlwasserkonditionierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartiser, S.; Urich, E.

    2002-02-01

    In Germany about 32 billion m{sup 3}/a cooling water are discharged from industrial plants and power industry. These are conditioned partly with biocides, scaling and corrosion inhibitors. Within the research project the significance of cooling water chemicals was evaluated, identifying the chemicals from product information, calculating their loads from consumption data of more than 180 cooling plants and investigating the basic data needed for an environmental hazard assessment. Additionally the effects of cooling water samples and products were determined in biological test systems. Batch tests were performed under defined conditions in order to measure the inactivation of cooling water biocides. (orig.)

  11. Water-cooled electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Dumont, G; Righini, B

    2000-01-01

    LHC experiments demand on cooling of electronic instrumentation will be extremely high. A large number of racks will be located in underground caverns and counting rooms, where cooling by conventional climatisation would be prohibitively expensive. A series of tests on the direct water cooling of VMEbus units and of their standard power supplies is reported. A maximum dissipation of 60 W for each module and more than 1000 W delivered by the power supply to the crate have been reached. These values comply with the VMEbus specifications. (3 refs).

  12. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pulliam, Elias Noel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  13. Proposal for the award of an industrial support contract for cooling water treatment

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Support contract for cooling water treatment for LEP, PS and SPS. Following a market survey carried out among 46 firms in twelve Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2557/ST) was sent on 26 July 1999 to seven firms and two consortia in five Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received five tenders from firms and consortia in three Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium AQUAZUR (FR) and SCHILLING CHEMIE (DE), the lowest bidder after realignment, for an initial period of three years, starting on 1 January 2000, for a total amount not exceeding 976 482 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 31 December 2001. The contract will include options for two further one-year extensions beyond the initial three year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the work covered by this adjudication proposal: FR - 52% and DE - 48%.

  14. Storing carbon dioxide in saline formations : analyzing extracted water treatment and use for power plant cooling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Heath, Jason E.; Borns, David James; Dewers, Thomas A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Roach, Jesse D.; McNemar, Andrea; Krumhansl, James Lee; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2010-10-01

    In an effort to address the potential to scale up of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and sequestration in the United States saline formations, an assessment model is being developed using a national database and modeling tool. This tool builds upon the existing NatCarb database as well as supplemental geological information to address scale up potential for carbon dioxide storage within these formations. The focus of the assessment model is to specifically address the question, 'Where are opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use for existing and expanding power plants, and what are the economic impacts of these systems relative to traditional power systems?' Initial findings indicate that approximately less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data points meet the working criteria for combined CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water treatment systems. The initial results of the analysis indicate that less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data may meet the working depth, salinity and formation intersecting criteria. These results were taken from examining updated NatCarb data. This finding, while just an initial result, suggests that the combined use of saline formations for CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use may be limited by the selection criteria chosen. A second preliminary finding of the analysis suggests that some of the necessary data required for this analysis is not present in all of the NatCarb records. This type of analysis represents the beginning of the larger, in depth study for all existing coal and natural gas power plants and saline formations in the U.S. for the purpose of potential CO{sub 2} storage and water reuse for supplemental cooling. Additionally, this allows for potential policy insight when understanding the difficult nature of combined potential institutional (regulatory) and physical (engineered geological sequestration and extracted water

  15. Ozone Treatment For Cooling Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwelder, Rick; Baldwin, Leroy V.; Feeney, Ellen S.

    1990-01-01

    Report presents results of study of cooling tower in which water treated with ozone instead of usual chemical agents. Bacteria and scale reduced without pollution and at low cost. Operating and maintenance costs with treatment about 30 percent of those of treatment by other chemicals. Corrosion rates no greater than with other chemicals. Advantage of ozone, even though poisonous, quickly detected by smell in very low concentrations.

  16. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  17. Demonstration of Noncorrosive, Capacitance- Based Water-Treatment Technology for Chilled-Water Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Beitelman 2009), HQUSACE published interim implementation guidance in Engineering and Construction Bulletin ECB 2012-10, Non-Chemical Treatment of...incorporation into UFGS 23 25 00. The suggested imple- mentation language includes a designer’s note based on text from ECB 2012-10, plus new language

  18. Application of MF,Ozone and RO in Treatment of Municipal Sewage Reused as Circulating Cooling Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Liqiang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Reuse of treated municipal sewage as circulating cooling water of fossil-fired power plants is a very theme worthy to be studied and spread because of the water shortage in most areas of China. This paper presents a process using coagulation + MF + ozone + partial RO to deal with the recycled sewage after treated preliminarily in sewage treatment plant. The process solves effectively the problem of higher TDS and higher total hardness in product water in winter, thus is especially fit for cities where sewage quality changes obviously with seasons.

  19. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  20. Application of a water cooling treatment and its effect on coal-based reduction of high-chromium vanadium and titanium iron ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song-tao; Zhou, Mi; Jiang, Tao; Guan, Shan-fei; Zhang, Wei-jun; Xue, Xiang-xin

    2016-12-01

    A water cooling treatment was applied in the coal-based reduction of high-chromium vanadium and titanium (V-Ti-Cr) iron ore from the Hongge region of Panzhihua, China. Its effects on the metallization ratio ( η), S removal ratio ( R S), and P removal ratio ( R P) were studied and analyzed on the basis of chemical composition determined via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The metallic iron particle size and the element distribution of Fe, V, Cr, and Ti in a reduced briquette after water cooling treatment at 1350°C were determined and observed via scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the water cooling treatment improved the η, R S, and R P in the coal-based reduction of V-Ti-Cr iron ore compared to those obtained with a furnace cooling treatment. Meanwhile, the particle size of metallic iron obtained via the water cooling treatment was smaller than that of metallic iron obtained via the furnace cooling treatment; however, the particle size reached 70 μm at 1350°C, which is substantially larger than the minimum particle size required (20 μm) for magnetic separation. Therefore, the water cooling treatment described in this work is a good method for improving the quality of metallic iron in coal-based reduction and it could be applied in the coal-based reduction of V-Ti-Cr iron ore followed by magnetic separation.

  1. Application of a water cooling treatment and its effect on coal-based reduction of high-chromium vanadium and titanium iron ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-tao Yang; Mi Zhou; Tao Jiang; Shan-fei Guan; Wei-jun Zhang; and Xiang-xin Xue

    2016-01-01

    A water cooling treatment was applied in the coal-based reduction of high-chromium vanadium and titanium (V–Ti–Cr) iron ore from the Hongge region of Panzhihua, China. Its effects on the metallization ratio (η), S removal ratio (RS), and P removal ratio (RP) were studied and analyzed on the basis of chemical composition determined via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The metallic iron particle size and the element distribution of Fe, V, Cr, and Ti in a reduced briquette after water cooling treatment at 1350°C were determined and observed via scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the water cooling treatment improved theη,RS, and RP in the coal-based reduction of V–Ti–Cr iron ore compared to those obtained with a furnace cooling treatment. Meanwhile, the particle size of metallic iron obtained via the water cooling treatment was smaller than that of metallic iron obtained via the furnace cooling treatment; however, the particle size reached 70μm at 1350°C, which is substantially larger than the minimum particle size required (20μm) for mag-netic separation. Therefore, the water cooling treatment described in this work is a good method for improving the quality of metallic iron in coal-based reduction and it could be applied in the coal-based reduction of V–Ti–Cr iron ore followed by magnetic separation.

  2. Water treatments in semi-closed cooling circuits and their impact on the quality of effluents discharged by CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Santos Leite Cima Gomes, J; Kleiner, S

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to assess the impact of the discharges of the semi-closed water cooling circuits of CERN (European Center for Nuclear Research) on the overall quality of CERN's effluents, taking as guidelines the international legislation supported on the knowledge of the water systems of CERN. In order to reach this goal, a thorough analysis of the functioning of the semi-closed water cooling systems of CERN's particle accelerators was done, as well as, an analysis of the treatment that is done to prevent the proliferation of bacteria such as Legionella. The products used in these water treatments, as well as their impact, were also researched. In addition, a study of the applicable regulation to CERN's effluent was done. This study considered not only the regulation of France and Switzerland (CERN's host states) but also the international regulation from the European community, Portugal Germany, Spain, U.S. and Canada, having in view a better understanding of the limit values of the parameter...

  3. Expanding the potential for saline formations : modeling carbon dioxide storage, water extraction and treatment for power plant cooling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-01

    The National Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration simulation model (WECSsim) is being developed to address the question, 'Where in the current and future U.S. fossil fuel based electricity generation fleet are there opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use, and what are the economic and water demand-related impacts of these systems compared to traditional power systems?' The WECSsim collaborative team initially applied this framework to a test case region in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Recently, the model has been expanded to incorporate the lower 48 states of the U.S. Significant effort has been spent characterizing locations throughout the U.S. where CO{sub 2} might be stored in saline formations including substantial data collection and analysis efforts to supplement the incomplete brine data offered in the NatCarb database. WECSsim calculates costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) for the power plant to saline formation combinations including parasitic energy costs of CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} pipelines, water treatment options, and the net benefit of water treatment for power plant cooling. Currently, the model can identify the least-cost deep saline formation CO{sub 2} storage option for any current or proposed coal or natural gas-fired power plant in the lower 48 states. Initial results suggest that additional, cumulative water withdrawals resulting from national scale CCS may range from 676 million gallons per day (MGD) to 30,155 MGD depending on the makeup power and cooling technologies being utilized. These demands represent 0.20% to 8.7% of the U.S. total fresh water withdrawals in the year 2000, respectively. These regional and ultimately nation-wide, bottom-up scenarios coupling power plants and saline formations throughout the U.S. can be used to support state or national energy development plans and strategies.

  4. Enhanced Biocide Treatments with D-amino Acid Mixtures against a Biofilm Consortium from a Water Cooling Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Jia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Different species of microbes form mixed-culture biofilms in cooling water systems. They cause microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC and biofouling, leading to increased operational and maintenance costs. In this work, two D-amino acid mixtures were found to enhance two non-oxidizing biocides [tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS and NALCO 7330 (isothiazoline derivatives] and one oxidizing biocide [bleach (NaClO] against a biofilm consortium from a water cooling tower in lab tests. Fifty ppm (w/w of an equimass mixture of D-methionine, D-leucine, D-tyrosine, D-tryptophan, D-serine, D-threonine, D-phenylalanine, and D-valine (D8 enhanced 15 ppm THPS and 15 ppm NALCO 7330 with similar efficacies achieved by the 30 ppm THPS alone treatment and the 30 ppm NALCO 7330 alone treatment, respectively in the single-batch 3-h biofilm removal test. A sequential treatment method was used to enhance bleach because D-amino acids react with bleach. After a 4-h biofilm removal test, the sequential treatment of 5 ppm bleach followed by 50 ppm D8 achieved extra 1-log reduction in sessile cell counts of acid producing bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, and general heterotrophic bacteria compared with the 5 ppm bleach alone treatment. The 10 ppm bleach alone treatment showed a similar efficacy with the sequential treatment of 5 ppm bleach followed by 50 ppm D8. The efficacy of D8 was found better than that of D4 (an equimass mixture of D-methionine, D-leucine, D-tyrosine, and D-tryptophan in the enhancement of the three individual biocides against the biofilm consortium.

  5. Process integration: Cooling water systems design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique for grassroot design of cooling water system for wastewater minimization which incorporates the performances of the cooling towers involved. The study focuses mainly on cooling systems consisting of multiple cooling...

  6. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by

  7. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by

  8. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Michael E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Theregowda, Ranjani B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept of Civil and Mechanical Engineering; Safari, Iman [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Abbasian, Javad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Arastoopour, Hamid [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Dzombak, David A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept of Civil and Mechanical Engineering; Hsieh, Ming-Kai [Tamkang Univ., Taipei (Taiwan). Waer Resources Management and Policy Research Center; Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-10-01

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondary-treated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  9. Low Maintenance Water Treatment for Heating and Cooling Systems: Review of Technologies and Guidelines for Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    by oxidizing bio- cides. Also, the relatively new phosphonate, manganese/aminophosphonic acid ( MAPA ) has shown some promise as a copper corrosion...Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HVAC heating, ventilating, and air conditioning IWC International Water Conference MAPA manganese/aminophosphonic...aninophosphonic acid ( MAPA ) Y Y Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) N Y Molybdate Y N Nitrite N Y Orthophosphate Y N Phosphonocarboxylic acid (POCA) Y N

  10. Desalting a process cooling water using nanofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radier, R.G.J.; van Oers, C.W.; Steenbergen, A.; Wessling, Matthias

    2001-01-01

    The cooling water system of a chemical plant of Akzo Nobel is a partly open system. The site is located at the North Sea. The air in contact with the cooling water contains seawater droplets dissolving and increasing the chloride concentration. The cooling water contains chromate to protect the inst

  11. Amorphous silica scale in cooling waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midkiff, W.S.; Foyt, H.P.

    1976-01-01

    In 1968, most of the evaporation cooled recirculating water systems at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory were nearly inoperable due to scale. These systems, consisting of cooling towers, evaporative water coolers, evaporative condensers, and air washers had been operated on continuous blowdown without chemical treatment. The feedwater contained 80 mg/l silica. A successful program of routine chemical addition in the make-up water was begun. Blends of chelants, dispersants and corrosion inhibitors were found to gradually remove old scale, prevent new scale, and keep corrosion to less than an indicated rate of one mil per year. An explanation has been proposed that amorphous silica by itself does not form a troublesome scale. When combined with a crystal matrix such as calcite, the resultant silica containing scale can be quite troublesome. Rapid buildup of silica containing scale can be controlled and prevented by preventing formation of crystals from other constituents in the water such as hardness or iron. (auth)

  12. 18 CFR 420.44 - Cooling water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooling water. 420.44 Section 420.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.44 Cooling water. Water...

  13. Biofouling Control in Cooling Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Reg Bott

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of environmental engineering is the control of greenhouse gas emissions. Fossil fuel-fired power stations, for instance, represent a substantial contribution to this problem. Unless suitable steps are taken the accumulation of microbial deposits (biofouling on the cooling water side of the steam condensers can reduce their efficiency and in consequence, the overall efficiency of power production, with an attendant increase in fuel consumption and hence CO2 production. Biofouling control, therefore, is extremely important and can be exercised by chemical or physical techniques or a combination of both. The paper gives some examples of the effectiveness of different approaches to biofouling control.

  14. Dry cooling tower with water augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ireland, R.G.; Tramontini, V.N.

    1981-06-23

    An air cooling tower system is disclosed for condensing exhaust steam in power plants, that has water cooling augmentation to maintain the plant cooling capacity during high atmospheric temperature periods. The cooling tower includes a plurality of banks of brazed aluminum plate and fin type heat exchangers arranged in inverted ''v'' shaped sets. These heat exchangers cool ammonia used as the cooling fluid in the primary condenser for the power plant turbine exhaust steam. Each of these heat exchangers has a core consisting of a plurality of parallel aluminum plates spaced apart by fin assemblies that define a plurality of fluid passes. Approximately every other one of these passes has closed sides that open at the ends of the core to headers and define ammonia passes. The passes adjacent the ammonia passes are open at the sides and define air passes that permit the free flow of air transversely through the heat exchanger cores. An additional pass is provided adjacent every fourth one of the ammonia passes and these have closed sides and ends and define the passes for the cooling water. The water passes communicate at the bottom of the core with a water inlet manifold and at the top of the core with a water outlet manifold. The cooling tower system is designed so that at 55 degrees fahrenheit air temperatures or below, the cooling air alone will provide the necessary cooling for the ammonia to satisfy plant requirements. Above 55 degrees fahrenheit air temperature, cooling water from a separate water tank is pumped through the water passes to provide an additional cooling effect to maintain the design cooling capacity.

  15. Feasibility assessment of vacuum cooling followed by immersion vacuum cooling on water-cooked pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hui; Liu, Yi; Dai, Ruitong; Li, Xingmin

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum cooling followed by immersion vacuum cooling was designed to cool water-cooked pork (1.5±0.05 kg) compared with air blast cooling (4±0.5°C, 2 m/s), vacuum cooling (10 mbar) and immersion vacuum cooling. This combined cooling method was: vacuum cooling to an intermediate temperature of 25°C and then immersion vacuum cooling with water of 10°C to the final temperature of 10°C. It was found that the cooling loss of this combined cooling method was significantly lower (Pvacuum cooling. This combined cooling was faster (Pvacuum cooling in terms of cooling rate. Moreover, the pork cooled by combined cooling method had significant differences (P<0.05) in water content, color and shear force. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Recent state-of-the-art of biodegradable scale inhibitors for cooling-water treatment applications (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, K. I.; Kovaleva, N. E.; Rudakova, G. Ya.; Kombarova, S. P.; Larchenko, V. E.

    2016-02-01

    Scale formation is a challenge worldwide. Recently, scale inhibitors represent the best solution of this problem. The polyaminocarboxylic acids have been the first to be successfully applied in the field, although their efficacy was rather low. The next generation was developed on the grounds of polyphosphonic acids. The main disadvantage of these is associated with low biodegradation level. Polyacrylate-based phosphorous free inhibitors proposed as an alternative to phosphonates all also had low biodegradability. Thus, the main trend of recent R&D is the development of a new generation: environmentally friendly biodegradable scale inhibitors. The recent state of the word and domestic scale inhibitors markets is considered, the main industrial inhibitors manufacturers and marketed substances, as well as the general trends of R&D in the field, are characterized. It is demonstrated that most research is focused on biodegradable polymers and on phosponates with low phosphorus content, as well as on implementation of biodegradable fragments into polyacrylate matrixes for biodegradability enhancement. The problem of research results comparability is indicated along with domestic-made inhibitors quality and the gaps in scale inhibition mechanism. The actuality of fluorescent indicator fragment implementation into the scale inhibitor molecule for the better reagent monitoring in a cooling water system is specially emphasized.

  17. Cooling by convection vs cooling by conduction for treatment of fever in critically ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creechan, T; Vollman, K; Kravutske, M E

    2001-01-01

    Cooling with water-flow blankets, which are difficult to manipulate and interfere with patients' care, may be ineffective in controlling fever. To compare the effectiveness of cooling via convective airflow blankets with cooling via conductive water-flow blankets for treatment of fever in critically ill adults. A 2-group experimental design was used to compare cooling via convection (n = 20) with cooling via conduction (n = 17) in critically ill adults with an infection-related fever of 38.5 degrees C or greater. Esophageal temperature was measured every 15 minutes until a temperature of 38.0 degrees C was reached or 8 hours had elapsed. Alternative cooling measures were withheld unless the temperature increased to more than 40.0 degrees C. Data on nurses' satisfaction were collected, and complications related to each cooling method were examined. Temperatures decreased more rapidly in the airflow group (mean decrease, 0.377 degree C/h) than in the water-flow group (mean decrease, 0.163 degree C/h). A temperature of 38.0 degrees C was achieved more often in the airflow group (75% vs 47.1%). Fever (temperature > 38.5 degrees C) recurred sooner in the water-flow group (6.6 hours) than in the airflow group (22.2 hours). Both methods were easy to use. Compared with the water-flow blanket, the airflow blanket was recommended for future use twice as often and interfered less with patients' care. In critically ill adults with an infection or a suspected infection, cooling with an airflow blanket is more effective and more preferred for cooling than is cooling with a water-flow blanket.

  18. Asbestos in cooling-tower waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.A.G.

    1977-12-01

    Fill material in natural- or mechanical-draft cooling towers can be manufactured from a variety of materials, including asbestos cement or asbestos paper. To aid in the environmental impact assessment of cooling towers containing these asbestos types of fill, information on these materials was obtained from cooling-tower vendors and users. Samples of makeup, basin, and blowdown waters at a number of operating cooling towers were obtained, and identification and enumeration of asbestos in the samples were performed by transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Asbestos fibers were detected in cooling-tower water at 10 of the 18 sites sampled in the study. At all but three sites, the fibers were detected in cooling-tower basin or blowdown samples, with no fibers detected in the makeup water. The fibers were identified as chrysotile at all sites except one. Concentrations were on the order of 10/sup 6/ to 10/sup 8/ fibers/liter of water, with mass concentrations between <0.1 ..mu..g/liter to 37 ..mu..g/liter. The maximum concentrations of asbestos fibers in air near ground due to drift from cooling towers were estimated (using models) to be on the order of asbestos concentrations reported for ambient air up to distances of 4 km downwind of the towers. The human health hazard due to abestos in drinking-water supplies is not clear. Based on current information, the concentrations of asbestos in natural waters after mixing with cooling-tower blowdown containing 10/sup 6/ to 10/sup 8/ fibers/liter will pose little health risk. These conclusions may need to be revised if future epidemiological studies so indicate.

  19. Progress of the Water Cooling System for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Zhen-guo; WU; Long-cheng; LIU; Geng-guo

    2013-01-01

    The water cooling system for CYCIAE-100 has achieved a significant progress in 2013,its progress can be summarized as follows:1)The deionized water production equipment and the main circulating water cooling unit are installed and tested.2)The circulating water cooling unit for high power target and circulating water cooling unit for vacuum helium compressor are installed and tested.

  20. Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling System Independent of External Water Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from the ...... to the desiccant dew-point system without water recovery, the required regeneration temperature increases and the system thermal efficiency decreases.......This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from...... the air that regenerates the desiccant dehumidifier, and using it for running the evaporative coolers in the system. A closed regeneration circuit is used for maximizing the amount of condensed water. This solution is applied to a system with a desiccant wheel dehumidifier and a dew point cooler, termed...

  1. Hot water treatment to reduce incidence of black foot pathogens in young grapevines grown in cool climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn BLEACH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Black foot disease causes death of infected grapevines but management of this soil-borne disease by preventative measures such as pre-planting fungicide dips has not been totally effective. Hot water treatment (HWT; 50°C for 30 min of young dormant grapevine plants has been shown to significantly reduce infection. However, it has been reported to cause unacceptable damage to young vines in cooler climate countries like New Zealand, so this study examined the effects of different HWT protocols on the New Zealand black foot isolates. In vitro testing of different HWT protocols was conducted on conidia, mycelium and detached, inoculated grapevine canes using three isolates each of the species I. liriodendri (“C”. liriodendri and the complexes, I. radicicola (“C”. destructans and I. macrodidyma (“C”. macrodidymum. Heat treatments greater than 40°C for 5 min killed all conidia (P<0.001, and treatments greater than 47°C for 30 min inhibited (P≤0.003 further growth of treated mycelium plugs for all but one isolate. Within cane pieces, infection by Ilyonectria (“Cylindrocarpon” isolates was significantly reduced (P<0.001 by 30 min at 48.5 and 50°C. Additionally, these studies showed different responses to the different treatments for the three isolates of each species complex and differences between species. In field trials, HWT of 48.5 and 50°C for 30 min significantly reduced disease incidence in dormant plants to 0% (P≤0.001. This study confirmed that HWT of 48.5°C for 30 min could be used to eliminate black foot disease in dormant nursery grapevines grown in New Zealand prior to their use for establishing new vineyards.

  2. Evaporative cooling: water for thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rui Camargo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaporative cooling is an environmentally friendly air conditioning system that operates using induced processes of heat and mass transfer, where water and air are the working fluids. It consists, specifically, in water evaporation, induced by the passage of an air flow, thus decreasing the air temperature. This paper presents three methods that can be used as reference for efficient use of evaporative cooling systems, applying it to several Brazilian cities, characterized by different climates. Initially it presents the basic operation principles of direct and indirect evaporative cooling and defines the effectiveness of the systems. Afterwards, it presents three methods that allows to determinate where the systems are more efficient. It concludes that evaporative cooling systems have a very large potential to propitiate thermal comfort and can still be used as an alternative to conventional systems in regions where the design wet bulb temperature is under 24ºC.

  3. Operational cost minimization in cooling water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an optimization model that considers thermal and hydraulic interactions is developed for a cooling water system. It is a closed loop consisting of a cooling tower unit, circulation pump, blower and heat exchanger-pipe network. Aside from process disturbances, climatic fluctuations are considered. Model constraints include relations concerning tower performance, air flowrate requirement, make-up flowrate, circulating pump performance, heat load in each cooler, pressure drop constraints and climatic conditions. The objective function is operating cost minimization. Optimization variables are air flowrate, forced water withdrawal upstream the tower, and valve adjustment in each branch. It is found that the most significant operating cost is related to electricity. However, for cooled water temperatures lower than a specific target, there must be a forced withdrawal of circulating water and further makeup to enhance the cooling tower capacity. Additionally, the system is optimized along the months. The results corroborate the fact that the most important variable on cooling tower performance is not the air temperature itself, but its humidity.

  4. A descaling treatment for aerated water, especially in cooling towers; Procede de traitement antitartre d`eau aeree, notamment dans les refrigerants atmospheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delemont, F.; Mureau, P.

    1996-04-26

    Carbon dioxide is injected into the water aerating air, for example in the water flowing in a cooling tower; the dissolved carbon dioxide prevents scaling to take place on the heat exchange surfaces or leads to the dissolution of the deposited scale. This system has the advantage to avoid any acid use and thus polluting effluents. 2 refs.

  5. Supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest reactor concepts, single pass core and experimental findings in thermal hydraulics, materials, corrosion, and water chemistry. It highlights research on supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors (SCWRs), one of the Generation IV reactors that are studied around the world. This book includes cladding material development and experimental findings on heat transfer, corrosion and water chemistry. The work presented here will help readers to understand the fundamental elements of reactor design and analysis methods, thermal hydraulics, materials and water

  6. Anomalous Effects in Air While Cooling Water

    CERN Document Server

    Sardo, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Water is a unique compound with many anomalies and properties not fully understood. Designing an experiment in the laboratory to study such anomalies, we set up a series of experiments where a tube was placed inside a sealed container with thermocouples attached to the outer surface of the tube and in the air adjacent to the tube. Alternately, deionized water and other compounds were added to the tube and cooled to freezing. Several of the thermocouples suspended in the air and adjacent to the tube showed thermal oscillations as the overall temperature of the container was decreasing. The temperature of the thermocouples increased and decreased in a sinusoidal way during part of the cool down to freezing. Thermal oscillations as large as 3 degrees Celsius were recorded with typical frequencies of about 5 oscillations per minute.

  7. Behaviour of IPG waste forms bearing BaSO{sub 4} as the dominant sludge constituent generated from the treatment of water used for cooling the stricken power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amamoto, Ippei; Kobayashi, Hidekazu; Yokozawa, Takuma; Yamashita, Teruo; Nagai, Takayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki Pref. (Japan); Kitamura, Naoto; Takebe, Hiromichi [Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime Pref. (Japan); Mitamura, Naoki; Tsuzuki, Tatsuya [Central Glass Co.,Ltd., Matsusaka, Mie Pref. (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The great amount of water used for cooling the stricken power reactors at Fukushima Dai-ichi following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 has resulted in accumulation of cooling water so-called the remaining water in some buildings. As the cooling water is subsequently contaminated by fission products (FPs) and some other radioactive substances, it is necessary to decontaminate this 'cooling water' to reduce the volume of liquid radioactive waste and to reuse it again for cooling the affected reactors. Some methods are applied to remove the radioactive substances from the cooling water. However, after treatments of water, there arises a secondary radioactive waste, the sludge. Steps are now taken to immobilize this sludge. In this paper, BaSO{sub 4}, as one of main constituents of the sludge, was chosen as an immobilizing target substance. The appropriate manufacturing condition of glass waste form for loading the sludge (BaSO{sub 4}) was studied and the chemical durability was evaluated by measuring the dissolution rate. For this experiment, the iron phosphate glass (IPG), which is known to possess a large loading capacity for a variety of chemical substances, was employed as the glass medium. Based on experimental results, it is evident that BaSO{sub 4} can be loaded into the IPG medium when it possesses the appropriate composition and melting temperature. During loading, BaSO{sub 4} converted into BaO, acting as a network modifier, which leads to enhanced stability of IPG. (authors)

  8. On synthesis and optimization of cooling water systems with multiple cooling towers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available research on cooling water systems has focused mainly on heat exchanger network thus excluding the interaction between heat exchanger network and the cooling towers. This paper presents a technique for grassroot design of cooling water system for wastewater...

  9. Free Cooling in the Water Cooling Towers: a Case Study for Istanbul, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇ, İbrahim; PARMAKSIZOGLU, Cem

    2013-01-01

    Energy saving in cooling towers which is used for cooling to the hot water can be significantly improved by using free cooling application. This application is commonly known economizer cycle and when outside conditions are suitable for cooling, it is used for. In this study, the free cooling is applied for the cold water necessity which is supplied by the chiller of the cooling tower in the factory which is available in Istanbul. The results show that the ...

  10. The effect of cooling water on magnet vibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Coosemans, Williame; Schnell, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    The quadrupole magnets in the CLIC Test Facility II (CTF2) incorporate a water cooling circuit. In the frame-work of the CLIC stability study, the mechanical vibrations of the magnets were measured for different flows of cool-ing water. We present the results and compare them with simple theoretical estimates. It is shown that the vibra-tion requirements of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) quadrupoles with cooling water can basically be met.

  11. 循环冷却水浊度偏高原因及处理%Causes and Treatment of High Turbidity of Circulating Cooling Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    普宏波; 何应贵

    2016-01-01

    循环冷却水浊度是循环水装置运行中重要指标之一。对水富云天化有限公司有机生产装置循环冷却水浊度偏高的原因进行分析,并提出相应对策。%Water turbidity of circulating cooling water is one of the important indicators of plant opera-tion.The causes of high turbidity in Shuifu Yuntianhua Ltd were analyzed,and the corresponding counter-measures were proposed.

  12. Application of Cooling Water in Controlled Runout Table Cooling on Hot Strip Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zheng-dong; I V Samarasekera

    2004-01-01

    The controlled runout table cooling is essential in determining the final mechanical properties and flatness of steel strip. The heat of a hot steel strip is mainly extracted by cooling water during runout. In order to study the heat transfer by water jet impingement boiling during runout, a pilot facility was constructed at the University of British Columbia. On this pilot facility, the water jet impingement tests were carried out under various cooling conditions to investigate the effect of processing parameters, such as cooling water temperature, water jet impingement velocity, initial strip temperature, water flow rate, water nozzle diameter and array of water nozzles, on the heat transfer of heated strip. The results obtained contribute to the optimization of cooling water during runout.

  13. Electrochemistry of Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, Dgiby; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Pitt, Jonathan

    2006-08-08

    This project developed a comprehensive mathematical and simulation model for calculating thermal hydraulic, electrochemical, and corrosion parameters, viz. temperature, fluid flow velocity, pH, corrosion potential, hydrogen injection, oxygen contamination, stress corrosion cracking, crack growth rate, and other important quantities in the coolant circuits of water-cooled nuclear power plants, including both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The model is being used to assess the three major operational problems in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), which include mass transport, activity transport, and the axial offset anomaly, and provide a powerful tool for predicting the accumulation of SCC damage in BWR primary coolant circuits as a function of operating history. Another achievement of the project is the development of a simulation tool to serve both as a training tool for plant operators and as an engineering test-bed to evaluate new equipment and operating strategies (normal operation, cold shut down and others). The development and implementation of the model allows us to estimate the activity transport or "radiation fields" around the primary loop and the vessel, as a function of the operating parameters and the water chemistry.

  14. Selective brain cooling reduces water turnover in dehydrated sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Maartin Strauss

    Full Text Available In artiodactyls, arterial blood destined for the brain can be cooled through counter-current heat exchange within the cavernous sinus via a process called selective brain cooling. We test the hypothesis that selective brain cooling, which results in lowered hypothalamic temperature, contributes to water conservation in sheep. Nine Dorper sheep, instrumented to provide measurements of carotid blood and brain temperature, were dosed with deuterium oxide (D2O, exposed to heat for 8 days (40 ◦C for 6-h per day and deprived of water for the last five days (days 3 to 8. Plasma osmolality increased and the body water fraction decreased over the five days of water deprivation, with the sheep losing 16.7% of their body mass. Following water deprivation, both the mean 24h carotid blood temperature and the mean 24h brain temperature increased, but carotid blood temperature increased more than did brain temperature resulting in increased selective brain cooling. There was considerable inter-individual variation in the degree to which individual sheep used selective brain cooling. In general, sheep spent more time using selective brain cooling, and it was of greater magnitude, when dehydrated compared to when they were euhydrated. We found a significant positive correlation between selective brain cooling magnitude and osmolality (an index of hydration state. Both the magnitude of selective brain cooling and the proportion of time that sheep spent selective brain cooling were negatively correlated with water turnover. Sheep that used selective brain cooling more frequently, and with greater magnitude, lost less water than did conspecifics using selective brain cooling less efficiently. Our results show that a 50 kg sheep can save 2.6L of water per day (~60% of daily water intake when it employs selective brain cooling for 50% of the day during heat exposure. We conclude that selective brain cooling has a water conservation function in artiodactyls.

  15. DUSEL Facility Cooling Water Scaling Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, W D

    2011-04-05

    Precipitation (crystal growth) in supersaturated solutions is governed by both kenetic and thermodynamic processes. This is an important and evolving field of research, especially for the petroleum industry. There are several types of precipitates including sulfate compounds (ie. barium sulfate) and calcium compounds (ie. calcium carbonate). The chemical makeup of the mine water has relatively large concentrations of sulfate as compared to calcium, so we may expect that sulfate type reactions. The kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4 {center_dot} 2H20, gypsum) scale formation on heat exchanger surfaces from aqueous solutions has been studied by a highly reproducible technique. It has been found that gypsum scale formation takes place directly on the surface of the heat exchanger without any bulk or spontaneous precipitation in the reaction cell. The kinetic data also indicate that the rate of scale formation is a function of surface area and the metallurgy of the heat exchanger. As we don't have detailed information about the heat exchanger, we can only infer that this will be an issue for us. Supersaturations of various compounds are affected differently by temperature, pressure and pH. Pressure has only a slight affect on the solubility, whereas temperature is a much more sensitive parameter (Figure 1). The affect of temperature is reversed for calcium carbonate and barium sulfate solubilities. As temperature increases, barium sulfate solubility concentrations increase and scaling decreases. For calcium carbonate, the scaling tendencies increase with increasing temperature. This is all relative, as the temperatures and pressures of the referenced experiments range from 122 to 356 F. Their pressures range from 200 to 4000 psi. Because the cooling water system isn't likely to see pressures above 200 psi, it's unclear if this pressure/scaling relationship will be significant or even apparent. The most common scale minerals found in the

  16. Effects of biocidal treatments to inhibit the growth of legionellae and other microorganisms in cooling towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Ezaki, T; Ikedo, M; Yabuuchi, E

    1991-01-01

    The effects of biocidal treatments for cooling towers were examined through the use of chemicals and ultraviolet irradiation to inhibit the growth of legionellae and other microorganisms. In the water of cooling towers without continuous biocidal treatments, heterotrophic bacteria and bacterivorous protozoan first appeared, and then legionellae increased up to 10(4) CFU/100 ml. When a UV sterilizer was connected to the cooling tower, the legionellae count was 1/10 or 1/100 of that in the nontreated tower water. In the water of towers supplemented continuously with the biocidal chemicals, legionellae were not found during a 4-month period. The biocidal treatments tested were proved to suppress the increase of legionellae in cooling-tower water, and thus are useful in preventing the outbreak of legionellosis due to inhalation of contaminated aerosol from the cooling tower system.

  17. The application and management of weak alkalization treatment in generator stator cooling water system%微碱处理在发电机定子冷却水系统改造中的应用与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩西印

    2009-01-01

    发电机定子冷却水长期采用除盐水和凝结水做为补充水,小混床+间断换水处理的运行方式时,pH值经常小于7.0,铜离子含量大多数时间大于40μg/L,不能满足DL/T801-2002要求.采用定子冷却水微碱处理系统后,定子冷却水水质明显改善:电导率0.1 μS/cm~0.8 μS/cm,pH值7.2~7.8,铜离子小于40μg/L.%Generator stator cooling water uses desalted water and condensate water as the water supply, when the operating mode of small mix-bed adding intermittent exchange water treatment, the pH value is often less than 7.0, the copper ion content is more than 40 μg/L, which can't meet the demand of DL/T801-2002, after using weak alkalization treatment in stator cooling water system, improves the quality of stator cooling water obviously: the conductance is 0.1 μS/cm~0.8μS/cm, the pH value is in 7.2~7.8, the copper ion content is less than 40 μg/L.

  18. Progress of the Water Cooling System for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Zhen-guo; WU; Long-cheng; LIU; Geng-guo

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to the general construction schedule of the BRIF project, the water cooling system for CYCIAE-100 has achieved a significant progress in 2012, its progress can be summarized as follows. 1) Inside wiring of 7 water distribution cabinets were completed. 2) Manufacturer selection of circulating water cooling unit and deionized water production equipment was decided after market survey and bidding process. The contracts were formally signed in February. The deionized water production equipment was ready in May and the circulating water cooling

  19. Process water - waste water - cooling water. Papers; Prozesswasser/Abwasser/Kuehlwasser. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liese, F. (comp.)

    2002-07-01

    The 39th Metallurgical Seminar focused on water. Modern technologies for water purification and treatment were presented, legal boundary conditions were discussed, and aspects of process water, waste water and cooling water were gone into. Although the boundaries between these three types of water cannot be clearly defined, materials recovery is the prevalent aspect in process water treatment while waste water treatment primarily aims at reducing pollutant concentrations so that both environmental aspects and technical quality standards will be met. This proceedings volume attempts to give its readers a more precise picture of the issues at hand by presenting fundamental research, ecological and legal specifications, and selected examples of industrial applications. [German] Das 39. Metallurgische Seminar beschaeftigt sich mit Wasser. Neben der Praesentation grundsaetzlicher, moderner Techniken zur Reinhaltung und Aufbereitung von Wasser sowie der Darstellung der gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen umspannen die Fachvortraege Beitraege zu den Themen Prozesswasser, Abwasser, Kuehlwasser. Wenn auch die Grenzen innerhalb dieser Begriffe teilweise fliessend sind, so zeichnen sich die Prozesswaesser dadurch aus, dass man primaer - wie beispielsweise bei Waschsloesungen und Beizwaessern - an der Wiedergewinnung der Inhaltsstoffe interessiert ist, waehrend bei reinen Abwaessern und Kuehlturmwaessern bzw. deren Abschlaemmungen die massgebliche Aufgabe darin besteht, die Konzentration der Inhaltsstoffe so weit abzusenken, dass man einerseits den Umwelterfordernissen und andererseits den technischen Qualitaetsanforderungen gerecht wird. Ziel dieses Bandes ist es, an Hand von Grundlagen, der Darstellung der oekologischen und behoerdlichen Erfordernisse sowie ausgewaehlter Fallbeispiele aus der Industrie den Leserkreis naeher an diese Thematik heranzufuehren. (orig.)

  20. Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Binay Kumar; Dey, Samarjit; Biswas, Saumya; Mohan, Varinder Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF) neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] - 9/10) with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. Bilateral water cooled = RF was applied for neuroablation of nerves supplying both SI joints. Postprocedure pain intensity was 5/10 and after 7 days it was 2/10. On 18(th)-month follow-up, he is pain free except for mild pain (NRS 2/10) on occasional extreme twisting of the back. This case attempts to highlight that sacral neuroablation based on cooled RF technique can be a long lasting remedial option for chronic SI joint pain unresponsive to conventional treatment.

  1. Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binay Kumar Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sacroiliac (SI joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] - 9/10 with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. Bilateral water cooled = RF was applied for neuroablation of nerves supplying both SI joints. Postprocedure pain intensity was 5/10 and after 7 days it was 2/10. On 18th-month follow-up, he is pain free except for mild pain (NRS 2/10 on occasional extreme twisting of the back. This case attempts to highlight that sacral neuroablation based on cooled RF technique can be a long lasting remedial option for chronic SI joint pain unresponsive to conventional treatment.

  2. Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Binay Kumar; Dey, Samarjit; Biswas, Saumya; Mohan, Varinder Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF) neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] – 9/10) with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. Bilateral water cooled = RF was applied for neuroablation of nerves supplying both SI joints. Postprocedure pain intensity was 5/10 and after 7 days it was 2/10. On 18th-month follow-up, he is pain free except for mild pain (NRS 2/10) on occasional extreme twisting of the back. This case attempts to highlight that sacral neuroablation based on cooled RF technique can be a long lasting remedial option for chronic SI joint pain unresponsive to conventional treatment. PMID:28096589

  3. Effect of Precipitable Water Vapor Amount on Radiative Cooling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingke; Zhao, Bin; Ao, Xianze; Pei, Gang

    2017-05-01

    A radiative cooler based on aluminum-evaporated polyvinyl-fluoride surface was employed to investigate the effect of precipitable water vapor amount on its radiative cooling performance. A mathematic model of steady heat transfer that considers the spectral radiant distribution of the sky, the transparent cover and the collecting surface was established. The results indicate that the amount of precipitable water vapor shows a remarkable and negative effect on radiative cooling performance of the radiative cooler. Both the temperature difference between the cooler and surroundings and the net radiative cooling power decrease as the precipitable water vapor amount increases. The net radiative cooling power drops by about 41.0% as the the precipitable water vapor amount changes from 1.0 cm to 7.0 cm. Besides, the radiative cooler shows better cooling performance in winter than in summer. The net radiative cooling power in summer of Hefei is about 82.2% of that in winter.

  4. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

    2010-02-01

    The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

  5. Cooling cows efficiently with sprinklers: Physiological responses to water spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennifer M; Schütz, Karin E; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2015-10-01

    Dairies in the United States commonly cool cattle with sprinklers mounted over the feed bunk that intermittently spray the cows' backs. These systems use potable water-an increasingly scarce resource--but there is little experimental evidence about how much is needed to cool cows or about droplet size, which is thought to affect hair coat penetration. Our objectives were to determine how sprinkler flow rate and droplet size affect physiological measures of heat load in a hot, dry climate, and to evaluate cooling effectiveness against water use. The treatments were an unsprayed control and 6 soaker nozzles that delivered four 3-min spray applications of 0.4, 1.3, or ≥ 4.5 L/min (with 2 droplet sizes within each flow rate) and resulting in 30 to 47% of spray directly wetting each cow. Data were collected from high-producing lactating Holsteins (n = 19) tested individually in ambient conditions (air temperature = 31.2 ± 3.8°C, mean ± standard deviation). Cows were restrained in headlocks for 1h and received 1 treatment/d for 3d each, with order of exposure balanced in a crossover design. When cows were not sprayed, physiological measures of heat load increased during the 1-h treatment. All measures responded rapidly to spray: skin temperature decreased during the first water application, and respiration rate and body temperature did so before the second. Droplet size had no effect on cooling, but flow rate affected several measures. At the end of 1h, 0.4 L/min resulted in lower respiration rate and skin temperature on directly sprayed body parts relative to the control but not baseline values, and body temperature increased to 0.2°C above baseline. When 1.3 or ≥ 4.5 L/min was applied, respiration rate was lower than the control and decreased relative to baseline, and body temperature stayed below baseline for at least 30 min after treatment ended. The treatment that best balanced cooling effectiveness against water usage was 1.3 L/min: although ≥ 4.5 L

  6. Detailed Design of Cooling Water System for Cold Neutron Source in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Soo; Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, S. I.; Lee, Y. S

    2007-04-15

    To make cold neutron, a cryogenic refrigerator is necessary to transform moderator into cryogenic state so, thermal neutron is changed into cold neutron through heat transfer with moderator. A cryogenic refrigerator mainly consists of two apparatus, a helium compressor and a cold box which needs supply of cooling water. Therefore, cooling water system is essential to operate of cryogenic refrigerator normally. This report is mainly focused on the detailed design of the cooling water system for the HANARO cold neutron source, and describes design requirement, calculation, specification of equipment and water treatment method.

  7. Detailed Design of Cooling Water System for Cold Neutron Source in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Soo; Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, S. I.; Lee, Y. S

    2007-04-15

    To make cold neutron, a cryogenic refrigerator is necessary to transform moderator into cryogenic state so, thermal neutron is changed into cold neutron through heat transfer with moderator. A cryogenic refrigerator mainly consists of two apparatus, a helium compressor and a cold box which needs supply of cooling water. Therefore, cooling water system is essential to operate of cryogenic refrigerator normally. This report is mainly focused on the detailed design of the cooling water system for the HANARO cold neutron source, and describes design requirement, calculation, specification of equipment and water treatment method.

  8. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water usage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Andres L.; Everett, Randy L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2010-09-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  9. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, Susan Jeanne; Ciferno, Jared

    2010-10-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  10. A heat dissipating model for water cooling garments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Kai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A water cooling garment is a functional clothing used to dissipate human body’s redundant energy in extravehicular environment or other hot environment. Its heat dissipating property greatly affects body’s heat balance. In this paper, a heat dissipating model for the water cooling garment is established and verified experimentally using the experimental thermal-manikin.

  11. Study on water cooled high conversion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochiai, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-12-01

    As a part of study on advanced reactors for the future, conceptual design of high conversion water cooled reactors is being studied, aiming at the contribution to nuclear fuel cycle by the LWR technology, since the utilization of LWRs will extend over a long period of time . We are studying on the reactor core concepts for BWR and PWR reactor systems. As for BWR system, three types of reactor cores are investigating for three different design goals; long operation period, high conversion ratio and high applicability for the existing BWR system. In all the cases, we have obtained a fair prospect of a large core concept with a capacity of 1,000 MWe class having negative void reactivity coefficient. This study is a part of JAERI-JAPCO (Japan Atomic Power Company) cooperative studies. Various kinds of conceptual designs will be created until the end of FY 1999. The designs will be checked and reviewed at that time, then experimental studies on the realization of the concepts will start with further design works from FY 2000. (author)

  12. Application of Heat Pump in Cooling Water System of HIRFL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator generates a lot of heat when it is working.It must be cooled by the circulating cooling water.Generally the heat was released to atimosphere by the cooling water tower.Because the heat energy is very huge(about 2M watts for HIRFL),it is big waste and the machine can’t be cooled to appropriate temperature when ambient temperature is high in summer.In order to solve the problems,the heat pump has been used

  13. Enhancing the performance of photovoltaic panels by water cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Moharram

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to minimize the amount of water and electrical energy needed for cooling of the solar panels, especially in hot arid regions, e.g., desert areas in Egypt. A cooling system has been developed based on water spraying of PV panels. A mathematical model has been used to determine when to start cooling of the PV panels as the temperature of the panels reaches the maximum allowable temperature (MAT. A cooling model has been developed to determine how long it takes to cool down the PV panels to its normal operating temperature, i.e., 35 °C, based on the proposed cooling system. Both models, the heating rate model and the cooling rate model, are validated experimentally. Based on the heating and cooling rate models, it is found that the PV panels yield the highest output energy if cooling of the panels starts when the temperature of the PV panels reaches a maximum allowable temperature (MAT of 45 °C. The MAT is a compromise temperature between the output energy from the PV panels and the energy needed for cooling.

  14. Naegleria fowleri in cooling waters of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerva, L.; Kasprzak, W.; Mazur, T.

    1982-01-01

    Six strains of nonvirulent and three strains of virulent variants of Naegleria fowleri amoebae were isolated from the examined cooling water samples from 9 power plants. The virulent variants were obtained solely from effluents discharged from power plants with a closed-circuit cooling N. fowleri was not detected outside the reach of the thermal pollution. A disinfection of out-flowing cooling water seems to be an unnecessary investment in our climate. Warm discharge water should under no conditions be used directly for sports and recreational purposes.

  15. Water Treatment Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  16. Technology for Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    There are approximately 500,000 water cooling towers in the United States, all of which must be kept clear of "scale" and corrosion and free of pollutants and bacteria. Electron Pure, Ltd. manufactures a hydro cooling tower conditioner as well as an automatic pool sanitizer. The pool sanitizer consists of two copper/silver electrodes placed in a chamber mounted in the pool's recirculation system. The tower conditioner combines the ionization system with a water conditioner, pump, centrifugal solids separator and timer. The system saves water, eliminates algae and operates maintenance and chemical free. The company has over 100 distributors in the U.S. as well as others in 20 foreign countries. The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  17. Cooling of gas turbines IX : cooling effects from use of ceramic coatings on water-cooled turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W Byron; Livingood, John N B

    1948-01-01

    The hottest part of a turbine blade is likely to be the trailing portion. When the blades are cooled and when water is used as the coolant, the cooling passages are placed as close as possible to the trailing edge in order to cool this portion. In some cases, however, the trailing portion of the blade is so narrow, for aerodynamic reasons, that water passages cannot be located very near the trailing edge. Because ceramic coatings offer the possibility of protection for the trailing part of such narrow blades, a theoretical study has been made of the cooling effect of a ceramic coating on: (1) the blade-metal temperature when the gas temperature is unchanged, and (2) the gas temperature when the metal temperature is unchanged. Comparison is also made between the changes in the blade or gas temperatures produced by ceramic coatings and the changes produced by moving the cooling passages nearer the trailing edge. This comparison was made to provide a standard for evaluating the gains obtainable with ceramic coatings as compared to those obtainable by constructing the turbine blade in such a manner that water passages could be located very near the trailing edge.

