WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooling water consumption

  1. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, Susan Jeanne; Ciferno, Jared

    2010-10-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  2. Guided design of heating and cooling mains for lower water and energy consumption and increased efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling towers efficiency. This indicates the importance of the system structure, the possibility of mixing of heating or cooling water; recycling and reuse of heating...

  3. Thermal analysis for energy consumption reduction in cooling water systems; Analisis termico para la reduccion del consumo de energia en sistemas de agua de enfriamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picon Nunez, Martin [Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Quillares Vargas, Luis [Tecnopinch, S. A. de C. V., (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the fundamental principles for the thermal analysis of cooling water systems in processing plants. In existing heat dissipating networks this methodology application allows the identification of opportunities for reducing the energy consumption used for cooling water pumping. The methodology is based on the determination of the minimum cooling water flow as a function of the installed heat exchange capacity, subjected to the restrictions of the maximum allowed temperature elevation. The methodology application to real systems, has resulted in saving 20% of the total energy consumed in cooling water pumping. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los principios fundamentales para el analisis termico de sistemas de enfriamiento en plantas de proceso. En redes de eliminacion de calor existentes, la aplicacion de esta metodologia permite identificar oportunidades para reducir el consumo de energia utilizada para el bombeo del fluido enfriante. La metodologia se basa en la determinacion del flujo minimo de agua de enfriamiento en funcion de la capacidad de transferencia de calor instalada, sujeta a las restricciones de maximo incremento de temperatura permitido. La aplicacion de la metodologia a sistemas reales, ha resultado en ahorros del 20% del total de la energia que se consume en el bombeo del agua de enfriamiento.

  4. Water-cooled electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Dumont, G; Righini, B

    2000-01-01

    LHC experiments demand on cooling of electronic instrumentation will be extremely high. A large number of racks will be located in underground caverns and counting rooms, where cooling by conventional climatisation would be prohibitively expensive. A series of tests on the direct water cooling of VMEbus units and of their standard power supplies is reported. A maximum dissipation of 60 W for each module and more than 1000 W delivered by the power supply to the crate have been reached. These values comply with the VMEbus specifications. (3 refs).

  5. Biofouling Control in Cooling Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Reg Bott

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of environmental engineering is the control of greenhouse gas emissions. Fossil fuel-fired power stations, for instance, represent a substantial contribution to this problem. Unless suitable steps are taken the accumulation of microbial deposits (biofouling on the cooling water side of the steam condensers can reduce their efficiency and in consequence, the overall efficiency of power production, with an attendant increase in fuel consumption and hence CO2 production. Biofouling control, therefore, is extremely important and can be exercised by chemical or physical techniques or a combination of both. The paper gives some examples of the effectiveness of different approaches to biofouling control.

  6. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pulliam, Elias Noel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  7. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  8. Controlled cooling of an electronic system for reduced energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-08-09

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided. The control includes automatically determining at least one adjusted control setting for at least one adjustable cooling component of a cooling system cooling the electronic system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on power being consumed by the cooling system and temperature of a heat sink to which heat extracted by the cooling system is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on one or more experimentally obtained models relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the one or more adjustable cooling components of the cooling system.

  9. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  10. Process integration: Cooling water systems design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique for grassroot design of cooling water system for wastewater minimization which incorporates the performances of the cooling towers involved. The study focuses mainly on cooling systems consisting of multiple cooling...

  11. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water usage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Andres L.; Everett, Randy L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2010-09-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  12. Desalting a process cooling water using nanofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radier, R.G.J.; van Oers, C.W.; Steenbergen, A.; Wessling, Matthias

    2001-01-01

    The cooling water system of a chemical plant of Akzo Nobel is a partly open system. The site is located at the North Sea. The air in contact with the cooling water contains seawater droplets dissolving and increasing the chloride concentration. The cooling water contains chromate to protect the inst

  13. 18 CFR 420.44 - Cooling water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooling water. 420.44 Section 420.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.44 Cooling water. Water...

  14. Research of Tianjin's future water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yinhe

    2017-03-01

    Water shortage has been a great issue in nowadays. Thus, the prediction of future water consumption situation in an area appears especially important. The water demand includes industrial water, agricultural water and domestic water. The paper take Tianjin, China as the study object to predict the Tianjin's water consumption in future 15 years. To get more accurate result, we use Grey Forecasting Model, to get the correlation degree between water consumption, domestic water consumption, industrial water consumption and agricultural water consumption, we successfully figure out the water demand in 2030 will be 2.47 billion cubic meters.

  15. Water consumption in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Weber Miguel Ángel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Special considerations must be taken to calculate water require- ments of newborns and breastfeeding children; however, all their water needs should be covered with breast milk or breast-milk substitute formula. There is a need for 100 mL of water per 100 kcal consumed, or of 1,800 mL per square meter body surface area. From the age of six months, it is advisable to start providing 30 to 60 mL of water per day, with progressive increase; before that age, any other liquid must be avoided. Inadequate preparation of a substitute formula may cause hydric intoxication, or infections if the water used is contaminated. The increase in obesity and overweight is the result of increased intake of sugary beverages in children. This increased intake can also be linked to diabetes and other physiological and cognitive problems. Mexican children and teenagers have increased their caloric intake from sugary beverages in 126% between 1999 and 2006. As one of many healthy habits that children must acquire from home, is the avoi- dance of sugary beverages and the acknowledgment of water as a preferred hydration source.

  16. DC Motor Load Analysis and Cooling Consideration to Optimise the Power Consumption- Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. K.G. Bante

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The need of energy conservation is the increased requirement of all industries as the cost of the energy increasing day by day. DC motors have been the workhorse of variable speed drives in the continuous steel rolling mills for many years. DC motors in the steel rolling mills are usually separately ventilated by providing air blower, heat exchanger and water. Cooling air is circulated inside the motor by air blower. Water circulates through the heat exchanger and cools the air. Energy consumption by the air blower plays a vital role in optimizing the energy consumption. This article indicates that the loading pattern of the DC motor should decide the control strategy for effective and efficient cooling arrangement.

  17. Municipal water consumption forecast accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; Molina, Angel L.

    2010-06-01

    Municipal water consumption planning is an active area of research because of infrastructure construction and maintenance costs, supply constraints, and water quality assurance. In spite of that, relatively few water forecast accuracy assessments have been completed to date, although some internal documentation may exist as part of the proprietary "grey literature." This study utilizes a data set of previously published municipal consumption forecasts to partially fill that gap in the empirical water economics literature. Previously published municipal water econometric forecasts for three public utilities are examined for predictive accuracy against two random walk benchmarks commonly used in regional analyses. Descriptive metrics used to quantify forecast accuracy include root-mean-square error and Theil inequality statistics. Formal statistical assessments are completed using four-pronged error differential regression F tests. Similar to studies for other metropolitan econometric forecasts in areas with similar demographic and labor market characteristics, model predictive performances for the municipal water aggregates in this effort are mixed for each of the municipalities included in the sample. Given the competitiveness of the benchmarks, analysts should employ care when utilizing econometric forecasts of municipal water consumption for planning purposes, comparing them to recent historical observations and trends to insure reliability. Comparative results using data from other markets, including regions facing differing labor and demographic conditions, would also be helpful.

  18. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    OpenAIRE

    Sahai, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Evaporative coolers (ECs) provide significant gains in energy efficiency compared to vapor compression air conditioners, but simultaneously have significant onsite water demand. This can be a major barrier to deployment in areas of the world with hot and arid climates. To address this concern, this study determined where in the world evaporative cooling is suitable, the water consumption of ECs in these cities, and the potential that greywater can be used reduce the consumption of potable wat...

  19. Dry cooling tower with water augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ireland, R.G.; Tramontini, V.N.

    1981-06-23

    An air cooling tower system is disclosed for condensing exhaust steam in power plants, that has water cooling augmentation to maintain the plant cooling capacity during high atmospheric temperature periods. The cooling tower includes a plurality of banks of brazed aluminum plate and fin type heat exchangers arranged in inverted ''v'' shaped sets. These heat exchangers cool ammonia used as the cooling fluid in the primary condenser for the power plant turbine exhaust steam. Each of these heat exchangers has a core consisting of a plurality of parallel aluminum plates spaced apart by fin assemblies that define a plurality of fluid passes. Approximately every other one of these passes has closed sides that open at the ends of the core to headers and define ammonia passes. The passes adjacent the ammonia passes are open at the sides and define air passes that permit the free flow of air transversely through the heat exchanger cores. An additional pass is provided adjacent every fourth one of the ammonia passes and these have closed sides and ends and define the passes for the cooling water. The water passes communicate at the bottom of the core with a water inlet manifold and at the top of the core with a water outlet manifold. The cooling tower system is designed so that at 55 degrees fahrenheit air temperatures or below, the cooling air alone will provide the necessary cooling for the ammonia to satisfy plant requirements. Above 55 degrees fahrenheit air temperature, cooling water from a separate water tank is pumped through the water passes to provide an additional cooling effect to maintain the design cooling capacity.

  20. Modeling and energy simulation of the variable refrigerant flow air conditioning system with water-cooled condenser under cooling conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yueming; Wu, Jingyi [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics (China); Shiochi, Sumio [Daikin Industries Ltd. (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    As a new system, variable refrigerant flow system with water-cooled condenser (water-cooled VRF) can offer several interesting characteristics for potential users. However, at present, its dynamic simulation simultaneously in association with building and other equipments is not yet included in the energy simulation programs. Based on the EnergyPlus's codes, and using manufacturer's performance parameters and data, the special simulation module for water-cooled VRF is developed and embedded in the software of EnergyPlus. After modeling and testing the new module, on the basis of a typical office building in Shanghai with water-cooled VRF system, the monthly and seasonal cooling energy consumption and the breakdown of the total power consumption are analyzed. The simulation results show that, during the whole cooling period, the fan-coil plus fresh air (FPFA) system consumes about 20% more power than the water-cooled VRF system does. The power comparison between the water-cooled VRF system and the air-cooled VRF system is performed too. All of these can provide designers some ideas to analyze the energy features of this new system and then to determine a better scheme of the air conditioning system. (author)

  1. Forward osmosis applied to evaporative cooling make-up water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoll, Peter; Thompson, Neil; Gray, Victoria [Modern Water plc, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-15

    Modern Water is in the process of developing a number of forward osmosis based technologies, ranging from desalination to power generation. This paper outlines the progress made to date on the development and commercial deployment of a forward osmosis based process for the production of evaporative cooling tower make-up water from impaired water sources, including seawater. Evaporative cooling requires significant amounts of good quality water to replace the water lost by evaporation, drift and blowdown. This water can be provided by conventional desalination processes or by the use of tertiary treated sewage effluent. The conventional processes are well documented and understood in terms of operation and power consumption. A new process has been successfully developed and demonstrated that provides make-up water directly, using a core platform 'forward osmosis' technology. This new technology shows significant promise in allowing various raw water sources, such as seawater, to be used directly in the forward osmosis step, thus releasing the use of scarce and valuable high grade water for other more important uses. The paper presents theoretical and operational results for the process, where it is shown that the process can produce make-up water at a fraction of the operational expenditure when compared to conventional processes, in particular regarding power consumption, which in some cases may be as low as 15 % compared to competing processes. Chemical additives to the cooling water (osmotic agent) are retained within the process, thus reducing their overall consumption. Furthermore the chemistry of the cooling water does not support the growth of Legionella pneumophila. Corrosion results are also reported. (orig.)

  2. Feasibility assessment of vacuum cooling followed by immersion vacuum cooling on water-cooked pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hui; Liu, Yi; Dai, Ruitong; Li, Xingmin

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum cooling followed by immersion vacuum cooling was designed to cool water-cooked pork (1.5±0.05 kg) compared with air blast cooling (4±0.5°C, 2 m/s), vacuum cooling (10 mbar) and immersion vacuum cooling. This combined cooling method was: vacuum cooling to an intermediate temperature of 25°C and then immersion vacuum cooling with water of 10°C to the final temperature of 10°C. It was found that the cooling loss of this combined cooling method was significantly lower (Pvacuum cooling. This combined cooling was faster (Pvacuum cooling in terms of cooling rate. Moreover, the pork cooled by combined cooling method had significant differences (P<0.05) in water content, color and shear force. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental compatible cooling water treatment chemicals; Umweltvertraegliche Chemikalien in der Kuehlwasserkonditionierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartiser, S.; Urich, E.

    2002-02-01

    In Germany about 32 billion m{sup 3}/a cooling water are discharged from industrial plants and power industry. These are conditioned partly with biocides, scaling and corrosion inhibitors. Within the research project the significance of cooling water chemicals was evaluated, identifying the chemicals from product information, calculating their loads from consumption data of more than 180 cooling plants and investigating the basic data needed for an environmental hazard assessment. Additionally the effects of cooling water samples and products were determined in biological test systems. Batch tests were performed under defined conditions in order to measure the inactivation of cooling water biocides. (orig.)

  4. Urban Fresh Water Resources Consumption of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Peng; LU Chunxia; ZHANG Lei; CHENG Xiaoling

    2009-01-01

    From the point of view of urban consumption behavior, urban fresh water consumption could be classified as three types, namely, direct, indirect and induced water consumption. A calculation approach of urban fresh water consumption was presented based on the theory of urban basic material consumption and the input-output method, which was utilized to calculate urban fresh water consumption of China, and to analyze its structural change and causes. The results show that the total urban fresh water consumption increased 561.7×109m3, and the proportion to the total national fresh water resources increased by 20 percentage points from 1952 to 2005. The proportion of direct and induced water consumption had been continuously rising, and it increased by 15 and 35 percentage points separately from 1952 to 2005, while the proportion of indirect water consumption decreased by 50 percentage points. Urban indi-rect water consumption was mainly related to urban grain, beef and mutton consumption, and urban induced water consumption had a close relationship with the amount of carbon emission per capita. Finally, some countermeasures were put forward to realize sustainable utilization of urban fresh water resources in China.

  5. Study of fuel consumption and cooling system in low heat rejection turbocharged diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taymaz, I.; Gur, M.; Cally, I.; Mimaroglu, A.

    1998-07-01

    In a conventional internal combustion engine, approximately one-third of total fuel input energy is converted to useful work. Since the working gas in a practical engine cycle is not exhausted at ambient temperature, a major part of the energy is lost with the exhaust gases. In addition another major part of energy input is rejected in the form of heat via the cooling system. If the energy normally rejected to the coolant could be recovered instead on the crankshaft as useful work, then a substantial improvement in fuel economy would result. At the same time, the cooling water, antifreeze, thermostat, radiator, water pump, cooling fan, and associated hoses and clamps could be eliminated. A new trend in the field of internal combustion engines is to insulate the heat transfer surfaces such as the combustion chamber, cylinder wall, cylinder head, piston and valves by ceramic insulating materials for the improvement of engine performance and elimination of cooling system. In this study, the effect of insulated heat transfer surfaces on direct injected and turbocharged diesel engine fuel consumption and cooling system were investigated. The research engine was a four-stroke, direct injected, six cylinder, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. This engine was tested at different speeds and loads conditions without coating. Then, combustion chamber surfaces, cylinder head, valves and piston crown faces was coated with ceramic materials. Ceramic layers were made of CaZrO{sub 3} and MgZrO{sub 3} and plasma coated onto base of the NiCrAl bond coat. The ceramic coated research engine was tested at the same operation conditions as the standard (without coating) engine. The results indicate a reduction in fuel consumption and heat losses to engine cooling system of the ceramic coated engine.

  6. Asbestos in cooling-tower waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.A.G.

    1977-12-01

    Fill material in natural- or mechanical-draft cooling towers can be manufactured from a variety of materials, including asbestos cement or asbestos paper. To aid in the environmental impact assessment of cooling towers containing these asbestos types of fill, information on these materials was obtained from cooling-tower vendors and users. Samples of makeup, basin, and blowdown waters at a number of operating cooling towers were obtained, and identification and enumeration of asbestos in the samples were performed by transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Asbestos fibers were detected in cooling-tower water at 10 of the 18 sites sampled in the study. At all but three sites, the fibers were detected in cooling-tower basin or blowdown samples, with no fibers detected in the makeup water. The fibers were identified as chrysotile at all sites except one. Concentrations were on the order of 10/sup 6/ to 10/sup 8/ fibers/liter of water, with mass concentrations between <0.1 ..mu..g/liter to 37 ..mu..g/liter. The maximum concentrations of asbestos fibers in air near ground due to drift from cooling towers were estimated (using models) to be on the order of asbestos concentrations reported for ambient air up to distances of 4 km downwind of the towers. The human health hazard due to abestos in drinking-water supplies is not clear. Based on current information, the concentrations of asbestos in natural waters after mixing with cooling-tower blowdown containing 10/sup 6/ to 10/sup 8/ fibers/liter will pose little health risk. These conclusions may need to be revised if future epidemiological studies so indicate.

  7. Progress of the Water Cooling System for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Zhen-guo; WU; Long-cheng; LIU; Geng-guo

    2013-01-01

    The water cooling system for CYCIAE-100 has achieved a significant progress in 2013,its progress can be summarized as follows:1)The deionized water production equipment and the main circulating water cooling unit are installed and tested.2)The circulating water cooling unit for high power target and circulating water cooling unit for vacuum helium compressor are installed and tested.

  8. Evaporative cooling: water for thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rui Camargo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaporative cooling is an environmentally friendly air conditioning system that operates using induced processes of heat and mass transfer, where water and air are the working fluids. It consists, specifically, in water evaporation, induced by the passage of an air flow, thus decreasing the air temperature. This paper presents three methods that can be used as reference for efficient use of evaporative cooling systems, applying it to several Brazilian cities, characterized by different climates. Initially it presents the basic operation principles of direct and indirect evaporative cooling and defines the effectiveness of the systems. Afterwards, it presents three methods that allows to determinate where the systems are more efficient. It concludes that evaporative cooling systems have a very large potential to propitiate thermal comfort and can still be used as an alternative to conventional systems in regions where the design wet bulb temperature is under 24ºC.

  9. Water consumption in the energy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Drews, Martin; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    Energy, water, and food systems are closely interlinked in the Energy-Water-Food Nexus. Water is of paramount importance for the energy sector. Fossil fuels require water for extraction, trans-port and processing. Thermal power plants require water for cooling, whether they use nuclear, fossil......-users. The waste water is often returned to the environment after energy requiring waste water management....... or biofuels. Hydropower is based on water in rivers or reservoirs. Feedstock production for biofuels may depend on water for irrigation. On the other hand, energy is necessary for pumping of ground- and surface water, for water treatment as well as for transport and distribution of water to end...

  10. Operational cost minimization in cooling water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an optimization model that considers thermal and hydraulic interactions is developed for a cooling water system. It is a closed loop consisting of a cooling tower unit, circulation pump, blower and heat exchanger-pipe network. Aside from process disturbances, climatic fluctuations are considered. Model constraints include relations concerning tower performance, air flowrate requirement, make-up flowrate, circulating pump performance, heat load in each cooler, pressure drop constraints and climatic conditions. The objective function is operating cost minimization. Optimization variables are air flowrate, forced water withdrawal upstream the tower, and valve adjustment in each branch. It is found that the most significant operating cost is related to electricity. However, for cooled water temperatures lower than a specific target, there must be a forced withdrawal of circulating water and further makeup to enhance the cooling tower capacity. Additionally, the system is optimized along the months. The results corroborate the fact that the most important variable on cooling tower performance is not the air temperature itself, but its humidity.

  11. Modelling Forest Water Consumption in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, A.J.; Nonhebel, S.

    1988-01-01

    The water consumption of oak, beech, spruce and pine forest is predicted from routinely measured meteorological data for five locations in the Netherlands. Differences in water consumption are found to be primarily a result of differences in interception loss. Predicted interception loss was found t

  12. Consumptive water use to feed humanity - curing a blind spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falkenmark

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an 'environmental flow' in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling. After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions - representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities - the paper exemplifies; 1 changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2 consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water. The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.

  13. Amorphous silica scale in cooling waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midkiff, W.S.; Foyt, H.P.

    1976-01-01

    In 1968, most of the evaporation cooled recirculating water systems at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory were nearly inoperable due to scale. These systems, consisting of cooling towers, evaporative water coolers, evaporative condensers, and air washers had been operated on continuous blowdown without chemical treatment. The feedwater contained 80 mg/l silica. A successful program of routine chemical addition in the make-up water was begun. Blends of chelants, dispersants and corrosion inhibitors were found to gradually remove old scale, prevent new scale, and keep corrosion to less than an indicated rate of one mil per year. An explanation has been proposed that amorphous silica by itself does not form a troublesome scale. When combined with a crystal matrix such as calcite, the resultant silica containing scale can be quite troublesome. Rapid buildup of silica containing scale can be controlled and prevented by preventing formation of crystals from other constituents in the water such as hardness or iron. (auth)

  14. Supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest reactor concepts, single pass core and experimental findings in thermal hydraulics, materials, corrosion, and water chemistry. It highlights research on supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors (SCWRs), one of the Generation IV reactors that are studied around the world. This book includes cladding material development and experimental findings on heat transfer, corrosion and water chemistry. The work presented here will help readers to understand the fundamental elements of reactor design and analysis methods, thermal hydraulics, materials and water

  15. Wavelet Analytical Forecasting Method of Water Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪波; 张宏伟

    2004-01-01

    A new method of short-term forecasting for water consumption in municipal supply water networks based on wavelet transformation is introduced. By wavelet decomposing commonly used in the signal field, water consumption per hour is decomposed into many series. Trend item, cycle item and random item are separated from the original time series in this way.Then by analyzing, building a model, forecasting every series and composing the results, the forecasting value of the original consumption is received. Simulation results show that this forecasting method is faster and more accurate, of which the error is less than 20%,indicating that the wavelet analytical method is practicable.

  16. Anomalous Effects in Air While Cooling Water

    CERN Document Server

    Sardo, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Water is a unique compound with many anomalies and properties not fully understood. Designing an experiment in the laboratory to study such anomalies, we set up a series of experiments where a tube was placed inside a sealed container with thermocouples attached to the outer surface of the tube and in the air adjacent to the tube. Alternately, deionized water and other compounds were added to the tube and cooled to freezing. Several of the thermocouples suspended in the air and adjacent to the tube showed thermal oscillations as the overall temperature of the container was decreasing. The temperature of the thermocouples increased and decreased in a sinusoidal way during part of the cool down to freezing. Thermal oscillations as large as 3 degrees Celsius were recorded with typical frequencies of about 5 oscillations per minute.

  17. On synthesis and optimization of cooling water systems with multiple cooling towers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available research on cooling water systems has focused mainly on heat exchanger network thus excluding the interaction between heat exchanger network and the cooling towers. This paper presents a technique for grassroot design of cooling water system for wastewater...

  18. Optimum Design and Operation of an HVAC Cooling Tower for Energy and Water Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente García Cutillas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption increase in the last few years has contributed to developing energy efficiency policies in many countries, the main goal of which is decreasing CO 2 emissions. One of the reasons for this increment has been caused by the use of air conditioning systems due to new comfort standards. In that regard, cooling towers and evaporative condensers are presented as efficient devices that operate with low-level water temperature. Moreover, the energy consumption and the cost of the equipment are lower than other systems like air condensers at the same operation conditions. This work models an air conditioning system in TRNSYS software, the main elements if which are a cooling tower, a water-water chiller and a reference building. The cooling tower model is validated using experimental data in a pilot plant. The main objective is to implement an optimizing control strategy in order to reduce both energy and water consumption. Furthermore a comparison between three typical methods of capacity control is carried out. Additionally, different cooling tower configurations are assessed, involving six drift eliminators and two water distribution systems. Results show the influence of optimizing the control strategy and cooling tower configuration, with a maximum energy savings of 10.8% per story and a reduction of 4.8% in water consumption.

  19. Development of a water-mist cooling system: A 12,500 Kcal/h air-cooled chiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Neng Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and energy exhaustion problems are becoming a severe problems, of which energy conservation and carbon reduction are the most critical. Between 40% and 48% of the total electricity used in a building is consumed by air conditioning systems. The development of a supersonic water-misting cooling system with a fuzzy control system is proposed to optimize existing condenser noise, space, and energy consumption, as well as to address problems with cooling capacity resulting from improper control between compressors and condensers. An experimental platform was established for conducting tests, observing cooling efficiencies, and calculating power saving statuses. Comparing the observed cooling efficiency, a temperature difference of 5.4 °C was determined before and after the application; this is significant regarding efficiency. The method produces no pollution or water accumulation. When compared with fixed frequency air-cooled water chillers, an exceptional energy saving of 25% was observed. The newly developed supersonic mist-cooled chiller is an excellent solution to increasing water and electricity fees.

  20. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, Rashmi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Evaporative coolers (ECs) provide significant gains in energy efficiency compared to vapor compression air conditioners, but simultaneously have significant onsite water demand. This can be a major barrier to deployment in areas of the world with hot and arid climates. To address this concern, this study determined where in the world evaporative cooling is suitable, the water consumption of ECs in these cities, and the potential that greywater can be used reduce the consumption of potable water in ECs. ECs covered 69percent of the cities where room air conditioners are may be deployed, based on comfort conditions alone. The average water consumption due to ECs was found to be 400 L/household/day in the United States and Australia, with the potential for greywater to provide 50percent this amount. In the rest of the world, the average water consumption was 250 L/household/day, with the potential for greywater to supply 80percent of this amount. Home size was the main factor that contributed to this difference. In the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Northern India, and the Midwestern and Southwestern United States alkalinity levels are high and water used for bleeding will likely contribute significantly to EC water consumption. Although technically feasible, upfront costs for household GW systems are currently high. In both developed and developing parts of the world, however, a direct EC and GW system is cost competitive with conventional vapor compression air conditioners. Moreover, in regions of the world that face problems of water scarcity the benefits can substantially outweigh the costs.

  1. Free Cooling in the Water Cooling Towers: a Case Study for Istanbul, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇ, İbrahim; PARMAKSIZOGLU, Cem

    2013-01-01

    Energy saving in cooling towers which is used for cooling to the hot water can be significantly improved by using free cooling application. This application is commonly known economizer cycle and when outside conditions are suitable for cooling, it is used for. In this study, the free cooling is applied for the cold water necessity which is supplied by the chiller of the cooling tower in the factory which is available in Istanbul. The results show that the ...

  2. Optimal Environmental Performance of Water-cooled Chiller System with All Variable Speed Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fu Wing; Chan, Kwok Tai

    This study investigates how the environmental performance of water-cooled chiller systems can be optimized by applying load-based speed control to all the system components. New chiller and cooling tower models were developed using a transient systems simulation program called TRNSYS 15 in order to assess the electricity and water consumption of a chiller plant operating for a building cooling load profile. The chiller model was calibrated using manufacturer's performance data and used to analyze the coefficient of performance when the design and control of chiller components are changed. The NTU-effectiveness approach was used for the cooling tower model to consider the heat transfer effectiveness at various air-to-water flow ratios and to identify the makeup water rate. Applying load-based speed control to the cooling tower fans and pumps could save an annual plant operating cost by around 15% relative to an equivalent system with constant speed configurations.

  3. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

    2010-02-01

    The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

  4. Human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; van Beek, L.P.H.; Wanders, N.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, human water use has more than doubled and affected streamflow over various regions of the world. However, it remains unclear to what degree human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought (the occurrence of anomalously low streamflow). Here, we quantify over the peri

  5. The effect of cooling water on magnet vibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Coosemans, Williame; Schnell, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    The quadrupole magnets in the CLIC Test Facility II (CTF2) incorporate a water cooling circuit. In the frame-work of the CLIC stability study, the mechanical vibrations of the magnets were measured for different flows of cool-ing water. We present the results and compare them with simple theoretical estimates. It is shown that the vibra-tion requirements of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) quadrupoles with cooling water can basically be met.

  6. Application of Cooling Water in Controlled Runout Table Cooling on Hot Strip Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zheng-dong; I V Samarasekera

    2004-01-01

    The controlled runout table cooling is essential in determining the final mechanical properties and flatness of steel strip. The heat of a hot steel strip is mainly extracted by cooling water during runout. In order to study the heat transfer by water jet impingement boiling during runout, a pilot facility was constructed at the University of British Columbia. On this pilot facility, the water jet impingement tests were carried out under various cooling conditions to investigate the effect of processing parameters, such as cooling water temperature, water jet impingement velocity, initial strip temperature, water flow rate, water nozzle diameter and array of water nozzles, on the heat transfer of heated strip. The results obtained contribute to the optimization of cooling water during runout.

  7. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G Page; Morgan, M Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-11-15

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3-7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35-40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  8. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G. Page; Morgan, M. Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-10-21

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3–7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35–40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  9. Electrochemistry of Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, Dgiby; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Pitt, Jonathan

    2006-08-08

    This project developed a comprehensive mathematical and simulation model for calculating thermal hydraulic, electrochemical, and corrosion parameters, viz. temperature, fluid flow velocity, pH, corrosion potential, hydrogen injection, oxygen contamination, stress corrosion cracking, crack growth rate, and other important quantities in the coolant circuits of water-cooled nuclear power plants, including both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The model is being used to assess the three major operational problems in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), which include mass transport, activity transport, and the axial offset anomaly, and provide a powerful tool for predicting the accumulation of SCC damage in BWR primary coolant circuits as a function of operating history. Another achievement of the project is the development of a simulation tool to serve both as a training tool for plant operators and as an engineering test-bed to evaluate new equipment and operating strategies (normal operation, cold shut down and others). The development and implementation of the model allows us to estimate the activity transport or "radiation fields" around the primary loop and the vessel, as a function of the operating parameters and the water chemistry.

  10. Thermal indoor environment and energy consumption in a plus-energy house: cooling season measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    . The house was cooled by a floor cooling system and was ventilated with a mechanical ventilation system. Different operative temperature set-points and different ventilation rates were tested. Operative temperature at a representative location inside the occupied zone was used as an indicator of the thermal...... the floor cooling system) and increasing the ventilation rate provided a better thermal indoor environment but with increased energy consumption. The thermal indoor environment and energy performance of the house can be improved with decreased glazing area, increased thermal mass, installation of solar......The present study is concerned with the thermal indoor environment and HVAC system energy consumption of a detached, one-story, single family, plus-energy house during a cooling season. The house was located in Denmark and it has been used as a full-scale experimental facility for one year...

  11. Consumptive Use and Water Requirements for Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, A. Leon; Haws, Frank W.; Hughes, Trevor C.; Bagley, Jay M.

    1982-01-01

    Foreword: Studies on the meteorological determinants of evapotranspiration were initiated at least as long ago as the 1920s and by the late 1940s had produced the Blaney-Criddle method for estimating crop consumptive use. The resulting ability to estimate water requirements by both location and crop added a new scientific dimension to water rights administration that was first introduced into the courts of Utah d...

  12. Selective brain cooling reduces water turnover in dehydrated sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Maartin Strauss

    Full Text Available In artiodactyls, arterial blood destined for the brain can be cooled through counter-current heat exchange within the cavernous sinus via a process called selective brain cooling. We test the hypothesis that selective brain cooling, which results in lowered hypothalamic temperature, contributes to water conservation in sheep. Nine Dorper sheep, instrumented to provide measurements of carotid blood and brain temperature, were dosed with deuterium oxide (D2O, exposed to heat for 8 days (40 ◦C for 6-h per day and deprived of water for the last five days (days 3 to 8. Plasma osmolality increased and the body water fraction decreased over the five days of water deprivation, with the sheep losing 16.7% of their body mass. Following water deprivation, both the mean 24h carotid blood temperature and the mean 24h brain temperature increased, but carotid blood temperature increased more than did brain temperature resulting in increased selective brain cooling. There was considerable inter-individual variation in the degree to which individual sheep used selective brain cooling. In general, sheep spent more time using selective brain cooling, and it was of greater magnitude, when dehydrated compared to when they were euhydrated. We found a significant positive correlation between selective brain cooling magnitude and osmolality (an index of hydration state. Both the magnitude of selective brain cooling and the proportion of time that sheep spent selective brain cooling were negatively correlated with water turnover. Sheep that used selective brain cooling more frequently, and with greater magnitude, lost less water than did conspecifics using selective brain cooling less efficiently. Our results show that a 50 kg sheep can save 2.6L of water per day (~60% of daily water intake when it employs selective brain cooling for 50% of the day during heat exposure. We conclude that selective brain cooling has a water conservation function in artiodactyls.

  13. Global energy consumption for direct water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Hejazi, M. I.; Kim, S. H.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Miralles, D. G.; Teuling, R.; He, Y.; Niyogi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Despite significant efforts to quantify the mutual inter-dependence of the water and energy sectors, global energy for water (EFW) remains poorly understood, resulting in biases in energy accounting that directly affect water and energy management and policy. We firstly evaluate the global energy consumption for direct water use from 1973 to 2012 with sectoral, regional and process-level details. Over the 40-year period, we detected multiple shifts in EFW by county and region. For example, we find that India, the Middle East and China have surpassed the United States as the three largest consumers of EFW since 2003, mostly because of rapid growth in groundwater-based irrigation, desalination, and industrial and municipal water use, respectively. Globally, EFW accounts for 1-3% of total primary energy consumption in 2010, of which 52% is surface water, 36% is groundwater, and 12% is non-fresh water. The sectoral allocation of EFW includes municipal (45%), industrial (29%), and agricultural use (26%), and process-level contributions are from source/conveyance (41%), water purification (19%), water distribution (13%) and wastewater treatment (22%). Our evaluation suggests that the EFW may increase in importance in the future due to growth in population and income, and depletion of surface and shallow aquifer water resources in water-scarce regions. We are incorporating this element into an integrated assessment model (IAM) and linking it back to energy balance within that IAM. By doing this, we will then explore the impacts of EFW on the global energy market (e.g., changes in the share of groundwater use and desalination), and the uncertainty of future EFW under different shared social pathway (SSP) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios, and consequences on the emission of greenhouse gases as well. We expect these EFW induced impacts will be considerable, and will then have significant implications for adaptive management and policy making.

  14. Progress of the Water Cooling System for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Zhen-guo; WU; Long-cheng; LIU; Geng-guo

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to the general construction schedule of the BRIF project, the water cooling system for CYCIAE-100 has achieved a significant progress in 2012, its progress can be summarized as follows. 1) Inside wiring of 7 water distribution cabinets were completed. 2) Manufacturer selection of circulating water cooling unit and deionized water production equipment was decided after market survey and bidding process. The contracts were formally signed in February. The deionized water production equipment was ready in May and the circulating water cooling

  15. Operations improvement of the recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbakov Vladimir Ivanovich

    Full Text Available Water management in sugar factories doesn’t have analogues in its complexity among food industry enterprises. Water intensity of sugar production is very high. Circulation water, condensed water, pulp press water and others are used in technological processes. Water plays the main role in physical, chemical, thermotechnical processes of beet processing and sugar production. As a consequence of accession of Russia to the WTO the technical requirements for production processes are changing. The enforcements of ecological services to balance scheme of water consumption and water disposal increased. The reduction of fresh water expenditure is one of the main tasks in economy of sugar industry. The substantial role in fresh water expenditure is played by efficiency of cooling and aeration processes of conditionally clean waters of the 1st category. The article contains an observation of the technologies of the available solutions and recommendations for improving and upgrading the existing recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills. The authors present the block diagram of the water sector of a sugar mill and a method of calculating the optimal constructive and technological parameters of cooling devices. Water cooling towers enhanced design and upgrades are offered.

  16. Effects of socioeconomic factors on household appliance, lighting, and space cooling electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydinalp, M. [Itron Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Ismet Ugursal, V.; Fung, A.S. [Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Two methods are currently used to model residential energy consumption at the national or regional level: the engineering method and the conditional demand analysis (CDA) method. One of the major difficulties associated with the use of engineering models is the inclusion of consumer behaviour and socioeconomic factors that have significant effects on the residential energy consumption. The CDA method can handle socioeconomic factors if they are included in the model formulation. However, the multicollinearity problem and the need for a very large amount of data make the use of CDA models very difficult. It is shown in this paper that the neural network (NN) method can be used to model the residential energy consumption with the inclusion of socioeconomic factors. The appliances, lighting, and cooling component of the NN based energy consumption model developed for the Canadian residential sector is presented here and the effects of some socioeconomic factors on the residential energy consumption are examined using the model. (author)

  17. Effect of Precipitable Water Vapor Amount on Radiative Cooling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingke; Zhao, Bin; Ao, Xianze; Pei, Gang

    2017-05-01

    A radiative cooler based on aluminum-evaporated polyvinyl-fluoride surface was employed to investigate the effect of precipitable water vapor amount on its radiative cooling performance. A mathematic model of steady heat transfer that considers the spectral radiant distribution of the sky, the transparent cover and the collecting surface was established. The results indicate that the amount of precipitable water vapor shows a remarkable and negative effect on radiative cooling performance of the radiative cooler. Both the temperature difference between the cooler and surroundings and the net radiative cooling power decrease as the precipitable water vapor amount increases. The net radiative cooling power drops by about 41.0% as the the precipitable water vapor amount changes from 1.0 cm to 7.0 cm. Besides, the radiative cooler shows better cooling performance in winter than in summer. The net radiative cooling power in summer of Hefei is about 82.2% of that in winter.

  18. Water temperature impacts water consumption by range cattle in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water consumption and DMI have been found to be positively correlated, which may interact with ingestion of cold water or grazed frozen forage due to transitory reductions in temperature of ruminal contents. The hypothesis underpinning the study explores the potential that cows provided warm drinkin...

  19. Comparison of solar panel cooling system by using dc brushless fan and dc water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, Y. M.; Leow, W. Z.; Irwanto, M.; M, Fareq; Hassan, S. I. S.; Safwati, I.; Amelia, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss comparison of solar panel cooling system by using DC brushless fan and DC water pump. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an interesting technique to reduce non-renewable energy consumption and as a renewable energy. The temperature of PV modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. A solar cooling system is design, construct and experimentally researched within this work. To make an effort to cool the PV module, Direct Current (DC) brushless fan and DC water pump with inlet/outlet manifold are designed for constant air movement and water flow circulation at the back side and front side of PV module representatively. Temperature sensors were installed on the PV module to detect temperature of PV. PIC microcontroller was used to control the DC brushless fan and water pump for switch ON or OFF depend on the temperature of PV module automatically. The performance with and without cooling system are shown in this experiment. The PV module with DC water pump cooling system increase 3.52%, 36.27%, 38.98%in term of output voltage, output current, output power respectively. It decrease 6.36 °C compare than to PV module without DC water pump cooling system. While DC brushless fan cooling system increase 3.47%, 29.55%, 32.23%in term of output voltage, output current, and output power respectively. It decrease 6.1 °C compare than to PV module without DC brushless fan cooling system. The efficiency of PV module with cooling system was increasing compared to PV module without cooling system; this is because the ambient temperature dropped significantly. The higher efficiency of PV cell, the payback period of the system can be shorted and the lifespan of PV module can also be longer.

  20. A heat dissipating model for water cooling garments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Kai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A water cooling garment is a functional clothing used to dissipate human body’s redundant energy in extravehicular environment or other hot environment. Its heat dissipating property greatly affects body’s heat balance. In this paper, a heat dissipating model for the water cooling garment is established and verified experimentally using the experimental thermal-manikin.

  1. Study on water cooled high conversion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochiai, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-12-01

    As a part of study on advanced reactors for the future, conceptual design of high conversion water cooled reactors is being studied, aiming at the contribution to nuclear fuel cycle by the LWR technology, since the utilization of LWRs will extend over a long period of time . We are studying on the reactor core concepts for BWR and PWR reactor systems. As for BWR system, three types of reactor cores are investigating for three different design goals; long operation period, high conversion ratio and high applicability for the existing BWR system. In all the cases, we have obtained a fair prospect of a large core concept with a capacity of 1,000 MWe class having negative void reactivity coefficient. This study is a part of JAERI-JAPCO (Japan Atomic Power Company) cooperative studies. Various kinds of conceptual designs will be created until the end of FY 1999. The designs will be checked and reviewed at that time, then experimental studies on the realization of the concepts will start with further design works from FY 2000. (author)

  2. Efficiency, Equity and Effect: Virtual Water Consumption Characters and Sustainable Consumption on Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Hai-Yang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of water is the key factor which restricted the growth of social-economy. The virtual water theory provides a new way to solve the problem of water scarcity. In this thesis, we have calculated the virtual water consumption of each household grouped by income in the cities of Gansu in 1992-2005 after introduced the virtual water theory and calculations briefly. Then we advanced the indicator of virtual water per unit of consumption expenditure to analyze the efficiency of virtual water consumption. Additionally, we also used the diversity theory advanced by Ulanowicz, broadly employed by the ecologists and the biologists, to analyze the characters of virtual water consumption. Finally, we improve the Gini coefficient to get a virtual water inequality index to measure the distinction of each group’s virtual water consumption. After all, from this study we can find the way of saving water, in the view of virtual water, through changing the structure and pattern of consumption for increasing the consumption diversity but degrade the quality of living and reduced the demand of living. This suggestion is more important to Gansu in which the problem of water scarcity becomes more seriously. The consumption, for the role of guiding the production, is more important. The unsustainable consumption pattern, especially in the developing country, is the main factor causing the deterioration of the world environment. The sustainable consumption is an important aspect of developing human-being and building the ecological economics.

  3. Urban water consumption and its influencing factors in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Liangxin; Gai, Lingtong; Tong, Yan; Li, Ruihua

    2017-01-01

    Factors that affect water consumption should be identified to develop effective public policies. However, factors influencing domestic water consumption in cities in China, particularly on a national scale, are unclear. In this study, urban water consumption and its influencing factors in 286

  4. Application of Heat Pump in Cooling Water System of HIRFL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator generates a lot of heat when it is working.It must be cooled by the circulating cooling water.Generally the heat was released to atimosphere by the cooling water tower.Because the heat energy is very huge(about 2M watts for HIRFL),it is big waste and the machine can’t be cooled to appropriate temperature when ambient temperature is high in summer.In order to solve the problems,the heat pump has been used

  5. Minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, hydropower accounted for only 16% of the world electricity production, with other renewable sources totaling 3%. Thus, it is not surprising that when alternatives are evaluated for new energy developments, there is strong impulse for fossil fuel or nuclear energy as opposed to renewable sources. However, as hydropower schemes are often part of a multipurpose water resources development project, they can often help to finance other components of the project. In addition, hydropower systems and their associated dams and reservoirs provide human well-being benefits, such as flood control and irrigation, and societal benefits such as increased recreational activities and improved navigation. Furthermore, hydropower due to its associated reservoir storage, can provide flexibility and reliability for energy production in integrated energy systems. The storage capability of hydropower systems act as a regulating mechanism by which other intermittent and variable renewable energy sources (wind, wave, solar) can play a larger role in providing electricity of commercial quality. Minimizing water consumption for producing hydropower is critical given that overuse of water for energy production may result in a shortage of water for other purposes such as irrigation, navigation or fish passage. This paper presents a dimensional analysis for finding optimal flow discharge and optimal penstock diameter when designing impulse and reaction water turbines for hydropower systems. The objective of this analysis is to provide general insights for minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower. This analysis is based on the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the penstock, the total hydraulic head and the desired power production. As part of this analysis, various dimensionless relationships between power production, flow discharge and head losses were derived. These relationships were used to withdraw general insights on determining optimal flow discharge and

  6. Effect of limb cooling on peripheral and global oxygen consumption in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, I A-A; Wickramasinghe, Y A; Spencer, S A

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate peripheral oxygen consumption (VO(2)) measurements using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with arterial occlusion in healthy term neonates by studying the effect of limb cooling on peripheral and global VO(2). Twenty two healthy term neonates were studied. Peripheral VO(2) was measured by NIRS using arterial occlusion and measurement of the oxyhaemoglobin (HbO(2)) decrement slope. Global VO(2) was measured by open circuit calorimetry. Global and peripheral VO(2) was measured in each neonate before and after limb cooling. In 10 neonates, a fall in forearm temperature of 2.2 degrees C (mild cooling) decreased forearm VO(2) by 19.6% (p Global VO(2) did not change. In 12 neonates, a fall in forearm temperature of 4 degrees C (moderate cooling) decreased forearm VO(2) by 34.7% (p Global VO(2) increased by 17.6% (p cooling. The changes are more pronounced with moderate limb cooling when a concomitant rise in global VO(2) is observed. Change in peripheral temperature must be taken into consideration in the interpretation of peripheral VO(2) measurements in neonates.

  7. Comparative Thermal Analysis of Different Cool Roof Materials for Minimizing Building Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The roof and walls in the urban areas contribute to major share in the absorption of solar radiations and also retard the outflow of the absorbed radiation from the building envelope, thereby increasing the global warming by inducing the heat island effect. The impact of using cool roof technologies on the thermal comfort of the office buildings has been estimated. Cool roofs reduce electricity consumption for maintaining the temperature of the air-conditioned buildings in the comfort level and also increase comfort in buildings merely not relying completely on cooling equipment. The cool roofs and cool pavements, however, can mitigate summer urban heat islands by improving indoor air quality and comfort. The thermal analysis of different materials has been carried out to analyze the impact of the rate of heat transfer on the building envelope and the results obtained indicate that different cool roof techniques are beneficial in maintaining the comfort level of the building which purely depends on the ambient temperature conditions.

  8. Enhancing the performance of photovoltaic panels by water cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Moharram

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to minimize the amount of water and electrical energy needed for cooling of the solar panels, especially in hot arid regions, e.g., desert areas in Egypt. A cooling system has been developed based on water spraying of PV panels. A mathematical model has been used to determine when to start cooling of the PV panels as the temperature of the panels reaches the maximum allowable temperature (MAT. A cooling model has been developed to determine how long it takes to cool down the PV panels to its normal operating temperature, i.e., 35 °C, based on the proposed cooling system. Both models, the heating rate model and the cooling rate model, are validated experimentally. Based on the heating and cooling rate models, it is found that the PV panels yield the highest output energy if cooling of the panels starts when the temperature of the PV panels reaches a maximum allowable temperature (MAT of 45 °C. The MAT is a compromise temperature between the output energy from the PV panels and the energy needed for cooling.

  9. Naegleria fowleri in cooling waters of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerva, L.; Kasprzak, W.; Mazur, T.

    1982-01-01

    Six strains of nonvirulent and three strains of virulent variants of Naegleria fowleri amoebae were isolated from the examined cooling water samples from 9 power plants. The virulent variants were obtained solely from effluents discharged from power plants with a closed-circuit cooling N. fowleri was not detected outside the reach of the thermal pollution. A disinfection of out-flowing cooling water seems to be an unnecessary investment in our climate. Warm discharge water should under no conditions be used directly for sports and recreational purposes.

  10. Biofouling reduction in recirculating cooling systems through biofiltration of process water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, K P H; Van Groenestijn, J W; Gerritse, J

    2003-02-01

    Biofouling is a serious problem in industrial recirculating cooling systems. It damages equipment, through biocorrosion, and causes clogging and increased energy consumption, through decreased heat transfer. In this research a fixed-bed biofilter was developed which removed assimilable organic carbon (AOC) from process water, thus limiting the major substrate for the growth of biofouling. The biofilter was tested in a laboratory model recirculating cooling water system, including a heat exchanger and a cooling tower. A second identical model system without a biofilter served as a reference. Both installations were challenged with organic carbon (sucrose and yeast extract) to provoke biofouling. The biofilter improved the quality of the recirculating cooling water by reducing the AOC content, the ATP concentration, bacterial numbers (30-40 fold) and the turbidity (OD660). The process of biofouling in the heat exchangers, the process water pipelines and the cooling towers, was monitored by protein increase, heat transfer resistance, and chlorine demanded for maintenance. This revealed that biofouling was lower in the system with the biofilter compared to the reference installation. It was concluded that AOC removal through biofiltration provides an attractive, environmental-friendly means to reduce biofouling in industrial cooling systems.

  11. Assessing water consumption in extreme diet scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Mika; Guillaume, Joseph; Kummu, Matti

    2017-04-01

    Most of the food for humanity comes from agriculture. Producing it requires enormous resources, and the projected population growth will further increase the stress on the environment. A number of strategies have been suggested to make food production sustainable. One of them, changing the human diet, has been shown to have a considerable potential in reducing use of resources, including water. Using water footprint methodology, our results show that moving to a mostly plant-based diet or a more conservative diet change combined with halving food losses would reduce the number of people living under water scarcity by hundreds of millions. Alternatively, it would enable producing sufficient, healthy food supply for a much larger population. Questions are still remaining, though. While water footprints alone have been criticised for only concentrating on water volumes and not the impacts of consumption, with proper attention to existing resources and the ecological relevance of using them, the water footprints allow straightforward analysis of limited modifications to food systems. On the other hand, large changes to the demand of each of the crops as well as shifts in ratios between plant- and animal-based foodstuffs alter some of the underlying assumptions, which are based on the current production. We present concepts to try to tackle the dynamics involved with diet change. Specifically, we discuss and present results related to: 1) Effects of changes in the areas used for production of a crop on its marginal water footprint 2) Use of non-food grade crop production as feed 3) Use of feed from co-production systems

  12. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  13. Energy consumption of cooling systems. Optimization of the energy consumption of the cooling system in electric refrigerators; Energiforbrug i koelesystemer. Optimering af energiforbruget i koelesystemer i eldrevne koeleskabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danig, P.O. [Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (Denmark); Pedersen, J.K.; Ritchie, E. [Aalborg Universitet (Denmark); Kierkegaard, P. [CETEC E/F (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the project was to determine an energy optimum solution for household refrigerators comprising the whole system from electric power supply to the cooled food. The basic idea was to replace the normal ON/OFF control with continuous operation, but so that the engine`s speed of rotation and thereby the performance of the compressor should be controlled according to the cooling demand. A 325 l Gram refrigerator model KS350 was used in the experiments and as a reference. In conventional operation - with a 3,13 cm{sup 3} compressor using ON/OFF control - this refrigerator on average used 33 W at the ISO point (ISO 7371 standard). The most important technical results are that continuous operation of refrigerators uses substantial less energy than ON/OFF control, and that this mode of operation improves the quality of the stored food. A compressor which is small enough to even a refrigerator of the size of 325 l does not exist on the market. A new compressor type must therefore be developed which must by combined and optimized with a pinion. A new compressor type with pinion will, when developed, demand substantial production changes at costs of probably a three-figure million amount. There is no doubt that the continuous operation of refrigerators will become dominating in the future, and globally it will result in a decrease of the energy consumption of 2-3%. (LN)

  14. Cooling of gas turbines IX : cooling effects from use of ceramic coatings on water-cooled turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W Byron; Livingood, John N B

    1948-01-01

    The hottest part of a turbine blade is likely to be the trailing portion. When the blades are cooled and when water is used as the coolant, the cooling passages are placed as close as possible to the trailing edge in order to cool this portion. In some cases, however, the trailing portion of the blade is so narrow, for aerodynamic reasons, that water passages cannot be located very near the trailing edge. Because ceramic coatings offer the possibility of protection for the trailing part of such narrow blades, a theoretical study has been made of the cooling effect of a ceramic coating on: (1) the blade-metal temperature when the gas temperature is unchanged, and (2) the gas temperature when the metal temperature is unchanged. Comparison is also made between the changes in the blade or gas temperatures produced by ceramic coatings and the changes produced by moving the cooling passages nearer the trailing edge. This comparison was made to provide a standard for evaluating the gains obtainable with ceramic coatings as compared to those obtainable by constructing the turbine blade in such a manner that water passages could be located very near the trailing edge.

  15. PARAMETERS OF WATER CIRCULATION NETWORK FOR A DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In a district heating and cooling system, i.e. Beijing combined heating cooling and power (CHCP) system studied here, high temperature water generated by two cogeneration plants circulates through a network between the plants and heat substations. At heat substations, supply water of high temperature from the network drives absorption chillers for air-conditioning in summer and meets space heating demands in winter or domestic hot water demands by heat exchangers in the whole year. The parameters, i.e. supply/return water temperature in the network, has a great impact on primary energy consumption (PEC) of the absorption chillers, circulation pumps and domestic hot water (DHW), which is studied in this paper.

  16. DUSEL Facility Cooling Water Scaling Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, W D

    2011-04-05

    Precipitation (crystal growth) in supersaturated solutions is governed by both kenetic and thermodynamic processes. This is an important and evolving field of research, especially for the petroleum industry. There are several types of precipitates including sulfate compounds (ie. barium sulfate) and calcium compounds (ie. calcium carbonate). The chemical makeup of the mine water has relatively large concentrations of sulfate as compared to calcium, so we may expect that sulfate type reactions. The kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4 {center_dot} 2H20, gypsum) scale formation on heat exchanger surfaces from aqueous solutions has been studied by a highly reproducible technique. It has been found that gypsum scale formation takes place directly on the surface of the heat exchanger without any bulk or spontaneous precipitation in the reaction cell. The kinetic data also indicate that the rate of scale formation is a function of surface area and the metallurgy of the heat exchanger. As we don't have detailed information about the heat exchanger, we can only infer that this will be an issue for us. Supersaturations of various compounds are affected differently by temperature, pressure and pH. Pressure has only a slight affect on the solubility, whereas temperature is a much more sensitive parameter (Figure 1). The affect of temperature is reversed for calcium carbonate and barium sulfate solubilities. As temperature increases, barium sulfate solubility concentrations increase and scaling decreases. For calcium carbonate, the scaling tendencies increase with increasing temperature. This is all relative, as the temperatures and pressures of the referenced experiments range from 122 to 356 F. Their pressures range from 200 to 4000 psi. Because the cooling water system isn't likely to see pressures above 200 psi, it's unclear if this pressure/scaling relationship will be significant or even apparent. The most common scale minerals found in the

  17. Practical aspects of the application of the pinch technology for the reduction of the energy and cooling water consumption in a fertilizer plant; Aspectos practicos de la aplicacion de la tecnologia pinch para la reduccion del consumo de energia y agua de enfriamiento de una planta de fertilizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picon Nunez, M. [Guanajuato (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The energy and cooling water system make-up water consumption of a fertilizer plant were reduced in 18% and in 16.4 Tons/hr respectively, representing a substantial saving in the operational costs. The application of the pinch analysis to the process revealed the potential saving of existing energy. The need of reducing the incoming raw materials temperature and the operating pressure of two evaporators was identified, for this purpose it was necessary to install three additional heat exchangers. [Espanol] Los consumos de energia y de agua de reposicion del sistema de enfriamiento de una planta de fertilizantes se redujeron en 18% y en 16.4 ton/hr respectivamente, representando un ahorro sustancial en los costos de operacion. La aplicacion del analisis Pinch al proceso revelo el potencial de ahorro de energia existente. Se identifico la necesidad de reducir la temperatura de alimentacion de la materia prima y la presion de operacion de dos evaporadores, para lo cual fue necesario implementar tres intercambiadores de calor adicionales.

  18. Water withdrawal and consumption reduction analysis for electrical energy generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Narjes

    There is an increasing concern over shrinking water resources. Water use in the energy sector primarily occurs in electricity generation. Anticipating scarcer supplies, the value of water is undoubtedly on the rise and design, implementation, and utilization of water saving mechanisms in energy generation systems are becoming inevitable. Most power plants generate power by boiling water to produce steam to spin electricity-generating turbines. Large quantities of water are often used to cool the steam in these plants. As a consequence, most fossil-based power plants in addition to consuming water, impact the water resources by raising the temperature of water withdrawn for cooling. A comprehensive study is conducted in this thesis to analyze and quantify water withdrawals and consumption of various electricity generation sources such as coal, natural gas, renewable sources, etc. Electricity generation for the state of California is studied and presented as California is facing a serious drought problem affecting more than 30 million people. Integrated planning for the interleaved energy and water sectors is essential for both water and energy savings. A linear model is developed to minimize the water consumption while considering several limitations and restrictions. California has planned to shut down some of its hydro and nuclear plants due to environmental concerns. Studies have been performed for various electricity generation and water saving scenarios including no-hydro and no-nuclear plant and the results are presented. Modifications to proposed different scenarios have been applied and discussed to meet the practical and reliability constraints.

  19. Range Cattle Winter Water Consumption in Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water consumption and DMI has been found to be positively correlated and may interact to alter range cow productivity. Environmental conditions can have a significant influence on water consumption during the winter. The objective of this study was to determine influences of water and air temperatur...

  20. Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling System Independent of External Water Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from the ...... to the desiccant dew-point system without water recovery, the required regeneration temperature increases and the system thermal efficiency decreases.......This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from...... the air that regenerates the desiccant dehumidifier, and using it for running the evaporative coolers in the system. A closed regeneration circuit is used for maximizing the amount of condensed water. This solution is applied to a system with a desiccant wheel dehumidifier and a dew point cooler, termed...

  1. Use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-16

    Freshwater demands are steadily increasing throughout the United States. As its population increases, more water is needed for domestic use (drinking, cooking, cleaning, etc.) and to supply power and food. In arid parts of the country, existing freshwater supplies are not able to meet the increasing demands for water. New water users are often forced to look to alternative sources of water to meet their needs. Over the past few years, utilities in many locations, including parts of the country not traditionally water-poor (e.g., Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina) have needed to reevaluate the availability of water to meet their cooling needs. This trend will only become more extreme with time. Other trends are likely to increase pressure on freshwater supplies, too. For example, as populations increase, they will require more food. This in turn will likely increase demands for water by the agricultural sector. Another example is the recent increased interest in producing biofuels. Additional water will be required to grow more crops to serve as the raw materials for biofuels and to process the raw materials into biofuels. This report provides information about an opportunity to reuse an abundant water source -- treated municipal wastewater, also known as 'reclaimed water' -- for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Innovations for Existing Plants research program (Feeley 2005). This program initiated an energy-water research effort in 2003 that includes the availability and use of 'nontraditional sources' of water for use at power plants. This report represents a unique reference for information on the use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling. In particular, the database of reclaimed water user facilities described in Chapter 2 is the first comprehensive national effort

  2. A data acquisition system for water heating and cooling experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea Martins, J. E. M.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a simple analogue waterproof temperature probe design and its electronic interfacing with a computer to compose a data acquisition system for water temperature measurement. It also demonstrates the system usage through an experiment to verify the water heating period with an electric heater and another to verify the Newton’s law of cooling

  3. [Immediate cooling with water: emergency treatment of burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J

    1990-01-01

    Experimental data have demonstrated that prolonged immediate cooling with cold water is the best first-aid treatment for burn injuries. However in France, this treatment is rarely applied; instead old, inefficient and aggravating methods are still very popular. Pediatricians must help to change this practice by recommending immediate cold water treatment for burns in children.

  4. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy... of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. (a) Scope. This... consumption, but instead calculate the energy use rate (kWh/100 lbs Ice) by dividing the energy consumed...

  5. Low temperature heating and high temperature cooling embedded water based surface heating and cooling systems

    CERN Document Server

    Babiak, Jan; Petras, Dusan

    2009-01-01

    This Guidebook describes the systems that use water as heat-carrier and when the heat exchange within the conditioned space is more than 50% radiant. Embedded systems insulated from the main building structure (floor, wall and ceiling) are used in all types of buildings and work with heat carriers at low temperatures for heating and relatively high temperature for cooling.

  6. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  7. 77 FR 16317 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  8. 77 FR 66909 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  9. 76 FR 66117 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION..., described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's...

  10. 77 FR 4859 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION..., described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's...

  11. 77 FR 59239 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  12. 76 FR 53526 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule...

  13. 76 FR 42159 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule...

  14. 77 FR 21143 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  15. Public Perception of Water Consumption and Its Effects on Water Conservation Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangxin Fan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The usual perception of consumers regarding water consumption is that their bills do not match their actual water consumption. However, this mismatch has been insufficiently studied; particularly for cases related to specific water-use patterns, water conservation practices, and user socio-demographics. In this study, a total of 776 households in 16 villages situated in the rural Wei River Basin are investigated to address the gap in the literature. Questionnaires and 3-day water diaries are used for data collection and comparison. Results show that significant relations exist between perceived water consumption and actual water consumption. Participants have different perceptions of specific water-use patterns. Participants tend to underestimate their outdoor and kitchen water consumption and overestimate their indoor water consumption. Females and elder consumers accurately estimate their water consumption, whereas consumers with high education levels and incomes underestimate their actual water consumption. The groups who can accurately estimate water consumption have better water conservation consciousness and water conservation practices than those who underestimate their water consumption. The huge disparities highlighted by the results suggest that community policies and programs to improve public water conservation consciousness or practices must be implemented to enhance consumer understanding of water consumption.

  16. Classification of excessive domestic water consumption using Fuzzy Clustering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zairi Zaidi, A.; Rasmani, Khairul A.

    2016-08-01

    Demand for clean and treated water is increasing all over the world. Therefore it is crucial to conserve water for better use and to avoid unnecessary, excessive consumption or wastage of this natural resource. Classification of excessive domestic water consumption is a difficult task due to the complexity in determining the amount of water usage per activity, especially as the data is known to vary between individuals. In this study, classification of excessive domestic water consumption is carried out using a well-known Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Consumer data containing information on daily, weekly and monthly domestic water usage was employed for the purpose of classification. Using the same dataset, the result produced by the FCM clustering algorithm is compared with the result obtained from a statistical control chart. The finding of this study demonstrates the potential use of the FCM clustering algorithm for the classification of domestic consumer water consumption data.

  17. Mathematical model and calculation of water-cooling efficiency in a film-filled cooling tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptev, A. G.; Lapteva, E. A.

    2016-10-01

    Different approaches to simulation of momentum, mass, and energy transfer in packed beds are considered. The mathematical model of heat and mass transfer in a wetted packed bed for turbulent gas flow and laminar wave counter flow of the fluid film in sprinkler units of a water-cooling tower is presented. The packed bed is represented as the set of equivalent channels with correction to twisting. The idea put forward by P. Kapitsa on representation of waves on the interphase film surface as elements of the surface roughness in interaction with the gas flow is used. The temperature and moisture content profiles are found from the solution of differential equations of heat and mass transfer written for the equivalent channel with the volume heat and mass source. The equations for calculation of the average coefficients of heat emission and mass exchange in regular and irregular beds with different contact elements, as well as the expression for calculation of the average turbulent exchange coefficient are presented. The given formulas determine these coefficients for the known hydraulic resistance of the packed bed element. The results of solution of the system of equations are presented, and the water temperature profiles are shown for different sprinkler units in industrial water-cooling towers. The comparison with experimental data on thermal efficiency of the cooling tower is made; this allows one to determine the temperature of the cooled water at the output. The technical solutions on increasing the cooling tower performance by equalization of the air velocity profile at the input and creation of an additional phase contact region using irregular elements "Inzhekhim" are considered.

  18. Consumptive water use to feed humanity – curing a blind spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falkenmark

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an "environmental flow" in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling. After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions – representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities – the paper exemplifies 1 changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2 consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water. The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.

  19. A water-cooling solution for PC-racks of the LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Vannerem, P

    2004-01-01

    With ever increasing power consumption and heat dissipation of todays CPUs, cooling of rack-mounted PCs is an issue for the future online farms of the LHC experiments. In order to investigate the viability of a water-cooling solution, a prototype PC-farm rack has been equipped with a commercially available retrofitted heat exchanger. The project has been carried out as a collaboration of the four LHC experiments and the PH-ESS group . This note reports on the results of a series of cooling and power measurements of the prototype rack with configurations of 30 to 48 PCs. The cooling performance of the rack-cooler is found to be adequate; it extracts the heat dissipated by the CPUs efficiently into the cooling water. Hence, the closed PC rack transfers almost no heat into the room. The measurements and the failure tests show that the rack-cooler concept is a viable solution for the future PC farms of the LHC experiments.

  20. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water

  1. Water-Cooled Components Testing Program. Water-cooled nozzle testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-05-01

    This experimental program involving full-sized gas turbine components was directed towards investigating the nature, composition, and formation rates of the ash deposited on these components by the combustion of hot, minimally cleaned coal gas (MCCG) under actual operating environments. Fired combustion testing was performed using the hot coal gas generated by the fixed-bed coal gasifier in the GE/CRD Process Evaluation Facility (PEF). The hot gas was routed from the gasifier at approx.1000/sup 0/F to a hot cyclone for particulate removal, following which the gas was burned in the turbine simulator, a pressurized test rig. The cyclone was found to have an average particulate removal efficiency of approximately 98%. The concentration of total alkali in the fuel gas entering the turbine simulator was 0.3 to 0.6 ppM, half of which was water-soluble; this corresponds to 1 to 2 ppM in a liquid petroleum-based fuel. The ash content of the fuel gas was 9 to 16 ppM, which would correspond to 51 to 91 ppM of ash in a residual fuel oil, i.e., much lower than that usually found in the latter fuel. Very little ash was found to deposit on the water-cooled nozzle airfoils. Ash deposits on the airfoils were primarily PbSO/sub 4/ and Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, which proved to be readily removed by water washing. While the MCCG combustion process was satisfactory, testing indicated that a potential area of concern in burning hot MCCG fuel is the formation of carbonaceous deposits in the fuel nozzle and piping. Variations in operating parameters and procedures may be effective in avoiding such deposits. Test data and analysis thus provided clearer insight into the additional work needed to enable a gas turbine to utilize hot (>1000/sup 0/F), minimally cleaned coal gas fuel. Five problems are described. 5 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  2. Increasing photovoltaic panel power through water cooling technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calebe Abrenhosa Matias

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a cooling apparatus using water in a commercial photovoltaic panel in order to analyze the increased efficiency through decreased operating temperature. The system enables the application of reuse water flow, at ambient temperature, on the front surface of PV panel and is composed of an inclined plane support, a perforated aluminum profile and a water gutter. A luminaire was specially developed to simulate the solar radiation over the module under test in a closed room, free from the influence of external climatic conditions, to carry out the repetition of the experiment in controlled situations. The panel was submitted to different rates of water flow. The best water flow rate was of 0.6 L/min and net energy of 77.41Wh. Gain of 22.69% compared to the panel without the cooling system.

  3. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. King

    2000-06-19

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  4. Complex cooling water systems optimization with pressure drop consideration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pressure drop consideration has shown to be an essential requirement for the synthesis of a cooling water network where reuse/recycle philosophy is employed. This is due to an increased network pressure drop associated with additional reuse...

  5. Computational Simulation of a Water-Cooled Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozarth, Duane

    2008-01-01

    A Fortran-language computer program for simulating the operation of a water-cooled vapor-compression heat pump in any orientation with respect to gravity has been developed by modifying a prior general-purpose heat-pump design code used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  6. Study of using microfiltration and reverse osmosis membrane technologies for reclaiming cooling water in the power industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Xu, Z Y; An, H G; Liu, L Q

    2007-07-01

    A study of using dual membrane technologies, microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO), for reclaiming blowdown of the cooling tower was conducted at ZJK power plant, Hebei province, China. The study shows that the combined MF-RO system can effectively reduce water consumption in the power industry. The results indicate that MF process is capable of producing a filtrate suitable for RO treatment and achieving a silt density index (SDI) less than 2, turbidity of 0.2 NTU. The water quality of RO effluent is very good with an average conductivity of about 40 micros/cm and rejection of 98%. The product water is suitable for injection into the cooling tower to counteract with cooling water intrusion. After adopting this system, water-saving effectiveness as expressed in terms of cycles of concentration could be increased from 2.5-2.8 times to 5 times.

  7. Laboratory study on the cooling effect of flash water evaporative cooling technology for ventilation and air-conditioning of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Yuan, Shu; Yang, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a simple cooling technology using flash water evaporation. The technology combines a water atomizer with a plate heat exchanger used for heat recovery of a ventilation system. It is mainly used to cool the ventilation airflow from outdoors and is particularly suitable to be used...... in warm/hot and dry environment where dehumidification of outdoor air is not needed. A laboratory experiment was designed and conducted to evaluate the cooling effectiveness of this technology. The experiment was conducted in a twin-climate chamber. One chamber simulated warm/hot and dry outdoor...... environments and the other simulated an air-conditioned indoor environment. The flash water evaporation cooling device was installed in the chamber that simulated indoor environment. The air from the chamber simulating outdoor environment was introduced into the cooling device and cooled by the flash water...

  8. DYNAMICS OF WATER CONSUMPTION CHANGES IN A TOURIST RESORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Bartkowska

    2014-10-01

    Over 2011–2012 water extraction to the municipal water supply network was studied. The volume of water extracted every day was analyzed and the gathered volumes were analyzed statistically. The varying water extraction was also studied. The obtained results were presented in a graphic form. Basing on the descriptive stats and prepared diagrams certain general conclusions were drawn and the collected study figures and facts were summed up. This allowed to determine days of the highest and lowest water consumption. Also months of extreme water extraction and consumption were determined. The water extraction ranged from 1641 m3/24h to 2607 m3/24h, at an average value of 2077.4 m3/24h. Over the period under study the day of the largest water extraction and consumption was in July and the day of the lowest water extraction and consumption in December. During a week inhabitants used the highest water amount on Saturdays and the lowest on Sundays and other feast-days. Basing on the conducted measurements also the coefficient of water consumption per capita was determined. The fluctuation of this coefficient was identical as that for the water consumption. Within the period of study it ranged from 73.3 l/M 24h to 116.5 l/M 24h. The average value of the specific water consumption was 92.8 l/M 24h. For the sake of discussion the obtained results were compared with observations across the country.

  9. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Corrie E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harto, Christopher B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schroeder, Jenna N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Martino, Louis E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Horner, Robert M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    describes the approach and methods for this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS binary plant, a 50-MW EGS binary plant, a 10-MW hydrothermal binary plant, and a 50-MW hydrothermal flash plant. The methods focus on (1) the collection of data to improve estimation of EGS stimulation volumes, aboveground operational consumption for all geothermal technologies, and belowground operational consumption for EGS; and (2) the mapping of the geothermal and water resources of the western United States to assist in the identification of potential water challenges to geothermal growth. Chapters 3 and 4 present the water requirements for the power plant life cycle. Chapter 3 presents the results of the current data collection effort, and Chapter 4 presents the normalized volume of fresh water consumed at each life cycle stage per lifetime energy output for the power plant scenarios evaluated. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, the majority of water is consumed by plant operations. For the EGS binary scenarios, where dry cooling was assumed, belowground operational water loss is the greatest contributor depending upon the physical and operational conditions of the reservoir. Total life cycle water consumption requirements for air-cooled EGS binary scenarios vary between 0.22 and 1.85 gal/kWh, depending upon the extent of belowground operational water consumption. The air-cooled hydrothermal binary and flash plants experience far less fresh water consumption over the life cycle, at 0.04 gal/kWh. Fresh water requirements associated with air- cooled binary operations are primarily from aboveground water needs, including dust control, maintenance, and domestic use. Although wet-cooled hydrothermal flash systems require water for cooling, these plants generally rely upon the geofluid, fluid from the geothermal reservoir, which typically has high salinity and total dissolved solids concentration

  10. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Corrie E. [Environmental Science Division; Harto, Christopher B. [Environmental Science Division; Schroeder, Jenna N. [Environmental Science Division; Martino, Louis E. [Environmental Science Division; Horner, Robert M. [Environmental Science Division

    2013-11-05

    describes the approach and methods for this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS binary plant, a 50-MW EGS binary plant, a 10-MW hydrothermal binary plant, and a 50-MW hydrothermal flash plant. The methods focus on (1) the collection of data to improve estimation of EGS stimulation volumes, aboveground operational consumption for all geothermal technologies, and belowground operational consumption for EGS; and (2) the mapping of the geothermal and water resources of the western United States to assist in the identification of potential water challenges to geothermal growth. Chapters 3 and 4 present the water requirements for the power plant life cycle. Chapter 3 presents the results of the current data collection effort, and Chapter 4 presents the normalized volume of fresh water consumed at each life cycle stage per lifetime energy output for the power plant scenarios evaluated. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, the majority of water is consumed by plant operations. For the EGS binary scenarios, where dry cooling was assumed, belowground operational water loss is the greatest contributor depending upon the physical and operational conditions of the reservoir. Total life cycle water consumption requirements for air-cooled EGS binary scenarios vary between 0.22 and 1.85 gal/kWh, depending upon the extent of belowground operational water consumption. The air-cooled hydrothermal binary and flash plants experience far less fresh water consumption over the life cycle, at 0.04 gal/kWh. Fresh water requirements associated with air- cooled binary operations are primarily from aboveground water needs, including dust control, maintenance, and domestic use. Although wet-cooled hydrothermal flash systems require water for cooling, these plants generally rely upon the geofluid, fluid from the geothermal reservoir, which typically has high salinity and total dissolved solids concentration

  11. 77 FR 59240 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission... INFORMATION: This notice lists the projects, described below, being rescinded for the consumptive use of...

  12. 77 FR 55893 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission... INFORMATION: This notice lists the projects, described below, being rescinded for the consumptive use of...

  13. Three Industries and water consumption of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Beijing has been experiencing a severe shortage ofwater. At present serious wastes of water resources result fromthe unreasonable structure of water uses in various industriessectors. The current conditions of the municipal water usestructure and its changes in the industrial sectors were analysedand discussed in terms of the indicators, such as direct water-usecoefficient, complete water-use coefficient, water-use multiplierand water-reuse rate, by taking a year of 1990s as the base year.Some response strategies for water conservation have been studiedand the corresponding recommendations were put forward. All ofthese have provided a basis for coordinating the relationshipbetween aquatic environment and economic growth in this city,establishing a system for rational utilization of water resources,and promoting the implementation of a strategy for sustainable development.

  14. Corrosion induced clogging and plugging in water-cooled generator cooling circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, B.G.; Hwang, I.S. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, I.H. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Soonchunhyang Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.T.; Chung, H.S. [Korea Electric Power Research Inst. (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Water-cooled electrical generators have been experienced corrosion-related problems that are restriction of flow through water strainers caused by collection of excessive amounts of copper corrosion products (''clogging''), and restriction of flow through the copper strands in the stator bars caused by growth or deposition of corrosion products on the walls of the hollow strands (''plugging''). These phenomena result in unscheduled shutdowns that would be a major concern because of the associated loss in generating capacity. Water-cooled generators are operated in one of two modes. They are cooled either with aerated water (dissolved oxygen >2 ppm) or with deaerated water (dissolved oxygen <50 ppb). Both modes maintain corrosion rates at satisfactorily low levels as long as the correct oxygen concentrations are maintained. However, it is generally believed that very much higher copper corrosion rates result at the intermediate oxygen concentrations of 100-1000 ppb. Clogging and plugging are thought to be associated with these intermediate concentrations, and many operators have suggested that the period of change from high-to-low or from low-to-high oxygen concentration is particularly damaging. In order to understand the detailed mechanism(s) of the copper oxide formation, release and deposition and to identify susceptible conditions in the domain of operating variables, a large-scale experiments are conducted using six hollow strands of full length connected with physico-chemically scaled generator cooling water circuit. To ensure a close simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions in a generator stator, strands of the loop will be ohmically heated using AC power supply. Experiments is conducted to cover oxygen excursions in both high dissolved oxygen and low dissolved oxygen conditions that correspond to two representative operating condition at fields. A thermal upset condition is also simulated to examine the impact of

  15. Developing a tool to estimate water withdrawal and consumption in electricity generation in the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Peng, J. (Energy Systems); ( NE)

    2011-02-24

    Freshwater consumption for electricity generation is projected to increase dramatically in the next couple of decades in the United States. The increased demand is likely to further strain freshwater resources in regions where water has already become scarce. Meanwhile, the automotive industry has stepped up its research, development, and deployment efforts on electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Large-scale, escalated production of EVs and PHEVs nationwide would require increased electricity production, and so meeting the water demand becomes an even greater challenge. The goal of this study is to provide a baseline assessment of freshwater use in electricity generation in the United States and at the state level. Freshwater withdrawal and consumption requirements for power generated from fossil, nonfossil, and renewable sources via various technologies and by use of different cooling systems are examined. A data inventory has been developed that compiles data from government statistics, reports, and literature issued by major research institutes. A spreadsheet-based model has been developed to conduct the estimates by means of a transparent and interactive process. The model further allows us to project future water withdrawal and consumption in electricity production under the forecasted increases in demand. This tool is intended to provide decision makers with the means to make a quick comparison among various fuel, technology, and cooling system options. The model output can be used to address water resource sustainability when considering new projects or expansion of existing plants.

  16. Conceptual design of a water cooled breeder blanket for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Songlin, E-mail: slliu@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Pu, Yong; Cheng, Xiaoman [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Jia; Peng, ChangHong [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Ma, Xuebing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Chen, Lei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We proposed a water cooled ceramic breeder blanket with superheated steam. • Superheated steam is generated at the first wall and the front part of breeder zone. • Superheated steam has negligible impact on neutron absorption by coolant in FW and improves TBR. • The superheated steam at higher temperature can improve thermal efficiency. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is an ITER-like superconducting tokamak reactor. Its major radius is 5.7 m, minor radius is 1.6 m and elongation ratio is 1.8. Its mission is to achieve 50–200 MW of fusion power, 30–50% of duty time factor, and tritium breeding ratio not less than 1.2 to ensure the self-sufficiency. As one of the breeding blanket candidates for CFETR, a water cooled breeder blanket with superheated steam is proposed and its conceptual design is being carried out. In this design, sub-cooling water at 265 °C under the pressure of 7 MPa is fed into cooling plates in breeding zone and is heated up to 285 °C with saturated steam generated, and then this steam is pre-superheated up to 310 °C in first wall (FW), final, the pre-superheated steam coming from several blankets is fed into the other one blanket to superheat again up to 517 °C. Due to low density of superheated steam, it has negligible impact on neutron absorption by coolant in FW so that the high energy neutrons entering into breeder zone moderated by water in cooling plate help enhance tritium breeding by {sup 6}Li(n,α)T reaction. Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles and Be{sub 12}Ti pebbles are chosen as tritium breeder and neutron multiplier respectively, because Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Be{sub 12}Ti are expected to have better chemical stability and compatibility with water in high temperature. However, Be{sub 12}Ti may lead to a reduction in tritium breeding ratio (TBR). Furthermore, a spot of sintered Be plate is used to improve neutron multiplying capacity in a multi-layer structure. As one alternative option

  17. Advances in alkaline cooling water treatment technology: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaffer, A.E. Jr.; Klatskin, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    A series of chromate and non-chromate treatment programs, specifically designed for alkaline pH cooling waters, have been developed. The treatments provide excellent corrosion and scale control over a broad range of water chemistries and are applicable to high conductivity and iron contaminated waters. Low levels of zinc are used to reduce the dependency on alkalinity, chromate and calcium carbonate supersaturation for corrosion control. The precipitation and fouling problems previously encountered with zinc containing treatments have been eliminated by the use of polymeric dispersants.

  18. Mapping water consumption for energy production around the Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent; Moreland, Barbie

    2016-09-01

    World energy demand is projected to increase by more than a third by 2035 and with it the use of water to extract and process fuels and generate electricity. Management of this energy-water nexus requires a clear understanding of the inter-related demands of these resources as well as their regional distribution. Toward this need the fresh water consumed for energy production was mapped for almost 12 000 watersheds distributed across the 21-economies comprising the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Fresh water consumption was estimated for ten different sectors including thermoelectric and hydroelectric power; energy extraction including coal, oil, natural gas, uranium and unconventional oil/gas; energy processing including oil and biofuels; and biofuel feedstock irrigation. These measures of water consumption were put in context by drawing comparison with published measures of water risk. In total 791 watersheds (32%) of the 2511 watersheds where energy related water consumption occurred were also characterized by high to extreme water risk, these watersheds were designated as being at energy-water risk. For six economies watersheds at energy-water risk represented half or more of all basins where energy related water consumption occurred, while four additional economies exceeded 30%.

  19. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  20. Effect of electricity tariffs and cooling technologies on dairy farm electricity consumption, related costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.; Shalloo, L.; Murphy, M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide insight into the variations in dairy farm electricity costs across five electricity tariffs. The effect of four milk cooling scenarios is also simulated to illustrate the effect of technologies on the electricity consumption, related costs and CO2 emissions of a

  1. Effect of electricity tariffs and cooling technologies on dairy farm electricity consumption, related costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.; Shalloo, L.; Murphy, M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide insight into the variations in dairy farm electricity costs across five electricity tariffs. The effect of four milk cooling scenarios is also simulated to illustrate the effect of technologies on the electricity consumption, related costs and CO2 emissions of a

  2. Water footprints of cities - indicators for sustainable consumption and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, H.; Döll, P.; Fader, M.; Gerten, D.; Hauser, S.; Siebert, S.

    2014-01-01

    Water footprints have been proposed as sustainability indicators, relating the consumption of goods like food to the amount of water necessary for their production and the impacts of that water use in the source regions. We further developed the existing water footprint methodology, by globally resolving virtual water flows from production to consumption regions for major food crops at 5 arcmin spatial resolution. We distinguished domestic and international flows, and assessed local impacts of export production. Applying this method to three exemplary cities, Berlin, Delhi and Lagos, we find major differences in amounts, composition, and origin of green and blue virtual water imports, due to differences in diets, trade integration and crop water productivities in the source regions. While almost all of Delhi's and Lagos' virtual water imports are of domestic origin, Berlin on average imports from more than 4000 km distance, in particular soy (livestock feed), coffee and cocoa. While 42% of Delhi's virtual water imports are blue water based, the fractions for Berlin and Lagos are 2 and 0.5%, respectively, roughly equal to the water volumes abstracted in these two cities for domestic water use. Some of the external source regions of Berlin's virtual water imports appear to be critically water scarce and/or food insecure. However, for deriving recommendations on sustainable consumption and trade, further analysis of context-specific costs and benefits associated with export production will be required.

  3. Public Perception of Water Consumption and Its Effects on Water Conservation Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.X.; Wang, F.; Liu, G.B.; Yang, X.; Qin, W.

    2014-01-01

    The usual perception of consumers regarding water consumption is that their bills do not match their actual water consumption. However, this mismatch has been insufficiently studied; particularly for cases related to specific water-use patterns, water conservation practices, and user

  4. Public Perception of Water Consumption and Its Effects on Water Conservation Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.X.; Wang, F.; Liu, G.B.; Yang, X.; Qin, W.

    2014-01-01

    The usual perception of consumers regarding water consumption is that their bills do not match their actual water consumption. However, this mismatch has been insufficiently studied; particularly for cases related to specific water-use patterns, water conservation practices, and user socio-demograph

  5. Public Perception of Water Consumption and Its Effects on Water Conservation Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.X.; Wang, F.; Liu, G.B.; Yang, X.; Qin, W.

    2014-01-01

    The usual perception of consumers regarding water consumption is that their bills do not match their actual water consumption. However, this mismatch has been insufficiently studied; particularly for cases related to specific water-use patterns, water conservation practices, and user socio-demograph

  6. USE of mine pool water for power plant cooling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Kupar, J. M .; Puder, M. G.

    2006-11-27

    Water and energy production issues intersect in numerous ways. Water is produced along with oil and gas, water runs off of or accumulates in coal mines, and water is needed to operate steam electric power plants and hydropower generating facilities. However, water and energy are often not in the proper balance. For example, even if water is available in sufficient quantities, it may not have the physical and chemical characteristics suitable for energy or other uses. This report provides preliminary information about an opportunity to reuse an overabundant water source--ground water accumulated in underground coal mines--for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which has implemented a water/energy research program (Feeley and Ramezan 2003). Among the topics studied under that program is the availability and use of ''non-traditional sources'' of water for use at power plants. This report supports NETL's water/energy research program.

  7. Effect of cooling water on stability of NLC linac components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Le Pimpec et al.

    2003-02-11

    Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.

  8. Water Consumption in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  9. Water consumption in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  10. [Water for human consumption and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, G M; D'Alessandro, D

    2003-01-01

    Providing enough water of good quality to all human communities is a difficult task, which has been satisfied only recently and only for the developed world. A large part of the developing world still suffers from scarcity and/or bad quality of water supply. Examples from the past are described, including the cholera epidemics of London 1848-1853 and the chromium pollution of the Milan area, 1958. A synthetic description of the different kinds of biological and chemical pollution are also described, then the complex mechanisms of biological and chemical pollution of the waters are illustrated, which require complicated interventions for reclamation after pollution or, better, even more complicated surveillance to avoid pollution. Finally the problem of safeguard of waters during the distribution is illustrated, when a bad maintenance of the aqueducts can inactivate all the precautions taken during the supply an the treatment of waters.

  11. Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Michael; Anderson, Mark; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2013-01-16

    This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF SINGLE-PHASED WATER-COOLING RADIATOR FOR COMPUTER CHIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Ping; CHENG Guangming; LIU Jiulong; YANG Zhigang; SUN Xiaofeng; PENG Taijiang

    2007-01-01

    In order to cool computer chip efficiently with the least noise, a single phase water-cooling radiator for computer chip driven by piezoelectric pump with two parallel-connection chambers is developed. The structure and work principle of this radiator is described. Material, processing method and design principles of whole radiator are also explained. Finite element analysis (FEA) software,ANSYS, is used to simulate the heat distribution in the radiator. Testing equipments for water-cooling radiator are also listed. By experimental tests, influences of flowrate inside the cooling system and fan on chip cooling are explicated. This water-cooling radiator is proved more efficient than current air-cooling radiator with comparison experiments. During cooling the heater which simulates the working of computer chip with different power, the water-cooling radiator needs shorter time to reach lower steady temperatures than current air-cooling radiator.

  13. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water

  14. Investigation of the Use of Absorption Cooling Cycles to Reduce the Amount of Cooling Water Needed for Power Plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, Bobby D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report outlines a preliminary study on the feasibility of using absorption cooling technology to cool thermoelectric power plants. Water availability is becoming more important in the production of energy throughout the world, especially in thermoelectric power generation. Currently, thermoelectric power generation accounts for about 48% of all water withdrawals in the United States. Rising population, increasing e lectricity use per capita, and decreasing water reserves threaten the availability of water for use in cooling power plants. To this end, Sandia National Laboratories has begun an initiative to find ways to increase the water use efficiency of power plants . In 2016, the New Mexico Small Business Association funded a project whereby Sandia would complete a preliminary assessment of the viability of utilizing absorption cooling technologies to aid in cooling thermoelectric power plants, thereby decreasing the amount of water required to generate electricity. This project was proposed by Thales Energy, a small business located in Albuquerque, NM. Due to time and money constraints, only a preliminary analysis was performed. The results indicate that the use of a bsorption cooling technologies is scientifically feasible and that, with more engineering analysis, may be economically feasible for some power plants, dependent upon local environmental conditions and the price currently being paid for cooling water by th e plant.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging cooling-reheating protocol indicates decreased fat fraction via lipid consumption in suspected brown adipose tissue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lundström, Elin; Strand, Robin; Johansson, Lars; Bergsten, Peter; Ahlström, Håkan; Kullberg, Joel

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether a water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cooling-reheating protocol could be used to detect changes in lipid content and perfusion in the main human brown adipose tissue (BAT...

  16. 77 FR 36014 - Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear...-1277, ``Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling- Water Reactors.'' This... testing features of emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) for boiling-water reactors (BWRs). DATES...

  17. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG), 1.68, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants... Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer...

  18. Optimization of Energy Saving for Petrochemistry Enterprise Recirculating Cooling Water System%石化企业循环冷却水系统节能优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴罗刚; 周勇

    2012-01-01

    对目前石化企业循环冷却水系统存在的问题,提出强化传热和循环冷却水的串级利用的方法,加强生产和水质管理,以降低循环冷却水系统能耗。%Based on the problem of the petrochemistry enterprise recirculating cooling water system, propose the method of heat transfer enhancement and recirculated cooling water cascade utilization, strengthen management, so as to reduce the recirculating cooling water system energy consumption.

  19. Experimental validation of the simulation module of the water-cooled variable refrigerant flow system under cooling operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yue Ming; Wu, Jing Yi [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Shiochi, Sumio [Daikin Industries, Ltd., 1304 Kanaoka-cho, Kita-ku, Sakai, Osaka 591-8511 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    On the basis of EnergyPlus's codes, the catalogue and performance parameters from some related companies, a special simulation module for variable refrigerant flow system with a water-cooled condenser (water-cooled VRF) was developed and embedded in the software of EnergyPlus, the building energy simulation program. To evaluate the energy performance of the system and the accuracy of the simulation module, the measurement of the water-cooled VRF is built in Dalian, China. After simulation and comparison, some conclusions can be drawn. The mean of the absolute value of the daily error in the 9 days is 11.3% for cooling capacity while the one for compressor power is 15.7%. At the same time, the accuracy of the power simulation strongly depends on the accuracy of the cooling capacity simulation. (author)

  20. Water Consumption Estimates of the Biodiesel Process in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, biodiesel has been widely used in the US and around the world. Along with the rapid development of the biodiesel industry, its potential impact on water resources should also be evaluated. This study investigates water consumption f...

  1. 77 FR 55891 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  2. 77 FR 34455 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  3. 77 FR 55892 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  4. 77 FR 25010 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  5. ALEXI analysis of water consumption in the Nile Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing can be used to generate diagnostic estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) that provide information regarding consumptive water use across landscapes. These satellite-based assessments can be a valuable complement to prognostic simulations of basin-scale water budgets, providing an inde...

  6. Water Consumption Estimates of the Biodiesel Process in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, biodiesel has been widely used in the US and around the world. Along with the rapid development of the biodiesel industry, its potential impact on water resources should also be evaluated. This study investigates water consumption f...

  7. Consumptive Water Use and Crop Coefficients of Irrigated Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    In semi-arid environments, the use of irrigation is necessary for sunflower production to reach its maximum potential. The aim of this study was to quantify the consumptive water use and crop coefficients of irrigated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) without soil water limitations during two growing...

  8. Drinking water consumption patterns in Canadian communities (2001-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, S M; Jones, A Q; Majowicz, S E; McEwen, S A; Pintar, K D M

    2012-03-01

    A pooled analysis of seven cross-sectional studies from Newfoundland and Labrador, Waterloo and Hamilton Regions, Ontario and Vancouver, East Kootenay and Northern Interior Regions, British Columbia (2001 to 2007) was performed to investigate the drinking water consumption patterns of Canadians and to identify factors associated with the volume of tap water consumed. The mean volume of tap water consumed was 1.2 L/day, with a large range (0.03 to 9.0 L/day). In-home water treatment and interactions between age and gender and age and bottled water use were significantly associated with the volume of tap water consumed in multivariable analyses. Approximately 25% (2,221/8,916) of participants were classified as bottled water users, meaning that 75% or more of their total daily drinking water intake was bottled. Approximately 48.6% (4,307/8,799) of participants used an in-home treatment method to treat their tap water for drinking purposes. This study provides a broader geographic perspective and more current estimates of Canadian water consumption patterns than previous studies. The identified factors associated with daily water consumption could be beneficial for risk assessors to identify individuals who may be at greater risk of waterborne illness.

  9. The potential for reducing urban air temperatures and energy consumption through vegetative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurn, D.M.; Bretz, S.E.; Huang, B.; Akbari, H.

    1994-05-01

    A network of 23 weather stations was used to detect existing oases in Southern California. Four stations, separated from one another by 15--25 miles (24--40 km), were closely examined. Data were strongly affected by the distance of the stations from the Pacific Ocean. This and other city-scale effects made the network inadequate for detection of urban oases. We also conducted traverse measurements of temperature and humidity in the Whittier Narrows Recreation Area in Los Angeles County on September 8--10, 1993. Near-surface air temperatures over vegetated areas were 1--2{degrees}C lower than background air temperatures. We estimate that vegetation may lower urban temperatures by 1{degrees}C, while the establishment of vegetative canopies may lower local temperatures by an additional 2{degrees}C. An increase in vegetation in residential neighborhoods may reduce peak loads in the Los Angeles area by 0.3 GW, and reduce energy consumption by 0.2 BkWh/year, saving $20 million annually. Large additional savings would result from regional cooling.

  10. Water, Air Emissions, and Cost Impacts of Air-Cooled Microturbines for Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power Systems: A Case Study in the Atlanta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Ann James

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing pace of urbanization means that cities and global organizations are looking for ways to increase energy efficiency and reduce emissions. Combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP systems have the potential to improve the energy generation efficiency of a city or urban region by providing energy for heating, cooling, and electricity simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to estimate the water consumption for energy generation use, carbon dioxide (CO2 and NOx emissions, and economic impact of implementing CCHP systems for five generic building types within the Atlanta metropolitan region, under various operational scenarios following the building thermal (heating and cooling demands. Operating the CCHP system to follow the hourly thermal demand reduces CO2 emissions for most building types both with and without net metering. The system can be economically beneficial for all building types depending on the price of natural gas, the implementation of net metering, and the cost structure assumed for the CCHP system. The greatest reduction in water consumption for energy production and NOx emissions occurs when there is net metering and when the system is operated to meet the maximum yearly thermal demand, although this scenario also results in an increase in greenhouse gas emissions and, in some cases, cost. CCHP systems are more economical for medium office, large office, and multifamily residential buildings.

  11. Optimal Self-Tuning PID Controller Based on Low Power Consumption for a Server Fan Cooling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chengming; Chen, Rongshun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, saving the cooling power in servers by controlling the fan speed has attracted considerable attention because of the increasing demand for high-density servers. This paper presents an optimal self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, combining a PID neural network (PIDNN) with fan-power-based optimization in the transient-state temperature response in the time domain, for a server fan cooling system. Because the thermal model of the cooling system is nonlinear and complex, a server mockup system simulating a 1U rack server was constructed and a fan power model was created using a third-order nonlinear curve fit to determine the cooling power consumption by the fan speed control. PIDNN with a time domain criterion is used to tune all online and optimized PID gains. The proposed controller was validated through experiments of step response when the server operated from the low to high power state. The results show that up to 14% of a server’s fan cooling power can be saved if the fan control permits a slight temperature response overshoot in the electronic components, which may provide a time-saving strategy for tuning the PID controller to control the server fan speed during low fan power consumption. PMID:26007725

  12. Optimal Self-Tuning PID Controller Based on Low Power Consumption for a Server Fan Cooling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chengming; Chen, Rongshun

    2015-05-20

    Recently, saving the cooling power in servers by controlling the fan speed has attracted considerable attention because of the increasing demand for high-density servers. This paper presents an optimal self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, combining a PID neural network (PIDNN) with fan-power-based optimization in the transient-state temperature response in the time domain, for a server fan cooling system. Because the thermal model of the cooling system is nonlinear and complex, a server mockup system simulating a 1U rack server was constructed and a fan power model was created using a third-order nonlinear curve fit to determine the cooling power consumption by the fan speed control. PIDNN with a time domain criterion is used to tune all online and optimized PID gains. The proposed controller was validated through experiments of step response when the server operated from the low to high power state. The results show that up to 14% of a server's fan cooling power can be saved if the fan control permits a slight temperature response overshoot in the electronic components, which may provide a time-saving strategy for tuning the PID controller to control the server fan speed during low fan power consumption.