  18. Wastewater Treatment and Its Reuse as Circulating Cooling Water in Coking Plant%焦化厂废水处理及回用于循环冷却水的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁秀美

    2015-01-01

    以宁夏宝丰能源集团有限公司焦化废水处理及回用为例,说明采用“预处理+强化生物脱氮+深度处理”工艺处理焦化废水,出水达到《城市污水再生利用·工业用水水质》(GB/T19923—2005)敞开式循环冷却水系统补充水水质标准,回用于循环冷却水补充水,实现焦化废水资源化循环利用,节约水资源,保护水环境。%Taking coking wastewater treatment in Ningxia Baofeng Energy Group Co., Ltd as an example, it is proved that"pretreatment plus enhanced biological nitrogen removal plus advanced treatment" could make the wastewater become addi-tional water for the opening circulating cooling water system, which meets the standard of Reuse of Urban Recycling Wa-ter--Water Quality Standard for Industrial Use(GB/T19923-2005). This kind of process can realize coking wastewater recy-cling, save water resource and protect water environment.

  19. Desinfection of cooling towers and cooling water by UV-treatment on the example of a chemical company; Desinfektion von Kuehltuermen und Kuehlkreislaeufen durch UV-Behandlung am Beispiel eines Chemiebetriebs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuters, J.; Carbone, J. [Sadepan Chimica NV (Belgium); Daele, D. van (DVD Technology); Dams, S.; Weckenmann, J.; Soerensen, M. [a.c.k. aqua concept GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Using a Belgian adhesives manufacturer as example, it is shown how formation and growth of micro-organisms can adversely affect a modern manufacturing process. The problem lies not with the actual process solution, but in the cooling section. Installation of a suitably-configured UV reactor allowed long-term operation without any problems from micro-organisms. The outcome was a much more stable process at acceptable cost and with significantly lower volumes of solid waste. (orig.)

  20. Use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-16

    Freshwater demands are steadily increasing throughout the United States. As its population increases, more water is needed for domestic use (drinking, cooking, cleaning, etc.) and to supply power and food. In arid parts of the country, existing freshwater supplies are not able to meet the increasing demands for water. New water users are often forced to look to alternative sources of water to meet their needs. Over the past few years, utilities in many locations, including parts of the country not traditionally water-poor (e.g., Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina) have needed to reevaluate the availability of water to meet their cooling needs. This trend will only become more extreme with time. Other trends are likely to increase pressure on freshwater supplies, too. For example, as populations increase, they will require more food. This in turn will likely increase demands for water by the agricultural sector. Another example is the recent increased interest in producing biofuels. Additional water will be required to grow more crops to serve as the raw materials for biofuels and to process the raw materials into biofuels. This report provides information about an opportunity to reuse an abundant water source -- treated municipal wastewater, also known as 'reclaimed water' -- for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Innovations for Existing Plants research program (Feeley 2005). This program initiated an energy-water research effort in 2003 that includes the availability and use of 'nontraditional sources' of water for use at power plants. This report represents a unique reference for information on the use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling. In particular, the database of reclaimed water user facilities described in Chapter 2 is the first comprehensive national effort

  1. A data acquisition system for water heating and cooling experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea Martins, J. E. M.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a simple analogue waterproof temperature probe design and its electronic interfacing with a computer to compose a data acquisition system for water temperature measurement. It also demonstrates the system usage through an experiment to verify the water heating period with an electric heater and another to verify the Newton’s law of cooling

  2. Optimization of Scheme Systems for Recirculated Cooling Water Treatment Processes Applied with Analytic Hierachy Process (AHP)%应用层次分析法(AHP)筛选循环冷却水处理优化方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯长春; 金杰; 朱康生; 高庆华; 陈康; 周国光

    2011-01-01

    该文提出根据循环冷却水的系统情况,运行成本及环境影响等构造层次分析法(AHP)的模型,建立判断矩阵,筛选最优水处理方案,供用户决策使用.AHP的最优水处理配方的筛选系统大大节约了筛选配方所花费的时间及人工费用,加强了水处理系统运行管理的成本控制,为用户提供有效决策管理.%On basis of circulating cooling water system, operation cost and environmental impact and so on, an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model was constructed, which established judgment matrix and selected the optimal water treatment scheme for users to make decisions. The screening system based on AHP optimal water treatment formula greatly saved time and cost of screening formula, strengthened cost control of operation management, and provided users with effective decision-making management.

  3. Biofouling on Coated Carbon Steel in Cooling Water Cycles Using Brackish Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina Rajala

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Water cooling utilizing natural waters is typically used for cooling large industrial facilities such as power plants. The cooling water cycles are susceptible to biofouling and scaling, which may reduce heat transfer capacity and enhance corrosion. The performance of two fouling-release coatings combined with hypochlorite treatment were studied in a power plant utilizing brackish sea water from the Baltic Sea for cooling. The effect of hypochlorite as an antifouling biocide on material performance and species composition of microfouling formed on coated surfaces was studied during the summer and autumn. Microfouling on surfaces of the studied fouling-release coatings was intensive in the cooling water cycle during the warm summer months. As in most cases in a natural water environment the fouling consisted of both inorganic fouling and biofouling. Chlorination decreased the bacterial number on the surfaces by 10–1000 fold, but the efficacy depended on the coating. In addition to decreasing the bacterial number, the chlorination also changed the microbial species composition, forming the biofilm on the surfaces of two fouling-release coatings. TeknoTar coating was proven to be more efficient in combination with the hypochlorite treatment against microfouling under these experimental conditions.

  4. Low temperature heating and high temperature cooling embedded water based surface heating and cooling systems

    CERN Document Server

    Babiak, Jan; Petras, Dusan

    2009-01-01

    This Guidebook describes the systems that use water as heat-carrier and when the heat exchange within the conditioned space is more than 50% radiant. Embedded systems insulated from the main building structure (floor, wall and ceiling) are used in all types of buildings and work with heat carriers at low temperatures for heating and relatively high temperature for cooling.

  5. Forward osmosis applied to evaporative cooling make-up water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoll, Peter; Thompson, Neil; Gray, Victoria [Modern Water plc, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-15

    Modern Water is in the process of developing a number of forward osmosis based technologies, ranging from desalination to power generation. This paper outlines the progress made to date on the development and commercial deployment of a forward osmosis based process for the production of evaporative cooling tower make-up water from impaired water sources, including seawater. Evaporative cooling requires significant amounts of good quality water to replace the water lost by evaporation, drift and blowdown. This water can be provided by conventional desalination processes or by the use of tertiary treated sewage effluent. The conventional processes are well documented and understood in terms of operation and power consumption. A new process has been successfully developed and demonstrated that provides make-up water directly, using a core platform 'forward osmosis' technology. This new technology shows significant promise in allowing various raw water sources, such as seawater, to be used directly in the forward osmosis step, thus releasing the use of scarce and valuable high grade water for other more important uses. The paper presents theoretical and operational results for the process, where it is shown that the process can produce make-up water at a fraction of the operational expenditure when compared to conventional processes, in particular regarding power consumption, which in some cases may be as low as 15 % compared to competing processes. Chemical additives to the cooling water (osmotic agent) are retained within the process, thus reducing their overall consumption. Furthermore the chemistry of the cooling water does not support the growth of Legionella pneumophila. Corrosion results are also reported. (orig.)

  6. Mathematical model and calculation of water-cooling efficiency in a film-filled cooling tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptev, A. G.; Lapteva, E. A.

    2016-10-01

    Different approaches to simulation of momentum, mass, and energy transfer in packed beds are considered. The mathematical model of heat and mass transfer in a wetted packed bed for turbulent gas flow and laminar wave counter flow of the fluid film in sprinkler units of a water-cooling tower is presented. The packed bed is represented as the set of equivalent channels with correction to twisting. The idea put forward by P. Kapitsa on representation of waves on the interphase film surface as elements of the surface roughness in interaction with the gas flow is used. The temperature and moisture content profiles are found from the solution of differential equations of heat and mass transfer written for the equivalent channel with the volume heat and mass source. The equations for calculation of the average coefficients of heat emission and mass exchange in regular and irregular beds with different contact elements, as well as the expression for calculation of the average turbulent exchange coefficient are presented. The given formulas determine these coefficients for the known hydraulic resistance of the packed bed element. The results of solution of the system of equations are presented, and the water temperature profiles are shown for different sprinkler units in industrial water-cooling towers. The comparison with experimental data on thermal efficiency of the cooling tower is made; this allows one to determine the temperature of the cooled water at the output. The technical solutions on increasing the cooling tower performance by equalization of the air velocity profile at the input and creation of an additional phase contact region using irregular elements "Inzhekhim" are considered.

  7. Water-Cooled Components Testing Program. Water-cooled nozzle testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-05-01

    This experimental program involving full-sized gas turbine components was directed towards investigating the nature, composition, and formation rates of the ash deposited on these components by the combustion of hot, minimally cleaned coal gas (MCCG) under actual operating environments. Fired combustion testing was performed using the hot coal gas generated by the fixed-bed coal gasifier in the GE/CRD Process Evaluation Facility (PEF). The hot gas was routed from the gasifier at approx.1000/sup 0/F to a hot cyclone for particulate removal, following which the gas was burned in the turbine simulator, a pressurized test rig. The cyclone was found to have an average particulate removal efficiency of approximately 98%. The concentration of total alkali in the fuel gas entering the turbine simulator was 0.3 to 0.6 ppM, half of which was water-soluble; this corresponds to 1 to 2 ppM in a liquid petroleum-based fuel. The ash content of the fuel gas was 9 to 16 ppM, which would correspond to 51 to 91 ppM of ash in a residual fuel oil, i.e., much lower than that usually found in the latter fuel. Very little ash was found to deposit on the water-cooled nozzle airfoils. Ash deposits on the airfoils were primarily PbSO/sub 4/ and Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, which proved to be readily removed by water washing. While the MCCG combustion process was satisfactory, testing indicated that a potential area of concern in burning hot MCCG fuel is the formation of carbonaceous deposits in the fuel nozzle and piping. Variations in operating parameters and procedures may be effective in avoiding such deposits. Test data and analysis thus provided clearer insight into the additional work needed to enable a gas turbine to utilize hot (>1000/sup 0/F), minimally cleaned coal gas fuel. Five problems are described. 5 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  8. Increasing photovoltaic panel power through water cooling technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calebe Abrenhosa Matias

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a cooling apparatus using water in a commercial photovoltaic panel in order to analyze the increased efficiency through decreased operating temperature. The system enables the application of reuse water flow, at ambient temperature, on the front surface of PV panel and is composed of an inclined plane support, a perforated aluminum profile and a water gutter. A luminaire was specially developed to simulate the solar radiation over the module under test in a closed room, free from the influence of external climatic conditions, to carry out the repetition of the experiment in controlled situations. The panel was submitted to different rates of water flow. The best water flow rate was of 0.6 L/min and net energy of 77.41Wh. Gain of 22.69% compared to the panel without the cooling system.

  9. Guided design of heating and cooling mains for lower water and energy consumption and increased efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling towers efficiency. This indicates the importance of the system structure, the possibility of mixing of heating or cooling water; recycling and reuse of heating...

  10. Geographic, technologic, and economic analysis of using reclaimed water for thermoelectric power plant cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Webber, Michael E

    2014-04-15

    Use of reclaimed water-municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent-in nonpotable applications can be a sustainable and efficient water management strategy. One such nonpotable application is at thermoelectric power plants since these facilities require cooling, often using large volumes of freshwater. To evaluate the geographic, technologic, and economic feasibility of using reclaimed water to cool thermoelectric power plants, we developed a spatially resolved model of existing power plants. Our model integrates data on power plant and municipal wastewater treatment plant operations into a combined geographic information systems and optimization approach to evaluate the feasibility of cooling system retrofits. We applied this broadly applicable methodology to 125 power plants in Texas as a test case. Results show that sufficient reclaimed water resources exist within 25 miles of 92 power plants (representing 61% of capacity and 50% of generation in our sample), with most of these facilities meeting both short-term and long-term water conservation cost goals. This retrofit analysis indicates that reclaimed water could be a suitable cooling water source for thermoelectric power plants, thereby mitigating some of the freshwater impacts of electricity generation.

  11. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

    2013-09-30

    ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetland’s ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

  12. Complex cooling water systems optimization with pressure drop consideration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pressure drop consideration has shown to be an essential requirement for the synthesis of a cooling water network where reuse/recycle philosophy is employed. This is due to an increased network pressure drop associated with additional reuse...

  13. Computational Simulation of a Water-Cooled Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozarth, Duane

    2008-01-01

    A Fortran-language computer program for simulating the operation of a water-cooled vapor-compression heat pump in any orientation with respect to gravity has been developed by modifying a prior general-purpose heat-pump design code used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  14. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  15. Laboratory study on the cooling effect of flash water evaporative cooling technology for ventilation and air-conditioning of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Yuan, Shu; Yang, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a simple cooling technology using flash water evaporation. The technology combines a water atomizer with a plate heat exchanger used for heat recovery of a ventilation system. It is mainly used to cool the ventilation airflow from outdoors and is particularly suitable to be used...... in warm/hot and dry environment where dehumidification of outdoor air is not needed. A laboratory experiment was designed and conducted to evaluate the cooling effectiveness of this technology. The experiment was conducted in a twin-climate chamber. One chamber simulated warm/hot and dry outdoor...... environments and the other simulated an air-conditioned indoor environment. The flash water evaporation cooling device was installed in the chamber that simulated indoor environment. The air from the chamber simulating outdoor environment was introduced into the cooling device and cooled by the flash water...

  16. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  17. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water

  18. Modeling and energy simulation of the variable refrigerant flow air conditioning system with water-cooled condenser under cooling conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yueming; Wu, Jingyi [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics (China); Shiochi, Sumio [Daikin Industries Ltd. (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    As a new system, variable refrigerant flow system with water-cooled condenser (water-cooled VRF) can offer several interesting characteristics for potential users. However, at present, its dynamic simulation simultaneously in association with building and other equipments is not yet included in the energy simulation programs. Based on the EnergyPlus's codes, and using manufacturer's performance parameters and data, the special simulation module for water-cooled VRF is developed and embedded in the software of EnergyPlus. After modeling and testing the new module, on the basis of a typical office building in Shanghai with water-cooled VRF system, the monthly and seasonal cooling energy consumption and the breakdown of the total power consumption are analyzed. The simulation results show that, during the whole cooling period, the fan-coil plus fresh air (FPFA) system consumes about 20% more power than the water-cooled VRF system does. The power comparison between the water-cooled VRF system and the air-cooled VRF system is performed too. All of these can provide designers some ideas to analyze the energy features of this new system and then to determine a better scheme of the air conditioning system. (author)

  19. Corrosion induced clogging and plugging in water-cooled generator cooling circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, B.G.; Hwang, I.S. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, I.H. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Soonchunhyang Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.T.; Chung, H.S. [Korea Electric Power Research Inst. (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Water-cooled electrical generators have been experienced corrosion-related problems that are restriction of flow through water strainers caused by collection of excessive amounts of copper corrosion products (''clogging''), and restriction of flow through the copper strands in the stator bars caused by growth or deposition of corrosion products on the walls of the hollow strands (''plugging''). These phenomena result in unscheduled shutdowns that would be a major concern because of the associated loss in generating capacity. Water-cooled generators are operated in one of two modes. They are cooled either with aerated water (dissolved oxygen >2 ppm) or with deaerated water (dissolved oxygen <50 ppb). Both modes maintain corrosion rates at satisfactorily low levels as long as the correct oxygen concentrations are maintained. However, it is generally believed that very much higher copper corrosion rates result at the intermediate oxygen concentrations of 100-1000 ppb. Clogging and plugging are thought to be associated with these intermediate concentrations, and many operators have suggested that the period of change from high-to-low or from low-to-high oxygen concentration is particularly damaging. In order to understand the detailed mechanism(s) of the copper oxide formation, release and deposition and to identify susceptible conditions in the domain of operating variables, a large-scale experiments are conducted using six hollow strands of full length connected with physico-chemically scaled generator cooling water circuit. To ensure a close simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions in a generator stator, strands of the loop will be ohmically heated using AC power supply. Experiments is conducted to cover oxygen excursions in both high dissolved oxygen and low dissolved oxygen conditions that correspond to two representative operating condition at fields. A thermal upset condition is also simulated to examine the impact of

  20. Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF) neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] - 9/10) with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. ...

  1. Conceptual design of a water cooled breeder blanket for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Songlin, E-mail: slliu@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Pu, Yong; Cheng, Xiaoman [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Jia; Peng, ChangHong [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Ma, Xuebing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Chen, Lei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We proposed a water cooled ceramic breeder blanket with superheated steam. • Superheated steam is generated at the first wall and the front part of breeder zone. • Superheated steam has negligible impact on neutron absorption by coolant in FW and improves TBR. • The superheated steam at higher temperature can improve thermal efficiency. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is an ITER-like superconducting tokamak reactor. Its major radius is 5.7 m, minor radius is 1.6 m and elongation ratio is 1.8. Its mission is to achieve 50–200 MW of fusion power, 30–50% of duty time factor, and tritium breeding ratio not less than 1.2 to ensure the self-sufficiency. As one of the breeding blanket candidates for CFETR, a water cooled breeder blanket with superheated steam is proposed and its conceptual design is being carried out. In this design, sub-cooling water at 265 °C under the pressure of 7 MPa is fed into cooling plates in breeding zone and is heated up to 285 °C with saturated steam generated, and then this steam is pre-superheated up to 310 °C in first wall (FW), final, the pre-superheated steam coming from several blankets is fed into the other one blanket to superheat again up to 517 °C. Due to low density of superheated steam, it has negligible impact on neutron absorption by coolant in FW so that the high energy neutrons entering into breeder zone moderated by water in cooling plate help enhance tritium breeding by {sup 6}Li(n,α)T reaction. Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles and Be{sub 12}Ti pebbles are chosen as tritium breeder and neutron multiplier respectively, because Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Be{sub 12}Ti are expected to have better chemical stability and compatibility with water in high temperature. However, Be{sub 12}Ti may lead to a reduction in tritium breeding ratio (TBR). Furthermore, a spot of sintered Be plate is used to improve neutron multiplying capacity in a multi-layer structure. As one alternative option

  2. Treatment of waste water from recirculating cooling system in LNG plant using electrodialysis technology%电渗析技术处理 LN G 工厂循环冷却系统排污水研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 童富良; 王滟; 杨晓娇

    2014-01-01

    waste water from recirculating cooling system in Hubei LNG plant amounts up to 1 200 m3 per day .Direct discharge would not only cause the waste of water resource ,but also bring large impact to the operation of the downstream sewage treatment plants .In order to pro‐mote the recycling rate ,a “multi‐stage continuous electrodialysis desalination system” was de‐signed to treat the waste water for reusing .According to the design calculation ,the flow veloci‐ty ,the overall desalination rate ,the conductivity of the treated water were set at 5 .0 cm/s ,75%~80% ,and 300~350 μs/cm respectively in 50 m3/h electrodialysis system .The debugging re‐sults showed that the optimum operating voltage was 110 V ,the most suitable flow rate was 50 m3/h ,and the treated water from the electrodialysis system could meet all the design require‐ments .The process can reduce the fresh water consumption and waste water discharge by 300 000 tons per year respectively ,and bring direct economic benefit of about RMB 600 000 yuan each year .%湖北L N G工厂循环冷却水系统每日排污量高达1200 m3,直接排放不仅造成水资源的浪费,同时对下游污水处理厂的运行产生较大冲击。为提高该部分废水的重复利用率,设计采用“多级连续式电渗析除盐系统”对其进行脱盐处理后回用于循环水系统。经计算,50 m3/h的电渗析装置设计流速采用 V =5.0 cm/s ,设计总脱盐率ε=75%~80%,产水电导率300~350μs/cm。装置建成后调试结果表明,最佳操作电压为110 V ,最适宜进水流量为50 m3/h ,产水各项指标满足预期设计要求。每年可减少新鲜水消耗和废水排放各30×104 t ,产生直接经济效益约60万元。

  3. Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

    2006-06-30

    Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to

  4. USE of mine pool water for power plant cooling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Kupar, J. M .; Puder, M. G.

    2006-11-27

    Water and energy production issues intersect in numerous ways. Water is produced along with oil and gas, water runs off of or accumulates in coal mines, and water is needed to operate steam electric power plants and hydropower generating facilities. However, water and energy are often not in the proper balance. For example, even if water is available in sufficient quantities, it may not have the physical and chemical characteristics suitable for energy or other uses. This report provides preliminary information about an opportunity to reuse an overabundant water source--ground water accumulated in underground coal mines--for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which has implemented a water/energy research program (Feeley and Ramezan 2003). Among the topics studied under that program is the availability and use of ''non-traditional sources'' of water for use at power plants. This report supports NETL's water/energy research program.

  5. Effect of cooling water on stability of NLC linac components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Le Pimpec et al.

    2003-02-11

    Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.

  6. Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Michael; Anderson, Mark; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2013-01-16

    This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF SINGLE-PHASED WATER-COOLING RADIATOR FOR COMPUTER CHIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Ping; CHENG Guangming; LIU Jiulong; YANG Zhigang; SUN Xiaofeng; PENG Taijiang

    2007-01-01

    In order to cool computer chip efficiently with the least noise, a single phase water-cooling radiator for computer chip driven by piezoelectric pump with two parallel-connection chambers is developed. The structure and work principle of this radiator is described. Material, processing method and design principles of whole radiator are also explained. Finite element analysis (FEA) software,ANSYS, is used to simulate the heat distribution in the radiator. Testing equipments for water-cooling radiator are also listed. By experimental tests, influences of flowrate inside the cooling system and fan on chip cooling are explicated. This water-cooling radiator is proved more efficient than current air-cooling radiator with comparison experiments. During cooling the heater which simulates the working of computer chip with different power, the water-cooling radiator needs shorter time to reach lower steady temperatures than current air-cooling radiator.

  8. Investigation of the Use of Absorption Cooling Cycles to Reduce the Amount of Cooling Water Needed for Power Plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, Bobby D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report outlines a preliminary study on the feasibility of using absorption cooling technology to cool thermoelectric power plants. Water availability is becoming more important in the production of energy throughout the world, especially in thermoelectric power generation. Currently, thermoelectric power generation accounts for about 48% of all water withdrawals in the United States. Rising population, increasing e lectricity use per capita, and decreasing water reserves threaten the availability of water for use in cooling power plants. To this end, Sandia National Laboratories has begun an initiative to find ways to increase the water use efficiency of power plants . In 2016, the New Mexico Small Business Association funded a project whereby Sandia would complete a preliminary assessment of the viability of utilizing absorption cooling technologies to aid in cooling thermoelectric power plants, thereby decreasing the amount of water required to generate electricity. This project was proposed by Thales Energy, a small business located in Albuquerque, NM. Due to time and money constraints, only a preliminary analysis was performed. The results indicate that the use of a bsorption cooling technologies is scientifically feasible and that, with more engineering analysis, may be economically feasible for some power plants, dependent upon local environmental conditions and the price currently being paid for cooling water by th e plant.

  9. 77 FR 36014 - Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear...-1277, ``Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling- Water Reactors.'' This... testing features of emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) for boiling-water reactors (BWRs). DATES...

  10. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG), 1.68, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants... Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer...

  11. Experimental validation of the simulation module of the water-cooled variable refrigerant flow system under cooling operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yue Ming; Wu, Jing Yi [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Shiochi, Sumio [Daikin Industries, Ltd., 1304 Kanaoka-cho, Kita-ku, Sakai, Osaka 591-8511 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    On the basis of EnergyPlus's codes, the catalogue and performance parameters from some related companies, a special simulation module for variable refrigerant flow system with a water-cooled condenser (water-cooled VRF) was developed and embedded in the software of EnergyPlus, the building energy simulation program. To evaluate the energy performance of the system and the accuracy of the simulation module, the measurement of the water-cooled VRF is built in Dalian, China. After simulation and comparison, some conclusions can be drawn. The mean of the absolute value of the daily error in the 9 days is 11.3% for cooling capacity while the one for compressor power is 15.7%. At the same time, the accuracy of the power simulation strongly depends on the accuracy of the cooling capacity simulation. (author)

  12. Numerically Analysed Thermal Condition of Hearth Rollers with the Water-Cooled Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous furnaces with roller hearth have wide application in the steel industry. Typically, furnaces with roller hearth belong to the class of medium-temperature heat treatment furnaces, but can be used to heat the billets for rolling. In this case, the furnaces belong to the class of high temperature heating furnaces, and their efficiency depends significantly on the reliability of the roller hearth furnace. In the high temperature heating furnaces are used three types of watercooled shaft rollers, namely rollers without insulation, rollers with insulating screens placed between the barrel and the shaft, and rollers with bulk insulation. The definition of the operating conditions of rollers with water-cooled shaft greatly facilitates the choice of their design parameters when designing. In this regard, at the design stage of the furnace with roller hearth, it is important to have information about the temperature distribution in the body of the rollers at various operating conditions. The article presents the research results of the temperature field of the hearth rollers of metallurgical heating furnaces. Modeling of stationary heat exchange between the oven atmosphere and a surface of rollers, and between the cooling water and shaft was executed by finite elements method. Temperature fields in the water-cooled shaft rollers of various designs are explored. The water-cooled shaft rollers without isolation, rollers with screen and rollers with bulk insulation, placed between the barrel and the water-cooled shaft were investigated. Determined the change of the thermo-physic parameters of the coolant, the temperature change of water when flowing in a pipe and shaft, as well as the desired pressure to supply water with a specified flow rate. Heat transfer coefficients between the cooling water and the shaft were determined directly during the solution based on the specified boundary conditions. Found that the greatest heat losses occur in the

  13. Cooling Rate Study of Nickel-Rich Material During Thermal Treatment and Quench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Fransua; Murguia, Silvia Briseno (Editor)

    2016-01-01

    To investigate quench cracking that results from water quenching after heat treatment of binary and Ni-rich material, cooling rates of specimens were measured during quenching and hardness post-thermal treatment. For specific applications binary Ni-Ti is customarily thermally treated and quenched to attain desired mechanical properties and hardness. However, one problem emerging from this method is thermal cracking, either during the heat treatment process or during the specimen's application. This can result in material and equipment failure as well as financial losses. The objective of the study is to investigate the internal cooling rate of 60-NiTi during quenching and determine possible factors causing thermal cracking. Cubic (1 in.3) samples of both material were heat treated in air at 1000 deg C for 2 hrs and quenched in room temperature water using two methods: (1) dropped in the water and (2) agitated in the water. Hardness of the two fore-mentioned methods was measured post heat treatment. Results indicate that the quenching method had an effect on cooling rate during quenching but hardness was observed to be essentially the same through the thickness of the samples.

  14. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  15. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  16. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  17. Water Treatment Technology - Flouridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on flouridation provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of flouridation, correct…

  18. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  19. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  20. Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

  1. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water

  2. 电吸附技术在循环冷却水系统排污水处理中的应用%Application of electrosorb technology in treatment of sewage discharged from circulating cooling water system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永辉

    2012-01-01

    采用电吸附除盐技术,对循环冷却水系统排污水进行除盐效果中试研究.试验表明电吸附技术对电导率的平均去除率为76.3%,产水率为76.1%,对氯离子、钙离子都有良好的去除效果,产水水质能够达到循环冷却水系统补充水的要求.%Electrosorb technology was used to treat sewage discharged from circulating cooling water system, and its desalination performance was studied through a pilot scale test. The results of the test showed that, using electrosorb technology to treat the said kind of sewage, the average removal rate of conductivity reached 76.3%, the water production rate was 76.1%, the removal rates of chlorine ion and calcium ion were both satisfactory, and the produced water quality could meet the specification for make—up water of circulating cooling water system.

  3. Performance characteristics in hydrodynamic water cooled thrust bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad Najar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of the influence on performance characteristics of a thrust bearing with the introduction of cooling circuit and flow velocity of coolant within the designed thrust bearings is described. New method of cooling circuit configuration is taken into consideration and water has been chosen as a coolant here in the present work. Flow velocity of coolant, ranging from 0.5m/s to 2.0m/s is proposed. The Finite difference based numerical model has been developed in order to notice the effect on the heat transfer on a large hydrodynamic lubrication thrust bearing in-terms of its performance characteristics. In the present work, the solution of Reynolds equation, an energy equation with viscosity variation and Fourier heat conduction equations, applied with appropriate boundary conditions. From the present investigation, it is observed significant amount of heat content is removed from the bearing with the increase of flow velocity of coolant in an embedded cooling duct within the pad. An important parameter among performance characteristics has prevailed a significant increase in hydrodynamic pressure generation which in turn subsequently increases the load carrying capacity which has been never ever documented in the background literature.

  4. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  5. 多氨基多醚基亚甲基膦酸(PAPEMP)在乙烯生产循环冷却水处理中的应用%Application of Polyamino Polyether Methylene Phosphonate (PAPEMP) in Recirculated Cooling Water Treatment System for Ethylene Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋毅章; 季淑浥; 赵士峰

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic simulation test using polyamino polyether methylene phosphonate (PAPEMP ) scheme and phosphonate zinc scheme in recirculated cooling water treatment system for ethylene production were introduced. In ethylene plant cooling water system, PAPEMP treatment scheme substitutes for phosphonate zinc treatment scheme, which can obtain satisfactory corrosion protection and scale control under condition of heat transfer quantity and concentration ratio improved. Hie PAPEMP treatment scheme reduces chemical cleaning of recirculated cooling water system, which means the ethylene equipment can operate chronically and stably.%介绍了多氨基多醚基亚甲基膦酸(PAPEMP)处理方案与膦酸盐/锌盐处理方案在乙烯生产循环冷却水处理中的动态试验.在乙烯生产装置循环水系统,使用PAPEMP处理方案代替膦酸盐/锌盐处理方案,在热负荷增加及高浓缩倍数等苛刻条件下系统腐蚀和结垢控制良好.PAPEMP方案减少循环水系统的清洗次数,满足了乙烯装置长周期稳定运行的要求.

  6. Applicability of a desiccant dew-point cooling system independent of external water sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of a technical solution for making desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources is investigated. Water is produced by condensing the desorbed water vapour in a closed regeneration circuit. Desorbed water recovery is applied to a desiccant dew-point cooling...

  7. Experimental study of the decrease in the temperature of an air/water-cooled turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, A. A.; Sereda, A. V.; Shaiakberov, V. F.; Iskakov, K. M.; Shatalov, Iu. S.

    Results of the full-scale testing of an air/water-cooled deflector-type turbine blade are reported. Data on the decrease in the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade are presented and compared with the calculated values. An analysis of the results indicates that the use of air/water cooling makes it possible to significantly reduce the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade with practically no increase in the engine weight and dimensions.

  8. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Zacarias, A. [ESIME UPA, IPN, Av. de las Granjas 682, Col. Santa Catarina, 02550, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  9. Dechlorination Technology Manual. Final report. [Utility cooling water discharge systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschoff, A.F.; Chiesa, R.J.; Jacobs, M.H.; Lee, Y.H.; Mehta, S.C.; Meko, A.C.; Musil, R.R.; Sopocy, D.M.; Wilson, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    On November 19, 1982, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated regulations severely restricting chlorination practices as they relate to utility cooling water discharge systems. EPRI authorized the preparation of a manual on dechlorination technology to assist utilities in evaluating the various alternatives available to them to meet these new requirements. The Dechlorination Technology Manual emphasizes the engineering aspects involved in the selection and design of dechlorination systems. However, background information is included concerning chemistry, regulatory requirements, environmental considerations and aquatic impacts. There is also a brief discussion of the various alternatives to dechlorination. Case studies are given to acquaint the user with the use of the manual for the design of chlorination facilities given various site-related characteristics, such as salt versus fresh waters. Numerous graphs and tables are presented to facilitate the selection and design process. 207 references, 66 figures, 60 tables.

  10. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes.

  11. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes. PMID:26201073

  12. Development of a water-mist cooling system: A 12,500 Kcal/h air-cooled chiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Neng Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and energy exhaustion problems are becoming a severe problems, of which energy conservation and carbon reduction are the most critical. Between 40% and 48% of the total electricity used in a building is consumed by air conditioning systems. The development of a supersonic water-misting cooling system with a fuzzy control system is proposed to optimize existing condenser noise, space, and energy consumption, as well as to address problems with cooling capacity resulting from improper control between compressors and condensers. An experimental platform was established for conducting tests, observing cooling efficiencies, and calculating power saving statuses. Comparing the observed cooling efficiency, a temperature difference of 5.4 °C was determined before and after the application; this is significant regarding efficiency. The method produces no pollution or water accumulation. When compared with fixed frequency air-cooled water chillers, an exceptional energy saving of 25% was observed. The newly developed supersonic mist-cooled chiller is an excellent solution to increasing water and electricity fees.

  13. A new approach for water treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Principe, R

    1999-01-01

    A quantity of up to 4000 m3/h of water is used at CERN for cooling purposes: experiments, magnets and radio frequency cavities are refrigerated by closed circuits filled with deionized water; other utilities, such as air-conditioning, use chilled/hot water, also in closed circuits. All these methods all employ a cold source, the primary supply of water, coming from the cooling towers. About 500 kCHF are spent every year on water treatment in order to keep the water within these networks in operational conditions. In the line of further rationalization of resources, the next generation of contracts with the water treatment industry will aim for improved performance and better monitoring of quality related parameters in this context. The author will provide a concise report based upon an examination of the state of the installations and of the philosophy followed up until now for water treatment. Furthermore, he/she will propose a new approach from both a technical and contractual point of view, in preparation ...

  14. Study of using microfiltration and reverse osmosis membrane technologies for reclaiming cooling water in the power industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Xu, Z Y; An, H G; Liu, L Q

    2007-07-01

    A study of using dual membrane technologies, microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO), for reclaiming blowdown of the cooling tower was conducted at ZJK power plant, Hebei province, China. The study shows that the combined MF-RO system can effectively reduce water consumption in the power industry. The results indicate that MF process is capable of producing a filtrate suitable for RO treatment and achieving a silt density index (SDI) less than 2, turbidity of 0.2 NTU. The water quality of RO effluent is very good with an average conductivity of about 40 micros/cm and rejection of 98%. The product water is suitable for injection into the cooling tower to counteract with cooling water intrusion. After adopting this system, water-saving effectiveness as expressed in terms of cycles of concentration could be increased from 2.5-2.8 times to 5 times.

  15. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

  16. Basic Water Treatment Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce the fundamentals of water treatment plant operations. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the fourteen lessons in this document has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that…

  17. Electrocoagulation in Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Xu; Qu, Jiuhui

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water where sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminum or iron cations) into solution. At the cathode, gas evolves (usually as hydrogen bubbles) accompanying electrolytic reactions. EC needs simple equipments and is designable for virtually any size. It is cost effective and easily operable. Specially, the recent technical improvements combined with a growing need for small-scale water treatment facilities have led to a revaluation of EC. In this chapter, the basic principle of EC was introduced first. Following that, reactions at the electrodes and electrode assignment were reviewed; electrode passivation process and activation method were presented; comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was performed; typical design of the EC reactors was also described; and factors affecting electrocoagulation including current density, effect of conductivity, temperature, and pH were introduced in details. Finally, application of EC in water treatment was given in details.

  18. Superheated Water-Cooled Small Modular Underwater Reactor Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Shirvan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel fully passive small modular superheated water reactor (SWR for underwater deployment is designed to produce 160 MWe with steam at 500ºC to increase the thermodynamic efficiency compared with standard light water reactors. The SWR design is based on a conceptual 400-MWe integral SWR using the internally and externally cooled annular fuel (IXAF. The coolant boils in the external channels throughout the core to approximately the same quality as a conventional boiling water reactor and then the steam, instead of exiting the reactor pressure vessel, turns around and flows downward in the central channel of some IXAF fuel rods within each assembly and then flows upward through the rest of the IXAF pins in the assembly and exits the reactor pressure vessel as superheated steam. In this study, new cladding material to withstand high temperature steam in addition to the fuel mechanical and safety behavior is investigated. The steam temperature was found to depend on the thermal and mechanical characteristics of the fuel. The SWR showed a very different transient behavior compared with a boiling water reactor. The inter-play between the inner and outer channels of the IXAF was mainly beneficial except in the case of sudden reactivity insertion transients where additional control consideration is required.

  19. Effect of Mixed Corrosion Inhibitors in Cooling Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Raheem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mixed corrosion inhibitors in cooling system was evaluated by using carbon steel specimens and weight loss analysis. The carbon steel specimens immersed in mixture of sodium phosphate (Na2 HPO4 used as corrosion inhibitor and sodium glocunate (C6 H11 NaO7 as a scale dispersant at different concentrations (20,40, 60, 80 ppm and at different temperature (25,50,75 and 100ºC for (1-5 days. The corrosion inhibitors efficiency was calculated by using uninhibited and inhibited water to give 98.1%. The result of these investigations indicate that the corrosion rate decreases with the increase the corrosion inhibitors concentration at 80 ppm and at 100ºC for 5 days, (i.e, corrosion rate= 0.014gmd.

  20. Study of the Al-Si-X system by different cooling rates and heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Suarez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The solidification behavior of the Al-12.6% Si (A1, the hypereutectic Al-20%Si (A2 and the Al-20%Si-1.5% Fe-0.5%Mn (A3 (in wt. (% alloys, at different cooling rates is reported and discussed. The cooling rates ranged between 0.93 °C/s and 190 °C/s when cast in sand and copper wedge-shaped molds, respectively. A spheroidization heat treatment was carried out to the alloys in the as-cast condition at 540 °C for 11 hours and quench in water with a subsequent heat treatment at 170 °C for 5 hours with the purpose of improving the mechanical properties. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mechanically by tensile test, in order to evaluate the response of the heat treatment on the different starting microstructures and mechanical properties. It was found that alloys cooled at rates greater than 10.8 °C/s had a smaller particle size and better distribution, also showed a greater response to spheroidization heat treatment of all silicon (Si phases. The spheroidization heat treatment caused an increase in the ultimate tensile stress (UTS and elongation when compared with the alloys in the as-cast condition. The highest UTS value of 174 MPa was obtained for the (A1 alloy.

  1. Overview of Cooling Water System for the KSTAR 1{sup st} Plasma Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. J.; Kim, S. T.; Im, D. S.; Joung, N. Y.; Kim, Y. S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The KSTAR cooling water system (CWS) consists of a primary cooling water system (PCWS), a secondary cooling water system (SCWS), and a de-mineralizing and de-ionized water system (DIWS). The PCWS cooling loops have been made for the poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) magnet power supplies (MPS), vacuum vessel (VV), electron cyclotron heating (ECH), ion cyclotron heating (ICRH), vacuum pumps, diagnostics, helium facility, etc. The CWS had been done individual commissioning of each system to confirm the design specifications by the end of 2006 and had gradually begun operation for the KSTAR ancillary devices by March 2008.

  2. Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease from a cooling water system in a power station (Heysham)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, S.; Dyer, J.V.; Bartlett, C.L.R.; Bibby, L.F.; Hutchinson, D.N.; Dennis, P.J.

    1986-09-01

    In September and October 1981 six cases of pneumonia occurred among men working in a power station under construction. Three were identified as cases of legionella pneumonia and two others had serology suggestive of legionella infection. In a sample of 92 men from the site 10 had low levels of antibodies to legionella; a similar sample of men working on an adjacent site showed none with positive serology. In a case control study it was found that cases of pneumonia were more likely than controls to have worked on a part of the site where four small capacity cooling towers were located. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the water systems of these four towers but was not found in samples from any other cooling towers or hot or cold water outlets on the site. It would appear that there was airborne spread of the organism from these cooling water systems which had not received conventional treatment to inhibit corrosion and organic growth. This is the first outbreak of legionnaires' disease to be recorded in an industrial setting in the United Kingdom. No cases of legionella infection have occurred on the site since the introduction of control measures.

  3. Development of the water cooled lithium lead blanket for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, J., E-mail: julien.aubert@cea.fr [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Aiello, G.; Jonquères, N. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Li Puma, A. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SERMA/LPEC, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Morin, A.; Rampal, G. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The WCLL blanket design has been modified to adapt it to the 2012 EFDA DEMO specifications. • Preliminary CAD design of the equatorial outboard module of the WCLL blanket has been developed for DEMO. • Finite elements analyses have been carried out in order to assess the module thermal behavior in the straight part of the module. - Abstract: The water cooled lithium lead (WCLL) blanket, based on near-future technology requiring small extrapolation from present-day knowledge both on physical and technological aspect, is one of the breeding blanket concepts considered as possible candidates for the EU DEMOnstration power plant. In 2012, the EFDA agency issued new specifications for DEMO: this paper describes the work performed to adapt the WCLL blanket design to those specifications. Relatively small modules with straight surfaces are attached to a common Back Supporting Structure housing feeding pipes. Each module features reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel as structural material, liquid Lithium-Lead as breeder, neutron multiplier and carrier. Water at typical Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) conditions is chosen as coolant. A preliminary design of the equatorial outboard module has been achieved. Finite elements analyses have been carried out in order to assess the module thermal behavior. Two First Wall (FW) concepts have been proposed, one favoring the thermal efficiency, the other favoring the manufacturability. The Breeding Zone has been designed with C-shaped Double-Walled Tubes in order to minimize the Water/Pb-15.7Li interaction likelihood. The priorities for further development of the WCLL blanket concept are identified in the paper.

  4. Treatment of Recirculating Cooling Water by Ion-exchange Micro-alkalizing Process for Approach Zero-discharge%循环冷却水离子交换微碱化趋零排放处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾惠明; 徐天有; 范蕊; 叶金华

    2015-01-01

    研究了趋零排放的敞开式循环冷却水离子交换微碱化处理工艺。小试和中试结果表明,铁质换热器选用强酸RNa型与强碱RHCO3型树脂串联工艺,黄铜换热器选用弱酸RH型、强酸RH型及弱碱ROH树脂串联,末端加入NaOH的处理工艺进行补水。可实现敞开式循环冷却水系统稳定运行和趋零排放,钙镁离子等结垢阳离子,氯根等加速金属腐蚀的阴离子被清除,系统中水质pH和碱度均可控, pH为8.0~9.5之间,碱度为6.0~12.0 mmol/L之间,可延缓金属腐蚀。%The process of the recirculating cooling water micro-alkalizing by ion-exchange resin was studied, which can approach zero discharge of waste water. The bench test and the pilot result indicated that, the heat exchanger made out of iron used the series connection process between RNa resin and RHCO3 resin with the makeup water treating. And the heat exchanger containing copper used the series connection process among RH weak acidic resin, RH strong acerbic resin and ROH weak anionic resin, with NaOH added in the outlet to adjust the alkalinity. The recirculating cooling water system kept stable and approach zero discharge of waste water in the process, at the same time, the scaling cation and the anion, such as chloride ion, had been removed, the pH and alkalinity can be adjusted precisely. The metal corrosion can be restrained when the pH was between 8. 0 and 9. 5 , the alkalinity was between 6 mmol/L and 12. 0 mmol/L.

  5. Marginal costs of water savings from cooling system retrofits: a case study for Texas power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Aviva; Jaramillo, Paulina; Zhai, Haibo

    2016-10-01

    The water demands of power plant cooling systems may strain water supply and make power generation vulnerable to water scarcity. Cooling systems range in their rates of water use, capital investment, and annual costs. Using Texas as a case study, we examined the cost of retrofitting existing coal and natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants with alternative cooling systems, either wet recirculating towers or air-cooled condensers for dry cooling. We applied a power plant assessment tool to model existing power plants in terms of their key plant attributes and site-specific meteorological conditions and then estimated operation characteristics of retrofitted plants and retrofit costs. We determined the anticipated annual reductions in water withdrawals and the cost-per-gallon of water saved by retrofits in both deterministic and probabilistic forms. The results demonstrate that replacing once-through cooling at coal-fired power plants with wet recirculating towers has the lowest cost per reduced water withdrawals, on average. The average marginal cost of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling retrofits at coal-fired plants is approximately 0.68 cents per gallon, while the marginal recirculating retrofit cost is 0.008 cents per gallon. For NGCC plants, the average marginal costs of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling and recirculating towers are 1.78 and 0.037 cents per gallon, respectively.

  6. Ecological impact of chloro-organics produced by chlorination of cooling tower waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R L; Cumming, R B; Pitt, W W; Taylor, F G; Thompson, J E; Hartmann, S J

    1977-01-01

    Experimental results of the initial assessment of chlorine-containing compounds in the blowdown from cooling towers and the possible mutagenic activity of these compounds are reported. High-resolution liquid chromatographic separations were made on concentrates of the blowdown from the cooling tower at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and from the recirculating water system for the cooling towers at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The chromatograms of chlorinated cooling waters contained numerous uv-absorbing and cerate-oxidizable constituents that are now being processed through a multicomponent identification procedure. Concentrates of the chlorinated waters are also being examined for mutagenic activity.

  7. Water-cooled non-thermal gliding arc for adhesion improvement of glass-fibre-reinforced polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Sørensen, Bent F.; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom;

    2013-01-01

    -fibre-reinforced polyester plates were treated using an atmospheric pressure gliding-arc discharge with air flow to improve adhesion with a vinylester adhesive. The electrodes were water-cooled so as to operate the gliding arc continually. The treatment improved wettability and increased the density of oxygen...

  8. Performance of materials in the component cooling water systems of pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.S.

    1993-06-01

    The component cooling water (CCW) system provides cooling water to several important loads throughout the plant under all operating conditions. An aging assessment CCW systems in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was conducted as part of Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program (NPAR) instituted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper presents some of the results on the performances of materials in respect of their application in CCW Systems. All the CCW system failures reported to the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) from January 1988 to June 1990 were reviewed; it is concluded that three of the main contributors to CCW system failures are valves, pumps, and heat exchangers. This study identified the modes and causes of failure for these components; most of the causes for the aging-related failures could be related to the performance of materials. Also, in this paper the materials used for these components are reviewed, and there aging mechanisms under CCW system conditions are discussed.