  13. Optimal Self-Tuning PID Controller Based on Low Power Consumption for a Server Fan Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, saving the cooling power in servers by controlling the fan speed has attracted considerable attention because of the increasing demand for high-density servers. This paper presents an optimal self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller, combining a PID neural network (PIDNN with fan-power-based optimization in the transient-state temperature response in the time domain, for a server fan cooling system. Because the thermal model of the cooling system is nonlinear and complex, a server mockup system simulating a 1U rack server was constructed and a fan power model was created using a third-order nonlinear curve fit to determine the cooling power consumption by the fan speed control. PIDNN with a time domain criterion is used to tune all online and optimized PID gains. The proposed controller was validated through experiments of step response when the server operated from the low to high power state. The results show that up to 14% of a server’s fan cooling power can be saved if the fan control permits a slight temperature response overshoot in the electronic components, which may provide a time-saving strategy for tuning the PID controller to control the server fan speed during low fan power consumption.

  14. Chemical treatment of slime in industrial cooling water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Noriyuki

    1987-07-01

    Chemical suppression test was made for slime produced in pipes of the industrial water cooling systems. The 3 month chemical slime treatment test in 1984 proved to be effective, and the test has been carried out since July, 1985. The objective was to suppress the generation of slime by decreasing the number of general bacteria by slime treatment agent (fungicide of chloride group). The number of bacteria in the supplied water was compared for the time and day of the week when samples were collected. It was found that there was no regular rule in the variation of the number of bacteria, with measured result of 30-10/sup 6/ variation range. From the variation in the number of bacteria and the sticking conditions of slime on the test board, it became clear that suppression was possible by drastically decreasing the bacteria number in cooling water in the early stage of chemical supply, followed by resupply of treatment agent in a week when the bacteria would be restored to its original amount by supplied water. However, the method is to suppress the slime generation, and is unable to stop the generation completely. (9 figs, 3 tabs)

  15. Consumptive water footprint and virtual water trade scenarios for China - with a focus on crop production, consumption and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuo, L.; Mekonnen, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The study assesses green and blue water footprints (WFs) and virtual water (VW) trade in China under alternative scenarios for 2030 and 2050, with a focus on crop production, consumption and trade. We consider five driving factors of change: climate, harvested crop area, technology, diet, and popula

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging cooling-reheating protocol indicates decreased fat fraction via lipid consumption in suspected brown adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Lundström

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether a water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI cooling-reheating protocol could be used to detect changes in lipid content and perfusion in the main human brown adipose tissue (BAT depot after a three-hour long mild cold exposure.Nine volunteers were investigated with chemical-shift-encoded water-fat MRI at baseline, after a three-hour long cold exposure and after subsequent short reheating. Changes in fat fraction (FF and R2*, related to ambient temperature, were quantified within cervical-supraclavicular adipose tissue (considered as suspected BAT, denoted sBAT after semi-automatic segmentation. In addition, FF and R2* were quantified fully automatically in subcutaneous adipose tissue (not considered as suspected BAT, denoted SAT for comparison. By assuming different time scales for the regulation of lipid turnover and perfusion in BAT, the changes were determined as resulting from either altered absolute fat content (lipid-related or altered absolute water content (perfusion-related.sBAT-FF decreased after cold exposure (mean change in percentage points = -1.94 pp, P = 0.021 whereas no change was observed in SAT-FF (mean = 0.23 pp, P = 0.314. sBAT-R2* tended to increase (mean = 0.65 s-1, P = 0.051 and SAT-R2* increased (mean = 0.40 s-1, P = 0.038 after cold exposure. sBAT-FF remained decreased after reheating (mean = -1.92 pp, P = 0.008, compared to baseline whereas SAT-FF decreased (mean = -0.79 pp, P = 0.008, compared to after cold exposure.The sustained low sBAT-FF after reheating suggests lipid consumption, rather than altered perfusion, as the main cause to the decreased sBAT-FF. The results obtained demonstrate the use of the cooling-reheating protocol for detecting changes in the cervical-supraclavicular fat depot, being the main human brown adipose tissue depot, in terms of lipid content and perfusion.

  17. Modeling Stochastic Energy and Water Consumption to Manage Residential Water Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, A. M.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Water; Energy Conservation

    2011-12-01

    Water energy linkages have received growing attention from the water and energy utilities as utilities recognize that collaborative efforts can implement more effective conservation and efficiency improvement programs at lower cost with less effort. To date, limited energy-water household data has allowed only deterministic analysis for average, representative households and required coarse assumptions - like the water heater (the primary energy use in a home apart from heating and cooling) be a single end use. Here, we use recent available disaggregated hot and cold water household end-use data to estimate water and energy consumption for toilet, shower, faucet, dishwasher, laundry machine, leaks, and other household uses and savings from appliance retrofits. The disaggregated hot water and bulk water end-use data was previously collected by the USEPA for 96 single family households in Seattle WA and Oakland CA, and Tampa FL between the period from 2000 and 2003 for two weeks before and four weeks after each household was retrofitted with water efficient appliances. Using the disaggregated data, we developed a stochastic model that represents factors that influence water use for each appliance: behavioral (use frequency and duration), demographical (household size), and technological (use volume or flowrate). We also include stochastic factors that govern energy to heat hot water: hot water fraction (percentage of hot water volume to total water volume used in a certain end-use event), heater water intake and dispense temperatures, and energy source for the heater (gas, electric, etc). From the empirical household end-use data, we derive stochastic probability distributions for each water and energy factor where each distribution represents the range and likelihood of values that the factor may take. The uncertainty of the stochastic water and energy factors is propagated using Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the composite probability distribution for water

  18. Technical Schemes and Characteristics of Water-cooling Milk Tanks%水冷式奶罐的技术方案及其特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雅颂; 陈东; 谢继红; 李国盛

    2015-01-01

    Direct cooling milk tanks need high power and energy consumption, so four technical schemes of water-cooling milk tanks are put forward: water-cooling milk tank using groundwater, water-cooling milk tank using outdoor air, water-cooling milk tank with ice storage and water-cooling milk tank producing hot water. Working principle and characteristics of four technical schemes are introduced and compared based on 10 tons of milk tanks. It shows that compared with direct cooling milk tanks, equipment cost and electricity consumption of water-cooling milk tanks using groundwater is about half of that, water-cooling milk tanks using outdoor air can decrease electricity consumption cost more than 30%, electricity consumption cost of water-cooling milk tanks with ice storage can decrease more than 50%, water-cooling milk tanks preparing hot water can get 1~3 tons hot water of 40~80℃ to meet needs of cleaning milking equipment and milk tanks.%针对直冷式奶罐功率配置较高、能耗较大等不足,给出了4种水冷式奶罐技术方案:采用地下水冷源的水冷式奶罐、采用室外空气冷源的水冷式奶罐、采用冰蓄冷的水冷式奶罐和同时制取热水的水冷式奶罐。对4种技术方案的工作流程和特点进行了介绍,并以10吨奶罐为例,对4种水冷式奶罐和直冷式奶罐进行了计算比较。结果表明:与直冷式奶罐相比,采用地下水冷源的水冷式奶罐设备费用和电耗费用均降低约50%;采用室外空气冷源的水冷式奶罐电耗费用可降低30%以上;采用冰蓄冷的水冷式奶罐耗电费用降低约50%;同时制取热水的水冷式奶罐可免费获得1~3吨40~80℃的热水,可满足挤奶装置和奶罐的清洗需要。

  19. National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Mekonnen; A. Y. Hoekstra

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprints of nations from both a production and consumption perspective and estimates international virtual water flows and national and global water savings as a result of trade. The entire estimate includes a breakdown of water footprints, virtual water flows and water savings into their green, blue and grey components.

  20. Water footprints of cities - indicators for sustainable consumption and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, H.; Döll, P.; Fader, M.; Gerten, D.; Hauser, S.; Siebert, S.

    2013-02-01

    Water footprints have been proposed as sustainability indicators, relating the consumption of goods like food to the amount of water necessary for their production and the impacts of that water use in the source regions. We have further developed the existing water footprint methodology by globally resolving virtual water flows and import and source regions at 5 arc minutes spatial resolution, and by assessing local impacts of export production. Applying this method to three exemplary cities, Berlin, Delhi and Lagos, we find major differences in amounts, composition, and origin of green and blue virtual water imports, due to differences in diets, trade integration and crop water productivities in the source regions. While almost all of Delhi's and Lagos' virtual water imports are of domestic origin, Berlin on average imports from more than 4000 km distance, in particular soy (livestock feed), coffee and cocoa. While 42% of Delhi's virtual water imports are blue water based, the fractions for Berlin and Lagos are 2% and 0.5%, respectively, roughly equal to local drinking water abstractions of these cities. Some of the external source regions of Berlin's virtual water imports appear to be critically water scarce and/or food insecure. However for deriving recommendations on sustainable consumption and trade, further analysis of context-specific costs and benefits associated with export production will be required.

  1. Cooling cows efficiently with sprinklers: Physiological responses to water spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennifer M; Schütz, Karin E; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2015-10-01

    Dairies in the United States commonly cool cattle with sprinklers mounted over the feed bunk that intermittently spray the cows' backs. These systems use potable water-an increasingly scarce resource--but there is little experimental evidence about how much is needed to cool cows or about droplet size, which is thought to affect hair coat penetration. Our objectives were to determine how sprinkler flow rate and droplet size affect physiological measures of heat load in a hot, dry climate, and to evaluate cooling effectiveness against water use. The treatments were an unsprayed control and 6 soaker nozzles that delivered four 3-min spray applications of 0.4, 1.3, or ≥ 4.5 L/min (with 2 droplet sizes within each flow rate) and resulting in 30 to 47% of spray directly wetting each cow. Data were collected from high-producing lactating Holsteins (n = 19) tested individually in ambient conditions (air temperature = 31.2 ± 3.8°C, mean ± standard deviation). Cows were restrained in headlocks for 1h and received 1 treatment/d for 3d each, with order of exposure balanced in a crossover design. When cows were not sprayed, physiological measures of heat load increased during the 1-h treatment. All measures responded rapidly to spray: skin temperature decreased during the first water application, and respiration rate and body temperature did so before the second. Droplet size had no effect on cooling, but flow rate affected several measures. At the end of 1h, 0.4 L/min resulted in lower respiration rate and skin temperature on directly sprayed body parts relative to the control but not baseline values, and body temperature increased to 0.2°C above baseline. When 1.3 or ≥ 4.5 L/min was applied, respiration rate was lower than the control and decreased relative to baseline, and body temperature stayed below baseline for at least 30 min after treatment ended. The treatment that best balanced cooling effectiveness against water usage was 1.3 L/min: although ≥ 4.5 L

  2. Short-term water consumption dynamics in El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; ElíAs, Arturo

    2004-08-01

    Time series analysis of water consumption patterns has been the subject of increasing attention in recent years. For many municipalities such efforts offer a means for developing potentially useful planning tools. Because data requirements are not extensive, model development is feasible for markets where information is limited. The work at hand examines the applicability of such a tool in El Paso, Texas, a growing metropolitan economy located in a semiarid region. Sample data are from January 1994 through December 2002. In addition to estimating a linear transfer function equation of water consumption in this city the model is subjected to a series of simulation benchmark tests.

  3. Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Binay Kumar; Dey, Samarjit; Biswas, Saumya; Mohan, Varinder Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF) neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] - 9/10) with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. Bilateral water cooled = RF was applied for neuroablation of nerves supplying both SI joints. Postprocedure pain intensity was 5/10 and after 7 days it was 2/10. On 18(th)-month follow-up, he is pain free except for mild pain (NRS 2/10) on occasional extreme twisting of the back. This case attempts to highlight that sacral neuroablation based on cooled RF technique can be a long lasting remedial option for chronic SI joint pain unresponsive to conventional treatment.

  4. Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binay Kumar Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sacroiliac (SI joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] - 9/10 with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. Bilateral water cooled = RF was applied for neuroablation of nerves supplying both SI joints. Postprocedure pain intensity was 5/10 and after 7 days it was 2/10. On 18th-month follow-up, he is pain free except for mild pain (NRS 2/10 on occasional extreme twisting of the back. This case attempts to highlight that sacral neuroablation based on cooled RF technique can be a long lasting remedial option for chronic SI joint pain unresponsive to conventional treatment.

  5. Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Binay Kumar; Dey, Samarjit; Biswas, Saumya; Mohan, Varinder Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF) neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] – 9/10) with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. Bilateral water cooled = RF was applied for neuroablation of nerves supplying both SI joints. Postprocedure pain intensity was 5/10 and after 7 days it was 2/10. On 18th-month follow-up, he is pain free except for mild pain (NRS 2/10) on occasional extreme twisting of the back. This case attempts to highlight that sacral neuroablation based on cooled RF technique can be a long lasting remedial option for chronic SI joint pain unresponsive to conventional treatment. PMID:28096589

  6. Performance characteristics in hydrodynamic water cooled thrust bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad Najar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of the influence on performance characteristics of a thrust bearing with the introduction of cooling circuit and flow velocity of coolant within the designed thrust bearings is described. New method of cooling circuit configuration is taken into consideration and water has been chosen as a coolant here in the present work. Flow velocity of coolant, ranging from 0.5m/s to 2.0m/s is proposed. The Finite difference based numerical model has been developed in order to notice the effect on the heat transfer on a large hydrodynamic lubrication thrust bearing in-terms of its performance characteristics. In the present work, the solution of Reynolds equation, an energy equation with viscosity variation and Fourier heat conduction equations, applied with appropriate boundary conditions. From the present investigation, it is observed significant amount of heat content is removed from the bearing with the increase of flow velocity of coolant in an embedded cooling duct within the pad. An important parameter among performance characteristics has prevailed a significant increase in hydrodynamic pressure generation which in turn subsequently increases the load carrying capacity which has been never ever documented in the background literature.

  7. Process water - waste water - cooling water. Papers; Prozesswasser/Abwasser/Kuehlwasser. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liese, F. (comp.)

    2002-07-01

    The 39th Metallurgical Seminar focused on water. Modern technologies for water purification and treatment were presented, legal boundary conditions were discussed, and aspects of process water, waste water and cooling water were gone into. Although the boundaries between these three types of water cannot be clearly defined, materials recovery is the prevalent aspect in process water treatment while waste water treatment primarily aims at reducing pollutant concentrations so that both environmental aspects and technical quality standards will be met. This proceedings volume attempts to give its readers a more precise picture of the issues at hand by presenting fundamental research, ecological and legal specifications, and selected examples of industrial applications. [German] Das 39. Metallurgische Seminar beschaeftigt sich mit Wasser. Neben der Praesentation grundsaetzlicher, moderner Techniken zur Reinhaltung und Aufbereitung von Wasser sowie der Darstellung der gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen umspannen die Fachvortraege Beitraege zu den Themen Prozesswasser, Abwasser, Kuehlwasser. Wenn auch die Grenzen innerhalb dieser Begriffe teilweise fliessend sind, so zeichnen sich die Prozesswaesser dadurch aus, dass man primaer - wie beispielsweise bei Waschsloesungen und Beizwaessern - an der Wiedergewinnung der Inhaltsstoffe interessiert ist, waehrend bei reinen Abwaessern und Kuehlturmwaessern bzw. deren Abschlaemmungen die massgebliche Aufgabe darin besteht, die Konzentration der Inhaltsstoffe so weit abzusenken, dass man einerseits den Umwelterfordernissen und andererseits den technischen Qualitaetsanforderungen gerecht wird. Ziel dieses Bandes ist es, an Hand von Grundlagen, der Darstellung der oekologischen und behoerdlichen Erfordernisse sowie ausgewaehlter Fallbeispiele aus der Industrie den Leserkreis naeher an diese Thematik heranzufuehren. (orig.)

  8. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  9. An Evaluation of Adults' Water and Fluid Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Yardimci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to determine the daily water and fluid consumption of health professionals. Methods: The sample included 313 subjects (female: 222, male: 91 between 22 and 49 years of age. The questionnaire solicited demographic information from the participants and asked about their fluid consumption and its frequency. The principal variable was gender. To analyze the data statistically, tables of means, standard deviations (X±SD and percentage (% values were used. When identifying the fluid intake of healthcare staff, the independent t test was used to account for gender. Results: The fluid consumption of the participants was examined, and the average was 2,262.6±845.2 mL. The mean consumption of water was 1,404.0±719.8 mL. Other significant fluid intake included black tea at 314.4±147.9 mL, instant coffee at 160.5±52.2 mL, milk/ayran/kefir at 157.7±134.8 mL, soft drinks at 61.6±104.7 mL and fruit juice at 72.5±103.9 mL. It was also found that the gender differences in total fluid and soft drink consumption were statistically significant (p.05. Conclusion: To precisely determine water and fluid intake, studies should be planned and conducted with large samples using standardized assessment tools.

  10. Emotions toward water consumption: Conservation and wastage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Artur Peçanha de Miranda Coelho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El agua es un elemento clave para la supervivencia humana, pero los patrones no sostenibles de consumo de agua siguen siendo evidentes. Muchos factores influyen en la conservación del agua, pero la literatura existente que investiga los determinantes psicológicos de la conservación del agua, hasta el momento, se han centrado en los factores cognitivos o motivacionales. Sin embargo, existe una creciente evidencia de la importancia del papel de las emociones como predictores de la participación en la conservación del medio ambiente en general y del agua en particular. El presente artículo contribuye a este reconocimiento del papel de las emociones en la exposición de 2 estudios sobre el desarrollo y validación de una medida para acceder a las emociones negativas con respecto a desperdicio de agua, la Escala de Evaluación de las Emociones hacia el Desperdicio de Agua (Rating Scale of Emotions towards Water Wastage [RSEWW]. Los resultados confirmaron que esta escala de 12 ítems forma una medida unidimensional que prevé de manera fiable la intención de conducta de los participantes para intervenir en las actividades para la conservación de agua. Implicaciones teóricas y prácticas de los hallazgos se discuten en relación con la literatura existente.

  11. Control Strategies to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Central Domestic Hot Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan; Ansanelli, Eric; Henderson, Hugh; Varshney, Kapil

    2016-06-03

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7% after implementing the demand control technique, 2% after implementing temperature modulation, and 15% after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8%, 1%, and 14% for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  12. Control Strategies to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Central Domestic Hot Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Ansanelli, Eric [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Henderson, Hugh [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Varshney, Kapil [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions

    2016-06-23

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7% after implementing the demand control technique, 2% after implementing temperature modulation, and 15% after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8%, 1%, and 14% for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  13. Triple dividends of water consumption charges in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsoalo, Anthony; Blignaut, James; de Wet, Theuns; de Wit, Martin; Hess, Sebastiaan; Tol, Richard S. J.; van Heerden, Jan

    2007-05-01

    The South African government is exploring ways to address water scarcity problems by introducing a water resource management charge on the quantity of water used in sectors such as irrigated agriculture, mining, and forestry. It is expected that a more efficient water allocation, lower use, and a positive impact on poverty can be achieved. This paper reports on the validity of these claims by applying a computable general equilibrium model to analyze the triple dividend of water consumption charges in South Africa: reduced water use, more rapid economic growth, and a more equal income distribution. It is shown that an appropriate budget-neutral combination of water charges, particularly on irrigated agriculture and coal mining, and reduced indirect taxes, particularly on food, would yield triple dividends, that is, less water use, more growth, and less poverty.

  14. Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.; Chapagain, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The internal water footprint is the volume of wat

  15. Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Chapagain, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The internal water footprint is the volume of

  16. National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprints of nations from both a production and consumption perspective and estimates international virtual water flows and national and global water savings as a result of trade. The entire estimate includes a breakdown of water footprints, virtual water

  17. Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Chapagain, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The internal water footprint is the volume of wat

  18. National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprints of nations from both a production and consumption perspective and estimates international virtual water flows and national and global water savings as a result of trade. The entire estimate includes a breakdown of water footprints, virtual water fl

  19. Thermal modeling in an engine cooling system to control coolant flow for fuel consumption improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangki; Woo, Seungchul; Kim, Minho; Lee, Kihyung

    2016-09-01

    The design and evaluation of engine cooling and lubrication systems is generally based on real vehicle tests. Our goal here was to establish an engine heat balance model based on mathematical and interpretive analysis of each element of a passenger diesel engine cooling system using a 1-D numerical model. The purpose of this model is to determine ways of optimizing the cooling and lubrication components of an engine and then to apply these methods to actual cooling and lubrication systems of engines that will be developed in the future. Our model was operated under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) mode conditions, which represent the fuel economy evaluation mode in Europe. The flow rate of the cooling system was controlled using a control valve. Our results showed that the fuel efficiency was improved by as much as 1.23 %, cooling loss by 1.35 %, and friction loss by 2.21 % throughout NEDC modes by modification of control conditions.

  20. [Sanitary quality of water supply for human consumption in Campeche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Márquez, A P; Lezama-Dávila, C M; Ku-Pech, P P; Tamay-Segovia, P

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents data of a study undertaken to know the sanitary features of water supply (deep pools) for human consumption in the city of Campeche, Mexico. Levels of intestinal bacteria (total and fecal coliforms) were monitored, as well as heterotrophic plate counts and the surroundings of each deep pool were inspected. Each water supply was monitored three times from January to July, 1993 and presented unacceptable levels of heterotrophic plate counts and coliforms which is a strong evidence of fecal contamination of animal or human origin. These findings are a clear indication of unacceptable contamination of water supply for human consumption which requires an improvement and systematic inspection in order to provide good quality water to the population of Campeche.

  1. Applicability of a desiccant dew-point cooling system independent of external water sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of a technical solution for making desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources is investigated. Water is produced by condensing the desorbed water vapour in a closed regeneration circuit. Desorbed water recovery is applied to a desiccant dew-point cooling...

  2. Experimental study of the decrease in the temperature of an air/water-cooled turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, A. A.; Sereda, A. V.; Shaiakberov, V. F.; Iskakov, K. M.; Shatalov, Iu. S.

    Results of the full-scale testing of an air/water-cooled deflector-type turbine blade are reported. Data on the decrease in the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade are presented and compared with the calculated values. An analysis of the results indicates that the use of air/water cooling makes it possible to significantly reduce the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade with practically no increase in the engine weight and dimensions.

  3. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Zacarias, A. [ESIME UPA, IPN, Av. de las Granjas 682, Col. Santa Catarina, 02550, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  4. Dechlorination Technology Manual. Final report. [Utility cooling water discharge systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschoff, A.F.; Chiesa, R.J.; Jacobs, M.H.; Lee, Y.H.; Mehta, S.C.; Meko, A.C.; Musil, R.R.; Sopocy, D.M.; Wilson, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    On November 19, 1982, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated regulations severely restricting chlorination practices as they relate to utility cooling water discharge systems. EPRI authorized the preparation of a manual on dechlorination technology to assist utilities in evaluating the various alternatives available to them to meet these new requirements. The Dechlorination Technology Manual emphasizes the engineering aspects involved in the selection and design of dechlorination systems. However, background information is included concerning chemistry, regulatory requirements, environmental considerations and aquatic impacts. There is also a brief discussion of the various alternatives to dechlorination. Case studies are given to acquaint the user with the use of the manual for the design of chlorination facilities given various site-related characteristics, such as salt versus fresh waters. Numerous graphs and tables are presented to facilitate the selection and design process. 207 references, 66 figures, 60 tables.

  5. Methods for estimating water consumption for thermoelectric power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hutson, Susan S.; Ladd, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Water consumption at thermoelectric power plants represents a small but substantial share of total water consumption in the U.S. However, currently available thermoelectric water consumption data are inconsistent and incomplete, and coefficients used to estimate consumption are contradictory. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has resumed the estimation of thermoelectric water consumption, last done in 1995, based on the use of linked heat and water budgets to complement reported water consumption. This report presents the methods used to estimate freshwater consumption at a study set of 1,284 power plants based on 2010 plant characteristics and operations data.

  6. Global consumptive water use for crop production: The importance of green water and virtual water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.; Yang, Hong

    2009-05-01

    Over the last 4 decades the use of blue water has received increasing attention in water resources research, but little attention has been paid to the quantification of green water in food production and food trade. In this paper, we estimate both the blue and green water components of consumptive water use (CWU) for a wide range of agricultural crops, including seven cereal crops, cassava, cotton, groundnuts, potatoes, pulses, rapeseed, soybeans, sugar beets, sugarcane, and sunflower, with a spatial resolution of 30 arc min on the land surface. The results show that the global CWU of these crops amounted to 3823 km3 a-1 for the period 1998-2002. More than 80% of this amount was from green water. Around 94% of the world crop-related virtual water trade has its origin in green water, which generally constitutes a low-opportunity cost of green water as opposed to blue water. High levels of net virtual water import (NVWI) generally occur in countries with low CWU on a per capita basis, where a virtual water strategy is an attractive water management option to compensate for domestic water shortage for food production. NVWI is constrained by income; low-income countries generally have a low level of NVWI. Strengthening low-income countries economically will allow them to develop a virtual water strategy to mitigate malnutrition of their people.

  7. Review of Water Consumption and Water Conservation Technologies in the Algal Biofuel Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qingshi; Lu, Mingming; Thiansathit, Worrarat; Keener, Tim C

    2016-01-01

    Although water is one of the most critical factors affecting the sustainable development of algal biofuels, it is much less studied as compared to the extensive research on algal biofuel production technologies. This paper provides a review of the recent studies on water consumption of the algae biofuel process and presents the water conservation technologies applicable at different stages of the algal biofuel process. Open ponds tend to have much higher water consumption (216 to 2000 gal/gal) than photobioreactors (25 to 72 gal/gal). Algae growth accounts for the highest water consumption (165 to 2000 gal/gal) in the open pond system. Water consumption during harvesting, oil extraction, and biofuel conversion are much less compared with the growth stage. Potential water conservation opportunities include technology innovations and better management practices at different stages of algal biofuel production.

  8. Risk Perceptions of Arsenic in Tap Water and Consumption of Bottled Water

    OpenAIRE

    Jakus, Paul M.; Shaw, W. Douglass; Nguyen, To N.; Walker, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The demand for bottled water has increased rapidly over the past decade, but bottled water is extremely costly compared to tap water. The convenience of bottled water surely matters to consumers, but are others factors at work? This manuscript examines whether purchases of bottled water are associated with the perceived risk of tap water. All of the past studies on bottled water consumption have used simple scale measures of perceived risk that do not correspond to risk measures used by risk ...

  9. Superheated Water-Cooled Small Modular Underwater Reactor Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Shirvan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel fully passive small modular superheated water reactor (SWR for underwater deployment is designed to produce 160 MWe with steam at 500ºC to increase the thermodynamic efficiency compared with standard light water reactors. The SWR design is based on a conceptual 400-MWe integral SWR using the internally and externally cooled annular fuel (IXAF. The coolant boils in the external channels throughout the core to approximately the same quality as a conventional boiling water reactor and then the steam, instead of exiting the reactor pressure vessel, turns around and flows downward in the central channel of some IXAF fuel rods within each assembly and then flows upward through the rest of the IXAF pins in the assembly and exits the reactor pressure vessel as superheated steam. In this study, new cladding material to withstand high temperature steam in addition to the fuel mechanical and safety behavior is investigated. The steam temperature was found to depend on the thermal and mechanical characteristics of the fuel. The SWR showed a very different transient behavior compared with a boiling water reactor. The inter-play between the inner and outer channels of the IXAF was mainly beneficial except in the case of sudden reactivity insertion transients where additional control consideration is required.

  10. Consumptive water footprint and virtual water trade scenarios for China - With a focus on crop production, consumption and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, La; Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-09-01

    The study assesses green and blue water footprints (WFs) and virtual water (VW) trade in China under alternative scenarios for 2030 and 2050, with a focus on crop production, consumption and trade. We consider five driving factors of change: climate, harvested crop area, technology, diet, and population. Four scenarios (S1-S4) are constructed by making use of three of IPCC's shared socio-economic pathways (SSP1-SSP3) and two of IPCC's representative concentration pathways (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5) and taking 2005 as the baseline year. Results show that, across the four scenarios and for most crops, the green and blue WFs per tonne will decrease compared to the baseline year, due to the projected crop yield increase, which is driven by the higher precipitation and CO2 concentration under the two RCPs and the foreseen uptake of better technology. The WF per capita related to food consumption decreases in all scenarios. Changing to the less-meat diet can generate a reduction in the WF of food consumption of 44% by 2050. In all scenarios, as a result of the projected increase in crop yields and thus overall growth in crop production, China will reverse its role from net VW importer to net VW exporter. However, China will remain a big net VW importer related to soybean, which accounts for 5% of the WF of Chinese food consumption (in S1) by 2050. All scenarios show that China could attain a high degree of food self-sufficiency while simultaneously reducing water consumption in agriculture. However, the premise of realizing the presented scenarios is smart water and cropland management, effective and coherent policies on water, agriculture and infrastructure, and, as in scenario S1, a shift to a diet containing less meat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Water cooling thermal power measurement in a vacuum diffusion pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Cardozo Amorin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion vacuum pumps are used both in industry and in laboratory science for high vacuum production. For its operation they must be refrigerated, and it is done by circulating water in open circuit. Considering that, vacuum systems stays operating by hours, the water consumption may be avoided if the diffusion vacuum pumps refrigeration were done in closed circuit. However, it is necessary to know the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power (the heat transferred to circulate water by time units to implement one of these and get in the refrigeration system dimension. In this paper the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power was obtained by measuring water flow and temperature variation and was calculated through the heat quantity variation equation time function. The thermal power value was 935,6 W, that is 397 W smaller and 35 W bigger than, respectively, the maximum and minimum diffusion pump thermal power suggested by its operation manual. This procedure have been shown useful to precisely determine the diffusion pump thermal power or of any other system that needs to be refrigerated in water closed circuit.

  12. Cool roofs and the influence on the energy consumption under Danish conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Erik; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy; Juhl, Lasse

    that there are no significant advantages of using white roofing felt instead of dark under Danish conditions in common buildings with active heating and passive cooling. Quite to the contrary it appears that dark roofing felts have significant advantages over white roofing felts. The results are discussed in the paper....... It should be mentioned that white roofing materials might be beneficial for poorly insulated buildings with high internal heat loads. In this case the white roofing might contribute to a reduced cooling. Also buildings with constant cooling demands or cold-storage plants etc. may benefit from white roofing...

  13. Data-driven behavioural modelling of residential water consumption to inform water demand management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Cominola, Andrea; Alshaf, Ahmad; Castelletti, Andrea; Anda, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The continuous expansion of urban areas worldwide is expected to highly increase residential water demand over the next few years, ultimately challenging the distribution and supply of drinking water. Several studies have recently demonstrated that actions focused only on the water supply side of the problem (e.g., augmenting existing water supply infrastructure) will likely fail to meet future demands, thus calling for the concurrent deployment of effective water demand management strategies (WDMS) to pursue water savings and conservation. However, to be effective WDMS do require a substantial understanding of water consumers' behaviors and consumption patterns at different spatial and temporal resolutions. Retrieving information on users' behaviors, as well as their explanatory and/or causal factors, is key to spot potential areas for targeting water saving efforts and to design user-tailored WDMS, such as education campaigns and personalized recommendations. In this work, we contribute a data-driven approach to identify household water users' consumption behavioural profiles and model their water use habits. State-of-the-art clustering methods are coupled with big data machine learning techniques with the aim of extracting dominant behaviors from a set of water consumption data collected at the household scale. This allows identifying heterogeneous groups of consumers from the studied sample and characterizing them with respect to several consumption features. Our approach is validated onto a real-world household water consumption dataset associated with a variety of demographic and psychographic user data and household attributes, collected in nine towns of the Pilbara and Kimberley Regions of Western Australia. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in capturing the influence of candidate determinants on residential water consumption profiles and in attaining sufficiently accurate predictions of users' consumption behaviors, ultimately providing

  14. Effect of Mixed Corrosion Inhibitors in Cooling Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Raheem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mixed corrosion inhibitors in cooling system was evaluated by using carbon steel specimens and weight loss analysis. The carbon steel specimens immersed in mixture of sodium phosphate (Na2 HPO4 used as corrosion inhibitor and sodium glocunate (C6 H11 NaO7 as a scale dispersant at different concentrations (20,40, 60, 80 ppm and at different temperature (25,50,75 and 100ºC for (1-5 days. The corrosion inhibitors efficiency was calculated by using uninhibited and inhibited water to give 98.1%. The result of these investigations indicate that the corrosion rate decreases with the increase the corrosion inhibitors concentration at 80 ppm and at 100ºC for 5 days, (i.e, corrosion rate= 0.014gmd.

  15. COOLING SYSTEMS OF MILK, FRUIT AND VEGETABLES STORAGE WITH LOW CONSUMPTION OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkonovich L.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to use of a natural cold for cooling milk and fruit and vegetables storage. The analysis of the block diagrams, description of storehouses and the curves of temperature and air humidity changes for various types of cooling systems are given; the analysis of quality of vegetables and fruit and energy expenses per unit of production are done, which prove the efficiency of the offered systems.

  16. Overview of Cooling Water System for the KSTAR 1{sup st} Plasma Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. J.; Kim, S. T.; Im, D. S.; Joung, N. Y.; Kim, Y. S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The KSTAR cooling water system (CWS) consists of a primary cooling water system (PCWS), a secondary cooling water system (SCWS), and a de-mineralizing and de-ionized water system (DIWS). The PCWS cooling loops have been made for the poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) magnet power supplies (MPS), vacuum vessel (VV), electron cyclotron heating (ECH), ion cyclotron heating (ICRH), vacuum pumps, diagnostics, helium facility, etc. The CWS had been done individual commissioning of each system to confirm the design specifications by the end of 2006 and had gradually begun operation for the KSTAR ancillary devices by March 2008.

  17. Heat Consumption Assessment of the Domestic Hot Water Systems in the Apartment Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Grasmanis, D; Greķis, A; Talcis, N

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the analysis of energy consumption for domestic hot water in apartment buildings in Riga. The aggregate data contains information about 39 apartment buildings, including heat energy consumption and domestic hot water (DHW) consumption. The analysis is focused on the heat energy consumption in the DHW system. The analysis characterizes the DHW consumption, energy consumption for DHW and energy losses in the DHW systems in apartment buildings.

  18. Heat Consumption Assessment of the Domestic Hot Water Systems in the Apartment Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Grasmanis, Dzintars; Talcis, Normunds; Greķis, Aldis

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the analysis of energy consumption for domestic hot water in apartment buildings in Riga, Latvia. The aggregate data contains information about 39 apartment buildings, including heat energy consumption and domestic hot water (DHW) consumption. The analysis is focused on the heat energy consumption and seasonal characteristics in the DHW system.The analysis characterizes the DHW consumption, energy consumption for DHW and energy losses in the DHW systems in apartment buildi...

  19. Heat Consumption Assessment of the Domestic Hot Water Systems in the Apartment Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Grasmanis, D; Greķis, A; Talcis, N

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the analysis of energy consumption for domestic hot water in apartment buildings in Riga. The aggregate data contains information about 39 apartment buildings, including heat energy consumption and domestic hot water (DHW) consumption. The analysis is focused on the heat energy consumption in the DHW system. The analysis characterizes the DHW consumption, energy consumption for DHW and energy losses in the DHW systems in apartment buildings.

  20. Forecasting hot water consumption in dwellings using artificial neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gelazanskas, Linas; Gamage, Kelum

    2015-01-01

    The electricity grid is currently transforming and becoming more and more decentralised. Green energy generation has many incentives throughout the world thus small renewable generation units become popular. Intermittent generation units pose threat to system stability so new balancing techniques like Demand Side Management must be researched. Residential hot water heaters are perfect candidates to be used for shifting electricity consumption in time. This paper investigates the ability on Ar...

  1. Cool Headed Individuals Are Better Survivors: Non-Consumptive and Consumptive Effects of a Generalist Predator on a Sap Feeding Insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Beleznai

    Full Text Available Non-consumptive effects (NCEs of predators are part of the complex interactions among insect natural enemies and prey. NCEs have been shown to significantly affect prey foraging and feeding. Leafhopper's (Auchenorrhyncha lengthy phloem feeding bouts may play a role in pathogen transmission in vector species and also exposes them to predation risk. However, NCEs on leafhoppers have been scarcely studied, and we lack basic information about how anti-predator behaviour influences foraging and feeding in these species. Here we report a study on non-consumptive and consumptive predator-prey interactions in a naturally co-occurring spider-leafhopper system. In mesocosm arenas we studied movement patterns during foraging and feeding of the leafhopper Psammotettix alienus in the presence of the spider predator Tibellus oblongus. Leafhoppers delayed feeding and fed much less often when the spider was present. Foraging movement pattern changed under predation risk: movements became more frequent and brief. There was considerable individual variation in foraging movement activity. Those individuals that increased movement activity in the presence of predators exposed themselves to higher predation risk. However, surviving individuals exhibited a 'cool headed' reaction to spider presence by moving less than leafhoppers in control trials. No leafhoppers were preyed upon while feeding. We consider delayed feeding as a "paradoxical" antipredator tactic, since it is not necessarily an optimal strategy against a sit-and-wait generalist predator.

  2. Cool Headed Individuals Are Better Survivors: Non-Consumptive and Consumptive Effects of a Generalist Predator on a Sap Feeding Insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleznai, Orsolya; Tholt, Gergely; Tóth, Zoltán; Horváth, Vivien; Marczali, Zsolt; Samu, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    Non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of predators are part of the complex interactions among insect natural enemies and prey. NCEs have been shown to significantly affect prey foraging and feeding. Leafhopper's (Auchenorrhyncha) lengthy phloem feeding bouts may play a role in pathogen transmission in vector species and also exposes them to predation risk. However, NCEs on leafhoppers have been scarcely studied, and we lack basic information about how anti-predator behaviour influences foraging and feeding in these species. Here we report a study on non-consumptive and consumptive predator-prey interactions in a naturally co-occurring spider-leafhopper system. In mesocosm arenas we studied movement patterns during foraging and feeding of the leafhopper Psammotettix alienus in the presence of the spider predator Tibellus oblongus. Leafhoppers delayed feeding and fed much less often when the spider was present. Foraging movement pattern changed under predation risk: movements became more frequent and brief. There was considerable individual variation in foraging movement activity. Those individuals that increased movement activity in the presence of predators exposed themselves to higher predation risk. However, surviving individuals exhibited a 'cool headed' reaction to spider presence by moving less than leafhoppers in control trials. No leafhoppers were preyed upon while feeding. We consider delayed feeding as a "paradoxical" antipredator tactic, since it is not necessarily an optimal strategy against a sit-and-wait generalist predator.

  3. The updated algorithm of the Energy Consumption Program (ECP): A computer model simulating heating and cooling energy loads in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Strain, D. M.; Chai, V. W.; Higgins, S.

    1979-01-01

    The energy Comsumption Computer Program was developed to simulate building heating and cooling loads and compute thermal and electric energy consumption and cost. This article reports on the new additional algorithms and modifications made in an effort to widen the areas of application. The program structure was rewritten accordingly to refine and advance the building model and to further reduce the processing time and cost. The program is noted for its very low cost and ease of use compared to other available codes. The accuracy of computations is not sacrificed however, since the results are expected to lie within + or - 10% of actual energy meter readings.

  4. Development of the water cooled lithium lead blanket for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, J., E-mail: julien.aubert@cea.fr [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Aiello, G.; Jonquères, N. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Li Puma, A. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SERMA/LPEC, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Morin, A.; Rampal, G. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The WCLL blanket design has been modified to adapt it to the 2012 EFDA DEMO specifications. • Preliminary CAD design of the equatorial outboard module of the WCLL blanket has been developed for DEMO. • Finite elements analyses have been carried out in order to assess the module thermal behavior in the straight part of the module. - Abstract: The water cooled lithium lead (WCLL) blanket, based on near-future technology requiring small extrapolation from present-day knowledge both on physical and technological aspect, is one of the breeding blanket concepts considered as possible candidates for the EU DEMOnstration power plant. In 2012, the EFDA agency issued new specifications for DEMO: this paper describes the work performed to adapt the WCLL blanket design to those specifications. Relatively small modules with straight surfaces are attached to a common Back Supporting Structure housing feeding pipes. Each module features reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel as structural material, liquid Lithium-Lead as breeder, neutron multiplier and carrier. Water at typical Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) conditions is chosen as coolant. A preliminary design of the equatorial outboard module has been achieved. Finite elements analyses have been carried out in order to assess the module thermal behavior. Two First Wall (FW) concepts have been proposed, one favoring the thermal efficiency, the other favoring the manufacturability. The Breeding Zone has been designed with C-shaped Double-Walled Tubes in order to minimize the Water/Pb-15.7Li interaction likelihood. The priorities for further development of the WCLL blanket concept are identified in the paper.

  5. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Meer, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Hoekstra, A.Y., Van der Meer, T.H., 2007. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers. In: proceedings ‘First World Water Sustainability-Renewable Energy Congress and Exhibition’. 25-28 November 2007, Maastricht, the

  6. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Meer, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Hoekstra, A.Y., Van der Meer, T.H., 2007. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers. In: proceedings ‘First World Water Sustainability-Renewable Energy Congress and Exhibition’. 25-28 November 2007, Maastricht, the

  7. Texas review of hydraulic fracturing water use and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicot, J.; Reedy, R. C.; Costley, R.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has a long history in the state of Texas where are located (1) several established plays, such as the Barnett Shale, (2) plays of recent interest, such as the Eagle Ford or the Wolfcamp, and (3) older plays being revisited such as the Wolfberry or the Granite Wash. We compiled current water use for year 2011 (about 82,000 acre-feet) and compared it to an older analysis done for year 2008 (about 36,000 acre-feet). A private database compiling state information and providing water use is complemented by a survey of the industry. Industry survey is the only way to access fresh water consumption estimated to be only a fraction of the total water use because of reuse of flowback water, use of recycled water from treatment plants and produced water, and use of brackish water. We analyzed these different components of the HF budget as well as their source, surface water vs. groundwater, with a focus on impacts on aquifers and groundwater resources.

  8. Marginal costs of water savings from cooling system retrofits: a case study for Texas power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Aviva; Jaramillo, Paulina; Zhai, Haibo

    2016-10-01

    The water demands of power plant cooling systems may strain water supply and make power generation vulnerable to water scarcity. Cooling systems range in their rates of water use, capital investment, and annual costs. Using Texas as a case study, we examined the cost of retrofitting existing coal and natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants with alternative cooling systems, either wet recirculating towers or air-cooled condensers for dry cooling. We applied a power plant assessment tool to model existing power plants in terms of their key plant attributes and site-specific meteorological conditions and then estimated operation characteristics of retrofitted plants and retrofit costs. We determined the anticipated annual reductions in water withdrawals and the cost-per-gallon of water saved by retrofits in both deterministic and probabilistic forms. The results demonstrate that replacing once-through cooling at coal-fired power plants with wet recirculating towers has the lowest cost per reduced water withdrawals, on average. The average marginal cost of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling retrofits at coal-fired plants is approximately 0.68 cents per gallon, while the marginal recirculating retrofit cost is 0.008 cents per gallon. For NGCC plants, the average marginal costs of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling and recirculating towers are 1.78 and 0.037 cents per gallon, respectively.

  9. Ecological impact of chloro-organics produced by chlorination of cooling tower waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R L; Cumming, R B; Pitt, W W; Taylor, F G; Thompson, J E; Hartmann, S J

    1977-01-01

    Experimental results of the initial assessment of chlorine-containing compounds in the blowdown from cooling towers and the possible mutagenic activity of these compounds are reported. High-resolution liquid chromatographic separations were made on concentrates of the blowdown from the cooling tower at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and from the recirculating water system for the cooling towers at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The chromatograms of chlorinated cooling waters contained numerous uv-absorbing and cerate-oxidizable constituents that are now being processed through a multicomponent identification procedure. Concentrates of the chlorinated waters are also being examined for mutagenic activity.

  10. Performance of materials in the component cooling water systems of pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.S.

    1993-06-01

    The component cooling water (CCW) system provides cooling water to several important loads throughout the plant under all operating conditions. An aging assessment CCW systems in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was conducted as part of Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program (NPAR) instituted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper presents some of the results on the performances of materials in respect of their application in CCW Systems. All the CCW system failures reported to the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) from January 1988 to June 1990 were reviewed; it is concluded that three of the main contributors to CCW system failures are valves, pumps, and heat exchangers. This study identified the modes and causes of failure for these components; most of the causes for the aging-related failures could be related to the performance of materials. Also, in this paper the materials used for these components are reviewed, and there aging mechanisms under CCW system conditions are discussed.

  11. Development of methods for the decrease in instability of recycling water of conjugated closed-circuit cooling system of HPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirov, A. A.; Chichirova, N. D.; Vlasov, S. M.; Lyapin, A. I.; Misbakhov, R. Sh.; Silov, I. Yu.; Murtazin, A. I.

    2016-10-01

    On Russian HPPs, conjugated closed-circuit cooling systems, where purge water is used as initial for water-treatment facilities, are widespread. For this reason, it is impossible to use general methods for the stabilization treatment of recycling water in order to prevent scale formation in the units of a system, namely, turbine condensers and cooling towers. In this paper, the methods for the decrease in the instability of recycling water using the methods of chemical engineering, such as stabilization and synchronization of flows and organization of recycles, are suggested. The results of an industrial experiment on the implementation of stabilization treatment of recycling water by the organization of recycle are given. The experiment was carried out on Kazan CHPP-3. The flow scheme involved the recycle of chemically purified water (CPW) for the heat network make-up to the closed-circuit cooling system. The experiment was carried out at three stages with the gradual change of the consumption of the recycle, namely, 0, 50, and 100 t/h. According to the results of experiments, the reliable decrease in the rate of the sedimentation was recorded on the units of the system, namely, turbine condenser and chimney-type cooling tower. This is caused by two reasons. Firstly, this is periodic excessive concentration of recycling water due to the nonstationary character of inlet and outlet flows. Secondly, this is seasonal (particularly, in the summer period) exceeding of the evaporation coefficient. As a result of stabilization and synchronization of flows and organization of recycles, the quality of clarified and chemically purified water for the heat network make-up increases and the corrosion of iron- and copper-containing structural materials decreases. A natural decrease in temperature drop on the operating turbine condensers is mentioned.

  12. Water consumption related to different diets in Mediterranean cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D; Del Pozo, S; Pekcan, A G; Keinan-Boker, L; Trichopoulou, A; Gawlik, B M

    2016-12-15

    Providing the sustainable development goals (SDGs) water, food and energy security to cities relies strongly on resource use outside city borders. Many modern cities have recently invested in a sustainable urban water system, and score high in international city rankings regarding water management and direct urban water use. However, these rankings generally neglect external resource use for cities. Here we quantify the water resources related to food consumption in thirteen cities located in Mediterranean countries, by means of the water footprint (WF) concept. These WFs amount from 3277l per capita per day (l/cap/d) to 5789l/cap/d. These amounts are about thirty times higher than their direct urban water use. We additionally analyse the WF of three diet scenarios, based upon a Mediterranean dietary pattern. Many authors identify the Mediterranean diet as cultural heritage, being beneficial for human health and a model for a sustainable food system. The first diet scenario, a healthy Mediterranean diet including meat, leads to WF reductions of -19% to -43%. The second diet scenario (pesco-vegetarian), leads to WF reductions of -28% to -52%. The third diet scenario (vegetarian), leads to WF reductions of -30% to -53%. In other words, if urban citizens want to save water, they need to look at their diets.

  13. Todayʼs virtual water consumption and trade under future water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowsky, B.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2014-07-01

    The populations of most nations consume products of both domestic and foreign origin, importing together with the products the water which is expended abroad for their production (termed ‘virtual water’). Therefore, any investigation of the sustainability of present-day water consumption under future climate change needs to consider the effects of potentially reduced water availability both on domestic water resources and on the trades of virtual water. Here we use combinations of Global Climate and Global Impact Models from the ISI-MIP ensemble to derive patterns of future water availability under the RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations scenarios. We assess the effects of reduced water availability in these scenarios on national water consumptions and virtual water trades through a simple accounting scheme based on the water footprint concept. We thereby identify countries where the water footprint within the country area is reduced due to a reduced within-area water availability, most prominently in the Mediterranean and some African countries. National water consumption in countries such as Russia, which are non-water scarce by themselves, can be affected through reduced imports from water scarce countries. We find overall stronger effects of the higher GHG concentrations scenario, although the model range of climate projections for single GHG concentrations scenarios is in itself larger than the differences induced by the GHG concentrations scenarios. Our results highlight that, for both investigated GHG concentration scenarios, the current water consumption and virtual water trades cannot be sustained into the future due to the projected patterns of reduced water availability.

  14. Optimization of the breeder zone cooling tubes of the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead breeding blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A.; Arena, P.; Bongiovì, G. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo (Italy); Chiovaro, P., E-mail: pierluigi.chiovaro@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo (Italy); Del Nevo, A. [ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano, BO (Italy); Forte, R. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Determination of an optimal configuration for the breeder zone cooling tubes. • Attention has been focused on the toroidal–radial breeder zone cooling tubes lay out. • A theoretical-computational approach based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) has been followed, adopting a qualified commercial FEM code. • Five different configurations have been investigated to optimize the breeder zone cooling tubes arrangement fulfilling all the rules prescribed by safety codes. - Abstract: The determination of an optimal configuration for the breeder zone (BZ) cooling tubes is one of the most important issues in the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead (WCLL) breeding blanket R&D activities, since BZ cooling tubes spatial distribution should ensure an efficient heat power removal from the breeder, avoiding hotspots occurrence in the thermal field. Within the framework of R&D activities supported by the HORIZON 2020 EUROfusion Consortium action on the DEMO WCLL breeding blanket design, a campaign of parametric analyses has been launched at the Department of Energy, Information Engineering and Mathematical Models of the University of Palermo (DEIM), in close cooperation with ENEA-Brasimone, in order to assess the potential influence of BZ cooling tubes number on the thermal performances of the DEMO WCLL outboard breeding blanket equatorial module under the nominal steady state operative conditions envisaged for it, optimizing their geometric configuration and taking also into account that a large number of cooling pipes can deteriorate the tritium breeding performances of the module. In particular, attention has been focused on the toroidal-radial option for the BZ tube bundles lay-out and a parametric study has been carried out taking into account different tube bundles arrangement within the module. The study has been carried out following a numerical approach, based on the finite element method (FEM), and adopting a qualified commercial FEM code. Results

  15. 40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems. 749.68 Section 749.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning and Cooling Systems § 749.68 Hexavalent...

  16. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  17. Cooling of Water in a Flask: Convection Currents in a Fluid with a Density Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, S.; White, J. A.; Roman, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of density inversion on the convective flow of water in a spherical glass flask cooled with the help of an ice-water bath is shown. The experiment was carried out by temperature measurements (cooling curves) taken at three different heights along the vertical diameter of the flask. Flows inside the flask are visualized by seeding the…

  18. Cooling of Water in a Flask: Convection Currents in a Fluid with a Density Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, S.; White, J. A.; Roman, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of density inversion on the convective flow of water in a spherical glass flask cooled with the help of an ice-water bath is shown. The experiment was carried out by temperature measurements (cooling curves) taken at three different heights along the vertical diameter of the flask. Flows inside the flask are visualized by seeding the…

  19. [Risks associated with unrestricted consumption of alkaline-reduced water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Marc; Chambron, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of alkaline reduced water produced by domestic electrolysis devices was approved in Japan in 1965 by the Minister of Health, Work and Wellbeing, for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Today, these devices are also freely available in France. The commercial information provided with the devices recommends the consumption of 1 to 1.5 liters per day, not only for gastrointestinal disorders but also for numerous other illnesses such as diabetes, cancer and inflammation. Academic research on this subject has been undergoing in Japan since 1990, and has established that the active ingredient is dissolved dihydrogen, which eliminates the free radical HO· in vivo. It has also been shown that electrode degradation during use of the devices releases highly reactive platinum nanoparticles, the toxicity of which is unknown. The authors of this report recommend alerting the French health authorities to the uncontrolled availability of these devices that generate drug substances and should therefore be subject to regulatory requirements.

  20. Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, M. T H; van Beek, L. P H; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F P

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding

  1. Well-to-Wheels Water Consumption: Tracking the Virtual Flow of Water into Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, D. J.; Elgowainy, A.; Hao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Water and energy resources are fundamental to life on Earth and essential for the production of consumer goods and services in the economy. Energy and water resources are heavily interdependent—energy production consumes water, while water treatment and distribution consume energy. One example of this so-called energy-water nexus is the consumption of water associated with the production of transportation fuels. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can be used to compare the environmental impacts of different transportation fuels on a consistent basis. In this presentation, the expansion of GREET to perform life cycle water accounting or the "virtual flow" of water into transportation and other energy sectors and the associated implications will be discussed. The results indicate that increased usage of alternative fuels may increase freshwater resource consumption. The increased water consumption must be weighed against the benefits of decreased greenhouse gas and fossil energy consumption. Our analysis highlights the importance of regionality, co-product allocation, and consistent system boundaries when comparing the water intensity of alternative transportation fuel production pathways such as ethanol, biodiesel, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, and electricity with conventional petroleum-based fuels such as diesel and gasoline.

  2. Thermal Comfort and Energy Consumption Using Different Radiant Heating/Cooling Systems in a Modern Office Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemethova, Ema; Stutterecker, Werner; Schoberer, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential of enhancing thermal comfort and energy consumption created by three different radiant systems in the newly-built Energetikum office building. A representative office, Simulation room 1/1, was selected from 6 areas equipped with portable sensor groups for the indoor environment monitoring. The presented data obtained from 3 reference weeks; the heating, transition and cooling periods indicate overheating, particularly during the heating and transition period. The values of the indoor air temperature during the heating and transition period could not meet the normative criteria according to standard EN 15251:2007 (cat. II.) for 15-30% of the time intervals evaluated. Consequently, a simulation model of the selected office was created and points to the possibilities of improving the control system, which can lead to an elimination of the problem with overheating. Three different radiant systems - floor heating/ cooling, a thermally active ceiling, and a near-surface thermally active ceiling were implemented in the model. A comparison of their effects on thermal comfort and energy consumption is presented in the paper.

  3. Thermal behaviour analysis on ITER component cooling water system loop 2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Bin, E-mail: guobin@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Fu, Peng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Dell’Orco, Giovanni; Liliana, Teodoros; Tao, Jun [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Yang, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Thermal hydraulic analysis model has been developed to perform thermal analysis on the component cooling water system loop 2B. • The cooling water temperature profile at client inlet and outlet during one cycle of the most demanding plasma operation scenario was obtained. • Operation behaviour of the main heat exchanger for CCWS-2B has been depicted. - Abstract: ITER cooling water system is composed by several cooling loops, the primary heat transfer loops that form the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS), the secondary heat transfer loops that form the Component Cooling Water System (CCWS) and the Chilled Water System (CHWS) and a tertiary heat transfer loop which is the Heat Rejection System (HRS). The CCWS is further divided into CCWS-1, CCWS-2A, CCWS-2B, CCWS-2C, CCWS-2D depending on the water chemistry needs of clients and wetted area material. The component cooling water system loop 2B (CCWS-2B) has the function to remove heat load from coil power supply component, Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs) system component and diagnostic system which are located in different buildings. As the total number of the client connections for the loop is a few hundreds, simplified thermal hydraulic analysis model has been developed to perform thermal analysis on the component cooling water system loop 2B. The curve of the cooling water temperature at client inlet and outlet during one cycle of the most demanding plasma operation scenario was obtained and the cooling water flow rate can meet the thermal removal requirement of client was also confirmed from this analysis. In addition, operation behaviour of the main heat exchanger for CCWS-2B in this thermal analysis was depicted for main heat exchanger selection purposes. This study has been carried out with the AFT Fathom code.

  4. Mapping current and future European public water withdrawals and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, I.; Bianchi, A.; Silva, F. Batista e.; Lavalle, C.; Batelaan, O.

    2014-02-01

    In Europe, public water withdrawals make up on average 30% and in some cases up to 60% of total water withdrawals. These withdrawals are becoming increasingly important with growing population density; hence there is a need to understand the spatial and temporal trends involved. Pan-European public/municipal water withdrawals and consumption were mapped for 2006 and forecasted for 2030. Population and tourism density were assumed to be the main driving factors for withdrawals. Country-level statistics on public water withdrawals were disaggregated to a combined population and tourism density map (the "user" density map) computed for 2006. The methodology was validated using actual regional withdrawal statistics from France for 2006. The total absolute error (TAE) calculated was proven to be reduced by taking into account the tourism density in addition to the population density. In order to forecast the map to 2030 we considered a reference scenario where per capita withdrawals were kept constant in time. Although there are large variations from region to region, this resulted in a European average increase of water withdrawals of 16%. If we extrapolate the average reduction in per capita withdrawals seen between 2000 and 2008, we forecast a reduction in average total water withdrawals of 4%. Considering a scenario where all countries converge to an optimal water use efficiency, we see an average decrease of 28%.

  5. Assessing feasibility of electrochromic space suit radiators for reducing extravehicular activity water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metts, Jonathan Glen

    Water consumption for space suit thermal control is a limiting factor on long-term space exploration missions. A concept is proposed for an integrated, flexible suit radiator using infrared electrochromic materials for modulated heat rejection from the suit. Properties of electrochromic materials, the structure of electrochromic devices, and relevant heat transfer processes are presented as background information. Analytical methods are employed to bound theoretical performance and determine required emissivity ranges for lunar surface operations. Case studies are presented incorporating Apollo program and Advanced Walkback Test metabolic and environmental data to estimate sublimator water consumption and hypothetical water savings with the electrochromic radiator. Concepts are presented and analyzed for integrating an electrochromic radiator with existing and future space suit designs. A preliminary systems-level trade analysis is performed with the Equivalent System Mass metric used to compare this technology with the legacy sublimator and other extravehicular activity cooling technologies in development. Experimental objectives, procedures, and results are presented for both bench-top and thermal vacuum testing of electrochromic radiator materials.

  6. Steam-Reheat Option for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltanov, Eugene

    SuperCritical-Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs) are being developed as one of the Generation-IV nuclear-reactor concepts. Main objectives of the development are to increase thermal efficiency of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and to decrease capital and operational costs. The first objective can be achieved by introducing nuclear steam reheat inside a reactor and utilizing regenerative feedwater heaters. The second objective can be achieved by designing a steam cycle that closely matches that of the mature supercritical fossil-fuelled power plants. The feasibility of these objectives is discussed. As a part of this discussion, heat-transfer calculations have been performed and analyzed for SuperCritical-Water (SCW) and SuperHeated-Steam (SHS) channels of the proposed reactor concept. In the calculations a uniform and three non-uniform Axial Heat Flux Profiles (AHFPs) were considered for six different fuels (UO2, ThO 2, MOX, UC2, UC, and UN) and at average and maximum channel power. Bulk-fluid, sheath, and fuel centerline temperatures as well as the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) profiles were obtained along the fuel-channel length. The HTC values are within a range of 4.7--20 kW/m2·K and 9.7--10 kW/m2·K for the SCW and SHS channels respectively. The main conclusion is that while all the mentioned fuels may be used for the SHS channel, only UC2, UC, or UN are suitable for a SCW channel, because their fuel centerline temperatures are at least 1000°C below melting point, while that of UO2, ThO2 , and MOX may reach melting point.

  7. The effect of the water tariff structures on the water consumption in Mallorcan hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyà-Tortella, Bartolomé; Garcia, Celso; Nilsson, William; Tirado, Dolores

    2016-08-01

    Tourism increases water demand, especially in coastal areas and on islands, and can also cause water shortages during the dry season and the degradation of the water supply. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of water price structures on hotel water consumption on the island of Mallorca (Spain). All tourist municipalities on the island use different pricing structures, such as flat or block rates, and different tariffs. This exogenous variation is used to evaluate the effect of prices on water consumption for a sample of 134 hotels. The discontinuity of the water tariff structure and the fixed rate, which depends on the number of hotel beds, generate endogeneity problems. We propose an econometric model, an instrumental variable quantile regression for within artificial blocks transformed data, to solve both problems. The coefficients corresponding to the price variables are not found to be significantly different from zero. The sign of the effect is negative, but the magnitude is negligible: a 1% increase in all prices would reduce consumption by an average of only 0.024%. This result is probably due to the small share of water costs with respect to the total hotel operational costs (around 4%). Our regression model concludes that the introduction of water-saving initiatives constitutes an effective way to reduce consumption.

  8. Chocolate consumption, fecal water antioxidant activity, and hydroxyl radical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Ian R; McInerney, Jennifer K; Noakes, Manny; Bird, Anthony R

    2003-01-01

    As part of a larger study into the effects of polyphenols derived from chocolate on bowel health we have compared the effects of consumption of chocolate containing either 200 mg of flavanols and related procyanidins or a similar chocolate containing less than 10 mg of polyphenols on fecal free radical production and antioxidant activity in 18 volunteers. In a double-blind crossover trail volunteers consumed chocolate for two 4-wk periods separated by a 4-wk washout period. During the time the volunteers consumed the chocolate they also consumed a low-polyphenol diet. Free radical production in the fecal water was lowered from 122 +/- 10 micromol/l/h to 94 +/- 9 micromol/l/h (P = 0.009) when the high procyanidin chocolate diet was consumed and from 117 +/- 14 micromol/l/h to 86 +/- 12 micromol/l/h when the low procyanidin chocolate was consumed (P = 0.014). Fecal water antioxidant capacity measured by either the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity or ferric reducing ability of plasma procedure was not significantly affected. Consumption of either chocolate reduced the production of free radicals in fecal water. This suggests that some component of the chocolate other than the flavanols and related procyanidins may have been effective.

  9. Mapping current and future European public water withdrawals and consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vandecasteele

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, public water withdrawals make up on average 30%, and in some cases up to 60% of total water withdrawals. These withdrawals are becoming increasingly important with growing population density; hence there is a need to understand the spatial and temporal trends involved. Pan-European public/municipal water withdrawals and consumption were mapped for 2006 and forecasted for 2030. Population and tourism density were assumed to be the main driving factors for withdrawals. Country-level statistics on public water withdrawals were disaggregated to a combined population and tourism density map (the "user" density map computed for 2006. In order to forecast the map to 2030 we assumed the water withdrawals per user to remain constant in time, so that the future withdrawals reflected the projected population and tourism trends. The methodology was validated using actual regional withdrawal statistics from France for 2006. The Total Absolute Error (TAE calculated was proven to be reduced by taking into account the tourism density in addition to the population density. Our results show that although there are large variations from region to region, in general public water withdrawals will increase significantly over the period 2006 to 2030. The European average increase is 16%, with a maximal increase of 53% in Ireland.

  10. Scaling-up method for stand water consumption of Quercus variabilis water conservation forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huatian; XING Lifeng; MA Lüyi; SUN Pengsen

    2006-01-01

    Single tree's sapwood scattering style and diurnal water consumption rhythm for different diameter classes were studied in a 48-year-old Quercus variabilis stand,water protection forest in Beijing.Results showed that the tree's sapwood area was closely related to diameter at breast height (DBH).Single tree's daily water consumption ascended as DBH and sapwood area increased.Daily water consumption of different diameter classes in September ascended steeply in the early morning and reached the peak around 11:00,and then descended slowly to the valley at 18:00.The course of daily accumulated water consumption was in accordance with a typical Richards model (R=0.985,8).Parameters of diameter-time equation for scal ing-up can be achieved by parameter-recovering method in the gradient of all diameter classes and at any time of a day,characteristic parameters of the course of daily stand water consumption were calculated from a modulated Richards equation derivative:Wdltl = (-7.147 + 1.174dl )[1- (-3,025.937 +di2.175)1/e(-0.01 1tj) ]1-di0.242

  11. Water Use in Los Angeles, California: Consumption Patterns, Ecosystem Response and Impact on Regional Water Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    The City of Los Angeles relies heavily on external water sources, primarily the Eastern Sierra, Northern California and the Colorado River, and approximately 90% of the City's water supply is snowpack dependent. In recent years, water conservation measures have been implemented in response to regional drought, which include a tiered pricing structure and watering restrictions. As a result of implemented conservation policies, Los Angeles reported the lowest water consumption per capita per day in 2011 among cities over 1 million people in the U.S. This presentation will highlight our ongoing work to better understand the coupling between humans, ecosystems and water across the City of Los Angeles, especially during the recent drought period. Our work is unique in that we integrate social, ecological, and hydrologic data, including ten years of residential water consumption data for the entire city of Los Angeles, extensive groundwater well data, socio-economic information and remote sensing to evaluate relationships as well as spatial and temporal patterns. Developed statistical models demonstrated that Single-Family Residential (SFR) water use across the City is primarily driven by household income, landscape greenness, water rates and water volume allocation,, with higher consumption rates in the northern, warmer and more affluent parts, and lower consumption rates in the less affluent neighborhoods near Downtown. Landscape use also varies greatly across the city, averaging 50% of total SFR. Our evaluation of conservation efforts shows that the combination of mandatory watering restrictions and price increase led to a water reduction of 23%, while voluntary restrictions led to only a 6% reduction in water use. Relationships of water use to ecosystems (greenness) and groundwater variability were also evaluated and will be highlighted. Our ultimate goal is to improve predictions of human-water interactions in order to drive policy change and guide future demand

  12. Detailed Design of Cooling Water System for Cold Neutron Source in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Soo; Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, S. I.; Lee, Y. S

    2007-04-15

    To make cold neutron, a cryogenic refrigerator is necessary to transform moderator into cryogenic state so, thermal neutron is changed into cold neutron through heat transfer with moderator. A cryogenic refrigerator mainly consists of two apparatus, a helium compressor and a cold box which needs supply of cooling water. Therefore, cooling water system is essential to operate of cryogenic refrigerator normally. This report is mainly focused on the detailed design of the cooling water system for the HANARO cold neutron source, and describes design requirement, calculation, specification of equipment and water treatment method.

  13. Detailed Design of Cooling Water System for Cold Neutron Source in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Soo; Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, S. I.; Lee, Y. S

    2007-04-15

    To make cold neutron, a cryogenic refrigerator is necessary to transform moderator into cryogenic state so, thermal neutron is changed into cold neutron through heat transfer with moderator. A cryogenic refrigerator mainly consists of two apparatus, a helium compressor and a cold box which needs supply of cooling water. Therefore, cooling water system is essential to operate of cryogenic refrigerator normally. This report is mainly focused on the detailed design of the cooling water system for the HANARO cold neutron source, and describes design requirement, calculation, specification of equipment and water treatment method.

  14. District cool water distribution; Reseau urbain et distribution d`eau glacee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabaillie, D. [Ste Climespace (France)

    1997-12-31

    The city of Paris has developed several district cool water distribution networks (Climespace) for air conditioning purposes, one in the Halles district (central Paris) linked with the Louvre museum, one in the Opera district (with large department stores) and one in the east of paris (Bercy). Each of these networks has a cool water production plant, the one at the Halles producing also hot water and safety electric power. The characteristics of the equipment (heat pumps, refrigerating machinery, storage...) are described. The pipes are laid in the city sewage network, and the cool carrier is water. The various networks are centrally supervised at the Halles center

  15. Improvement of energy efficiency by optimized thermal insulation of cooling water pipes of air conditioning systems and refrigerant pipes of cooling systems; Steigerung der Energieeffizienz durch optimierte Daemmung der Kuehlwasserrohrleitungen von Klimaanlagen und Kaeltemittelrohrleitungen von Kuehlanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielarski, Jarema [ARMACELL SWITZERLAND AG, Pfaffnau (Switzerland)

    2011-05-31

    Higher energy efficiency is an issue also in air conditioning and refrigeration, which accounts for 14 percent of Germany's total energy consumption today (according to ASERCOM) and can be assumed to have a similar energy consumption level in other European levels. The new Energy Conservation Ordinance of October 2009 was the first that specified obligatory thermal insulation also of cooling and cold water pipes in space HVAC systems. A current study by the Armacell company showed that while this is an important first step, thicker insulation layers must be specified for the future.

  16. Corrosion of metals and alloys - Corrosion and fouling in industrial cooling water systems - Part 1: Guidelines for conducting pilot-scale evaluation of corrosion and fouling control additives for open recirculating cooling water systems

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Corrosion of metals and alloys - Corrosion and fouling in industrial cooling water systems - Part 1: Guidelines for conducting pilot-scale evaluation of corrosion and fouling control additives for open recirculating cooling water systems

  17. COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Vine

    2010-12-01

    This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes “Best Technology Available” for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plant’s steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R&D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

  18. Three African antelope species with varying water dependencies exhibit similar selective brain cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, W Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Fuller, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The use of selective brain cooling, where warm arterial blood destined for the brain is cooled in the carotid rete via counter-current heat exchange when in close proximity to cooler venous blood, contributes to the conservation of body water. We simultaneously measured carotid blood and hypothalamic temperature in four gemsbok, five red hartebeest and six blue wildebeest to assess the extent to which these free-living animals, with varying water dependency, routinely rely on selective brain cooling. We investigated the hypothesis that innate differences in selective brain cooling exist in large, sympatric artiodactyls with varying water dependency. All three species used selective brain cooling, without any discernible differences in three selective brain cooling indices. GLMMs revealed no species differences in the threshold temperature for selective brain cooling (z = 0.79, P = 0.43), the magnitude (z = -0.51, P = 0.61), or the frequency of selective brain cooling use (z = -0.47, P = 0.64), after controlling for carotid blood temperature and black globe temperature. Comparison of anatomical attributes of the carotid retes of the three species revealed that the volume (F 2,9 = 5.54, P = 0.03) and height (F 2,9 = 5.43, P = 0.03) of the carotid rete, per kilogram body mass, were greater in the red hartebeest than in the blue wildebeest. Nevertheless, intraspecific variability in the magnitude, the frequency of use, and the threshold temperature for selective brain cooling exceeded any interspecific variability in the three indices of selective brain cooling. We conclude that the three species have similar underlying ability to make use of selective brain cooling in an environment with freely available water. It remains to be seen to what extent these three species would rely on selective brain cooling, as a water conservation mechanism, when challenged by aridity, a condition likely to become prevalent throughout much of southern Africa under future climate change

  19. Thermal design of lithium bromide-water solution vapor absorption cooling system for indirect evaporative cooling for IT pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Digvijay Ramkrishna

    Nowadays with increase use of internet, mobile there is increase in heat which ultimately increases the efficient cooling system of server room or IT POD. Use of traditional ways of cooling system has ultimately increased CO2 emission and depletion of CFC's are serious environmental issues which led scientific people to improve cooling techniques and eliminate use of CFC's. To reduce dependency on fossil fuels and 4environmental friendly system needed to be design. For being utilizing low grade energy source such as solar collector and reducing dependency on fossil fuel vapour absorption cooling system has shown a great driving force in today's refrigeration systems. This LiBr-water aabsorption cooling consists of five heat exchanger namely: Evaporator, Absorber, Solution Heat Exchanger, Generator, Condenser. The thermal design was done for a load of 23 kW and the procedure was described in the thesis. There are 120 servers in the IT POD emitting 196 W of heat each on full load and some of the heat was generated by the computer placed inside the IT POD. A detailed procedure has been discussed. A excel spreadsheet was to prepared with varying tube sizes to see the effect on flows and ultimately overall heat transfer coefficient.

  20. Characterizing water resources and trends of sector wise water consumptions in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhawat Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of water resources and trends of water consumptions is important to offer sustainable water resources management strategy. In this research, water resources and trends of water consumptions in Saudi Arabia were investigated. The non-renewable groundwater reserves were estimated to be 259.1–760.6 billion cubic meters (BCM with an effective annual recharge of 886 million cubic meters (MCM. The total internal renewable water was estimated to be 2.4 BCM/year. Approximately 1.4 BCM/year of runoff is collected by 302 dams. The country produces approximately 1.06 BCM desalinated water annually. The wastewater treatment plants treat approximately 0.73 BCM/year of domestic wastewater from which 0.33 BCM is recycled. The water demand in 2009 was 18.51 BCM in which 83.5% were for agriculture. From 2004 to 2009, agricultural water demand was decreased by 2.5%/year, while the domestic and industrial water demands were increased by 2.1%/year and 2.2%/year, respectively. Between 1999 and 2008, domestic water subscribers were increased by 22.7%, while the annual domestic water consumption was increased from 1391 (609–2164 to 3818 (1687–7404 m3/subscriber. The industrial water demands were increased from 56 to 713 MCM/year between 1980 and 2009. Following characterization, nonlinear equations were developed to predict the domestic, industrial and agricultural water demands. The predicted water demands were within 1–10% of the historically reported values. The findings might be useful in understanding water sources, water demands and identifying new sources for sustainable water resources management.

  1. Potential presence of trihalomethanes in water intended for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lasagna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s it is well known that, though water for human consumption must generally be disinfected before being distributed along the network, the use of chemicals results in the formation of many different Disinfeection By-Products (DBPs. In the case of chlorine-based disinfectants, trihalomethanes (THMs are the most widely studied: the present work first compares some national and international regulations on this subject, then, in the experimental part, compares the results of a test carried out by disinfecting water of different origin collected in three different Italian regions with different amounts of chlorine. Samples were stored at ambient temperature for seven days, then the determination of THMs was carrried out by Purge and Trap extraction coupled with gas cromatography with Electron Capture Detection (ECD. The result obtained are finally compared and discussed.

  2. Conceptual design of a passive moderator cooling system for a pressure tube type natural circulation boiling water cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mukesh [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Pal, Eshita, E-mail: eshi.pal@gmail.com [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Nayak, Arun K.; Vijayan, Pallipattu K. [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Passive moderator cooling system is designed to cool moderator passively during SBO. • PMCS is a system of two natural circulation loops, coupled via a heat exchanger. • RELAP5 analyses show that PMCS maintains moderator within safe limits for 7 days. - Abstract: The recent Fukushima accident has raised strong concern and apprehensions about the safety of reactors in case of a prolonged Station Black Out (SBO) continuing for several days. In view of this, a detailed study was performed simulating this condition in Advanced Heavy Water Reactor. In this study, a novel concept of moderator cooling by passive means has been introduced in the reactor design. The Passive Moderator Cooling System (PMCS) consists of a shell and tube heat exchanger designed to remove 2 MW heat from the moderator inside Calandria. The heat exchanger is located at a suitable elevation from the Calandria of the reactor, such that the hot moderator rises due to buoyancy into the heat exchanger and upon cooling from shell side water returns to Calandria forming a natural circulation loop. The shell side of the heat exchanger is also a natural circulation loop connected to an overhead large water reservoir, namely the GDWP. The objective of the PMCS is to remove the heat from the moderator in case of an SBO and maintaining its temperature below the permissible safe limit (100 °C) for at least 7 days. The paper first describes the concept of the PMCS. The concept has been assessed considering a prolonged SBO for at least 7 days, through an integrated analysis performed using the code RELAP5/MOD3.2 considering all the major components of the reactor. The analysis shows that the PMCS is able to maintain the moderator temperature below boiling conditions for 7 days.

  3. Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman van Oyen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency to align higher levels of fluoride in natural mineral water with the existing higher levels in tap water. Treatment of natural mineral waters could harm the preservation of their natural character. In this study fluoride intake through bottled and tap water consumption in the Belgian adult population was assessed, taking into account regional differences. A deterministic approach was used whereby consumption quantities of tap water and different brands of bottled water were linked with their respective fluoride concentrations. Data from the national food consumption survey (2004 were used and the Nusser methodology was applied to obtain usual intake estimates. Mean intake of fluoride through total water consumption in Flanders was 1.4±0.7 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 3.1 mg/day, while in the Walloon region it was on average 0.9±0.6 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 2.4 mg/day. The probability of exceeding the UL of 7 mg per day via a normal diet was estimated to be low. Consequently, there is no need to revise the existing norms, but higher fluoride concentrations should be more clearly indicated on the labels. Reliable data about total dietary fluoride intake in children, including intake of fluoride via tooth paste and food supplements, are needed.

  4. The water footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this paper is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the impacts

  5. Cooling water system thermal performance analysis using the COCO computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hom, J.; Jakub, R.M.; Durkosh, D.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Energy Systems Business Unit

    1996-10-01

    Westinghouse Energy Systems Business Unit (ESBU) has worked with electric utility personnel to analyze the thermal performance of essential cooling water systems at nuclear generating stations. The primary goal of these analyses has been to demonstrate the operability of the cooling water systems during postulated limiting post-accident operation. In previous cooling water system thermal analyses, peak containment operating conditions were generally used as input assuming steady-state conditions. This approach is conservative as it does not take into account the improvement in containment conditions and cooling water system temperatures over time. This approach can, also, lead to an inconsistent set of assumptions between the two distinct analyses which may result in overly conservative calculated system operating conditions. These conditions inevitably impose unnecessary restrictions on cooling water system operation. Over the last few years, Westinghouse ESBU has coupled both the containment integrity and the cooling water system thermal calculations into an integrated analysis. This allows the use of a consistent set of input parameters and assumptions in the calculation of limiting cooling water system operating conditions. This approach has been successfully used to increase system operating margins. This paper provides an overview of this coupled thermal analysis along with examples of where increased operating margins can be applied.

  6. Cooling Rates of Humans in Air and in Water: An Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2012-12-01

    In a previous article I analyzed in detail the physical factors resulting in greater cooling rates of objects in still water than in still air, emphasizing cooling of the human body. By cooling rate I mean the rate of decrease of core temperature uncompensated by metabolism. I concluded that the "correct ratio for humans is closer to 2 than to 10." To support this assertion I subsequently did experiments, which I report following a digression on hypothermia.

  7. Radiant Cooling for Closed-Loop Water Containment: Exploration of Possible Application in Dry Docks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Radiant Cooling For Closed-Loop Water Containment: Exploration of Possible Application in Dry Docks by Trevor R. Murphy, Mechanical...Organization: SPAWAR Sponsoring Organization: NESDI Keywords: Dry Dock Cooling, Heat Transfer, Closed Loop, Pipe System, Cost, Pareto List of Programs...provide data for estimating the cost of implementing a closed-loop radiant cooling system for ships in dry docks . Depending on the material used, pipe

  8. Water source heat pumps for greenhouse soil cooling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spieser, H.

    1987-06-01

    In an attempt to diversify and grow flowers which are in high demand, growers are looking to produce certain exotic flowers which require unique growing conditions. One example is the Alstroemerias also knwon as the Peruvian Lily. If the plants are grown continuously at about 12-15/sup 0/C soil temperature, the plant will continue to flower regardless of air temperature and photoriod. These latter two factors are considered secondary to the importance of cool soil temperatures. Alstroemeria production is still relatively new to the greenhouse industry. Some controversy still exists as to the direct benefits of planned soil cooling. This project was set up to evaluate a mechanical soil cooling system for continuous year round Alstroemeria production. A heat pump soil cooling system was installed in two greenhouses each with dimensions of 16 m by 61 m. Combined these greenhouses have a growing area of 1952 m/sup 2/. These greenhouses are older wooden greenhouses, covered by double poly, air-inflated glazing. This system worked very well, maintaining the soil temperature at the proper levels throughout the spring and summer months. During the rest of the year the soil cooling system is used less intensely. During winter months when soil cooling is not required, the heat pumps provide base load heating to the greenhouse through fan forced unit heaters.

  9. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su'ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2015-04-01

    Thorium has lately attracted considerable attention because it is accumulating as a by-product of large scale rare earth mining. The objective of research is to analyze transient behavior of a heavy water cooled thorium breeder that is designed by Tokai University and Tokyo Institute of Technology. That is oxide fueled, PWR type reactor with heavy water as primary coolant. An example of the optimized core has relatively small moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR) of 0.6 and the characteristics of the core are burn-up of 67 GWd/t, breeding ratio of 1.08, burn-up reactivity loss during cycles of nuclear reactor accidents types examined here is Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP) due to withdrawing of the control rod that result in the positive reactivity insertion so that the reactor power will increase rapidly. Another accident type is Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) that caused by failure of coolant pumps. To analyze the reactor accidents, neutron distribution calculation in the nuclear reactor is the most important factor. The best expression for the neutron distribution is the Boltzmann transport equation. However, solving this equation is very difficult so that the space-time diffusion equation is commonly used. Usually, space-time diffusion equation is solved by employing a point kinetics approach. However, this approach is less accurate for a spatially heterogeneous nuclear reactor and the nuclear reactor with quite large reactivity input. Direct method is therefore used to solve space-time diffusion equation which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference method is solved by using iterative methods. The indication of UTOP accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity, and ULOF accident is indicated by decreasing coolant flow. The power reactor has a peak value before reactor has new balance condition

  10. Evaluation of the initial and chronic phases of toxocariasis after consumption of liver treated by freezing or cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Gisele Ferreira; Pinto, Nitza Souto França; da Costa de Avila, Luciana Farias; de Lima Telmo, Paula; da Hora, Vanusa Pousada; Martins, Lourdes Helena Rodrigues; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Scaini, Carlos James

    2013-06-01

    Human toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis of worldwide distribution. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat and offal from paratenic hosts of the Toxocara canis nematode can cause infection in humans, but there have been a lack of studies examining specific prophylactic measures to combat this mode of transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment of infection by T. canis larvae at the initial and chronic phases of visceral toxocariasis after the consumption of mouse liver subjected to cold treatment. This study was divided into two stages using groups (G) of five donor mice inoculated with 2,000 eggs of T. canis. Two days post-inoculation, the livers of donor mice in G1 and G2 were kept at -20 °C and between 0 and 4 °C, respectively, for 10 days. In the first stage of the study, the livers of mice from G1, G2, and G3 (control) were subjected to a tissue digestion technique and found to be positive for infection. In the second stage, which evaluated infection in mice that had consumed livers from donor mice, receiver mice of G4 and G7 were fed with livers of donor mice from G1 (freezing), receiver mice of G5 and G8 were fed with livers of donor mice from G2 (cooling), and receiver mice of G6 and G9 with livers from G3 (control). Then, the tissue digestion technique was performed for recovering larvae from organs and carcasses of mice, at 2 days (G4, G5, and G6) and 60 days after liver consumption (G7, G8, and G9). It was observed that freezing inhibited the viability of 100 % of the larvae, while cooling promoted 87.7 and 95.7 % reductions in the intensity of infection at 2 and 60 days after liver consumption, respectively. Under the studied conditions, cold treatment shows great potential to help control this parasitosis, both in the initial and chronic phases of toxocariasis.

  11. A novel method to design water spray cooling system to protect floating roof atmospheric storage tanks against fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon bulk storage tank fires are not very common, but their protection is essential due to severe consequences of such fires. Water spray cooling system is one of the most effective ways to reduce damages to a tank from a fire. Many codes and standards set requirements and recommendations to maximize the efficiency of water spray cooling systems, but these are widely different and still various interpretations and methods are employed to design such systems. This article provides a brief introduction to some possible design methods of cooling systems for protection of storage tanks against external non-contacting fires and introduces a new method namely “Linear Density Method” and compares the results from this method to the “Average Method” which is currently in common practice. The average Method determines the flow rate for each spray nozzle by dividing the total water demand by the number of spray nozzles while the Linear Density Method determines the nozzle flow rate based on the actual flow over the surface to be protected. The configuration of the system includes a one million barrel crude oil floating roof tank to be protected and which is placed one half tank diameter from a similar adjacent tank with a full surface fire. Thermal radiation and hydraulics are modeled using DNV PHAST Version 6.53 and Sunrise PIPENET Version 1.5.0.2722 software respectively. Spray nozzles used in design are manufactured by Angus Fire and PNR Nozzles companies. Schedule 40 carbon steel pipe is used for piping. The results show that the cooling system using the Linear Density Method consumes 3.55% more water than the design using the average method assuming a uniform application rate of 4.1 liters per minute. Despite higher water consumption the design based on Linear Density Method alleviates the problems associated with the Average Method and provides better protection.

  12. Study on chemical control indicators for circulating cooling systems water chemistry at power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Кишневский, Виктор Афанасьевич; Чиченин, Вадим Валентинович

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of applied stability indices, used for water chemistry control of circulating cooling systems at TPP and NPP is given in the paper.The spectrum of controlled indicators of circulating and make-up water during long-term operation of various water chemistries on scale models of circulating cooling systems at TPP and NPP is investigated.The results of chemical control of water chemistry with dosing mineral acid to make-up water and acrylic water chemistry without dosing mineral acid ...

  13. Agricultural green and blue water consumption and its influence on the global water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Stefanie; Gerten, Dieter; Bondeau, Alberte; Lucht, Wolfgang; Rohwer, Janine; Schaphoff, Sibyll

    2008-09-01

    This study quantifies, spatially explicitly and in a consistent modeling framework (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land), the global consumption of both "blue" water (withdrawn for irrigation from rivers, lakes and aquifers) and "green" water (precipitation) by rainfed and irrigated agriculture and by nonagricultural terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, the individual effects of human-induced land cover change and irrigation were quantified to assess the overall hydrological impact of global agriculture in the past century. The contributions to irrigation of nonrenewable (fossil groundwater) and nonlocal blue water (e.g., from diverted rivers) were derived from the difference between a simulation in which these resources were implicitly considered (IPOT) and a simulation in which they were neglected (ILIM). We found that global cropland consumed >7200 km3 year-1 of green water in 1971-2000, representing 92% (ILIM) and 85% (IPOT), respectively, of total crop water consumption. Even on irrigated cropland, 35% (ILIM) and 20% (IPOT) of water consumption consisted of green water. An additional 8155 km3 year-1 of green water was consumed on grazing land; a further ˜44,700 km3 year-1 sustained the ecosystems. Blue water consumption predominated only in intensively irrigated regions and was estimated at 636 km3 year-1 (ILIM) and 1364 km3 year-1 (IPOT) globally, suggesting that presently almost half of the irrigation water stemmed from nonrenewable and nonlocal sources. Land cover conversion reduced global evapotranspiration by 2.8% and increased discharge by 5.0% (1764 km3 year-1), whereas irrigation increased evapotranspiration by up to 1.9% and decreased discharge by 0.5% at least (IPOT, 1971-2000). The diverse water fluxes displayed considerable interannual and interdecadal variability due to climatic variations and the progressive increase of the global area under cultivation and irrigation.

  14. Heat transfer enhancement in a natural draft dry cooling tower under crosswind operation with heterogeneous water distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Mohsen; Amooie, Hossein [Bu-Ali Sina Univ., Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-04-15

    Crosswind significantly decreases cooling efficiency of a natural draft dry cooling tower. The possibility of improving cooling efficiency with heterogeneous water distribution within the cooling tower radiators under crosswind condition is analysed. A CFD approach was used to model the flow field and heat transfer phenomena within the cooling tower and airflow surrounding the cooling tower. A mathematical model was developed from various CFD results. Having used a trained Genetic Algorithm with the result of mathematical model, the best water distribution was found among the others. Remodeling the best water distribution with the CFD approach showed that the highest enhancement of the heat transfer compared to the usual uniform water distribution.

  15. Water mist effect on cooling range and efficiency of casting die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Władysiak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This project is showing investigation results of cooling process of casting die in the temperature range 570÷100 °C with 0.40 MPa compressed air and water mist streamed under pressure 0.25÷0.45 MPa in air jet 0.25÷0.50 MPa using open cooling system.The character and the speed of changes of temperature, forming of the temperture’s gradient along parallel layer to cooled surface of die is shawing with thermal and derivative curves. The effect of kind of cooling factor on the temperature and time and distance from cooling nozzle is presented in the paper. A designed device for generating the water mist cooling the die and the view of sprying water stream is shown here. It’s proved that using of the water mist together with the change of heat transfer interface increases intensity of cooling in the zone and makes less the range cooling zone and reduces the porosity of cast microstructure.

  16. Optimization Tool for Direct Water Cooling System of High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    important issue for thermal design engineers. This paper aims to present a user friendly optimization tool for direct water cooling system of a high power module which enables the cooling system designer to identify the optimized solution depending on customer load profiles and available pump power. CFD...

  17. Water vapour rises from the cooling towers for the ATLAS detector at Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    Electronics on the ATLAS detector produce heat when the experiment is running. An elaborate cooling system keeps the detector from overheating. On the surface, the warm water vapour that rises from the detector 100metres underground is clearly visible from the ATLAS cooling towers on the CERN Meyrin site in Switzerland.

  18. Effects of Tillage Practices on Water Consumption, Water Use Efifciency and Grain Yield in Wheat Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Cheng-yan; YU Zhen-wen; SHI Yu; CUI Shi-ming; WANG Dong; ZHANG Yong-li; ZHAO Jun-ye

    2014-01-01

    Water shortage is a serious issue threatening the sustainable development of agriculture in the North China Plain, with the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as its largest water-consuming crop. The effects of tillage practices on the water consumption and water use efifciency (WUE) of wheat under high-yield conditions using supplemental irrigation based on testing soil moisture dynamic change were examined in this study. This experiment was conducted from 2007 to 2010, with ifve tillage practice treatments, namely, strip rotary tillage (SR), strip rotary tillage after subsoiling (SRS), rotary tillage (R), rotary tillage after subsoiling (RS), and plowing tillage (P). The results showed that in the SRS and RS treatments the total water and soil water consumptions were 11.81, 25.18%and 12.16, 14.75%higher than those in SR and R treatments, respectively. The lowest ratio of irrigation consumption to total water consumption in the SRS treatment was 18.53 and 21.88%for the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 growing seasons, respectively. However, the highest percentage of water consumption was found in the SRS treatment from anthesis to maturity. No signiifcant difference was found between the WUE of the lfag leaf at the later iflling stage in the SRS and RS treatments, but the lfag leaf WUE at these stages were higher than those of other treatments. The SRS and RS treatments exhibited the highest grain yield (9 573.76 and 9 507.49 kg ha-1 for 3-yr average) with no signiifcant difference between the two treatments, followed by P, R and SR treatments. But the SRS treatment had the highest WUE. Thus, the 1-yr subsoiling tillage, plus 2 yr of strip rotary planting operation may be an efifcient measure to increase wheat yield and WUE.

  19. 75 FR 71177 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... notice lists the projects, described ] below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of...

  20. Study on the Influence of the Cold-End Cooling Water Thickness on the Generative Performance of TEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Guo, Xuexun; Tan, Gangfeng; Ji, Kangping; Xiao, Longjie

    2016-11-01

    At present, about 40% of the fuel energy is discharged into air with the exhaust gas when an automobile is working, which is a big waste of energy. A thermoelectric generator (TEG) has the ability to harvest the waste heat energy in the exhaust gas. The traditional TEG cold-end is cooled by the engine cooling system, and although its structure is compact, the TEG weight and the space occupied are important factors restricting its application. In this paper, under the premise of ensuring the TEG maximum net output power and reducing the TEG water consumption as much as possible, the optimization of the TEG water thickness in the normal direction of the cold-end surface (WTNCS) is studied, which results in lighter weight, less space occupied and better automobile fuel economy. First, the thermal characteristics of the target diesel vehicle exhaust gas are evaluated based on the experimental data. Then, according to the thermoelectric generation model and the cold-end heat transfer model, the effect of the WTNCS on the cold-end temperature control stability and the system flow resistance are studied. The results show that the WTNCS influences the TEG cold-end temperature. When the engine works in a stable condition, the cold-end temperature decreases with the decrease of the WTNCS. The optimal value of the WTNCS is 0.02 m and the TEG water consumption is 8.8 L. Comparin it with the traditional vehicle exhaust TEG structure, the power generation increased slightly, but the water consumption decreased by about 39.5%, which can save fuel at0.18 L/h when the vehicle works at the speed of 60 km/h.

  1. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  2. Water consumption and water-saving characteristics of a ground cover rice production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xinxin; Zuo, Qiang; Ma, Wenwen; Li, Sen; Shi, Jianchu; Tao, Yueyue; Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiaofei; Lin, Shan; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-09-01

    The ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) offers a potentially water-saving alternative to the traditional paddy rice production system (TPRPS) by furrow irrigating mulched soil beds and maintaining soils under predominately unsaturated conditions. The guiding hypothesis of this study was that a GCRPS would decrease both physiological and non-physiological water consumption of rice compared to a TPRPS while either maintaining or enhancing production. This was tested in a two-year field experiment with three treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat keeping root zone average soil water content near saturated, and GCRPS80% keeping root zone average soil water content as 80-100% of field water capacity) and a greenhouse experiment with four treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat, GCRPSfwc keeping root zone average soil water content close to field water capacity, and GCRPS80%). The water-saving characteristics of GCRPS were analyzed as a function of the measured soil water conditions, plant parameters regarding growth and production, and water input and consumption. In the field experiment, significant reduction in both physiological and non-physiological water consumption under GCRPS lead to savings in irrigation water of ∼61-84% and reduction in total input water of ∼35-47%. Compared to TPRPS, deep drainage was reduced ∼72-88%, evaporation was lessened ∼83-89% and transpiration was limited ∼6-10% under GCRPS. In addition to saving water, plant growth and grain yield were enhanced under GCRPS due to increased soil temperature in the root zone. Therefore, water use efficiencies (WUEs), based on transpiration, irrigation and total input water, were respectively improved as much as 27%, 609% and 110% under GCRPS. Increased yield attributed to up to ∼19%, decreased deep drainage accounted for ∼75%, decreased evaporation accounted for ∼14% and reduced transpiration for ∼5% of the enhancement in WUE of input water under GCRPS, while increased runoff and water storage had

  3. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

    2013-09-30

    Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive

  4. Energy and water consumption of Pacific Northwest irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.D.; Wensink, R.B.; Wolfe, J.W.; Shearer, M.N.