  9. Optimization of the breeder zone cooling tubes of the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead breeding blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A.; Arena, P.; Bongiovì, G. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo (Italy); Chiovaro, P., E-mail: pierluigi.chiovaro@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo (Italy); Del Nevo, A. [ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano, BO (Italy); Forte, R. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Determination of an optimal configuration for the breeder zone cooling tubes. • Attention has been focused on the toroidal–radial breeder zone cooling tubes lay out. • A theoretical-computational approach based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) has been followed, adopting a qualified commercial FEM code. • Five different configurations have been investigated to optimize the breeder zone cooling tubes arrangement fulfilling all the rules prescribed by safety codes. - Abstract: The determination of an optimal configuration for the breeder zone (BZ) cooling tubes is one of the most important issues in the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead (WCLL) breeding blanket R&D activities, since BZ cooling tubes spatial distribution should ensure an efficient heat power removal from the breeder, avoiding hotspots occurrence in the thermal field. Within the framework of R&D activities supported by the HORIZON 2020 EUROfusion Consortium action on the DEMO WCLL breeding blanket design, a campaign of parametric analyses has been launched at the Department of Energy, Information Engineering and Mathematical Models of the University of Palermo (DEIM), in close cooperation with ENEA-Brasimone, in order to assess the potential influence of BZ cooling tubes number on the thermal performances of the DEMO WCLL outboard breeding blanket equatorial module under the nominal steady state operative conditions envisaged for it, optimizing their geometric configuration and taking also into account that a large number of cooling pipes can deteriorate the tritium breeding performances of the module. In particular, attention has been focused on the toroidal-radial option for the BZ tube bundles lay-out and a parametric study has been carried out taking into account different tube bundles arrangement within the module. The study has been carried out following a numerical approach, based on the finite element method (FEM), and adopting a qualified commercial FEM code. Results

  10. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  11. Cooling of Water in a Flask: Convection Currents in a Fluid with a Density Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, S.; White, J. A.; Roman, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of density inversion on the convective flow of water in a spherical glass flask cooled with the help of an ice-water bath is shown. The experiment was carried out by temperature measurements (cooling curves) taken at three different heights along the vertical diameter of the flask. Flows inside the flask are visualized by seeding the…

  12. Cooling of Water in a Flask: Convection Currents in a Fluid with a Density Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, S.; White, J. A.; Roman, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of density inversion on the convective flow of water in a spherical glass flask cooled with the help of an ice-water bath is shown. The experiment was carried out by temperature measurements (cooling curves) taken at three different heights along the vertical diameter of the flask. Flows inside the flask are visualized by seeding the…

  13. Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, M. T H; van Beek, L. P H; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F P

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding

  14. Thermal behaviour analysis on ITER component cooling water system loop 2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Bin, E-mail: guobin@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Fu, Peng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Dell’Orco, Giovanni; Liliana, Teodoros; Tao, Jun [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Yang, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Thermal hydraulic analysis model has been developed to perform thermal analysis on the component cooling water system loop 2B. • The cooling water temperature profile at client inlet and outlet during one cycle of the most demanding plasma operation scenario was obtained. • Operation behaviour of the main heat exchanger for CCWS-2B has been depicted. - Abstract: ITER cooling water system is composed by several cooling loops, the primary heat transfer loops that form the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS), the secondary heat transfer loops that form the Component Cooling Water System (CCWS) and the Chilled Water System (CHWS) and a tertiary heat transfer loop which is the Heat Rejection System (HRS). The CCWS is further divided into CCWS-1, CCWS-2A, CCWS-2B, CCWS-2C, CCWS-2D depending on the water chemistry needs of clients and wetted area material. The component cooling water system loop 2B (CCWS-2B) has the function to remove heat load from coil power supply component, Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs) system component and diagnostic system which are located in different buildings. As the total number of the client connections for the loop is a few hundreds, simplified thermal hydraulic analysis model has been developed to perform thermal analysis on the component cooling water system loop 2B. The curve of the cooling water temperature at client inlet and outlet during one cycle of the most demanding plasma operation scenario was obtained and the cooling water flow rate can meet the thermal removal requirement of client was also confirmed from this analysis. In addition, operation behaviour of the main heat exchanger for CCWS-2B in this thermal analysis was depicted for main heat exchanger selection purposes. This study has been carried out with the AFT Fathom code.

  15. Safe corrosion inhibitor for treating cooling water on heat power engineering plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Khasanova, D. I.; Mukhutdinova, E. R.; Safin, D. Kh.; Sharifullin, I. G.

    2017-08-01

    Heat power engineering (HPE) consumes significant volumes of water. There are, therefore, problems associated with corrosion, biological fouling, salt deposits, and sludge formation on functional surfaces of heat power equipment. One of the effective ways to solve these problems is the use of inhibitory protection. The development of new Russian import-substituting environmentally friendly inhibitors is very relevant. This work describes experimental results on the OPC-800 inhibitor (TU 2415-092-00206 457-2013), which was produced at Karpov Chemical Plant and designed to remove mineral deposits, scale, and biological fouling from the surfaces of water-rotation node systems on HPE objects. This reagent is successfully used as an effective corrosion inhibitor in the water recycling systems of Tatarstan petrochemical enterprises. To save fresh make-up water, the circulating system is operated in a no-blow mode, which is characterized by high evaporation and salt content coefficients. It was experimentally found that corrosion rate upon treatment of recycled water with the OPC-800 inhibitor is 0.08-0.10 mm/year. HPE mainly uses inhibitors based on oxyethylidene diphosphonic (OEDPA) and nitrilotrimethylphosphonic (NTMPA) acids. The comparative characteristic of inhibition efficiency for OPC-800 and OEDF-Zn-U2 is given. The results obtained indicate that OPC-800 can be used as an inhibitor for treatment of cooling water in HPE plants. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the features of water rotation of a thermal power plant.

  16. Steam-Reheat Option for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltanov, Eugene

    SuperCritical-Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs) are being developed as one of the Generation-IV nuclear-reactor concepts. Main objectives of the development are to increase thermal efficiency of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and to decrease capital and operational costs. The first objective can be achieved by introducing nuclear steam reheat inside a reactor and utilizing regenerative feedwater heaters. The second objective can be achieved by designing a steam cycle that closely matches that of the mature supercritical fossil-fuelled power plants. The feasibility of these objectives is discussed. As a part of this discussion, heat-transfer calculations have been performed and analyzed for SuperCritical-Water (SCW) and SuperHeated-Steam (SHS) channels of the proposed reactor concept. In the calculations a uniform and three non-uniform Axial Heat Flux Profiles (AHFPs) were considered for six different fuels (UO2, ThO 2, MOX, UC2, UC, and UN) and at average and maximum channel power. Bulk-fluid, sheath, and fuel centerline temperatures as well as the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) profiles were obtained along the fuel-channel length. The HTC values are within a range of 4.7--20 kW/m2·K and 9.7--10 kW/m2·K for the SCW and SHS channels respectively. The main conclusion is that while all the mentioned fuels may be used for the SHS channel, only UC2, UC, or UN are suitable for a SCW channel, because their fuel centerline temperatures are at least 1000°C below melting point, while that of UO2, ThO2 , and MOX may reach melting point.

  17. Control of cross-infection risks in the dental operatory: prevention of water retraction by bur cooling spray systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, J J; Broderius, C

    1988-05-01

    A new dental unit control system was found to overcome the possibility of mechanically retracting bacteria from the mouth into the water line used to provide a spray of water to cool high-speed burs during treatments. This was demonstrated by results obtained after clinical use and after use in simulated, worst case test conditions using a red tempera indicator solution and indicator bacteria.

  18. The cool shopping centre of the Netherlands. The realization of four cooling units in Utrecht, Netherlands; Het koele winkelhart van Nederland. Realisatie vier koudecentrales in Utrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    A brief description is given of a project to install four cooling machines (absorption cooling, compression cooling, cooling towers, and water treatment units) in the office and shopping centre Hoog Catharijne in Utrecht, Netherlands. 3 ills., 1 tab.

  19. District cool water distribution; Reseau urbain et distribution d`eau glacee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabaillie, D. [Ste Climespace (France)

    1997-12-31

    The city of Paris has developed several district cool water distribution networks (Climespace) for air conditioning purposes, one in the Halles district (central Paris) linked with the Louvre museum, one in the Opera district (with large department stores) and one in the east of paris (Bercy). Each of these networks has a cool water production plant, the one at the Halles producing also hot water and safety electric power. The characteristics of the equipment (heat pumps, refrigerating machinery, storage...) are described. The pipes are laid in the city sewage network, and the cool carrier is water. The various networks are centrally supervised at the Halles center

  20. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael N. DiFilippo

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 2 focuses on transportation--the largest obstacle to produced water reuse in the San Juan Basin (the Basin). Most of the produced water in the Basin is stored in tanks at the well head and must be transported by truck to salt water disposal (SWD) facilities prior to injection. Produced water transportation requirements from the well head to SJGS and the availability of existing infrastructure to transport the water are discussed in this deliverable.

  1. Corrosion of metals and alloys - Corrosion and fouling in industrial cooling water systems - Part 1: Guidelines for conducting pilot-scale evaluation of corrosion and fouling control additives for open recirculating cooling water systems

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Corrosion of metals and alloys - Corrosion and fouling in industrial cooling water systems - Part 1: Guidelines for conducting pilot-scale evaluation of corrosion and fouling control additives for open recirculating cooling water systems

  2. COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Vine

    2010-12-01

    This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes “Best Technology Available” for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plant’s steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R&D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

  3. Optimal Environmental Performance of Water-cooled Chiller System with All Variable Speed Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fu Wing; Chan, Kwok Tai

    This study investigates how the environmental performance of water-cooled chiller systems can be optimized by applying load-based speed control to all the system components. New chiller and cooling tower models were developed using a transient systems simulation program called TRNSYS 15 in order to assess the electricity and water consumption of a chiller plant operating for a building cooling load profile. The chiller model was calibrated using manufacturer's performance data and used to analyze the coefficient of performance when the design and control of chiller components are changed. The NTU-effectiveness approach was used for the cooling tower model to consider the heat transfer effectiveness at various air-to-water flow ratios and to identify the makeup water rate. Applying load-based speed control to the cooling tower fans and pumps could save an annual plant operating cost by around 15% relative to an equivalent system with constant speed configurations.

  4. Three African antelope species with varying water dependencies exhibit similar selective brain cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, W Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Fuller, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The use of selective brain cooling, where warm arterial blood destined for the brain is cooled in the carotid rete via counter-current heat exchange when in close proximity to cooler venous blood, contributes to the conservation of body water. We simultaneously measured carotid blood and hypothalamic temperature in four gemsbok, five red hartebeest and six blue wildebeest to assess the extent to which these free-living animals, with varying water dependency, routinely rely on selective brain cooling. We investigated the hypothesis that innate differences in selective brain cooling exist in large, sympatric artiodactyls with varying water dependency. All three species used selective brain cooling, without any discernible differences in three selective brain cooling indices. GLMMs revealed no species differences in the threshold temperature for selective brain cooling (z = 0.79, P = 0.43), the magnitude (z = -0.51, P = 0.61), or the frequency of selective brain cooling use (z = -0.47, P = 0.64), after controlling for carotid blood temperature and black globe temperature. Comparison of anatomical attributes of the carotid retes of the three species revealed that the volume (F 2,9 = 5.54, P = 0.03) and height (F 2,9 = 5.43, P = 0.03) of the carotid rete, per kilogram body mass, were greater in the red hartebeest than in the blue wildebeest. Nevertheless, intraspecific variability in the magnitude, the frequency of use, and the threshold temperature for selective brain cooling exceeded any interspecific variability in the three indices of selective brain cooling. We conclude that the three species have similar underlying ability to make use of selective brain cooling in an environment with freely available water. It remains to be seen to what extent these three species would rely on selective brain cooling, as a water conservation mechanism, when challenged by aridity, a condition likely to become prevalent throughout much of southern Africa under future climate change

  5. Thermal design of lithium bromide-water solution vapor absorption cooling system for indirect evaporative cooling for IT pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Digvijay Ramkrishna

    Nowadays with increase use of internet, mobile there is increase in heat which ultimately increases the efficient cooling system of server room or IT POD. Use of traditional ways of cooling system has ultimately increased CO2 emission and depletion of CFC's are serious environmental issues which led scientific people to improve cooling techniques and eliminate use of CFC's. To reduce dependency on fossil fuels and 4environmental friendly system needed to be design. For being utilizing low grade energy source such as solar collector and reducing dependency on fossil fuel vapour absorption cooling system has shown a great driving force in today's refrigeration systems. This LiBr-water aabsorption cooling consists of five heat exchanger namely: Evaporator, Absorber, Solution Heat Exchanger, Generator, Condenser. The thermal design was done for a load of 23 kW and the procedure was described in the thesis. There are 120 servers in the IT POD emitting 196 W of heat each on full load and some of the heat was generated by the computer placed inside the IT POD. A detailed procedure has been discussed. A excel spreadsheet was to prepared with varying tube sizes to see the effect on flows and ultimately overall heat transfer coefficient.

  6. Evaluation of the suitabil[i]ty of Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid (GTL) Primary Column Bottoms as process cooling water : analysis of microbial community dynamics, fouling, scaling and corrosion / Savia Susanna Slabbert

    OpenAIRE

    Slabbert, Savia Susanna

    2007-01-01

    Water in South Africa is becoming limiting due to economic growth, social development and the country's water demand that exceed its water availability. Water conservation in the industry can be accomplished by the reuse of process water instead of direct treatment and discharge. By reusing a process effluent as cooling water in cooling towers, the water requirements of an industry, such as Sasol, will be lower and a zero effluent discharge scenario could be achieved. At Sas...

  7. Conceptual design of a passive moderator cooling system for a pressure tube type natural circulation boiling water cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mukesh [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Pal, Eshita, E-mail: eshi.pal@gmail.com [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Nayak, Arun K.; Vijayan, Pallipattu K. [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Passive moderator cooling system is designed to cool moderator passively during SBO. • PMCS is a system of two natural circulation loops, coupled via a heat exchanger. • RELAP5 analyses show that PMCS maintains moderator within safe limits for 7 days. - Abstract: The recent Fukushima accident has raised strong concern and apprehensions about the safety of reactors in case of a prolonged Station Black Out (SBO) continuing for several days. In view of this, a detailed study was performed simulating this condition in Advanced Heavy Water Reactor. In this study, a novel concept of moderator cooling by passive means has been introduced in the reactor design. The Passive Moderator Cooling System (PMCS) consists of a shell and tube heat exchanger designed to remove 2 MW heat from the moderator inside Calandria. The heat exchanger is located at a suitable elevation from the Calandria of the reactor, such that the hot moderator rises due to buoyancy into the heat exchanger and upon cooling from shell side water returns to Calandria forming a natural circulation loop. The shell side of the heat exchanger is also a natural circulation loop connected to an overhead large water reservoir, namely the GDWP. The objective of the PMCS is to remove the heat from the moderator in case of an SBO and maintaining its temperature below the permissible safe limit (100 °C) for at least 7 days. The paper first describes the concept of the PMCS. The concept has been assessed considering a prolonged SBO for at least 7 days, through an integrated analysis performed using the code RELAP5/MOD3.2 considering all the major components of the reactor. The analysis shows that the PMCS is able to maintain the moderator temperature below boiling conditions for 7 days.

  8. Corrosion control when using secondary treated municipal wastewater as alternative makeup water for cooling tower systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Chowdhury, Indranil; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2010-12-01

    Secondary treated municipal wastewater is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water, especially in arid regions. Laboratory and field testing was conducted in this study to evaluate the corrosiveness of secondary treated municipal wastewater for various metals and metal alloys in cooling systems. Different corrosion control strategies were evaluated based on varied chemical treatment. Orthophosphate, which is abundant in secondary treated municipal wastewater, contributed to more than 80% precipitative removal of phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors. Tolyltriazole worked effectively to reduce corrosion of copper (greater than 95% inhibition effectiveness). The corrosion rate of mild steel in the presence of free chlorine 1 mg/L (as Cl2) was approximately 50% higher than in the presence of monochloramine 1 mg/L (as Cl2), indicating that monochloramine is a less corrosive biocide than free chlorine. The scaling layers observed on the metal alloys contributed to corrosion inhibition, which could be seen by comparing the mild steel 21-day average corrosion rate with the last 5-day average corrosion rate, the latter being approximately 50% lower than the former.

  9. Cooling water system thermal performance analysis using the COCO computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hom, J.; Jakub, R.M.; Durkosh, D.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Energy Systems Business Unit

    1996-10-01

    Westinghouse Energy Systems Business Unit (ESBU) has worked with electric utility personnel to analyze the thermal performance of essential cooling water systems at nuclear generating stations. The primary goal of these analyses has been to demonstrate the operability of the cooling water systems during postulated limiting post-accident operation. In previous cooling water system thermal analyses, peak containment operating conditions were generally used as input assuming steady-state conditions. This approach is conservative as it does not take into account the improvement in containment conditions and cooling water system temperatures over time. This approach can, also, lead to an inconsistent set of assumptions between the two distinct analyses which may result in overly conservative calculated system operating conditions. These conditions inevitably impose unnecessary restrictions on cooling water system operation. Over the last few years, Westinghouse ESBU has coupled both the containment integrity and the cooling water system thermal calculations into an integrated analysis. This allows the use of a consistent set of input parameters and assumptions in the calculation of limiting cooling water system operating conditions. This approach has been successfully used to increase system operating margins. This paper provides an overview of this coupled thermal analysis along with examples of where increased operating margins can be applied.

  10. Development of methods for the decrease in instability of recycling water of conjugated closed-circuit cooling system of HPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirov, A. A.; Chichirova, N. D.; Vlasov, S. M.; Lyapin, A. I.; Misbakhov, R. Sh.; Silov, I. Yu.; Murtazin, A. I.

    2016-10-01

    On Russian HPPs, conjugated closed-circuit cooling systems, where purge water is used as initial for water-treatment facilities, are widespread. For this reason, it is impossible to use general methods for the stabilization treatment of recycling water in order to prevent scale formation in the units of a system, namely, turbine condensers and cooling towers. In this paper, the methods for the decrease in the instability of recycling water using the methods of chemical engineering, such as stabilization and synchronization of flows and organization of recycles, are suggested. The results of an industrial experiment on the implementation of stabilization treatment of recycling water by the organization of recycle are given. The experiment was carried out on Kazan CHPP-3. The flow scheme involved the recycle of chemically purified water (CPW) for the heat network make-up to the closed-circuit cooling system. The experiment was carried out at three stages with the gradual change of the consumption of the recycle, namely, 0, 50, and 100 t/h. According to the results of experiments, the reliable decrease in the rate of the sedimentation was recorded on the units of the system, namely, turbine condenser and chimney-type cooling tower. This is caused by two reasons. Firstly, this is periodic excessive concentration of recycling water due to the nonstationary character of inlet and outlet flows. Secondly, this is seasonal (particularly, in the summer period) exceeding of the evaporation coefficient. As a result of stabilization and synchronization of flows and organization of recycles, the quality of clarified and chemically purified water for the heat network make-up increases and the corrosion of iron- and copper-containing structural materials decreases. A natural decrease in temperature drop on the operating turbine condensers is mentioned.

  11. Cooling Rates of Humans in Air and in Water: An Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2012-12-01

    In a previous article I analyzed in detail the physical factors resulting in greater cooling rates of objects in still water than in still air, emphasizing cooling of the human body. By cooling rate I mean the rate of decrease of core temperature uncompensated by metabolism. I concluded that the "correct ratio for humans is closer to 2 than to 10." To support this assertion I subsequently did experiments, which I report following a digression on hypothermia.

  12. Radiant Cooling for Closed-Loop Water Containment: Exploration of Possible Application in Dry Docks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Radiant Cooling For Closed-Loop Water Containment: Exploration of Possible Application in Dry Docks by Trevor R. Murphy, Mechanical...Organization: SPAWAR Sponsoring Organization: NESDI Keywords: Dry Dock Cooling, Heat Transfer, Closed Loop, Pipe System, Cost, Pareto List of Programs...provide data for estimating the cost of implementing a closed-loop radiant cooling system for ships in dry docks . Depending on the material used, pipe

  13. Water source heat pumps for greenhouse soil cooling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spieser, H.

    1987-06-01

    In an attempt to diversify and grow flowers which are in high demand, growers are looking to produce certain exotic flowers which require unique growing conditions. One example is the Alstroemerias also knwon as the Peruvian Lily. If the plants are grown continuously at about 12-15/sup 0/C soil temperature, the plant will continue to flower regardless of air temperature and photoriod. These latter two factors are considered secondary to the importance of cool soil temperatures. Alstroemeria production is still relatively new to the greenhouse industry. Some controversy still exists as to the direct benefits of planned soil cooling. This project was set up to evaluate a mechanical soil cooling system for continuous year round Alstroemeria production. A heat pump soil cooling system was installed in two greenhouses each with dimensions of 16 m by 61 m. Combined these greenhouses have a growing area of 1952 m/sup 2/. These greenhouses are older wooden greenhouses, covered by double poly, air-inflated glazing. This system worked very well, maintaining the soil temperature at the proper levels throughout the spring and summer months. During the rest of the year the soil cooling system is used less intensely. During winter months when soil cooling is not required, the heat pumps provide base load heating to the greenhouse through fan forced unit heaters.

  14. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su'ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2015-04-01

    Thorium has lately attracted considerable attention because it is accumulating as a by-product of large scale rare earth mining. The objective of research is to analyze transient behavior of a heavy water cooled thorium breeder that is designed by Tokai University and Tokyo Institute of Technology. That is oxide fueled, PWR type reactor with heavy water as primary coolant. An example of the optimized core has relatively small moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR) of 0.6 and the characteristics of the core are burn-up of 67 GWd/t, breeding ratio of 1.08, burn-up reactivity loss during cycles of nuclear reactor accidents types examined here is Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP) due to withdrawing of the control rod that result in the positive reactivity insertion so that the reactor power will increase rapidly. Another accident type is Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) that caused by failure of coolant pumps. To analyze the reactor accidents, neutron distribution calculation in the nuclear reactor is the most important factor. The best expression for the neutron distribution is the Boltzmann transport equation. However, solving this equation is very difficult so that the space-time diffusion equation is commonly used. Usually, space-time diffusion equation is solved by employing a point kinetics approach. However, this approach is less accurate for a spatially heterogeneous nuclear reactor and the nuclear reactor with quite large reactivity input. Direct method is therefore used to solve space-time diffusion equation which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference method is solved by using iterative methods. The indication of UTOP accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity, and ULOF accident is indicated by decreasing coolant flow. The power reactor has a peak value before reactor has new balance condition

  15. Influence of Chlorination and Choice of Materials on Fouling in Cooling Water System under Brackish Seawater Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina Rajala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooling systems remove heat from components and industrial equipment. Water cooling, employing natural waters, is typically used for cooling large industrial facilities, such as power plants, factories or refineries. Due to moderate temperatures, cooling water cycles are susceptible to biofouling, inorganic fouling and scaling, which may reduce heat transfer and enhance corrosion. Hypochlorite treatment or antifouling coatings are used to prevent biological fouling in these systems. In this research, we examine biofouling and materials’ degradation in a brackish seawater environment using a range of test materials, both uncoated and coated. The fouling and corrosion resistance of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V, super austenitic stainless steel (254SMO and epoxy-coated carbon steel (Intershield Inerta160 were studied in the absence and presence of hypochlorite. Our results demonstrate that biological fouling is intensive in cooling systems using brackish seawater in sub-arctic areas. The microfouling comprised a vast diversity of bacteria, archaea, fungi, algae and protozoa. Chlorination was effective against biological fouling: up to a 10–1000-fold decrease in bacterial and archaeal numbers was detected. Chlorination also changed the diversity of the biofilm-forming community. Nevertheless, our results also suggest that chlorination enhances cracking of the epoxy coating.

  16. Study on chemical control indicators for circulating cooling systems water chemistry at power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Кишневский, Виктор Афанасьевич; Чиченин, Вадим Валентинович

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of applied stability indices, used for water chemistry control of circulating cooling systems at TPP and NPP is given in the paper.The spectrum of controlled indicators of circulating and make-up water during long-term operation of various water chemistries on scale models of circulating cooling systems at TPP and NPP is investigated.The results of chemical control of water chemistry with dosing mineral acid to make-up water and acrylic water chemistry without dosing mineral acid ...

  17. Heat transfer enhancement in a natural draft dry cooling tower under crosswind operation with heterogeneous water distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Mohsen; Amooie, Hossein [Bu-Ali Sina Univ., Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-04-15

    Crosswind significantly decreases cooling efficiency of a natural draft dry cooling tower. The possibility of improving cooling efficiency with heterogeneous water distribution within the cooling tower radiators under crosswind condition is analysed. A CFD approach was used to model the flow field and heat transfer phenomena within the cooling tower and airflow surrounding the cooling tower. A mathematical model was developed from various CFD results. Having used a trained Genetic Algorithm with the result of mathematical model, the best water distribution was found among the others. Remodeling the best water distribution with the CFD approach showed that the highest enhancement of the heat transfer compared to the usual uniform water distribution.

  18. Comparison of solar panel cooling system by using dc brushless fan and dc water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, Y. M.; Leow, W. Z.; Irwanto, M.; M, Fareq; Hassan, S. I. S.; Safwati, I.; Amelia, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss comparison of solar panel cooling system by using DC brushless fan and DC water pump. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an interesting technique to reduce non-renewable energy consumption and as a renewable energy. The temperature of PV modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. A solar cooling system is design, construct and experimentally researched within this work. To make an effort to cool the PV module, Direct Current (DC) brushless fan and DC water pump with inlet/outlet manifold are designed for constant air movement and water flow circulation at the back side and front side of PV module representatively. Temperature sensors were installed on the PV module to detect temperature of PV. PIC microcontroller was used to control the DC brushless fan and water pump for switch ON or OFF depend on the temperature of PV module automatically. The performance with and without cooling system are shown in this experiment. The PV module with DC water pump cooling system increase 3.52%, 36.27%, 38.98%in term of output voltage, output current, output power respectively. It decrease 6.36 °C compare than to PV module without DC water pump cooling system. While DC brushless fan cooling system increase 3.47%, 29.55%, 32.23%in term of output voltage, output current, and output power respectively. It decrease 6.1 °C compare than to PV module without DC brushless fan cooling system. The efficiency of PV module with cooling system was increasing compared to PV module without cooling system; this is because the ambient temperature dropped significantly. The higher efficiency of PV cell, the payback period of the system can be shorted and the lifespan of PV module can also be longer.

  19. Water mist effect on cooling range and efficiency of casting die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Władysiak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This project is showing investigation results of cooling process of casting die in the temperature range 570÷100 °C with 0.40 MPa compressed air and water mist streamed under pressure 0.25÷0.45 MPa in air jet 0.25÷0.50 MPa using open cooling system.The character and the speed of changes of temperature, forming of the temperture’s gradient along parallel layer to cooled surface of die is shawing with thermal and derivative curves. The effect of kind of cooling factor on the temperature and time and distance from cooling nozzle is presented in the paper. A designed device for generating the water mist cooling the die and the view of sprying water stream is shown here. It’s proved that using of the water mist together with the change of heat transfer interface increases intensity of cooling in the zone and makes less the range cooling zone and reduces the porosity of cast microstructure.

  20. Optimization Tool for Direct Water Cooling System of High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    important issue for thermal design engineers. This paper aims to present a user friendly optimization tool for direct water cooling system of a high power module which enables the cooling system designer to identify the optimized solution depending on customer load profiles and available pump power. CFD...

  1. Water vapour rises from the cooling towers for the ATLAS detector at Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    Electronics on the ATLAS detector produce heat when the experiment is running. An elaborate cooling system keeps the detector from overheating. On the surface, the warm water vapour that rises from the detector 100metres underground is clearly visible from the ATLAS cooling towers on the CERN Meyrin site in Switzerland.

  2. Optimization of anti-fouling treatment of water of the circulation circuit (the main condenser cooling)of the Cofrentes nuclear power station; Optimizacion del tratamiento anti-incrustante del circuito de agua de circulacion (refrigeracion del condensador principal) de la central nuclear de Cofrentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez San Roman, L.; Gomez Larios, J.

    2013-03-01

    The cooling systems is a semi-closed system with natural draft towers and a continued purge to two discharge ponds that store the water before the final discharge to the Jucar river, after having reviewed both chemically and radiologically. The total volume is 75,000 m{sup 3} and flow contribution 3,500-4,000 m{sup 3}/hour, according to the seasons. It aims to minimize the content of sulfates and phosphates in the Jucar river discharge. The new treatment aims to lead the cooling water to a higher pH, decreasing the dosage of sulfuric acid and reducing organic phosphorus compounds of the components involved in the formulation of the antifouling product which is traditionally used. The content of final sulfates and phosphates in the discharge is less than that of a classic anti-fouling and consequently it obtain an environmental improvement in Jucar river discharges. The first pilot plant tests have concluded that we can, raise the average pH of 8.5 a pH average of 8.6 in the recirculating water, representing a decrease of acid consumption of 1,600 to 2,300 kg per day of 98% SO{sub 4}H{sub 2} on a previous consumption of 9,000 kg per day. As to the reduction of phosphate, the new copolymer incorporates a new treatment with a higher concentration of active, it reduces the content of the phosphorus product by 29% and consequently the reduction of phosphorus in water is poured around 20% from the previous treatment. (Author)

  3. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  4. Manufacturing surface hardened components of 42CrMo4 by water-air spray cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gretzki, T.; Krause, C.; Frolov, I.; Hassel, T.; Nicolaus, M.; Bach, F.W. [Inst. of Materials Science, Leibniz Univ. Hannover, Garbsen (Germany); Kaestner, M.; Abo-Namous, O.; Reithmeier, E. [Inst. of Measurement and Control Engineering, Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany); National Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine, Dniepropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2009-12-15

    By employing integrated heat-treatment using forging heat, a significant shortening of the process chain is attained for manufacturing precision forged components with considerable savings in time and energy. With the aid of water-air spray cooling, surface hardening and tempering can be carried out without, at the same time, reheating the component following quenching. In this work, geometric models of splines and single cylinder crankshafts (both made of 1.7225) were surface hardened and tempered using a purpose-built rotating spray unit The obtained hardness, microstructures and their distortions were investigated. To optically and spatially detect the components, fringe and shadow projection systems were employed. In a second research topic, the influence of the spray parameters on the component's distortion was investigated. For both components; the splined shaft and the crankshaft geometries, it was possible to carry out successful surface heat-treatments using these processes. (orig.)

  5. Operations improvement of the recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbakov Vladimir Ivanovich

    Full Text Available Water management in sugar factories doesn’t have analogues in its complexity among food industry enterprises. Water intensity of sugar production is very high. Circulation water, condensed water, pulp press water and others are used in technological processes. Water plays the main role in physical, chemical, thermotechnical processes of beet processing and sugar production. As a consequence of accession of Russia to the WTO the technical requirements for production processes are changing. The enforcements of ecological services to balance scheme of water consumption and water disposal increased. The reduction of fresh water expenditure is one of the main tasks in economy of sugar industry. The substantial role in fresh water expenditure is played by efficiency of cooling and aeration processes of conditionally clean waters of the 1st category. The article contains an observation of the technologies of the available solutions and recommendations for improving and upgrading the existing recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills. The authors present the block diagram of the water sector of a sugar mill and a method of calculating the optimal constructive and technological parameters of cooling devices. Water cooling towers enhanced design and upgrades are offered.

  6. Control of modiolid mussels in cooling water systems by continuous chlorination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajagopal, S.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Velde, G. van der; Jenner, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Modiolid mussels such as Modiolus philippinarum and Modiolus metcalfei constitute a numerically significant group in fouling communities, especially in tropical and subtropical industrial cooling water systems. Nevertheless, there are hardly any published reports on the tolerance of these

  7. Control of modiolid mussels in cooling water systems by continuous chlorination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajagopal, S.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Velde, G. van der; Jenner, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Modiolid mussels such as Modiolus philippinarum and Modiolus metcalfei constitute a numerically significant group in fouling communities, especially in tropical and subtropical industrial cooling water systems. Nevertheless, there are hardly any published reports on the tolerance of these

  8. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffin, C.; Duvivier, L.; Girasa, E. [LABORELEC, Chemistry of Water (Belgium); Brognez, J. [ELECTRABEL, TIHANGE Nuclear Power Station (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    In the late 1970's and early 1980's, with the development of the nuclear programme in many European countries, the recirculation of cooling water in power stations became an issue which required urgent attention. The concentration of several plants of 1000 MW or more on sites along inland waterways actually made simple once-through cooling impossible, owing to the risk of an unacceptable rise in the river's water temperature. The chemical composition of natural freshwater in western European waterways is such that when it becomes slightly concentrated, scale is rapidly formed. The relatively low solubility of calcium carbonate and the degassing of the carbon dioxide during close contact between the water and air in the heat exchangers of the cooling tower explain this precipitation tendency. Fairly soon, experts in the electricity power generation companies highlighted the need for on-site, pilot loop simulations, in order to foresee the physico-chemical phenomena that could arise in industrial installations. The number of financially justifiable processing possibilities could be briefly summarised by the following three solutions: to adapt the concentration factor in order to be under the calcium carbonate solubility limit and thereby avoid the need for any water conditioning; to accept concentration factors of between 1.4 and 1.9 and control the calcium carbonate precipitation through controlled acid injection in the circulation water; to raise the concentration factor over 5 and soften the makeup water through the addition of lime and flocculant. The last of these solutions was rarely ever used in Belgium and France. It was however widely used in Germany. Its application requires a greater investment and leads to higher operating costs than acid injection. Furthermore, it leads to the problem of daily drying and disposal of several dozen tonnes of sludge, which have to be recycled or dumped. In an increasingly stringent environmental context, this

  9. INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF AN ATMOSPHERIC COOLING TOWER USING FRESH AND SALTED WATER

    OpenAIRE

    A. Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Cooling towers are extensively used to evacuate large quantities of heat at modest temperatures through a change of phase of the flowing cooling fluid. Based on this classical principle, the present study investigates the influence of salty water on the heat exchange produced. For that purpose, experiments are carried out using fresh and salty water. Furthermore, a comparison with the results produced through an approach involving the solution of energy equation involving the flow...

  10. 蓄能式中央空调冷却水系统横流湿式冷却塔环保降噪的治理方法%The Administrative Methods for the Noise treatment FSR of the many sets of Mechanical Draft crossfolw Cooling Towers in Water Storage Central Air Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯荣贞; 刘晓东; 周玉琼

    2014-01-01

    This article takes noise treatment for the many sets of mechanical draft crossflow cooling towers noise for example ,which was layed on the housetop of water storage central air conditioning system. The plans of the noise treatment were given, and the analysis was also brought forward-which including single and united plan.The best plan was selected, the plan was to build the half obturated set of sound insulation and noise elimination, on which there were sound barriers, and to set noise suppressors in cistern of cooling tower. This set was used of light quality structure. Its load was transited by the steel column transmission to the original building column, so that the reinforcement processing measure to the housetop was omitted. Noise treatment measure was few effect of resistance losing for cooling towers, and kept cooling towers thermal performance and normal operation. This paper affords theorical basis for engineering, and a new way was found in decreasing noise of cooling tower.%本文针对蓄冷中央空调系统机力横流湿式冷却塔夜间低谷电满负荷蓄冷运行,白天电力峰值时部分释冷运行的特点及冷却塔自身的噪声污染进行了分析,提出了噪声治理方案,就单个方案及多方案联合进行了综合分析,最终选定了最优实施方案,即“半封闭式声屏导风板降噪+风机消音装置+落水消能降噪器”。半封闭式隔声屏导风板采用轻质结构,屋面增加的荷载通过钢立柱传递至原有建筑物砼立柱上,省去了对原有结构的加固处理措施。并且所采取的降噪措施对冷却塔进排风的阻力损失影响控制在允许范围之内,保证了冷却塔的热工性能及正常运行。本文对工程实际中的冷却塔的降噪提供了新思路。

  11. Assessment of stress-corrosion cracking in a water-cooled ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.H.; Bruemmer, S.M.

    1989-04-01

    Water-cooled, near-term reactors will operate under conditions at which SCC is possible; however, control of material purity and processing and coolant chemistry can either eliminate or greatly reduce the probability of this type of structural failure. This evaluation has focused on an assessment of water impurity effects on SCC of austenitic stainless steel at temperatures below 100{degree}C and on the conditions controlling sensitization in the fusion heat of Type 316 SS and the fusion materials heat of modified Type 316 SS designated as PCA. This assessment identifies the dominant effect of small concentrations of impurities in high-purity water on SCC such that crack growth rates at 25--75{degree}C in water with as little as 5--15 ppM Cl{sup {minus}} are equal to the crack growth rates at 200--300{degree}C in high-purity water. These effects are primarily for sensitized Type 304 SS, so analysis of sensitization behavior of fusion austenitic alloys was also undertaken. An SSDOS model developed at PNL was used to make these assessments, and correlation to experimental results for Type 316 SS was very good. Both the fusion heat of Type 316 SS and PCA can be severely sensitized but with proper thermal treatment it should be possible to avoid sensitization. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Heat transfer analysis during cooling of die with use of water mist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Władysiak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the heat transfer area during the cooling process of steel test die with water mist which consist the flow of air in the range 150÷350 l/min and 0.05 0.24 l/min of water. Temperature change in the thickness of die by means showing with the thermal curves and the temperature gradient and temperature distribution in the space between the nozzle and the cooled surface of the metal mold using a thermal imaging camera and thermocouples measurement. The course of changes in the temperature gradient and the received heat flux from the die while cooling its with the flow of air and water mist stream. It has been shown that the use of water mist with a variable flow of air and water controls the process of heat transfer process between the permanent molds, and a stream of water mist.

  13. Water cooled breeder program summary report (LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) development program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of the Department of Energy Water Cooled Breeder Program was to demonstrate pratical breeding in a uranium-233/thorium fueled core while producing electrical energy in a commercial water reactor generating station. A demonstration Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was successfully operated for more than 29,000 effective full power hours in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The reactor operated with an availability factor of 76% and had a gross electrical output of 2,128,943,470 kilowatt hours. Following operation, the expended core was examined and no evidence of any fuel element defects was found. Nondestructive assay of 524 fuel rods determined that 1.39 percent more fissile fuel was present at the end of core life than at the beginning, proving that breeding had occurred. This demonstrates the existence of a vast source of electrical energy using plentiful domestic thorium potentially capable of supplying the entire national need for many centuries. To build on the successful design and operation of the Shippingport Breeder Core and to provide the technology to implement this concept, several reactor designs of large breeders and prebreeders were developed for commercial-sized plants of 900--1000 Mw(e) net. This report summarizes the Water Cooled Breeder Program from its inception in 1965 to its completion in 1987. Four hundred thirty-six technical reports are referenced which document the work conducted as part of this program. This work demonstrated that the Light Water Breeder Reactor is a viable alternative as a PWR replacement in the next generation of nuclear reactors. This transition would only require a minimum of change in design and fabrication of the reactor and operation of the plant.

  14. Implications of Transitioning from De Facto to Engineered Water Reuse for Power Plant Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Zachary A; Stillwell, Ashlynn S

    2016-05-17

    Thermoelectric power plants demand large quantities of cooling water, and can use alternative sources like treated wastewater (reclaimed water); however, such alternatives generate many uncertainties. De facto water reuse, or the incidental presence of wastewater effluent in a water source, is common at power plants, representing baseline conditions. In many cases, power plants would retrofit open-loop systems to cooling towers to use reclaimed water. To evaluate the feasibility of reclaimed water use, we compared hydrologic and economic conditions at power plants under three scenarios: quantified de facto reuse, de facto reuse with cooling tower retrofits, and modeled engineered reuse conditions. We created a genetic algorithm to estimate costs and model optimal conditions. To assess power plant performance, we evaluated reliability metrics for thermal variances and generation capacity loss as a function of water temperature. Applying our analysis to the greater Chicago area, we observed high de facto reuse for some power plants and substantial costs for retrofitting to use reclaimed water. Conversely, the gains in reliability and performance through engineered reuse with cooling towers outweighed the energy investment in reclaimed water pumping. Our analysis yields quantitative results of reclaimed water feasibility and can inform sustainable management of water and energy.

  15. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and

  16. Thermal and electrical energy yield analysis of a directly water cooled photovoltaic module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtunzi Busiso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy of photovoltaic modules drops by 0.5% for each degree increase in temperature. Direct water cooling of photovoltaic modules was found to give improved electrical and thermal yield. A prototype was put in place to analyse the field data for a period of a year. The results showed an initial high performance ratio and electrical power output. The monthly energy saving efficiency of the directly water cooled module was found to be approximately 61%. The solar utilisation of the naturally cooled photovoltaic module was found to be 8.79% and for the directly water cooled module its solar utilisation was 47.93%. Implementation of such systems on households may reduce the load from the utility company, bring about huge savings on electricity bills and help in reducing carbon emissions.

  17. Preparation of semi-solid aluminum alloy slurry poured through a water-cooled serpentine channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng-Zhou; Mao, Wei-Min; Wu, Zong-Chuang

    2012-01-01

    A water-cooled serpentine channel pouring process was invented to produce semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy slurry for rheocasting, and the effects of pouring temperature and circulating cooling water flux on the microstructure of the slurry were investigated. The results show that at the pouring temperature of 640-680°C and the circulating cooling water flux of 0.9 m3/h, the semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy slurry with spherical primary α(Al) grains can be obtained, whose shape factors are between 0.78 and 0.86 and the grain diameter can reach 48-68 μm. When the pouring temperatures are at 660-680°C, only a very thin solidified shell remains inside the serpentine channel and can be removed easily. When the serpentine channel is cooled with circulating water, the microstructure of the semi-solid slurry can be improved, and the serpentine channel is quickly cooled to room temperature after the completion of one pouring. In terms of the productivity of the special equipment, the water-cooled serpentine channel is economical and efficient.

  18. 78 FR 63516 - Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors AGENCY... Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors.'' This RG describes testing methods the NRC staff considers acceptable for demonstrating the operability of emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) for boiling...

  19. Summary of research and development effort on air and water cooling of gas turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraas, A.P.

    1980-03-01

    The review on air- and water-cooled gas turbines from the 1904 Lemale-Armengaud water-cooled gas turbine, the 1948 to 1952 NACA work, and the program at GE indicates that the potential of air cooling has been largely exploited in reaching temperatures of 1100/sup 0/C (approx. 2000/sup 0/F) in utility service and that further increases in turbine inlet temperature may be obtained with water cooling. The local heat flux in the first-stage turbine rotor with water cooling is very high, yielding high-temperature gradients and severe thermal stresses. Analyses and tests indicate that by employing a blade with an outer cladding of an approx. 1-mm-thick oxidation-resistant high-nickel alloy, a sublayer of a high-thermal-conductivity, high-strength, copper alloy containing closely spaced cooling passages approx. 2 mm in ID to minimize thermal gradients, and a central high-strength alloy structural spar, it appears possible to operate a water-cooled gas turbine with an inlet gas temperature of 1370/sup 0/C. The cooling-water passages must be lined with an iron-chrome-nickel alloy must be bent 90/sup 0/ to extend in a neatly spaced array through the platform at the base of the blade. The complex geometry of the blade design presents truly formidable fabrication problems. The water flow rate to each of many thousands of coolant passages must be metered and held to within rather close limits because the heat flux is so high that a local flow interruption of only a few seconds would lead to a serious failure.Heat losses to the cooling water will run approx. 10% of the heat from the fuel. By recoverying this waste heat for feedwater heating in a command cycle, these heat losses will give a degradation in the power plant output of approx. 5% relative to what might be obtained if no cooling were required. However, the associated power loss is less than half that to be expected with an elegant air cooling system.

  20. Improving of the photovoltaic / thermal system performance using water cooling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussien, Hashim A.; Numan, Ali H.; Abdulmunem, Abdulmunem R.

    2015-04-01

    This work is devoted to improving the electrical efficiency by reducing the rate of thermal energy of a photovoltaic/thermal system (PV/T).This is achieved by design cooling technique which consists of a heat exchanger and water circulating pipes placed at PV module rear surface to solve the problem of the high heat stored inside the PV cells during the operation. An experimental rig is designed to investigate and evaluate PV module performance with the proposed cooling technique. This cooling technique is the first work in Iraq to dissipate the heat from PV module. The experimental results indicated that due to the heat loss by convection between water and the PV panel's upper surface, an increase of output power is achieved. It was found that without active cooling, the temperature of the PV module was high and solar cells could only achieve a conversion efficiency of about 8%. However, when the PV module was operated under active water cooling condition, the temperature was dropped from 76.8°C without cooling to 70.1°C with active cooling. This temperature dropping led to increase in the electrical efficiency of solar panel to 9.8% at optimum mass flow rate (0.2L/s) and thermal efficiency to (12.3%).

  1. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

  2. Operational Experience of Cooling Water Systems for Accelerator Components at PLS

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyungryul; Kim, Young-Chan; Lee, Bongho; Sik Han, Hong; Soo Ko In; Wha Chung, Chin

    2005-01-01

    The cooling water system has been utilized for absorbing heat generated by a multitude of electromagnetic power delivering networks at PLS. The separate cooling water distribution systems for the storage ring, beam transport line and linear accelerator have been operated with a different operating temperature of supplying water. All water used for heat removal from the accelerator components are deionised and filtered to provide with over 2 MO-cm specific resistance. The operating pressures and flows of input water are also controlled with flow balancing scheme at a specified range. The operating temperature of components in the accelerator is sustained as tight as below ±0.1 deg C to minimize the influence of temperature fluctuation on the beam energy and stability. Although the PLS cooling systems were initially installed with a high degree of flexibility to allow for easy maintenance, a number of system improvements have been employed to enhance operational reliability and to incorporate the newly...

  3. Feasibility Study on Application of Electroadsorption Technique in Circulating Cooling Water Treatment in Thermal Power Plant%电吸附技术在火电厂循环冷却水处理中的应用可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈叔云; 冯向东; 施国忠

    2015-01-01

    The waste water of circulating water system is hard to reuse because of its high salinity and large quantity. This paper conducts feasibility study on the application of electroadsorption technique in circulating cooling water treatment in power plants. The test result shows that this technique is stable in desalination and can reduce salinity and chloride ion in water by 65% or more; besides, the technique can better remove COD. The technique is characterized by its high desalination rate, meaning treatment of 1 ton of water costs 0.5Yuan. The test equipment operates in stability and its treatment efficiency is favorable, constant and ad-justable;it is tolerant and can be used for preliminary desalination of circulating water in power plant.%火电厂循环水排污水含盐量高、水量大、回用比较困难,对电吸附技术在发电厂循环水排污水回用方面进行可行性研究。试验结果表明电吸附技术有稳定的除盐效果,可有效降低和去除水中65%以上的硬度与氯离子,同时对COD亦有较好的去除效果,除盐效率高,合计1 t水处理成本约0.5元。试验设备运行稳定,处理效果好且连续可调,设备耐受性好,可以用于循环水初级脱盐处理。

  4. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 6; Computed Temperature Distribution Through Cross Section of Water-Cooled Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingood, John N. B.; Sams, Eldon W.

    1947-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the cross-sectional temperature distribution of a water-cooled turbine blade was made using the relaxation method to solve the differential equation derived from the analysis. The analysis was applied to specific turbine blade and the studies icluded investigations of the accuracy of simple methods to determine the temperature distribution along the mean line of the rear part of the blade, of the possible effect of varying the perimetric distribution of the hot gas-to -metal heat transfer coefficient, and of the effect of changing the thermal conductivity of the blade metal for a constant cross sectional area blade with two quarter inch diameter coolant passages.

  5. Startup of Pumping Units in Process Water Supplies with Cooling Towers at Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, V. V., E-mail: vberlin@rinet.ru; Murav’ev, O. A., E-mail: muraviov1954@mail.ru; Golubev, A. V., E-mail: electronik@inbox.ru [National Research University “Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Aspects of the startup of pumping units in the cooling and process water supply systems for thermal and nuclear power plants with cooling towers, the startup stages, and the limits imposed on the extreme parameters during transients are discussed.

  6. Cooling tower for the cooling water that drains from the condensor of a steam generator or the condensors of a plurality of steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorzyk, S.; Scholl, G.; Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.

    1989-09-05

    This invention relates to a cooling tower for the cooling water that drains from the condenser of a steam generator or from the condensers of a plurality of steam generators. The tower is fitted with large-area inserts and these form a heat-exchange area into which the cooling water is passed. A rising flow of air passes through this zone in counterflow to the cooling water. The cooling tower is provided with a smoke-gas feed to introduce cleaned, preferably wet-cleaned, smoke gas into the flow of cooling air, which is connected to a plurality of gas outlet pipes. The outlet cross-sections of those pipes open out into the cooling tower above the heat-exchange zone. In order to improve the introduction of the cleaned smoke gases into the flow of cooling air within a cooling tower, this invention proposes that rotors be provided in the gas outlet pipes in the area of their outlet cross-sections. To this end, it is also possible to make each gas outlet pipe rotatable about its longitudinal axis, the angle of inclination of the gas outlet pipes being variable.

  7. Contaminated water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for processing of a liquid ("contaminant liquid") containing water and containing urine and/or other contaminants in a two step process. Urine, or a contaminated liquid similar to and/or containing urine and thus having a relatively high salt and urea content is passed through an activated carbon filter to provide a resulting liquid, to remove most of the organic molecules. The resulting liquid is passed through a semipermeable membrane from a membrane first side to a membrane second side, where a fortified drink having a lower water concentration (higher osmotic potential) than the resulting liquid is positioned. Osmotic pressure differential causes the water, but not most of the remaining inorganic (salts) contaminant(s) to pass through the membrane to the fortified drink. Optionally, the resulting liquid is allowed to precipitate additional organic molecules before passage through the membrane.