    1977-09-01

    Irrigation in the Pacific Northwest is an energy-intensive process which represents a major part of the total energy used in farm level food production. Since 1950, several major developments have precipitated pronounced increases in irrigation energy requirements. For example, the invention of efficient high-lift pumps, labor-saving equipment, new uses for irrigation sprinklers, and profitable cropping patterns have substantially escalated irrigation energy consumption in the Pacific Northwest in the past 25 years. Until recently, energy prices have remained relatively low and constant. The next 25 years will continue to experience advanced irrigation technologies. In addition to technological development, however, the cost of energy and water will certainly rise while their availabilities become increasingly constrained. The depletion of ground water in several parts of the United States could also potentially increase the irrigation burden of the Pacific Northwest. Lastly, parts of the Pacific Northwest water supply are directly convertible to energy via hydroelectric generation. This study proposes to make realistic projections relative to present and future interactions of the above components.

  5. Control of modiolid mussels in cooling water systems by continuous chlorination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajagopal, S.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Velde, G. van der; Jenner, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Modiolid mussels such as Modiolus philippinarum and Modiolus metcalfei constitute a numerically significant group in fouling communities, especially in tropical and subtropical industrial cooling water systems. Nevertheless, there are hardly any published reports on the tolerance of these

  6. Control of modiolid mussels in cooling water systems by continuous chlorination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajagopal, S.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Velde, G. van der; Jenner, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Modiolid mussels such as Modiolus philippinarum and Modiolus metcalfei constitute a numerically significant group in fouling communities, especially in tropical and subtropical industrial cooling water systems. Nevertheless, there are hardly any published reports on the tolerance of these

  7. Predictors of Drinking Water Boiling and Bottled Water Consumption in Rural China: A Hierarchical Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alasdair; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Qing; Tao, Yong; Colford, John M; Ray, Isha

    2017-06-20

    Approximately two billion people drink unsafe water. Boiling is the most commonly used household water treatment (HWT) method globally and in China. HWT can make water safer, but sustained adoption is rare and bottled water consumption is growing. To successfully promote HWT, an understanding of associated socioeconomic factors is critical. We collected survey data and water samples from 450 rural households in Guangxi Province, China. Covariates were grouped into blocks to hierarchically construct modified Poisson models and estimate risk ratios (RR) associated with boiling methods, bottled water, and untreated water. Female-headed households were most likely to boil (RR = 1.36, p boiled. Our findings show that boiling is not an undifferentiated practice, but one with different methods of varying effectiveness, environmental impact, and adoption across socioeconomic strata. Our results can inform programs to promote safer and more efficient boiling using electric kettles, and suggest that if rural China's economy continues to grow then bottled water use will increase.

  8. Quantifying the influence of environmental and water conservation attitudes on household end use water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Rachelle M; Stewart, Rodney A; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Williams, Philip R; Hollingsworth, Anna L

    2011-08-01

    Within the research field of urban water demand management, understanding the link between environmental and water conservation attitudes and observed end use water consumption has been limited. Through a mixed method research design incorporating field-based smart metering technology and questionnaire surveys, this paper reveals the relationship between environmental and water conservation attitudes and a domestic water end use break down for 132 detached households located in Gold Coast city, Australia. Using confirmatory factor analysis, attitudinal factors were developed and refined; households were then categorised based on these factors through cluster analysis technique. Results indicated that residents with very positive environmental and water conservation attitudes consumed significantly less water in total and across the behaviourally influenced end uses of shower, clothes washer, irrigation and tap, than those with moderately positive attitudinal concern. The paper concluded with implications for urban water demand management planning, policy and practice.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF AN ATMOSPHERIC COOLING TOWER USING FRESH AND SALTED WATER

    OpenAIRE

    A. Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Cooling towers are extensively used to evacuate large quantities of heat at modest temperatures through a change of phase of the flowing cooling fluid. Based on this classical principle, the present study investigates the influence of salty water on the heat exchange produced. For that purpose, experiments are carried out using fresh and salty water. Furthermore, a comparison with the results produced through an approach involving the solution of energy equation involving the flow...

  10. Promotion of water consumption in elementary school children in San Diego, USA and Tlaltizapan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, John P; Holub, Christina K; Arredondo, Elva M; Sánchez-Romero, Luz María; Moreno-Saracho, Jessica E; Barquera, Simón; Rivera, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of water may help promote health and prevent obesity in children by decreasing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. This study used evidence-based strategies to increase water consumption in Mexican-American and Mexican children. In 2012, two schools in San Diego, USA and two other in Tlaltizapan, Mexico were recruited to Agua para Niños (Water for Kids), a program designed to promote water consumption among elementary grade students. Guided by operant psychology, the intervention focused on school and classroom activities to encourage water consumption. One control and one intervention school in each country were included. Agua para Niños resulted in increases in observed water consumption and bottle possession among US and Mexican students. Teacher receptivity to the program was very positive in both countries. Agua para Niños yielded sufficiently positive behavioral changes to be used in a future fully randomized design, and to contribute to school nutrition policy changes.

  11. 78 FR 2315 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ...: Kupetsky, ABR-201211010, Nicholson Township, Wyoming County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of Up to 7.500 mgd..., Nicholson Township, Wyoming County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of Up to 3.575 mgd; Approval Date: November...

  12. Heat transfer analysis during cooling of die with use of water mist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Władysiak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the heat transfer area during the cooling process of steel test die with water mist which consist the flow of air in the range 150÷350 l/min and 0.05 0.24 l/min of water. Temperature change in the thickness of die by means showing with the thermal curves and the temperature gradient and temperature distribution in the space between the nozzle and the cooled surface of the metal mold using a thermal imaging camera and thermocouples measurement. The course of changes in the temperature gradient and the received heat flux from the die while cooling its with the flow of air and water mist stream. It has been shown that the use of water mist with a variable flow of air and water controls the process of heat transfer process between the permanent molds, and a stream of water mist.

  13. The water footprint of coffee and tea consumption in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2007-01-01

    A cup of coffee or tea in our hand means manifold consumption of water at the production location. The objective of this study is to assess the global water footprint of the Dutch society in relation to its coffee and tea consumption. The calculation is carried out based on the crop water

  14. The water footprint of coffee and tea consumption in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2007-01-01

    A cup of coffee or tea in our hand means manifold consumption of water at the production location. The objective of this study is to assess the global water footprint of the Dutch society in relation to its coffee and tea consumption. The calculation is carried out based on the crop water requiremen

  15. Food consumption patterns and their effect on water requirement in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that food consumption patterns significantly impact water requirements. The aim of this paper is to quantify how food consumption patterns influence water requirements in China. The findings show that per capita water requirement for food (CWRF) has increased from 255 m3 cap-

  16. The real water consumption behind drinking water: the case of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolucci, V; Botto, S; Rugani, B; Nicolardi, V; Bastianoni, S; Gaggi, C

    2011-10-01

    The real amount of drinking water available per capita is a topic of great interest for human health and the economic and political management of resources. The global market of bottled drinking water, for instance, has shown exponential growth in the last twenty years, mainly due to reductions in production costs and investment in promotion. This paper aims to evaluate how much freshwater is actually consumed when water is drunk in Italy, which can be considered a mature bottled-water market. A Water Footprint (WF) calculation was used to compare the alternatives: bottled and tap water. Six Italian brands of water sold in PET bottles were inventoried, analysed and compared with the public tap water of the city of Siena, as representative of the Italian context. Results showed that more than 3 L of water were needed to provide consumers with 1.50 L of drinking water. In particular, a volume of 1.50 L of PET-bottled water required an extra virtual volume of 1.93 L of water while an extra 2.13 L was necessary to supply the same volume of tap water. These values had very different composition and origin. The WF of tap water was mainly due to losses of water during pipeline distribution and usage, while WF of bottled water was greatly influenced by the production of plastic materials. When the contribution of cooling water was added to the calculation, the WF of bottled water rose from 3.43 to 6.92 L. Different strategies to reduce total water footprint are discussed.

  17. Water cooled breeder program summary report (LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) development program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of the Department of Energy Water Cooled Breeder Program was to demonstrate pratical breeding in a uranium-233/thorium fueled core while producing electrical energy in a commercial water reactor generating station. A demonstration Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was successfully operated for more than 29,000 effective full power hours in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The reactor operated with an availability factor of 76% and had a gross electrical output of 2,128,943,470 kilowatt hours. Following operation, the expended core was examined and no evidence of any fuel element defects was found. Nondestructive assay of 524 fuel rods determined that 1.39 percent more fissile fuel was present at the end of core life than at the beginning, proving that breeding had occurred. This demonstrates the existence of a vast source of electrical energy using plentiful domestic thorium potentially capable of supplying the entire national need for many centuries. To build on the successful design and operation of the Shippingport Breeder Core and to provide the technology to implement this concept, several reactor designs of large breeders and prebreeders were developed for commercial-sized plants of 900--1000 Mw(e) net. This report summarizes the Water Cooled Breeder Program from its inception in 1965 to its completion in 1987. Four hundred thirty-six technical reports are referenced which document the work conducted as part of this program. This work demonstrated that the Light Water Breeder Reactor is a viable alternative as a PWR replacement in the next generation of nuclear reactors. This transition would only require a minimum of change in design and fabrication of the reactor and operation of the plant.

  18. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Wastewater Generation Impacts of a Marcellus Shale Gas Well

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Mohan; Hendrickson, Chris T.; VanBriesen, Jeanne M.

    2013-01-01

    This study estimates the life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well from its construction to end of life. Direct water consumption at the well site was assessed by analysis of data from approximately 500 individual well completion reports collected in 2010 by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Indirect water consumption for supply chain production at each life cycle stage of the well was estimated using the econ...

  19. Drinking water consumption patterns among adults-SMS as a novel tool for collection of repeated self-reported water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säve-Söderbergh, Melle; Toljander, Jonas; Mattisson, Irene; Åkesson, Agneta; Simonsson, Magnus

    2017-06-14

    Studies have shown that the average drinking water consumption ranges between 0.075 and 3 L/day for adults with both national and regional differences. For exposure assessment of drinking water hazards, country-specific drinking water consumption data including sources of the consumed water may therefore be warranted. To estimate the amount and source of drinking water consumed among adults in Sweden, we collected self-reported estimates using both traditional methods (telephone interviews, web questionnaire) and a novel method (Short Message Service, SMS questionnaires) in a population from an average sized Swedish municipality. Monthly SMS questionnaires were sent out during one year to obtain longitudinal information as well. SMS showed to be a promising tool for collecting self-reported consumption, as most citizens could participate and the method showed high response rate. Data collected via the SMS questionnaire shows an average consumption of cold tap water of 4.9 glasses/24 h (one glass=200 ml), while the average estimates of cold tap water collected by the traditional methods range from 4.5 to 7.0 glasses/24 h. For statistical distributions, the mean daily consumption of cold tap water for the population was best fitted to a gamma distribution. About 70% of the cold tap water is consumed at home. Based on the results from the SMS study, we suggest using 1 l/day for the average adult population and 2.5 l/day for high consumers for risk assessment of cold tap water consumption. As 46% of the tap water consumed is heated, we suggest using 1.85 l/day for total tap water consumption.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 14 June 2017; doi:10.1038/jes.2017.8.

  20. Implications of Transitioning from De Facto to Engineered Water Reuse for Power Plant Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Zachary A; Stillwell, Ashlynn S

    2016-05-17

    Thermoelectric power plants demand large quantities of cooling water, and can use alternative sources like treated wastewater (reclaimed water); however, such alternatives generate many uncertainties. De facto water reuse, or the incidental presence of wastewater effluent in a water source, is common at power plants, representing baseline conditions. In many cases, power plants would retrofit open-loop systems to cooling towers to use reclaimed water. To evaluate the feasibility of reclaimed water use, we compared hydrologic and economic conditions at power plants under three scenarios: quantified de facto reuse, de facto reuse with cooling tower retrofits, and modeled engineered reuse conditions. We created a genetic algorithm to estimate costs and model optimal conditions. To assess power plant performance, we evaluated reliability metrics for thermal variances and generation capacity loss as a function of water temperature. Applying our analysis to the greater Chicago area, we observed high de facto reuse for some power plants and substantial costs for retrofitting to use reclaimed water. Conversely, the gains in reliability and performance through engineered reuse with cooling towers outweighed the energy investment in reclaimed water pumping. Our analysis yields quantitative results of reclaimed water feasibility and can inform sustainable management of water and energy.

  1. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and

  2. Thermal and electrical energy yield analysis of a directly water cooled photovoltaic module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtunzi Busiso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy of photovoltaic modules drops by 0.5% for each degree increase in temperature. Direct water cooling of photovoltaic modules was found to give improved electrical and thermal yield. A prototype was put in place to analyse the field data for a period of a year. The results showed an initial high performance ratio and electrical power output. The monthly energy saving efficiency of the directly water cooled module was found to be approximately 61%. The solar utilisation of the naturally cooled photovoltaic module was found to be 8.79% and for the directly water cooled module its solar utilisation was 47.93%. Implementation of such systems on households may reduce the load from the utility company, bring about huge savings on electricity bills and help in reducing carbon emissions.

  3. Analysis of Time-Dependent Tritium Breeding Capability of Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaokang; Pu, Yong; Zhu, Qingjun; Liu, Songlin

    2016-08-01

    Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is an important mission for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) operating on a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fuel cycle. It is necessary to study the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and breeding tritium inventory variation with operation time so as to provide an accurate data for dynamic modeling and analysis of the tritium fuel cycle. A water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket is one candidate of blanket concepts for the CFETR. Based on the detailed 3D neutronics model of CFETR with the WCCB blanket, the time-dependent TBR and tritium surplus were evaluated by a coupling calculation of the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the fusion activation code FISPACT-2007. The results indicated that the TBR and tritium surplus of the WCCB blanket were a function of operation time and fusion power due to the Li consumption in breeder and material activation. In addition, by comparison with the results calculated by using the 3D neutronics model and employing the transfer factor constant from 1D to 3D, it is noted that 1D analysis leads to an over-estimation for the time-dependent tritium breeding capability when fusion power is larger than 1000 MW. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2015GB108002, and 2014GB119000), and by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  4. Micro-components survey of residential indoor water consumption in Chiang Mai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Aramaki

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The direct measurement of the micro-components of water consumption (i.e., consumption by each residential activity, such as toilet-, laundry-, bath-, and kitchen-use, both in the dry season and in the rainy season, was conducted in Chiang Mai, Thailand. It was expected that rainfall differences between the dry and rainy season would influence awareness for water resources so that water consumption in the dry season would be smaller than that in the rainy season. In addition, it was examined whether the differences in water resources such as public waterworks or non-public waterworks (i.e., community waterworks, mountainous water and groundwater, affected the amount of water use. A small-sized accumulative water meter was developed for measurement. This survey provides important information for water demand estimations and water supply planning in middle-developed countries where water consumption is expected to increase in future.

  5. Micro-components survey of residential indoor water consumption in Chiang Mai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Aramaki

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The direct measurement of the micro-components of water consumption (i.e., consumption by each residential activity, such as toilet, laundry, bath, and kitchen both in the dry season and in the rainy season was conducted in Chiang Mai, Thailand. It was expected that rainfall differences between the dry and rainy season could influence awareness for water resources so that water consumption in the dry season may be smaller than that in the rainy season. It was also examined that whether the differences in water resources such as public waterworks or non-public waterworks like community waterworks, mountainous water and groundwater, affect the water use amount. A small-sized accumulative water meter was developed for measurement. This survey can provide the important information for water demand estimation and water supply planning in middle-developed countries where their water consumption should be expected to increase from here on.

  6. Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF) neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] - 9/10) with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. ...

  7. Preparation of semi-solid aluminum alloy slurry poured through a water-cooled serpentine channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng-Zhou; Mao, Wei-Min; Wu, Zong-Chuang

    2012-01-01

    A water-cooled serpentine channel pouring process was invented to produce semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy slurry for rheocasting, and the effects of pouring temperature and circulating cooling water flux on the microstructure of the slurry were investigated. The results show that at the pouring temperature of 640-680°C and the circulating cooling water flux of 0.9 m3/h, the semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy slurry with spherical primary α(Al) grains can be obtained, whose shape factors are between 0.78 and 0.86 and the grain diameter can reach 48-68 μm. When the pouring temperatures are at 660-680°C, only a very thin solidified shell remains inside the serpentine channel and can be removed easily. When the serpentine channel is cooled with circulating water, the microstructure of the semi-solid slurry can be improved, and the serpentine channel is quickly cooled to room temperature after the completion of one pouring. In terms of the productivity of the special equipment, the water-cooled serpentine channel is economical and efficient.

  8. 78 FR 63516 - Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors AGENCY... Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors.'' This RG describes testing methods the NRC staff considers acceptable for demonstrating the operability of emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) for boiling...

  9. Summary of research and development effort on air and water cooling of gas turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraas, A.P.

    1980-03-01

    The review on air- and water-cooled gas turbines from the 1904 Lemale-Armengaud water-cooled gas turbine, the 1948 to 1952 NACA work, and the program at GE indicates that the potential of air cooling has been largely exploited in reaching temperatures of 1100/sup 0/C (approx. 2000/sup 0/F) in utility service and that further increases in turbine inlet temperature may be obtained with water cooling. The local heat flux in the first-stage turbine rotor with water cooling is very high, yielding high-temperature gradients and severe thermal stresses. Analyses and tests indicate that by employing a blade with an outer cladding of an approx. 1-mm-thick oxidation-resistant high-nickel alloy, a sublayer of a high-thermal-conductivity, high-strength, copper alloy containing closely spaced cooling passages approx. 2 mm in ID to minimize thermal gradients, and a central high-strength alloy structural spar, it appears possible to operate a water-cooled gas turbine with an inlet gas temperature of 1370/sup 0/C. The cooling-water passages must be lined with an iron-chrome-nickel alloy must be bent 90/sup 0/ to extend in a neatly spaced array through the platform at the base of the blade. The complex geometry of the blade design presents truly formidable fabrication problems. The water flow rate to each of many thousands of coolant passages must be metered and held to within rather close limits because the heat flux is so high that a local flow interruption of only a few seconds would lead to a serious failure.Heat losses to the cooling water will run approx. 10% of the heat from the fuel. By recoverying this waste heat for feedwater heating in a command cycle, these heat losses will give a degradation in the power plant output of approx. 5% relative to what might be obtained if no cooling were required. However, the associated power loss is less than half that to be expected with an elegant air cooling system.

  10. Improving of the photovoltaic / thermal system performance using water cooling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussien, Hashim A.; Numan, Ali H.; Abdulmunem, Abdulmunem R.

    2015-04-01

    This work is devoted to improving the electrical efficiency by reducing the rate of thermal energy of a photovoltaic/thermal system (PV/T).This is achieved by design cooling technique which consists of a heat exchanger and water circulating pipes placed at PV module rear surface to solve the problem of the high heat stored inside the PV cells during the operation. An experimental rig is designed to investigate and evaluate PV module performance with the proposed cooling technique. This cooling technique is the first work in Iraq to dissipate the heat from PV module. The experimental results indicated that due to the heat loss by convection between water and the PV panel's upper surface, an increase of output power is achieved. It was found that without active cooling, the temperature of the PV module was high and solar cells could only achieve a conversion efficiency of about 8%. However, when the PV module was operated under active water cooling condition, the temperature was dropped from 76.8°C without cooling to 70.1°C with active cooling. This temperature dropping led to increase in the electrical efficiency of solar panel to 9.8% at optimum mass flow rate (0.2L/s) and thermal efficiency to (12.3%).

  11. Withdrawal and consumption of water by thermoelectric power plants in the United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of water use at thermoelectric plants were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey based on linked heat and water budgets, and complement reported thermoelectric water withdrawals and consumption. The heat- and water-budget models produced withdrawal and consumption estimates, including thermodynamically plausible ranges of minimum and maximum withdrawal and consumption, for 1,290 water-using plants in the United States for 2010. Total estimated withdrawal for 2010 was about 129 billion gallons per day (Bgal/d), and total estimated consumption was about 3.5 Bgal/d. In contrast, total withdrawal reported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), was about 24 percent higher than the modeled estimates, and total EIA-reported consumption was about 8 percent lower. Most thermoelectric generation in 2010 was not associated with thermodynamically plausible EIA-reported values of both withdrawal and consumption.

  12. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

  13. Water treatment in public swimming pools - reduction of energy consumption; Vandbehandling i svoemmebade - reduktion af energiforbrug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerich, H.; Radisch, N. (Ramboell, Koege (Denmark)); Olesen, Jens Christian (Gladsaxe Sportscenter, Gladsaxe (Denmark)) (and others)

    2010-04-15

    Measurements were made in five public swimming baths, and energy savings were achieved using new filters, pumps, water treatment control depending on bather load, etc. In a 50 metre pool, electricity consumption for water treatment decreased by 50%, and in a hot-water/paddling pool, electricity consumption decreased by 30-40% while still maintaining satisfactory water quality - even during periods of heavy bather load. In another swimming bath, ventilation electricity consumption was reduced by 15%. The results will e.g. be used to revise the Danish executive order on swimming pools and water quality to allow bather load-dependent water circulation. (ln)

  14. Operational Experience of Cooling Water Systems for Accelerator Components at PLS

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyungryul; Kim, Young-Chan; Lee, Bongho; Sik Han, Hong; Soo Ko In; Wha Chung, Chin

    2005-01-01

    The cooling water system has been utilized for absorbing heat generated by a multitude of electromagnetic power delivering networks at PLS. The separate cooling water distribution systems for the storage ring, beam transport line and linear accelerator have been operated with a different operating temperature of supplying water. All water used for heat removal from the accelerator components are deionised and filtered to provide with over 2 MO-cm specific resistance. The operating pressures and flows of input water are also controlled with flow balancing scheme at a specified range. The operating temperature of components in the accelerator is sustained as tight as below ±0.1 deg C to minimize the influence of temperature fluctuation on the beam energy and stability. Although the PLS cooling systems were initially installed with a high degree of flexibility to allow for easy maintenance, a number of system improvements have been employed to enhance operational reliability and to incorporate the newly...

  15. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently

  16. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 6; Computed Temperature Distribution Through Cross Section of Water-Cooled Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingood, John N. B.; Sams, Eldon W.

    1947-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the cross-sectional temperature distribution of a water-cooled turbine blade was made using the relaxation method to solve the differential equation derived from the analysis. The analysis was applied to specific turbine blade and the studies icluded investigations of the accuracy of simple methods to determine the temperature distribution along the mean line of the rear part of the blade, of the possible effect of varying the perimetric distribution of the hot gas-to -metal heat transfer coefficient, and of the effect of changing the thermal conductivity of the blade metal for a constant cross sectional area blade with two quarter inch diameter coolant passages.

  17. Startup of Pumping Units in Process Water Supplies with Cooling Towers at Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, V. V., E-mail: vberlin@rinet.ru; Murav’ev, O. A., E-mail: muraviov1954@mail.ru; Golubev, A. V., E-mail: electronik@inbox.ru [National Research University “Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Aspects of the startup of pumping units in the cooling and process water supply systems for thermal and nuclear power plants with cooling towers, the startup stages, and the limits imposed on the extreme parameters during transients are discussed.

  18. Cooling tower for the cooling water that drains from the condensor of a steam generator or the condensors of a plurality of steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorzyk, S.; Scholl, G.; Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.

    1989-09-05

    This invention relates to a cooling tower for the cooling water that drains from the condenser of a steam generator or from the condensers of a plurality of steam generators. The tower is fitted with large-area inserts and these form a heat-exchange area into which the cooling water is passed. A rising flow of air passes through this zone in counterflow to the cooling water. The cooling tower is provided with a smoke-gas feed to introduce cleaned, preferably wet-cleaned, smoke gas into the flow of cooling air, which is connected to a plurality of gas outlet pipes. The outlet cross-sections of those pipes open out into the cooling tower above the heat-exchange zone. In order to improve the introduction of the cleaned smoke gases into the flow of cooling air within a cooling tower, this invention proposes that rotors be provided in the gas outlet pipes in the area of their outlet cross-sections. To this end, it is also possible to make each gas outlet pipe rotatable about its longitudinal axis, the angle of inclination of the gas outlet pipes being variable.

  19. Calculation of Radioactivity and Dose Rate of Activated Corrosion Products in Water-Cooled Fusion Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In water-cooled reactor, the dominant radioactive source term under normal operation is activated corrosion products (ACPs, which have an important impact on reactor inspection and maintenance. A three-node transport model of ACPs was introduced into the new version of ACPs source term code CATE in this paper, which makes CATE capable of theoretically simulating the variation and the distribution of ACPs in a water-cooled reactor and suitable for more operating conditions. For code testing, MIT PWR coolant chemistry loop was simulated, and the calculation results from CATE are close to the experimental results from MIT, which means CATE is available and credible on ACPs analysis of water-cooled reactor. Then ACPs in the blanket cooling loop of water-cooled fusion reactor ITER under construction were analyzed using CATE and the results showed that the major contributors are the short-life nuclides, especially Mn-56. At last a point kernel integration code ARShield was coupled with CATE, and the dose rate around ITER blanket cooling loop was calculated. Results showed that after shutting down the reactor only for 8 days, the dose rate decreased nearly one order of magnitude, which was caused by the rapid decay of the short-life ACPs.

  20. The cool state of water: Infrared insights into ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    Water is an extraordinary substance. It owes its characteristic anomalous properties to a network of strong hydrogen bonds present between water molecules. In ice, water molecules hold regular positions in the crystal. Nevertheless, the behaviour of ice can be dynamic and exciting, especially at the

  1. Simultaneous effects of water spray and crosswind on performance of natural draft dry cooling tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadikia Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of water spray and crosswind on the effectiveness of the natural draft dry cooling tower (NDDCT, a three-dimensional model has been developed. Efficiency of NDDCT is improved by water spray system at the cooling tower entrance for high ambient temperature condition with and without crosswind. The natural and forced heat convection flow inside and around the NDDCT is simulated numerically by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations in both air and water droplet phases. Comparison of the numerical results with one-dimensional analytical model and the experimental data illustrates a well-predicted heat transfer rate in the cooling tower. Applying water spray system on the cooling tower radiators enhances the cooling tower efficiency at both no wind and windy conditions. For all values of water spraying rate, NDDCTs operate most effectively at the crosswind velocity of 3m/s and as the wind speed continues to rise to more than 3 m/s up to 12 m/s, the tower efficiency will decrease by approximately 18%, based on no-wind condition. The heat transfer rate of radiator at wind velocity 10 m/s is 11.5% lower than that of the no wind condition. This value is 7.5% for water spray rate of 50kg/s.

  2. Biofouling on Coated Carbon Steel in Cooling Water Cycles Using Brackish Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina Rajala

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Water cooling utilizing natural waters is typically used for cooling large industrial facilities such as power plants. The cooling water cycles are susceptible to biofouling and scaling, which may reduce heat transfer capacity and enhance corrosion. The performance of two fouling-release coatings combined with hypochlorite treatment were studied in a power plant utilizing brackish sea water from the Baltic Sea for cooling. The effect of hypochlorite as an antifouling biocide on material performance and species composition of microfouling formed on coated surfaces was studied during the summer and autumn. Microfouling on surfaces of the studied fouling-release coatings was intensive in the cooling water cycle during the warm summer months. As in most cases in a natural water environment the fouling consisted of both inorganic fouling and biofouling. Chlorination decreased the bacterial number on the surfaces by 10–1000 fold, but the efficacy depended on the coating. In addition to decreasing the bacterial number, the chlorination also changed the microbial species composition, forming the biofilm on the surfaces of two fouling-release coatings. TeknoTar coating was proven to be more efficient in combination with the hypochlorite treatment against microfouling under these experimental conditions.

  3. The Modification of Sodium Polyacrylate Water Solution Cooling Properties by AL2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Gęstwa

    2010-01-01

    Based on cooling curves, it can be concluded that for the water solution of sodium polyacrylate with AL2O3 nanoparticles in comparison to water and 10% polymer water solution lower cooling speed is obtained. The cooling medium containing nanoparticles provides lower cooling speed in the smallest surface austenite occurance (500–600 C in the charts of the CTP for most nonalloy structural steels and low-alloy steels. However lower cooling temperature at the beginning of martensitic transformation causes the formation of smaller internal stresses, leading to smaller dimensional changes and hardening deformation. For the quenching media the wetting angle was appointed by the drop-shape method. These studies showed the best wettability of polymer water solution (sodium polyacrylate with the addition of AL2O3 nanoparticles, whose wetting angle was about 65 degrees. Obtaining the smallest wetting angle for the medium containing nanoparticles suggests that the heat transfer to the cooling medium is larger. This allows slower cooling at the same time ensuring its homogeneity. The obtained values of wetting angle confirm the conclusions drawn on the basis of cooling curves and allowus to conclude that in the case of the heat transfer rate it will have a lower value than for water and 10% polymer water solution. In the research on hardened carburized steel samples C10 and 16MnCr5 surface hardness, impact strength and changes in the size of cracks in Navy C-ring sample are examined. On this basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that polymer water solution with nanoparticles allows to obtain a better impact strength at comparable hardness on the surface. Research on the dimensional changes on the basis of the sample of Navy C-ring also shows small dimensional changes for samples carburized and hardened in 10% polymer water solution with the addition of nanoparticles AL2O3. Smaller dimensional changes were obtained for samples of steel 16MnCr5 thanfar C10. The

  4. Soft-Sensing Method of Water Temperature Measurement for Controlled Cooling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xiao-hui; ZHANG Dian-hua; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua; FAN Lei

    2003-01-01

    Aiming at the water temperature measuring problem for controlled cooling system of rolling plant, a new water temperature measuring method based on soft-sensing method with a water temperature model of on-line self correction parameter was built. A water temperature compensation factor model was also built to improve coiling temperature control precision. It was proved that the model meets production requirements. The soft-sensing technique has extensive applications in the field of metal forming.

  5. Malaysian water footprint accounts: Blue and green water footprint of rice cultivation and the impact of water consumption in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadillah, M. G. Nor; Marlia, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    Following water footprint approach, this study estimates the blue and green water consumption of rice cultivation in 11 states located in Peninsular Malaysia. The latter part evaluates the potential of water deprivation for freshwater resources in Malaysia. Climate data such as rainfall, temperature, humidity, sunshine and wind speed were used to calculate evapotranspiration rate and crop water use. The water footprint for cultivating rice was estimated for both main and off seasons range between 1600 m3/ton to 3300 m3/ton. The result of this study showed that the green water footprint is higher compared to the blue water footprint for both seasons. In conclusion, the potential water deprivation can be determined by integrating the water footprint and water stress index of different watersheds of Malaysia.

  6. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

  7. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

    1991-12-31

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF AN ATMOSPHERIC COOLING TOWER USING FRESH AND SALTED WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooling towers are extensively used to evacuate large quantities of heat at modest temperatures through a change of phase of the flowing cooling fluid. Based on this classical principle, the present study investigates the influence of salty water on the heat exchange produced. For that purpose, experiments are carried out using fresh and salty water. Furthermore, a comparison with the results produced through an approach involving the solution of energy equation involving the flow of air on an evaporating film of fluid. The detailed results show a preponderance of fresh water over the salty.

  9. Study on Effects of Diesel Engine Cooling System Parameters on Water Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆清国; 冯建涛; 刘国夫; 桂勇

    2011-01-01

    A simulation model for a certain diesel engine cooling system is set up by using GT-COOL. The backwater tem- perature response in different operating conditions is simulated numerically. The effects of single or multiple system parameters on the water temperature are analyzed. The results show that, changing different single parameters, the time taken for the steady backwater temperature is different, but relatively short; and if multiple parameters are changed, the time will be longer. Referred to the thermal balance test, the simulation results are validated and provide a basis for the intelligent con- trol of the cooling system.

  10. Evaluation of a mass-balance approach to determine consumptive water use in northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.; Duncker, James J.; Over, Thomas M.; Marian Domanski,; ,; Engel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A principal component of evaluating and managing water use is consumptive use. This is the portion of water withdrawn for a particular use, such as residential, which is evaporated, transpired, incorporated into products or crops, consumed by humans or livestock, or otherwise removed from the immediate water environment. The amount of consumptive use may be estimated by a water (mass)-balance approach; however, because of the difficulty of obtaining necessary data, its application typically is restricted to the facility scale. The general governing mass-balance equation is: Consumptive use = Water supplied - Return flows.

  11. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinnosuke Murakami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition.

  12. Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, M. T H; van Beek, L. P H; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F P

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding o

  13. Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Beek, van L.P.H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved

  14. Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Beek, van L.P.H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understandin

  15. Using passive cooling strategies to improve thermal performance and reduce energy consumption of residential buildings in U.A.E. buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Taleb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive design responds to local climate and site conditions in order to maximise the comfort and health of building users while minimising energy use. The key to designing a passive building is to take best advantage of the local climate. Passive cooling refers to any technologies or design features adopted to reduce the temperature of buildings without the need for power consumption. Consequently, the aim of this study is to test the usefulness of applying selected passive cooling strategies to improve thermal performance and to reduce energy consumption of residential buildings in hot arid climate settings, namely Dubai, United Arab Emirates. One case building was selected and eight passive cooling strategies were applied. Energy simulation software – namely IES – was used to assess the performance of the building. Solar shading performance was also assessed using Sun Cast Analysis, as a part of the IES software. Energy reduction was achieved due to both the harnessing of natural ventilation and the minimising of heat gain in line with applying good shading devices alongside the use of double glazing. Additionally, green roofing proved its potential by acting as an effective roof insulation. The study revealed several significant findings including that the total annual energy consumption of a residential building in Dubai may be reduced by up to 23.6% when a building uses passive cooling strategies.

  16. Aeromonas salmonicida bacteremia associated with chronic well water consumption in a patient with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Ann Moore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas salmonicida is associated with superficial skin infections in fish. Its virulence factors allow colonization of water including surface water such as salt water, beaches, and fresh water wells. Moreover, it is possible for immunocompromised patients to develop invasive disease after chronic exposure to Aeromonas spp. through contaminated water. While there are reports of Aeromonas spp. bacteremia following water ingestion, there have been no reports of A. salmonicida bacteremia from water consumption. We report the first case of A. salmonicida bacteremia in a patient with diabetes due to chronic consumption of well water.

  17. Measured performance of a 3 ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A three ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It was concluded that a three-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  18. Measured performance of a 3-ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 3-ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot-water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It is concluded that a 3-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  19. 75 FR 4901 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... notice lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water...

  20. 76 FR 50536 - Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... projects, described below, receiving approval or rescission for the consumptive use of water pursuant...

  1. 75 FR 23837 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to...

  2. Control of modiolid mussels in cooling water systems by continuous chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, S; Venugopalan, V P; van der Velde, G; Jenner, H A

    2006-08-01

    Modiolid mussels such as Modiolus philippinarum and Modiolus metcalfei constitute a numerically significant group in fouling communities, especially in tropical and subtropical industrial cooling water systems. Nevertheless, there are hardly any published reports on the tolerance of these species to chlorination or biofouling control measures, This article provides data on the mortality pattern (LT(50) and LT(100)) and physiological activities (oxygen consumption, filtration rate, foot activity, and byssus thread production) of different size groups of M. philippinarum (7- to 30-mm shell lengths) and M. metcalfei (6- to 26-mm shell lengths) exposed to different concentrations of residual chlorine (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 mg/L for sublethal responses; 1, 2, 3, and 5 mg/L for mortality). It is shown that exposure time for 100% mortality of M. philippinarum and M. metcalfei significantly decreased with increasing residual chlorine concentration. For example, 30-mm size group M. philippinarum exposed to 1 mg/L chlorine residual took 402 h to reach 100% mortality, whereas those exposed to 5 mg/L chlorine took 108 h. Among the two mussels, M. philippinarum showed slightly higher tolerance (9-20%) to chlorine when compared to M. metcalfei. The effect of mussel size on mortality of M. philippinarum was significant, with the larger size group mussels showing greater resistance than smaller ones. However, in M. metcalfei, size of the mussel does not seem to be a determinant of its chlorine tolerance. All size groups of M. philippinarum and M. metcalfei showed progressive reduction in physiological activities (oxygen consumption, filtration rate, foot activity index, and byssus thread production) when chlorine residuals gradually increased from 0 to 1 mg/L. Reduction in physiological activities was strongly correlated with chlorine concentration. A comparison of present data with data available for other coexisting mussel species suggests that M. philippinarum and M

  3. The microscale cooling effects of water sensitive urban design and irrigation in a suburban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Ashley M.; Coutts, Andrew M.; Tapper, Nigel J.; Demuzere, Matthias; Beringer, Jason

    2017-09-01

    Prolonged drought has threatened traditional potable urban water supplies in Australian cities, reducing capability to adapt to climate change and mitigate against extreme. Integrated urban water management (IUWM) approaches, such as water sensitive urban design (WSUD), reduce the reliance on centralised potable water supply systems and provide a means for retaining water in the urban environment through stormwater harvesting and reuse. This study examines the potential for WSUD to provide cooling benefits and reduce human exposure and heat stress and thermal discomfort. A high-resolution observational field campaign, measuring surface level microclimate variables and remotely sensed land surface characteristics, was conducted in a mixed residential suburb containing WSUD in Adelaide, South Australia. Clear evidence was found that WSUD features and irrigation can reduce surface temperature (T s) and air temperature (T a) and improve human thermal comfort (HTC) in urban environments. The average 3 pm T a near water bodies was found to be up to 1.8 °C cooler than the domain maximum. Cooling was broadly observed in the area 50 m downwind of lakes and wetlands. Design and placement of water bodies were found to affect their cooling effectiveness. HTC was improved by proximity to WSUD features, but shading and ventilation were also effective at improving thermal comfort. This study demonstrates that WSUD can be used to cool urban microclimates, while simultaneously achieving other environmental benefits, such as improved stream ecology and flood mitigation.

  4. Geographic, technologic, and economic analysis of using reclaimed water for thermoelectric power plant cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Webber, Michael E

    2014-04-15

    Use of reclaimed water-municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent-in nonpotable applications can be a sustainable and efficient water management strategy. One such nonpotable application is at thermoelectric power plants since these facilities require cooling, often using large volumes of freshwater. To evaluate the geographic, technologic, and economic feasibility of using reclaimed water to cool thermoelectric power plants, we developed a spatially resolved model of existing power plants. Our model integrates data on power plant and municipal wastewater treatment plant operations into a combined geographic information systems and optimization approach to evaluate the feasibility of cooling system retrofits. We applied this broadly applicable methodology to 125 power plants in Texas as a test case. Results show that sufficient reclaimed water resources exist within 25 miles of 92 power plants (representing 61% of capacity and 50% of generation in our sample), with most of these facilities meeting both short-term and long-term water conservation cost goals. This retrofit analysis indicates that reclaimed water could be a suitable cooling water source for thermoelectric power plants, thereby mitigating some of the freshwater impacts of electricity generation.

  5. Zirconium carbide coating for corium experiments related to water-cooled and sodium-cooled reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevacova, K.; Journeau, C.; Piluso, P.; Zhdanov, V.; Baklanov, V.; Poirier, J.

    2011-07-01

    Since the TMI and Chernobyl accidents the risk of nuclear severe accident is intensively studied for existing and future reactors. In case of a core melt-down accident in a nuclear reactor, a complex melt, called corium, forms. To be able to perform experiments with prototypic corium materials at high temperature, a coating which resists to different corium melts related to Generation I and II Water Reactors and Generation IV sodium fast reactor was researched in our experimental platforms both in IAE NNC in Kazakhstan and in CEA in France. Zirconium carbide was selected as protective coating for graphite crucibles used in our induction furnaces: VCG-135 and VITI. The method of coating application, called reactive wetting, was developed. Zirconium carbide revealed to resist well to the (U x, Zr y)O 2-z water reactor corium. It has also the advantage not to bring new elements to this chemical system. The coating was then tested with sodium fast reactor corium melts containing steel or absorbers. Undesirable interactions were observed between the coating and these materials, leading to the carburization of the corium ingots. Concerning the resistance of the coating to oxide melts without ZrO 2, the zirconium carbide coating keeps its role of protective barrier with UO 2-Al 2O 3 below 2000 °C but does not resist to a UO 2-Eu 2O 3 mixture.

  6. Effect of hot-water consumption on temperature distribution in a horizontal solar water storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helwa, N.H.; El-Ghetany, H.H. [National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Solar Energy; Mobarak, A.M.; El-Sallak, M.S. [Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    This experimental investigation assesses the behaviour of a solar water heater provided with a liquid heat exchanger in a horizontal storage tank. The factors that affect the stratification inside the storage tank are considered. The performance of the system is studied in the light of the daily consumption of hot water of an Egyptian family. The results obtained show that in the places where it is necessary to use a horizontal tank it must be supplied with an auxiliary electric heater to meet the required load at the required temperature, especially in winter. (author)

  7. Sector-wise midpoint characterization factors for impact assessment of regional consumptive and degradative water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Chun; Lin, Jia-Yu; Lee, Mengshan; Chiueh, Pei-Te

    2017-12-31

    Water availability, resulting from either a lack of water or poor water quality is a key factor contributing to regional water stress. This study proposes a set of sector-wise characterization factors (CFs), namely consumptive and degradative water stresses, to assess the impact of water withdrawals with a life cycle assessment approach. These CFs consider water availability, water quality, and competition for water between domestic, agricultural and industrial sectors and ecosystem at the watershed level. CFs were applied to a case study of regional water management of industrial water withdrawals in Taiwan to show that both regional or seasonal decrease in water availability contributes to a high consumptive water stress, whereas water scarcity due to degraded water quality not meeting sector standards has little influence on increased degradative water stress. Degradative water stress was observed more in the agricultural sector than in the industrial sector, which implies that the agriculture sector may have water quality concerns. Reducing water intensity and alleviating regional scale water stresses of watersheds are suggested as approaches to decrease the impact of both consumptive and degradative water use. The results from this study may enable a more detailed sector-wise analysis of water stress and influence water resource management policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative study on the urban fresh Water consumption since Chinese rapid urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Peng; Zhang Lei

    2009-01-01

    The development of urbanization has a close relationship with fresh water resources,especially in the rapid urbanization period By analyzing the course of the urbanization development and the experience of international ur banization development,the paper confiums the starting time of the rapid urbanization.Based on the ecological thecry,urban fresh water consumption is composed of three types:the direct,the indirect and the induced water consump tion.And the paper constructs calculation model of the indirect and the induced water consumption.Using the related statistics data,the paper makes an empirical research on the changes of the amount and structure of water consumption.Then it discusses the correlation between the water consumption and the amount of urban population,and theresult shows that the amount of the water consumption and the urban population have a remarkable correlation with the exception of the amount of the indirect water consumption,and the curves take on quadratic function form.Last from the urban function point of view,the paper anatomizes the cause of the urban water consumption changes.

  9. Water consumption in artificial desert oasis based on net primary productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of the water consumption is the basis for water allocation in oasis. However, the method of estimating oasis water consumption remains a great challenge. Based on net primary productivity (NPP) and the transpiration coefficient, a vegetation water consumption model was developed to estimate the water consumption in desert oasis in ERDAS environment. Our results demonstrated that the ecosystem in the middle reaches of the Heihe oasis consumed water of 18.41×108-21.9×108 m3 for irrigation. Without taking precipitation into account, the water consumption in farmland accounted for 77.1%-77.8% (or about 13.97×108-16.84×108 m3) of the oasis vegetation water consumption and in the farmland protection system accounting for 22%. The growing period precipitation in desert environments is about 7.02×108 m3, and the total annual precipitation is about 8.29×108 m3. The modeled water consumption of desert vegetation, however, is about 4.57×108 m3, equivalent to only 65% of the growing period precipitation or 55% of the total annual precipitation. The modeled value equals to the cumulative precipitation of greater than 5 mm, which is defined as the effective precipitation in arid desert.

  10. Applying water quality indexes (WQI to the use of water sources for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring and anthropic contamination of water sources limits the use of water for human consumption. Fast and representative tools, such as water quality indexes (WQI,allow performing an integral assessment of the resource, this being essential when making decisions about the management and control of sanitary risks through different purification processes. A comparative analysis of applying WQINSF,Dinius WQI, ICAUCA and UWQI indexes at five points or stations on the Cauca River located in the Salvajina–Puerto Mallarino water uptake section, gave evidence of growing river deterioration due to the different socio-economic activities carried out in the river basin. This water quality condition brings about the incorporation of additional or specific treatment operations such as activated carbon or adsorption for the destination of the resource for human consumption. The presence of pathogens and particulate material were the variables mostly affecting WQI value. It is thus recommended that the development or adaptation of an index having a similar structure to the DQWI index should be considered to make a thorough river assessment and the additional use of soil which might generate the presence of other substances causing a sanitary risk in the source, considering variation in time and space of the parameters comprising it and its comparison with current legislation.

  11. Changes in water and sugar-containing beverage consumption and body weight outcomes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Gortmaker, Steven L; Libuda, Lars; Kersting, Mathilde; Clausen, Kerstin; Adelberger, Bettina; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    An intervention study showed that promoting water consumption in schoolchildren prevented overweight, but a mechanism linking water consumption to overweight was not substantiated. We investigated whether increased water consumption replaced sugar-containing beverages and whether changes in water or sugar-containing beverages influenced body weight outcomes. In a secondary analysis of the intervention study in Germany, we analysed combined longitudinal data from the intervention and control groups. Body weight and height were measured and beverage consumption was self-reported by a 24-h recall questionnaire at the beginning and end of the school year 2006/2007. The effect of a change in water consumption on change in sugar-containing beverage (soft drinks and juices) consumption, change in BMI (kg/m2) and prevalence of overweight and obesity at follow-up was analysed using regression analyses. Of 3220 enroled children, 1987 children (mean age 8·3 (sd 0·7) years) from thirty-two schools were analysed. Increased water consumption by 1 glass/d was associated with a reduced consumption of sugar-containing beverages by 0·12 glasses/d (95 % CI -0·16, -0·08) but was not associated with changes in BMI (P=0·63). Increased consumption of sugar-containing beverages by 1 glass/d was associated with an increased BMI by 0·02 (95 % CI 0·00, 0·03) kg/m2 and increased prevalence of obesity (OR 1·22; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·44) but not with overweight (P=0·83). In conclusion, an increase in water consumption can replace sugar-containing beverages. As sugar-containing beverages were associated with weight gain, this replacement might explain the prevention of obesity through the promotion of water consumption.

  12. Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young Cho; Alexander Fridman

    2009-04-02

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop technologies to reduce freshwater consumption in a cooling tower of coal-based power plant so that one could significantly reduce the need of make-up water. The specific goal was to develop a scale prevention technology based an integrated system of physical water treatment (PWT) and a novel filtration method so that one could reduce the need for the water blowdown, which accounts approximately 30% of water loss in a cooling tower. The present study investigated if a pulsed spark discharge in water could be used to remove deposits from the filter membrane. The test setup included a circulating water loop and a pulsed power system. The present experiments used artificially hardened water with hardness of 1,000 mg/L of CaCO{sub 3} made from a mixture of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in order to produce calcium carbonate deposits on the filter membrane. Spark discharge in water was found to produce strong shockwaves in water, and the efficiency of the spark discharge in cleaning filter surface was evaluated by measuring the pressure drop across the filter over time. Results showed that the pressure drop could be reduced to the value corresponding to the initial clean state and after that the filter could be maintained at the initial state almost indefinitely, confirming the validity of the present concept of pulsed spark discharge in water to clean dirty filter. The present study also investigated the effect of a plasma-assisted self-cleaning filter on the performance of physical water treatment (PWT) solenoid coil for the mitigation of mineral fouling in a concentric counterflow heat exchanger. The self-cleaning filter utilized shockwaves produced by pulse-spark discharges in water to continuously remove scale deposits from the surface of the filter, thus keeping the pressure drop across the filter at a relatively low value. Artificial hard water was used in the

  13. Impact of Training Program to Rationalize Consumption of Domestic Water Usages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Said Damanhouri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Reducing water consumption in terms of scarcity of water in Jordan which needs to rationalize consumption of the domestic water usages by some families in Amman-Jordan. Approach: This study aimed to decrease water consumption in household usages and to involve and encouraging the pioneer students in voluntary efforts to reduce domestic water. The study sample consisted of 121 female students of Princess’ Alia University College represented 121 Jordanian families in Amman. They trained to reduce flow of water and the time during usage water in kitchen; toilet; bathroom; washing cars; and to put a plastic bottle full of half liter of water in the toilet’s water tank. Economical and social variables of families were obtained from special questionnaire of this study, data were formed from previous measurements and information; the data analyzed throughout a simple statistical approach. Results: The families whom represented this study sample have positively responded for the proposed program; through reducing water consumption in domestic usages. The most important factor effects on rationalized water consumption are: Average monthly income, average family members, average of family members ages, the size of water tank of the toilet, size of shower used. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study concluded that the amount of preserved water in a bathroom may reach 25%, in kitchen 29, in toilet 10%, in washing cars 9%, of water consumption before implementation program at each of the previous sectors. The total amount of preserved water in Amman may reach to 11 million cubic meters annually. The study recommends implementing this simple program on the whole of Jordanian families as much as possible and encouraging the Jordanian citizens to use different tools, means, programs that may control water consumption and to recycle the used water as possible.""

  14. Simulation of the solidification in a channel of a water-cooled glass flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Ovando Chacon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer simulation study of a laminar steady-state glass flow that exits from a channel cooled with water is reported. The simulations are carried out in a two-dimensional, Cartesian channel with a backward-facing step for three different angles of the step and different glass outflow velocities. We studied the interaction of the fluid dynamics, phase change and thermal behavior of the glass flow due to the heat that transfers to the cooling water through the wall of the channel. The temperature, streamline, phase change and pressure fields are obtained and analyzed for the glass flow. Moreover, the temperature increments of the cooling water are characterized. It is shown that, by reducing the glass outflow velocity, the solidification is enhanced; meanwhile, an increase of the step angle also improves the solidification of the glass flow.

  15. Thermal analysis and water-cooling design of the CSNS MEBT 324 MHz buncher cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hua-Chang; OUYANG Hua-Fu

    2008-01-01

    At least two bunchers are needed in the 3 MeV H- Medium Energy Beam Transport(MEBT)line located between RFQ and DTL for the CSNS(China Spallation Neutron Source).A nose-cone geometry has been adopted as the type of buncher cavity for its simplicity,higher impedance and lower risk of multipacting.By making use of the results got from the simulations on the buncher with two-dimension code SUPERFISH,the thermal and structural analyses have been carried out,the process and results to determine the resulting frequency shift due to thermal and structural distortion of the cavity are presented,the water-cooling channel position and the optimum cooling water temperature as well as the tuning method by adjusting the cooling water temperature when the cavity is out of resonance are also determined through the analyses.

  16. Thermal analysis and water-cooling design of the CSNS MEBT 324 MHz buncher cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Chang; Ouyang, Hua-Fu

    2008-04-01

    At least two bunchers are needed in the 3 MeV H- Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line located between RFQ and DTL for the CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source). A nose-cone geometry has been adopted as the type of buncher cavity for its simplicity, higher impedance and lower risk of multipacting. By making use of the results got from the simulations on the buncher with two-dimension code SUPERFISH, the thermal and structural analyses have been carried out, the process and results to determine the resulting frequency shift due to thermal and structural distortion of the cavity are presented, the water-cooling channel position and the optimum cooling water temperature as well as the tuning method by adjusting the cooling water temperature when the cavity is out of resonance are also determined through the analyses.

  17. New Mexico cloud super cooled liquid water survey final report 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavis, Nick; Roskovensky, John K.; Ivey, Mark D.

    2010-02-01

    Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are partners in an effort to survey the super-cooled liquid water in clouds over the state of New Mexico in a project sponsored by the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program. This report summarizes the scientific work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during the 2009. In this second year of the project a practical methodology for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water was created. This was accomplished through the analysis of certain MODIS sensor satellite derived cloud products and vetted parameterizations techniques. A software code was developed to analyze multiple cases automatically. The eighty-one storm events identified in the previous year effort from 2006-2007 were again the focus. Six derived MODIS products were obtained first through careful MODIS image evaluation. Both cloud and clear-sky properties from this dataset were determined over New Mexico. Sensitivity studies were performed that identified the parameters which most influenced the estimation of cloud super-cooled liquid water. Limited validation was undertaken to ensure the soundness of the cloud super-cooled estimates. Finally, a path forward was formulized to insure the successful completion of the initial scientific goals which include analyzing different of annual datasets, validation of the developed algorithm, and the creation of a user-friendly and interactive tool for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water.

  18. Ice water submersion for rapid cooling in severe drug-induced hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Larissa K.; Landry, Adaira; Vassallo, Susi U.; Hoffman, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Context The optimal method of cooling hyperthermic patients is controversial. Although controlled data support ice water submersion, many authorities recommend a mist and fan technique. We report two patients with drug-induced hyperthermia, to demonstrate the rapid cooing rates of ice water submersion. Case details Case 1. A 27-year-old man presented with a sympathomimetic toxic syndrome and a core temperature of 41.4°C after ingesting 4-fluoroamphetamine. He was submerged in ice water and his core temperature fell to 38°C within 18 minutes (a mean cooling rate of 0.18°C/min). His vital signs stabilized, his mental status improved and he left on hospital day 2. Case 2. A 32-year-old man with a sympathomimetic toxic syndrome after cocaine use was transported in a body bag and arrived with a core temperature of 44.4°C. He was intubated, sedated with IV benzodiazepines, and submerged in ice water. After 20 minutes his temperature fell to 38.8°C (a cooling rate of 0.28°C/min). He was extubated the following day, and discharged on day 10. Discussion In these two cases, cooling rates exceeded those reported for mist and fan technique. Since the priority in hyperthermia is rapid cooling, clinical data need to be collected to reaffirm the optimal approach. PMID:25695144

  19. Experimental and numerical analysis of the cooling performance of water spraying systems during a fire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YaoHan Chen

    Full Text Available The water spray systems are effective protection systems in the confined or unconfined spaces to avoid the damage to building structures since the high temperature when fires occur. NFPA 15 and 502 have suggested respectively that the factories or vehicle tunnels install water spray systems to protect the machinery and structures. This study discussed the cooling effect of water spray systems in experimental and numerical analyses. The actual combustion of woods were compared with the numerical simulations. The results showed that although the flame continued, the cooling effects by water spraying process within 120 seconds were obvious. The results also indicated that the simulation results of the fifth version Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS overestimated the space temperature before water spraying in the case of the same water spray system.

  20. Experimental and numerical analysis of the cooling performance of water spraying systems during a fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, YaoHan; Su, ChungHwei; Tseng, JoMing; Li, WunJie

    2015-01-01

    The water spray systems are effective protection systems in the confined or unconfined spaces to avoid the damage to building structures since the high temperature when fires occur. NFPA 15 and 502 have suggested respectively that the factories or vehicle tunnels install water spray systems to protect the machinery and structures. This study discussed the cooling effect of water spray systems in experimental and numerical analyses. The actual combustion of woods were compared with the numerical simulations. The results showed that although the flame continued, the cooling effects by water spraying process within 120 seconds were obvious. The results also indicated that the simulation results of the fifth version Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) overestimated the space temperature before water spraying in the case of the same water spray system.

  1. Water Consumption of Agriculture and Natural Ecosystems along the Ili River in China and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Thevs

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ili River is a transboundary river shared by China, upstream, and Kazakhstan, downstream. The Ili is the main water supplier to Lake Balkhash, the largest lake in Central Asia after desiccation of the Aral Sea. Agreements over water allocation have not been concluded between China and Kazakhstan. This paper investigated water consumption of agriculture and riparian ecosystems in the Ili river basin, to provide information for further debate on water allocation, through the Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index (S-SEBI approach using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite images. The overall water consumption in the Ili river basin was 14.3 km3/a in 2000, 17.2 km3/a in 2005, and 15 km3/a in 2014. In 2000, China and Kazakhstan consumed 38% and 62% of the water, respectively. By 2014, the relative share of China’s water consumption increased to 43%. In China, 80% of the water consumption is due to agriculture. High runoff during the past 10 years enabled increasing water consumption in China and sufficient water supply to agriculture and riparian ecosystems in Kazakhstan. When runoff of the Ili River decreases, as expected for most rivers in Central Asia, then irrigation efficiency has to be further increased in China, and irrigation systems in Kazakhstan have to be restored and modernized in order to reduce water consumption and protect Lake Balkhash and the riparian ecosystems.

  2. Intermediates of Krebs cycle correct the depression of the whole body oxygen consumption and lethal cooling in barbiturate poisoning in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivnitsky, Jury Ju; Schäfer, Timur V; Malakhovsky, Vladimir N; Rejniuk, Vladimir L

    2004-10-01

    Rats poisoned with one LD50 of thiopental or amytal are shown to increase oxygen consumption when intraperitoneally given sucinate, malate, citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, dimethylsuccinate or glutamate (the Krebs cycle intermediates or their precursors) but not when given glucose, pyruvate, acetate, benzoate or nicotinate (energy substrates of other metabolic stages etc). Survival was increased with succinate or malate from control groups, which ranged from 30-83% to 87-100%. These effects were unrelated to respiratory depression or hypoxia as judged by little or no effect of succinate on ventilation indices and by the lack of effect of oxygen administration. Body cooling of comatose rats at ambient temperature approximately 19 degrees C became slower with succinate, the rate of cooling correlated well with oxygen consumption decrease. Succinate had no potency to modify oxygen consumption and body temperature in intact rats. A condition for antidote effect of the Krebs intermediate was sufficiently high dosage (5 mmol/kg), further dose increase made no odds. Repeated dosing of succinate had more marked protective effect, than a single one, to oxygen consumption and tended to promote the attenuation of lethal effect of barbiturates. These data suggest that suppression of whole body oxygen consumption with barbiturate overdose could be an important contributor to both body cooling and mortality. Intermediates of Krebs cycle, not only succinate, may have a pronounced therapeutic effect under the proper treatment regimen. Availability of Krebs cycle intermediates may be a limiting factor for the whole body oxygen consumption in barbiturate coma, its role in brain needs further elucidation.

  3. Experiment Investigation on Electrical and Thermal Performances of a Semitransparent Photovoltaic/Thermal System with Water Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Guiqiang Li; Gang Pei; Ming Yang; Jie Ji

    2014-01-01

    Different from the semitransparent building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) system with air cooling, the semitransparent BIPV/T system with water cooling is rare, especially based on the silicon solar cells. In this paper, a semitransparent photovoltaic/thermal system (SPV/T) with water cooling was set up, which not only would provide the electrical power and hot water, but also could attain the natural illumination for the building. The PV efficiency, thermal efficiency, and exergy ...

  4. 78 FR 64029 - Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY... Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors,'' in which the NRC made editorial corrections and... analysis for liquid and gaseous radwaste system components for light water nuclear power...

  5. Decomposing the Decoupling of Water Consumption and Economic Growth in China’s Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Unprecedented economic achievement in China’s textile industry (TI has occurred along with rising water consumption. The goal of industrial sustainable development requires the decoupling of economic growth from resource consumption. This paper examines the relationship between water consumption and economic growth, and the internal influence mechanism of China’s TI and its three sub-sectors: the manufacture of textiles (MT sector, the Manufacture of Textile Wearing Apparel, Footwear, and Caps (MTWA sector, and the manufacture of chemical fibers (MCF sector. A decoupling analysis was performed and the Laspeyres decomposition method was applied to the period from 2001 to 2014. We showed that six of the fourteen years analyzed (2003, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2011, and 2013 exhibited a strong decoupling effect and three of the fourteen years (2005, 2007, and 2010 exhibited a weak decoupling effect. Overall, China’s TI experienced a good decoupling between economic growth and water consumption from 2002 to 2014. For the three sub-sectors, the MTWA sector experienced a more significant positive decoupling than the MT and MCF sectors. The decomposition results confirm that the industrial scale factor is the most important driving force of China’s TI water consumption increase, while the water efficiency factor is the most important inhibiting force. The industrial structure adjustment does not significantly affect water consumption. The industrial scale and water use efficiency factors are also the main determinants of change in water consumption for the three sub-sectors.

  6. Assessing surface water consumption using remotely-sensed groundwater, evapotranspiration, and precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ray G.; Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S.

    2012-08-01

    Estimates of consumptive use of surface water by agriculture are vital for assessing food security, managing water rights, and evaluating anthropogenic impacts on regional hydrology. However, reliable, current, and public data on consumptive use can be difficult to obtain, particularly in international and less developed basins. We combine remotely-sensed precipitation and satellite observations of evapotranspiration and groundwater depletion to estimate surface water consumption by irrigated agriculture in California's Central Valley for the 2004-09 water years. We validated our technique against measured consumption data determined from streamflow observations and water export data in the Central Valley. Mean satellite-derived surface water consumption was 291.0 ± 32.4 mm/year while measured surface water consumption was 308.1 ± 6.5 mm/year. The results show the potential for remotely-sensed hydrologic data to independently observe irrigated agriculture's surface water consumption in contested or unmonitored basins. Improvements in the precision and spatial resolution of satellite precipitation, evapotranspiration and gravimetric groundwater observations are needed to reduce the uncertainty in this method and to allow its use on smaller basins and at shorter time scales.

  7. Projecting the Water and Electric Consumption of Polytechnic University of the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Jackie D.; Mercado, Joseph; Bautista, Lincoln A.; Baccay, Edcon B.

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates water and electric consumption in Polytechnic University of the Philippines - Sta. Mesa using a time series analysis. The researchers analyzed the water and electric usage separately. Electric consumption was examined in terms of pesos and kilowatt-hour, while water consumption was analyzed in pesos and cubic meter. The data are gathered from the university limited only from January 2009 to July 2015 in a monthly based record. The aim is to forecast the water and electric usage of the university for the years 2016 and 2017. There are two main statistical treatments that the researchers conducted to be able to formulate mathematical models that can estimate the water and electric consumption of the said school. Using Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA), electric usage was forecasted in peso and kilowatt-hour, and water usage in peso and cubic meter. Moreover, the predicted values of the consumptions are compared to the actual values using Paired T-test to examine whether there is a significant difference. Forecasting accurately the water and electric consumption would be helpful to manage the budget allotted for the water and electric consumption of PUP - Sta. Mesa for the next two years.

  8. The Simulation of the Influence of Water Remnants on a Hot Rolled Plate after Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Zahradník

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In situations when a sheet metal plate of large dimensions is rolled, water remnants from cooling can be observed on the upper side of the plate. This paper focuses on deformations of a hot rolled sheet metal plate that are caused by water remnants after cooling. A transient finite element simulation was used to describe shape deformations of the cross profile of a metal sheet. The finite element model is fully parametric for easy simulation of multiple cases. The results from previous work were used for the boundary conditions.

  9. High Precision Temperature Control and Analysis of RF Deionized Cooling Water System

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Zong-Da; Chen June Rong; Liu, Chen-Yao

    2005-01-01

    Previously, the Taiwan Light Source (TLS) has proven the good beam quality mainly depends on the utility system stability. A serial of efforts were devoted to these studies. Further, a high precision temperature control of the RF deionized cooling water system will be achieved to meet the more critical stability requirement. The paper investigates the mixing mechanism through thermal and flow analysis and verifies the practical influences. A flow mixing mechanism and control philosophy is studied and processed to optimize temperature variation which has been reduced from ±0.1? to ±0.01?. Also, the improvement of correlation between RF performance and water cooling stability will be presented.

  10. Questioning the Mpemba effect: hot water does not cool more quickly than cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Henry C.; Linden, Paul F.

    2016-11-01

    The Mpemba effect is the name given to the assertion that it is quicker to cool water to a given temperature when the initial temperature is higher. This assertion seems counter-intuitive and yet references to the effect go back at least to the writings of Aristotle. Indeed, at first thought one might consider the effect to breach fundamental thermodynamic laws, but we show that this is not the case. We go on to examine the available evidence for the Mpemba effect and carry out our own experiments by cooling water in carefully controlled conditions. We conclude, somewhat sadly, that there is no evidence to support meaningful observations of the Mpemba effect.

  11. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  12. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  13. Away-from-home drinking water consumption practices and the microbiological quality of water consumed in rural western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango-Ouma, W; Gerba, Charles P

    2011-12-01

    A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to examine away-from-home drinking water consumption practices and the microbiological quality of water consumed in rural western Kenya. The study involved adults and schoolchildren. Data were collected using focus group discussions, questionnaire survey, observations, diaries and interviews. The findings suggest that away-from-home drinking water consumption is a common practice in the study area; however, the microbiological quality of the water consumed is poor. While some respondents perceive the water to be safe for drinking mainly because of the clear colour of the water, others are forced by circumstances to drink the water as it is owing to a lack of alternative safe sources. It is concluded that there is a need for new innovative approaches to address away-from-home drinking water consumption in resource-poor settings in order to complement and maximize the benefits of point-of-use water treatment at the household level.

  14. Development and construction of the novel solar thermal desiccant cooling system incorporating hot water production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enteria, Napoleon; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Mochida, Akashi; Takaki, Rie [Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Satake, Akira [Technical Research Institute, Maeda Corporation, Tokyo 179-8914 (Japan); Yoshie, Ryuichiro [Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University, Atsugi 243-0297 (Japan); Baba, Seizo [Earth Clean Tohoku Co. Ltd., Sendai 984-0038 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    This paper reports the development and construction of the novel solar cooling and heating system. The system consists of the thermal energy subsystem and the desiccant cooling subsystem. The system utilizes both the cheaper nighttime electric energy and the free daytime solar energy. The system is conceptualized to produce both cooling during summer daytime and hot water production during winter. Testing and evaluation of the system had been done to determine its operational procedure and performance. Based on the results, the thermal energy subsystem functioned to its expected performance in solar energy collection and thermal storage. The desiccant cooling subsystem reduced both the temperature and the humidity content of the air using solar energy with a minimal amount of back-up electric energy. The system however, needs further investigation under real conditions. (author)

  15. A Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newmark, Robin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hallett, K. C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The presented water factors may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available.

  16. Responding to the Drought: A Spatial Statistical Approach to Investigating Residential Water Consumption in Fresno, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Using data from the 2015 Residential Water Consumption Survey, this study examines residential water-use behavior and attitudes after the recent drought in Fresno, California. Spatial autoregressive models of residential water consumption were estimated, accounting for the effects of social interactions in communities (i.e., neighborhood effects, while controlling for indoor and outdoor house attributes, economic conditions, and attitudes toward water uses. The findings show that the spatial autocorrelations do exist. This suggests that the neighborhood effects can be a useful lever to facilitate initiatives aiming at promoting community engagement on water-saving practices. The results also indicate that a larger house tends to incur more water use, so does the presence of pools. Using a drip irrigation system for watering the backyard can help reduce water consumption. Medium income families turn out to use the least amount of water among different income groups, suggesting that water-saving policies may yield different results among residents of various income levels. Interestingly, respondents who considered themselves heavy water users actually used less water. This implies that the awareness of water importance can significantly influence residents’ water-use behavior and therefore the promotion of a water-saving culture can help reduce residential water consumption.

  17. Building technical services - Compact equipment for heating, hot water preparation, ventilation and cooling - Appendix; Haustechnik - Kompaktgeraete (Heizen, Warmwasser, Lueften, Kuehlen - alles aus einem). Erkenntnisse aus der Praxis - Anhang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haessig, W.; Streit, S. [Haessig Sustech GmbH, Uster (Switzerland); Helfenfinger, D.; Keller, P. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Architektur Luzern (HSLU), Luzern (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    This comprehensive appendix to the final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on compact equipment for heating, hot water preparation, ventilation and cooling presents detailed data on energy costs of the various apartments studied, as well as graphical representations of room temperatures and comfort, domestic hot water consumption, outdoor ambient temperatures and their influence on indoor temperatures for both summer and winter periods. System efficiency calculations and the methodologies used are described. Plans of the apartments that were examined complete this appendix.

  18. Decomposition of the Urban Water Footprint of Food Consumption: A Case Study of Xiamen City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefeng Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of the urban water footprint can provide insight for water management. In this paper, a new decomposition method based on the log-mean Divisia index model (LMDI was developed to analyze the driving forces of water footprint changes, attributable to food consumption. Compared to previous studies, this new approach can distinguish between various factors relating to urban and rural residents. The water footprint of food consumption in Xiamen City, from 2001 to 2012, was calculated. Following this, the driving forces of water footprint change were broken down into considerations of the population, the structure of food consumption, the level of food consumption, water intensity, and the population rate. Research shows that between 2001 and 2012, the water footprint of food consumption in Xiamen increased by 675.53 Mm3, with a growth rate of 88.69%. Population effects were the leading contributors to this change, accounting for 87.97% of the total growth. The food consumption structure also had a considerable effect on this increase. Here, the urban area represented 94.96% of the water footprint increase, driven by the effect of the food consumption structure. Water intensity and the urban/rural population rate had a weak positive cumulative effect. The effects of the urban/rural population rate on the water footprint change in urban and rural areas, however, were individually significant. The level of food consumption was the only negative factor. In terms of food categories, meat and grain had the greatest effects during the study period. Controlling the urban population, promoting a healthy and less water-intensive diet, reducing food waste, and improving agriculture efficiency, are all elements of an effective approach for mitigating the growth of the water footprint.

  19. Investigation of heat transfer for extruded polymers cooled in water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available part, the time taken by PE, PP and PLA to lose heat in water was analyzed theoretically with the help of MATLAB software package by taking into account the density, thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficient and specific heat. The time taken...

  20. State of Fukushima nuclear fuel debris tracked by Cs137 in cooling water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambow, B; Mostafavi, M

    2014-11-01

    It is still difficult to assess the risk originating from the radioactivity inventory remaining in the damaged Fukushima nuclear reactors. Here we show that cooling water analyses provide a means to assess source terms for potential future releases. Until now already about 34% of the inventories of (137)Cs of three reactors has been released into water. We found that the release rate of (137)Cs has been constant for 2 years at about 1.8% of the inventory per year indicating ongoing dissolution of the fuel debris. Compared to laboratory studies on spent nuclear fuel behavior in water, (137)Cs release rates are on the higher end, caused by the strong radiation field and oxidant production by water radiolysis and by impacts of accessible grain boundaries. It is concluded that radionuclide analyses in cooling water allow tracking of the conditions of the damaged fuel and the associated risks.

  1. Global cooling after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: a test of climate feedback by water vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soden, Brian J; Wetherald, Richard T; Stenchikov, Georgiy L; Robock, Alan

    2002-04-26

    The sensitivity of Earth's climate to an external radiative forcing depends critically on the response of water vapor. We use the global cooling and drying of the atmosphere that was observed after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo to test model predictions of the climate feedback from water vapor. Here, we first highlight the success of the model in reproducing the observed drying after the volcanic eruption. Then, by comparing model simulations with and without water vapor feedback, we demonstrate the importance of the atmospheric drying in amplifying the temperature change and show that, without the strong positive feedback from water vapor, the model is unable to reproduce the observed cooling. These results provide quantitative evidence of the reliability of water vapor feedback in current climate models, which is crucial to their use for global warming projections.

  2. Cooling Effect of Water Injection on a High-Temperature Supersonic Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The high temperature and high pressure supersonic jet is one of the key problems in the design of solid rocket motors. To reduce the jet temperature and noise, cooling water is typically injected into the exhaust plume. Numerical simulations for the gas-liquid multiphase flow field with mixture multiphase model were developed and a series of experiments were carried out. By introducing the energy source terms caused by the vaporization of liquid water into the energy equation, a coupling solution was developed to calculate the multiphase flow field. The temperature data predictions agreed well with the experimental results. When water was injected into the plume, the high temperature core region area was reduced, and the temperature on the head face was much lower than that without water. The relationship between the reduction of temperature on the bottom plate and the momentum ratio is developed, which can be used to predict the cooling effect of water injection in many cases.

  3. Studies on advanced water-cooled reactors beyond generation Ⅲ for power generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xu

    2007-01-01

    China's ambitious nuclear power program motivates the country's nuclear community to develop advanced reactor concepts beyond generation Ⅲ to ensure a long-term, stable, and sustainable development of nuclear power. The paper discusses some main criteria for the selection of future water-cooled reactors by considering the specific Chinese situation. Based on the suggested selection criteria, two new types of water-cooled reactors are recommended for future Chinese nuclear power generation. The high conversion pressurized water reactor utilizes the present PWR technology to a large extent. With a conversion ratio of about 0.95, the fuel utilization is increased about 5 times. This significantly improves the sustainability of fuel resources. The supercritical water-cooled reactor has favorable features in economics,sustainability and technology availability. It is a logical extension of the generation Ⅲ PWR technology in China.The status of international R&D work is reviewed. A new supercritieal water-cooled reactor (SCWR) core structure (the mixed reactor core) and a new fuel assembly design (two-rows FA) are proposed. The preliminary analysis using a coupled neutron-physics/thermal-hydranlics method is carded out. It shows good feasibility for the new design proposal.

  4. Structure of Water Mist Stream and its Impact on Cooling Efficiency of Casting Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Władysiak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work is a continuation of research on the use water mist cooling in order to increase efficiency of die-casting aluminum alloys. The paper presents results of research and analysis process, spraying water and generated a stream of water mist, the effect of the type of nozzle, the nozzle size and shape of the emitting of the water mist on the wall surface of casting die on the microstructure and geometry of water mist stream and cooling efficiency. Tests were used to perform high-speed camera to record video in the visible and infrared camera. Results were used to develop a computerized image analysis and statistical analysis. The study showed that there are statistical relationships between water and air flow and geometry of the nozzle and nozzle emitting a stream of microstructure parameters of water mist and heat the incoming stream. These relationships are described mathematical models that allow you to control the generating of adequate stream of water mist and a further consequence, the cooling efficiency of casting die.

  5. Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

    2006-06-30

    Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to

  6. Numerically Analysed Thermal Condition of Hearth Rollers with the Water-Cooled Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous furnaces with roller hearth have wide application in the steel industry. Typically, furnaces with roller hearth belong to the class of medium-temperature heat treatment furnaces, but can be used to heat the billets for rolling. In this case, the furnaces belong to the class of high temperature heating furnaces, and their efficiency depends significantly on the reliability of the roller hearth furnace. In the high temperature heating furnaces are used three types of watercooled shaft rollers, namely rollers without insulation, rollers with insulating screens placed between the barrel and the shaft, and rollers with bulk insulation. The definition of the operating conditions of rollers with water-cooled shaft greatly facilitates the choice of their design parameters when designing. In this regard, at the design stage of the furnace with roller hearth, it is important to have information about the temperature distribution in the body of the rollers at various operating conditions. The article presents the research results of the temperature field of the hearth rollers of metallurgical heating furnaces. Modeling of stationary heat exchange between the oven atmosphere and a surface of rollers, and between the cooling water and shaft was executed by finite elements method. Temperature fields in the water-cooled shaft rollers of various designs are explored. The water-cooled shaft rollers without isolation, rollers with screen and rollers with bulk insulation, placed between the barrel and the water-cooled shaft were investigated. Determined the change of the thermo-physic parameters of the coolant, the temperature change of water when flowing in a pipe and shaft, as well as the desired pressure to supply water with a specified flow rate. Heat transfer coefficients between the cooling water and the shaft were determined directly during the solution based on the specified boundary conditions. Found that the greatest heat losses occur in the

  7. Efficiency,Equity and Effect:a case study on virtual water consumption characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Scarcity of water is the key factor restricting the growth of social economy.The virtual water theory provides a new way to solve the problem of water scarcity.For this paper,we have calculated the virtual water consumption of each household,grouped by income,of Gansu province for 1992-2005.Then we advanced the indicator of virtual water with per-unit-of-consumption expenditure to analyze the efficiency of virtual water consumption.Additionally,we recurred to the diversity theory advanced by Ulanowicz,which is broadly employed by ecologists and biologists,to analyze the characteristics of virtual water consumption.As a result,the virtual water consumption of each group decreased yearly from 1992 to 2005,on the whole;decreasing proceeded slower during the period of 1992-1997 than during 1998-2005.Per-unit-consumption expenditure of virtual water for each group represents the same characteristics,on the whole,as virtual water consumption.The largest variation of this indicator exists in the group of the lowest income,which ranges from 1.58 to 0.18 m3/Yuan.yr;whereas the least exists in the highest income group,which is 0.58 to 0.07 m3/Yuan.yr.The virtual diversity indicator increased year by year,and the change of this indicator in 1992-1997 was more obvious than in 1998-2005.Finally,from this study we find that,in view of virtual water,we can save water by means of changing consumption patterns and increasing consumption diversity,but without degrading the quality of living and reducing the demands of living.When the problem of water scarcity becomes more and more serious in Gansu of China,this suggestion becomes more and more important.The consumption,the role of guiding production produce,is very important.An unsustainable consumption pattern is the main factor causing the deterioration of the world environment,especially in a developing country.The sustainable consumption is the only way to develop human beings and achieve the economical sustainable economics.

  8. How to monitor and adjust in real time the total water consumption and water use efficiency: Earned value method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhong; Dong, Zengchuan; Wu, Huixiu; Yang, Lin

    2017-03-01

    The evaluation indexes of total water consumption and water use efficiency have the characteristics of post feedback. In this paper we introduce the basic concept and specific theory of Earned value method (EVM) from project management, and reconstruct parameters in the method to adapt to water resources monitoring. The case of Dandong was studied, by analyzing the industry and irrigation water utilization. Although the total water consumption of two aspects reaches standards, the industrial added value and water use efficiency of irrigation are not up to standard. The results show that PV can be used as a baseline for real-time monitoring and adjustment, and the advantage of the EVM is that it can be an organic unity of water consumption and efficiency, so we can analyze comprehensively water utilization process.

  9. Automatic devices for electrochemical water treatment with cooling of electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trišović Tomislav Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common disinfectants for water treatment are based on chlorine and its compounds. Practically, water treatments with chlorine compounds have no alternative, since they provide, in comparison to other effective processes such as ozonization or ultraviolet irradiation, high residual disinfection capacity. Unfortunately, all of chlorine-based compounds for disinfection tend to degrade during storage, thus reducing the concentration of active chlorine. Apart from degradation, additional problems are transportation, storage and handling of such hazardous compounds. Nowadays, a lot of attention is paid to the development of electrochemical devices for in situ production of chlorine dioxide or sodium hypochlorite as efficient disinfectants for water treatment. The most important part of such a device is the electrochemical reactor. Electrochemical reactor uses external source of direct current in order to produce disinfectants in electrochemical reactions occurring at the electrodes. Construction of an electrochemical device for water treatment is based on evaluation of optimal conditions for electrochemical reactions during continues production of disinfectants. The aim of this study was to develop a low-cost electrochemical device for the production of disinfectant, active chlorine, at the place of its usage, based on newly developed technical solutions and newest commercial components. The projected electrochemical device was constructed and mounted, and its operation was investigated. Investigations involved both functionality of individual components and device in general. The major goal of these investigations was to achieve maximal efficiency in extreme condition of elevated room temperature and humidity with a novel device construction involving coaxial heat exchanger at the solution inlet. Room operation of the proposed device was investigated when relative humidity was set to 90% and the ambient temperature of 38°C. The obtained

  10. Cooling water treatment - Processes and regulations; Kuehlwasserbehandlung - Verfahren und Vorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsten, J. [Aquatech GmbH, Nieder-Olm (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Determination of optimal water treatment methods is to be based on requirements set by technical specifications, economic efficiency aspects, and legal regulations. It is an important task and should be done by experts in cooperation with the responsible supervisory bodies. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Zusammenfassend kann gesagt werden, dass bei der Auswahl des optimalen Verfahrens einer Kuehlwasserbehandlung technische Anforderungen, wirtschaftliche Vorgaben und behoerdliche Auflagen gleichermassen beruecksichtigt werden muessen. Diese Aufgabe sollte von Fachleuten wahrgenommen und mit den zustaendigen Behoerden abgestimmt werden. (orig.)

  11. Ultrafast cooling by covalently bonded graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid immersed in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Walther, Jens H.; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2016-11-01

    The increasing power density and the decreasing dimensions of transistors present severe thermal challenges to the design of modern microprocessors. Furthermore, new technologies such as three-dimensional chip-stack architectures require novel cooling solutions for their thermal management. Here, we demonstrate, through transient heat-dissipation simulations, that a covalently bonded graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT) hybrid immersed in water is a promising solution for the ultrafast cooling of such high-temperature and high heat-flux surfaces. The G-CNT hybrid offers a unique platform to integrate the superior axial heat transfer capability of individual CNTs via their parallel arrangement. The immersion of the G-CNT in water enables an additional heat dissipation path via the solid-liquid interaction, allowing for the sustainable cooling of the hot surface under a constant power input of up to 10 000 W cm-2.

  12. Influence of the Water-Cooled Heat Exchanger on the Performance of a Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The water-cooled heat exchanger is one of the key components in a pulse tube refrigerator. Its heat exchange effectiveness directly influences the cooling performance of the refrigerator. However, effective heat exchange does not always result in a good performance, because excessively reinforced heat exchange can lead to additional flow loss. In this paper, seven different water-cooled heat exchangers were designed to explore the best configuration for a large-capacity pulse tube refrigerator. Results indicated that the heat exchanger invented by Hu always offered a better performance than that of finned and traditional shell-tube types. For a refrigerator with a working frequency of 50 Hz, the best hydraulic diameter is less than 1 mm.

  13. Water chemistry in heat and cold supply (district heating/cooling)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deelen-Bremer, Marga van; Vos, Frank de; Heijboer, Rob [KEMA Nederland B.V. (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    District heating is seen as an important pillar in the CO{sub 2} reduction. Since the Kyoto protocol with the target for reduction of greenhouse gases, a renewed interest in district heating is visible. District heating and increasingly district cooling can be used for heating/cooling of houses, but also for large buildings and greenhouses. Combined heat and power (CHP), waste incinerator, but also rest heat of industry can provide the heat for district heating. On the other hand cold surface water, groundwater, but also rest heat can be used for district cooling. With the growing heat/cold supply market, also an even larger growth in cases of damages in district heating systems is wittnessed. Damages were chemistry can play an preventing role. A good conditioning of the district heating water, combined with proper monitoring, will safeguard the integrity of the system. (orig.)

  14. A Synergistic Combination of Advanced Separation and Chemical Scale Inhibitor Technologies for Efficient Use of Imparied Water As Cooling Water in Coal-based Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasbir Gill

    2010-08-30

    /silicate are two common potential cycle-limiting minerals for using impaired waters. For produced waters, barium sulfate and calcium sulfate are two additional potential cycle-limiting minerals. For reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents, calcium phosphate scaling can be an issue, especially in the co-presence of high silica. Computational assessment, using a vast amount of Nalco's field data from coal fired power plants, showed that the limited use and reuse of impaired waters is due to the formation of deposit caused by the presence of iron, high hardness, high silica and high alkalinity in the water. Appropriate and cost-effective inhibitors were identified and developed - LL99B0 for calcite and gypsum inhibition and TX-15060 for silica inhibition. Nalco's existing dispersants HSP-1 and HSP-2 has excellent efficacy for dispersing Fe and Mn. ED and EDI were bench-scale tested by the CRADA partner Argonne National Laboratory for hardness, alkalinity and silica removal from synthetic make-up water and then cycled cooling water. Both systems showed low power consumption and 98-99% salt removal, however, the EDI system required 25-30% less power for silica removal. For Phase 2, the EDI system's performance was optimized and the length of time between clean-in-place (CIP) increased by varying the wafer composition and membrane configuration. The enhanced EDI system could remove 88% of the hardness and 99% of the alkalinity with a processing flux of 19.2 gal/hr/m{sup 2} and a power consumption of 0.54 kWh/100 gal water. Bench tests to screen alternative silica/silicate scale inhibitor chemistries have begun. The silica/silicate control approaches using chemical inhibitors include inhibition of silicic acid polymerization and dispersion of silica/silicate crystals. Tests were conducted with an initial silica concentration of 290-300 mg/L as SiO{sub 2} at pH 7 and room temperature. A proprietary new chemistry was found to be promising, compared with a current

  15. Simulation on Cooling System of Automotive Waste Heat Thermoelectric Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Yuan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The cooling system of automobile waste heat Thermoelectric Generator (TEG is researched in the study. Integrated model of cooling system and vehicle is built based on GT-Cool, analysis of the different cooling ways shows that when using independent cooling system, the ratio between power consumption and output is high and system performance is poor; By using integrated cooling system, the expectation of keep constant engine warm up time and synchronous change of water temperature between different tanks is realized after water tanks are improved.

  16. THE SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM OF USING GROUND WATER TO COOL LIVESTOCK BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thay Ngok Shon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient temperature in the central part of Vietnam in summer can reach 32–35°C; in some places it can be more than 42°C. Hot climate strongly affects the animal organism alongside with the animal weight reduction and reduction the quantity of egg-laying in poultry. Therefore, air conditioning in livestock buildings is necessary. There are several ways to cool the temperature in such buildings, and each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. We propose to use underground water at the temperature of 24–25°C for this purpose. One of the methods of cooling sheds for livestock is sprinkler irrigation of water on the roof. For calculating the amount of heat, removed from the indoor air in the shed to the cooling water, in the first approximation specialists believe in some cases that an appropriate amount of heat being removed is determined mainly by heat transfer from the air inside the shed to the cooling water through the surface of the roof, represented by the lower part of the wave that form the surface of a metal tile, neglecting the influence of heat conduction on top of the wave of the tile surface. Consequentially, such a simplification leads to possible errors. Therefore, the authors solved the problem of cooling shed by irrigation of water on the roof by an analytical method. Specifically, we solved the problem of heat conductivity of the fin of the finite length of constant cross section, wherein different sides of the fin are conjugate with different environments. Additionally, the calculation considered the effect of solar radiation. For this purpose, the authors have created a heat balance equation at steady state for any infinitesimal element of the fin, and solved the differential equation afterwards. The authors applied the results for calculating practical problem of ground water irrigation of a roof of a livestock shed made of metal areas tiles. 

  17. Study on consumption efficiency of soil water resources in the Yellow River Basin based on regional ET structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; YANG GuiYu; JIA YangWen; QIN DaYong

    2008-01-01

    Based on the regional water resources character, the concept of soil water resources is first redefined,and then associated with their transfer relationship in the hydrological cycle, Evapotranspiration (ET)-based consumption structure and consumption efficiency of soil water resources are analyzed.According to ET's function in productivity, the consumption efficiency of soil water resources is divided into three classes: high efficient consumption from vegetation transpiration, low efficient consumption from soil evaporation among plants with high vegetation coverage and inefficient consumption from soil evaporation among plants with low vegetation coverage and bare soil evaporation. The high efficient and low efficient consumption were further classified as productive consumption. The ineffi-cient consumption is considered non-productive consumption because it is significant in the whole hydrological cycle process. Finally, according to these categories, and employing a WEP-L distributed hydrological model, this paper analyzes the consumption efficiency of soil water resources in the Yel-low River Basin. The results show that there are 2078.89×108 m3 soil water resources in the whole basin. From the viewpoint of consumption structure, the soil water resources are comprised of 381.89×108 m3 transpiration consumption from vegetation and 1697.09×108 m3 evaporation consumption from soil among plants and bare soil. From the viewpoint of consumption efficiency, soil water resources are composed of 920.11×108 m3 efficient consumption and 1158.86×108 m3 of inefficient consumption. High efficient consumption accounts for 41.5 percent of the total efficient consumption of the whole basin, low efficient for 58.5 percent. Furthermore, consumption efficiency varies by region.Compared with ET from different land use conditions, the whole basin appears to follow the trend of having the greatest proportion of consumption as inefficient consumption, followed by low efficient

  18. 40 CFR 63.1086 - How must I monitor for leaks to cooling water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electrode monitoring, pH, conductivity, or other representative indicators. (1) You shall prepare and... cooling water using any method listed in 40 CFR part 136. Use the same method for both entrance and exit samples. You may validate 40 CFR part 136 methods for the HAP listed in Table 1 to this subpart...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix T to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water Closets and Urinals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of... Appendix T to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water... previous step. The final water consumption value shall be rounded to one decimal place. b. The test...

  20. Maisotsenko cycle applications for multistage compressors cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, D.; Yurko, I.; Artyukhov, A.; Baga, V.

    2017-08-01

    The present study provides the overview of Maisotsenko Cycle (M-Cycle) applications for gas cooling in compressor systems. Various schemes of gas cooling systems are considered regarding to their thermal efficiency and cooling capacity. Preliminary calculation of M-cycle HMX has been conducted. It is found that M-cycle HMX scheme allows to brake the limit of the ambient wet bulb temperature for evaporative cooling. It has demonstrated that a compact integrated heat and moisture exchange process can cool product fluid to the level below the ambient wet bulb temperature, even to the level of dew point temperature of the incoming air with substantially lower water and energy consumption requirements.

  1. WATER CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF CASTOR BEAN PARAGUAÇÚ CULTIVAR SUBMITTED TO NITROGEN FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena Garófalo Chaves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the productivity of castor bean reduces under water deficit it is considered resistant to low precipitation conditions, thus constituting an alternative form of income for the semi-arid. The scarce information about the effect of nitrogen fertilization on water consumption and efficiency of use motivated this study. The study was conducted in a greenhouse located at the Federal University of Campina Grande – Campus I, with plants arranged in a factorial design with three replications and five treatments, totaling fifteen experimental units, which consisted of five nitrogen levels (40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 kg ha-1. Analyzing the phytomass, water consumption and water use efficiency it was observed that the cultivar phytomass increases, water consumption and water use efficiency with the levels of nitrogen, indicating an elevated efficiency on the conversion of water used into dry matter.

  2. The water footprint of Indonesian provinces related to the consumption of crop products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bulsink

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available National water use accounts are generally limited to statistics on water withdrawals in the different sectors of economy. They are restricted to "blue water accounts" related to production, thus excluding (a "green" and "grey water accounts", (b accounts of internal and international virtual water flows and (c water accounts related to consumption. This paper shows how national water-use accounts can be extended through an example for Indonesia. The study quantifies interprovincial virtual water flows related to trade in crop products and assesses the green, blue and grey water footprint related to the consumption of crop products per Indonesian province. The study shows that the average water footprint in Indonesia insofar related to consumption of crop products is 1131 m3/cap/yr, but provincial water footprints vary between 859 and 1895 m3/cap/yr. Java, the most water-scarce island, has a net virtual water import and the most significant external water footprint. This large external water footprint is relieving the water scarcity on this island. Trade will remain necessary to supply food to the most densely populated areas where water scarcity is highest (Java.

  3. Reduction of Fire Hazard in Materials for Irrigators and Water Collectors in Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, N. V.; Konstantinova, N. I., E-mail: konstantinova-n@inbox.ru [FGBU VNIIPO of EMERCOM of Russia (All-Russian Scientific-research Institute of Fire Protection) (Russian Federation); Gordon, E. P. [Research and Production Center “Kaustik” (Russian Federation); Poedintsev, E. A. [FGBU VNIIPO of EMERCOM of Russia (All-Russian Scientific-research Institute of Fire Protection) (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    A way of reducing the fire hazard of PVC film used to make cooling-tower irrigators and water collectors is examined. A new generation of fire retardant, nanostructured magnesium hydroxide, is used to impart fire retardant properties. The fabrication technology is optimized with a roller-calendering manufacturing technique, and the permissible ranges of fire hazard indicators for materials in irrigators and water collectors are determined.

  4. Freely accessible water does not decrease consumption of ethanol liquid diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, NancyEllen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2003-02-01

    In experimental studies, liquid ethanol diets are usually given as the sole source of nutrition and fluid. Two series of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of freely accessible water on the consumption of ethanol liquid diets in male Long-Evans rats. The consumption of diets and subsequent learning ability of rats were first examined in animals given twice-daily saline injections. One group received diet with no access to water for 12 weeks and was subsequently given free access to water with diets for an additional 12 weeks. A second group was given diet and water ad libitum for 24 weeks. Control animals received an isocaloric sucrose-containing diet (with or without ad libitum access to water). Subsequently, rats were tested for active avoidance learning. In the first 12 weeks, animals with ad libitum access to water drank more diet than did water-restricted animals, and previously water-restricted animals increased their diet consumption when access to water was freely available. All water-restricted animals, in both ethanol- and sucrose-treated groups, showed deficits in active avoidance learning, whereas only ethanol-treated animals in groups with ad libitum access to water showed learning deficits. In the second series of experiments, the effect of saline injections on diet consumption, both in the presence and absence of water, was examined. Although saline injections were associated with decreased diet consumption, there was no effect of free access to water. No differences in blood ethanol concentration were seen among groups. Findings obtained from both series of studies demonstrate that consumption of a Sustacal-based liquid ethanol diet does not decrease if access to water is freely available.

  5. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix S to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and Showerheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of... Appendix S to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and... water consumption value shall be rounded to one decimal place for non-metered faucets, or two decimal...

  7. Characterization of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Bacteria Isolated from Industrial Cooling Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriya Okutsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooling water systems are used to remove heat generated in the various industries. Biofouling of the cooling water systems causes blocking of condenser pipes and the heat exchanger tubes. In many Gram-negative bacteria, N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL are used as quorum-sensing signal molecule and associated with biofilm formation. To investigate the relationship between quorum sensing and biofouling in the cooling water system, we isolated a total of 192 bacterial strains from the five cooling water systems, and screened for AHL production. Seven isolates stimulated AHL-mediated purple pigment production in AHL reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 or VIR07. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, AHL-producing isolates were assigned to Aeromonas hydrophila, Lysobacter sp., Methylobacterium oryzae, and Bosea massiliensis. To the best of our knowledge, B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. have not been reported as AHL-producing species in the previous researches. AHLs extracted from the culture supernatants of B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. AHLs produced by B. massiliensis were assigned as N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL, N-(3-oxohexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL, and N-(3-oxooctanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL. AHLs produced by Lysobacter sp. were assigned as N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL and N-(3-oxodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10-HSL. This is the first report of identification of AHLs produced by B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. isolated from the cooling water system.