  8. Calculation of Radioactivity and Dose Rate of Activated Corrosion Products in Water-Cooled Fusion Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In water-cooled reactor, the dominant radioactive source term under normal operation is activated corrosion products (ACPs, which have an important impact on reactor inspection and maintenance. A three-node transport model of ACPs was introduced into the new version of ACPs source term code CATE in this paper, which makes CATE capable of theoretically simulating the variation and the distribution of ACPs in a water-cooled reactor and suitable for more operating conditions. For code testing, MIT PWR coolant chemistry loop was simulated, and the calculation results from CATE are close to the experimental results from MIT, which means CATE is available and credible on ACPs analysis of water-cooled reactor. Then ACPs in the blanket cooling loop of water-cooled fusion reactor ITER under construction were analyzed using CATE and the results showed that the major contributors are the short-life nuclides, especially Mn-56. At last a point kernel integration code ARShield was coupled with CATE, and the dose rate around ITER blanket cooling loop was calculated. Results showed that after shutting down the reactor only for 8 days, the dose rate decreased nearly one order of magnitude, which was caused by the rapid decay of the short-life ACPs.

  9. Biofouling reduction in recirculating cooling systems through biofiltration of process water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, K P H; Van Groenestijn, J W; Gerritse, J

    2003-02-01

    Biofouling is a serious problem in industrial recirculating cooling systems. It damages equipment, through biocorrosion, and causes clogging and increased energy consumption, through decreased heat transfer. In this research a fixed-bed biofilter was developed which removed assimilable organic carbon (AOC) from process water, thus limiting the major substrate for the growth of biofouling. The biofilter was tested in a laboratory model recirculating cooling water system, including a heat exchanger and a cooling tower. A second identical model system without a biofilter served as a reference. Both installations were challenged with organic carbon (sucrose and yeast extract) to provoke biofouling. The biofilter improved the quality of the recirculating cooling water by reducing the AOC content, the ATP concentration, bacterial numbers (30-40 fold) and the turbidity (OD660). The process of biofouling in the heat exchangers, the process water pipelines and the cooling towers, was monitored by protein increase, heat transfer resistance, and chlorine demanded for maintenance. This revealed that biofouling was lower in the system with the biofilter compared to the reference installation. It was concluded that AOC removal through biofiltration provides an attractive, environmental-friendly means to reduce biofouling in industrial cooling systems.

  10. The cool state of water: Infrared insights into ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    Water is an extraordinary substance. It owes its characteristic anomalous properties to a network of strong hydrogen bonds present between water molecules. In ice, water molecules hold regular positions in the crystal. Nevertheless, the behaviour of ice can be dynamic and exciting, especially at the

  11. Technology to Facilitate the Use of Impaired Waters in Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colborn, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The project goal was to develop an effective silica removal technology and couple that with existing electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) technology to achieve a cost effective treatment for impaired waters to allow for their use in the cooling towers of coal fired power plants. A quantitative target of the program was a 50% reduction in the fresh water withdrawal at a levelized cost of water of $3.90/Kgal. Over the course of the program, a new molybdenum-modified alumina was developed that significantly outperforms existing alumina materials in silica removal both kinetically and thermodynamically. The Langmuir capacity is 0.11g silica/g adsorbent. Moreover, a low cost recycle/regeneration process was discovered to allow for multiple recycles with minimal loss in activity. On the lab scale, five runs were carried out with no drop in performance between the second and fifth run in ability to absorb the silica from water. The Mo-modified alumina was successfully prepared on a multiple kilogram scale and a bench scale model column was used to remove 100 ppm of silica from 400 liters of simulated impaired water. Significant water savings would result from such a process and the regeneration process could be further optimized to reduce water requirements. Current barriers to implementation are the base cost of the adsorbent material and the fine powder form that would lead to back pressure on a large column. If mesoporous materials become more commonly used in other areas and the price drops from volume and process improvements, then our material would also lower in price because the amount of molybdenum needed is low and no additional processing is required. There may well be engineering solutions to the fine powder issue; in a simple concept experiment, we were able to pelletize our material with Boehmite, but lost performance due to a dramatic decrease in surface area.

  12. Optimum Design and Operation of an HVAC Cooling Tower for Energy and Water Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente García Cutillas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption increase in the last few years has contributed to developing energy efficiency policies in many countries, the main goal of which is decreasing CO 2 emissions. One of the reasons for this increment has been caused by the use of air conditioning systems due to new comfort standards. In that regard, cooling towers and evaporative condensers are presented as efficient devices that operate with low-level water temperature. Moreover, the energy consumption and the cost of the equipment are lower than other systems like air condensers at the same operation conditions. This work models an air conditioning system in TRNSYS software, the main elements if which are a cooling tower, a water-water chiller and a reference building. The cooling tower model is validated using experimental data in a pilot plant. The main objective is to implement an optimizing control strategy in order to reduce both energy and water consumption. Furthermore a comparison between three typical methods of capacity control is carried out. Additionally, different cooling tower configurations are assessed, involving six drift eliminators and two water distribution systems. Results show the influence of optimizing the control strategy and cooling tower configuration, with a maximum energy savings of 10.8% per story and a reduction of 4.8% in water consumption.

  13. Simultaneous effects of water spray and crosswind on performance of natural draft dry cooling tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadikia Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of water spray and crosswind on the effectiveness of the natural draft dry cooling tower (NDDCT, a three-dimensional model has been developed. Efficiency of NDDCT is improved by water spray system at the cooling tower entrance for high ambient temperature condition with and without crosswind. The natural and forced heat convection flow inside and around the NDDCT is simulated numerically by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations in both air and water droplet phases. Comparison of the numerical results with one-dimensional analytical model and the experimental data illustrates a well-predicted heat transfer rate in the cooling tower. Applying water spray system on the cooling tower radiators enhances the cooling tower efficiency at both no wind and windy conditions. For all values of water spraying rate, NDDCTs operate most effectively at the crosswind velocity of 3m/s and as the wind speed continues to rise to more than 3 m/s up to 12 m/s, the tower efficiency will decrease by approximately 18%, based on no-wind condition. The heat transfer rate of radiator at wind velocity 10 m/s is 11.5% lower than that of the no wind condition. This value is 7.5% for water spray rate of 50kg/s.

  14. Reuse & Recirculation of Filter Backwash Water of Water Treatment Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh L. Jibhakate

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the water treatment plant, filtration is done by means of sand filtration process. Due to continuous filtration process, sand pores get clogged and decreases the efficiency. For mitigating such problem, reverse flow of water & air i.e. backwashing process is carried out. To carry out backwashing operation, 4% of treated water has been utilized and will result in muddy water known as backwash water. This backwash water is then discharged into a natural stream or storage tank near the plant for recirculation. The present study includes a trial for the reuse & recirculation of backwash water.

  15. The Modification of Sodium Polyacrylate Water Solution Cooling Properties by AL2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Gęstwa

    2010-01-01

    Based on cooling curves, it can be concluded that for the water solution of sodium polyacrylate with AL2O3 nanoparticles in comparison to water and 10% polymer water solution lower cooling speed is obtained. The cooling medium containing nanoparticles provides lower cooling speed in the smallest surface austenite occurance (500–600 C in the charts of the CTP for most nonalloy structural steels and low-alloy steels. However lower cooling temperature at the beginning of martensitic transformation causes the formation of smaller internal stresses, leading to smaller dimensional changes and hardening deformation. For the quenching media the wetting angle was appointed by the drop-shape method. These studies showed the best wettability of polymer water solution (sodium polyacrylate with the addition of AL2O3 nanoparticles, whose wetting angle was about 65 degrees. Obtaining the smallest wetting angle for the medium containing nanoparticles suggests that the heat transfer to the cooling medium is larger. This allows slower cooling at the same time ensuring its homogeneity. The obtained values of wetting angle confirm the conclusions drawn on the basis of cooling curves and allowus to conclude that in the case of the heat transfer rate it will have a lower value than for water and 10% polymer water solution. In the research on hardened carburized steel samples C10 and 16MnCr5 surface hardness, impact strength and changes in the size of cracks in Navy C-ring sample are examined. On this basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that polymer water solution with nanoparticles allows to obtain a better impact strength at comparable hardness on the surface. Research on the dimensional changes on the basis of the sample of Navy C-ring also shows small dimensional changes for samples carburized and hardened in 10% polymer water solution with the addition of nanoparticles AL2O3. Smaller dimensional changes were obtained for samples of steel 16MnCr5 thanfar C10. The

  16. Soft-Sensing Method of Water Temperature Measurement for Controlled Cooling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xiao-hui; ZHANG Dian-hua; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua; FAN Lei

    2003-01-01

    Aiming at the water temperature measuring problem for controlled cooling system of rolling plant, a new water temperature measuring method based on soft-sensing method with a water temperature model of on-line self correction parameter was built. A water temperature compensation factor model was also built to improve coiling temperature control precision. It was proved that the model meets production requirements. The soft-sensing technique has extensive applications in the field of metal forming.

  17. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

  18. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

    1991-12-31

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

  19. INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF AN ATMOSPHERIC COOLING TOWER USING FRESH AND SALTED WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooling towers are extensively used to evacuate large quantities of heat at modest temperatures through a change of phase of the flowing cooling fluid. Based on this classical principle, the present study investigates the influence of salty water on the heat exchange produced. For that purpose, experiments are carried out using fresh and salty water. Furthermore, a comparison with the results produced through an approach involving the solution of energy equation involving the flow of air on an evaporating film of fluid. The detailed results show a preponderance of fresh water over the salty.

  20. Study on Effects of Diesel Engine Cooling System Parameters on Water Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆清国; 冯建涛; 刘国夫; 桂勇

    2011-01-01

    A simulation model for a certain diesel engine cooling system is set up by using GT-COOL. The backwater tem- perature response in different operating conditions is simulated numerically. The effects of single or multiple system parameters on the water temperature are analyzed. The results show that, changing different single parameters, the time taken for the steady backwater temperature is different, but relatively short; and if multiple parameters are changed, the time will be longer. Referred to the thermal balance test, the simulation results are validated and provide a basis for the intelligent con- trol of the cooling system.

  1. Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, M. T H; van Beek, L. P H; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F P

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding o

  2. Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Beek, van L.P.H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved

  3. Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Beek, van L.P.H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understandin

  4. Industrial Water Treatment Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    2040) Gallic Acid Powder (item 2063) METHOD: It is necessary to follow the instructions furnished with the conductivity meter that is being used . The...reduces CO. Caustic soda raises pH to desired level. (Courtesy of Power: McGraw-Hill Publications) (2) A hydrogen zeolite softener (Figure 9) uses acid ...a) The acid used in the regeneration process makes the effluent water more corrosive (lower pH on effluent). (b) The hazards that exist in handling

  5. Measured performance of a 3 ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A three ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It was concluded that a three-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  6. Measured performance of a 3-ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 3-ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot-water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It is concluded that a 3-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  7. Feasibility analysis of modified AL-6XN steel for structure component application in supercritical water-cooled reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinggang LI; Qingzhi YAN; Rong MA; Haoqiang WANG; Changchun GE

    2009-01-01

    Modified AL-6XN austenite steel was patterned after AL-6XN superaustenitic stainless steel by introducing microalloy elements such as zirconium and titanium in order to adapt to recrystallizing thermo-mechanical treatment and further improve crevice corrosion resistance. Modified AL-6XN exhibited comparable tensile strength, and superior plasticity and impact toughness to commercial AL-6XN steel. The effects of aging behavior on corrosion resistance and impact toughness were measured to evaluate the qualification of modified AL-6XN steel as an in-core component and cladding material in a supercritical water-cooled reactor. Attention should be paid to degradation in corrosion resistance and impact toughness after aging for 50 hours when modified AL-6XN steel is considered as one of the candidate materials for in-core components and cladding tubes in supercritical water-cooled reactors.

  8. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  9. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  10. Internet Based, GIS Catalog of Non-Traditional Sources of Cooling Water for Use at America's Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Daniel Arthur

    2011-09-30

    In recent years, rising populations and regional droughts have caused coal-fired power plants to temporarily curtail or cease production due to a lack of available water for cooling. In addition, concerns about the availability of adequate supplies of cooling water have resulted in cancellation of plans to build much-needed new power plants. These issues, coupled with concern over the possible impacts of global climate change, have caused industry and community planners to seek alternate sources of water to supplement or replace existing supplies. The Department of Energy, through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is researching ways to reduce the water demands of coal-fired power plants. As part of the NETL Program, ALL Consulting developed an internet-based Catalog of potential alternative sources of cooling water. The Catalog identifies alternative sources of water, such as mine discharge water, oil and gas produced water, saline aquifers, and publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), which could be used to supplement or replace existing surface water sources. This report provides an overview of the Catalog, and examines the benefits and challenges of using these alternative water sources for cooling water.

  11. Natural Pathogen Control Chemistry to Replace Toxic Treatment of Microbes and Biofilm in Cooling Towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouse, Lon; Brouse, Richard; Brouse, Daniel

    2017-03-31

    Application of toxic antibacterial agents is considered necessary to control prevalent fresh water microorganisms that grow in evaporative cooling water systems, but can adversely affect the environment and human health. However, natural antibacterial water chemistry has been applied in industrial cooling water systems for over 10 years to inhibit microorganisms with excellent results. The water chemistry method concentrates natural minerals in highly-softened water to produce elevated pH and dissolved solids, while maintaining low calcium and magnesium content. The method provides further benefits in water conservation, and generates a small volume of non-toxic natural salt concentrate for cost efficient separation and disposal if required. This report describes the antimicrobial effects of these chemistry modifications in the cooling water environment and the resultant collective inhibition of microbes, biofilm, and pathogen growth. This article also presents a novel perspective of parasitic microbiome functional relationships, including "Trojan Protozoans" and biofilms, and the function of polyvalent metal ions in the formation and inhibition of biofilms. Reducing global dependence on toxic antibacterial agents discharged to the environment is an emerging concern due to their impact on the natural microbiome, plants, animals and humans. Concurrently, scientists have concluded that discharge of antibacterial agents plays a key role in development of pathogen resistance to antimicrobials as well as antibiotics. Use of natural antibacterial chemistry can play a key role in managing the cooling water environment in a more ecologically sustainable manner.

  12. The microscale cooling effects of water sensitive urban design and irrigation in a suburban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Ashley M.; Coutts, Andrew M.; Tapper, Nigel J.; Demuzere, Matthias; Beringer, Jason

    2017-09-01

    Prolonged drought has threatened traditional potable urban water supplies in Australian cities, reducing capability to adapt to climate change and mitigate against extreme. Integrated urban water management (IUWM) approaches, such as water sensitive urban design (WSUD), reduce the reliance on centralised potable water supply systems and provide a means for retaining water in the urban environment through stormwater harvesting and reuse. This study examines the potential for WSUD to provide cooling benefits and reduce human exposure and heat stress and thermal discomfort. A high-resolution observational field campaign, measuring surface level microclimate variables and remotely sensed land surface characteristics, was conducted in a mixed residential suburb containing WSUD in Adelaide, South Australia. Clear evidence was found that WSUD features and irrigation can reduce surface temperature (T s) and air temperature (T a) and improve human thermal comfort (HTC) in urban environments. The average 3 pm T a near water bodies was found to be up to 1.8 °C cooler than the domain maximum. Cooling was broadly observed in the area 50 m downwind of lakes and wetlands. Design and placement of water bodies were found to affect their cooling effectiveness. HTC was improved by proximity to WSUD features, but shading and ventilation were also effective at improving thermal comfort. This study demonstrates that WSUD can be used to cool urban microclimates, while simultaneously achieving other environmental benefits, such as improved stream ecology and flood mitigation.

  13. Zirconium carbide coating for corium experiments related to water-cooled and sodium-cooled reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevacova, K.; Journeau, C.; Piluso, P.; Zhdanov, V.; Baklanov, V.; Poirier, J.

    2011-07-01

    Since the TMI and Chernobyl accidents the risk of nuclear severe accident is intensively studied for existing and future reactors. In case of a core melt-down accident in a nuclear reactor, a complex melt, called corium, forms. To be able to perform experiments with prototypic corium materials at high temperature, a coating which resists to different corium melts related to Generation I and II Water Reactors and Generation IV sodium fast reactor was researched in our experimental platforms both in IAE NNC in Kazakhstan and in CEA in France. Zirconium carbide was selected as protective coating for graphite crucibles used in our induction furnaces: VCG-135 and VITI. The method of coating application, called reactive wetting, was developed. Zirconium carbide revealed to resist well to the (U x, Zr y)O 2-z water reactor corium. It has also the advantage not to bring new elements to this chemical system. The coating was then tested with sodium fast reactor corium melts containing steel or absorbers. Undesirable interactions were observed between the coating and these materials, leading to the carburization of the corium ingots. Concerning the resistance of the coating to oxide melts without ZrO 2, the zirconium carbide coating keeps its role of protective barrier with UO 2-Al 2O 3 below 2000 °C but does not resist to a UO 2-Eu 2O 3 mixture.

  14. Simulation of the solidification in a channel of a water-cooled glass flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Ovando Chacon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer simulation study of a laminar steady-state glass flow that exits from a channel cooled with water is reported. The simulations are carried out in a two-dimensional, Cartesian channel with a backward-facing step for three different angles of the step and different glass outflow velocities. We studied the interaction of the fluid dynamics, phase change and thermal behavior of the glass flow due to the heat that transfers to the cooling water through the wall of the channel. The temperature, streamline, phase change and pressure fields are obtained and analyzed for the glass flow. Moreover, the temperature increments of the cooling water are characterized. It is shown that, by reducing the glass outflow velocity, the solidification is enhanced; meanwhile, an increase of the step angle also improves the solidification of the glass flow.

  15. Thermal analysis and water-cooling design of the CSNS MEBT 324 MHz buncher cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hua-Chang; OUYANG Hua-Fu

    2008-01-01

    At least two bunchers are needed in the 3 MeV H- Medium Energy Beam Transport(MEBT)line located between RFQ and DTL for the CSNS(China Spallation Neutron Source).A nose-cone geometry has been adopted as the type of buncher cavity for its simplicity,higher impedance and lower risk of multipacting.By making use of the results got from the simulations on the buncher with two-dimension code SUPERFISH,the thermal and structural analyses have been carried out,the process and results to determine the resulting frequency shift due to thermal and structural distortion of the cavity are presented,the water-cooling channel position and the optimum cooling water temperature as well as the tuning method by adjusting the cooling water temperature when the cavity is out of resonance are also determined through the analyses.

  16. Thermal analysis and water-cooling design of the CSNS MEBT 324 MHz buncher cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Chang; Ouyang, Hua-Fu

    2008-04-01

    At least two bunchers are needed in the 3 MeV H- Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line located between RFQ and DTL for the CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source). A nose-cone geometry has been adopted as the type of buncher cavity for its simplicity, higher impedance and lower risk of multipacting. By making use of the results got from the simulations on the buncher with two-dimension code SUPERFISH, the thermal and structural analyses have been carried out, the process and results to determine the resulting frequency shift due to thermal and structural distortion of the cavity are presented, the water-cooling channel position and the optimum cooling water temperature as well as the tuning method by adjusting the cooling water temperature when the cavity is out of resonance are also determined through the analyses.

  17. New Mexico cloud super cooled liquid water survey final report 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavis, Nick; Roskovensky, John K.; Ivey, Mark D.

    2010-02-01

    Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are partners in an effort to survey the super-cooled liquid water in clouds over the state of New Mexico in a project sponsored by the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program. This report summarizes the scientific work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during the 2009. In this second year of the project a practical methodology for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water was created. This was accomplished through the analysis of certain MODIS sensor satellite derived cloud products and vetted parameterizations techniques. A software code was developed to analyze multiple cases automatically. The eighty-one storm events identified in the previous year effort from 2006-2007 were again the focus. Six derived MODIS products were obtained first through careful MODIS image evaluation. Both cloud and clear-sky properties from this dataset were determined over New Mexico. Sensitivity studies were performed that identified the parameters which most influenced the estimation of cloud super-cooled liquid water. Limited validation was undertaken to ensure the soundness of the cloud super-cooled estimates. Finally, a path forward was formulized to insure the successful completion of the initial scientific goals which include analyzing different of annual datasets, validation of the developed algorithm, and the creation of a user-friendly and interactive tool for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water.

  18. Ice water submersion for rapid cooling in severe drug-induced hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Larissa K.; Landry, Adaira; Vassallo, Susi U.; Hoffman, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Context The optimal method of cooling hyperthermic patients is controversial. Although controlled data support ice water submersion, many authorities recommend a mist and fan technique. We report two patients with drug-induced hyperthermia, to demonstrate the rapid cooing rates of ice water submersion. Case details Case 1. A 27-year-old man presented with a sympathomimetic toxic syndrome and a core temperature of 41.4°C after ingesting 4-fluoroamphetamine. He was submerged in ice water and his core temperature fell to 38°C within 18 minutes (a mean cooling rate of 0.18°C/min). His vital signs stabilized, his mental status improved and he left on hospital day 2. Case 2. A 32-year-old man with a sympathomimetic toxic syndrome after cocaine use was transported in a body bag and arrived with a core temperature of 44.4°C. He was intubated, sedated with IV benzodiazepines, and submerged in ice water. After 20 minutes his temperature fell to 38.8°C (a cooling rate of 0.28°C/min). He was extubated the following day, and discharged on day 10. Discussion In these two cases, cooling rates exceeded those reported for mist and fan technique. Since the priority in hyperthermia is rapid cooling, clinical data need to be collected to reaffirm the optimal approach. PMID:25695144

  19. Experimental and numerical analysis of the cooling performance of water spraying systems during a fire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YaoHan Chen

    Full Text Available The water spray systems are effective protection systems in the confined or unconfined spaces to avoid the damage to building structures since the high temperature when fires occur. NFPA 15 and 502 have suggested respectively that the factories or vehicle tunnels install water spray systems to protect the machinery and structures. This study discussed the cooling effect of water spray systems in experimental and numerical analyses. The actual combustion of woods were compared with the numerical simulations. The results showed that although the flame continued, the cooling effects by water spraying process within 120 seconds were obvious. The results also indicated that the simulation results of the fifth version Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS overestimated the space temperature before water spraying in the case of the same water spray system.

  20. Experimental and numerical analysis of the cooling performance of water spraying systems during a fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, YaoHan; Su, ChungHwei; Tseng, JoMing; Li, WunJie

    2015-01-01

    The water spray systems are effective protection systems in the confined or unconfined spaces to avoid the damage to building structures since the high temperature when fires occur. NFPA 15 and 502 have suggested respectively that the factories or vehicle tunnels install water spray systems to protect the machinery and structures. This study discussed the cooling effect of water spray systems in experimental and numerical analyses. The actual combustion of woods were compared with the numerical simulations. The results showed that although the flame continued, the cooling effects by water spraying process within 120 seconds were obvious. The results also indicated that the simulation results of the fifth version Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) overestimated the space temperature before water spraying in the case of the same water spray system.

  1. High Throughput Plasma Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujovic, Selman; Foster, John

    2016-10-01

    The troublesome emergence of new classes of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors, poses challenges for conventional water treatment systems. In an effort to address these contaminants and to support water reuse in drought stricken regions, new technologies must be introduced. The interaction of water with plasma rapidly mineralizes organics by inducing advanced oxidation in addition to other chemical, physical and radiative processes. The primary barrier to the implementation of plasma-based water treatment is process volume scale up. In this work, we investigate a potentially scalable, high throughput plasma water reactor that utilizes a packed bed dielectric barrier-like geometry to maximize the plasma-water interface. Here, the water serves as the dielectric medium. High-speed imaging and emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the reactor discharges. Changes in methylene blue concentration and basic water parameters are mapped as a function of plasma treatment time. Experimental results are compared to electrostatic and plasma chemistry computations, which will provide insight into the reactor's operation so that efficiency can be assessed. Supported by NSF (CBET 1336375).

  2. Experiment Investigation on Electrical and Thermal Performances of a Semitransparent Photovoltaic/Thermal System with Water Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Guiqiang Li; Gang Pei; Ming Yang; Jie Ji

    2014-01-01

    Different from the semitransparent building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) system with air cooling, the semitransparent BIPV/T system with water cooling is rare, especially based on the silicon solar cells. In this paper, a semitransparent photovoltaic/thermal system (SPV/T) with water cooling was set up, which not only would provide the electrical power and hot water, but also could attain the natural illumination for the building. The PV efficiency, thermal efficiency, and exergy ...

  3. 78 FR 64029 - Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY... Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors,'' in which the NRC made editorial corrections and... analysis for liquid and gaseous radwaste system components for light water nuclear power...

  4. Enhanced Homogeneities of Microstructure and Property in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Extruded Product by Cooling Rate After Homogenization Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihao; Xue, Jie; Jiang, Yanbin

    2017-07-01

    A method to improve the homogeneities of microstructure and mechanical property in an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu extruded product, which changes cooling rate after homogenization treatment to obtain the different distribution characteristics of the precipitates, was proposed and the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of the alloy were investigated. The results show that the precipitates in the water-quenched billet are of mainly coarse particles with the content of about 2.0%, while a large number of needle-shaped precipitates are dispersively distributed in the furnace-cooled billet with the content of about 9.8%. Numerous precipitates distributed dispersively can improve the homogeneities of microstructure and mechanical property of the alloy during extrusion. For example, when the water-quenched billets are extruded at 390 and 430 °C followed by solution-aging treatment, the average grain sizes of the two bars are 3.4 and 8.1 μm, and the elongations to failure are 7.0 and 9.2%, respectively. When the furnace-cooled billets are extruded at 390 and 430 °C followed by solution-aging treatment, the average grain sizes of the two bars are 3.1 and 3.5 μm, respectively, and the elongations are basically the same, indicating the better microstructure homogeneity and mechanical properties.

  5. The Simulation of the Influence of Water Remnants on a Hot Rolled Plate after Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Zahradník

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In situations when a sheet metal plate of large dimensions is rolled, water remnants from cooling can be observed on the upper side of the plate. This paper focuses on deformations of a hot rolled sheet metal plate that are caused by water remnants after cooling. A transient finite element simulation was used to describe shape deformations of the cross profile of a metal sheet. The finite element model is fully parametric for easy simulation of multiple cases. The results from previous work were used for the boundary conditions.

  6. High Precision Temperature Control and Analysis of RF Deionized Cooling Water System

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Zong-Da; Chen June Rong; Liu, Chen-Yao

    2005-01-01

    Previously, the Taiwan Light Source (TLS) has proven the good beam quality mainly depends on the utility system stability. A serial of efforts were devoted to these studies. Further, a high precision temperature control of the RF deionized cooling water system will be achieved to meet the more critical stability requirement. The paper investigates the mixing mechanism through thermal and flow analysis and verifies the practical influences. A flow mixing mechanism and control philosophy is studied and processed to optimize temperature variation which has been reduced from ±0.1? to ±0.01?. Also, the improvement of correlation between RF performance and water cooling stability will be presented.

  7. Questioning the Mpemba effect: hot water does not cool more quickly than cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Henry C.; Linden, Paul F.

    2016-11-01

    The Mpemba effect is the name given to the assertion that it is quicker to cool water to a given temperature when the initial temperature is higher. This assertion seems counter-intuitive and yet references to the effect go back at least to the writings of Aristotle. Indeed, at first thought one might consider the effect to breach fundamental thermodynamic laws, but we show that this is not the case. We go on to examine the available evidence for the Mpemba effect and carry out our own experiments by cooling water in carefully controlled conditions. We conclude, somewhat sadly, that there is no evidence to support meaningful observations of the Mpemba effect.

  8. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  9. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  10. Water cooling thermal power measurement in a vacuum diffusion pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Cardozo Amorin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion vacuum pumps are used both in industry and in laboratory science for high vacuum production. For its operation they must be refrigerated, and it is done by circulating water in open circuit. Considering that, vacuum systems stays operating by hours, the water consumption may be avoided if the diffusion vacuum pumps refrigeration were done in closed circuit. However, it is necessary to know the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power (the heat transferred to circulate water by time units to implement one of these and get in the refrigeration system dimension. In this paper the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power was obtained by measuring water flow and temperature variation and was calculated through the heat quantity variation equation time function. The thermal power value was 935,6 W, that is 397 W smaller and 35 W bigger than, respectively, the maximum and minimum diffusion pump thermal power suggested by its operation manual. This procedure have been shown useful to precisely determine the diffusion pump thermal power or of any other system that needs to be refrigerated in water closed circuit.

  11. Development and construction of the novel solar thermal desiccant cooling system incorporating hot water production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enteria, Napoleon; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Mochida, Akashi; Takaki, Rie [Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Satake, Akira [Technical Research Institute, Maeda Corporation, Tokyo 179-8914 (Japan); Yoshie, Ryuichiro [Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University, Atsugi 243-0297 (Japan); Baba, Seizo [Earth Clean Tohoku Co. Ltd., Sendai 984-0038 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    This paper reports the development and construction of the novel solar cooling and heating system. The system consists of the thermal energy subsystem and the desiccant cooling subsystem. The system utilizes both the cheaper nighttime electric energy and the free daytime solar energy. The system is conceptualized to produce both cooling during summer daytime and hot water production during winter. Testing and evaluation of the system had been done to determine its operational procedure and performance. Based on the results, the thermal energy subsystem functioned to its expected performance in solar energy collection and thermal storage. The desiccant cooling subsystem reduced both the temperature and the humidity content of the air using solar energy with a minimal amount of back-up electric energy. The system however, needs further investigation under real conditions. (author)

  12. Investigation of heat transfer for extruded polymers cooled in water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available part, the time taken by PE, PP and PLA to lose heat in water was analyzed theoretically with the help of MATLAB software package by taking into account the density, thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficient and specific heat. The time taken...

  13. State of Fukushima nuclear fuel debris tracked by Cs137 in cooling water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambow, B; Mostafavi, M

    2014-11-01

    It is still difficult to assess the risk originating from the radioactivity inventory remaining in the damaged Fukushima nuclear reactors. Here we show that cooling water analyses provide a means to assess source terms for potential future releases. Until now already about 34% of the inventories of (137)Cs of three reactors has been released into water. We found that the release rate of (137)Cs has been constant for 2 years at about 1.8% of the inventory per year indicating ongoing dissolution of the fuel debris. Compared to laboratory studies on spent nuclear fuel behavior in water, (137)Cs release rates are on the higher end, caused by the strong radiation field and oxidant production by water radiolysis and by impacts of accessible grain boundaries. It is concluded that radionuclide analyses in cooling water allow tracking of the conditions of the damaged fuel and the associated risks.

  14. Global cooling after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: a test of climate feedback by water vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soden, Brian J; Wetherald, Richard T; Stenchikov, Georgiy L; Robock, Alan

    2002-04-26

    The sensitivity of Earth's climate to an external radiative forcing depends critically on the response of water vapor. We use the global cooling and drying of the atmosphere that was observed after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo to test model predictions of the climate feedback from water vapor. Here, we first highlight the success of the model in reproducing the observed drying after the volcanic eruption. Then, by comparing model simulations with and without water vapor feedback, we demonstrate the importance of the atmospheric drying in amplifying the temperature change and show that, without the strong positive feedback from water vapor, the model is unable to reproduce the observed cooling. These results provide quantitative evidence of the reliability of water vapor feedback in current climate models, which is crucial to their use for global warming projections.

  15. Cooling Effect of Water Injection on a High-Temperature Supersonic Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The high temperature and high pressure supersonic jet is one of the key problems in the design of solid rocket motors. To reduce the jet temperature and noise, cooling water is typically injected into the exhaust plume. Numerical simulations for the gas-liquid multiphase flow field with mixture multiphase model were developed and a series of experiments were carried out. By introducing the energy source terms caused by the vaporization of liquid water into the energy equation, a coupling solution was developed to calculate the multiphase flow field. The temperature data predictions agreed well with the experimental results. When water was injected into the plume, the high temperature core region area was reduced, and the temperature on the head face was much lower than that without water. The relationship between the reduction of temperature on the bottom plate and the momentum ratio is developed, which can be used to predict the cooling effect of water injection in many cases.

  16. PARAMETERS OF WATER CIRCULATION NETWORK FOR A DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In a district heating and cooling system, i.e. Beijing combined heating cooling and power (CHCP) system studied here, high temperature water generated by two cogeneration plants circulates through a network between the plants and heat substations. At heat substations, supply water of high temperature from the network drives absorption chillers for air-conditioning in summer and meets space heating demands in winter or domestic hot water demands by heat exchangers in the whole year. The parameters, i.e. supply/return water temperature in the network, has a great impact on primary energy consumption (PEC) of the absorption chillers, circulation pumps and domestic hot water (DHW), which is studied in this paper.

  17. Studies on advanced water-cooled reactors beyond generation Ⅲ for power generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xu

    2007-01-01

    China's ambitious nuclear power program motivates the country's nuclear community to develop advanced reactor concepts beyond generation Ⅲ to ensure a long-term, stable, and sustainable development of nuclear power. The paper discusses some main criteria for the selection of future water-cooled reactors by considering the specific Chinese situation. Based on the suggested selection criteria, two new types of water-cooled reactors are recommended for future Chinese nuclear power generation. The high conversion pressurized water reactor utilizes the present PWR technology to a large extent. With a conversion ratio of about 0.95, the fuel utilization is increased about 5 times. This significantly improves the sustainability of fuel resources. The supercritical water-cooled reactor has favorable features in economics,sustainability and technology availability. It is a logical extension of the generation Ⅲ PWR technology in China.The status of international R&D work is reviewed. A new supercritieal water-cooled reactor (SCWR) core structure (the mixed reactor core) and a new fuel assembly design (two-rows FA) are proposed. The preliminary analysis using a coupled neutron-physics/thermal-hydranlics method is carded out. It shows good feasibility for the new design proposal.

  18. Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young Cho; Alexander Fridman

    2009-04-02

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop technologies to reduce freshwater consumption in a cooling tower of coal-based power plant so that one could significantly reduce the need of make-up water. The specific goal was to develop a scale prevention technology based an integrated system of physical water treatment (PWT) and a novel filtration method so that one could reduce the need for the water blowdown, which accounts approximately 30% of water loss in a cooling tower. The present study investigated if a pulsed spark discharge in water could be used to remove deposits from the filter membrane. The test setup included a circulating water loop and a pulsed power system. The present experiments used artificially hardened water with hardness of 1,000 mg/L of CaCO{sub 3} made from a mixture of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in order to produce calcium carbonate deposits on the filter membrane. Spark discharge in water was found to produce strong shockwaves in water, and the efficiency of the spark discharge in cleaning filter surface was evaluated by measuring the pressure drop across the filter over time. Results showed that the pressure drop could be reduced to the value corresponding to the initial clean state and after that the filter could be maintained at the initial state almost indefinitely, confirming the validity of the present concept of pulsed spark discharge in water to clean dirty filter. The present study also investigated the effect of a plasma-assisted self-cleaning filter on the performance of physical water treatment (PWT) solenoid coil for the mitigation of mineral fouling in a concentric counterflow heat exchanger. The self-cleaning filter utilized shockwaves produced by pulse-spark discharges in water to continuously remove scale deposits from the surface of the filter, thus keeping the pressure drop across the filter at a relatively low value. Artificial hard water was used in the

  19. Structure of Water Mist Stream and its Impact on Cooling Efficiency of Casting Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Władysiak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work is a continuation of research on the use water mist cooling in order to increase efficiency of die-casting aluminum alloys. The paper presents results of research and analysis process, spraying water and generated a stream of water mist, the effect of the type of nozzle, the nozzle size and shape of the emitting of the water mist on the wall surface of casting die on the microstructure and geometry of water mist stream and cooling efficiency. Tests were used to perform high-speed camera to record video in the visible and infrared camera. Results were used to develop a computerized image analysis and statistical analysis. The study showed that there are statistical relationships between water and air flow and geometry of the nozzle and nozzle emitting a stream of microstructure parameters of water mist and heat the incoming stream. These relationships are described mathematical models that allow you to control the generating of adequate stream of water mist and a further consequence, the cooling efficiency of casting die.

  20. Advanced treatment and reuse system developed for oilfield process water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Kevin

    2011-01-15

    An innovative plant to treat oilfield produced wastewater is being constructed in Trinidad and Tobago following recent regulations and industrial water supply challenges. The 4,100m3/day treatment system, developed by Golder Associates, will produce water for industrial reuse and effluent that meets new regulations. The treatment stages include: oil-water separation by gravity, equalization with a two-day capacity basin, dissolved air flotation, cooling, biotreatment/settling with immobilized cell bioreactors (ICB) technology, prefiltration/reverse osmosis and effluent storage/transfer. This advanced system will provide several important benefits including the elimination of inland discharge of minimally-treated water and the reduction of environmental and public health concerns. In addition, it will provide a new source of industrial water, resulting in a decrease in demand for fresh water. The success of this plant could lead to additional facilities in other oil field locations, expanding economic and environmental benefits of water reuse.

  1. Ultrafast cooling by covalently bonded graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid immersed in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Walther, Jens H.; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2016-11-01

    The increasing power density and the decreasing dimensions of transistors present severe thermal challenges to the design of modern microprocessors. Furthermore, new technologies such as three-dimensional chip-stack architectures require novel cooling solutions for their thermal management. Here, we demonstrate, through transient heat-dissipation simulations, that a covalently bonded graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT) hybrid immersed in water is a promising solution for the ultrafast cooling of such high-temperature and high heat-flux surfaces. The G-CNT hybrid offers a unique platform to integrate the superior axial heat transfer capability of individual CNTs via their parallel arrangement. The immersion of the G-CNT in water enables an additional heat dissipation path via the solid-liquid interaction, allowing for the sustainable cooling of the hot surface under a constant power input of up to 10 000 W cm-2.

  2. Influence of the Water-Cooled Heat Exchanger on the Performance of a Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The water-cooled heat exchanger is one of the key components in a pulse tube refrigerator. Its heat exchange effectiveness directly influences the cooling performance of the refrigerator. However, effective heat exchange does not always result in a good performance, because excessively reinforced heat exchange can lead to additional flow loss. In this paper, seven different water-cooled heat exchangers were designed to explore the best configuration for a large-capacity pulse tube refrigerator. Results indicated that the heat exchanger invented by Hu always offered a better performance than that of finned and traditional shell-tube types. For a refrigerator with a working frequency of 50 Hz, the best hydraulic diameter is less than 1 mm.

  3. Water chemistry in heat and cold supply (district heating/cooling)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deelen-Bremer, Marga van; Vos, Frank de; Heijboer, Rob [KEMA Nederland B.V. (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    District heating is seen as an important pillar in the CO{sub 2} reduction. Since the Kyoto protocol with the target for reduction of greenhouse gases, a renewed interest in district heating is visible. District heating and increasingly district cooling can be used for heating/cooling of houses, but also for large buildings and greenhouses. Combined heat and power (CHP), waste incinerator, but also rest heat of industry can provide the heat for district heating. On the other hand cold surface water, groundwater, but also rest heat can be used for district cooling. With the growing heat/cold supply market, also an even larger growth in cases of damages in district heating systems is wittnessed. Damages were chemistry can play an preventing role. A good conditioning of the district heating water, combined with proper monitoring, will safeguard the integrity of the system. (orig.)

  4. THE SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM OF USING GROUND WATER TO COOL LIVESTOCK BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thay Ngok Shon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient temperature in the central part of Vietnam in summer can reach 32–35°C; in some places it can be more than 42°C. Hot climate strongly affects the animal organism alongside with the animal weight reduction and reduction the quantity of egg-laying in poultry. Therefore, air conditioning in livestock buildings is necessary. There are several ways to cool the temperature in such buildings, and each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. We propose to use underground water at the temperature of 24–25°C for this purpose. One of the methods of cooling sheds for livestock is sprinkler irrigation of water on the roof. For calculating the amount of heat, removed from the indoor air in the shed to the cooling water, in the first approximation specialists believe in some cases that an appropriate amount of heat being removed is determined mainly by heat transfer from the air inside the shed to the cooling water through the surface of the roof, represented by the lower part of the wave that form the surface of a metal tile, neglecting the influence of heat conduction on top of the wave of the tile surface. Consequentially, such a simplification leads to possible errors. Therefore, the authors solved the problem of cooling shed by irrigation of water on the roof by an analytical method. Specifically, we solved the problem of heat conductivity of the fin of the finite length of constant cross section, wherein different sides of the fin are conjugate with different environments. Additionally, the calculation considered the effect of solar radiation. For this purpose, the authors have created a heat balance equation at steady state for any infinitesimal element of the fin, and solved the differential equation afterwards. The authors applied the results for calculating practical problem of ground water irrigation of a roof of a livestock shed made of metal areas tiles. 

  5. The impact of thermal treatment and cooling methods on municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash with an emphasis on Cl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuo; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Kawano, Takashi; Kakuta, Yoshitada

    2016-10-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom-ash products possess qualifications to be utilized in cement production. However, the instant use of bottom ash is inhibited by a number of factors, among which the chlorine (Cl) content is always strictly restricted. In this paper, the unquenched MSWI bottom ash was used as the experimental substance, and the influences of thermal treatment and cooling methods on the content and existence of Cl in the ash residues were investigated. The characterization of the MSWI bottom-ash samples examined by utilizing X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The experimental results show that as a function of thermal treatment, the reduction rate of Cl is slight below 15.0%, which is relatively low compared with water washing process. Different cooling methods had impacts on the existing forms of Cl. It was understood that most of Cl existed in the glass phase if the bottom ash was air cooled. Contrarily in case of water-quenched bottom ash, Cl could also be accumulated in the newly-formed quench products as chloride salts or hydrate substances such as Friedel's salt.

  6. 40 CFR 63.1086 - How must I monitor for leaks to cooling water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electrode monitoring, pH, conductivity, or other representative indicators. (1) You shall prepare and... cooling water using any method listed in 40 CFR part 136. Use the same method for both entrance and exit samples. You may validate 40 CFR part 136 methods for the HAP listed in Table 1 to this subpart...

  7. Numerical simulation of endovenous laser treatment of the incompetent great saphenous vein with external air cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqa, Mohamad Feras; Mordon, Serge; Hernández-Osma, Esteban; Trelles, Mario; Betrouni, Nacim

    2013-05-01

    Endovenous laser treatment (ELT) has been proposed as an alternative in the treatment of reflux of the great saphenous vein. Before the procedure, peri-saphenous subcutaneous tumescent saline solution infiltration is usually performed. However, diffusion of this tumescent fluid is rapidly observed and can potentially reduce the efficacy as a heat sink. External skin cooling with cold air was proposed as an alternative solution. The objective of this study is to compare endovenous laser treatment without and with air cooling by realistic numerical simulations. An optical-thermal damage model was formulated and implemented using finite element modeling. The general model simulated light distribution using the diffusion approximation of the transport theory, temperature rise using the bioheat equation, and laser-induced injury using the Arrhenius damage model. Parameters, used in clinical procedures, were considered: power, 15 W; pulse duration, 1 s; fiber pull back, 3-mm increments every second; cold air applied in continuous mode during ELT; and no tumescent anesthesia. Simulations were performed for vein locations at 5, 10, and 15 mm in depth, with and without air cooling. For a vein located at 15 mm in depth, no significant difference was observed with and without cooling. For a vein located at 10 mm in depth, surface temperature increase up to 45 °C is observed without cooling. For a vein located at 5 mm, without cooling, temperature increase leads to irreversible damage of dermis and epidermis. Conversely, with air cooling, surface temperature reaches a maximum of 38 °C in accordance with recordings performed on patients. ELT of the incompetent great saphenous vein with external air cooling system is a promising therapy technique. Use of cold air on the skin continuously flowing in the area of laser shot decreased significantly the heat extent and the thermal damage in the perivenous tissues and the skin.

  8. Treatment of LF slag to prevent powdering during cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorai S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The polymorphic transformation of the monoclinic β-polymorph to the orthorhombic γ-polymorph of di-calcium silicate at around 500°C during cooling results in disintegration of slag. The slag generated, during the production of thermo mechanically treated steel in ladle furnace at M/s Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur, India, behaves in similar manner. An attempt has been made to prevent the crumbling of ladle furnace slag. The experiments were conducted in 10 kg air induction furnace. Various types of silica source were used to prevent the disintegration of ladle furnace slag by reducing the basicity and optimizing the additives amount. Apart from silica sources, other additives like borax and barium carbonate were also used to stabilize the β phase. Present investigation reveals that disintegration of ladle furnace slag can be prevented either by addition of 0.2% boarx or 2% barium carbonate. Dust formation can also be prevented by decreasing the ladle furnace slag basicity to about 1.7. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test, of the borax and barium carbonate treated slag samples, indicates that barium carbonate treated slag cannot be used for the dusting prevention as it contains high level of barium.

  9. A water-cooling solution for PC-racks of the LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Vannerem, P

    2004-01-01

    With ever increasing power consumption and heat dissipation of todays CPUs, cooling of rack-mounted PCs is an issue for the future online farms of the LHC experiments. In order to investigate the viability of a water-cooling solution, a prototype PC-farm rack has been equipped with a commercially available retrofitted heat exchanger. The project has been carried out as a collaboration of the four LHC experiments and the PH-ESS group . This note reports on the results of a series of cooling and power measurements of the prototype rack with configurations of 30 to 48 PCs. The cooling performance of the rack-cooler is found to be adequate; it extracts the heat dissipated by the CPUs efficiently into the cooling water. Hence, the closed PC rack transfers almost no heat into the room. The measurements and the failure tests show that the rack-cooler concept is a viable solution for the future PC farms of the LHC experiments.

  10. Reduction of Fire Hazard in Materials for Irrigators and Water Collectors in Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, N. V.; Konstantinova, N. I., E-mail: konstantinova-n@inbox.ru [FGBU VNIIPO of EMERCOM of Russia (All-Russian Scientific-research Institute of Fire Protection) (Russian Federation); Gordon, E. P. [Research and Production Center “Kaustik” (Russian Federation); Poedintsev, E. A. [FGBU VNIIPO of EMERCOM of Russia (All-Russian Scientific-research Institute of Fire Protection) (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    A way of reducing the fire hazard of PVC film used to make cooling-tower irrigators and water collectors is examined. A new generation of fire retardant, nanostructured magnesium hydroxide, is used to impart fire retardant properties. The fabrication technology is optimized with a roller-calendering manufacturing technique, and the permissible ranges of fire hazard indicators for materials in irrigators and water collectors are determined.

  11. Surface Water Treatment Workshop Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to increase the knowledge of experienced water treatment plant operators. Each of the fourteen lessons in this document has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in this manual include: basic water…

  12. CFD in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wols, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrodynamic processes largely determine the efficacy of drinking water treatment systems, in particular disinfection systems. A lack of understanding of the hydrodynamics has resulted in suboptimal designs of these systems. The formation of unwanted disinfection-by-products and the energy consumpti

  13. CFD in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wols, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrodynamic processes largely determine the efficacy of drinking water treatment systems, in particular disinfection systems. A lack of understanding of the hydrodynamics has resulted in suboptimal designs of these systems. The formation of unwanted disinfection-by-products and the energy consumpti

  14. CFD in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wols, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrodynamic processes largely determine the efficacy of drinking water treatment systems, in particular disinfection systems. A lack of understanding of the hydrodynamics has resulted in suboptimal designs of these systems. The formation of unwanted disinfection-by-products and the energy

  15. Characterization of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Bacteria Isolated from Industrial Cooling Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriya Okutsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooling water systems are used to remove heat generated in the various industries. Biofouling of the cooling water systems causes blocking of condenser pipes and the heat exchanger tubes. In many Gram-negative bacteria, N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL are used as quorum-sensing signal molecule and associated with biofilm formation. To investigate the relationship between quorum sensing and biofouling in the cooling water system, we isolated a total of 192 bacterial strains from the five cooling water systems, and screened for AHL production. Seven isolates stimulated AHL-mediated purple pigment production in AHL reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 or VIR07. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, AHL-producing isolates were assigned to Aeromonas hydrophila, Lysobacter sp., Methylobacterium oryzae, and Bosea massiliensis. To the best of our knowledge, B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. have not been reported as AHL-producing species in the previous researches. AHLs extracted from the culture supernatants of B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. AHLs produced by B. massiliensis were assigned as N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL, N-(3-oxohexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL, and N-(3-oxooctanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL. AHLs produced by Lysobacter sp. were assigned as N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL and N-(3-oxodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10-HSL. This is the first report of identification of AHLs produced by B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. isolated from the cooling water system.