  8. Patterns of fish assemblage structure and dynamics in waters of the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, J.M.; Anderson, C.S.; Floyd, K.B.; Negus, M.T.; Meador, M.R.

    1986-06-01

    Research conducted as part of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) has elucidated many factors that are important to fish population and community dynamics in a variety of habitats on the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Information gained from these studies is useful in predicting fish responses to SRP operations. The overall objective of the CCWS was (1) to determine the environmental effects of SRP cooling water withdrawals and discharges and (2) to determine the significance of the cooling water impacts on the environment. The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine the effects of thermal plumes on anadromous and resident fishes, including overwintering effects, in the SRP swamp and associated tributary streams; (2) assess fish spawning and locate nursery grounds on the SRP; (3) examine the level of use of the SRP by spawning fish from the Savannah River, this objective was shared with the Savannah River Laboratory, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; and (4) determine impacts of cooling-water discharges on fish population and community attributes. Five studies were designed to address the above topics. The specific objectives and a summary of the findings of each study are presented.

  9. Incorporating water consumption into crop water footprint: A case study of China's South-North Water Diversion Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuhang; Tang, Deshan; Ding, Yifan; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2016-03-01

    The crop water footprint (WF) indicates the consumption of water for a crop during the planting period, mainly through evapotranspiration. However, as irrigated agriculture accounts for nearly 25% of the global agriculture water usage, evaluation of WF during transportation becomes essential to improve the efficiency of irrigated agriculture. This study aims at building an improved WF model to understand how much WF is produced due to water diversion and how much crop WF increases during the transfer. The proposed model is then used to calculate the WF of four major crops in five provinces along China's South-North Water Transfer Project in two steps. First, the WF of the water transfer project (WFeng) is assessed in a supply chain analysis method. Second, a WF allocation model is built to distribute the project WF for each crop/province. The results show that the evaporation and seepage are the main sources of WFeng. Out of five provinces, two namely Tianjin and Hebei present higher WFblue and WF increase. A positive correlation between water diversion distance and crop WF increase is noted. Among the four crops, cotton presents higher WFblue and WF increase. The crops with higher WFblue tend to be more strongly influenced by the water diversion project, due to high irrigation water dependency. This analysis may expand the WF concept from an evaporation-related term to a term reflecting crop biological processes and water consumption by artificial irrigation projects. Thus, it may serve as an indicator for optimizing future objectives and strategies associated to water resource planning in China and elsewhere.

  10. Effect of makeup water properties on the condenser fouling in power planr cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of fresh water. As available freshwater for use in thermoelectric power production becomes increasingly limited, use of nontraditional water sources is of growing interest. Utilization of nontraditional water, in cooling systems increases the potential for mineral precipitation on heat exchanger surfaces. In that regard, predicting the accelerated rate of scaling and fouling in condenser is crucial to evaluate the condenser performance. To achieve this goal, water chemistry should be incorporated in cooling system modeling and simulation. This paper addresses the effects of various makeup water properties on the cooling system, namely pH and aqueous speciation, both of which are important factors affecting the fouling rate in the main condenser. Detailed modeling of the volatile species desorption (i.e. CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}), the formation of scale in the recirculating system, and the relationship between water quality and the corresponding fouling rates is presented.

  11. Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, M A; Maroun, R; Abdelnabi, H; Jamali, I I; El-Fadel, M

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a comparative assessment of public perception of drinking water quality in two underprivileged urban areas in Lebanon and Jordan with nearly similar cultural and demographic characteristics. It compares the quality of bottled water to the quality of the drinking water supplied through the public network and examines the economic implications of bottled water consumption in the two study areas. Participants' perception of the quality of drinking water provided via the public network was generally negative, and bottled water was perceived to be of better quality in both areas, thus affecting drinking water preferences and consumption patterns. The results reveal that the quality of bottled water is questionable in areas that lack enforcement of water quality standards, thus adding to the burden of an already disadvantaged community. Both areas demonstrated a considerable cost incurred for purchasing bottled water in low income communities reaching up to 26 % of total income.

  12. EPA Office of Water (OW): Fish Consumption Advisories and Fish Tissue Sampling Stations NHDPlus Indexed Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Fish Consumption Advisories dataset contains information on Fish Advisory events that have been indexed to the EPA Office of Water NHDPlus v2.1 hydrology and...

  13. On eco-efficient technologies to minimize industrial water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammad C.; Mohammadifard, Hossein; Ghaffari, Ghasem

    2016-07-01

    Purpose - Water scarcity will further stress on available water systems and decrease the security of water in many areas. Therefore, innovative methods to minimize industrial water usage and waste production are of paramount importance in the process of extending fresh water resources and happen to be the main life support systems in many arid regions of the world. This paper demonstrates that there are good opportunities for many industries to save water and decrease waste water in softening process by substituting traditional with echo-friendly methods. The patented puffing method is an eco-efficient and viable technology for water saving and waste reduction in lime softening process. Design/methodology/approach - Lime softening process (LSP) is a very sensitive process to chemical reactions. In addition, optimal monitoring not only results in minimizing sludge that must be disposed of but also it reduces the operating costs of water conditioning. Weakness of the current (regular) control of LSP based on chemical analysis has been demonstrated experimentally and compared with the eco-efficient puffing method. Findings - This paper demonstrates that there is a good opportunity for many industries to save water and decrease waste water in softening process by substituting traditional method with puffing method, a patented eco-efficient technology. Originality/value - Details of the required innovative works to minimize industrial water usage and waste production are outlined in this paper. Employing the novel puffing method for monitoring of lime softening process results in saving a considerable amount of water while reducing chemical sludge.

  14. Global modeling of withdrawal, allocation and consumptive use of surface water and groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2014-01-01

    To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water withdrawal and consumptive water use have been increasing rapidly. To analyze the human perturbation on water resources consistently over large scales, a number of macro-scale hydrological models (MHMs) have been develope

  15. Global modeling of withdrawal, allocation and consumptive use of surface water and groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water withdrawal and consumptive water use have been increasing rapidly. To analyze the human perturbation on water resources consistently over a large scale, a number of macro-scale hydrological models (MHMs) have been develop

  16. Analysing the dynamics of transitions in residential water consumption in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agudelo-Vera, C.M.; Blokker, E.J.M.; Buscher, C.H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Water infrastructure is inherently a socio-technical system. Rapidly changing urban trends and long-term uncertainties make water infrastructure management complex. This paper analyses the dynamics of residential water consumption in the Netherlands since 1900. During this period, different drivers

  17. Sustainability, efficiency and equitability of water consumption and pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, M.M.; Pahlow, M.; Aldaya, M.M.; Zarate, E.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the sustainability, efficiency and equity of water use in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) by means of a geographic Water Footprint Assessment (WFA). It aims to provide understanding of water use from both a production and consumption point of view. The study identifies prio

  18. Sustainability, efficiency and equitability of water consumption and pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Pahlow, Markus; Martinez-Aldaya, Maite; Zarate, E.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the sustainability, efficiency and equity of water use in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) by means of a geographic Water Footprint Assessment (WFA). It aims to provide understanding of water use from both a production and consumption point of view. The study identifies

  19. HVAC cable systems with forced water cooling for wind energy transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brakelmann, Heinrich; Zhang, Dongping [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Duisburg (DE). Dept. Energy Transport and Storage (ETS)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a solution for an efficient wind energy transmission onshore: HVAC cable system with forced water cooling, which provides a substantial increase of the cable ampacity without any modification of the cable construction and design. This work shows the projecting and planning of such HVAC cable systems in combination with a cooling system, especially considering the faulty (n-1)-case. The efficiency utilizing the short-term load capacity of the cable systems transmitting wind energy is shown by computations provided by specialized and adapted FEM (Finite Element Method) software. (orig.)

  20. Water reuse for domestic consumption. A key element for environmental and economic sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Coimbra, José; Almeida, Manuela Guedes de

    2013-01-01

    In a context of increasing social awareness about resources conservation, residential water management is essential in ensuring environmental and economic sustainability. An adequate management is attained with integrated solutions, which simultaneously reduce potable water consumption at least in 25% and enable the storage of recovered water. The recovery and storage of underground water can be ensured with the installation of a groundwater drainage network and an underground water deposi...

  1. Water consumption footprint and land requirements of large-scale alternative diesel and jet fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Mark D; Olcay, Hakan; Malina, Robert; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Pearlson, Matthew N; Strzepek, Kenneth; Paltsev, Sergey V; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R H

    2013-01-01

    Middle distillate (MD) transportation fuels, including diesel and jet fuel, make up almost 30% of liquid fuel consumption in the United States. Alternative drop-in MD and biodiesel could potentially reduce dependence on crude oil and the greenhouse gas intensity of transportation. However, the water and land resource requirements of these novel fuel production technologies must be better understood. This analysis quantifies the lifecycle green and blue water consumption footprints of producing: MD from conventional crude oil; Fischer-Tropsch MD from natural gas and coal; fermentation and advanced fermentation MD from biomass; and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids MD and biodiesel from oilseed crops, throughout the contiguous United States. We find that FT MD and alternative MD derived from rainfed biomass have lifecycle blue water consumption footprints of 1.6 to 20.1 Lwater/LMD, comparable to conventional MD, which ranges between 4.1 and 7.4 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from irrigated biomass has a lifecycle blue water consumption footprint potentially several orders of magnitude larger, between 2.7 and 22 600 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from biomass has a lifecycle green water consumption footprint between 1.1 and 19 200 Lwater/LMD. Results are disaggregated to characterize the relationship between geo-spatial location and lifecycle water consumption footprint. We also quantify the trade-offs between blue water consumption footprint and areal MD productivity, which ranges from 490 to 4200 LMD/ha, under assumptions of rainfed and irrigated biomass cultivation. Finally, we show that if biomass cultivation for alternative MD is irrigated, the ratio of the increase in areal MD productivity to the increase in blue water consumption footprint is a function of geo-spatial location and feedstock-to-fuel production pathway.

  2. Gray comprehensive assessment and optimal selection of water consumption forecasting model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessing method based on the principle of the gray system theory and gray relational grade analysis was put forward to optimize water consumption forecasting models. The method provides a better accuracy for the assessment and the optimal selection of the water consumption forecasting models. The results show that the forecasting model built on this comprehensive assessing method presents better self-adaptability and accuracy in forecasting.

  3. Organohalogen products from chlorination of cooling water at nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    Eight nuclear power units at seven locations in the US were studied to determine the effects of chlorine, added as a biocide, on the composition of cooling water discharge. Water, sediment and biota samples from the sites were analyzed for total organic halogen and for a variety of organohalogen compounds. Haloforms were discharged from all plants studied, at concentrations of a few ..mu..g/L (parts-per-billion). Evidence was obtained that power plants with cooling towers discharge a significant portion of the haloforms formed during chlorination to the atmosphere. A complex mixture of halogenated phenols was found in the cooling water discharges of the power units. Cooling towers can act to concentrate halogenated phenols to levels approaching those of the haloforms. Examination of samples by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry did not result in identification of any significant concentrations of lipophilic base-neutral compounds that could be shown to be formed by the chlorination process. Total concentrations of lipophilic (Bioabsorbable) and volatile organohalogen material discharged ranged from about 2 to 4 ..mu..g/L. Analysis of sediment samples for organohalogen material suggests that certain chlorination products may accumulate in sediments, although no tissue bioaccumulation could be demonstrated from analysis of a limited number of samples. 58 references, 25 figures, 31 tables.

  4. Water consumption from hydropower plants – review of published estimates and an assessment of the concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Bakken

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the report from IPCC on renewable energy (IPCC, 2012 was published; more studies on water consumption from hydropower have become available. The newly published studies do not, however, contribute to a more consistent picture on what the "true" water consumption from hydropower plants is. The dominant calculation method is the gross evaporation from the reservoirs divided by the annual power production, which appears to be an over-simplistic calculation method that possibly produces a biased picture of the water consumption of hydropower plants. This review paper shows that the water footprint of hydropower is used synonymously with water consumption, based on gross evaporation rates. This paper also documents and discusses several methodological problems when applying this simplified approach (gross evaporation divided by annual power production for the estimation of water consumption from hydropower projects. A number of short-comings are identified, including the lack of clarity regarding the setting of proper system boundaries in space and time. The methodology of attributing the water losses to the various uses in multi-purpose reservoirs is not developed. Furthermore, a correct and fair methodology for handling water consumption in reservoirs based on natural lakes is needed, as it appears meaningless that all the evaporation losses from a close-to-natural lake should be attributed to the hydropower production. It also appears problematic that the concept is not related to the impact the water consumption will have on the local water resources, as high water consumption values might not be problematic per se. Finally, it appears to be a paradox that a reservoir might be accorded a very high water consumption/footprint and still be the most feasible measure to improve the availability of water in a region. We argue that reservoirs are not always the problem; rather they may contribute to the solution of the problems of water scarcity

  5. Water consumption from hydropower plants – review of published estimates and an assessment of the concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Bakken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the report from IPCC on renewable energy (IPCC, 2012 was published; more studies on water consumption from hydropower have become available. The newly published studies do not, however, contribute to a more consistent picture on what the "true" water consumption from hydropower plants is. The dominant calculation method is the gross evaporation from the reservoirs divided by the annual power production, which appears to be an over-simplistic calculation method that possibly produces a biased picture of the water consumption of hydropower plants. This review paper shows that the water footprint of hydropower is used synonymously to water consumption, based on gross evaporation rates. This paper also documents and discusses several methodological problems when applying this simplified approach (gross evaporation divided by annual power production for the estimation of water consumption from hydropower projects. A number of short-comings are identified, including the lack of clarity regarding the setting of proper system boundaries in space and time. The methodology of attributing the water losses to the various uses in multi-purpose reservoirs is not developed. Furthermore, a correct and fair methodology for handling water consumption in reservoirs based on natural lakes is needed, as it appears meaningless that all the evaporation losses from a close to natural lake should be attributed to the hydropower production. It also appears problematic that the concept is not related to the impact the water consumption will have on the local water resources, as high water consumption values might not be problematic per se. Finally, it appears to be a paradox that a reservoir might be accorded a very high water consumption/footprint and still be the most feasible measure to improve the availability of water in a region. We argue that reservoirs are not always the problem; rather they may contribute to the solution of the problems of water scarcity

  6. Water consumption from hydropower plants - review of published estimates and an assessment of the concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, T. H.; Killingtveit, Å.; Engeland, K.; Alfredsen, K.; Harby, A.

    2013-10-01

    Since the report from IPCC on renewable energy (IPCC, 2012) was published; more studies on water consumption from hydropower have become available. The newly published studies do not, however, contribute to a more consistent picture on what the "true" water consumption from hydropower plants is. The dominant calculation method is the gross evaporation from the reservoirs divided by the annual power production, which appears to be an over-simplistic calculation method that possibly produces a biased picture of the water consumption of hydropower plants. This review paper shows that the water footprint of hydropower is used synonymously with water consumption, based on gross evaporation rates. This paper also documents and discusses several methodological problems when applying this simplified approach (gross evaporation divided by annual power production) for the estimation of water consumption from hydropower projects. A number of short-comings are identified, including the lack of clarity regarding the setting of proper system boundaries in space and time. The methodology of attributing the water losses to the various uses in multi-purpose reservoirs is not developed. Furthermore, a correct and fair methodology for handling water consumption in reservoirs based on natural lakes is needed, as it appears meaningless that all the evaporation losses from a close-to-natural lake should be attributed to the hydropower production. It also appears problematic that the concept is not related to the impact the water consumption will have on the local water resources, as high water consumption values might not be problematic per se. Finally, it appears to be a paradox that a reservoir might be accorded a very high water consumption/footprint and still be the most feasible measure to improve the availability of water in a region. We argue that reservoirs are not always the problem; rather they may contribute to the solution of the problems of water scarcity. The authors

  7. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir

  8. The relationship between oxygen consumption rate and viability of in vivo-derived pig embryos vitrified by the micro volume air cooling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, N; Nishida, K; Misumi, K; Hirayama, Y; Yamashita, S; Hoshi, H; Misawa, H; Akiyama, K; Suzuki, C; Yoshioka, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the viability of vitrified-warmed in vivo-derived pig embryos after measuring the oxygen consumption rate. Six days after artificial insemination, blastocysts were collected from gilts and vitrified by the micro volume air cooling method. The oxygen consumption rate was measured in 60 vitrified-warmed embryos, which were then cultured for 48h to assess the viability. The survival (re-expansion) rate of embryos after warming was 85.0%. The average oxygen consumption rate of embryos immediately after warming was greater in embryos which could re-expand during subsequent culture (F=0.75±0.04) than that in those which failed to re-expand (F=0.33±0.05). Moreover, the oxygen consumption rate of vitrified-warmed embryos was greater in the hatched (F=0.88±0.06) than that in the not-hatched group (F=0.53±0.04). When the oxygen consumption rate of the vitrified-warmed embryos and the numbers of viable and dead cells in embryos were determined, there was a positive correlation between the oxygen consumption rate and the number of live cells (Pconsumption rate were surgically transferred into uterine horns of two recipients. Both of the recipients become pregnant and farrowed 12 healthy piglets. These results demonstrate that the oxygen consumption rate of vitrified-warmed pig embryos can be related to the number of live cells and that the measurement of oxygen consumption of embryos after cryopreservation may be useful for estimating embryo survivability.

  9. Experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics of a nuclear reactor containment wall cooled by gravitationally falling water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Ari D.; Umar, Efrison; Suwono, Aryadi; Manalu, Reinhard E. E.

    2012-06-01

    Gravitationally falling water cooling is one of mechanism utilized by a modern nuclear Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) for its Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). Since the cooling is closely related to the safety, water film cooling characteristics of the PCCS should be studied. This paper deals with the experimental study of laminar water film cooling on the containment model wall. The influences of water mass flow rate and wall heat rate on the heat transfer characteristic were studied. This research was started with design and assembly of a containment model equipped with the water cooling system, and calibration of all measurement devices. The containment model is a scaled down model of AP 1000 reactor. Below the containment steam is generated using electrical heaters. The steam heated the containment wall, and then the temperatures of the wall in several positions were measure transiently using thermocouples and data acquisition. The containment was then cooled by falling water sprayed from the top of the containment. The experiments were done for various wall heat rate and cooling water flow rate. The objective of the research is to find the temperature profile along the wall before and after the water cooling applied, prediction of the water film characteristic such as means velocity, thickness and their influence to the heat transfer coefficient. The result of the experiments shows that the wall temperatures significantly drop after being sprayed with water. The thickness of water film increases with increasing water flow rate and remained constant with increasing wall heat rate. The heat transfer coefficient decreases as film mass flow rate increase due to the increases of the film thickness which causes the increasing of the thermal resistance. The heat transfer coefficient increases slightly as the wall heat rate increases. The experimental results were then compared with previous theoretical studied.

  10. Characterization factors for water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions based on freshwater fish species extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Marlia M; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A; Pfister, Stephan; Leuven, Rob S E W; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2011-06-15

    Human-induced changes in water consumption and global warming are likely to reduce the species richness of freshwater ecosystems. So far, these impacts have not been addressed in the context of life cycle assessment (LCA). Here, we derived characterization factors for water consumption and global warming based on freshwater fish species loss. Calculation of characterization factors for potential freshwater fish losses from water consumption were estimated using a generic species-river discharge curve for 214 global river basins. We also derived characterization factors for potential freshwater fish species losses per unit of greenhouse gas emission. Based on five global climate scenarios, characterization factors for 63 greenhouse gas emissions were calculated. Depending on the river considered, characterization factors for water consumption can differ up to 3 orders of magnitude. Characterization factors for greenhouse gas emissions can vary up to 5 orders of magnitude, depending on the atmospheric residence time and radiative forcing efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions. An emission of 1 ton of CO₂ is expected to cause the same impact on potential fish species disappearance as the water consumption of 10-1000 m³, depending on the river basin considered. Our results make it possible to compare the impact of water consumption with greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Measuring household consumption and waste in unmetered, intermittent piped water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Woelfle-Erskine, Cleo; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara L.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of household water consumption are extremely difficult in intermittent water supply (IWS) regimes in low- and middle-income countries, where water is delivered for short durations, taps are shared, metering is limited, and household storage infrastructure varies widely. Nonetheless, consumption estimates are necessary for utilities to improve water delivery. We estimated household water use in Hubli-Dharwad, India, with a mixed-methods approach combining (limited) metered data, storage container inventories, and structured observations. We developed a typology of household water access according to infrastructure conditions based on the presence of an overhead storage tank and a shared tap. For households with overhead tanks, container measurements and metered data produced statistically similar consumption volumes; for households without overhead tanks, stored volumes underestimated consumption because of significant water use directly from the tap during delivery periods. Households that shared taps consumed much less water than those that did not. We used our water use calculations to estimate waste at the household level and in the distribution system. Very few households used 135 L/person/d, the Government of India design standard for urban systems. Most wasted little water even when unmetered, however, unaccounted-for water in the neighborhood distribution systems was around 50%. Thus, conservation efforts should target loss reduction in the network rather than at households.

  12. Consumptive Water Use Analysis of Upper Rio Grande Basin in Southern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Jonathan; Karunanithi, Arunprakash T

    2017-04-18

    Water resource management and governance at the river basin scale is critical for the sustainable development of rural agrarian regions in the West. This research applies a consumptive water use analysis, inspired by the Water Footprint methodology, to the Upper Rio Grande Basin (RGB) in south central Colorado. The region is characterized by water stress, high dessert conditions, declining land health, and a depleting water table. We utilize region specific data and models to analyze the consumptive water use of RGB. The study reveals that, on an average, RGB experiences three months of water shortage per year due to the unsustainable extraction of groundwater (GW). Our results show that agriculture accounts for 77% of overall water consumption and it relies heavily on an aquifer (about 50% of agricultural consumption) that is being depleted over time. We find that, even though potato cultivation provides the most efficient conversion of groundwater resources into economic value (m(3) GW/$) in this region, it relies predominantly (81%) on the aquifer for its water supply. However, cattle, another important agricultural commodity produced in the region, provides good economic value but also relies significantly less on the aquifer (30%) for water needs. The results from this paper are timely to the RGB community, which is currently in the process of developing strategies for sustainable water management.

  13. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, David J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keisman, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, John L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keisman, Jennifer [American Association for the Advancemetn of Science (AAAS), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  14. Volume and structural analysis of super-cooled water under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duki, Solomon F.; Tsige, Mesfin

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by recent experimental study of super-cooled water at high pressure [1], we performed atomistic molecular dynamic simulations study on bulk water molecules at isothermal-isobaric ensemble. These simulations are performed at temperatures that range from 40 K to 380 K using two different cooling rates, 10K/ns and 10K/5ns, and pressure that ranges from 1atm to 10000 atm. Our analysis for the variation of the volume of the bulk sample against temperature indicates a downward concave shape for pressures above certain values, as reported in [1]. The same downward concave behavior is observed at high pressure on the mean-squared-displacements (MSD) of the water molecules when the MSD is plotted against time. To get further insight on the effect of the pressure on the sample we have also performed a structural analysis of the sample.[4pt] [1] O. Mishima, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144503 (2010);

  15. Ice growth and interface oscillation of water droplets impinged on a cooling surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yoshimichi; Ishikawa, Shoji; Kimura, Ryota; Toyohara, Kazumasa

    2017-06-01

    We focused on the attenuation of air-water interface oscillation for impinged water droplets freezing on a cooling surface. We carried out not only experiments but also two-dimensional numerical simulation on the droplets using a Phase-field method and an immersed boundary method. The Reynolds number and Weber number were in the range of 35-129 and 1.6-22, respectively. The experimental and computational results showed that the height of the impinged droplets on the symmetrical axis started to oscillate as a result of the impact of the collision of droplets with the surfaces in all the cases that we investigated. The measured frequency of the oscillations in the case of the adiabatic droplets was equal to the frequency estimated from the equation for the capillary-gravity waves on sessile droplets (Temperton, 2013) [30]. The oscillations converged rapidly in all impinged water droplets that froze on the cooling surface. This is due partly to the growth of ice shells along the air-water interface and partly to decreases in water volume as a result of the ice growth mainly on the cooling surface. In addition, the thermal field was disturbed not only by the latent heat transfer but also by the upward component of recirculating flow induced by the droplet impingement.

  16. Investigation of Water-spray Cooling of Turbine Blades in a Turbojet Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, John C; Stelpflug, William J

    1953-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation was made with a J33-A-9 engine to determine the effectiveness of spray cooling as a means of increasing thrust by permitting engine operation at inlet-gas temperatures and speeds above rated. With the assumption of adequate spray cooling at a coolant-to-gas flow ratio of 3 percent, calculations for the sea-level static condition indicated a thrust may be achieved by engine operation at an inlet-gas temperature of 2000 degrees F and an overspeed of 10 percent. Of the water-injection configurations investigated experimentally, those located in the inner ring of the stator diaphragm provided the best cooling at rated engine speed.

  17. Impact Assessment of Changing Fuel on Water Consumption in Kuwait’s Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Alhajri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Demands on electricity are in continuous increase and as a result an increase on water consumption and withdrawal. A huge expansion is done by Kuwait seven stations to meet the need of water and electricity using different combinations of four types of fuel (natural gas, gas oil, heavy fuel oil and crude oil. This study aims to determine the optimum fuel for reducing water consumption and cost without changing the capacity of electricity production in Kuwait. To attain that water consumption and/or withdrawal factor had been calculated for each fuel in each station depending on electricity and water consumption and production values, then cost of each mega watt produced had been determined using calculated cost of each fuel. It is concluded that natural gas is the least consuming water and least productivity for electricity where heavy fuel oil is the cheapest one and gas oil is the most expensive and most consuming water. However more time and detailed analysis are needed to determine the optimum fuel. Three scenarios had been assumed on different stations, best one was in Az-zour station when we decreased natural gas percentage and it was compensated by crude oil with keeping gas oil as it was. Consequently, it was noticed there was increase in water consumption and decrease in the cost: about 2 million Kuwait dinars.

  18. A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHUGH, Devesh [University of Florida, Gainesville; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Moghaddam, Saeed [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2014-01-01

    In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the

  19. Performance of water and diluted ethylene glycol as coolants for electronic cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gayatri,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As the number of transistors increases with new generation of microprocessor chips, the power draw and heat load to dissipate during operation increases. As a result of increasing the heat loads and heat fluxes the Conventional cooling technologies such as fan, heat sinks are unable to absorb and heat transfer excess heat dissipated by these new microprocessor. So, new technologies are needed to improve the heat removal capacity. In the present work single phase liquid cooling system with mini channel is analyzed and experimentally investigated. Mini channels are chosen as to provide higher heat transfer co-efficient than conventional channel. Copper pipes of 0.36 mm diameter are taken to fabricate heat sink and heat exchanger. A pump is used to circulate the fluid through heat sink and heat exchanger. A solid heated aluminium block to simulate heat generated electronic component is used and electrical input is supplied to the heated aluminium block and cooling system is placed over the heated block. The performance of the cooling system is analyzed from the experimental data obtained. It is experimentally observed that the mini channel liquid cooling system with water as a coolant has better performance than diluted ethylene glycol as coolant at different flow rates. The surface temperature of the heated aluminium block with convective heat transfer co-efficient is observed

  20. Quantifying area changes of internationally important wetlands due to water consumption in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verones, Francesca; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-09-03

    Wetlands harbor diverse species assemblages but are among the world's most threatened ecosystems. Half of their global area was lost during the last century. No approach currently exists in life cycle impact assessment that acknowledges the vulnerability and importance of wetlands globally and provides fate factors for water consumption. We use data from 1184 inland wetlands, all designated as sites of international importance under the Ramsar Convention, to develop regionalized fate factors (FF) for consumptive water use. FFs quantify the change of wetland area caused per m(3)/yr water consumed. We distinguish between surface water-fed and groundwater-fed wetlands and develop FFs for surface water and groundwater consumption. FFs vary over 8 (surface water-fed) and 6 (groundwater-fed) orders of magnitude as a function of the site characteristics, showing the importance of local conditions. Largest FFs for surface water-fed wetlands generally occur in hyper-arid zones and smallest in humid zones, highlighting the dependency on available surface water flows. FFs for groundwater-fed wetlands depend on hydrogeological conditions and vary largely with the total amount of water consumed from the aquifer. Our FFs translate water consumption into wetland area loss and thus become compatible with life cycle assessment methodologies of land use.

  1. Study on consumption efficiency of soil water resources in the Yellow River Basin based on regional ET structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the regional water resources character, the concept of soil water resources is first redefined, and then associated with their transfer relationship in the hydrological cycle, Evapotranspiration (ET)-based consumption structure and consumption efficiency of soil water resources are analyzed. According to ET ’s function in productivity, the consumption efficiency of soil water resources is di- vided into three classes: high efficient consumption from vegetation transpiration, low efficient con- sumption from soil evaporation among plants with high vegetation coverage and inefficient consump- tion from soil evaporation among plants with low vegetation coverage and bare soil evaporation. The high efficient and low efficient consumption were further classified as productive consumption. The ineffi- cient consumption is considered non-productive consumption because it is significant in the whole hydrological cycle process. Finally, according to these categories, and employing a WEP-L dis- tributed hydrological model, this paper analyzes the consumption efficiency of soil water resources in the Yel- low River Basin. The results show that there are 2078.89×108 m3 soil water resources in the whole basin. From the viewpoint of consumption structure, the soil water resources are comprised of 381.89×108 m3 transpiration consumption from vegetation and 1697.09×108 m3 evaporation consumption from soil among plants and bare soil. From the viewpoint of consumption efficiency, soil water re- sources are composed of 920.11×108 m3 efficient consumption and 1158.86×108 m3 of inefficient con- sumption. High efficient consumption accounts for 41.5 percent of the total efficient consumption of the whole basin, low efficient for 58.5 percent. Furthermore, consumption efficiency varies by region. Compared with ET from different land use conditions, the whole basin appears to follow the trend of having the greatest proportion of consumption as inefficient consumption

  2. Comparison of laboratory and field observations: Ozone water treatment for cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, K.P. [Marley Cooling Tower Co., Mission, KS (United States)

    1996-11-01

    This evaluation, comparing laboratory- and field-generated data, explains the functional results of ozone water treatment use for operating heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) cooling water systems. These effects are classified in the areas of biological growth control, corrosion rate control, and scale control or retardation. Limitations on the application of ozone are discussed. Field results from multiple sites are examined and compared to laboratory-generated data. Theories as to mechanisms are discussed based on the accumulated information. Specific situations such as under-ozonation, and soft and hard water are discussed.

  3. Effect of diet composition on water consumption in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M I; Beaulieu, A D; Patience, J F

    2006-11-01

    Concerns relating to use of water resources by the livestock industry, combined with the rising cost of manure management, have resulted in greater interest in identifying ways to reduce drinking water utilization by pigs while maintaining animal well-being and achieving satisfactory growth performance. The objective of this experiment was to determine if increasing the dietary CP or mineral concentrations increases water intake and excretion and, conversely, if reducing the dietary CP content reduces water intake and excretion. Forty-eight barrows (34.3 +/- 4.6 kg of BW; 12/treatment) were given free access to diets containing a low protein (16.9% CP), high protein (20.9% CP), or excess protein (25.7% CP) level, or a diet with excess levels of Ca, P, Na, and Cl. Water was available to each pig on an ad libitum basis via dish drinkers that were determined to waste less than 3% of total water flow. The excess CP diet tended to increase average daily water intake (ADWI) and urinary excretion (P luxury intake is a significant experimental challenge. Because the impact of dietary treatment on water utilization was small, we conclude that factors other than dietary protein and mineral concentration and daily protein and mineral intake have a relatively large effect on water intake and excretion. Consequently, strategies to reduce water intake must recognize, understand, and manage these additional behavioral and physiological factors. Diet composition may be a part of strategies designed to reduce excessive water utilization by the pig industry but may have a limited effect if other important factors are ignored.

  4. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean.; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Petty, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator - Baseline heat rejection technology for the Portable Life Support System of the Advanced EMU center dot Replaces sublimator in the current EMU center dot Contamination insensitive center dot Can work with Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator in Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) to reject heat and reuse evaporated water The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is being developed to replace the sublimator for future generation spacesuits. Water in LCVG absorbs body heat while circulating center dot Warm water pumped through SWME center dot SWME evaporates water vapor, while maintaining liquid water - Cools water center dot Cooled water is then recirculated through LCVG. center dot LCVG water lost due to evaporation (cooling) is replaced from feedwater The Independent TCV Manifold reduces design complexity and manufacturing difficulty of the SWME End Cap. center dot The offset motor for the new BPV reduces the volume profile of the SWME by laying the motor flat on the End Cap alongside the TCV.

  5. Deficit irrigation of peach trees to reduce water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack of water is a major limiting factor for production tree fruits such as peaches in the San Joaquin Valley of California and many other arid- or semi-arid regions in the world. Deficit irrigation can be used in some cropping systems as a water resource management strategy to reduce non-productiv...

  6. HIGH COOLING WATER TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON DESIGN AND OPERATIONAL SAFETY OF NPPS IN THE GULF REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BYUNG KOO KIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf region has one of the highest ocean temperatures, reaching above 35 degrees and ambient temperatures over 50 degrees in the summer. Two nuclear power plants (NPP are being introduced in the region for the first time, one at Bushehr (1,000 MWe PWR plant from Russia, and a much larger one at Barakah (4X1,400 MWe PWR from Korea. Both plants take seawater from the Gulf for condenser cooling, having to modify the secondary/tertiary side cooling systems design by increasing the heat transfer surface area from the country of origin. This paper analyses the secondary side of a typical PWR plant operating under the Rankine cycle with a simplified thermal-hydraulic model. Parametric study of ocean cooling temperatures is conducted to estimate thermal efficiency variations and its associated design changes for the secondary side. Operational safety is reviewed to deliver rated power output with acceptable safety margins in line with technical specifications, mainly in the auxiliary systems together with the cooling water temperature. Impact on the Gulf seawater as the ultimate heat sink is considered negligible, affecting only the adjacent water near the NPP site, when compared to the solar radiation on the sea surface.

  7. Economy of replacing a refrigerant in a cooling system for preparing chilled water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulcar, B. [Nafta-Petrochem, d.o.o., Mlinska ulica 5, 9220 Lendava (Slovenia); Goricanec, D.; Krope, J. [University of Maribor, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Smetanova ulica 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2010-08-15

    Due to the negative impact of refrigerants containing Cl and Br on the ozone layer, these refrigerants are being replaced with refrigerants containing fluorine. The article describes the replacing of refrigerant R22 in a cooling system for preparing chilled water, used for cooling reactors producing phenol-formaldehyde resins. After analyzing the existing state and the capabilities of the cooling system, the refrigerant R22 was replaced with refrigerant R407C. For both refrigerants a calculation of the cooling system has been made, the results of which are given in the form of diagrams depending on the evaporation temperature of the refrigerant. Profitability evaluation of replacing a refrigerant was carried out using the method of the net present value (NPV), the coefficient of profitability and the period of time in which the investment is going to return itself. Also the calculations of the savings of electrical energy needed for the running of the compressors and the price of chilled water have been done, using the method of internal profitability level (IPL). (author)

  8. Impact of operating conditions on cooling capacity for sorption systems using water as refrigerant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremeac, Brice; Giraud, Florine; Vallon, Pierrick

    2017-02-01

    The implementation of compact heat exchanger in sorption systems is a key factor to allow the development of these systems. The aim of this paper is to develop a statistical model with a design of experiment (DOE) methodology and use dimensionless number to evaluate and understand the influence of the height of refrigerant liquid and secondary fluid inlet temperature on cooling capacity of a compact pate-type evaporator for sorption systems working near vacuum pressure. For this purpose, an experimental campaign was conducted on a small adsorption test bench using 13X/water as working couple. Cooling capacities from 640 to 2000 W were measured. The DOE is a Doelhert type with two parameters: the inlet secondary fluid temperature (from 10 to 21 °C) and the filing level of refrigerant in the evaporator (from 6 to 24 cm). Thanks to the exploitation of the mathematical model obtained, optimal points under different constraints were found. A maximum cooling capacity of 2021 +/-75 W in the entire experimental field was predicted for a secondary fluid inlet temperature of 25°C and a height of liquid level of 19.2 cm. Bond number and modified Jacob number per the ratio Psat/Ptriple were analyzed. The dimensionless numbers are correlated to the cooling capacity as a first step for designing compact plate-type evaporator for adsorption systems using water as refrigerant.

  9. The water footprint of Indonesian provinces related to the consumption of crop products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bulsink

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available National water use accounts are generally limited to statistics on water withdrawals in the different sectors of economy. They are restricted to "blue water accounts" related to production, thus excluding (a "green" and "grey water accounts", (b accounts of internal and international virtual water flows and (c water accounts related to consumption. This paper shows how national water-use accounts can be extended through an example for Indonesia. The study quantifies interprovincial virtual water flows related to trade in crop products and assesses the green, blue and grey water footprint related to the consumption of crop products per Indonesian province. The study shows that the average water footprint in Indonesia insofar related to consumption of crop products is 1131 m3/cap/yr, but provincial water footprints vary between 859 and 1895 m3/cap/yr. Java, the most water-scarce island, has a net virtual water import and the most significant external water footprint. This large external water footprint is releasing the water scarcity on this island. There are two alternative routes to reduce the overall water footprint of Indonesia. On the one hand, it may be reduced by promoting wise crop trade between provinces – i.e. trade from places with high to places with low water efficiency. On the other hand, the water footprint can be reduced by improving water efficiency in those places that currently have relatively low efficiency, which equalises production efficiencies and thus reduces the need for imports and enhances the opportunities for exports. In any case, trade will remain necessary to supply food to the most densely populated areas where water scarcity is highest (Java.

  10. The water footprint of Indonesian provinces related to the consumption of crop products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulsink, F.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Booij, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    National water use accounts are generally limited to statistics on water withdrawals in the different sectors of economy. They are restricted to "blue water accounts" related to production, thus excluding (a) "green" and "grey water accounts", (b) accounts of internal and international virtual water flows and (c) water accounts related to consumption. This paper shows how national water-use accounts can be extended through an example for Indonesia. The study quantifies interprovincial virtual water flows related to trade in crop products and assesses the green, blue and grey water footprint related to the consumption of crop products per Indonesian province. The study shows that the average water footprint in Indonesia insofar related to consumption of crop products is 1131 m3/cap/yr, but provincial water footprints vary between 859 and 1895 m3/cap/yr. Java, the most water-scarce island, has a net virtual water import and the most significant external water footprint. This large external water footprint is releasing the water scarcity on this island. There are two alternative routes to reduce the overall water footprint of Indonesia. On the one hand, it may be reduced by promoting wise crop trade between provinces - i.e. trade from places with high to places with low water efficiency. On the other hand, the water footprint can be reduced by improving water efficiency in those places that currently have relatively low efficiency, which equalises production efficiencies and thus reduces the need for imports and enhances the opportunities for exports. In any case, trade will remain necessary to supply food to the most densely populated areas where water scarcity is highest (Java).

  11. Influence of mineral water consumption and renal stone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRSAY Laszlo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The intake of minerals are very important in maintaining health, but in returning to health either. Mineral waters represents a source of minerals with high bioavailability. There are evidence based studies for the efficency of mineral waters in a series of disorders for both internal and external cures. The advantage of mineral waters in renal lithiasis are significant and the risks of stone formation are neglectable if medical advise is respected. Amongst the patients- but unfortunately also the medical staff- there is the incorrect oppinion that mineral water is a factor that causes renal stones in all consumers. The purpose of the present paper is to present the factors that favour the renal stones, but also scientific arguments that support the value of mineral water, that has a part not only in ensuring the right mineral balance but also, in certain situations, even in preventing renal stones.

  12. The Role of Water Consumption on Consumption of the Ration, Cold Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-22

    physiological water requirement to excrete the waste products from excessive protein intake. Nutritional Status Venous antecubital blood samples were taken... cider , and orange beverage base. The troops appeared to like the dessert type items since they consumed 90.2% of the b.-ownies and chocolate covered...while early morning urine collections show physiological status for a shorter and more recent period of time. The incidence of ketone production

  13. Preliminary Analysis on Heat Removal Capacity of Passive Air-Water Combined Cooling Heat Exchanger Using MARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung-Sin; Jeon, Seong-Su; Hong, Soon-Joon [FNC Tech, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sung-Won; Kwon, Tae-Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Current design requirement for working time of PAFS heat exchanger is about 8 hours. Thus, it is not satisfied with the required cooling capability for the long term SBO(Station Black-Out) situation that is required to over 72 hours cooling. Therefore PAFS is needed to change of design for 72 hours cooling. In order to acquirement of long terms cooling using PAFS, heat exchanger tube has to be submerged in water tank for long time. However, water in the tank is evaporated by transferred heat from heat exchanger tubes, so water level is gradually lowered as time goes on. The heat removal capacity of air cooling heat exchanger is core parameter that is used for decision of applicability on passive air-water combined cooling system using PAFS in long term cooling. In this study, the development of MARS input model and plant accident analysis are performed for the prediction of the heat removal capacity of air cooling heat exchanger. From analysis result, it is known that inflow air velocity is the decisive factor of the heat removal capacity and predicted air velocity is lower than required air velocity. But present heat transfer model and predicted air velocity have uncertainty. So, if changed design of PAFS that has over 4.6 kW heat removal capacity in each tube, this type heat exchanger can be applied to long term cooling of the nuclear power plant.

  14. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Aqueous and Confined Systems Relevant to the Supercritical Water Cooled Nuclear Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallikragas, Dimitrios Theofanis

    Supercritical water (SCW) is the intended heat transfer fluid and potential neutron moderator in the proposed GEN-IV Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor (SCWR). The oxidative environment poses challenges in choosing appropriate design materials, and the behaviour of SCW within crevices of the passivation layer is needed for developing a corrosion control strategy to minimize corrosion. Molecular Dynamics simulations have been employed to obtain diffusion coefficients, coordination number and surface density characteristics, of water and chloride in nanometer-spaced iron hydroxide surfaces. Diffusion models for hydrazine are evaluated along with hydration data. Results demonstrate that water is more likely to accumulate on the surface at low density conditions. The effect of confinement on the water structure diminishes as the gap size increases. The diffusion coefficient of chloride decreases with larger surface spacing. Clustering of water at the surface implies that the SCWR will be most susceptible to pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking.

  15. Multi-Model Assessment of Global Hydropower and Cooling Water Discharge Potential Under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, M. T. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Eisener, S.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding of how climate change may impact the availability and temperature of water resources is therefore of major importance. Here we use a multi-model ensemble to show the potential impacts of climate change on global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential. For the first time, combined projections of streamflow and water temperature were produced with three global hydrological models (GHMs) to account for uncertainties in the structure and parametrization of these GHMs in both water availability and water temperature. The GHMs were forced with bias-corrected output of five general circulation models (GCMs) for both the lowest and highest representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). The ensemble projections of streamflow and water temperature were then used to quantify impacts on gross hydropower potential and cooling water discharge capacity of rivers worldwide. We show that global gross hydropower potential is expected to increase between +2.4% (GCM-GHM ensemble mean for RCP 2.6) and +6.3% (RCP 8.5) for the 2080s compared to 1971-2000. The strongest increases in hydropower potential are expected for Central Africa, India, central Asia and the northern high-latitudes, with 18-33% of the world population living in these areas by the 2080s. Global mean cooling water discharge capacity is projected to decrease by 4.5-15% (2080s). The largest reductions are found for the United States, Europe, eastern Asia, and southern parts of South America, Africa and Australia, where strong water temperature increases are projected combined with reductions in mean annual streamflow. These regions are expected to affect 11-14% (for RCP2.6 and the shared socioeconomic

  16. Multi-Model Assessment of Global Hydropower and Cooling Water Discharge Potential Under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, M. T. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Eisener, S.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding of how climate change may impact the availability and temperature of water resources is therefore of major importance. Here we use a multi-model ensemble to show the potential impacts of climate change on global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential. For the first time, combined projections of streamflow and water temperature were produced with three global hydrological models (GHMs) to account for uncertainties in the structure and parametrization of these GHMs in both water availability and water temperature. The GHMs were forced with bias-corrected output of five general circulation models (GCMs) for both the lowest and highest representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). The ensemble projections of streamflow and water temperature were then used to quantify impacts on gross hydropower potential and cooling water discharge capacity of rivers worldwide. We show that global gross hydropower potential is expected to increase between +2.4% (GCM-GHM ensemble mean for RCP 2.6) and +6.3% (RCP 8.5) for the 2080s compared to 1971-2000. The strongest increases in hydropower potential are expected for Central Africa, India, central Asia and the northern high-latitudes, with 18-33% of the world population living in these areas by the 2080s. Global mean cooling water discharge capacity is projected to decrease by 4.5-15% (2080s). The largest reductions are found for the United States, Europe, eastern Asia, and southern parts of South America, Africa and Australia, where strong water temperature increases are projected combined with reductions in mean annual streamflow. These regions are expected to affect 11-14% (for RCP2.6 and the shared socioeconomic

  17. Water Consumption of Agriculture and Natural Ecosystems along the Ili River in China and Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Thevs; Sabir Nurtazin; Volker Beckmann; Ruslan Salmyrzauli; Altyn Khalil

    2017-01-01

    The Ili River is a transboundary river shared by China, upstream, and Kazakhstan, downstream. The Ili is the main water supplier to Lake Balkhash, the largest lake in Central Asia after desiccation of the Aral Sea. Agreements over water allocation have not been concluded between China and Kazakhstan. This paper investigated water consumption of agriculture and riparian ecosystems in the Ili river basin, to provide information for further debate on water allocation, through the Simplified Surf...

  18. Food consumption patterns and their effect on water requirement in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2008-06-01

    It is widely recognized that food consumption patterns significantly impact water requirements. The aim of this paper is to quantify how food consumption patterns influence water requirements in China. The findings show that per capita water requirement for food (CWRF) has increased from 255 m3 cap-1y-1 in 1961 to 860 m3 cap-1 y-1 in 2003, largely due to an increase in the consumption of animal products in recent decades. Although steadily increasing, the CWRF of China is still much lower than that of many developed countries. The total water requirement for food (TWRF) has been determined as 1127 km3 y-1 in 2003. Three scenarios are proposed to project future TWRF, representing low, medium, and high levels of modernization (S1, S2, and S3, respectively). Analysis of these three scenarios indicates that TWRF will likely continue to increase in the next three decades. An additional amount of water ranging between 407 and 515 km3 y-1 will be required in 2030 compared to the TWRF in 2003. This will undoubtedly put high pressure on China's already scarce water resources. We conclude that the effect of the food consumption patterns on China's water resources is substantial both in the recent past and in the near future. China will need to strengthen "green water" management and to take advantage of "virtual water" import to meet the additional TWRF.