  16. Patterns of fish assemblage structure and dynamics in waters of the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, J.M.; Anderson, C.S.; Floyd, K.B.; Negus, M.T.; Meador, M.R.

    1986-06-01

    Research conducted as part of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) has elucidated many factors that are important to fish population and community dynamics in a variety of habitats on the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Information gained from these studies is useful in predicting fish responses to SRP operations. The overall objective of the CCWS was (1) to determine the environmental effects of SRP cooling water withdrawals and discharges and (2) to determine the significance of the cooling water impacts on the environment. The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine the effects of thermal plumes on anadromous and resident fishes, including overwintering effects, in the SRP swamp and associated tributary streams; (2) assess fish spawning and locate nursery grounds on the SRP; (3) examine the level of use of the SRP by spawning fish from the Savannah River, this objective was shared with the Savannah River Laboratory, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; and (4) determine impacts of cooling-water discharges on fish population and community attributes. Five studies were designed to address the above topics. The specific objectives and a summary of the findings of each study are presented.

  17. Effect of makeup water properties on the condenser fouling in power planr cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of fresh water. As available freshwater for use in thermoelectric power production becomes increasingly limited, use of nontraditional water sources is of growing interest. Utilization of nontraditional water, in cooling systems increases the potential for mineral precipitation on heat exchanger surfaces. In that regard, predicting the accelerated rate of scaling and fouling in condenser is crucial to evaluate the condenser performance. To achieve this goal, water chemistry should be incorporated in cooling system modeling and simulation. This paper addresses the effects of various makeup water properties on the cooling system, namely pH and aqueous speciation, both of which are important factors affecting the fouling rate in the main condenser. Detailed modeling of the volatile species desorption (i.e. CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}), the formation of scale in the recirculating system, and the relationship between water quality and the corresponding fouling rates is presented.

  18. The therapeutic use of localized cooling in the treatment of VX poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, T W; Mikler, J; Worek, F; Reiter, G; Thiermann, H; Tenn, C; Weatherby, K; Bohnert, S

    2011-07-04

    The organophosphate (OP) nerve agent VX is a weaponized chemical warfare agent that has also been used by terrorists against civilians. This contact poison produces characteristic signs of OP poisoning, including miosis, salivation, mastication, dysrhythmias and respiratory distress prior to death. Although successful treatment of OP poisoning can be obtained through decontamination and/or oxime reactivation of agent-inhibited cholinesterase, medical countermeasures that increase the therapeutic window for these measures would be of benefit. An anaesthetized swine model was utilized to examine the effects of lethal VX exposure to the skin, followed by cooling the exposure site prior to decontamination or treatment. The cooling was simply accomplished by using crushed ice in grip-seal plastic bags applied to the exposure sites. Cooling of skin exposed to lethal doses of VX significantly increased the window of opportunity for successful decontamination using the Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion(®) (RSDL(®)) or treatment with the oxime antidotes HI-6 and 2PAM. Analyses of blood VX levels showed that cooling acted to slow or prevent the entry of VX into the bloodstream from the skin. If the exposure site is known, the simple and non-invasive application of cooling provides a safe means with which to dramatically increase the therapeutic window in which decontamination and/or antidote treatment against VX are life-saving.

  19. HVAC cable systems with forced water cooling for wind energy transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brakelmann, Heinrich; Zhang, Dongping [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Duisburg (DE). Dept. Energy Transport and Storage (ETS)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a solution for an efficient wind energy transmission onshore: HVAC cable system with forced water cooling, which provides a substantial increase of the cable ampacity without any modification of the cable construction and design. This work shows the projecting and planning of such HVAC cable systems in combination with a cooling system, especially considering the faulty (n-1)-case. The efficiency utilizing the short-term load capacity of the cable systems transmitting wind energy is shown by computations provided by specialized and adapted FEM (Finite Element Method) software. (orig.)

  20. Organohalogen products from chlorination of cooling water at nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    Eight nuclear power units at seven locations in the US were studied to determine the effects of chlorine, added as a biocide, on the composition of cooling water discharge. Water, sediment and biota samples from the sites were analyzed for total organic halogen and for a variety of organohalogen compounds. Haloforms were discharged from all plants studied, at concentrations of a few ..mu..g/L (parts-per-billion). Evidence was obtained that power plants with cooling towers discharge a significant portion of the haloforms formed during chlorination to the atmosphere. A complex mixture of halogenated phenols was found in the cooling water discharges of the power units. Cooling towers can act to concentrate halogenated phenols to levels approaching those of the haloforms. Examination of samples by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry did not result in identification of any significant concentrations of lipophilic base-neutral compounds that could be shown to be formed by the chlorination process. Total concentrations of lipophilic (Bioabsorbable) and volatile organohalogen material discharged ranged from about 2 to 4 ..mu..g/L. Analysis of sediment samples for organohalogen material suggests that certain chlorination products may accumulate in sediments, although no tissue bioaccumulation could be demonstrated from analysis of a limited number of samples. 58 references, 25 figures, 31 tables.

  1. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir

  2. Root-zone cooling effect of water-cooled seedling bed on growth of tomato seedling%水冷式苗床根际降温效果及其对番茄幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜利; 师晓丹; 夏亚真; 孙治强

    2014-01-01

    the underground water as the natural coolant to lower the root-zone temperature during summer season. The root cooling system consisted of inlet pipe, cooling tube, return pipe and control valve. The profile of cooling tube with a trapezoidal cross section was used, which could increase the contact area between cooling tube and plug trays. Tomato seedlings were grown in 72-cell plug trays that were cooled by cold water flowing through the cooling tube buried at the bottom of plug trays. The objective of this study was to investigate the cooling effect of water-cooled seedling bed and its effect on the growth of tomato seedling. The root zone temperature, growth and physiological characteristics of tomato seedling were analyzed in this study. The results showed that the cumulative temperature, mean daily temperature and mean daily maximum temperature of the root-zone in WSD were on average, 154.1, 4.5 and 6.5℃ lower than those of non-cooled seedling bed (NSD) during tomato seedling period, respectively. The mean temperature diurnal variation of WSD (8.5℃) was milder than that of NSD (13.6℃). The root-zone temperature was analyzed. The results showed that the mean high temperature duration of WSD above 25 and 28℃were 8.0 and 3.1 h per day, respectively. However, the mean high temperature duration of NSD reached 15.6 and 10.3 h. The run length of WSD was shortened by 7.6 and 7.2 h at the fixed level 25 and 28℃, respectively. The leaf evaporating rate of tomato seedling in cooled treatment was enhanced by 36.3%compared with that of non-cooled treatment, which improved the temperature difference between leaf and air. Root activity and the net photosynthetic rate of tomato seedling were also improved significantly. Plant height, dry mass of shoot and root of tomato seedling in cooled treatment were increased by 35.8%and 72.6%compared with seedling of non-cooled treatment, while no significant difference was observed in the stem diameter of seedling between two

  3. Experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics of a nuclear reactor containment wall cooled by gravitationally falling water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Ari D.; Umar, Efrison; Suwono, Aryadi; Manalu, Reinhard E. E.

    2012-06-01

    Gravitationally falling water cooling is one of mechanism utilized by a modern nuclear Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) for its Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). Since the cooling is closely related to the safety, water film cooling characteristics of the PCCS should be studied. This paper deals with the experimental study of laminar water film cooling on the containment model wall. The influences of water mass flow rate and wall heat rate on the heat transfer characteristic were studied. This research was started with design and assembly of a containment model equipped with the water cooling system, and calibration of all measurement devices. The containment model is a scaled down model of AP 1000 reactor. Below the containment steam is generated using electrical heaters. The steam heated the containment wall, and then the temperatures of the wall in several positions were measure transiently using thermocouples and data acquisition. The containment was then cooled by falling water sprayed from the top of the containment. The experiments were done for various wall heat rate and cooling water flow rate. The objective of the research is to find the temperature profile along the wall before and after the water cooling applied, prediction of the water film characteristic such as means velocity, thickness and their influence to the heat transfer coefficient. The result of the experiments shows that the wall temperatures significantly drop after being sprayed with water. The thickness of water film increases with increasing water flow rate and remained constant with increasing wall heat rate. The heat transfer coefficient decreases as film mass flow rate increase due to the increases of the film thickness which causes the increasing of the thermal resistance. The heat transfer coefficient increases slightly as the wall heat rate increases. The experimental results were then compared with previous theoretical studied.

  4. Volume and structural analysis of super-cooled water under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duki, Solomon F.; Tsige, Mesfin

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by recent experimental study of super-cooled water at high pressure [1], we performed atomistic molecular dynamic simulations study on bulk water molecules at isothermal-isobaric ensemble. These simulations are performed at temperatures that range from 40 K to 380 K using two different cooling rates, 10K/ns and 10K/5ns, and pressure that ranges from 1atm to 10000 atm. Our analysis for the variation of the volume of the bulk sample against temperature indicates a downward concave shape for pressures above certain values, as reported in [1]. The same downward concave behavior is observed at high pressure on the mean-squared-displacements (MSD) of the water molecules when the MSD is plotted against time. To get further insight on the effect of the pressure on the sample we have also performed a structural analysis of the sample.[4pt] [1] O. Mishima, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144503 (2010);

  5. Ice growth and interface oscillation of water droplets impinged on a cooling surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yoshimichi; Ishikawa, Shoji; Kimura, Ryota; Toyohara, Kazumasa

    2017-06-01

    We focused on the attenuation of air-water interface oscillation for impinged water droplets freezing on a cooling surface. We carried out not only experiments but also two-dimensional numerical simulation on the droplets using a Phase-field method and an immersed boundary method. The Reynolds number and Weber number were in the range of 35-129 and 1.6-22, respectively. The experimental and computational results showed that the height of the impinged droplets on the symmetrical axis started to oscillate as a result of the impact of the collision of droplets with the surfaces in all the cases that we investigated. The measured frequency of the oscillations in the case of the adiabatic droplets was equal to the frequency estimated from the equation for the capillary-gravity waves on sessile droplets (Temperton, 2013) [30]. The oscillations converged rapidly in all impinged water droplets that froze on the cooling surface. This is due partly to the growth of ice shells along the air-water interface and partly to decreases in water volume as a result of the ice growth mainly on the cooling surface. In addition, the thermal field was disturbed not only by the latent heat transfer but also by the upward component of recirculating flow induced by the droplet impingement.

  6. Investigation of Water-spray Cooling of Turbine Blades in a Turbojet Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, John C; Stelpflug, William J

    1953-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation was made with a J33-A-9 engine to determine the effectiveness of spray cooling as a means of increasing thrust by permitting engine operation at inlet-gas temperatures and speeds above rated. With the assumption of adequate spray cooling at a coolant-to-gas flow ratio of 3 percent, calculations for the sea-level static condition indicated a thrust may be achieved by engine operation at an inlet-gas temperature of 2000 degrees F and an overspeed of 10 percent. Of the water-injection configurations investigated experimentally, those located in the inner ring of the stator diaphragm provided the best cooling at rated engine speed.

  7. A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHUGH, Devesh [University of Florida, Gainesville; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Moghaddam, Saeed [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2014-01-01

    In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the

  8. Performance of water and diluted ethylene glycol as coolants for electronic cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gayatri,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As the number of transistors increases with new generation of microprocessor chips, the power draw and heat load to dissipate during operation increases. As a result of increasing the heat loads and heat fluxes the Conventional cooling technologies such as fan, heat sinks are unable to absorb and heat transfer excess heat dissipated by these new microprocessor. So, new technologies are needed to improve the heat removal capacity. In the present work single phase liquid cooling system with mini channel is analyzed and experimentally investigated. Mini channels are chosen as to provide higher heat transfer co-efficient than conventional channel. Copper pipes of 0.36 mm diameter are taken to fabricate heat sink and heat exchanger. A pump is used to circulate the fluid through heat sink and heat exchanger. A solid heated aluminium block to simulate heat generated electronic component is used and electrical input is supplied to the heated aluminium block and cooling system is placed over the heated block. The performance of the cooling system is analyzed from the experimental data obtained. It is experimentally observed that the mini channel liquid cooling system with water as a coolant has better performance than diluted ethylene glycol as coolant at different flow rates. The surface temperature of the heated aluminium block with convective heat transfer co-efficient is observed

  9. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean.; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Petty, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator - Baseline heat rejection technology for the Portable Life Support System of the Advanced EMU center dot Replaces sublimator in the current EMU center dot Contamination insensitive center dot Can work with Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator in Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) to reject heat and reuse evaporated water The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is being developed to replace the sublimator for future generation spacesuits. Water in LCVG absorbs body heat while circulating center dot Warm water pumped through SWME center dot SWME evaporates water vapor, while maintaining liquid water - Cools water center dot Cooled water is then recirculated through LCVG. center dot LCVG water lost due to evaporation (cooling) is replaced from feedwater The Independent TCV Manifold reduces design complexity and manufacturing difficulty of the SWME End Cap. center dot The offset motor for the new BPV reduces the volume profile of the SWME by laying the motor flat on the End Cap alongside the TCV.

  10. HIGH COOLING WATER TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON DESIGN AND OPERATIONAL SAFETY OF NPPS IN THE GULF REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BYUNG KOO KIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf region has one of the highest ocean temperatures, reaching above 35 degrees and ambient temperatures over 50 degrees in the summer. Two nuclear power plants (NPP are being introduced in the region for the first time, one at Bushehr (1,000 MWe PWR plant from Russia, and a much larger one at Barakah (4X1,400 MWe PWR from Korea. Both plants take seawater from the Gulf for condenser cooling, having to modify the secondary/tertiary side cooling systems design by increasing the heat transfer surface area from the country of origin. This paper analyses the secondary side of a typical PWR plant operating under the Rankine cycle with a simplified thermal-hydraulic model. Parametric study of ocean cooling temperatures is conducted to estimate thermal efficiency variations and its associated design changes for the secondary side. Operational safety is reviewed to deliver rated power output with acceptable safety margins in line with technical specifications, mainly in the auxiliary systems together with the cooling water temperature. Impact on the Gulf seawater as the ultimate heat sink is considered negligible, affecting only the adjacent water near the NPP site, when compared to the solar radiation on the sea surface.

  11. Economy of replacing a refrigerant in a cooling system for preparing chilled water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulcar, B. [Nafta-Petrochem, d.o.o., Mlinska ulica 5, 9220 Lendava (Slovenia); Goricanec, D.; Krope, J. [University of Maribor, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Smetanova ulica 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2010-08-15

    Due to the negative impact of refrigerants containing Cl and Br on the ozone layer, these refrigerants are being replaced with refrigerants containing fluorine. The article describes the replacing of refrigerant R22 in a cooling system for preparing chilled water, used for cooling reactors producing phenol-formaldehyde resins. After analyzing the existing state and the capabilities of the cooling system, the refrigerant R22 was replaced with refrigerant R407C. For both refrigerants a calculation of the cooling system has been made, the results of which are given in the form of diagrams depending on the evaporation temperature of the refrigerant. Profitability evaluation of replacing a refrigerant was carried out using the method of the net present value (NPV), the coefficient of profitability and the period of time in which the investment is going to return itself. Also the calculations of the savings of electrical energy needed for the running of the compressors and the price of chilled water have been done, using the method of internal profitability level (IPL). (author)

  12. Impact of operating conditions on cooling capacity for sorption systems using water as refrigerant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremeac, Brice; Giraud, Florine; Vallon, Pierrick

    2017-02-01

    The implementation of compact heat exchanger in sorption systems is a key factor to allow the development of these systems. The aim of this paper is to develop a statistical model with a design of experiment (DOE) methodology and use dimensionless number to evaluate and understand the influence of the height of refrigerant liquid and secondary fluid inlet temperature on cooling capacity of a compact pate-type evaporator for sorption systems working near vacuum pressure. For this purpose, an experimental campaign was conducted on a small adsorption test bench using 13X/water as working couple. Cooling capacities from 640 to 2000 W were measured. The DOE is a Doelhert type with two parameters: the inlet secondary fluid temperature (from 10 to 21 °C) and the filing level of refrigerant in the evaporator (from 6 to 24 cm). Thanks to the exploitation of the mathematical model obtained, optimal points under different constraints were found. A maximum cooling capacity of 2021 +/-75 W in the entire experimental field was predicted for a secondary fluid inlet temperature of 25°C and a height of liquid level of 19.2 cm. Bond number and modified Jacob number per the ratio Psat/Ptriple were analyzed. The dimensionless numbers are correlated to the cooling capacity as a first step for designing compact plate-type evaporator for adsorption systems using water as refrigerant.

  13. Preliminary Analysis on Heat Removal Capacity of Passive Air-Water Combined Cooling Heat Exchanger Using MARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung-Sin; Jeon, Seong-Su; Hong, Soon-Joon [FNC Tech, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sung-Won; Kwon, Tae-Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Current design requirement for working time of PAFS heat exchanger is about 8 hours. Thus, it is not satisfied with the required cooling capability for the long term SBO(Station Black-Out) situation that is required to over 72 hours cooling. Therefore PAFS is needed to change of design for 72 hours cooling. In order to acquirement of long terms cooling using PAFS, heat exchanger tube has to be submerged in water tank for long time. However, water in the tank is evaporated by transferred heat from heat exchanger tubes, so water level is gradually lowered as time goes on. The heat removal capacity of air cooling heat exchanger is core parameter that is used for decision of applicability on passive air-water combined cooling system using PAFS in long term cooling. In this study, the development of MARS input model and plant accident analysis are performed for the prediction of the heat removal capacity of air cooling heat exchanger. From analysis result, it is known that inflow air velocity is the decisive factor of the heat removal capacity and predicted air velocity is lower than required air velocity. But present heat transfer model and predicted air velocity have uncertainty. So, if changed design of PAFS that has over 4.6 kW heat removal capacity in each tube, this type heat exchanger can be applied to long term cooling of the nuclear power plant.

  14. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Aqueous and Confined Systems Relevant to the Supercritical Water Cooled Nuclear Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallikragas, Dimitrios Theofanis

    Supercritical water (SCW) is the intended heat transfer fluid and potential neutron moderator in the proposed GEN-IV Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor (SCWR). The oxidative environment poses challenges in choosing appropriate design materials, and the behaviour of SCW within crevices of the passivation layer is needed for developing a corrosion control strategy to minimize corrosion. Molecular Dynamics simulations have been employed to obtain diffusion coefficients, coordination number and surface density characteristics, of water and chloride in nanometer-spaced iron hydroxide surfaces. Diffusion models for hydrazine are evaluated along with hydration data. Results demonstrate that water is more likely to accumulate on the surface at low density conditions. The effect of confinement on the water structure diminishes as the gap size increases. The diffusion coefficient of chloride decreases with larger surface spacing. Clustering of water at the surface implies that the SCWR will be most susceptible to pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking.

  15. Multi-Model Assessment of Global Hydropower and Cooling Water Discharge Potential Under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, M. T. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Eisener, S.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding of how climate change may impact the availability and temperature of water resources is therefore of major importance. Here we use a multi-model ensemble to show the potential impacts of climate change on global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential. For the first time, combined projections of streamflow and water temperature were produced with three global hydrological models (GHMs) to account for uncertainties in the structure and parametrization of these GHMs in both water availability and water temperature. The GHMs were forced with bias-corrected output of five general circulation models (GCMs) for both the lowest and highest representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). The ensemble projections of streamflow and water temperature were then used to quantify impacts on gross hydropower potential and cooling water discharge capacity of rivers worldwide. We show that global gross hydropower potential is expected to increase between +2.4% (GCM-GHM ensemble mean for RCP 2.6) and +6.3% (RCP 8.5) for the 2080s compared to 1971-2000. The strongest increases in hydropower potential are expected for Central Africa, India, central Asia and the northern high-latitudes, with 18-33% of the world population living in these areas by the 2080s. Global mean cooling water discharge capacity is projected to decrease by 4.5-15% (2080s). The largest reductions are found for the United States, Europe, eastern Asia, and southern parts of South America, Africa and Australia, where strong water temperature increases are projected combined with reductions in mean annual streamflow. These regions are expected to affect 11-14% (for RCP2.6 and the shared socioeconomic

  16. Multi-Model Assessment of Global Hydropower and Cooling Water Discharge Potential Under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, M. T. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Eisener, S.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding of how climate change may impact the availability and temperature of water resources is therefore of major importance. Here we use a multi-model ensemble to show the potential impacts of climate change on global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential. For the first time, combined projections of streamflow and water temperature were produced with three global hydrological models (GHMs) to account for uncertainties in the structure and parametrization of these GHMs in both water availability and water temperature. The GHMs were forced with bias-corrected output of five general circulation models (GCMs) for both the lowest and highest representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). The ensemble projections of streamflow and water temperature were then used to quantify impacts on gross hydropower potential and cooling water discharge capacity of rivers worldwide. We show that global gross hydropower potential is expected to increase between +2.4% (GCM-GHM ensemble mean for RCP 2.6) and +6.3% (RCP 8.5) for the 2080s compared to 1971-2000. The strongest increases in hydropower potential are expected for Central Africa, India, central Asia and the northern high-latitudes, with 18-33% of the world population living in these areas by the 2080s. Global mean cooling water discharge capacity is projected to decrease by 4.5-15% (2080s). The largest reductions are found for the United States, Europe, eastern Asia, and southern parts of South America, Africa and Australia, where strong water temperature increases are projected combined with reductions in mean annual streamflow. These regions are expected to affect 11-14% (for RCP2.6 and the shared socioeconomic

  17. Water cooling of shocks in protostellar outflows: Herschel-PACS map of L1157

    CERN Document Server

    Nisini, B; Codella, C; Giannini, T; Liseau, R; Neufeld, D; Tafalla, M; van Dishoeck, E F; Bachiller, R; Baaudry, A; Benz, O A; Bergin, E; Bjerkeli, P; Blake, G; Bontemps, S; Braine, J; Bruderer, S; Caselli, P; Cernicharo, J; Daniel, F; Encrenaz, P; di Giorgio, A M; Dominik, C; Doty, S; Fich, M; Fuente, A; Goicoechea, J R; de Graaw, Th; Helmich, F; Herczeg, G; Herpin, F; Hogerheijde, M; Jacq, T; Johnstone, D; Jorgensen, J; Kaufman, M; Kirstensen, L; Larsson, B; Lis, D; Marseille, M; McCoey, C; Melnick, G; Olberg, M; Parise, B; Pearson, J; Plime, R; Risacher, C; Santiago, J; Saraceno, P; Shipman, R; van Kempen, T A; Visser, R; Viti, S; Wampfler, S; Wyrowski, F; van der Tak, F; Yildiz, U A; Delforge, B; Desbat, J; Hatch, W A; Peron, I; Schieder, R; Stern, J A; Teyssier, D; Whyborn, N

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) key program, maps in water lines of several outflows from young stars are being obtained, to study the water production in shocks and its role in the outflow cooling. This paper reports the first results of this program, presenting a PACS map of the o-H2O 179 um transition obtained toward the young outflow L1157. The 179 um map is compared with those of other important shock tracers, and with previous single-pointing ISO, SWAS, and Odin water observations of the same source that allow us to constrain the water abundance and total cooling. Strong H2O peaks are localized on both shocked emission knots and the central source position. The H2O 179 um emission is spatially correlated with emission from H2 rotational lines, excited in shocks leading to a significant enhancement of the water abundance. Water emission peaks along the outflow also correlate with peaks of other shock-produced molecular species, such as SiO and NH3. A strong H2O ...

  18. Performance of a silica gel-water adsorption cooling system for use in small-scale tri-generation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, R.; Smeding, S.F.; Grisel, R.J.H. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    The SOCOOL project focuses on the development of a small-scale combined cold, heat and power (tri-generation) system, which utilises the engine waste heat for cold production. It is demonstrated at the CRF Eco-Canteen in Turin, Italy. The cooling machine is made of two separate sub-cooling systems, each of which is to produce 5 kW of cooling power. One of the cooling systems is driven by 'low-temperature' engine cooling water, the other by 'high-temperature' engine exhaust gases. Tri-generation systems that use heat-driven cooling, offer the possibility of saving 15-20% primary energy. The low-temperature-driven sorption-cooling machine was designed and built at ECN, The Netherlands. Its performance was tested in our own laboratories, before shipment to Turin where it was integrated with the internal combustion engine.

  19. Effect of pre-cooling and heat treatment on antioxidant enzymes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Increased CAT and POX activities in mango and banana during heat treatment ... Pre-cooling of mango at 8 ºC showed twofold decreased CAT activity in the pulp whereas heat ...

  20. Construction of a cooling water inlet system with settling basin of Derna power plant station (Libya)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmann, R.; Heimburg, A.M. von; Sinner, H.

    1985-03-01

    Construction of a cooling water intake system with settling basin. The extension of the power station at Derna, in Libya, necessitated the construction of a new cooling water intake system including screening facilities and a settling basin. Construction based on extensive prefabrication (precast concrete) was chosen. The precast reinforced units, ranging up to about 4000 t in weight, were towed on barges to the site of erection. At Derna these units were temporarily stored on the sea bed for several months, during which they were exposed to winter storms and rough sea. The major precast portion of the settling basin was constructed direct on the barge. On arrival at the site, the barge was sunk, allowing the precast unit, which was designed with sufficient buoyancy, to be floated off. The open unprotected coast required special arrangements for the protection of personnel, structures and equipment.

  1. Tritium recovery in Pb17Li-water cooled blanket systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malara, C. [Safety Technology Inst., Ispra (Italy); Casini, G. [Systems Engineering & Information Inst., Ispra (Italy); Viola, A. [Univ. of Cagliari (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    The question of tritium recovery in Pb17Li, water cooled blankets is under investigation since several years at JRC Ispra. The method which has been more extensively analyzed is that of slowly circulating the breeder out from the blanket units and of extracting the tritium from it outside the plasma vacuum vessel by helium gas purging in a suited process apparatus. The design features of the process systems are related to: (1) the very low tritium solubility in Pb17Li which implies high permeation rates through the containment structures; (2) the need of keeping as low as possible the tritium concentration in the cooling water both for safety and economical reasons. A computerized model of the tritium behavior in the blanket units and in the extraction system has been developed.

  2. Neutronics Analysis of Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingjun; Li, Jia; Liu, Songlin

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the nuclear response to the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket models for CFETR, a detailed 3D neutronics model with 22.5° torus sector was developed based on the integrated geometry of CFETR, including heterogeneous WCCB blanket models, shield, divertor, vacuum vessel, toroidal and poloidal magnets, and ports. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code MCNP5 and IAEA Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL2.1, the neutronics analyses were performed. The neutron wall loading, tritium breeding ratio, the nuclear heating, neutron-induced atomic displacement damage, and gas production were determined. The results indicate that the global TBR of no less than 1.2 will be a big challenge for the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket for CFETR. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000, and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  3. High power testing of water-cooled waveguide for ITER-like ECH transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. P.; Doane, J. L.; Grunloh, H. J.; O'Neill, R. C.; Ikeda, R.; Oda, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Sakamoto, K.

    2017-05-01

    The results of high power testing of new water-cooled ECH waveguide components for ITER are presented. The components are a precision-coupled 4.2 m waveguide assembly, a short expansion joint, and water-cooled waveguide for gyrotron commissioning. The testing was conducted at the QST Naka Fusion Institute using gyrotron pulses of 450 kW at 170 GHz for 300 s. Analysis shows that the power absorbed per unit length for the various waveguide components are dependent on location in the transmission line with respect to high order mode generators, such as miter bends. Additionally, larger-than-expected reflections from the load led to high absorption levels in the transmission line.

  4. Fishing for isotopes in the Brookhaven Lab Isotope Producer (BLIP) cooling water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Jonathan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider Accelerator Dept.

    2016-04-29

    Be-7 has been used in environmental studies; the isotope is produced during BLIP irradiations and accumulates in the 320 gallons of cooling water. Be-7 has a 53.24 day half-life, so the optimal production/purification time is at the end of the BLIP run season. To purify Be-7 fifteen to twenty gallons of BLIP cooling water are removed and pumped through ion exchange columns that retain Be-7. This labor intensive approach captures ~15 mCi of Be-7, but the solution requires further purification. The method can lead to increased radiation exposure to staff. The ideal way to capture isotopes from large volumes is to reach in to the solution and selectively pull out the desired isotope. It is a lot like fishing.

  5. Prospects for development of an innovative water-cooled nuclear reactor for supercritical parameters of coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyakin, S. G.; Kirillov, P. L.; Baranaev, Yu. D.; Glebov, A. P.; Bogoslovskaya, G. P.; Nikitenko, M. P.; Makhin, V. M.; Churkin, A. N.

    2014-08-01

    The state of nuclear power engineering as of February 1, 2014 and the accomplished elaborations of a supercritical-pressure water-cooled reactor are briefly reviewed, and the prospects of this new project are discussed based on this review. The new project rests on the experience gained from the development and operation of stationary water-cooled reactor plants, including VVERs, PWRs, BWRs, and RBMKs (their combined service life totals more than 15 000 reactor-years), and long-term experience gained around the world with operation of thermal power plants the turbines of which are driven by steam with supercritical and ultrasupercritical parameters. The advantages of such reactor are pointed out together with the scientific-technical problems that need to be solved during further development of such installations. The knowledge gained for the last decade makes it possible to refine the concept and to commence the work on designing an experimental small-capacity reactor.

  6. Onsite Waste Water Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs have evolved from the pit privies used widely throughout history to installations capable of producing a disinfected effluent that is fit for human consumption. Although achieving such a level of effluent quality is seldom necessary, the ability of onsite systems to remove settles able solids, floatable grease and scum, nutrients, and pathogens. From wastewater discharges defines their importance in protecting human health and environmental resources. In the modern era, the typical onsite system has consisted primarily of a septic tank and a soil absorption field, also known as a subsurface wastewater infiltration system, or SWIS. In this manual, such systems are referred to as conventional systems. Septic tanks remove most settle able and floatable material and function as an anaerobic bioreactor that promotes partial digestion of retained organic matter. Septic tank effluent, which contains significant concentrations of pathogens and nutrients, has traditionally been discharged to soil, sand, or other media absorption fields (SWISs for further treatment through biological processes, adsorption, filtration, and infiltration into underlying soils. Conventional systems work well if they are installed in areas with appropriate soils and hydraulic capacities; designed to treat the incoming waste load to meet public health, ground water, and surface water performance standards; installed properly; and maintained to ensure long-term performance. These criteria, however, are often not met. Only about one-third of the land area in the United States has soils suited for conventional subsurface soil absorption fields. System densities in some areas exceed the capacity of even suitable soils to assimilate wastewater flows and retain and transform their contaminants. In addition, many systems are located too close to ground water or surface waters and others, particularly in rural areas with newly installed public

  7. Natural Convective Heat and Mass Transfer of Water with Corrosion Products at Super—Critical Pressures under Cooling COnditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-XueJiang; Ze-PeiRen; 等

    1993-01-01

    A numerical study is reported of laminar natural convective heat and mass transfer on a vertical cooled plate for water containing metal corrosion products at super-critical pressures.The influence of variable properties at super-critical pressures on natural convertion has been analyzed.The difference between heat and mass transfer under cooling or heating conditions is also discussed and some correlations for heat and mass transfer under cooling conditions are recommended.

  8. The unexpected energy saving of cooling water conditioning; Koelwaterconditionering spaart meer energie dan u denkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, A. [ed.

    1996-09-01

    On the basis of the example of the dosage of chlorinated bleaching lye in cooling water it is calculated that much more energy can be saved than expected. The use of the lye improves the energy efficiency of heat exchangers. The calculation method is developed by L. Paping and is based on the idea to express the advantages (e.g. energy conservation) and the disadvantages (e.g. environmental burden) as a dimensionless indicator.

  9. Topical report : NSTF facilities plan for water-cooled VHTR RCCS : normal operational tests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C. P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the gas-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept.

  10. Water-Cooled Data Center Packs More Power Per Rack | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard and Ken Michaels, Staff Writers Behind each tall, black computer rack in the data center at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) is something both strangely familiar and oddly out of place: It looks like a radiator. The back door of each cabinet is gridded with the coils of the Liebert cooling system, which circulates chilled water to remove heat generated by the high-speed, high-capacity, fault-tolerant equipment.

  11. Thermal-hydraulic Optimization of Water-cooled Center Conductor Post for Spherical Tokamaks Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯严; 吴宜灿; 黄群英; 郑善良

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual structure of segmental water-cooled Center Con ductor Post (CCP) to be flexible in installment and replacement. Thermal-hydraulic optimization and sensitivity analysis of key parameters are performed based on a reference fusion transmutation system with 100 MW fusion power. Numerical simulation by using a commercial code PHOEN]CS has been carried out to be close to the thermal-hydraulic analytical results of the CCP mid-part.

  12. Analysis of tritium behaviour and recovery from a water-cooled Pb17Li blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malara, C. [Institute Regional des Materiaux Avances, Ispra (Italy); Casini, G. [Systems Engineering and Informatics Institute, JRC Ispra, Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Viola, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    The question of the tritium recovery in water-cooled Pb17Li blankets has been under investigation for several years at JRC Ispra. The method which has been more extensively analysed is that of slowly circulating the breeder out from the blanket units and of extracting the tritium from it outside the plasma vacuum vessel by helium gas purging or vacuum degassing in a suited process apparatus. A computerized model of the tritium behaviour in the blanket units and in the extraction system was developed. It includes four submodels: (1) tritium permeation process from the breeder to the cooling water as a function of the local operative conditions (tritium concentration in Pb17Li, breeder temperature and flow rate); (2) tritium mass balance in each breeding unit; (3) tritium desorption from the breeder material to the gas phase of the extraction system; (4) tritium extraction efficiency as a function of the design parameters of the recovery apparatus. In the present paper, on the basis of this model, a parametric study of the tritium permeation rate in the cooling water and of the tritium inventory in the blanket is carried out. Results are reported and discussed in terms of dimensionless groups which describe the relative effects of the overall resistance on tritium transfer to the cooling water (with and without permeation barriers), circulating Pb17Li flow rate and extraction efficiency of the tritium recovery unit. The parametric study is extended to the recovery unit in the case of tritium extraction by helium purge or vacuum degassing in a droplet spray unit. (orig.).

  13. Water-Cooled Data Center Packs More Power Per Rack | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard and Ken Michaels, Staff Writers Behind each tall, black computer rack in the data center at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) is something both strangely familiar and oddly out of place: It looks like a radiator. The back door of each cabinet is gridded with the coils of the Liebert cooling system, which circulates chilled water to remove heat generated by the high-speed, high-capacity, fault-tolerant equipment.

  14. Effects of Solution Hydrodynamics on Corrosion Inhibition of Steel by Citric Acid in Cooling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashassi-Sorkhabi, H.; Asghari, E.; Mohammadi, M.

    2014-08-01

    Corrosion is a major problem in cooling water systems, which is often controlled using corrosion inhibitors. Solution hydrodynamics is one of the factors affecting corrosion inhibition of metals in these systems. The present work focuses on the study of the combined effects of citric acid concentration (as a green corrosion inhibitor) and fluid flow on corrosion of steel in simulated cooling water. Electrochemical techniques including Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used for corrosion studies. Laminar flow was simulated using a rotating disk electrode. The effects of solution hydrodynamics on inhibition performance of citric acid were discussed. The citric acid showed low inhibition performance in quiescent solution; however, when the electrode rotated at 200 rpm, inhibition efficiency increased remarkably. It was attributed mainly to the acceleration of inhibitor mass transport toward metal surface. The efficiencies were then decreased at higher rotation speeds due to enhanced wall shear stresses on metal surface and separation of adsorbed inhibitor molecules. This article is first part of authors' attempts in designing green inhibitor formulations for industrial cooling water. Citric acid showed acceptable corrosion inhibition in low rotation rates; thus, it can be used as a green additive to the corrosion inhibitor formulations.

  15. Experimental adsorption equilibrium study and comparison of zeolite with water and ethanol for cooling systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAIGA Abdoulaye Siddeye; CHEN Guang-ming; WANG Qin

    2007-01-01

    Two adsorption refrigeration working pairs of zeolite with water and ethanol were studied and the parameters of Dubinin-Astakhov model were regressed using the experimental data of equilibrium. The coefficient of heterogeneity varied from 1.305 to 1.52 for the zeolite-water pair and from 1.73 to 2.128 for zeolite-ethanol pair. The maximum adsorption capacity varied from 0.315 to 0.34 for zeolite-water and 0.23 to 0.28 for zeolite-ethanol, respectively. The results showed that the zeolite-water pair is suitable for solar energy cooling not only because of the high latent heat of vaporization of water but also because of the better equilibrium performance. On the other hand, zeolite-ethanol gives a high adsorption capacity at high regeneration temperature, which means it can be used in heat engine systems like buses and cars.

  16. Heat transfer coefficient distribution over the inconel plate cooled from high temperature by the array of water jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Z.; Telejko, T.; Cebo-Rudnicka, A.; Szajding, A.; Rywotycki, M.; Hadała, B.

    2016-09-01

    The industrial rolling mills are equipped with systems for controlled water cooling of hot steel products. A cooling rate affects the final mechanical properties of steel which are strongly dependent on microstructure evolution processes. In case of water jets cooling the heat transfer boundary condition can be defined by the heat transfer coefficient. In the present study one and three dimensional heat conduction models have been employed in the inverse solution to heat transfer coefficient. The inconel plate has been heated to about 900oC and then cooled by one, two and six water jets. The plate temperature has been measured by 30 thermocouples. The heat transfer coefficient distributions at plate surface have been determined in time of cooling.

  17. Thermal and structural finite element analysis of water cooled silicon monochromator for synchrotron radiation comparison of two different cooling schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiev, A I; Busetto, E; Hrdy, J; Mrazek, D; Plesek, I; Savoia, A

    2001-01-01

    The article describes the results of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the first Si monochromator crystal distortions due to Synchrotron Radiation (SR) heat load and consequent analysis of the influence of the distortions on a double crystal monochromator performance. Efficiencies of two different cooling schemes are compared. A thin plate of Si crystal is lying on copper cooling support in both cases. There are microchannels inside the cooling support. In the first model the direction of the microchannels is parallel to the diffraction plane. In the second model the direction of the microchannels is perpendicular to the diffraction plane or in other words, it is a conventional cooling scheme. It is shown that the temperature field along the crystal volume is more uniform and more symmetrical in the first model than in the second (conventional) one.

  18. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  19. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  20. Presence of pathogenic amoebae in power plant cooling waters. Final report, October 15, 1977-September 30, 1979. [Naegleria fowleri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyndall, R.L.; Willaert, E.; Stevens, A.R.

    1981-03-01

    Cooling-water-associated algae and sediments from five northern and five southern or western electric power plants were tested for the presence of pathogenic amoebae. In addition, water algae and sediments from five northern and five southern/western sites not associated with power plants were tested. There was a significant correlation at northern power plants between the presence of thermophilic, pathogenic amoebae in cooling waters and thermal additions. Presence of the pathogenic did not correlate with salinity, pH, conductivity, or a variety of various chemical components of the cooling waters. Selected pathogenic isolates were tested serologically and were classified as Naegleria fowleri. Although thermal additions were shown to be contributing factor in predisposing cooling waters to the growth of pathogenic amoebae, the data suggest the involvement of other currently undefined parameters associated with the presence of the pathogenic amoebae. 35 refs., 21 tabs.

  1. Analysis of power and cooling cogeneration using ammonia-water mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, Ricardo Vasquez [Clean Energy Research Center, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Av. ENB 118 Tampa, Fl 33620 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia); Demirkaya, Goekmen; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias; Rahman, Muhammad M. [Clean Energy Research Center, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Av. ENB 118 Tampa, Fl 33620 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Development of innovative thermodynamic cycles is important for the efficient utilization of low-temperature heat sources such as solar, geothermal and waste heat sources. This paper presents a parametric analysis of a combined power/cooling cycle, which combines the Rankine and absorption refrigeration cycles, uses ammonia-water mixture as the working fluid and produces power and cooling simultaneously. This cycle, also known as the Goswami Cycle, can be used as a bottoming cycle using waste heat from a conventional power cycle or as an independent cycle using solar or geothermal energy. A thermodynamic study of power and cooling cogeneration is presented. The performance of the cycle for a range of boiler pressures, ammonia concentrations and isentropic turbine efficiencies are studied to find out the sensitivities of net work, amount of cooling and effective efficiencies. The roles of rectifier and superheater on the cycle performance are investigated. The cycle heat source temperature is varied between 90-170 C and the maximum effective first law and exergy efficiencies for an absorber temperature of 30 C are calculated as 20% and 72%, respectively. The turbine exit quality of the cycle for different boiler exit scenarios shows that turbine exit quality decreases when the absorber temperature decreases. (author)

  2. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Panels with Earth Water Heat Exchanger Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakhar Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The operating temperature is an important factor affecting the performance and life span of the Photovoltaic (PV panels. The rising temperature can be maintained within certain limit using proper cooling techniques. In the present research a novel system for cooling of PV panels named as Earth Water Heat Exchanger (EWHE is proposed and modelled in transient analysis simulation tool (TRNSYS v17.0 for the conditions of Pilani, Rajasthan (India.The various parameters which include cell temperature, PV power output and cell efficiency are observed with respect to variation in mass flow rate of fluid. Simulation results of the system without cooling show that the maximum PV panel temperature reached up to 79.31 °C with electrical efficiency dropped to 9% during peak sunshine hour. On the other hand, when PV panels are coupled with EWHE system, the panel temperature drops to 46.29 °C with an efficiency improving to 11% for a mass flow rate of 0.022 kg/s. In the end the cooling potential of EWHE is found to be in direct correlation with mass flow rate. The proposed system is very useful for the arid regions of western India which are blessed with high solar insolation throughout the year.

  3. An opacity-sampled treatment of water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David R.; Augason, Gordon C.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1989-01-01

    Although the bands of H2O are strong in the spectra of cool stars and calculations have repeatedly demonstrated their significance as opacity sources, only approximate opacities are currently available, due both to the difficulty of accounting for the millions of lines involved and to the inadequacy of laboratory and theoretical data. To overcome these obstacles, a new treatment is presented, based upon a statistical representation of the water vapor spectrum derived from available laboratory data. This statistical spectrum of water vapor employs an exponential distribution of line strengths and random positions of lines whose overall properties are forced to reproduce the mean opacities observed in the laboratory. The resultant data set is then treated by the opacity-sampling method exactly as are all other lines, both molecular and atomic. Significant differences are found between the results of this improved treatment and the results obtained with previous treatments of water-vapor opacity.

  4. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  5. Effect of Magnetic Treatment of Water on Evapotranspiration of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Yusuf

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of magnetic treatment of water on the evapotranspiration of tomato plant. Evapotranspiration is important to plant for metabolic processes and it also cools the plant. Three magnetic flux densities of 124, 319 and 719 G produced from electromagnet (the treatments labelled as T1, T2 and T3 were used to treat the water and a control experiment (TC was also set up which was irrigated with non-magnetic treatment water. Equal amount of water was applied to all the tomato plant (variety UC82B at the same time. Each treatment was replicated seven times given a total of 28 buckets containing tomato plant. The tomato was planted in the 28 buckets in a transparent garden shed for 130 days (23/09/2014 – 30/01/2015. A complete randomized design (CRD experimental layout was used. The amount of water lost due to evapotranspiration per day was determined by weight lost in the bucket (lysimetric weighing method. The mean values of daily evapotranspiration for two stands of tomato plants per bucket over a period of 65 days for T1, T2, T3 and TC were 9.38, 9.28, 9.18 and 8.03 mm/day respectively. The result of the evapotranspiration due to mass of water lost from the buckets containing tomato plants irrigated with magnetic water were all higher than the values of evapotranspiration from non-magnetic water. This indicated that tomato plant irrigated with magnetic treatment of water absorbed more water from the soil easily and grew faster than the tomato plant irrigated with non-magnetic treatment water with the same quantity of water applied to the tomato plant.

  6. Water treatment processes for oilfield steam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, A.; Pauley, J.C. [Chevron Canada Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Various water treatment processes are used within the oilfield industry. Processes tend to be common within one region of the world, but different between regions due to untreated water characteristics and treated water quality requirements. This paper summarized Chevron's view of water treatment requirements and processes for oilfield steam injection. It identified water treatment systems that have been used at thermal projects, where they are most commonly utilized, their purpose, and the limits of each process. The advantages and disadvantages of different water treatment systems were also reviewed. The paper focused on the treatment of fresh waters, low-TDS produced waters, high-hardness waters, and high-silica produced waters. Challenges and opportunities were also identified. It was concluded that the challenges created by high-silica, or by high-hardness produced waters lead to more costly processes. 25 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  7. Technical analysis of a river basin-based model of advanced power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1786, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Clayton, Mary E; Webber, Michael E, E-mail: ashlynn.stillwell@mail.utexas.edu, E-mail: mclayton34@mail.utexas.edu, E-mail: webber@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Thermoelectric power plants require large volumes of water for cooling, which can introduce drought vulnerability and compete with other water needs. Alternative cooling technologies, such as cooling towers and hybrid wet-dry or dry cooling, present opportunities to reduce water diversions. This case study uses a custom, geographically resolved river basin-based model for eleven river basins in the state of Texas (the Brazos and San Jacinto-Brazos, Colorado and Colorado-Brazos, Cypress, Neches, Nueces, Red, Sabine, San Jacinto, and Trinity River basins), focusing on the Brazos River basin, to analyze water availability during drought. We utilized two existing water availability models for our analysis: (1) the full execution of water rights-a scenario where each water rights holder diverts the full permitted volume with zero return flow, and (2) current conditions-a scenario reflecting actual diversions with associated return flows. Our model results show that switching the cooling technologies at power plants in the eleven analyzed river basins to less water-intensive alternative designs can potentially reduce annual water diversions by 247-703 million m{sup 3}-enough water for 1.3-3.6 million people annually. We consider these results in a geographic context using geographic information system tools and then analyze volume reliability, which is a policymaker's metric that indicates the percentage of total demand actually supplied over a given period. This geographic and volume reliability analysis serves as a measure of drought susceptibility in response to changes in thermoelectric cooling technologies. While these water diversion savings do not alleviate all reliability concerns, the additional streamflow from the use of dry cooling alleviates drought concerns for some municipal water rights holders and might also be sufficient to uphold instream flow requirements for important bays and estuaries on the Texas Gulf coast.

  8. Resistance of Alkali Activated Water-Cooled Slag Geopolymer to Sulphate Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Hasanein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground granulated blast furnace slag is a finely ground, rapidly chilled aluminosilicate melt material that is separated from molten iron in the blast furnace as a by-product. Rapid cooling results in an amorphous or a glassy phase known as GGBFS or water cooled slag (WCS. Alkaline activation of latent hydraulic WCS by sodium hydroxide and/or sodium silicate in different ratios was studied. Curing was performed under 100 % relative humidity and at a temperature of 38°C. The results showed that mixing of both sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate in ratio of 3:3 wt.,% is the optimum one giving better mechanical as well as microstructural characteristics as compared with cement mortar that has various cement content (cement : sand were 1:3 and 1:2. Durability of the water cooled slag in 5 % MgSO4 as revealed by better microstructure and high resistivity-clarifying that activation by 3:3 sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate, respectively is better than using 2 and 6 % of sodium hydroxide.

  9. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    Project Sunburst is a demonstration system for solar space heating and cooling and solar hot water heating for a 14,400 square foot office building in Richland, Washington. The project is part of the US Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid--liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building to reject surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program has been provided from the beginning of the program and has resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  10. Experiences with electrochemical analysis of copper at the PPB-level in saline cooling water and in the water/steam cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, K. [I/S Nordjyllandsvaerket, Vodskov (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Determination of trace amounts of copper in saline cooling water and in process water by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry combined with an UV-photolysis pretreatment is described. Copper concentrations well below 1 {mu}g/L may be analysed with a precision in the order of 10% and a high degree of accuracy. The basic principles of the method are described together with three applications covering analysis of cooling and process water samples. The analysis method has been applied to document the adherence of environmental limits for the copper uptake of cooling water passing brass condensers, to monitor the formation of protective layers of iron oxides on the cooling water side of brass condensers, and to study the transport of copper in water/steam cycles with heat exchangers and condensers of brass materials. (au)

  11. New and Green Multi-component Scaling and Corrosion Inhibitor for the Cooling Water of Central Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maodong; Dai, Chenlin; Yang, Bo; Qiao, Yue; Zhu, Zhiping

    2016-12-01

    A green multi-component inhibitor was developed in this study to obtain suitable scale and corrosion inhibitor for the cooling water treatment of central air conditioners. The inhibitor formulation consisted of hydrolyzed polymaleic anhydride/Tween-80/sodium N-lauroyl sarcosinate/tolyltriazole (named 4-HTSA). Weight loss test and electrochemical method were used to investigate the corrosion inhibition performance of 4-HTSA on A3 carbon steel and T2 red copper in synthetic cooling water, and the scale inhibition performance of 4-HTSA was studied by the calcium carbonate precipitation method. The influence of parameters, such as pH, temperature, scaling and corrosive ion, on 4-HTSA was researched. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction were used for examination of the scale, and corrosion coupons were analyzed by SEM/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Results showed that 4-HTSA had excellent scale and corrosion inhibition performance and wide tolerance to pH, temperature and the concentration of scaling and corrosive ion. Polarization curves indicated that 4-HTSA was anodic inhibitor.