  19. Water cooling of shocks in protostellar outflows: Herschel-PACS map of L1157

    CERN Document Server

    Nisini, B; Codella, C; Giannini, T; Liseau, R; Neufeld, D; Tafalla, M; van Dishoeck, E F; Bachiller, R; Baaudry, A; Benz, O A; Bergin, E; Bjerkeli, P; Blake, G; Bontemps, S; Braine, J; Bruderer, S; Caselli, P; Cernicharo, J; Daniel, F; Encrenaz, P; di Giorgio, A M; Dominik, C; Doty, S; Fich, M; Fuente, A; Goicoechea, J R; de Graaw, Th; Helmich, F; Herczeg, G; Herpin, F; Hogerheijde, M; Jacq, T; Johnstone, D; Jorgensen, J; Kaufman, M; Kirstensen, L; Larsson, B; Lis, D; Marseille, M; McCoey, C; Melnick, G; Olberg, M; Parise, B; Pearson, J; Plime, R; Risacher, C; Santiago, J; Saraceno, P; Shipman, R; van Kempen, T A; Visser, R; Viti, S; Wampfler, S; Wyrowski, F; van der Tak, F; Yildiz, U A; Delforge, B; Desbat, J; Hatch, W A; Peron, I; Schieder, R; Stern, J A; Teyssier, D; Whyborn, N

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) key program, maps in water lines of several outflows from young stars are being obtained, to study the water production in shocks and its role in the outflow cooling. This paper reports the first results of this program, presenting a PACS map of the o-H2O 179 um transition obtained toward the young outflow L1157. The 179 um map is compared with those of other important shock tracers, and with previous single-pointing ISO, SWAS, and Odin water observations of the same source that allow us to constrain the water abundance and total cooling. Strong H2O peaks are localized on both shocked emission knots and the central source position. The H2O 179 um emission is spatially correlated with emission from H2 rotational lines, excited in shocks leading to a significant enhancement of the water abundance. Water emission peaks along the outflow also correlate with peaks of other shock-produced molecular species, such as SiO and NH3. A strong H2O ...

  20. Performance of a silica gel-water adsorption cooling system for use in small-scale tri-generation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, R.; Smeding, S.F.; Grisel, R.J.H. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    The SOCOOL project focuses on the development of a small-scale combined cold, heat and power (tri-generation) system, which utilises the engine waste heat for cold production. It is demonstrated at the CRF Eco-Canteen in Turin, Italy. The cooling machine is made of two separate sub-cooling systems, each of which is to produce 5 kW of cooling power. One of the cooling systems is driven by 'low-temperature' engine cooling water, the other by 'high-temperature' engine exhaust gases. Tri-generation systems that use heat-driven cooling, offer the possibility of saving 15-20% primary energy. The low-temperature-driven sorption-cooling machine was designed and built at ECN, The Netherlands. Its performance was tested in our own laboratories, before shipment to Turin where it was integrated with the internal combustion engine.

  1. Water intake and consumption in sheep differing in growth potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To avoid obesity they were exercised daily in the morning by ..... intake on water, energy and nitrogen balance and thyroxine secretion in sheep and goats. ... model in genetic studies: different physiological phases in the rat. S.Afr J. Anim.

  2. Nanotechnology for potable water and general consumption in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hillie, T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available is vital to sustain life in every organism, including human beings. As a basic need for rich and poor alike, water takes on primary importance among public resources, one that we need to better understand and sustain....

  3. Construction of a cooling water inlet system with settling basin of Derna power plant station (Libya)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmann, R.; Heimburg, A.M. von; Sinner, H.

    1985-03-01

    Construction of a cooling water intake system with settling basin. The extension of the power station at Derna, in Libya, necessitated the construction of a new cooling water intake system including screening facilities and a settling basin. Construction based on extensive prefabrication (precast concrete) was chosen. The precast reinforced units, ranging up to about 4000 t in weight, were towed on barges to the site of erection. At Derna these units were temporarily stored on the sea bed for several months, during which they were exposed to winter storms and rough sea. The major precast portion of the settling basin was constructed direct on the barge. On arrival at the site, the barge was sunk, allowing the precast unit, which was designed with sufficient buoyancy, to be floated off. The open unprotected coast required special arrangements for the protection of personnel, structures and equipment.

  4. Tritium recovery in Pb17Li-water cooled blanket systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malara, C. [Safety Technology Inst., Ispra (Italy); Casini, G. [Systems Engineering & Information Inst., Ispra (Italy); Viola, A. [Univ. of Cagliari (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    The question of tritium recovery in Pb17Li, water cooled blankets is under investigation since several years at JRC Ispra. The method which has been more extensively analyzed is that of slowly circulating the breeder out from the blanket units and of extracting the tritium from it outside the plasma vacuum vessel by helium gas purging in a suited process apparatus. The design features of the process systems are related to: (1) the very low tritium solubility in Pb17Li which implies high permeation rates through the containment structures; (2) the need of keeping as low as possible the tritium concentration in the cooling water both for safety and economical reasons. A computerized model of the tritium behavior in the blanket units and in the extraction system has been developed.

  5. Neutronics Analysis of Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingjun; Li, Jia; Liu, Songlin

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the nuclear response to the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket models for CFETR, a detailed 3D neutronics model with 22.5° torus sector was developed based on the integrated geometry of CFETR, including heterogeneous WCCB blanket models, shield, divertor, vacuum vessel, toroidal and poloidal magnets, and ports. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code MCNP5 and IAEA Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL2.1, the neutronics analyses were performed. The neutron wall loading, tritium breeding ratio, the nuclear heating, neutron-induced atomic displacement damage, and gas production were determined. The results indicate that the global TBR of no less than 1.2 will be a big challenge for the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket for CFETR. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000, and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  6. High power testing of water-cooled waveguide for ITER-like ECH transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. P.; Doane, J. L.; Grunloh, H. J.; O'Neill, R. C.; Ikeda, R.; Oda, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Sakamoto, K.

    2017-05-01

    The results of high power testing of new water-cooled ECH waveguide components for ITER are presented. The components are a precision-coupled 4.2 m waveguide assembly, a short expansion joint, and water-cooled waveguide for gyrotron commissioning. The testing was conducted at the QST Naka Fusion Institute using gyrotron pulses of 450 kW at 170 GHz for 300 s. Analysis shows that the power absorbed per unit length for the various waveguide components are dependent on location in the transmission line with respect to high order mode generators, such as miter bends. Additionally, larger-than-expected reflections from the load led to high absorption levels in the transmission line.

  7. Fishing for isotopes in the Brookhaven Lab Isotope Producer (BLIP) cooling water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Jonathan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider Accelerator Dept.

    2016-04-29

    Be-7 has been used in environmental studies; the isotope is produced during BLIP irradiations and accumulates in the 320 gallons of cooling water. Be-7 has a 53.24 day half-life, so the optimal production/purification time is at the end of the BLIP run season. To purify Be-7 fifteen to twenty gallons of BLIP cooling water are removed and pumped through ion exchange columns that retain Be-7. This labor intensive approach captures ~15 mCi of Be-7, but the solution requires further purification. The method can lead to increased radiation exposure to staff. The ideal way to capture isotopes from large volumes is to reach in to the solution and selectively pull out the desired isotope. It is a lot like fishing.

  8. Prospects for development of an innovative water-cooled nuclear reactor for supercritical parameters of coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyakin, S. G.; Kirillov, P. L.; Baranaev, Yu. D.; Glebov, A. P.; Bogoslovskaya, G. P.; Nikitenko, M. P.; Makhin, V. M.; Churkin, A. N.

    2014-08-01

    The state of nuclear power engineering as of February 1, 2014 and the accomplished elaborations of a supercritical-pressure water-cooled reactor are briefly reviewed, and the prospects of this new project are discussed based on this review. The new project rests on the experience gained from the development and operation of stationary water-cooled reactor plants, including VVERs, PWRs, BWRs, and RBMKs (their combined service life totals more than 15 000 reactor-years), and long-term experience gained around the world with operation of thermal power plants the turbines of which are driven by steam with supercritical and ultrasupercritical parameters. The advantages of such reactor are pointed out together with the scientific-technical problems that need to be solved during further development of such installations. The knowledge gained for the last decade makes it possible to refine the concept and to commence the work on designing an experimental small-capacity reactor.

  9. Change of water consumption and its potential influential factors in Shanghai: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Different water choices affect access to drinking water with different quality. Previous studies suggested social-economic status may affect the choice of domestic drinking water. The aim of this study is to investigate whether recent social economic changes in China affect residents’ drinking water choices. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey to investigate residents’ water consumption behaviour in 2011. Gender, age, education, personal income, housing condition, risk perception and personal preference of a certain type of water were selected as potential influential factors. Univariate and backward stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed to analyse the relation between these factors and different drinking water choices. Basic information was compared with that of a historical survey in the same place in 2001. Self-reported drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found correlated with different water choices and water hygiene treatment using chi-square test. Results The percentage of tap water consumption remained relatively stable and a preferred choice, with 58.99% in 2001 and 58.25% in 2011. The percentage of bottled/barrelled water consumption was 36.86% in 2001 and decreased to 25.75% in 2011. That of household filtrated water was 4.15% in 2001 and increased to 16.00% in 2011. Logistic regression model showed strong correlation between one’s health belief and drinking water choices (P water-related diarrhoea was found in all types of water and improper water hygiene behaviours still existed among residents. Conclusions Personal health belief, housing condition, age, personal income, education, taste and if worm ever founded in tap water affected domestic drinking water choices in Shanghai. PMID:22708830

  10. Natural Convective Heat and Mass Transfer of Water with Corrosion Products at Super—Critical Pressures under Cooling COnditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-XueJiang; Ze-PeiRen; 等

    1993-01-01

    A numerical study is reported of laminar natural convective heat and mass transfer on a vertical cooled plate for water containing metal corrosion products at super-critical pressures.The influence of variable properties at super-critical pressures on natural convertion has been analyzed.The difference between heat and mass transfer under cooling or heating conditions is also discussed and some correlations for heat and mass transfer under cooling conditions are recommended.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Three Water Treatment Programs for Cooling Tower Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Gallic Acid Powder (item 2063) METHOD: It is necessary to follow the instructions furnished with the conductivity meter that is being used . The...the location and costs of AFLC towers. 2 Definition of Terms Terms commonly used in cooling tower water treatment. Acid : A substance that dissolves...the sulfuric acid program. This program is still indorsed by Air Force Regulation 91-40. System operators use sulfuric acid to lower the pH and

  12. The unexpected energy saving of cooling water conditioning; Koelwaterconditionering spaart meer energie dan u denkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, A. [ed.

    1996-09-01

    On the basis of the example of the dosage of chlorinated bleaching lye in cooling water it is calculated that much more energy can be saved than expected. The use of the lye improves the energy efficiency of heat exchangers. The calculation method is developed by L. Paping and is based on the idea to express the advantages (e.g. energy conservation) and the disadvantages (e.g. environmental burden) as a dimensionless indicator.

  13. Topical report : NSTF facilities plan for water-cooled VHTR RCCS : normal operational tests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C. P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the gas-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept.

  14. Water-Cooled Data Center Packs More Power Per Rack | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard and Ken Michaels, Staff Writers Behind each tall, black computer rack in the data center at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) is something both strangely familiar and oddly out of place: It looks like a radiator. The back door of each cabinet is gridded with the coils of the Liebert cooling system, which circulates chilled water to remove heat generated by the high-speed, high-capacity, fault-tolerant equipment.

  15. Thermal-hydraulic Optimization of Water-cooled Center Conductor Post for Spherical Tokamaks Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯严; 吴宜灿; 黄群英; 郑善良

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual structure of segmental water-cooled Center Con ductor Post (CCP) to be flexible in installment and replacement. Thermal-hydraulic optimization and sensitivity analysis of key parameters are performed based on a reference fusion transmutation system with 100 MW fusion power. Numerical simulation by using a commercial code PHOEN]CS has been carried out to be close to the thermal-hydraulic analytical results of the CCP mid-part.

  16. Analysis of tritium behaviour and recovery from a water-cooled Pb17Li blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malara, C. [Institute Regional des Materiaux Avances, Ispra (Italy); Casini, G. [Systems Engineering and Informatics Institute, JRC Ispra, Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Viola, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    The question of the tritium recovery in water-cooled Pb17Li blankets has been under investigation for several years at JRC Ispra. The method which has been more extensively analysed is that of slowly circulating the breeder out from the blanket units and of extracting the tritium from it outside the plasma vacuum vessel by helium gas purging or vacuum degassing in a suited process apparatus. A computerized model of the tritium behaviour in the blanket units and in the extraction system was developed. It includes four submodels: (1) tritium permeation process from the breeder to the cooling water as a function of the local operative conditions (tritium concentration in Pb17Li, breeder temperature and flow rate); (2) tritium mass balance in each breeding unit; (3) tritium desorption from the breeder material to the gas phase of the extraction system; (4) tritium extraction efficiency as a function of the design parameters of the recovery apparatus. In the present paper, on the basis of this model, a parametric study of the tritium permeation rate in the cooling water and of the tritium inventory in the blanket is carried out. Results are reported and discussed in terms of dimensionless groups which describe the relative effects of the overall resistance on tritium transfer to the cooling water (with and without permeation barriers), circulating Pb17Li flow rate and extraction efficiency of the tritium recovery unit. The parametric study is extended to the recovery unit in the case of tritium extraction by helium purge or vacuum degassing in a droplet spray unit. (orig.).

  17. Water-Cooled Data Center Packs More Power Per Rack | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard and Ken Michaels, Staff Writers Behind each tall, black computer rack in the data center at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) is something both strangely familiar and oddly out of place: It looks like a radiator. The back door of each cabinet is gridded with the coils of the Liebert cooling system, which circulates chilled water to remove heat generated by the high-speed, high-capacity, fault-tolerant equipment.

  18. Demographic factors associated with perceptions about water safety and tap water consumption among adults in Santa Clara County, California, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Brianna; Webber, Whitney L; Stoddard, Pamela; Shah, Roshni; Martin, Lori; Broderick, Bonnie; Induni, Marta

    2014-06-12

    The objective of this study was to examine differences in tap water consumption and perceptions of bottle versus tap water safety for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites, as well as associations with other demographic characteristics. Data are from the Santa Clara County, California, Dietary Practices Survey (2011; N = 306). We used logistic regression to examine associations between demographic characteristics and 1) perceptions that bottled water is safer than tap and 2) primarily consuming tap water. Hispanics were less likely than non-Hispanic whites to primarily drink tap water (OR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.11-0.99), although there was no significant difference in perceptions that bottled water is safer between these groups (OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.11-2.27). Hispanics may be an important population for interventions promoting tap water consumption.

  19. Sustainability of national consumption from a water resources perspective: The case study for France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercin, A.E.; Mekonnen, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2013-01-01

    It has become increasingly evident that local water depletion and pollution are often closely tied to the structure of the global economy. It has been estimated that 20% of the water consumption and pollution in the world relates to the production of export goods. This study analyzes how French wate

  20. The blue, green and grey water footprint of rice from a production and consumption perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    The paper makes a global assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of rice, using a higher spatial resolution and local data on actual irrigation. The national water footprint of rice production and consumption is estimated using international trade and domestic production data. The

  1. The consumptive water footprint of electricity and heat : A global assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Gerbens-Leenes, P. W.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Water is essential for electricity and heat production. This study assesses the consumptive water footprint (WF) of electricity and heat generation per world region in the three main stages of the production chain, i.e. fuel supply, construction and operation. We consider electricity from power plan

  2. The consumptive water footprint of electricity and heat: a global assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, M.M.; Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Water is essential for electricity and heat production. This study assesses the consumptive water footprint (WF) of electricity and heat generation per world region in the three main stages of the production chain, i.e. fuel supply, construction and operation. We consider electricity from power plan

  3. The blue, green and grey water footprint of rice from production and consumption perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The paper makes a global assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of rice, using a higher spatial resolution and local data on actual irrigation. The national water footprint of rice production and consumption is estimated using international trade and domestic production data. The glo

  4. The consumptive water footprint of electricity and heat: a global assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    Water is essential for electricity and heat production. This study assesses the consumptive water footprint (WF) of electricity and heat generation per world region in the three main stages of the production chain, i.e. fuel supply, construction and operation. We consider electricity from power

  5. Water Consumption and Maize Yield for Alternative Furrow Irrigation in Western Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Aili; LI Yuexing; WEI Yongxia

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at less and un-uniform distribution rainfall problems, the serious draught in spring, low crop production and water efficiency in sandy soil area of Heilongjiang Province, the experiment of alternative furrow irrigation was conducted in Dumeng County in 2009. The purpose of the experiment was to find the water consumption law and its influence on maize yield. The results showed that the highest water consumption was during the heading stage and the highest daily consumption of water was during the filling stage. The stimulation effect of alternative furrow irrigation on yield was obvious in the that the seedling was 38.85 mm; the jointing was 108.11 mm; the heading was 124.39 mm; the filling was 88.96 mm; the milk was 60.21 mm; and the harvesting was 47.89 mm.

  6. Estimating pumping time and ground-water withdrawals using energy-consumption data. Water-Resources Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurr, R.T.; Litke, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluation of the hydrology of an aquifer requires knowledge about the volume of ground water in storage and also about the volume of ground-water withdrawals. Totalizer flow meters may be installed at pumping plants to measure withdrawals; however, it generally is impractical to equip all wells in an area with meters. A viable alternative is the use of rate-time methods to estimate withdrawals. The relation between power demand and pumping rate at a pumping plant can be described through the use of the power-consumption coefficient. Where equipment and hydrologic conditions are stable, this coefficient can be applied to total energy consumption at a site to estimate total ground-water withdrawals. Random sampling of power-consumption coefficients can be used to estimate area-wide ground-water withdrawals.

  7. Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease from a cooling water system in a power station (Heysham)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, S.; Dyer, J.V.; Bartlett, C.L.R.; Bibby, L.F.; Hutchinson, D.N.; Dennis, P.J.

    1986-09-01

    In September and October 1981 six cases of pneumonia occurred among men working in a power station under construction. Three were identified as cases of legionella pneumonia and two others had serology suggestive of legionella infection. In a sample of 92 men from the site 10 had low levels of antibodies to legionella; a similar sample of men working on an adjacent site showed none with positive serology. In a case control study it was found that cases of pneumonia were more likely than controls to have worked on a part of the site where four small capacity cooling towers were located. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the water systems of these four towers but was not found in samples from any other cooling towers or hot or cold water outlets on the site. It would appear that there was airborne spread of the organism from these cooling water systems which had not received conventional treatment to inhibit corrosion and organic growth. This is the first outbreak of legionnaires' disease to be recorded in an industrial setting in the United Kingdom. No cases of legionella infection have occurred on the site since the introduction of control measures.

  8. Effects of Solution Hydrodynamics on Corrosion Inhibition of Steel by Citric Acid in Cooling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashassi-Sorkhabi, H.; Asghari, E.; Mohammadi, M.

    2014-08-01

    Corrosion is a major problem in cooling water systems, which is often controlled using corrosion inhibitors. Solution hydrodynamics is one of the factors affecting corrosion inhibition of metals in these systems. The present work focuses on the study of the combined effects of citric acid concentration (as a green corrosion inhibitor) and fluid flow on corrosion of steel in simulated cooling water. Electrochemical techniques including Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used for corrosion studies. Laminar flow was simulated using a rotating disk electrode. The effects of solution hydrodynamics on inhibition performance of citric acid were discussed. The citric acid showed low inhibition performance in quiescent solution; however, when the electrode rotated at 200 rpm, inhibition efficiency increased remarkably. It was attributed mainly to the acceleration of inhibitor mass transport toward metal surface. The efficiencies were then decreased at higher rotation speeds due to enhanced wall shear stresses on metal surface and separation of adsorbed inhibitor molecules. This article is first part of authors' attempts in designing green inhibitor formulations for industrial cooling water. Citric acid showed acceptable corrosion inhibition in low rotation rates; thus, it can be used as a green additive to the corrosion inhibitor formulations.

  9. Experimental adsorption equilibrium study and comparison of zeolite with water and ethanol for cooling systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAIGA Abdoulaye Siddeye; CHEN Guang-ming; WANG Qin

    2007-01-01

    Two adsorption refrigeration working pairs of zeolite with water and ethanol were studied and the parameters of Dubinin-Astakhov model were regressed using the experimental data of equilibrium. The coefficient of heterogeneity varied from 1.305 to 1.52 for the zeolite-water pair and from 1.73 to 2.128 for zeolite-ethanol pair. The maximum adsorption capacity varied from 0.315 to 0.34 for zeolite-water and 0.23 to 0.28 for zeolite-ethanol, respectively. The results showed that the zeolite-water pair is suitable for solar energy cooling not only because of the high latent heat of vaporization of water but also because of the better equilibrium performance. On the other hand, zeolite-ethanol gives a high adsorption capacity at high regeneration temperature, which means it can be used in heat engine systems like buses and cars.

  10. Heat transfer coefficient distribution over the inconel plate cooled from high temperature by the array of water jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Z.; Telejko, T.; Cebo-Rudnicka, A.; Szajding, A.; Rywotycki, M.; Hadała, B.

    2016-09-01

    The industrial rolling mills are equipped with systems for controlled water cooling of hot steel products. A cooling rate affects the final mechanical properties of steel which are strongly dependent on microstructure evolution processes. In case of water jets cooling the heat transfer boundary condition can be defined by the heat transfer coefficient. In the present study one and three dimensional heat conduction models have been employed in the inverse solution to heat transfer coefficient. The inconel plate has been heated to about 900oC and then cooled by one, two and six water jets. The plate temperature has been measured by 30 thermocouples. The heat transfer coefficient distributions at plate surface have been determined in time of cooling.

  11. Thermal and structural finite element analysis of water cooled silicon monochromator for synchrotron radiation comparison of two different cooling schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiev, A I; Busetto, E; Hrdy, J; Mrazek, D; Plesek, I; Savoia, A

    2001-01-01

    The article describes the results of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the first Si monochromator crystal distortions due to Synchrotron Radiation (SR) heat load and consequent analysis of the influence of the distortions on a double crystal monochromator performance. Efficiencies of two different cooling schemes are compared. A thin plate of Si crystal is lying on copper cooling support in both cases. There are microchannels inside the cooling support. In the first model the direction of the microchannels is parallel to the diffraction plane. In the second model the direction of the microchannels is perpendicular to the diffraction plane or in other words, it is a conventional cooling scheme. It is shown that the temperature field along the crystal volume is more uniform and more symmetrical in the first model than in the second (conventional) one.

  12. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  13. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  14. The potential for energy savings when reducing the water consumption in a kraft pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wising, Ulrika; Berntsson, Thore [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science; Stuart, Paul [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    In this paper an existing pulp and paper mill has been studied in a systematic way regarding the reduction of water consumption, and the resulting increased potential for energy integration. It has been found that when the mill's hot water consumption is decreased, the live steam demand for the mill also decreases. Also when decreasing the hot water consumption, the quantity and temperature of available excess heat increases. This excess heat can be used for evaporation, thereby reducing the live steam demand further by up to 1.5 GJ/t. A pinch analysis was performed at an existing mill and it was found that if pinch violations are removed, the hot water consumption is not an important factor any more. Removing all the pinch violations and using the remaining excess heat for evaporation yields a significantly larger energy savings for the mill (4.0 GJ/t). From an economic optimum perspective it is probably most profitable to do a combination of reducing water consumption, removing pinch violations, and use the remaining excess heat for evaporation.

  15. Presence of pathogenic amoebae in power plant cooling waters. Final report, October 15, 1977-September 30, 1979. [Naegleria fowleri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyndall, R.L.; Willaert, E.; Stevens, A.R.

    1981-03-01

    Cooling-water-associated algae and sediments from five northern and five southern or western electric power plants were tested for the presence of pathogenic amoebae. In addition, water algae and sediments from five northern and five southern/western sites not associated with power plants were tested. There was a significant correlation at northern power plants between the presence of thermophilic, pathogenic amoebae in cooling waters and thermal additions. Presence of the pathogenic did not correlate with salinity, pH, conductivity, or a variety of various chemical components of the cooling waters. Selected pathogenic isolates were tested serologically and were classified as Naegleria fowleri. Although thermal additions were shown to be contributing factor in predisposing cooling waters to the growth of pathogenic amoebae, the data suggest the involvement of other currently undefined parameters associated with the presence of the pathogenic amoebae. 35 refs., 21 tabs.

  16. Impact of gari consumption on the water resource of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... scarcely available and two, it is this blue water sources that are also polluted by the waste flows from ... Nigeria accounts for about two-third of fresh (unpeeled) ... spreads to other parts of the world in the post-Columbian.

  17. Analysis of power and cooling cogeneration using ammonia-water mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, Ricardo Vasquez [Clean Energy Research Center, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Av. ENB 118 Tampa, Fl 33620 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia); Demirkaya, Goekmen; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias; Rahman, Muhammad M. [Clean Energy Research Center, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Av. ENB 118 Tampa, Fl 33620 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Development of innovative thermodynamic cycles is important for the efficient utilization of low-temperature heat sources such as solar, geothermal and waste heat sources. This paper presents a parametric analysis of a combined power/cooling cycle, which combines the Rankine and absorption refrigeration cycles, uses ammonia-water mixture as the working fluid and produces power and cooling simultaneously. This cycle, also known as the Goswami Cycle, can be used as a bottoming cycle using waste heat from a conventional power cycle or as an independent cycle using solar or geothermal energy. A thermodynamic study of power and cooling cogeneration is presented. The performance of the cycle for a range of boiler pressures, ammonia concentrations and isentropic turbine efficiencies are studied to find out the sensitivities of net work, amount of cooling and effective efficiencies. The roles of rectifier and superheater on the cycle performance are investigated. The cycle heat source temperature is varied between 90-170 C and the maximum effective first law and exergy efficiencies for an absorber temperature of 30 C are calculated as 20% and 72%, respectively. The turbine exit quality of the cycle for different boiler exit scenarios shows that turbine exit quality decreases when the absorber temperature decreases. (author)

  18. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Panels with Earth Water Heat Exchanger Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakhar Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The operating temperature is an important factor affecting the performance and life span of the Photovoltaic (PV panels. The rising temperature can be maintained within certain limit using proper cooling techniques. In the present research a novel system for cooling of PV panels named as Earth Water Heat Exchanger (EWHE is proposed and modelled in transient analysis simulation tool (TRNSYS v17.0 for the conditions of Pilani, Rajasthan (India.The various parameters which include cell temperature, PV power output and cell efficiency are observed with respect to variation in mass flow rate of fluid. Simulation results of the system without cooling show that the maximum PV panel temperature reached up to 79.31 °C with electrical efficiency dropped to 9% during peak sunshine hour. On the other hand, when PV panels are coupled with EWHE system, the panel temperature drops to 46.29 °C with an efficiency improving to 11% for a mass flow rate of 0.022 kg/s. In the end the cooling potential of EWHE is found to be in direct correlation with mass flow rate. The proposed system is very useful for the arid regions of western India which are blessed with high solar insolation throughout the year.

  19. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  20. A New System for Households in Spain to Evaluate and Reduce Their Water Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gutierrez-Escolar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to describe a developed model and its corresponding application, known as System to Evaluate the Water Consumption at Home (SEWAT. The aim is to create a new model to evaluate the efficiency of water consumption. Thanks to the input of the water bills by users, the model allows them to check if water consumption is efficient, in order to give them an opportunity to evaluate their water usage. To succeed in it, several researches were tracked in order to establish consumer trends and to identify the most efficient value for this magnitude. Furthermore, a survey was conducted to obtain updated values to validate information from previous studies. However, the main aim of this model is to use the resources efficiently, so it has to be useful accordingly. Therefore, after the evaluation, the application has a section with recommendations for the users to reduce their water consumption through a range of different indications. This section is divided into four: bathroom, kitchen, new appliance and reusing water. Each section shows the expected benefits if the users follow the recommended options. The main result is a unique application in Spain, which includes a system of evaluation, comparison and a section of recommendations for the users. Eventually, the model will have a promising outcome, because it surely will change the awareness of citizens about this subject.

  1. DETERMINING INDICATORS OF URBAN HOUSEHOLD WATER CONSUMPTION THROUGH MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gledsneli Maria Lima Lins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Water has a decisive influence on populations’ life quality – specifically in areas like urban supply, drainage, and effluents treatment – due to its sound impact over public health. Water rational use constitutes the greatest challenge faced by water demand management, mainly with regard to urban household water consumption. This makes it important to develop researches to assist water managers and public policy-makers in planning and formulating water demand measures which may allow urban water rational use to be met. This work utilized the multivariate techniques Factor Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis – in order to determine the participation level of socioeconomic and climatic variables in monthly urban household consumption changes – applying them to two districts of Campina Grande city (State of Paraíba, Brazil. The districts were chosen based on socioeconomic criterion (income level so as to evaluate their water consumer’s behavior. A 9-year monthly data series (from year 2000 up to 2008 was utilized, comprising family income, water tariff, and quantity of household connections (economies – as socioeconomic variables – and average temperature and precipitation, as climatic variables. For both the selected districts of Campina Grande city, the obtained results point out the variables “water tariff” and “family income” as indicators of these district’s household consumption.

  2. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-07-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  3. Consumption and loss of potable water in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Silva Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Before the water problem that has taken place in Brazil and the need to reduce energy consumption in the country, it was thought the objective of this study was to evaluate the conditions of use and loss of potable water in the Baixada Fluminense, part of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro (RMRJ, since it is the emergency waste reduction and the efficient and sustainable use of water. This exploratory study aims through a documentary approach, identify the number of water loss in the region. It proves that the loss in the region is more serious than in other states and that awareness campaigns should be implemented as local public policies. Also suggests that cleantech water use can be incorporated into the daily lives of homes and businesses enabling the reduction of water consumption.

  4. Water consumption from hydroelectricity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, Emily A.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the relationship between water and energy systems is important for effective management of both resources. Improved data availability has made more comprehensive modeling of hydropower and its water use possible, even as droughts and climate change have made questions about reservoir evaporation responsiveness more timely. This work makes three main contributions: first, it presents national and regional estimates of gross evaporation and evaporation net of evapotranspiration from local land cover ("net evaporation") for U.S. hydroelectricity, arguing that net evaporation is more consistent with other measures of energy-related water intensity; second, it introduces and validates a method for estimating system-wide evaporation based on primary purpose allocation that reduces data requirements by two orders of magnitude; and third, it makes available for public use a full Penman-Monteith model with multiple built-in sensitivity analyses. Based on this model, the U.S. hydropower system consumes an estimated average of 1.7 m3 of net freshwater per GJ electricity produced (11 m3/GJ gross).

  5. Technical analysis of a river basin-based model of advanced power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1786, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Clayton, Mary E; Webber, Michael E, E-mail: ashlynn.stillwell@mail.utexas.edu, E-mail: mclayton34@mail.utexas.edu, E-mail: webber@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Thermoelectric power plants require large volumes of water for cooling, which can introduce drought vulnerability and compete with other water needs. Alternative cooling technologies, such as cooling towers and hybrid wet-dry or dry cooling, present opportunities to reduce water diversions. This case study uses a custom, geographically resolved river basin-based model for eleven river basins in the state of Texas (the Brazos and San Jacinto-Brazos, Colorado and Colorado-Brazos, Cypress, Neches, Nueces, Red, Sabine, San Jacinto, and Trinity River basins), focusing on the Brazos River basin, to analyze water availability during drought. We utilized two existing water availability models for our analysis: (1) the full execution of water rights-a scenario where each water rights holder diverts the full permitted volume with zero return flow, and (2) current conditions-a scenario reflecting actual diversions with associated return flows. Our model results show that switching the cooling technologies at power plants in the eleven analyzed river basins to less water-intensive alternative designs can potentially reduce annual water diversions by 247-703 million m{sup 3}-enough water for 1.3-3.6 million people annually. We consider these results in a geographic context using geographic information system tools and then analyze volume reliability, which is a policymaker's metric that indicates the percentage of total demand actually supplied over a given period. This geographic and volume reliability analysis serves as a measure of drought susceptibility in response to changes in thermoelectric cooling technologies. While these water diversion savings do not alleviate all reliability concerns, the additional streamflow from the use of dry cooling alleviates drought concerns for some municipal water rights holders and might also be sufficient to uphold instream flow requirements for important bays and estuaries on the Texas Gulf coast.

  6. Short-Term Forecasting of Urban Water Consumption Based on the Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An approach for short-term forecasting of municipal water consumption was presented based on the largest Lyapunov exponent of chaos theory. The chaotic characteristics of time series of urban water consumption were examined by means of the largest Lyapunov exponent and correlation dimension. By using the largest Lyapunov exponent a short-term forecasting model for urban water consumption was developed, which was compared with the artificial neural network (ANN) approach in a case study. The result indicates that the model based on the largest Lyapunov exponent has higher prediction precision and forecasting stability than the ANN method, and its forecasting mean relative error is 9.6% within its maximum predictable time scale while it is 60.6% beyond the scale.

  7. A Thirst for Power: Measuring the Water Consumption of National Energy Production Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, E.

    2011-12-01

    Discussion of the environmental implications of worldwide energy demand is currently dominated by the effects of CO2 emissions on our global climate. However, at the regional scale, the water resource requirements associated with energy systems are a growing concern. While much of the research in this area (commonly referred to as the "water-energy nexus") has focused on estimating the water consumption of discrete energy technologies, this research synthesizes and expands the existing work in the field to explore the comprehensive water consumption of national level energy portfolios. Understanding the system-wide coupled demand for these resources is crucial for regional governments seeking to improve and protect both water and energy security. To provide a new perspective on the topic, I defined a set of water intensity metrics for national energy production, calculated indicator values for over 150 countries, and digitally mapped the results to create the first global representation of the geographic distribution of water-intensive energy systems. The results demonstrate a high level of variation in the composition and quantities of water consumption across nations as well as across the suite of indicators that were applied. This suggests that meaningful evaluation of water-energy systems fundamentally requires the consideration of spatial and regional characteristics, as well as the application of multiple indicators to define the intensity of the coupled relationship.

  8. Subjective thirst moderates changes in speed of responding associated with water consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Jane Edmonds

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Participants (N=34 undertook a CANTAB battery on two separate occasions after fasting and abstaining from fluid intake since the previous evening. On one occasion they were offered 500 ml water shortly before testing, and on the other occasion no water was consumed prior to testing. Reaction times, as measured by Simple Reaction Time (SRT, were faster on the occasion on which they consumed water. Furthermore, subjective thirst was found to moderate the effect of water consumption on speed of responding. Response latencies in the SRT task were greater under the no water condition than under the water condition, but only for those participants with relatively high subjective thirst after abstaining from fluid intake overnight. For those participants with relatively low subjective thirst, latencies were unaffected by water consumption, and were similarly fast as those recorded for thirsty participants who had consumed water. These results reveal the novel finding that subjective thirst moderates the positive effect of fluid consumption on speed of responding. The results also showed evidence that practice also affected task performance. These results imply that, for speed of responding at least, the positive effects of water supplementation may result from an attenuation of the central processing resources consumed by the subjective sensation of thirst that otherwise impair the execution of speeded cognitive processes.

  9. Prediction of annual water consumption in Guangdong Province based on Bayesian neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tao; Xue, Huifeng

    2017-06-01

    In the context of the implementation of the most stringent water resources management system, the role of water demand forecasting for regional water resources management is becoming increasingly significant. Based on the analysis of the influencing factors of water consumption in Guangdong Province, we made the forecast index system of annual water consumption, and constructed the forecast model of annual water consumption of BP neural network, then optimized the regularization BP neural network in utilization rate of water. The results showed that the average absolute percentage error of Bayesian neural network prediction model and BP neural network prediction model is 0.70% and 0.46% respectively. BP neural network model by Bayesian regularization is more ability to improve the accuracy of about 0.24%, more in line with the regional annual water demand forecast high precision requirements. Take the planning index value of Guangdong Province’s thirteen five plan into Bayesian neural network forecasting model, and its forecast value is 45.432 billion cubic meters, which will reach 456.04 billion cubic meters of red water in Guangdong Province in 2020.

  10. Resistance of Alkali Activated Water-Cooled Slag Geopolymer to Sulphate Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Hasanein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground granulated blast furnace slag is a finely ground, rapidly chilled aluminosilicate melt material that is separated from molten iron in the blast furnace as a by-product. Rapid cooling results in an amorphous or a glassy phase known as GGBFS or water cooled slag (WCS. Alkaline activation of latent hydraulic WCS by sodium hydroxide and/or sodium silicate in different ratios was studied. Curing was performed under 100 % relative humidity and at a temperature of 38°C. The results showed that mixing of both sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate in ratio of 3:3 wt.,% is the optimum one giving better mechanical as well as microstructural characteristics as compared with cement mortar that has various cement content (cement : sand were 1:3 and 1:2. Durability of the water cooled slag in 5 % MgSO4 as revealed by better microstructure and high resistivity-clarifying that activation by 3:3 sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate, respectively is better than using 2 and 6 % of sodium hydroxide.

  11. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    Project Sunburst is a demonstration system for solar space heating and cooling and solar hot water heating for a 14,400 square foot office building in Richland, Washington. The project is part of the US Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid--liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building to reject surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program has been provided from the beginning of the program and has resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  12. Water footprints of cities – indicators for sustainable consumption and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hauser

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Water footprints have been proposed as sustainability indicators, relating the consumption of goods like food to the amount of water necessary for their production and the impacts of that water use in the source regions. We have further developed the existing water footprint methodology by globally resolving virtual water flows and import and source regions at 5 arc minutes spatial resolution, and by assessing local impacts of export production. Applying this method to three exemplary cities, Berlin, Delhi and Lagos, we find major differences in amounts, composition, and origin of green and blue virtual water imports, due to differences in diets, trade integration and crop water productivities in the source regions. While almost all of Delhi's and Lagos' virtual water imports are of domestic origin, Berlin on average imports from more than 4000 km distance, in particular soy (livestock feed, coffee and cocoa. While 42% of Delhi's virtual water imports are blue water based, the fractions for Berlin and Lagos are 2% and 0.5%, respectively, roughly equal to local drinking water abstractions of these cities. Some of the external source regions of Berlin's virtual water imports appear to be critically water scarce and/or food insecure. However for deriving recommendations on sustainable consumption and trade, further analysis of context-specific costs and benefits associated with export production will be required.

  13. Consumptive water use in the production of ethanonl and petroleum gasoline.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M.; Arora, S.; Energy Systems

    2009-01-30

    The production of energy feedstocks and fuels requires substantial water input. Not only do biofuel feedstocks like corn, switchgrass, and agricultural residues need water for growth and conversion to ethanol, but petroleum feedstocks like crude oil and oil sands also require large volumes of water for drilling, extraction, and conversion into petroleum products. Moreover, in many cases, crude oil production is increasingly water dependent. Competing uses strain available water resources and raise the specter of resource depletion and environmental degradation. Water management has become a key feature of existing projects and a potential issue in new ones. This report examines the growing issue of water use in energy production by characterizing current consumptive water use in liquid fuel production. As used throughout this report, 'consumptive water use' is the sum total of water input less water output that is recycled and reused for the process. The estimate applies to surface and groundwater sources for irrigation but does not include precipitation. Water requirements are evaluated for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from Canadian oil sands, Saudi Arabian crude, and U.S. conventional crude from onshore wells. Regional variations and historic trends are noted, as are opportunities to reduce water use.

  14. Water and energy consumption of Populus spp. bioenergy systems: A case study in Southern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigne, Eva [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Gasol, Carles M. [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Inedit Innovacio S.L. Parc de Recerca de la Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), Carretera de Cabrils Km2, 08348 Barcelona (Spain); Brun, Filippo [Dipartimento di Economia e Ingegneria Agraria Forestale e Ambientale, University of Torino (Italy); Rovira, Laura; Pages, Josep Maria; Camps, Francesc [IRTA-Mas Badia, Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaria (IRTA), Estacion Experimental Fundacion Mas Badia Ctra, De la Tallada, s/n, 17134 La Tallada, Girona (Spain); Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Chemical Engineering Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    With the objectives of climate change mitigation and energy independence, energy crops have been proposed as an alternative to fossil fuels. In recent years short rotation energy crops have been promoted because they provide biomass in short periods of time. However, the impacts of water consumption, in both the impact on the energy balance due to the consumption of irrigation as the impacts on existing water resources, have not been analyzed in depth. This study evaluates the relationship between water, energy and CO{sub 2} emissions of a plot of Populus spp. in Spain with the aim of evaluating the feasibility of its implementation as large-scale cultivation. For the energy and environmental assessment it has been used the life cycle analysis methodology. The results show positive energy balance and environmental improvement respect other energies such as natural gas. Consumption of water required to avoid a kg of CO{sub 2} is 4.6 m{sup 3} and per unit of energy obtained is 45 m{sup 3} GJ{sup -1} considering a life cycle approach and in relation to the water availability of the basin could increase the pressure. Hence, in order to establish energy crops for climate change mitigation water consumption associated must be taken into account for future energy planning. (author)

  15. Global modeling of withdrawal, allocation and consumptive use of surface water and groundwater resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wada

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water withdrawal and consumptive water use have been increasing rapidly. To analyze the human perturbation on water resources consistently over a large scale, a number of macro-scale hydrological models (MHMs have been developed over the recent decades. However, few models consider the feedback between water availability and water demand, and even fewer models explicitly incorporate water allocation from surface water and groundwater resources. Here, we integrate a global water demand model into a global water balance model, and simulate water withdrawal and consumptive water use over the period 1979–2010, considering water allocation from surface water and groundwater resources and explicitly taking into account feedbacks between supply and demand, using two re-analysis products: ERA-Interim and MERRA. We implement an irrigation water scheme, which works dynamically with daily surface and soil water balance, and include a newly available extensive reservoir data set. Simulated surface water and groundwater withdrawal show generally good agreement with available reported national and sub-national statistics. The results show a consistent increase in both surface water and groundwater use worldwide, but groundwater use has been increasing more rapidly than surface water use since the 1990s. Human impacts on terrestrial water storage (TWS signals are evident, altering the seasonal and inter-annual variability. The alteration is particularly large over the heavily regulated basins such as the Colorado and the Columbia, and over the major irrigated basins such as the Mississippi, the Indus, and the Ganges. Including human water use generally improves the correlation of simulated TWS anomalies with those of the GRACE observations.

  16. [Fluoride intake through consumption of water from municipal network in the INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Zabala, Ana; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Otazua, Mónica; Ayerdi, Mikel; Galarza, Ane; Gallastegi, Mara; Ulibarrena, Enrique; Molinuevo, Amaia; Anabitarte, Asier; Ibarluzea, Jesús

    2017-05-22

    To estimate fluoride intake through consumption of water from the municipal network in pregnant women and their children from the INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort and to compare these intakes with recommended levels. In Euskadi (Spain), fluoridation of drinking water is compulsory in water supplies for more than 30,000 inhabitants. 575 pregnant women (recruitment, 2006-2008) and 424 4-year-old children (follow-up, 2010-2012) have been included. Fluoride levels in drinking water were obtained from the water consumption information system of the Basque Country (EKUIS). Water consumption habits and socioeconomic variables were obtained by questionnaire. 74.9% and 87.7% of women and children consumed water from the municipal network. Average fluoride levels in fluoridated water were 0.805 (SD: 0.194) mg/L during baseline recruitment and 0.843 (SD: 0.080) mg/L during follow up, at 4 years old of the children. Average and 95th percentile of fluoride intake were 0.015 and 0.026mg/kg per day in women and 0.033 and 0.059mg/kg per day in children. Considering only fluoride provided by drinking water, 8.71% of children living in fluoridated areas exceeded intake level recommended by the European Food Safety Authority, consisting in 0.05mg/kg per day. The results show that ingested levels of fluoride through consumption of municipal water can exceed the recommended levels in children and encourages further studies that will help in fluoridation policies of drinking water in the future. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Experiences with electrochemical analysis of copper at the PPB-level in saline cooling water and in the water/steam cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, K. [I/S Nordjyllandsvaerket, Vodskov (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Determination of trace amounts of copper in saline cooling water and in process water by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry combined with an UV-photolysis pretreatment is described. Copper concentrations well below 1 {mu}g/L may be analysed with a precision in the order of 10% and a high degree of accuracy. The basic principles of the method are described together with three applications covering analysis of cooling and process water samples. The analysis method has been applied to document the adherence of environmental limits for the copper uptake of cooling water passing brass condensers, to monitor the formation of protective layers of iron oxides on the cooling water side of brass condensers, and to study the transport of copper in water/steam cycles with heat exchangers and condensers of brass materials. (au)

  18. Atmospheric forcing of cool subsurface water events in Bahía Culebra, Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Alfaro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bahía Culebra, at Gulf of Papagayo on the north Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is an area of seasonal upwelling where more intense cooling events may occur during some boreal winter weeks mainly. To study these extreme cool events, records of nine sea subsurface temperature stations from 1998 to 2010 were analyzed. Five events associated with extremely cool temperatures in this region were identified from these records and taken as study cases. Sea temperatures decreased about 8-9ºC during these events and occurred while cold fronts were present in the Caribbean, with strong trade wind conditions over Central America. These strong wind conditions may have favored the offshore displacement of the sea surface water. The axis of Bahía Culebra runs northeastsouthwest, a condition that favors and triggers cool water events, mainly because the displaced water is replaced by water from deeper levels.

  19. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The project described is part of the U. S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid-liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program was provided from the beginning of the program, and resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  20. Nebulized water cooling of the canopy affects leaf temperature, berry composition and wine quality of Sauvignon blanc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciello, Pericle; Mencarelli, Fabio; Palliotti, Alberto; Ceccantoni, Brunella; Thibon, Cécile; Darriet, Philippe; Pasquini, Massimiliano; Bellincontro, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The present paper details a new technique based on spraying nebulized water on vine canopy to counteract the negative impact of the current wave of hot summers with temperatures above 30 °C, which usually determine negative effects on vine yield, grape composition and wine quality. The automatized spraying system was able to maintain air temperature at below 30 °C (the threshold temperature to start spraying) for all of August 2013, when in the canopy of uncooled vines the temperature was as high as 36 °C. The maintenance of temperature below 30 °C reduced leaf stress linked to high temperature and irradiance regimes as highlighted by the decrease of H2 O2 content and catalase activity in the leaves. A higher amount of total polyphenols and organic acids and lower sugars characterized the grapes of cooled vines. Wine from these grapes had a higher content of some volatile thiols like 3-sulfanylhexanol (3SH) and 3-sulfanylhexylacetate (3SHA), and lower content of 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (4MSP). Under conditions of high temperature and irradiance regimes, water nebulization on the vine canopy can represent a valid solution to reduce and/or avoid oxidative stress and associated effects in the leaves, ensure a regular berry ripening and maintain high wine quality. The consumption of water during nebulization was acceptable, being 180 L ha(-1) min(-1) , which lasted an average of about 1 min to reduce the temperature below the threshold value of 30 °C. A total of 85-90 hL (from 0.8 to 0.9 mm) of water per hectare per day was required. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.