  12. Atmospheric forcing of cool subsurface water events in Bahía Culebra, Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Alfaro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bahía Culebra, at Gulf of Papagayo on the north Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is an area of seasonal upwelling where more intense cooling events may occur during some boreal winter weeks mainly. To study these extreme cool events, records of nine sea subsurface temperature stations from 1998 to 2010 were analyzed. Five events associated with extremely cool temperatures in this region were identified from these records and taken as study cases. Sea temperatures decreased about 8-9ºC during these events and occurred while cold fronts were present in the Caribbean, with strong trade wind conditions over Central America. These strong wind conditions may have favored the offshore displacement of the sea surface water. The axis of Bahía Culebra runs northeastsouthwest, a condition that favors and triggers cool water events, mainly because the displaced water is replaced by water from deeper levels.

  13. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The project described is part of the U. S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid-liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program was provided from the beginning of the program, and resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  14. Cooled radiofrequency denervation for treatment of sacroiliac joint pain: two-year results from 20 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho KY

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kok-Yuen Ho,1 Mohamed Abdul Hadi,2 Koravee Pasutharnchat,2 Kian-Hian Tan21Pain Management Centre, Raffles Hospital, 2Pain Management Centre, Singapore General Hospital, SingaporeBackground: Sacroiliac joint pain is a common cause of chronic low back pain. Different techniques for radiofrequency denervation of the sacroiliac joint have been used to treat this condition. However, results have been inconsistent because the variable sensory supply to the sacroiliac joint is difficult to disrupt completely using conventional radiofrequency. Cooled radiofrequency is a novel technique that uses internally cooled radiofrequency probes to enlarge lesion size, thereby increasing the chance of completely denervating the sacroiliac joint. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cooled radiofrequency denervation using the SInergyTM cooled radiofrequency system for sacroiliac joint pain.Methods: The charts of 20 patients with chronic sacroiliac joint pain who had undergone denervation using the SInergyTM cooled radiofrequency system were reviewed at two years following the procedure. Outcome measures included the Numeric Rating Scale for pain intensity, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Global Perceived Effect for patient satisfaction.Results: Fifteen of 20 patients showed a significant reduction in pain (a decrease of at least three points on the Numeric Rating Scale. Mean Numeric Rating Scale for pain decreased from 7.4 ± 1.4 to 3.1 ± 2.5, mean Patient Global Impression of Change was "improved" (1.4 ± 1.5, and Global Perceived Effect was reported to be positive in 16 patients at two years following the procedure.Conclusion: Cooled radiofrequency denervation showed long-term efficacy for up to two years in the treatment of sacroiliac joint pain.Keywords: ablation, chronic low back pain, intervention, neurotomy, sacroiliitis

  15. Experimental Evidence for a Liquid-Liquid Crossover in Deeply Cooled Confined Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupane, Antonio; Fomina, Margarita; Piazza, Irina; Peters, Judith; Schirò, Giorgio

    2014-11-01

    In this work we investigate, by means of elastic neutron scattering, the pressure dependence of mean square displacements (MSD) of hydrogen atoms of deeply cooled water confined in the pores of a three-dimensional disordered SiO2 xerogel; experiments have been performed at 250 and 210 K from atmospheric pressure to 1200 bar. The "pressure anomaly" of supercooled water (i.e., a mean square displacement increase with increasing pressure) is observed in our sample at both temperatures; however, contrary to previous simulation results and to the experimental trend observed in bulk water, the pressure effect is smaller at lower (210 K) than at higher (250 K) temperature. Elastic neutron scattering results are complemented by differential scanning calorimetry data that put in evidence, besides the glass transition at about 170 K, a first-order-like endothermic transition occurring at about 230 K that, in view of the neutron scattering results, can be attributed to a liquid-liquid crossover. Our results give experimental evidence for the presence, in deeply cooled confined water, of a crossover occurring at about 230 K (at ambient pressure) from a liquid phase predominant at 210 K to another liquid phase predominant at 250 K; therefore, they are fully consistent with the liquid-liquid transition hypothesis.

  16. Stability analysis of supercritical-pressure light water-cooled reactor in constant pressure operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhwan, JI; Shirahama, H.; Koshizuka, S.; Oka, Y. [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic and the thermal-nuclear coupled stabilities of a supercritical pressure light water-cooled reactor. A stability analysis code at supercritical pressure is developed. Using this code, stabilities of full and partial-power reactor operating at supercritical pressure are investigated by the frequency-domain analysis. Two types of SCRs are analyzed; a supercritical light water reactor (SCLWR) and a supercritical water-cooled fast reactor (SCFR). The same stability criteria as Boiling Water Reactor are applied. The thermal-hydraulic stability of SCLWR and SCFR satisfies the criteria with a reasonable orifice loss coefficient. The decay ratio of the thermal-nuclear coupled stability in SCFR is almost zero because of a small coolant density coefficient of the fast reactor. The evaluated decay ratio of the thermal-nuclear coupled stability is 3,41 {approx} 10{sup -V} at 100% power in SCFR and 0,028 at 100% power in SCLWR. The sensitivity is investigated. It is found that the thermal-hydraulic stability is sensitive to the mass flow rate strongly and the thermal-nuclear coupled stability to the coolant density coefficient. The bottom power peak distribution makes the thermal-nuclear stability worse and the thermal-nuclear stability better. (author)

  17. Secondary Cooling Water Quality Management for Multi Purpose Reactor 30 MW GA Siwabessy Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaryo, Geni Rina, E-mail: genirina@batan.go.i [Center for Reactor Technology and Nuclear Safety (PTRKN-BATAN), Bldg. 80, Puspiptek Area, Serpong, Tangerang 15310 (Indonesia)

    2011-07-01

    Indonesia Multi Purpose Research Reactor (MPR) G.A. Siwabessy 30 MW will be 25 years old in 2011. Series of Non Destructive Test (NDT) were done to understand the current condition such as Eddy Current test for Heat Exchangers, water immersed camera for understanding the tank liner condition, ultrasonic for secondary piping etc. Some deteorization was observed because of ageing and some changing was done. One of them is changing some part of secondary pipe lines because of leaking, with the local ones. For having another 25 years operation life, a proper water quality for secondary cooling water is needed towards corrosion prevention. The main objectives of this experiment is to understand the current water quality of secondary cooling water of RSG-GAS from the aspect of corrosion induced by chemicals and bacteria, and establish procedure for managing the secondary cooling water quality. Methodologies applied are surveillance corrosion by immersing coupon into water observed and followed by visual analyses, corrosion rate determination by electrochemical method with various chemical conditions and total bacteria determination by using test kit. The results show visually that the crevice, galvanic and homogeny corrosion with the current water quality easily be observed for carbon steel represented secondary pipelines at the condition of none oxy bio agent addition. This corrosion is being suppressed by adding the oxy bio agent. The orientation of coupon, vertically and horizontally, gives slightly different effect. The closely corrosion rate was obtained by separately experiment, electrochemical, at the concentration of inhibitor 100ppm is 0.13 {+-} 0.02, which is lower than in the raw water of 0.20 {+-} 0.01 mpy. The total bacteria detected is around 10{sup 7} cfu/ml at none reactor operation and without any anti bacteria added. The oxi bio agent chemical addition suppresses the numbers becomes 10{sup 3} cfu/ml. The SRB bacteria is detected as >10{sup 6} cfu/ml at

  18. Hydro-Potential Utilization of Cooling Water on the Hydro-Electric Power Plant Dalešice

    OpenAIRE

    Hudec, Martin; Haluza, Miloslav; Kubálek, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Engineering solution of a surplus pressure head in a system of reversible machine unit's cooling water. Current technologies supplemented with Francis turbine or more precisely a centrifugal volute-type pump in turbine mode. It contains the layout for the basic extent of several various high-speeds with regard to maximum coverage of working conditions. Minimization of construction works on the structure of the cooling water inlet. Furthermore it includes an assignment of the annual power prod...

  19. Numerical Investigation of the Flow Dynamics and Evaporative Cooling of Water Droplets Impinging onto Heated Surfaces: An Effective Approach To Identify Spray Cooling Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Nan; Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Rui-Na; Ouyang, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Pei-Xue

    2016-09-13

    Numerical investigations of the dynamics and evaporative cooling of water droplets impinging onto heated surfaces can be used to identify spray cooling mechanisms. Droplet impingement dynamics and evaporation are simulated using the presented numerical model. Volume-of-fluid method is used in the model to track the free surface. The contact line dynamics was predicted from a dynamic contact angle model with the evaporation rate predicted by a kinetic theory model. A species transport equation was solved in the gas phase to describe the vapor convection and diffusion. The numerical model was validated by experimental data. The physical effects including the contact angle hysteresis and the thermocapillary effect are analyzed to offer guidance for future numerical models of droplet impingement cooling. The effects of various parameters including surface wettability, surface temperature, droplet velocity, droplet size, and droplet temperature were numerically studied from the standpoint of spray cooling. The numerical simulations offer profound analysis and deep insight into the spray cooling heat transfer mechanisms.

  20. Numerical Study of the Effect of a Power Plant Cooling Water Discharge in the Montevideo Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Fossati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical simulation of the water temperature in the Río de la Plata River and Montevideo's Bay was done using the numerical model of finite elements RMA-10 in its 2D vertical integrated mode. Parameters involved in the formulations of thermal exchange with the atmosphere were adjusted using measurements of water temperature in several locations of the water body. After calibrating the model, it was used to represent the operation of a power plant located in Montevideo's Bay. This central takes water from the bay in order to cool its generators and also discharges high-temperature water into the bay. The correct representation of temperatures at the water intake and discharge of the plant reflects that the model is able to represent the operation of the central. Several analysis were made to study the thermal plume, the effects of the water discharge on the water intake of the power plant, and the effect on environmental variables of the study area like currents.

  1. Density of hydrophobically confined deeply cooled water investigated by small angle X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Zhang, Yang; Jeng, U.-Ser; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Water's behavior near hydrophobic surfaces has attracted great attention due to chemical and geological applications. Here, we report small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of water confined in the hydrophobic nanoporous carbon material, CMK-1-14, from ambient to deeply cooled temperatures. By monitoring the scattering intensity of the first Bragg peak, which is directly related to the scattering length density contrast between the carbon matrix and the confined water, the average density of the hydrophobically confined water was determined from 300 K to 150 K at ambient pressure. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the majority of such hydrophobically confined water did not crystallize in the investigated temperature range. By exploiting the fast speed of SAXS measurements and the continuous temperature ramping, the average density profile and the deduced thermal expansion coefficient (αp) were obtained. We found that the well-known density maximum of water at 277 K downshifted to 260 K, and the density minimum which has been observed in hydrophilic confinement disappeared. In addition, the previously measured large density decreasing of 18% at low temperature was recalibrated to a more reasonable 10% instead. Consequently, the recalculated αp peak was found to be quite similar to that of the water confined in hydrophilic MCM-41-S-15 suggesting an intrinsic property of water, which does not sensitively depend on the confinement surface.

  2. Experimental simulation of the water cooling of corium spread over the floor of a BWR containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morage, F.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Podowski, M.Z. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper is concerned with an experimental investigation of the cooling effect of water collected on the surface of corium released onto the floor of a BWR drywell. In the present experiments, the actual reactor materials were replaced by simulant materials. Specifically, the results are shown for Freon-11 film boiling over liquid Wood`s metal spread above a solid porous surface through which argon gas was injected. An analysis of the obtained experimental data revealed that the actual film boiling heat transfer between a molten pool of corium and the water above the pool should be more efficient than predicted by using standard correlations for boiling over solid surfaces. This effect will be further augmented by the gas released due to the ablation of concrete floor beneath the corium and percolating towards its upper surface and into through the water layer above.

  3. Corrosion mechanisms of candidate structural materials for supercritical water-cooled reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lefu ZHANG; Fawen ZHU; Rui TANG

    2009-01-01

    Nickel-based alloys, austenitic stainless steel, ferritic/martensitic heat-resistant steels, and oxide dispersion strengthened steel are presently considered to be the candidate structural or fuel-cladding materials for supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), one of the promising generation IV reactor for large-scale electric power production. However, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of these candidate alloys still remain to be a major problem in the selection of nuclear fuel cladding and other structural materials, such as water rod. Survey of literature and experimental results reveal that the general corrosion mechanism of those candidate materials exhibits quite complicated mechanism in high-temperature and high-pressure supercritical water. Formation of a stable protective oxide film is the key to the best corrosion-resistant alloys. This paper focuses on the mechanism of corrosion oxide film breakdown for SCWR candidate materials.

  4. Water-cooled hard-soldered kilowatt laser diode arrays operating at high duty cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumel, Genady; Karni, Yoram; Oppenhaim, Jacob; Berk, Yuri; Shamay, Moshe; Tessler, Renana; Cohen, Shalom; Risemberg, Shlomo

    2010-04-01

    High brightness laser diode arrays are increasingly found in defense applications either as efficient optical pumps or as direct energy sources. In many instances, duty cycles of 10- 20 % are required, together with precise optical collimation. System requirements are not always compatible with the use of microchannel based cooling, notwithstanding their remarkable efficiency. Simpler but effective solutions, which will not involve high fluid pressure drops as well as deionized water, are needed. The designer is faced with a number of challenges: effective heat removal, minimization of the built- in and operational stresses as well as precise and accurate fast axis collimation. In this article, we report on a novel laser diode array which includes an integral tap water cooling system. Robustness is achieved by all around hard solder bonding of passivated 940nm laser bars. Far field mapping of the beam, after accurate fast axis collimation will be presented. It will be shown that the design of water cooling channels , proper selection of package materials, careful design of fatigue sensitive parts and active collimation technique allow for long life time and reliability, while not compromising the laser diode array efficiency, optical power density ,brightness and compactness. Main performance characteristics are 150W/bar peak optical power, 10% duty cycle and more than 50% wall plug efficiency with less than 1° fast axis divergence. Lifetime of 0.5 Gshots with less than 10% power degradation has been proved. Additionally, the devices have successfully survived harsh environmental conditions such as thermal cycling of the coolant temperature and mechanical shocks.

  5. Hydroxyl carboxylate based non-phosphorus corrosion inhibition process for reclaimed water pipeline and downstream recirculating cooling water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Dong; Hou, Deyin

    2016-01-01

    A combined process was developed to inhibit the corrosion both in the pipeline of reclaimed water supplies (PRWS) and in downstream recirculating cooling water systems (RCWS) using the reclaimed water as makeup. Hydroxyl carboxylate-based corrosion inhibitors (e.g., gluconate, citrate, tartrate) and zinc sulfate heptahydrate, which provided Zn(2+) as a synergistic corrosion inhibition additive, were added prior to the PRWS when the phosphate (which could be utilized as a corrosion inhibitor) content in the reclaimed water was below 1.7 mg/L, and no additional corrosion inhibitors were required for the downstream RCWS. Satisfactory corrosion inhibition was achieved even if the RCWS was operated under the condition of high numbers of concentration cycles. The corrosion inhibition requirement was also met by the appropriate combination of PO4(3-) and Zn(2+) when the phosphate content in the reclaimed water was more than 1.7 mg/L. The process integrated not only water reclamation and reuse, and the operation of a highly concentrated RCWS, but also the comprehensive utilization of phosphate in reclaimed water and the application of non-phosphorus corrosion inhibitors. The proposed process reduced the operating cost of the PRWS and the RCWS, and lowered the environmental hazard caused by the excessive discharge of phosphate. Furthermore, larger amounts of water resources could be conserved as a result.

  6. Craft-joule project: air-cooled water LiBr absorption cooling machine of low capacity for air conditioning (ACABMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, A; Castro, J; Perez Segarra, C.D [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Lucena, M.A [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespecial (Spain)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    The ACABMA (Air-Cooled water-LiBr Absorption cooling Machine of low capacity for Air- conditioning) project is a Craft-Joule Project within the framework of the Non Nuclear Energy Programme Joule III coordinated by the Centre Technologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC). The basic objective of this project is the development of a new air-cooled absorption cooling machine for air-conditioning, in the low power sector market. Making use of water-LiBr technology together with the air-cooling feature, it is possible to reach a better relationship between quality (in terms of performance, ecology, etc.) and price of such absorption machines, than the ones existing on the market. Air-cooling instead of water cooling saves installation costs specially in small systems and removes the demand for cooling water (an important aspect in Southern-European countries), thus increasing the possible application range. The main interest for the SME proposers is to take advantage of the increasing cooling demand in Europe, specially in southern countries. Another point of interest for the SME proposers is the development of a cheaper cooling and heating system in terms of energy and installation costs. In this moment the solar cooling systems are approx. 30% more expensive than the conventional ones. A cheaper absorption machine due to the air-cooling feature together with the possibility of energy savings due to low generator temperatures, that allow the absorption machine for solar applications or waste heat, will lead to solar cooling and heating systems more competitive to the conventional ones. In order to achieve the above mentioned goal, the following step are necessary and will be carried out in this project: i)solution of the air-cooling of the water-LiBr machine, the main problem that up to now has not allowed commercialization, ii)reduction of the size of the air-cooled elements of the machine in order to reduce the machine costs, iii)development of an efficient control

  7. Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Water-Cooled Gun Barrel During Burst Firing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Li-xia; HU Zhi-gang; ZHAO Jian-bo

    2006-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical stress and deformation of water-cooled gun barrel during burst firing are studied by finite element analysis (FEA). The problem is modeled in two steps: 1) A transient heat transfer analysis is first carried out in order to determine temperature evolution and to predict the residual temperatures during the burst firing event; 2) The thermo-mecha-nical stresses and deformation caused by both the residual temperature field and the gas pressure are then calculated. The results show that the residual temperature field tends to a steady state with the increasing of rounds. The residual temperature field has much effect on the gun barrel stress and deformation, especially on the assembly area between barrel and water jacket. The gage between the barrel and water jacket is the critical factor to the thermo-mechanical stress and deformation. The results of this analysis will be very useful to develop the new strength design theory of the liquid-cooled gun barrel.

  8. Temperature-time distribution and thermal stresses on the RTG fins and shell during water cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) packages designed for space missions generally do not require active cooling. However, the heat they generate cannot remain inside of the launch vehicle bay and requires active removal. Therefore, before the Shuttle bay door is closed, the RTG coolant tubes attached to the heat rejection fins must be filled with water, which will circulate and remove most of the heat from the cargo bay. There is concern that charging a system at initial temperature around 200 C with water at 24 C can cause unacceptable thermal stresses in the RTG shell and fins. A computer model is developed to estimate the transient temperature distribution resulting from such charging. The thermal stresses resulting from the temperature gradients do not exceed the elastic deformation limit for the material. Since the simplified mathematical model for thermal stresses tends to overestimate stresses, it is concluded that the RTG can be cooled by introducing water at 24 C to the initially hot fin coolant tubes while the RTG is in the Shuttle cargo bay.

  9. Cool-water carbonates in an Eocene palaeoestuary, Norseman Formation, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jonathan D. A.; Bone, Yvonne; James, Noel P.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous palaeovalleys formed extensive drowned estuaries during Eocene transgressions along the southwestern part of the southern margin of Australia. The Tertiary sediments of the Cowan palaeovalley have been extensively drilled, revealing deposition of the Norseman Formation during the Middle Eocene Tortachilla transgression. Initial deposition occurred during transgression of the valley to form a drowned estuary. Sediments consisted of coarse-grained muddy, lithic, iron and glauconite-rich sands and gravels of mixed carbonate and quartz. Pure carbonates accumulated during the highstand, produced by a typical shallow temperate water assemblage of bryozoans, coralline algae, echinoids and molluscs and were swept into shoals by strong tidal currents. Minor "tropical" components in the form of large benthic foraminifers and dasycladacean algae are present. Coarse bryozoan and trough cross-bedded carbonate sands accumulated in the margins of the estuary and fine bryozoan sands in the deeper parts. Rhodoliths accumulated to form shoals in sheltered localities. The Spencer Gulf and Gulf St. Vincent of South Australia provide close modern analogues to the Cowan palaeovalley and the Norseman Formation. Modern carbonate sediments off Esperance on the south coast of Western Australia contain "tropical" faunal elements within an otherwise temperate skeletal assemblage and also provide a modern analogue. The Norseman Formation thus provides an excellent example of cool-water carbonate deposition in near-shore, tide-dominated environments. This study complements and contrasts existing cool-water shelf facies models based on Tertiary carbonates deposited on deep shelves elsewhere in southern Australia.

  10. Temperature-time distribution and thermal stresses on the RTG fins and shell during water cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) packages designed for space missions generally do not require active cooling. However, the heat they generate cannot remain inside of the launch vehicle bay and requires active removal. Therefore, before the Shuttle bay door is closed, the RTG coolant tubes attached to the heat rejection fins must be filled with water, which will circulate and remove most of the heat from the cargo bay. There is concern that charging a system at initial temperature around 200 C with water at 24 C can cause unacceptable thermal stresses in the RTG shell and fins. A computer model is developed to estimate the transient temperature distribution resulting from such charging. The thermal stresses resulting from the temperature gradients do not exceed the elastic deformation limit for the material. Since the simplified mathematical model for thermal stresses tends to overestimate stresses, it is concluded that the RTG can be cooled by introducing water at 24 C to the initially hot fin coolant tubes while the RTG is in the Shuttle cargo bay.

  11. Analysis of an air cooled ammonia-water vertical tubular absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, J.; Uhia, F.J.; Sieres, J. [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, No 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of an ammonia-water vertical tubular absorber cooled by air. The absorption process takes place co-currently upward inside the tubes. The tubes are externally finned with continuous plate fins and the tube rows are arranged staggered in the direction of the air flow. The air is forced over the tube bank and circulates between the plain fins in cross flow with the ammonia-water mixture. The analysis has been carried out by means of a mathematical model developed on the basis of mass and energy balances and heat and mass transfer equations. The model takes into account separately the churn, slug and bubbly flow patterns experimentally forecasted in this type of absorption processes inside vertical tubes and considers the simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes in both liquid and vapour phases, as well as heat transfer to the cooling air. The model has been implemented in a computer program. Results based on a representative design and nominal operating conditions of an absorber for a small capacity ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system are shown. A parametric analysis was realised to investigate the influence of the design parameters and operating conditions on the absorber performance. The noteworthy results that have effect on practical design of the absorber are presented and commented. (authors)

  12. Holocene sediment dynamics on a cool-water carbonate shelf: Otway, southeastern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreen, T.D.; James, N.P. (Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada))

    1993-07-01

    The Otway Shelf is covered by cool waters and veneered by bryozoan-dominated carbonate sediments. Radiocarbon dating and stratigraphy of shelf vibracores and slope gravity cores document late Pleistocene/Holocene deposition. Shelf sediments of the late Pleistocene high-stand are rare, either never having been deposited or having been removed during the following sea-level fall. During the subsequent lowstand the shelf was exposed, facies shifted basinward, and beach/dune complexes were constructed near the shelf edge. The deep shelf was characterized by nondeposition and hardground formation, and the shelf margin became locally erosional. Upper-slope bryozoan/sponge assemblages continued to grow actively, and lower-slope foraminifera and nannofossil ooze was increasingly enriched in hemipelagic terrigenous mud swept off the wide shelf. Coarse shelf debris and lowstand dune sands were erosively reworked and transported onto the upper slope and redistributed to deep-slope aprons during early transgression. The late Quaternary shelf record resembles that of flat-topped, warm-water platforms with Holocene sediment overlying Pleistocene/Tertiary limestone, but for different reasons. The slow growth potential, uniform profile of sediment production and distribution, and inability of constituent organisms to construct rigid frameworks favor maintenance of a shallow ramp profile and makes the cool-water carbonate system an excellent modern analog for interpretation of many ancient ramp successions.

  13. Effects of FLONLIZER, ultraviolet sterilizer, on Legionella species inhabiting cooling tower water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Urakami, I; Nakano, K; Ikedo, M; Yabuuchi, E

    1987-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila in sterile distilled water was not detected after ultraviolet irradiation by FLONLIZER, a new-type sterilizer, at a flow rate of 82.5 to 364.8 liters/hr. When irradiated by FLONLIZER at a flow rate of under 324.0 liters/hr, no viable cells of legionellae, other heterotrophic bacteria and bacterivorous protozoa were detected in the cooling tower water, which was found to contain L. pneumophila. No viable cells of L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii suspended in sterile distilled water were detected after the irradiation with UV-doses of over 6.16 X 10(3) micro W.sec/cm2. At the irradiation of low UV-doses under 1.06 X 10(4) micro W.sec/cm2, the viable count of legionellae recuperated by photoreactivation from UV-damage increased with the exposure time under a white fluorescent lamp. However, in the samples irradiated with UV-doses of over 3.52 X 10(4) micro W.sec/cm2, equal to the FLONLIZER, legionellae did not recuperate even after 18 hr illumination with a white fluorescent lamp. FLONLIZER is thus expected to act as a sterilizer which can control the legionellae inhabiting cooling tower systems placed in outdoor space.

  14. Heat Transfer Analysis to Optimize The Water Cooling Scheme For Combustion Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Usha Rani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal Propulsion system is one kind of propulsion system which is used to drive torpedo. The present study focuses mainly on design of combustion device known to be thrust chamber or thrust cylinder. The chamber and nozzle wall and the injector face plate must be made of metals selected for high strength at elevated temperature coupled with good thermal conductivity, resistance to high temperature oxidation. chemical inertness on the coolant on the coolant side, and suitability for the fabrication method to be employed. In the case of certain monopropellants, the metal must not catalyze the decomposition. Although aluminum and copper alloys have been used successfully for combustion chambers and nozzles, stainless steels and carbon steels are in widest use today.A cooling jacket permits the circulation of a coolant, which, in the case of flight engines is usually one of the propellants. Water is the only coolant recommended. The cooling jacket consists of an inner and outer wall. The combustion chamber forms the inner wall and another concentric but larger cylinder provides the outer wall. The space between the walls serves as the coolant passage. The nozzle throat region usually has the highest heat transfer intensity and is, therefore, the most difficult to cool.

  15. Simulation and control of water-gas shift packed bed reactor with inter-stage cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S. Z.; Nandong, J.

    2016-03-01

    Water-Gas Shift Reaction (WGSR) has become one of the well-known pathways for H2 production in industries. The issue with WGSR is that it is kinetically favored at high temperatures but thermodynamically favored at low temperatures, thus requiring careful consideration in the control design in order to ensure that the temperature used does not deactivate the catalyst. This paper studies the effect of a reactor arrangement with an inter-stage cooling implemented in the packed bed reactor to look at its effect on outlet temperature. A mathematical model is developed based on one-dimensional heat and mass transfers which incorporate the intra-particle effects. It is shown that the placement of the inter-stage cooling and the outlet temperature exiting the inter-stage cooling have strong influence on the reaction conversion. Several control strategies are explored for the process. It is shown that a feedback- feedforward control strategy using Multi-scale Control (MSC) is effective to regulate the reactor temperature profile which is critical to maintaining the catalysts activity.

  16. Molecular characterization of viable Legionella spp. in cooling tower water samples by combined use of ethidium monoazide and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Reiko; Agata, Kunio; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Viable Legionella spp. in environmental water samples were characterized phylogenetically by a clone library analysis combining the use of ethidium monoazide and quantitative PCR. To examine the diversity of Legionella spp., six cooling tower water samples and three bath water samples were collected and analyzed. A total of 617 clones were analyzed for their 16S rRNA gene sequences and classified into 99 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The majority of OTUs were not clustered with currently described Legionella spp., suggesting the wide diversity of not-yet-cultured Legionella groups harbored in cooling tower water environments.

  17. Evaporative cooling of microscopic water droplets in vacuo: Molecular dynamics simulations and kinetic gas theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Daniel; Sellberg, Jonas A; Nilsson, Anders; Pettersson, Lars G M

    2016-03-28

    In the present study, we investigate the process of evaporative cooling of nanometer-sized droplets in vacuum using molecular dynamics simulations with the TIP4P/2005 water model. The results are compared to the temperature evolution calculated from the Knudsen theory of evaporation which is derived from kinetic gas theory. The calculated and simulation results are found to be in very good agreement for an evaporation coefficient equal to unity. Our results are of interest to experiments utilizing droplet dispensers as well as to cloud micro-physics.

  18. Cooling water shortage causes nuclear power plant standstill; Hitzefrei fuer Atomstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenker, O.

    2003-09-01

    The cooling water shortage during the high 'Michaela' induced operators of nuclear and coal power plants to run their plants at lower power. In future heat waves, decentralisation and shutdown of inefficient large-scale power plants may be the only solution. (orig.) [German] Niedrige Pegelstaende, erwaermte Fluesse: Weil das Kuehlwasser knapp wurde, zwang Hoch 'Michaela' die Betreiber von Atom- und Kohle-Kraftwerken zum Drosseln ihrer Anlagen. Gegen kuenftige Hitzewellen hilft nur die Dezentralisierung der Energiewirtschaft und die Abkehr von ineffizienten Grosskraftwerken. (orig.)

  19. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using a Water-Cooled Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of a steady heat flux to a given water-cooled surface by means of a system energy balance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Research and the Application of Water Reuse Recycle Cooling Water System%中水回用循环冷却水系统研究及现场应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少松; 曹培宽; 白小明

    2012-01-01

    The paper studied the water treatment chemicals that were successfully used in the cycle cooling water system. Recycled water was used in the cycle cooling water system as supplement water in this system, and examined the site operation in a thermo electron corporation of Tianjin economic development zone. In addition, the performance factors were analyzed of cycle cooling water system. Practice had proved that recycled water as supplement water for the circulating water system was successful about 5 years.%针对滨海新区中水水质,研究了适应天津经济技术开发区某热电公司应用的中水水质、系统材质和工况条件的水处理药剂及其配套高浓缩倍率水处理技术,并应用于现场运行控制。通过对近五年现场应用结果进行深入总结分析,说明中水回用于循环水系统处理技术是成功的,取得明显的经济效益和社会效益。

  1. Microbial fouling community analysis of the cooling water system of a nuclear test reactor with emphasis on sulphate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, P; Joshi, M Hiren; Rao, T S

    2011-10-01

    Culture and molecular-based techniques were used to characterize bacterial diversity in the cooling water system of a fast breeder test reactor (FBTR). Techniques were selected for special emphasis on sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Water samples from different locations of the FBTR cooling water system, in addition to biofilm scrapings from carbon steel coupons and a control SRB sample were characterized. Whole genome extraction of the water samples and SRB diversity by group specific primers were analysed using nested PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results of the bacterial assay in the cooling water showed that the total culturable bacteria (TCB) ranged from 10(3) to 10(5) cfu ml(-1); iron-reducing bacteria, 10(3) to 10(5) cfu ml(-1); iron oxidizing bacteria, 10(2) to 10(3) cfu ml(-1) and SRB, 2-29 cfu ml(-1). However, the counts of the various bacterial types in the biofilm sample were 2-3 orders of magnitude higher. SRB diversity by the nested PCR-DGGE approach showed the presence of groups 1, 5 and 6 in the FBTR cooling water system; however, groups 2, 3 and 4 were not detected. The study demonstrated that the PCR protocol influenced the results of the diversity analysis. The paper further discusses the microbiota of the cooling water system and its relevance in biofouling.

  2. The influence of sodium hypochlorite biocide on the corrosion of carbon steel in reclaimed water used as circulating cooling water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Weina; Tian, Yimei; Peng, Sen, E-mail: pengsen@tju.edu.cn

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • The changes of polarisation curves and EIS over time were investigated. • Protective layers consist of microorganism metabolites and scale in the presence of microorganisms. • NaClO decreases the corrosion in circulating cooling water, whereas it promotes the corrosion in sterile water. • NaClO kills the microorganisms simultaneously along with the inhibition of corrosion and scaling in circulating cooling water. - Abstract: In this paper, we investigated the influence of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) biocide on the corrosion of carbon steel in four different conditions during one dosing cycle. The results from the polarisation curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicated that NaClO could affect the activity of microorganisms, leading to corrosion inhibition. The equivalent circuits had two time constants in the presence of biocide, which suggested that an oxide layer of NaClO was formed on the carbon steel surface. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were both employed to demonstrate that NaClO produced a good antibacterial activity, thereby indirectly retarding corrosion while simultaneously inhibiting scaling.

  3. Core Design and Deployment Strategy of Heavy Water Cooled Sustainable Thorium Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Takaki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies on water cooled thorium breeder reactor based on matured pressurized water reactor (PWR plant technology concluded that reduced moderated core by arranging fuel pins in a triangular tight lattice array and using heavy water as coolant is appropriate for achieving better breeding performance and higher burn-up simultaneously [1–6]. One optimum core that produces 3.5 GW thermal energy using Th-233U oxide fuel shows a breeding ratio of 1.07 and averaged burn-up of about 80 GWd/t with long cycle length of 1300 days. The moderator to fuel volume ratio is 0.6 and required enrichment of 233U for the fresh fuel is about 7%. The coolant reactivity coefficient is negative during all cycles despite it being a large scale breeder reactor. In order to introduce this sustainable thorium reactor, three-step deployment scenario, with intermediate transition phase between current light water reactor (LWR phase and future sustainer phase, is proposed. Both in transition phase and sustainer phase, almost the same core design can be applicable only by changing fissile materials mixed with thorium from plutonium to 233U with slight modification in the fuel assembly design. Assuming total capacity of 60 GWe in current LWR phase and reprocessing capacity of 800 ton/y with further extensions to 1600 ton/y, all LWRs will be replaced by heavy water cooled thorium reactors within about one century then thorium reactors will be kept operational owing to its potential to sustain fissile fuels while reprocessing all spent fuels until exhaustion of massive thorium resource.

  4. Measurements of erbium laser-ablation efficiency in hard dental tissues under different water cooling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuščer, Lovro; Diaci, Janez

    2013-10-01

    Laser triangulation measurements of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-ablated volumes in hard dental tissues are made, in order to verify the possible existence of a "hydrokinetic" effect that has been proposed as an alternative to the "subsurface water expansion" mechanism for hard-tissue laser ablation. No evidence of the hydrokinetic effect could be observed under a broad range of tested laser parameters and water cooling conditions. On the contrary, the application of water spray during laser exposure of hard dental material is observed to diminish the laser-ablation efficiency (AE) in comparison with laser exposure under the absence of water spray. Our findings are in agreement with the generally accepted principle of action for erbium laser ablation, which is based on fast subsurface expansion of laser-heated water trapped within the interstitial structure of hard dental tissues. Our measurements also show that the well-known phenomenon of ablation stalling, during a series of consecutive laser pulses, can primarily be attributed to the blocking of laser light by the loosely bound and recondensed desiccated minerals that collect on the tooth surface during and following laser ablation. In addition to the prevention of tooth bulk temperature buildup, a positive function of the water spray that is typically used with erbium dental lasers is to rehydrate these minerals, and thus sustaining the subsurface expansion ablation process. A negative side effect of using a continuous water spray is that the AE gets reduced due to the laser light being partially absorbed in the water-spray particles above the tooth and in the collected water pool on the tooth surface. Finally, no evidence of the influence of the water absorption shift on the hypothesized increase in the AE of the Er,Cr:YSGG wavelength is observed.

  5. Water Treatment Technology - General Plant Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on general plant operations provides instructional materials for seven competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: water supply regulations, water plant…

  6. Experimental assessment of on-chip liquid cooling through microchannels with de-ionized water and diluted ethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yonghyun; Kim, Sungdong; Eunkyung Kim, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    Recent progress in Si IC devices, which results in an increase in power density and decrease in device size, poses various thermal challenges owing to high heat dissipation. Therefore, conventional cooling techniques become ineffective and produce a thermal bottleneck. In this study, an on-chip liquid cooling module with microchannels and through Si via (TSV) was fabricated, and cooling characteristics were evaluated by IR measurements. Both the microchannels and TSVs were fabricated in a Si wafer by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and the wafer was bonded with a glass wafer by a anodic bonding. The fabricated liquid cooling sample was evaluated using two different coolants (de-ionized water and 70 wt % diluted ethylene glycol), and the effect of coolants on cooling characteristics was investigated.

  7. Effect of Water Vapor During Secondary Cooling on Hot Shortness in Fe-Cu-Ni-Sn-Si Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Erica; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2014-10-01

    Residual Cu in recycled steel scrap can cause hot shortness when the iron matrix is oxidized. Hot shortness can occur directly after the solid steel is formed from continuous casting as the steel undergoes a cooling process known as secondary cooling where water is first sprayed on the surface to promote cooling. This is followed by a radiant cooling stage where the steel is cooled in air to room temperature. This investigation examines the roles of water vapor, Si content, temperature, and the presence of Sn in a Fe-0.2 wt pct Cu-0.05 wt pct Ni alloy on oxidation, separated Cu and Cu induced-hot shortness during simulations of the secondary cooling process. The secondary cooling from 1473 K (1200 °C) resulted in a slight increase in liquid quantity and grain boundary penetration as compared to the isothermal heating cycles at 1423 K (1150 °C) due to the higher temperatures experienced in the non-isothermal cycle. The addition of water vapor increased the sample oxidation as compared to samples processed in dry atmospheres due to increased scale adherence, scale plasticity, and inward transport of oxygen. The increase in weight gain of the wet atmosphere increased the liquid formation at the interface in the non-Si containing alloys. The secondary cooling cycle with water vapor and the effect of Sn lead to the formation of many small pools of Cu-rich liquid embedded within the surface of the metal due to the Sn allowing for increased grain boundary decohesion and the water vapor allowing for oxidation within liquid-penetrated grain boundaries. The presence of Si increased the amount of occlusion of Cu and Fe, significantly decreasing the quantity of liquid at the interface and the amount of grain boundary penetration.

  8. The performance of a mobile air conditioning system with a water cooled condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Battista, Davide; Cipollone, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Vehicle technological evolution lived, in recent years, a strong acceleration due to the increased awareness of environmental issues related to pollutants and climate altering emissions. This resulted in a series of international regulations on automotive sector which put technical challenges that must consider the engine and the vehicle as a global system, in order to improve the overall efficiency of the system. The air conditioning system of the cabin, for instance, is the one of the most important auxiliaries in a vehicle and requires significant powers. Its performances can be significantly improved if it is integrated within the engine cooling circuit, eventually modified with more temperature levels. In this paper, the Authors present a mathematical model of the A/C system, starting from its single components: compressors, condenser, flush valve and evaporator and a comparison between different refrigerant fluid. In particular, it is introduced the opportunity to have an A/C condenser cooled by a water circuit instead of the external air linked to the vehicle speed, as in the actual traditional configuration. The A/C condenser, in fact, could be housed on a low temperature water circuit, reducing the condensing temperature of the refrigeration cycle with a considerable efficiency increase.

  9. A water cooled, lithium lead breeding blanket for a DEMO fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, G.; Rieger, M.; Biggio, M.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Tominetti, S.; Wu, J.; Zucchetti, M. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre); Labbe, P.; Baraer, L.; Gervaise, G.; Giancarli, L.; Roze, M.; Severi, Y.; Quintric-Bossy, J. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1991-04-01

    The main features of a tritium breeding blanket for a Demonstration Power Reactor involving the eutectic Pb-17Li as liquid breeder and water as coolant are presented. The configuration of the blanket segments and breeder modules as well as their arrangement inside the reactor vacuum vessel are outlined. The main design aspects and the corresponding design limits are reviewed, namely those related to thermomechanics, neutronics, magneto-hydrodynamics, tritium permeation and recovery. First results of safety analysis, in particular those connected with the rupture of a coolant tube in the breeder module are presented and discussed. As a conclusion, the feasibility of the concept look attractive. A problem which requires further investigation is that of the tritium self-sufficiency. It is shown that a net tritium production near to one can be obtained if berylium tiles are placed in front of the plasma, provided that they are cooled by heavy water. (orig.).

  10. Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  11. Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  12. Techno-economic assessment of boiler feed water production by membrane distillation with reuse of thermal waste energy from cooling water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J.M.; Leerdam, R.C. van; Medevoort, J. van; Tongeren, W.G.J.M. van; Verhasselt, B.; Verelst, L.; Vermeersch, M.; Corbisier, D.

    2015-01-01

    The European KIC-Climate project Water and Energy for Climate Change (WE4CC) aims at the technical demonstration, business case evaluation and implementation of new value chains for the production of high-quality water using low-grade thermal waste energy from cooling water. A typical large-scale wa

  13. Techno-economic assessment of boiler feed water production by membrane distillation with reuse of thermal waste energy from cooling water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J.M.; Leerdam, R.C. van; Medevoort, J. van; Tongeren, W.G.J.M. van; Verhasselt, B.; Verelst, L.; Vermeersch, M.; Corbisier, D.

    2015-01-01

    The European KIC-Climate project Water and Energy for Climate Change (WE4CC) aims at the technical demonstration, business case evaluation and implementation of new value chains for the production of high-quality water using low-grade thermal waste energy from cooling water. A typical large-scale

  14. Coiling Temperature Control Using Temperature Measurement Method for the Hot Rolled Strip in the Water Cooling Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shigemasa; Tachibana, Hisayoshi; Honda, Tatsuro; Uematsu, Chihiro

    In the hot strip mill, the quality of the strip greatly depends on the cooling process between the last stand in the finishing mill and the coilers. Therefore, it is important to carefully control the coiling temperature to regulate the mechanical properties of the strip. To realize high accuracy of coiling temperature, a new coiling temperature control using temperature measurement method for the hot rolled strip in the water cooling banks has been developed. The features of the new coiling temperature control are as follows: (i) New feedforward control adjusts ON/OFF swiching of cooling headers according to the strip temperature measured in the water cooling banks. (ii) New feedforward control is achieved by dynamic control function. This coiling temperature control has been in operation successfully since 2008 at Kashima Steel Works and improved the accuracy of coiling temperature of high strength steel considerably.

  15. Multi-purpose rainwater harvesting for water resource recovery and the cooling effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kyoung Jin; Lam, Yun Fat; Hao, Song; Morakinyo, Tobi Eniolu; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2015-12-01

    The potential use of rainwater harvesting in conjunction with miscellaneous water supplies and a rooftop garden with rainwater harvesting facility for temperature reduction have been evaluated in this study for Hong Kong. Various water applications such as toilet flushing and areal climate controls have been systematically considered depending on the availability of seawater toilet flushing using the Geographic Information System (GIS). For water supplies, the district Area Precipitation per Demand Ratio (APDR) has been calculated to quantify the rainwater utilization potential of each administrative district in Hong Kong. Districts with freshwater toilet flushing prove to have higher potential for rainwater harvest and utilization compared to the areas with seawater toilet flushing. Furthermore, the effectiveness of using rainwater harvesting for miscellaneous water supplies in Hong Kong and Tokyo has been analyzed and compared; this revives serious consideration of diurnal and seasonal patterns of rainfall in applying such technology. In terms of the cooling effect, the implementation of a rooftop rainwater harvesting garden has been evaluated using the ENVI-met model. Our results show that a temperature drop of 1.3 °C has been observed due to the rainwater layer in the rain garden. This study provides valuable insight into the applicability of the rainwater harvesting for sustainable water management practice in a highly urbanized city.

  16. Investigation of the falling water flow with evaporation for the passive containment cooling system and its scaling-down criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Li, Junming; Li, Le

    2017-09-01

    Falling water evaporation cooling could efficiently suppress the containment operation pressure during the nuclear accident, by continually removing the core decay heat to the atmospheric environment. In order to identify the process of large-scale falling water evaporation cooling, the water flow characteristics of falling film, film rupture and falling rivulet were deduced, on the basis of previous correlation studies. The influences of the contact angle, water temperature and water flow rates on water converge along the flow direction were then numerically obtained and results were compared with the data for AP1000 and CAP1400 nuclear power plants. By comparisons, it is concluded that the water coverage fraction of falling water could be enhanced by either reducing the surface contact angle or increasing the water temperature. The falling water flow with evaporation for AP1000 containment was then calculated and the feature of its water coverage fraction was analyzed. Finally, based on the phenomena identification of falling water flow for AP1000 containment evaporation cooling, the scaling-down is performed and the dimensionless criteria were obtained.

  17. Crow Nation Water Treatment Plant NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030538, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs is authorized to discharge from the Crow Agency water treatment plants via the wastewater treatment facility located in Bighorn County, Montana to the Little Bighorn River.

  18. Emergency reactor core cooling water injection device for light water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Junro.

    1994-05-13

    A reactor pressure vessel is immersed in pool water of a reactor container. A control valve is interposed to a water supplying pipelines connecting pool water and a pressure vessel. A valve actuation means for opening/closing the control valve comprises a lifting tank. The inner side of the lifting tank and the inner side of the pressure vessel are connected by a communication pipeline (a syphon pipe) at upper and lower two portions. The lifting tank and the control valve are connected by a link mechanism. When a water level in the pressure vessel is lowered, the water level in the lifting tank is lowered to the same level as that in the pressure vessel. This reduces the weight of the lifting tank, the lifting tank is raised, to open the control valve by way of a link mechanism. As a result, liquid phase in the pressure vessel is in communication with the pool water, and the pool water flows down into the pressure vessel to maintain the reactor core in a flooded state. (I.N.).

  19. TRACG-CFD analysis of ESBWR reactor water cleanup shutdown cooling system mixing coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, J. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marquino, W.; Mistreanu, A.; Yang, J., E-mail: euqrop@hotmail.com [General Electric Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, 28401 North Carolina (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The ESBWR is a 1520 nominal [M We] Generation III+ natural circulation boiling water reactor designed to high levels of safety utilizing features that have been successfully used before in operating BWRs, as well as standard features common to A BWR. In September of 2014, the US NRC has certified the ESBWR design for use in the USA. The RWCU/Sdc is an auxiliary system for the ESBWR nuclear island. Basic functions it performs include purifying the reactor coolant during normal operation and shutdown and providing shutdown cooling and cooldown to cold shutdown conditions. The performance of the RWCU system during shutdown cooling is directly related to the temperature of the water removed through the outlets, which is coupled with the vessel and F W temperatures through a thermal mixing coefficient. The complex three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the BWR downcomer and lower plenum has a great impact on the flow mixing. Only a fine mesh technique like CFD can predict the 3-D temperature distribution in the RPV during shutdown and provide the RWCU/Sdc system inlet temperature. Plant shutdown is an unsteady event by nature and was modeled as a succession of CFD steady-state simulations. It is required to establish the mixing coefficient (which is a function of the heat balance and the core flow) during the operation of the RWCU system in the multiple shutdown cooling modes, and therefore a range of core flows needs to be estimated using quasi steady states obtained with TRACG. The lower end of that range is obtained from a system with minimal power decay heat and core flow; while the higher end corresponds to the power at the beginning of RWCU/Sdc operation when the cooldown is transferred to the RWCU/Sdc after the initial depressurization via the turbine bypass valves. Because the ESBWR RWCU/Sdc return and suction designs provide good mixing, the uniform mixing energy balance was found to be an adequate alternative for deriving the mixing coefficient. The CFD mass flow

  20. An effect of heat insulation parameters on thermal losses of water-cooled roofs for secondary steelmaking electric arc furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mihailov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is research in the insulation parameters effect on the thermal losses of watercooled roofs for secondary steelmaking electric arc furnaces. An analytical method has been used for the investigation in heat transfer conditions in the working area. The results of the research can be used to choose optimal cooling parameters and select a suitable kind of insulation for water-cooled surfaces.

  1. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Tempered Water (TW) and Tempered Water Cooling (TWC) System . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the TW and TWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SOD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  2. Sustainable treatment of municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Augusto; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the first LCA results from running existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology on some of the waste water treatment technologies. Keywords: Sustainability, LCA, micropollutants, waste water treatment technologies.......The main goal of the EU FP6 NEPTUNE program is to develop new and improve existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling technologies for municipal waste water, in accordance with the concepts behind the EU Water Framework Directive. As part of this work, the project.......e. heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors) in the waste water. As a novel approach, the potential ecotoxicity and human toxicity impacts from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impacts from pathogens will be included. In total, more that 20 different waste water and sludge...

  3. A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

    2009-10-20

    Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant

  4. Thermal Characteristics of Air-Water Spray Impingement Cooling of Hot Metallic Surface under Controlled Parametric Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santosh Kumar Nayak; Purna Chandra Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results on the thermal characteristics of air-water spray impingement cooling of hot metallic surface are presented and discussed in this paper.The controlling input parameters investigated were the combined air and water pressures,plate thickness,water flow rate,nozzle height from the target surface and initial temperature of the hot surface.The effects of these input parameters on the important thermal characteristics such as heat transfer rate,heat transfer coefficient and wetting front movement were measured and examined.Hot flat plate samples of mild steel with dimension 120 mm in length,120 mm breadth and thickness of 4 mm,6 mm,and 8 mm respectively were tested.The air assisted water spray was found to be an effective cooling media and method to achieve very high heat transfer rate from the surface.Higher heat transfer rate and heat transfer coefficients were obtained for the lesser i.e,4 mm thick plates.Increase in the nozzle height reduced the heat transfer efficiency of spray cooling.At an inlet water pressure of 4 bar and air pressure of 3 bar,maximum cooling rates 670℃/s and average cooling rate of 305.23℃/s were achieved for a temperature of 850℃ of the steel plate.

  5. Quantum treatment of two-stage sub-Doppler laser cooling of magnesium atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Brazhnikov, D V; Taichenachev, A V; Yudin, V I; Bonert, A E; Il'enkov, R Ya; Goncharov, A N

    2015-01-01

    The problem of deep laser cooling of $^{24}$Mg atoms is theoretically studied. We propose two-stage sub-Doppler cooling strategy using electro-dipole transition $3^3P_2$$\\to$$3^3D_3$ ($\\lambda$=383.9 nm). The first stage implies exploiting magneto-optical trap with $\\sigma^+$ and $\\sigma^-$ light beams, while the second one uses a lin$\\perp$lin molasses. We focus on achieving large number of ultracold atoms (T$_{eff}$ < 10 $\\mu$K) in a cold atomic cloud. The calculations have been done out of many widely used approximations and based on quantum treatment with taking full account of recoil effect. Steady-state average kinetic energies and linear momentum distributions of cold atoms are analysed for various light-field intensities and frequency detunings. The results of conducted quantum analysis have revealed noticeable differences from results of semiclassical approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation. At certain conditions the second cooling stage can provide sufficiently lower kinetic energies of atom...

  6. Water, Air Emissions, and Cost Impacts of Air-Cooled Microturbines for Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power Systems: A Case Study in the Atlanta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Ann James

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing pace of urbanization means that cities and global organizations are looking for ways to increase energy efficiency and reduce emissions. Combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP systems have the potential to improve the energy generation efficiency of a city or urban region by providing energy for heating, cooling, and electricity simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to estimate the water consumption for energy generation use, carbon dioxide (CO2 and NOx emissions, and economic impact of implementing CCHP systems for five generic building types within the Atlanta metropolitan region, under various operational scenarios following the building thermal (heating and cooling demands. Operating the CCHP system to follow the hourly thermal demand reduces CO2 emissions for most building types both with and without net metering. The system can be economically beneficial for all building types depending on the price of natural gas, the implementation of net metering, and the cost structure assumed for the CCHP system. The greatest reduction in water consumption for energy production and NOx emissions occurs when there is net metering and when the system is operated to meet the maximum yearly thermal demand, although this scenario also results in an increase in greenhouse gas emissions and, in some cases, cost. CCHP systems are more economical for medium office, large office, and multifamily residential buildings.

  7. 外壳水冷式隔爆型电动机冷却水路有限元分析%FEM analysis of water-cooling channel for water-cooling flameproof motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何惠明; 白保东; 王禹; 肖红; 杨晓洲; 范作智

    2012-01-01

    The coal mining water-cooling flameproof motor cannot be drawn out from the motor unit because of deformation of its shell, which makes it difficult to change the motor and maintain the motor unit. The method of adding keyhole caulk weld spots on the outer cooling water jacket was proposed to solve the problem. Based on the elasticity mechanics equations and the principle of finite element method, the stresses and the deformations of the traditional outer cooling water jacket and the outer cooling water jacket with keyhole caulk weld spots were calculated separately in 3. 0 MPa hydraulic pressure by Solid Works COSMO-SXpress finite element analysis method. Water press experiments of the two cooling water jackets were implemented. Obviously, the stress and the deformation of the new cooling water jacket were lower. The experimental result is consistent with the simulation results. It is effective to reduce the stress and the deformation of the cooling water jacket by adding the keyhole caulk weld spots. The new high strength type of water-cooling structure can adapt the high hydraulic pressure to increase the heat release.%煤矿井下用外壳水冷式隔爆电动机在使用过程中电动机外壳容易变形,无法从机组中抽出,影响电机的更换和机组维护.针对此问题,提出了在外水套增加小孔塞焊点的解决方案,基于弹性力学基本方程及有限元分析方法,应用SolidWorks的COSMOSXpress软件,分别计算了3.0MPa水压下传统式冷却水套和带有小孔塞焊点新型冷却水套的应力及形变;对增加小孔塞焊点的新型冷却水套及传统冷却水套分别进行了水压实验,新型外水套形变明显减小.实验结果与仿真结果具有一致性,证明了增加小孔塞焊点减小外水套应力及形变的有效性.增加小孔塞焊点的新型外水套冷却结构可以适应较高水压以达到增加电机散热效果的目的.

  8. Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Mortensen

    2009-06-30

    This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

  9. The Discussion about Closed Circulating Cooling Water System in Coal Chemical Industry%煤化工项目中闭式循环水系统探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安显威

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic of closed circulating cooling water system and the water-saving reason of closed cooling water were discussed. The process of closed cooling water system and some problem for closed cooling water system were introduced.%探讨了煤化工项目中循环水系统的特点和闭式冷却塔的节水原因,介绍了闭式循环水系统的流程及闭式循环水系统中可能面临的一些问题。

  10. What is "Normative" at Cooling Water Intakes? Defining Normalcy Before Judging Adverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1998-09-23

    Judgments of adverse environmental impact from cooling water intake structures need to be preceded by an appreciation of what is normal. In its repo~ Return to the River, the Independent Scientd5c Group (now called the Independent Scientfilc Advisory Board) --the scientific peer review arm of the Northwest Power Planning Council-- advanced the notion of a "normative river ecosystem" as a new conceptual foundation for salrnonid recovery in the Columbia River basin. With this perspective, the sum of the best scientific understanding of how organisms and aquatic ecosystems function should be the norm or standard of measure for how we judge the effects of human activities on aquatic systems. ,For the best likelihood of recovery, key aspects of altered systems should be brought back toward nonnative (although not necessarily fully back to the historical or pristine state); new alterations should be judged for adversity by how much they move key attributes away from normative or what might be considered normal. In this presentation, I ask what "normative" is for the setting of cooling water intake structures and how this concept could help resolve long-standing disputes between groups interested in avoiding darnage to all organisms that might be entrained or impinged and those who take a more population or community perspective for judging adverse environmental impact. In essence, I suggest that if a water intake does not move the aquatic ecosystem outside the "normative" range, based on expressions of norrrdcy such as those discussed, then no adverse impact has occurred. Having an explicit baseline in normal or normative would place 316(b) analyses on the same conceptual foundation as 316(a) analyses, which strive to demonstrate the continuation of a balanced, indigenous community of aquatic organisms at the power station Iocation.

  11. Research on the effects of cooling water velocity on temperature rise of the water-cooled motor in electric vehicles%冷却水流速对汽车水冷电机温升影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠萍; 柴凤; 程树康

    2012-01-01

    In order to attain the optimal velocity of water-cooled motor & cooling water t the relationship between velocity of water-cooled motor' s cooling water and motor temperature was derived based on the heat transfer and hydrodynamic theory- Motor temperature decreased more with the increase of velocity, when cooling water was in laminar flow. When in turbulent flow, the cooling effect on the motor was further enhanced , however, with the velocity increasing, motor temperature dropped to heat saturation with increasing cooling water flow. In this paper a model of water-cooled induction motor based on the thermal network was established. The steady-state temperature rise of motor under rated load was obtained and the temperature distribution of the winding and the stator yoke was also calculated when in different velocity of cooling water. Experiments were conducted on an induction motor prototype to measure the temperature of the motor under rated load and in various flow rates of cooling water. The numerical simulation results and experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis results, which proves the correctness of theoretical derivation; The study in this paper provides a reference for the water-cooled motor selecting the rational velocity of cooling water.%为获得水冷电机的最佳流速,基于传热学及流体力学理论推导了水冷电机的冷却水流速与电机内部温度的关系.冷却水层流时,电机温度随着流速的增大下降明显;冷却水紊流后,对电机冷却效果进一步增强,但随流速继续增大,电机温度降低程度随冷却水流量增加将出现热饱和;建立了水冷感应电机热网络模型,基于此模型计算了电机额定负载运行稳态温升及不同流速时电机绕组及定子轭部的温度分布;实验测试了样机额定运行及不同冷却水流速时的电机温升.仿真及实验结果与理论分析结果相一致,验证了理论推导的正确性,为水冷电

  12. Treatment of exceedances of oil content in cooling water resulted from inner leakage of oil cooler of oxygen compressor%氧压机油冷却器内漏使冷却水中油含量超标的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪雁; 史浪涛

    2011-01-01

    The inner leakage of oil cooler of oxygen compressor would result in exceedances of oil content in cooling water. Once oil enters the air separation system, it will result in blocking of main heat exchanger. The trouble of inner leakage of oil cooler during run of Model 2TYS100 + 2TYS76 oxygen compressor is outlined, the causes for the trouble are analyzed, and the troubleshooting process of oil cooler and the correction method of residual oil in the circulation cooling water system are described.%氧压机油冷却器内漏将导致冷却水中油含量超标,一旦油进入空分系统,将引起主换热器堵塞故障。介绍2TYS100+2TYS76型氧压机在运行过程中油冷却器发生内漏的故障现象,分析故障原因,阐述对油冷却器的故障处理过程及循环冷却水系统残油的处理方法。

  13. Subtask 1.24 - Optimization of Cooling Water Resources for Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Stepan; Richard Shockey; Bethany Kurz; Wesley Peck

    2009-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed an interactive, Web-based decision support system (DSS{copyright} 2007 EERC Foundation) to provide power generation utilities with an assessment tool to address water supply issues when planning new or modifying existing generation facilities. The Web-based DSS integrates water and wastewater treatment technology and water law information with a geographic information system-based interactive map that links to state and federal water quality and quantity databases for North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wyoming, Montana, Nebraska, Wisconsin, and Iowa.

  14. Experiments on FTU with an actively water cooled liquid lithium limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzitelli, G., E-mail: giuseppe.mazzitelli@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Apicella, M.L.; Apruzzese, G.; Crescenzi, F.; Iannone, F.; Maddaluno, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Pericoli-Ridolfini, V. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Roccella, S.; Reale, M.; Viola, B. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Lyublinski, I.; Vertkov, A. [JSC “RED STAR”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    In order to prevent the overheating of the liquid Li surface and the consequent Li evaporation for T > 500 °C, an advanced version of the liquid lithium limiter has been realized and installed on FTU. This new system, named Cooled Lithium Limiter (CLL), has been optimized to demonstrate the lithium limiter capability to sustain thermal loads as high as 10 MW/m{sup 2} with up to 5 s of plasma pulse duration. The CLL operates with an actively cooled system with water circulation at the temperature of about 200 °C, for heating lithium up to the melting point and for the heat removal during the plasma discharges. To characterize CLL during discharges, a fast infrared camera and the spectroscopic signals from Li and D atom emission have been used. The experiments analyzed so far and simulated by ANSYS code, point out that heat loads as high as 2 MW/m{sup 2} for 1.5 s have been withstood without problems.

  15. Experiment Investigation on Electrical and Thermal Performances of a Semitransparent Photovoltaic/Thermal System with Water Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different from the semitransparent building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T system with air cooling, the semitransparent BIPV/T system with water cooling is rare, especially based on the silicon solar cells. In this paper, a semitransparent photovoltaic/thermal system (SPV/T with water cooling was set up, which not only would provide the electrical power and hot water, but also could attain the natural illumination for the building. The PV efficiency, thermal efficiency, and exergy analysis were all adopted to illustrate the performance of SPV/T system. The results showed that the PV efficiency and the thermal efficiency were about 11.5% and 39.5%, respectively, on the typical sunny day. Furthermore, the PV and thermal efficiencies fit curves were made to demonstrate the SPV/T performance more comprehensively. The performance analysis indicated that the SPV/T system has a good application prospect for building.

  16. Foundry technology and its applications of ductile iron castings produced by water-cooled copper alloy mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The high efficiency mechanized foundry technology of castings produced by using water-cooled copper alloy permanent mold has been systematically studied. Through the researching a Cu-Cr-Mg alloy with high conductivity and good combined mechanical properties used for making permanent mold was developed, and the basic design principles of the water-cooled permanent mold along with the control-range of relevant foundry processing parameters were also established.A cast production line equipped with water-cooled copper alloy mold was designed and fabricated for production of ductile iron automobile gear castings. This production line can consistently make automobile gear castings in QT500-15 and QT600-5 (Chinese Standard) grades of ductile iron with up to 95 % casting success rate.

  17. Grey water treatment systems: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to discern a treatment for grey water by examining grey water characteristics, reuse standards, technology performance and costs. The review reveals that the systems for treating grey water, whatever its quality, should consist of processes that are able to trap pollutants with a sm

  18. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  19. Off shore produced water treatment with pertraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.

    2004-01-01

    During the production of oil and gas also water is produced. This produced water contains dispersed and dissolved oil components. The impact of offshore emissions of produced water on the environment and the treatment of technologies for it are currently under discussion. Emission limits tend to bec

  20. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  1. Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosni, Mohammad H.

    2014-03-30

    Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development

  2. Hybrid Sludge Modeling in Water Treatment Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Brenda, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Sludge occurs in many waste water and drinking water treatment processes. The numeric modeling of sludge is therefore crucial for developing and optimizing water treatment processes. Numeric single-phase sludge models mainly include settling and viscoplastic behavior. Even though many investigators emphasize the importance of modeling the rheology of sludge for good simulation results, it is difficult to measure, because of settling and the viscoplastic behavior. In this thesis, a new method ...

  3. A fiber-coupled 9xx module with tap water cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleuning, D.; Anthon, D.; Chryssis, A.; Ryu, G.; Liu, G.; Winhold, H.; Fan, L.; Xu, Z.; Tanbun-Ek, T.; Lehkonen, S.; Acklin, B.

    2016-03-01

    A novel, 9XX nm fiber-coupled module using arrays of highly reliable laser diode bars has been developed. The module is capable of multi-kW output power in a beam parameter product of 80 mm-mrad. The module incorporates a hard-soldered, isolated stack package compatible with tap-water cooling. Using extensive, accelerated multi-cell life-testing, with more than ten million device hours of test, we have demonstrated a MTTF for emitters of >500,000 hrs. In addition we have qualified the module in hard-pulse on-off cycling and stringent environmental tests. Finally we have demonstrated promising results for a next generation 9xx nm chip design currently in applications and qualification testing

  4. Characterization of Francisella species isolated from the cooling water of an air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Quan; Li, Xunde; Qu, Pinghua; Hou, Shuiping; Li, Juntao; Atwill, Edward R; Chen, Shouyi

    2015-01-01

    Strains of Francisella spp. were isolated from cooling water from an air conditioning system in Guangzhou, China. These strains are Gram negative, coccobacilli, non-motile, oxidase negative, catalase negative, esterase and lipid esterase positive. In addition, these bacteria grow on cysteine-supplemented media at 20 °C to 40 °C with an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the genus Francisella. Biochemical tests and phylogenetic and BLAST analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB and sdhA genes indicated that one strain was very similar to Francisella philomiragia and that the other strains were identical or highly similar to the Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov. strain 08HL01032 we previously described. Biochemical and molecular characteristics of these strains demonstrated that multiple Francisella species exist in air conditioning systems.

  5. Characterization of Francisella species isolated from the cooling water of an air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Gu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Strains of Francisella spp. were isolated from cooling water from an air conditioning system in Guangzhou, China. These strains are Gram negative, coccobacilli, non-motile, oxidase negative, catalase negative, esterase and lipid esterase positive. In addition, these bacteria grow on cysteine-supplemented media at 20 °C to 40 °C with an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the genus Francisella. Biochemical tests and phylogenetic and BLAST analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB and sdhA genes indicated that one strain was very similar to Francisella philomiragia and that the other strains were identical or highly similar to the Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov. strain 08HL01032 we previously described. Biochemical and molecular characteristics of these strains demonstrated that multiple Francisella species exist in air conditioning systems.

  6. Application of a semi-spectral cloud water parameterization to cooling tower plumes simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzereau, Emmanuel; Musson Genon, Luc; Carissimo, Bertrand

    2008-10-01

    In order to simulate the plume produced by large natural draft cooling towers, a semi-spectral warm cloud parameterization has been implemented in an anelastic and non-hydrostatic 3D micro-scale meteorological code. The model results are compared to observations from a detailed field experiment carried out in 1980 at Bugey (location of an electrical nuclear power plant in the Rhône valley in East Central France) including airborne dynamical and microphysical measurements. Although we observe a slight overestimation of the liquid-water content, the results are satisfactory for all the 15 different cases simulated, which include different meteorological conditions ranging from low wind speed and convective conditions in clear sky to high wind and very cloudy. Such parameterization, which includes semi-spectral determination for droplet spectra, seems to be promising to describe plume interaction with atmosphere especially for aerosols and cloud droplets.

  7. Direct Preparation of Nano-Quasicrystals via a Water-Cooled Wedge-Shaped Copper Mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully synthesized multicomponent Mg-based nano-quasicrystals (nano-QCs through a simple route by using a water-cooled wedge-shaped copper mould. Nanoscale QCs are prepared directly on tip of wedge-shaped castings. The further study shows that nano-QCs in the Mg71Zn26Y2Cu1 alloy show well microhardness of greater than HV450. Electrochemical properties of three kinds of quasicrystal alloys are investigated in simulated seawater. The Mg71Zn26Y2Cu1 nano-QC alloy presents the best corrosion resistance in this study for the formation of well-distributed nano-QC phases (1~5 nm and polygonal Mg2(Cu,Y nanophases (40~50 nm.

  8. A water-cooled x-ray monochromator for using off-axis undulator beam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khounsary, A.; Maser, J.

    2000-12-11

    Undulator beamlines at third-generation synchrotrons x-ray sources are designed to use the high-brilliance radiation that is contained in the central cone of the generated x-ray beams. The rest of the x-ray beam is often unused. Moreover, in some cases, such as in the zone-plate-based microfocusing beamlines, only a small part of the central radiation cone around the optical axis is used. In this paper, a side-station branch line at the Advanced Photon Source that takes advantage of some of the unused off-axis photons in a microfocusing x-ray beamline is described. Detailed information on the design and analysis of a high-heat-load water-cooled monochromator developed for this beamline is provided.

  9. Photoelectrochemical Study of Corrosion Resisting Property of Cupronickel B10 in Simulated Cooling Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qunjie; WAN Zongyue; ZHOU Guoding; YIN Renhe; CAO Weimin; LIN Changjian

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion behavior for cupronickel B10 electrode in simulated cooling water has been studied by using cyclic voltammetry, a photocurrent response method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The cupronickel electrode shows a p-type photoresponse to positive and negative potential scan, which comes from Cu2O layer on its surface, but its Iph.max is less than that in borax buffer solution. The corrosion resisting property of the cupronickel B10 electrode appeared worse with the increase in the concentrations of Cl-, SO2-4 and S2 ions, as well as with increasing pH. The rise in the temperature may result in a photoresponse changes from p-type to n-type, and the corrosion resisting property fell simultaneously. The results of the EIS measurement agree well with those obtained by a photoelectrochemical method.

  10. Study on an Eco-Friendly Corrosion and Scale Inhibitor in Simulated cooling water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defang Zeng1

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a composite eco-friendly phosphate-free corrosion and scale inhibitor used in simulated cooling water has been developed by sodium polyacrylate, zinc sulfate, sodium tungstate, sodium gluconate and triethanolamine . The corrosion and scale inhibition rate were respectively evaluated by weight loss experiment , the static scale inhibition test and electrochemical test. The results indicated that the corrosion and scale inhibitor was consisted of polyacrylate 14ppm,zinc sulfate 3ppm,sodium tungstate 7ppm,sodium gluconate 2ppm and triethanolamine12ppm.The corrosion inhibition rate could reached 92.79%, and anti-scaling inhibition rate could reached 96.01%. The formula was efficient , phosphate-free and environmental, it would be widely used

  11. Desirability function based optimization of experimental data for air-water spray impingement cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Nayak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current research copes with the optimization of the surface heat transfer coefficients of a square mild steel test specimen by spray impingement cooling. A laboratory scale experimental setup was developed at School of Mechanical Engineering KIIT University, Odisha, India to investigate the role of various process parameters to enhance the heat transfer from the surface of the heated steal specimen. The mild steel plates of dimension 120 mm × 120 mm, and different thicknesses of 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm were used in the experiment. The effect of the process parameters such as thickness of the tested plate, nozzle to plate distance, air and water pressure upon the surface heat transfer coefficient (HTC was optimized. The optimization of the controlling parameters was carried out by using the desirability functions. The Design Expert 8 software was used to analyze the experimental results. A new correlation was developed for optimization of the surface heat transfer coefficient.

  12. Radionuclides in the Cooling Water Systems for the NuMi Beamline and the Antiproton Production Target Station at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumura, Hiroshi; Bessho, Kotaro; Sekimoto, Shun; Yashima, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Sakamoto, Yukio; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Oishi, Koji; Boehnlein, David; Lauten, Gary; Leveling, Anthony; Mokhov, Nikolai; Vaziri, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    At the 120-GeV proton accelerator facilities of Fermilab, USA, water samples were collected from the cooling water systems for the target, magnetic horn1, magnetic horn2, decay pipe, and hadron absorber at the NuMI beamline as well as from the cooling water systems for the collection lens, pulse magnet and collimator, and beam absorber at the antiproton production target station, just after the shutdown of the accelerators for a maintenance period. Specific activities of {\\gamma} -emitting radionuclides and 3H in these samples were determined using high-purity germanium detectors and a liquid scintillation counter. The cooling water contained various radionuclides depending on both major and minor materials in contact with the water. The activity of the radionuclides depended on the presence of a deionizer. Specific activities of 3H were used to estimate the residual rates of 7Be. The estimated residual rates of 7Be in the cooling water were approximately 5% for systems without deionizers and less than 0.1% f...

  13. Advanced water treatment as a tool in water scarcity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoes, Poul

    2000-01-01

    until recently. This paper sets the stage with respect to perspective and management options related to implementation of water reuse. Water treatment has to be interpreted as the means by which to purify the water from any degree of impurity to any degree of purity that fits the desired use, including......The water resource is under increasing pressure, both from the increase in population and from the wish to improve the living standards of the individual. Water scarcity is defined as the situation where demand is greater than the resource. Water scarcity has two distinctly different dimensions......: water availability and water applicability. The availability is a question of quantitative demand relative to resource. The applicability is a question of quality suitability for the intended use of the water. There is a significant difference in this regard with respect to rural versus urban use...

  14. Overview of economic, legal, and water availability factors affecting the demand for dry and wet/dry cooling for thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1977-06-01

    The economic, legal, and water availability factors which will contribute to selection in the future, of dry and wet/dry cooling vis-a-vis other methods of cooling and which will influence the projected market for these types of cooling systems in the next twenty years are considered.

  15. Kinetic model for predicting the concentrations of active halogens species in chlorinated saline cooling waters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, W.R.; Lietzke, M.H.

    1981-08-01

    A kinetic model has been developed for describing the speciation of chlorine-produced oxidants in seawater as a function of time. The model is applicable under a broad variety of conditions, including all pH range, salinities, temperatures, ammonia concentrations, organic amine concentrations, and chlorine doses likely to be encountered during power plant cooling water chlorination. However, the effects of sunlight are not considered. The model can also be applied to freshwater and recirculating water systems with cooling towers. The results of the model agree with expectation, however, complete verification is not feasible at the present because analytical methods for some of the predicted species are lacking.

  16. Discussion on the cooling water of blast furnace hearth%高炉炉缸冷却水的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许俊; 邹忠平; 胡显波

    2012-01-01

    根据炉缸的传热特点,推导了炉缸传热体系的计算公式,利用公式计算结果,分析了炉缸冷却水对延长高炉寿命的作用,重点是冷却水量、冷却水温对炉缸传热的影响规律。洒水冷却的炉壳温度比自然冷却的炉壳温度有显著降低,说明冷却水对维护炉缸安全生产具有重要的作用;在炉缸传热体系中,当水速大于2m/s时,增大冷却水量对炉内传出热量的影响是有限的;降低冷却水温度,增大冷却效果的作用有限。%Based on the characteristics of heat transfer of blast furnace hearth, a formula for analyzing the heat transfer system of the hearth is deducted. Using the calculation results the effect of cooling water on blast furnace life, focused on the influence of water volume and water temperature on the hearth heat transfer system are analyzed. The shell temperature for water-spray cooling is markedly lower than that of natural cooling, that means the cooling water is very important for the hearth safety. When the water velocity is over 2 m/s, the influence of increasing water volume to heat transfer is limited. In addition, lowering the water temperature has limited effect of hearth cooling.

  17. Pronounced subsurface cooling of North Atlantic waters off Northwest Africa during Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Romero, Oscar E.; Lohmann, Gerrit; Donner, Barbara; Laepple, Thomas; Haam, Eddie; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2012-07-01

    Millennial-scale Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability has often been invoked to explain the Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events. However, the underlying causes responsible for millennial-scale AMOC variability are still debated. High-resolution U37K' and TEX86H temperature records for the last 50 kyr obtained from the tropical Northeast (NE) Atlantic (core GeoB7926-2, 20°13'N, 18°27'W, 2500 m water depth) show that distinctive DO-type subsurface (i.e. below the mixed layer: >20 m water depth) temperature oscillations occurred with amplitudes of up to 8 °C in the tropical NE Atlantic during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3). Statistical analyses reveal a positive relationship between the reconstructed substantial cooling of subsurface waters and prominent surface warming over Greenland during DO interstadials. General circulation model (GCM) simulations without external freshwater forcing, the mechanism often invoked in explaining DO events, demonstrate similar anti-phase correlations between AMOC and pronounced NE Atlantic subsurface temperatures under glacial climate conditions. Together with our paleoproxy dataset, this suggests that the vertical temperature structure and associated changes in AMOC were key elements governing DO events during the last glacial.

  18. Dropwise condensation: experiments and simulations of nucleation and growth of water drops in a cooling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, R N; Stevens, F; Langford, S C; Dickinson, J T

    2006-10-10

    Dropwise condensation of water vapor from a naturally cooling, hot water reservoir onto a hydrophobic polymer film and a silanized glass slide was studied by direct observation and simulations. The observed drop growth kinetics suggests that smallest drops grow principally by the diffusion of water adsorbed on the substrate to the drop perimeter, while drops larger than about 50 microm in diameter grow principally by direct deposition from the vapor onto the drop surface. Drop coalescence plays a critical role in determining the drop-size distribution and stimulates the nucleation of new, small drops on the substrates. Simulations of drop growth incorporating these growth mechanisms provide a good description of the observed drop-size distribution. Because of the large role played by coalescence, details of individual drop growth make little difference to the final drop-size distribution. The rate of condensation per unit substrate area is especially high for the smallest drops and may help account for the high heat transfer rates associated with dropwise condensation relative to filmwise condensation in heat exchange applications.

  19. Modeling the water uptake by chicken carcasses during cooling by immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Dias Martins

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, water uptake by poultry carcasses during cooling by water immersion was modeled using artificial neural networks. Data from twenty-five independent variables and the final mass of the carcass were collected in an industrial plant to train and validate the model. Different network structures with one hidden layer were tested, and the Downhill Simplex method was used to optimize the synaptic weights. In order to accelerate the optimization calculus, Principal Component Analysis (PCA was used to preprocess the input data. The obtained results were: i PCA reduced the number of input variables from twenty-five to ten; ii the neural network structure 4-6-1 was the one with the best result; iii PCA gave the following order of importance: parameters of mass transfer, heat transfer, and initial characteristics of the carcass. The main contributions of this work were to provide an accurate model for predicting the final content of water in the carcasses and a better understanding of the variables involved.

  20. Optimization of the first wall for the DEMO water cooled lithium lead blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, Julien, E-mail: julien.aubert@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Aiello, Giacomo [CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Bachmann, Christian [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Di Maio, Pietro Alessandro [Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Giammusso, Rosario [ENEA C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy); Li Puma, Antonella; Morin, Alexandre [CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Tincani, Amelia [ENEA C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • This paper presents the optimization of the first wall of the water cooled lithium lead DEMO blanket with pressurized water reactor condition and circular channels in order to find the best geometry that can allow the maximum heat flux considering design criteria since an estimate of the engineering limit of the first wall heat load capacity is an essential input for the decision to implement limiters in DEMO. • An optimization study was carried out for the flat first wall design of the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead considering thermal and mechanical constraint functions, assuming T{sub inlet}/T{sub outlet} equal to 285 °C/325 °C, based on geometric design parameters. • It became clear that through the optimization the advantages of a waved First Wall are diminished. • The analysis shows that the maximum heat load could achieve 2.53 MW m{sup −2}, but considering assumptions such as a coolant velocity ≤8 m/s, pipe diameter ≥5 mm and a total first wall thickness ≤22 mm, heat flux is limited to 1.57 MW m{sup −2}. - Abstract: The maximum heat load capacity of a DEMO First Wall (FW) of reasonable cost may impact the decision of the implementation of limiters in DEMO. An estimate of the engineering limit of the FW heat load capacity is an essential input for this decision. This paper describes the work performed to optimize the FW of the Water Cooled Lithium-Lead (WCLL) blanket concept for DEMO fusion reactor in order to increase its maximum heat load capacity. The optimization is based on the use of water at typical Pressurised Water Reactors conditions as coolant. The present WCLL FW with a waved plasma-faced surface and with circular channels was studied and the heat load limit has been predicted with FEM analysis equal to 1.0 MW m{sup −2} with respect to the Eurofer temperature limit. An optimization study was then carried out for a flat FW design considering thermal and mechanical constraints assuming inlet and outlet

  1. The artificial water cycle: emergy analysis of waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianoni, Simone; Fugaro, Laura; Principi, Ilaria; Rosini, Marco

    2003-04-01

    The artificial water cycle can be divided into the phases of water capture from the environment, potabilisation, distribution, waste water collection, waste water treatment and discharge back into the environment. The terminal phase of this cycle, from waste water collection to discharge into the environment, was assessed by emergy analysis. Emergy is the quantity of solar energy needed directly or indirectly to provide a product or energy flow in a given process. The emergy flow attributed to a process is therefore an index of the past and present environmental cost to support it. Six municipalities on the western side of the province of Bologna were analysed. Waste water collection is managed by the municipal councils and treatment is carried out in plants managed by a service company. Waste water collection was analysed by compiling a mass balance of the sewer system serving the six municipalities, including construction materials and sand for laying the pipelines. Emergy analysis of the water treatment plants was also carried out. The results show that the great quantity of emergy required to treat a gram of water is largely due to input of non renewable fossil fuels. As found in our previous analysis of the first part of the cycle, treatment is likewise characterised by high expenditure of non renewable resources, indicating a correlation with energy flows.

  2. A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

  3. The Deep Cool Terrestrial Biosphere: Habitability of ancient fracture waters of the Canadian Shield (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Ballentine, C. J.; Holland, G.; Li, L.; Slater, G. F.; Moser, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    waters and gases with conservative noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) provided bulk residence times on the order of billions of years [3]. These results for the first time suggest a realm of the Earth's hydrosphere that preserves a geochemical (and potentially microbial) environment minimally impacted by hydrogeological mixing with the surface over geologic time scales. Ongoing research is investigating the potential for microbial life in these waters, and the timing of life's penetration of these environments relative to the residence times of the fracture waters. These frontiers of the deep cool biosphere may provide a window into the Earth's biodiversity. The saline fracture waters provide a critical environment in which to investigate habitability and to determine whether the types of chemolithotrophic life recognized at the vents and hot springs are supported in the much larger segments of the Earth's crust where lower temperatures and hence slower rates of water-rock reaction prevail. The deepest fracture water may even provide the opportunity to investigate controls on the biotic-abiotic transition and limits to life in the deep Earth. [1] Lin et al. (2006) Science 314, 479-482. [2] Lippmann-Pipke et al. (2011) Chemical Geology 283, 287-296. [3] Holland et al. (2013) Nature 497, 357-360.

  4. Sustainable treatment of municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Augusto; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    The main goal of the EU FP6 NEPTUNE program is to develop new and improve existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling technologies for municipal waste water, in accordance with the concepts behind the EU Water Framework Directive. As part of this work, the project...... treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the first LCA results from running existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology on some of the waste water treatment technologies. Keywords: Sustainability, LCA, micropollutants, waste water treatment technologies....... will develop and implement a methodology to compare and prioritize these technologies and optimizations based on a holistic approach. This will be achieved through the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) along with cost/efficiency analysis with focus on the effects of nutrients, pathogens and micropollutants (i...

  5. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling System for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Wilkes, Robert; Kuehnel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) portable life support subsystem (PLSS) is currently under way at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features a new evaporative cooling system, the Generation 4 Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (Gen4 SWME). The SWME offers several advantages when compared with prior crewmember cooling technologies, including the ability to reject heat at increased atmospheric pressures, reduced loop infrastructure, and higher tolerance to fouling. Like its predecessors, Gen4 SWME provides nominal crew member and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crew member and PLSS electronics. Test results from the backup cooling system which is based on a similar design and the subject of a companion paper, suggested that further volume reductions could be achieved through fiber density optimization. Testing was performed with four fiber bundle configurations ranging from 35,850 fibers to 41,180 fibers. The optimal configuration reduced the Gen4 SWME envelope volume by 15% from that of Gen3 while dramatically increasing the performance margin of the system. A rectangular block design was chosen over the Gen3 cylindrical design, for packaging configurations within the AEMU PLSS envelope. Several important innovations were made in the redesign of the backpressure valve which is used to control evaporation. A twin-port pivot concept was selected from among three low profile valve designs for superior robustness, control and packaging. The backpressure valve motor, the thermal control valve, delta pressure sensors and temperature sensors were incorporated into the manifold endcaps, also for packaging considerations. Flight-like materials including a titanium housing were used for all components. Performance testing

  6. Flow and Thermal Performance of a Water-Cooled Periodic Transversal Elliptical Microchannel Heat Sink for Chip Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo; Yang, Mo; Wang, Zhiyun; Xu, Hongtao; Zhang, Yuwen

    2015-04-01

    Flow and thermal performance of transversal elliptical microchannels were investigated as a passive scheme to enhance the heat transfer performance of laminar fluid flow. The periodic transversal elliptical micro-channel is designed and its pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics in laminar flow are numerically investigated. Based on the comparison with a conventional straight micro- channel having rectangular cross section, it is found that periodic transversal elliptical microchannel not only has great potential to reduce pressure drop but also dramatically enhances heat transfer performance. In addition, when the Reynolds number equals to 192, the pressure drop of the transversal elliptical channel is 36.5% lower than that of the straight channel, while the average Nusselt number is 72.8% higher; this indicates that the overall thermal performance of the periodic transversal elliptical microchannel is superior to the conventional straight microchannel. It is suggested that such transversal elliptical microchannel are attractive candidates for cooling future electronic chips effectively with much lower pressure drop.

  7. Water recycle treatment system for use in metal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, D.E.; Dando, T.J.

    1976-08-10

    A water recycle treatment system is described comprising two main treatment sub-systems for treatment of contaminated water from a plurality of concentrated solutions and rinse baths to separate out the impurities therein. A first sub-system treats less concentrated solutions used for the rinse baths by channeling the flow therefrom to a first neutralizing tank which provides for pH control to produce a mixed output solution having a substantially constant pH factor, which is filtered to remove gross particles, the filtered solution being cooled in a holding tank and passed through a reverse osmosis process and carbon bed to produce clean water. The second sub-system treats highly concentrated solutions obtained from a plurality of chemical processes, mixes them in a second neutralizing tank which is utilized to produce a substantially constant pH output, which is fed to an evaporator to precipitate the metals and salts in sludge and also forms a water vapor output. The reverse osmosis waste is fed back into the second neutralizing tank and processed as noted above.

  8. Inline Array Jet Impingement Cooling Using Al2O3 / Water Nanofluid In A Plate Finned Electronic Heat Sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Reji Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available - Jet impingement cooling is a technique used for cooling the electronic systems. In this work, heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of deionized water and Al2O3/water nanofluid in an electronic heat sink having aluminium plate fins and provision for jet impingement cooling have been studied. A novel heat sink contains two rows of plate fins of size 29mm x 24mm x 0.56mm. A thin plate having 110 holes of diameter 2.5 mm is used to produce number of jets. The plate is kept inside the heat sink in such a way that H/dn is 5.2 mm and adjacent jet spacing is 2mm. The overall dimension of the heat sink is 60x60x 65 mm. For this work we prepared a Al2O3/water nanofluid by dispersing specified quantity of nanoparticles in to deionized water by using a ultrasonic bath. Experiments were conducted under constant heat flux condition and the volume flow rate of the fluid was in the range of 1.315 to 2.778. It is found from the results that the nanofluid removes heat better than water in the jet impingement cooling with very low rise in pressure drop.

  9. Water treatment technologies for CBM water, including cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makysmentz, B.; Lyon, F.L. [Newpark Resources Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada). Newpark Environmental Water Solutions

    2006-07-01

    The reasons for treating CBM water, end uses, reverse osmosis, pretreatment for reverse osmosis, and Newpark case studies are described. CBM water can be treated to make it suitable for injection, re-use, irrigation, or surface discharge. Usually the total dissolved solids (TDS) must be reduced by ion exchange or reverse osmosis with pretreatment. The concept of reverse osmosis and three types of applicable membrane processes are described: microfiltration and ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and electrodialysis. The technologies used for pretreatment depend on the water quality and treatment goals, e.g. coagulation, flocculation and sand media filtration, softening, ion exchange, and nanofiltration. A Newpark case study is described for a water treatment plant at Boulder, Wyoming where evaporation was replaced by cavitation technology. The suitability of various treatment methods for Alberta CBM water is discussed. 21 figs., 1 tab.

  10. SMA spring-based artificial muscle actuated by hot and cool water using faucet-like valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol Hoon; Son, Young Su

    2017-04-01

    An artificial muscle for a human arm-like manipulator with high strain and high power density are under development, and an SMA(Shape memory alloy) spring is a good actuator for this application. In this study, an artificial muscle composed of a silicon tube and a bundle of SMA(Shape memory alloy) springs is evaluated. A bundle of SMA springs consists of five SMA springs which are fabricated by using SMA wires with a diameter of 0.5 mm, and hot and cool water actuates it by heating and cooling SMA springs. A faucet-like valve was also developed to mix hot water and cool water and control the water temperature. The mass of silicon tube and a bundle of SMA springs is only 3.3 g and 2.25 g, respectively, and the total mass of artificial muscle is 5.55 g. It showed good actuating performance for a load with a mass of 2.3 kg and the power density was more than 800 W/kg for continuous valve switching with a cycle of 0.6 s. The faucet-like valve can switch a water output from hot water to cold water within 0.3s, and the artificial muscle is actuated well in response to the valve position and speed. It is also presented that the temperature of the mixed water can be controlled depending on the valve position, and the displacement of the artificial muscle can be controlled well by the mixed water. Based on these results, SMA spring-based artificial muscle actuated by hot and cool water could be applicable to the human arm-like robot manipulators.

  11. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS ASSESSMENT OF THE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AT TARGU-MURES WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    CORNELIA DIANA HERTIA; ANCA ELENA GURZAU; MARIA ILONA SZASZ

    2011-01-01

    This paper intends to assess the technological process of obtaining drinking water at Targu-Mures water treatment plant. The assessment was performed before changing the technological process and four months were chosen to be analized during 2008: January, April, July and October for its efficiency analysis on treatment steps. Mures River is the water source for the water treatment plant, being characterized by unsteady flow and quality parameters with possible important variability in a very...

  12. Augmentation of Cooling Output by Silica Gel-Water Adsorption Cycle Utilizing the Waste Heat of GHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Hiroki; Araki, Nobuyuki

    The GHP (Gas engine Heat Pump) system is expected to have high energy-efficiency in utilizing the waste heat exhausted from a gas engine. In summer season, a silica gel-water adsorption cooling unit driven by the exhaust heat is considered as a cooling system for saving energy. In this work, an attempt was made to improve the COP of a silica gel-water adsorption cooling system by enhancing heat and mass transfer in the silica gel adsorption layer. A unit cell was introduced as a simplified model of adsorber for analyzing the phenomena of heat and mass transfer in the adsorbent. This cell was composed of a single tube with a silica gel layer bonded on its external surface. Optimization of heat and mass transfer characteristics for the unit cell was carried out by experimental and analytical approach.

  13. Cooling water pump of a rotary piston internal combustion engine. Kuehlwasserpumpe einer Rotationskolbenbrennkraftmaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiermann, D.; Nuber, R.

    1991-05-23

    Spatial arrangement of a cooling pump of a trochoid-type rotary piston internal combustion engine with a liquid-cooled casing. First the coolant is conducted isochronically and in parallel through cooling chambers of the jacket and a side part into a common hollow space from where it is transported by the cooling pump into the other side part, on past a thermostat to a cooler located in the other side part and back into the cooling loop in the casing. The cooling pump is located in the jacket and its impeller is positioned in a cooling chamber of the other side part. Its shaft can be fitted with a speed controller for the fresh air supply and a lubricating pump.

  14. Chlorine dioxide as an alternative antifouling biocide for cooling water systems: Toxicity to larval barnacle Amphibalanus reticulatus (Utinomi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatnarayanan, Srinivas; Sriyutha Murthy, P; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam; Venugopalan, Vayalam P

    2017-01-19

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is seen as an effective alternative to chlorine, which is widely used as an antifouling biocide. However, data on its efficacy against marine macrofoulants is scanty. In this study, acute toxicity of ClO2 to larval forms of the fouling barnacle Amphibalanus reticulatus was investigated. ClO2 treatment at 0.1mg/L for 20min elicited 45-63% reduction in naupliar metamorphosis, 70% inhibition of cyprid settlement and 80% inhibition of metamorphosis to juveniles. Increase in concentration to 0.2mg/L did not result in any significant difference in the settlement inhibition or metamorphosis. Treatment with 0.2mg/L of ClO2 elicited substantial reduction in the settlement of barnacle larvae compared to control. The study indicates the possibility of using ClO2 as an alternative antifouling biocide in power plant cooling water systems. However, more work needs to be done on the environmental effects of such switchover, which we are currently undertaking.

  15. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  16. Basic Concepts of Magnetic Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Mosin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article outlines an overview of new trends and modern approaches for practical implementation of magnetic water treatment to eliminate scaling salts (carbonate, chloride and sulfate salts of Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ cations in power heat-exchanger devices and pipe lines. The principles of physical effects of the magnetic field on H2O molecules as well as the parameters of physico-chemical processes occurring in water and the behavior of the dissolved in water scaling salts subjected to the magnetic treatment are discussed. It is demonstrated that the effect of the magnetic field on water is a complex multifactorial phenomenon resulted in changes of the structure of hydrated ions as well as the physico-chemical properties and behavior of dissolved inorganic salts, changes in the rate of electrochemical coagulation and aggregate stability (clumping and consolidation, formation of multiple nucleation sites on the particles of fine dispersed precipitate consisting of crystals of substantially uniform size. There are also submitted data on constructive features of various magnetic water treatment devices produced by domestic industry, based on the permanent magnets and electromagnets (solenoids, such as hydro magnetic systems (HMS, magnetic transducers (MT and magnetic activators (MA of water. It was estimated the efficiency of using the various magnetic water treatment devices in water treatment technologies.

  17. Phosphonate removal from discharged circulating cooling water using iron-carbon micro-electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Qiao, Weimin; Lin, Yangbo; Shen, Xuelian; Hu, Dalong; Zhang, Jianqiao; Jiang, Lu-Man; Wang, Luochun

    2014-01-01

    Phosphonate is a commonly used corrosion and scale inhibitor for a circulating cooling water (CCW) system. Its discharge could cause eutrophication of receiving waters. The iron-carbon (Fe/C) micro-electrolysis technology was used to degrade and remove phosphonate from discharged CCW. The influences of initial pH, Fe/C ratio (FCR) and temperature on phosphonate removal were investigated in a series of batch tests and optimized by response surface methodology. The quadratic model of phosphonate removal was obtained with satisfactory degrees of fitness. The optimum conditions with total phosphorus removal efficiency of 95% were obtained at pH 7.0, FCR of 1.25, and temperature of 45 °C. The phosphonate removal mechanisms were also studied. Phosphonate removal occurred predominantly via two consecutive reactive phases: the degradation of phosphonate complexes (Ca-phosphonate) and the precipitation of Fe/C micro-electrolysis products (PO₄(3-), Ca²⁺ and Fe³⁺).

  18. Root cooling strongly affects diel leaf growth dynamics, water and carbohydrate relations in Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiré, Richard; Schneider, Heike; Thorpe, Michael R; Kuhn, Arnd J; Schurr, Ulrich; Walter, Achim

    2010-03-01

    In laboratory and greenhouse experiments with potted plants, shoots and roots are exposed to temperature regimes throughout a 24 h (diel) cycle that can differ strongly from the regime under which these plants have evolved. In the field, roots are often exposed to lower temperatures than shoots. When the root-zone temperature in Ricinus communis was decreased below a threshold value, leaf growth occurred preferentially at night and was strongly inhibited during the day. Overall, leaf expansion, shoot biomass growth, root elongation and ramification decreased rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root were diminished and carbohydrate contents of both root and shoot increased. Further, transpiration rate was not affected, yet hydrostatic tensions in shoot xylem increased. When root temperature was increased again, xylem tension reduced, leaf growth recovered rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root increased, and carbohydrate pools were depleted. We hypothesize that the decreased uptake of water in cool roots diminishes the growth potential of the entire plant - especially diurnally, when the growing leaf loses water via transpiration. As a consequence, leaf growth and metabolite concentrations can vary enormously, depending on root-zone temperature and its heterogeneity inside pots.

  19. Intermittent cryogen spray cooling for optimal heat extraction during dermatologic laser treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majaron, Boris; Svaasand, Lars O.; Aguilar, Guillermo; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2002-09-01

    Fast heat extraction is critically important to obtain the maximal benefit of cryogen spray cooling (CSC) during laser therapy of shallow skin lesions, such as port wine stain birthmarks. However, a film of liquid cryogen can build up on the skin surface, impairing heat transfer due to the relatively low thermal conductivity and higher temperature of the film as compared to the impinging spray droplets. In an attempt to optimize the cryogen mass flux, while minimally affecting other spray characteristics, we apply a series of 10 ms spurts with variable duty cycles. Heat extraction dynamics during such intermittent cryogen sprays were measured using a custom-made metal-disc detector. The highest cooling rates were observed at moderate duty cycle levels. This confirms the presence, and offers a practical way to eliminate the adverse effect of liquid cryogen build-up on the sprayed surface. On the other hand, lower duty cycles allow a substantial reduction in the average rate of heat extraction, enabling less aggressive and more efficient CSC for treatment of deeper targets, such as hair follicles.

  20. Water Supply and Treatment Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-15

    for the specific membrane ; b. For technologies employing membrane ultrafiltration and/or membrane microfiltration , identification of the...interesting challenges. Source water temperatures must remain below 35 oC (95 oF) during test conduct to prevent damage to the RO membranes . If employing a...below 35 °C (95 °F) during test conduct to prevent damage to the RO membranes . Due to the extended storage requirement for this test procedure, a

  1. 30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? 250.217 Section 250.217 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF...

  2. 30 CFR 250.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.248 Section 250.248 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  3. Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and Sewage Works, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article summarizes in tabular form the U.S. and Canadian programs for classification of water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Included are main characteristics of the programs, educational and experience requirements, and indications of requirement substitutions. (CS)

  4. Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IESWTR balances the need for treatment with potential increases in disinfection by -products. The materials found on this page are intended to assist public water systems and state in the implementation of the IESWTR.

  5. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a one-yr study at Jefferson Parish, La., the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects os using the major drinkgin water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. Tests were performed on samples collected from various treatment s...

  6. Modelling of Water Turbidity Parameters in a Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. KOVO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of chemical analysis of water has necessitated various researches into finding alternative method of determining portable water quality. This paper is aimed at modelling the turbidity value as a water quality parameter. Mathematical models for turbidity removal were developed based on the relationships between water turbidity and other water criteria. Results showed that the turbidity of water is the cumulative effect of the individual parameters/factors affecting the system. A model equation for the evaluation and prediction of a clarifier’s performance was developed:Model: T = T0(-1.36729 + 0.037101∙10λpH + 0.048928t + 0.00741387∙alkThe developed model will aid the predictive assessment of water treatment plant performance. The limitations of the models are as a result of insufficient variable considered during the conceptualization.

  7. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  8. Nanotechnology for water treatment and purification

    CERN Document Server

    Apblett, Allen

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the latest progress in the application of nanotechnology for water treatment and purification. Leaders in the field present both the fundamental science and a comprehensive overview of the diverse range of tools and technologies that have been developed in this critical area. Expert chapters present the unique physicochemical and surface properties of nanoparticles and the advantages that these provide for engineering applications that ensure a supply of safe drinking water for our growing population. Application areas include generating fresh water from seawater, preventing contamination of the environment, and creating effective and efficient methods for remediation of polluted waters. The chapter authors are leading world-wide experts in the field with either academic or industrial experience, ensuring that this comprehensive volume presents the state-of-the-art in the integration of nanotechnology with water treatment and purification. Covers both wastewater and drinking water treatmen...

  9. 不同温度水液淬火介质冷却特性的变化规律%Change Laws of Cooling Characteristics of Different Temperature Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晶; 李勇; 方建飞; 李丽

    2012-01-01

    为了在热处理中更加有效地选择和利用水的冷却能力,利用Ivf smart quench设备测定了不同水液温度时的冷却曲线,并根据冷却曲线上的特征来评价不同温度水液的冷却特性.结果表明:在0~80℃,冷却过程曲线分为3个阶段:膜沸腾阶段、泡沸腾阶段和对流冷却阶段;100℃水的冷却过程曲线无法清晰分辨出冷却过程的3个阶段.随温度的升高,蒸汽膜破裂时的温度递减,对流温度递增,冷却过程曲线右移;最大冷速和达到最大冷速时的温度呈递减的趋势,冷却速度曲线左移;即随着水温的升高,水的冷却能力越低.%In order to conduce to use water cooling ability more effectively in heat treatment, the cooling curve for assessing the water cooling ability was measured using Ivf smart quench equipment, and the cooling characteristics of different temperature water were evaluated according characteristic value. The results show that, at 0-80 °C, cooling process curve is divided into three stages: film boiling stage, bubble boiling stage and convection cooling stage; 100 °C water cooling process curve can not clearly discern the cooling process of three stages. With the increase of temperature, the temperature of the steam film is broken descending, convection temperature increasing, cooling process curve moves to the right. Maximum speed and the temperature of achieving maximum cooling speed both have decrease trends. The cooling speed curve moves to the left. With the increase of temperature, the water cooling ability is lower.

  10. The Use of Water Plants for Storm Water Runoff Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Varneckaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of using water plants for storm water runoff treatment has been largely due to the fact that pond and wetland based systems offer the advantages of providing a relatively passive, natural, low-maintenance and operationally simple treatment solution while enhancing habitat and aesthetic values at the same time. While ponds are generally effective at removing coarse suspended sediments, they are less effective at removing finer particulates and dissolved contaminants. To provide enhanced treatment, a wetland can be placed downstream of a pond.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Cellulose Nanomaterials in Water Treatment Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles François; Mark R. Wiesner

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials’ potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials’ beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, ...

  12. Water Treatment Technology - Taste, Odor & Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on taste, odor, and color provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: taste and odor determination, control of…

  13. Water Treatment Technology - Cross-Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on cross connections provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on cross connections terminology and control devices. For each…

  14. Oral cooling (cryotherapy), an effective treatment for the prevention of 5-fluorouracil-induced stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascinu, S; Fedeli, A; Fedeli, S L; Catalano, G

    1994-07-01

    Recently, a randomised study demonstrated the utility of oral cooling (cryotherapy) in the prevention of 5-fluorouracil (5FU)-induced stomatitis. In order to verify these results a confirmatory study, using identical treatment regimen, was initiated. 84 patients treated with a 5-FU-containing regimen were randomised to a control arm or to receive oral cryotherapy. End point evaluation was obtained by a global assessment of the physician's judgement and patients' description of mucositis severity graded 0-4. Mucositis was significantly reduced by cryotherapy considering both the first cycle of therapy (the mean toxicity score for cryotherapy was 0.59 and it was 1.1 for the control group, P receiving bolus 5FU-containing regimens.

  15. Effect of Multipoint Sequential Water Mist Cooling of Casting Die on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi11 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysiak R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is a continuation of research on the use of water mist cooling in order to increase efficiency of the die-casting process for aluminum alloys. The paper describes the multipoint sequential cooling system of the casting die and its computer control and monitoring. It also includes results of the tests and analysis of cooling methods during making of the casting. These methods differ from each other in the sequence of casting die cooling and cause effective changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of castings made of AlSi11 alloy. The study demonstrated that the use of multipoint sequential cooling with water mist affects the microstructure refinement and reduces the segregation in the cast as well as more than by 20% increases the mechanical properties of castings in the rough state. The study also demonstrates that the sequential cooling of casting die accelerates the cooling of the casting and shortens die-casting cycle.

  16. Effect of Multipoint Sequential Water Mist Cooling of Casting Die on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi11 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Władysiak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is a continuation of research on the use of water mist cooling in order to increase efficiency of the die-casting process for aluminum alloys. The paper describes the multipoint sequential cooling system of the casting die and its computer control and monitoring.It also includes results of the tests and analysis of cooling methods during making of the casting. These methods differ from each other in the sequence of casting die cooling and cause effective changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of castings made of AlSi11 alloy. The study demonstrated that the use of multipoint sequential cooling with water mist affects the microstructure refinement and reduces the segregation in the cast as well as more than by 20% increases the mechanical properties of castings in the rough state. The study also demonstrates that the sequential cooling of casting die accelerates the cooling of the casting and shortens die-casting cycle.

  17. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer in Water at Super—Critical Pressures under Heating or Cooling Conditions in Vertical Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-XueJiang; Ze-PeiRen; 等

    1995-01-01

    Forced and mixed convection heat and mass transfer are studied numerically for water containing metallic corrosion products in a heated or cooled vertical tube with variable thermophysical properties at super-citical pressures.the fouling mechanisms and fouling models are presented.The influence of variable properties at super-critical pressures on forced or mixed convection has been analyzed.The differences between heat and mass transfer under heating and cooling conditions are discussed.It is found that variable properties,especially buoyancy,greatly influence the fluid flow and heat mass fransfer.

  18. Waste water treatment in Bukkerup (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Overgaard, Morten; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    In connection to the new waste water plan of Tølløse municipal the technical and environmental board has suggested that Bukkerup get a sewer system which brings the waste water to the treatment plant for Tysinge. All though the residents would like to list alternative suggestions which improve...... the local water environment but is still competitive.In this report the alternatives are listed, e.i. root system plants, sand filters and mini treatment plants.The conclusion is that root system plants and a combination of root system plants and sand filters are better that the sewer system....

  19. Fate of Carbamazepine during Water Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosjek, T.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Kompare, Boris;

    2009-01-01

    Seven transformation products of carbamazepine generated by at least one of three common water treatment technologies (W-radiation, oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and biological treatment with activated Sludge) were identified by complementary use of ion trap, single quadrupole...

  20. Study on brackish water treatment technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xu-wen(何绪文); Xu De-ping (许德平); WU Bing(吴兵); WANG Tong(王通)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the characters of deep well-water quality in Fenxi Mining Group in Liulin, the feasibilities of two treatment technologies which use electrodialysis and reverse osmosis are analyzed. Through analyzing and comparing, reverse osmosis technology has several advantages, such as good treatment effect, convenient operating management and low run-cost.

  1. Radiochemical separation of {sup 7}Be from the cooling water of the neutron spallation source SINQ at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, D.; Stowasser, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ayranov, M. [Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg (Luxembourg). Directorate General Energy; Gialanella, L. [Seconda Univ. di Napoli, Caserta (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica e Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Di Leva, A.; Romano, M.; Schuermann, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Universita di Napoli Frederico II (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    2013-10-01

    {sup 7}Be is a key radionuclide for investigation of several astrophysical processes and phenomena. In addition, it is used as a tracer in war measurements. It is produced in considerable amounts in the cooling water (D{sub 2}O) of the Spallation Induced Neutron Source (SINQ) facility at PSI by spallation reactions on {sup 16}O with the generated fast neutrons. A shielded ion-exchange filter containing 100 mL of the mixed-bed ion exchanger LEWATIT was installed as a bypass for the cooling water into the cooling loop of SINQ for three months. The collected activity of {sup 7}Be was in the range of several hundred GBq. Further, the {sup 7}Be was separated and purified in a hot-cell remotely-controlled using a separation system installed. With the exception of {sup 10}Be, radioactive by-products can be neglected, so that this cooling water could serve as an ideal source for highly active {sup 7}Be-samples. The facility is capable of producing {sup 7}Be with activities up to 1 TBq per year. The {sup 7}Be sample preparation is described in detail and the possible uses are discussed. In particular some preliminary results of {sup 7}Be ion beam production are presented. (orig.)

  2. Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renyuan; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2015-10-01

    The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits. It is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will hinge upon further developments in nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes on `design-for-purpose' and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress in rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil-water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid to the chemical concepts related to nanomaterial design throughout the review.

  3. Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan

    2015-08-26

    The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits and it is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will highly hinge upon the further development of nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes ‘design-for-purpose’ and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress of the rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil/water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid on chemical concepts of the nanomaterial designs throughout the review.

  4. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  5. An evaluation of Hanford water treatment practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touhill, C.J.

    1965-09-01

    An evaluation of Hanford reactor process water treatment practices was made in an effort to ascertain the reasons for variations in the effluent activity between reactors. Recommendations are made for improvements in unit processes as well as for the over-all treatment process based on field inspection of the water treatment plants. In addition, a research program is proposed to supplement the recommendations. The proposed research is designed to uncover methods of more efficient filtration as well as other procedures which might eventually lead to significant effluent activity reductions. The recommendations and research results will be applied toward process optimization.

  6. Numerical Calculation of the Peaking Factor of a Water-Cooled W/Cu Monoblock for a Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Le; Chang, Haiping; Zhang, Jingyang; Xu, Tiejun

    2015-09-01

    In order to accurately predict the incident critical heat flux (ICHF, the heat flux at the heated surface when CHF occurs) of a water-cooled W/Cu monoblock for a divertor, the exact knowledge of its peaking factors (fp) under one-sided heating conditions with different design parameters is a key issue. In this paper, the heat conduction in the solid domain of a water-cooled W/Cu monoblock is calculated numerically by assuming the local heat transfer coefficients (HTC) of the cooling wall to be functions of the local wall temperature, so as to obtain fp. The reliability of the calculation method is validated by an experimental example result, with the maximum error of 2.1% only. The effects of geometric and flow parameters on the fp of a water-cooled W/Cu monoblock are investigated. Within the scope of this study, it is shown that the fp increases with increasing dimensionless W/Cu monoblock width and armour thickness (the shortest distance between the heated surface and Cu layer), and the maximum increases are 43.8% and 22.4% respectively. The dimensionless W/Cu monoblock height and Cu thickness have little effect on fp. The increase of Reynolds number and Jakob number causes the increase of fp, and the maximum increases are 6.8% and 9.6% respectively. Based on the calculated results, an empirical correlation on peaking factor is obtained via regression. These results provide a valuable reference for the thermal-hydraulic design of water-cooled divertors. supported by National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2010GB104005) and Funding of Jiangsu Innovation Program for Graduate Education, China (CXLX12_0170), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China

  7. Design of a water cooled monoblock divertor for DEMO using Eurofer as structural material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richou, Marianne, E-mail: marianne.richou@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Li-Puma, Antonella [CEA, DEN, Saclay, DM2S, SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Visca, Eliseo [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, IT-00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    The performed investigation focus on a monoblock type design for a water cooled DEMO divertor using Eurofer as structural material. In 2013, a study case of such a concept was presented. It was shown that basic concepts using Eurofer as structural material are limited to an incident heat flux of 8 MW m{sup −2}. Since, the EFDA agency issued new specifications. In this study, the conceptual design is reassessed with regard to specifications. Then, steady state thermal analyses and thermo-mechanical elastic analyses have been performed to define an upgrade of the geometry taking into account new specifications, design criteria and the maximum heat flux requirement of 10 MW m{sup −2}. An analysis of the influence of each adjustable geometrical parameter on thermo-mechanical design criteria was performed. As a consequence, geometrical parameters were set in order to fit to materials requirements. For defined hydraulic conditions taken in the most favourable configuration, the limit of this design is estimated to an incident heat flux of 10 MW m{sup −2}. Margin to critical heat flux and rules against progressive deformation/ratcheting in structural material limit the design.

  8. Application of imitation steam'' systems to hot water district heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, P.J.; Chen, D.B.

    1991-10-01

    Pequod Associates, Inc. and District Energy St. Paul, Inc. installed a pilot project of an innovative District Heating technology through a contract with the US DOE. This applied research was funded by the Energy Research and Development Act (94--163) for District Heating and Cooling Research. The experimental design is an intervention technique that permits hot water district heating systems to connect to buildings equipped with steam heating systems to connect to buildings equipped with steam heating systems. This method can substantially reduce conversion costs in many older buildings. The method circulates Imitation Steam, which is moist hot air, as a heating medium in standard steam radiators and steam heating coils. Based on the operation of the system during the 1989--90 and 1990--91 winter heating seasons, we conclude the following: the basic concept of using Imitation Steam was proved feasible. The performance of the system can be improved beyond the levels achieved in this installation. Imitation Steam did not cause significant corrosion in the piping system. The technology can be used by other district heating systems to lower conversion costs and increase market penetration. Among the additional benefits from this technology are: eliminating old, inefficient boilers; lower maintenance costs; improved fuel efficiency; reduced emissions.

  9. Effect of Internal Heat Recovery in Ammonia-Water Absorption Cooling Cycles: Exergy and Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Nogués

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available First and second law analysis have been conducted for three low temperature driven ammonia-water absorption cooling cycles with increasing internal heat recovery. Based on the results of exergy analysis the structural analysis has been achieved. The obtained Coefficients of Structural Bonds (CSB consider how the irreversibility of the whole cycle is affected by a change in the irreversibility related to an efficiency improvement of a single component. Trends for the different configurations are similar, while quantitative differences among the main heat exchangers are considerable. The highest values of the CSB are found for the refrigerant heat exchanger. Also the evaporator, the condenser, the generator and the absorber show values higher than unity. The lowest CSB’s are obtained in the solution heat exchanger. In general, CSB’s decrease with increasing efficiency. That means that for very efficient heat exchangers, a further improvement looks less attractive. The dephlegmator is an exception as it shows a singularity of the CSB value due to its complex interactions with the other components. Once the CSB’s are obtained for the main components, they can be used in the structural method of the thermoeconomic optimisation. This method enables us to find the optimum design of a component in a straightforward calculation.

  10. Roseomonas frigidaquae sp. nov., isolated from a water-cooling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Baik, Keun Sik; Park, Seong Chan; Rhee, Moon Soo; Oh, Hee-Mock; Seong, Chi Nam

    2009-07-01

    A non-motile, coccobacilli-shaped, pale-pink-pigmented bacterium, designated strain CW67(T), was isolated from a water-cooling system in Gwangyang, Republic of Korea. Cells were found to be Gram-negative, catalase-positive and oxidase-positive, the major fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega7c (43.6 %) and C(16 : 0) (15.8 %), the predominant respiratory lipoquinone was Q-10 and the DNA G+C content was 69.5 mol%. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that strain CW67(T) forms an evolutionary lineage within the radiation of the genus Roseomonas and that its closest relative is Roseomonas gilardii subsp. rosea MDA5605(T) (94.7 % sequence similarity). Evidence from this polyphasic study showed that strain CW67(T) could not be assigned to any recognized species. It therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Roseomonas frigidaquae sp. nov. is proposed, with CW67(T) (=KCTC 22211(T) =JCM 15073(T)) as the type strain.

  11. Performance characteristics of two-phase-flow turbo-expanders used in water-cooled chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasz, J.J. [United Technologies Carrier, New York, NY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Use of two-phase-flow throttle loss recovery devices in water-cooled chillers requires satisfactory part-load operation. This paper describes the results of two-phase-flow impulse turbine testing and the data reduction of the test results into a two-phase-flow turbine off-design performance model. It was found that the main parameter controlling the efficiency of two-phase-flow turbine is the ratio of the nozzle spouting velocity to the rotor speed. The turbine mass flow rate is mainly controlled by inlet subcooling of the entering liquid. The strong sensitivity of turbine mass flow rate on inlet subcooling allows the use of a conventional float valve upstream of the turbine as an effective means of controlling the turbine during part-load operation. For a well-designed two-phase-flow turbine, nozzle spouting velocity and therefore turbine efficiency is hardly affected by the amount of inlet subcooling. Also, capacity can be substantially reduced by a reduction in the amount of inlet subcooling entering the turbine nozzles. Hence, turbine part-load efficiency equals its full-load efficiency over a wide range of flow rates using this control concept. (Author)

  12. Neutronics Comparison Analysis of the Water Cooled Ceramics Breeding Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Xiaokang; Gao, Fangfang; Pu, Yong

    2016-02-01

    China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is an ITER-like fusion engineering test reactor that is intended to fill the scientific and technical gaps between ITER and DEMO. One of the main missions of CFETR is to achieve a tritium breeding ratio that is no less than 1.2 to ensure tritium self-sufficiency. A concept design for a water cooled ceramics breeding blanket (WCCB) is presented based on a scheme with the breeder and the multiplier located in separate panels for CFETR. Based on this concept, a one-dimensional (1D) radial built breeding blanket was first designed, and then several three-dimensional models were developed with various neutron source definitions and breeding blanket module arrangements based on the 1D radial build. A set of nuclear analyses have been carried out to compare the differences in neutronics characteristics given by different calculation models, addressing neutron wall loading (NWL), tritium breeding ratio (TBR), fast neutron flux on inboard side and nuclear heating deposition on main in-vessel components. The impact of differences in modeling on the nuclear performance has been analyzed and summarized regarding the WCCB concept design. supported by the National Special Project for Magnetic Confined Nuclear Fusion Energy (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000, and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  13. Age and growth of mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus at its cool-water-range limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piddocke, T P; Butler, G L; Butcher, P A; Stewart, J; Bucher, D J; Christidis, L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the age and growth of Lutjanus argentimaculatus at its southern (cooler) range limits in eastern Australia. Specimens were collected from New South Wales and southern Queensland between November 2011 and December 2013. Fork lengths (LF ) ranged from 190 to 1019 mm, and ages ranged from 2+ to 57+ years. Growth was described by the von Bertalanffy growth function with coefficients L∞ = 874·92 mm, K = 0·087 year(-1) and t0 = -2·76 years. Estimates of the instantaneous natural mortality rate (M) ranged from 0·072 to 0·25. The LF (mm) and mass (W; g) relationship was represented by the equation: W=2·647×10-5LF2·92. The maximum age of 57+ years is the oldest reported for any lutjanid and comparisons with tropical studies suggest that the age-based demography of L. argentimaculatus follows a latitudinal gradient. High maximum ages and low natural mortality rates indicate considerable vulnerability to overexploitation at the species' cool-water-range limits. These results demonstrate the need to identify underlying processes driving latitudinal gradients in fish demography.

  14. Analysis of Time-Dependent Tritium Breeding Capability of Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaokang; Pu, Yong; Zhu, Qingjun; Liu, Songlin

    2016-08-01

    Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is an important mission for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) operating on a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fuel cycle. It is necessary to study the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and breeding tritium inventory variation with operation time so as to provide an accurate data for dynamic modeling and analysis of the tritium fuel cycle. A water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket is one candidate of blanket concepts for the CFETR. Based on the detailed 3D neutronics model of CFETR with the WCCB blanket, the time-dependent TBR and tritium surplus were evaluated by a coupling calculation of the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the fusion activation code FISPACT-2007. The results indicated that the TBR and tritium surplus of the WCCB blanket were a function of operation time and fusion power due to the Li consumption in breeder and material activation. In addition, by comparison with the results calculated by using the 3D neutronics model and employing the transfer factor constant from 1D to 3D, it is noted that 1D analysis leads to an over-estimation for the time-dependent tritium breeding capability when fusion power is larger than 1000 MW. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2015GB108002, and 2014GB119000), and by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  15. Development of the Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Test Blanket Module in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enoeda, Mikio, E-mail: enoeda.mikio@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan); Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Nakamichi, Masaru; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Ezato, Koichiro; Seki, Yohji; Yoshikawa, Akira; Tsuru, Daigo; Akiba, Masato [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    The development of a Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) is being performed as one of the most important steps toward DEMO blanket in Japan. For the TBM testing and evaluation toward DEMO blanket, the module fabrication technology development by a candidate structural material, reduced activation martensitic/ferritic steel, F82H, is one of the most critical items from the viewpoint of realization of TBM testing in ITER. In Japan, fabrication of a real scale first wall, side walls, a breeder pebble bed box and assembling of the first wall and side walls have succeeded. Recently, the real scale partial mockup of the back wall was fabricated. The fabrication procedure of the back wall, whose thickness is up to 90 mm, was confirmed toward the fabrication of the real scale back wall by F82H. Important key technologies are almost clarified for the fabrication of the real scale TBM module mockup. From the view point of testing and evaluation, development of the technology of the blanket tritium recovery, development of advanced breeder and multiplier pebbles and the development of the blanket neutronics measurement technology are also performed. Also, tritium production and recovery test using D-T neutron in the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) facility has been started as the verification test of tritium production performance. This paper overviews the recent achievements of the development of the WCCB TBM in Japan.

  16. Preliminary Study on the High Efficiency Supercritical Pressure Water-Cooled Reactor for Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yoon Yeong; Park, Jong Kyun; Cho, Bong Hyun and others

    2006-01-15

    This research has been performed to introduce a concept of supercritical pressure water cooled reactor(SCWR) in Korea The area of research includes core conceptual design, evaluation of candidate fuel, fluid systems conceptual design with mechanical consideration, preparation of safety analysis code, and construction of supercritical pressure heat transfer test facility, SPHINX, and preliminary test. As a result of the research, a set of tools for the reactor core design has been developed and the conceptual core design with solid moderator was proposed. The direct thermodynamic cycle has been studied to find a optimum design. The safety analysis code has also been adapted to supercritical pressure condition. A supercritical pressure CO2 heat transfer test facility has been constructed and preliminary test proved the facility works as expected. The result of this project will be good basis for the participation in the international collaboration under GIF GEN-IV program and next 5-year mid and long term nuclear research program of MOST. The heat transfer test loop, SPHINX, completed as a result of this project may be used for the power cycle study as well as further heat transfer study for the various geometries.

  17. Influence of Cooling to Heating Load Ratio on Optimal Supply Water and Air Temperatures in an Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Ito, Koichi

    In planning an air conditioning system, supply water and air temperatures are important factors from the viewpoint of energy saving and cost reduction. For example, lower temperature supply water and air for space cooling reduce the coefficient of performance of a refrigeration machine, and increase the thickness of heat insulation material. However, they enable larger temperature differences, and reduce equipment sizes and power demand. It is also an important subject to evaluate the effect of the supply water and air temperatures on energy saving and cost reduction on the annual basis by considering not only cooling but also heating loads. The purposes of this paper are to propose an optimal planning method for an air conditioning system with large temperature difference, and to analyze the effect of supply water and air temperatures on the long-term economics through a numerical study for an office building. As a result, it is shown that the proposed method effectively determines supply water and air temperatures, and the influence of the cooling to heating load ratio on the long-term economics is clarified.

  18. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS ASSESSMENT OF THE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AT TARGU-MURES WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA DIANA HERTIA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the technological process of obtaining drinking water at Targu-Mures water treatment plant. The assessment was performed before changing the technological process and four months were chosen to be analized during 2008: January, April, July and October for its efficiency analysis on treatment steps. Mures River is the water source for the water treatment plant, being characterized by unsteady flow and quality parameters with possible important variability in a very short period of time. The treatment technological process is the classic one, represented by coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection, but also prechlorination was constantly applied as additional treatment during 2008. Results showed that for the measured parameters, raw water at the water treatment plant fits into class A3 for surface waters, framing dictated by the bacterial load. The treatment processes efficiency is based on the performance calculation for sedimentation, filtration, global and for disinfection, a better conformation degree of technological steps standing out in January in comparison to the other three analyzed months. A variable non-compliance of turbidity and residual chlorine levels in the disinfected water was observed constantly. Previous treatment steps managed to maintain a low level of oxidisability, chlorine consumption and residual chlorine levels being also low. 12% samples were found inconsistent with the national legislation in terms of bacteriological quality. Measures for the water treatment plant retechnologization are taken primarily for hyperchlorination elimination, which currently constitutes a discomfort factor (taste, smell, and a generating factor of chlorination by-products.

  19. Study of the mechanism action of sodium gluconate used for the protection of scale and corrosion in cooling water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Touir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work based on the mechanism action study of sodium gluconate (SG for ordinary mild steel used for cooling water system treatment. In the first time, we evaluated the temperature effect on the scale inhibition of SG using statistic scale inhibition method. Result showed that the inhibition efficiency became more important with increasing temperature, at great concentration (10−2 and 10−3 M. This can be explained by forming of stable complex SG–Ca2+. In the second time, the present work focuses on the study of operational parameters and corrosion products effect on SG performance using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic method. The obtained results show that SG is a very good inhibitor for corrosion and scale and remains effective in the presence of corrosion products. For this study we were proposed a mechanism action for SG on metallic surface. In addition, the SG keeps its effectiveness in a more aggressive medium such as 3% NaCl. Finally, to complete the formulation, we added a not oxidizing biocide (CTAB to SG. The results obtained show that SG remains its effective.

  20. Nanotechnology-based water treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Ahlawat, Wandit; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Heydarifard, Solmaz; Nazhad, Mousa M; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2014-02-01

    The most important component for living beings on the earth is access to clean and safe drinking water. Globally, water scarcity is pervasive even in water-rich areas as immense pressure has been created by the burgeoning human population, industrialization, civilization, environmental changes and agricultural activities. The problem of access to safe water is inevitable and requires tremendous research to devise new, cheaper technologies for purification of water, while taking into account energy requirements and environmental impact. This review highlights nanotechnology-based water treatment technologies being developed and used to improve desalination of sea and brackish water, safe reuse of wastewater, disinfection and decontamination of water, i.e., biosorption and nanoadsorption for contaminant removal, nanophotocatalysis for chemical degradation of contaminants, nanosensors for contaminant detection, different membrane technologies including reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, electro-dialysis etc. This review also deals with the fate and transport of engineered nanomaterials in water and wastewater treatment systems along with the risks associated with nanomaterials.

  1. Innovations in nanotechnology for water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehrke I

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilka Gehrke, Andreas Geiser, Annette Somborn-SchulzFraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology UMSICHT, Oberhausen, GermanyAbstract: Important challenges in the global water situation, mainly resulting from worldwide population growth and climate change, require novel innovative water technologies in order to ensure a supply of drinking water and reduce global water pollution. Against this background, the adaptation of highly advanced nanotechnology to traditional process engineering offers new opportunities in technological developments for advanced water and wastewater technology processes. Here, an overview of recent advances in nanotechnologies for water and wastewater treatment processes is provided, including nanobased materials, such as nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, and photocatalysts. The beneficial properties of these materials as well as technical barriers when compared with conventional processes are reported. The state of commercialization is presented and an outlook on further research opportunities is given for each type of nanobased material and process. In addition to the promising technological enhancements, the limitations of nanotechnology for water applications, such as laws and regulations as well as potential health risks, are summarized. The legal framework according to nanoengineered materials and processes that are used for water and wastewater treatment is considered for European countries and for the USA.Keywords: nanotechnology, water technology, nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, photocatalysis

  2. Thermal Aspects of Using Alternative Nuclear Fuels in Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Lisa Christine

    A SuperCritical Water-cooled Nuclear Reactor (SCWR) is a Generation IV concept currently being developed worldwide. Unique to this reactor type is the use of light-water coolant above its critical point. The current research presents a thermal-hydraulic analysis of a single fuel channel within a Pressure Tube (PT)-type SCWR with a single-reheat cycle. Since this reactor is in its early design phase many fuel-channel components are being investigated in various combinations. Analysis inputs are: steam cycle, Axial Heat Flux Profile (AHFP), fuel-bundle geometry, and thermophysical properties of reactor coolant, fuel sheath and fuel. Uniform and non-uniform AHFPs for average channel power were applied to a variety of alternative fuels (mixed oxide, thorium dioxide, uranium dicarbide, uranium nitride and uranium carbide) enclosed in an Inconel-600 43-element bundle. The results depict bulk-fluid, outer-sheath and fuel-centreline temperature profiles together with the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) profiles along the heated length of fuel channel. The objective is to identify the best options in terms of fuel, sheath material and AHFPS in which the outer-sheath and fuel-centreline temperatures will be below the accepted temperature limits of 850°C and 1850°C respectively. The 43-element Inconel-600 fuel bundle is suitable for SCWR use as the sheath-temperature design limit of 850°C was maintained for all analyzed cases at average channel power. Thoria, UC2, UN and UC fuels for all AHFPs are acceptable since the maximum fuel-centreline temperature does not exceed the industry accepted limit of 1850°C. Conversely, the fuel-centreline temperature limit was exceeded for MOX at all AHFPs, and UO2 for both cosine and downstream-skewed cosine AHFPs. Therefore, fuel-bundle modifications are required for UO2 and MOX to be feasible nuclear fuels for SCWRs.

  3. Legionella detection and subgrouping in water air-conditioning cooling tower systems in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Matawah, Qadreyah; Al-Zenki, Sameer; Al-Azmi, Ahmad; Al-Waalan, Tahani; Al-Salameen, Fadila; Hejji, Ahmad Ben

    2015-07-01

    The main aim of the study was to test for the presence of Legionnaires' disease-causing microorganisms in air-conditioned buildings in Kuwait using molecular technologies. For this purpose, 547 samples were collected from 38 cooling towers for the analysis of Legionella pneumophila. These samples included those from water (n = 178), air (n = 231), and swabs (n = 138). Out of the 547 samples, 226 (41%) samples were presumptive positive for L. pneumophila, with L. pneumophila viable counts in the positive water samples ranging from 1 to 88 CFU/ml. Of the Legionella culture-positive samples, 204 isolates were examined by latex agglutination. These isolates were predominately identified as L. pneumophila serogroup (sg) 2-14. Using the Dresden panel of monoclonal antibodies, 74 representatives isolates were further serogrouped. Results showed that 51% of the isolates belonged to serogroup 7 followed by 1 (18%) and 3 (18%). Serogroups 4 (4%) and 10 (7%) were isolated at a lower frequency, and two isolates could not be assigned to a serogroup. These results indicate the wide prevalence of L. pneumophila serogroup 7 as the predominant serogroup at the selected sampling sites. Furthermore, the 74 L. pneumophila (sg1 = 13; sg3 = 13; sg4 = 3; sg7 = 38; sg10 = 5; sgX = 2) isolates were genotyped using the seven gene protocol sequence-based typing (SBT) scheme developed by the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI). The results show that Legionella isolates were discriminated into nine distinct sequence typing (ST) profiles, five of which were new to the SBT database of EWGLI. Additionally, all of the ST1 serogroup 1 isolates were of the OLDA/Oxford subgroup. These baseline data will form the basis for the development of a Legionella environmental surveillance program and used for future epidemiological investigations.

  4. Did Cooling of Subthermocline Waters Help Establish Modern Upwelling Regions? Evidence rom ODP Site 716 in the Indian Ocean: Subthermocline δ18O Record Does Not Exceed General Cooling Trend of the Global Deep Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, S.; Polissar, P. J.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2012-12-01

    The modern Indian Ocean exhibits a strong sea surface temperature gradient between the upwelling zone in the northwest Arabian Sea and the central warm pool. However, during the Pliocene, this temperature difference was essentially nonexistent. The shift in Indian Ocean sea surface temperature patterns parallels those in ocean basins worldwide—modern upwelling zones were dramatically warmer in the Pliocene and cooled around 2 million years ago, which had significant implications for regional precipitation patterns. Whether this cooling was due to stronger upwelling, colder subthermocline waters or other factors is not yet known. We analyzed the δ18O of benthic foraminifera from ODP site 716 in the Indian Ocean to test whether cooling of subthermocline waters contributed to cooling of the Arabian Sea upwelling region. Currently, bottom water at this 533 meter-deep site ventilates the thermocline and eventually upwells in the northwest Arabian Sea. We used the stable oxygen isotopic composition of the benthic foraminifera Uvigerina proboscidea and Cibicidoides spp. to infer changes in the temperature of bottom water at site 716. Our benthic record exhibits a ~1.5‰ secular shift over the past 4.5 million years, indicating cooling of bottom waters. The benthic δ18O trend at site 716 parallels the record from the deep ocean suggesting cooling of shallow waters was comparable to that observed in abyssal waters. The onset of cooling precedes the shift observed in upwelling regions by ~0.5 million years suggesting that colder subsurface waters were not the proximal cause of cooler upwelling regions. Cooler subsurface waters were likely a precondition that primed the system to amplify any changes in upwelling, but increased wind-driven upwelling at 2 million years initiated the establishment of the modern cold upwelling regions.

  5. Thermophilic aerobic post treatment of anaerobically pretreated paper process water

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.

    2002-01-01

    Thermophilic waste- or process water treatment increases in importance as industries shift from end-of-pipe treatment towards integrated process water treatment. The need for process water treatment becomes evident as the levels of pollutants in industrial water circuits need to be controlled whereas the intake of fresh water generally diminishes. In the paper and board industry, high process water temperatures prevail and thus water treatment needs to take place under thermophilic conditions...

  6. 3-Dimensional numerical study of cooling performance of a heat sink with air-water flow through mini-channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Sambit; Majumder, Abhik; Bhaumik, Swapan

    2016-07-01

    The present microelectronics market demands devices with high power dissipation capabilities having enhanced cooling per unit area. The drive for miniaturizing the devices to even micro level dimensions is shooting up the applied heat flux on such devices, resulting in complexity in heat transfer and cooling management. In this paper, a method of CPU processor cooling is introduced where active and passive cooling techniques are incorporated simultaneously. A heat sink consisting of fins is designed, where water flows internally through the mini-channel fins and air flows externally. Three dimensional numerical simulations are performed for large set of Reynolds number in laminar region using finite volume method for both developing flows. The dimensions of mini-channel fins are varied for several aspect ratios such as 1, 1.33, 2 and 4. Constant temperature (T) boundary condition is applied at heat sink base. Channel fluid temperature, pressure drop are analyzed to obtain best cooling option in the present study. It has been observed that as the aspect ratio of the channel decreases Nusselt number decreases while pressure drop increases. However, Nusselt number increases with increase in Reynolds number.

  7. Effect of Air Cooling and Vacuum Cooling Storage on the β-Carotene Content and Proximate Analysis (Water Content, pH, Total Protein and Content of Sugar) in Carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningsih, T.; Martini, T.; Rini, K. S.; Okstafiyanti, L.

    2017-04-01

    The study of air cooling and vacuum cooling storage effect on the β-carotene content and proximate analysis in carrot has been studied. The aim of the research to determine the effective storage in carrot to improve the quality and the shelf life. Parameters measured during the 12 weeks of storage process were β-carotene, pH, water, sugar and protein content. Validation analysis for β-carotene method showed a good linearity (r 2 = 0.997) in a range of 0-8 mg/L and (r 2 = 0.999) in a range of 0-1 mg/L. The precision was exemplified by %RSD of 0.88%-7.48%. Mean recovery was 100.66% during accuracy studied. UV analysis revealed the LOD values were 0.009 mg/L and LOQ values were 0.032 mg/L. The decreased content of β-carotene, water, protein, and pH from carrot during vacuum cooling storage were higher than in the air cooling storage period. The sugar content for air cooling storage increased up to eight weeks and decreased at the end of storage while the vacuum cooling storage decreased from the beginning of the storage period. All the data indicates that the air cooling storage was more effective storage techniques for extending the shelf life of carrot compared to the vacuum cooling storage.

  8. Detection of Legionella species in environmental water by the quantitative PCR method in combination with ethidium monoazide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Takama, Tomoko; Yoshizaki, Miwa; Agata, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    We detected Legionella species in 111 bath water samples and 95 cooling tower water samples by using a combination of conventional plate culture, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and qPCR combined with ethidium monoazide treatment (EMA-qPCR) methods. In the case of bath water samples, Legionella spp. were detected in 30 samples by plate culture, in 85 samples by qPCR, and in 49 samples by EMA-qPCR. Of 81 samples determined to be Legionella-negative by plate culture, 56 and 23 samples were positive by qPCR and EMA-qPCR, respectively. Therefore, EMA treatment decreased the number of Legionella-positive bath water samples detected by qPCR. In contrast, EMA treatment had no effect on cooling tower water samples. We therefore expect that EMA-qPCR is a useful method for the rapid detection of viable Legionella spp. from bath water samples.

  9. IMPROVEMENT OF SYSTEMS OF TECHNICAL WATER SUPPLY WITH COOLING TOWERS FOR HEAT POWER PLANTS TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS PERFECTION. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Olpinskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of calculation of economic efficiency that can be universal and is suitable for feasibility study of modernization of irrigation and water distribution system of cooling towers has been developed. The method takes into account the effect of lower pressure exhaust steam in the condenser by lowering the temperature of the cooling water outlet of a cooling tower that aims at improvement of technical and economic indicators of heat power plants. The practical results of the modernization of irrigation and water distribution system of a cooling tower are presented. As a result, the application of new irrigation and water distribution systems of cooling towers will make it possible to increase the cooling efficiency by more than 4 оС and, therefore, to obtain the fuel savings by improving the vacuum in the turbine condensers. In addition, the available capacity of CHP in the summer period is increased. The results of the work, the experience of modernization of irrigation and water distribution systems of the Gomel CHP-2 cooling towers system, as well as the and methods of calculating of its efficiency can be disseminated for upgrading similar facilities at the power plants of the Belarusian energy system. Some measures are prosed to improve recycling systems, cooling towers and their structures; such measures might significantly improve the reliability and efficiency of technical water supply systems of heat power plants.

  10. A novel method to design water spray cooling system to protect floating roof atmospheric storage tanks against fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon bulk storage tank fires are not very common, but their protection is essential due to severe consequences of such fires. Water spray cooling system is one of the most effective ways to reduce damages to a tank from a fire. Many codes and standards set requirements and recommendations to maximize the efficiency of water spray cooling systems, but these are widely different and still various interpretations and methods are employed to design such systems. This article provides a brief introduction to some possible design methods of cooling systems for protection of storage tanks against external non-contacting fires and introduces a new method namely “Linear Density Method” and compares the results from this method to the “Average Method” which is currently in common practice. The average Method determines the flow rate for each spray nozzle by dividing the total water demand by the number of spray nozzles while the Linear Density Method determines the nozzle flow rate based on the actual flow over the surface to be protected. The configuration of the system includes a one million barrel crude oil floating roof tank to be protected and which is placed one half tank diameter from a similar adjacent tank with a full surface fire. Thermal radiation and hydraulics are modeled using DNV PHAST Version 6.53 and Sunrise PIPENET Version 1.5.0.2722 software respectively. Spray nozzles used in design are manufactured by Angus Fire and PNR Nozzles companies. Schedule 40 carbon steel pipe is used for piping. The results show that the cooling system using the Linear Density Method consumes 3.55% more water than the design using the average method assuming a uniform application rate of 4.1 liters per minute. Despite higher water consumption the design based on Linear Density Method alleviates the problems associated with the Average Method and provides better protection.

  11. Variability in cold front activities modulating cool-season evaporation from a southern inland water in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heping; Blanken, Peter D.; Weidinger, Tamas; Nordbo, Annika; Vesala, Timo

    2011-04-01

    Understanding seasonal variations in the evaporation of inland waters (e.g., lakes and reservoirs) is important for water resource management as well as the prediction of the hydrological cycles in response to climate change. We analyzed eddy covariance-based evaporation measurements from the Ross Barnett Reservoir (32°26'N, 90°02'W which is always ice-free) in central Mississippi during the cool months (i.e., September-March) of 2007 and 2008, and found that the variability in cold front activities (i.e., passages of cold fronts and cold/dry air masses behind cold fronts) played an important role in modulating the exchange of sensible (H) and latent (λE) heat fluxes. Our analysis showed that 2007's warmer cool season had smaller mean H and λE than 2008's cooler cool season. This implies that the warmer cool season did not accelerate evaporation and heat exchange between the water surface and the atmosphere. Instead, more frequent cold fronts and longer periods of cold/dry air masses behind the cold fronts in 2008 resulted in overall larger H and λE as compared with 2007, this primarily taking the form of sporadic short-term rapid 'pulses' of H and λE losses from the water's surface. These results suggest that future climate-induced changes in frequency of cold fronts and the meteorological properties of the air masses behind cold fronts (e.g., wind speeds, temperature, and humidity), rather than other factors of climate change, would produce significant variations in the water surface's energy fluxes and subsequent evaporation rates.

  12. Particle separation options for emergency water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorea, C C; Bertrand, S; Clarke, B A

    2006-01-01

    Emergencies can result from the effects of unpredictable natural forces or from the cruelty of conflicts. The affected population is often left vulnerable to increased health risks. The victims' exposure to these risks can be reduced by timely public health interventions. Often, one of the first basic mitigations is the provision of water for essential needs. The quickest option, and generally more polluted, is of surface waters. We have reviewed particle separation options for emergency water treatment of surface waters. These vary from granular filtration package treatment facilities to ceramic candle filters and have therefore been broadly classified in three categories: modular, mobile and point-of-use (or household). The operational requirements and process limitations that can influence the choice of each option are discussed alongside with their underlying particle separation mechanisms and performance data.

  13. Treatment of Sewer Water Using Alum Salt

    OpenAIRE

    Qaid M. Saleem; Yousif Mohamed Algamal; Majed H. Shtaiwi; Mohammad S. Aldahmashi

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to study the effect of addition of different concentrations of alum salt used in the treatment of sewer water of the pond and also to study the physico-chemical parameters such as pH ,electrical conductivity ,salinity and total sediments besides that the bacteriological analysis such as total viable count (TVC) or standard plate count (SPC) and total coliform count (MPN) content were analysed in the water sample collected from the pond estimation of viable...

  14. Economic analysis of the integrated heating and cooling potential of a residential passive-solar water wall design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, F.; Mangeng, C.; Kirschner, C.; Ben-David, S.

    1982-01-01

    The heating potential of residential water wall designs has been analyzed for many years. Because this past work has been confined strictly to heating potential, it has understated the true energy savings potential of water walls. Preliminary performance estimates for the heating and cooling potential of water walls have recently been made available. These estimates include the Btu displacement that is attributable to a 300-square foot water wall design in a 1200-square foot residence. The design is for a forced ventilation water wall system that includes the fans and ducting necessary to achieve a 3000-cfm flow of air. The cooling and heating energy displacement estimates are combined with appropriate region-specific fuel prices, system costs, and general economic parameters in a lifecycle cost analysis of this fixed-size water wall design. The economic indicators used to discuss the results include net present value and a total cost goal. Input data and results are presented in mapped form and used to assess the energy savings potential of the water wall in 220 regions of the continental United States.

  15. Some Aspects of Surface Water Treatment Technology in Tirana Drinking Water Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    , Tania Floqi; , Aleksandër Trajçe; , Daut Vezi

    2009-01-01

    Tirana’s Bovilla treatment plant was the Şrst of its kind for Albania, which treats surface water. The input water comes from the Bovilla artiŞcial lake, around which, the presence of villages induces pollution in the surface water and therefore affects the efŞciency of treatment plant and consequently the quality of drinking water. The treatment plant is a simple conventional system and includes pre-oxidation, coagulation, şocculation & sedimentation, fast Şltration, post-oxidation. ...

  16. Liquid-Cooled Garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A liquid-cooled bra, offshoot of Apollo moon suit technology, aids the cancer-detection technique known as infrared thermography. Water flowing through tubes in the bra cools the skin surface to improve resolution of thermograph image.

  17. Energy and Exergy Performances of Air-Based vs. Water-Based Heating and Cooling Systems: A Case Study of a Single-Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    -based systems, an air heating and cooling system, and a radiant floor heating and cooling system were chosen, respectively. A single-family house was used as a case study assuming that different space heating and cooling systems were used to condition the indoor space of this house. In addition to the thermal...... energy and exergy inputs to the system, energy and exergy inputs to the auxiliary components were also studied. Both heating and cooling cases were considered and three climatic zones were studied; Copenhagen (Denmark), Yokohama (Japan), and Ankara (Turkey). The analysis showed that the water......-based radiant heating and cooling system performed better than the air-based system both in terms of energy and exergy input to the heating/cooling plant. The relative benefits of the water-based system over the air-based system vary depending on the climatic zone. The air-based system also requires higher...

  18. Components and Treatments of Oilfield Produced Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Abdul-Jalil Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a review of variety of processes that are used in the treatment produced water prior to reuse or to responsible disposal are presented with their environmental issues and economical benefits. Samples of produced water from five locations in Rumaila oilfield/in south of Iraq were taken and analyzed for their contents of brine, some heavy metals, total suspended solids and oil and grease. Moreover, two samples of water were treated using reverse osmosis technique which showed its ability to treat such contaminated water. The results showed that the environmental impact of produced water arises from its chemical composition; i.e., its salt content, its heavy metals, and hydrocarbon contents.

  19. The Effects of Cylinder Head Gasket Opening on Engine Temperature Distribution for a Water-Cooled Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J. Y.; Chi, G. X.

    2017-02-01

    In a liquid-cooled engine, coolant is pumped throughout the water jacket of the engine, drawing heat from the cylinder head, pistons, combustion chambers, cylinder walls, and valves, etc. If the engine temperature is too high or too low, various problems will occur. These include overheating of the lubricating oil and engine parts, excessive stresses between engine parts, loss of power, incomplete burning of fuel, etc. Thus, the engine should be maintained at the proper operating temperature. This study investigated the effects of different cylinder head gasket opening on the engine temperature distributions in a water-cooled motorcycle engine. The numerical predictions for the temperature distribution are in good agreement with the experimental data within 20%.

  20. Thermal Hydraulic Design and Analysis of a Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket with Superheated Steam for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoman; Ma, Xuebin; Jiang, Kecheng; Chen, Lei; Huang, Kai; Liu, Songlin

    2015-09-01

    The water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket (WCCB) is one of the blanket candidates for China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR). In order to improve power generation efficiency and tritium breeding ratio, WCCB with superheated steam is under development. The thermal-hydraulic design is the key to achieve the purpose of safe heat removal and efficient power generation under normal and partial loading operation conditions. In this paper, the coolant flow scheme was designed and one self-developed analytical program was developed, based on a theoretical heat transfer model and empirical correlations. Employing this program, the design and analysis of related thermal-hydraulic parameters were performed under different fusion power conditions. The results indicated that the superheated steam water-cooled blanket is feasible. supported by the National Special Project for Magnetic Confined Nuclear Fusion Energy of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000 and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)