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Sample records for cooling ecc injection

  1. Conductivity probes for two-phase flow pattern determination during emergency core cooling (ECC) injection experiments at the COCO facility (PHDR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasser, H.M. (Research Centre Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)); Kueppers, L. (Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe (Germany)); May, R. (Fraunhofer Inst. for Nondestructive Testing, Dept. Acoustical Methods for Nondestructive Testing, Evaluation and Quality Assurance, Dresden (Germany))

    1992-07-01

    The paper describes the use of needle-shaped conductivity probes for two-phase flow pattern determination during simulated ECC. The first results appear promising and the use of such probes as additional instrumentation can be envisaged in the future on power reactors, e.g. for the control of water level, once some improvements have been achieved, in particular regarding the stability of the probe. (orig.)

  2. Scaling of the direct ECC bypass during LBLOCA reflood phase with direct vessel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, B.J.; Kwon, T.S.; Song, C.H.; Jeong, J.J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, H.K.; Park, G.C. [Seoul National Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    As one of the advanced design features of the Korea next generation reactor, direct vessel injection (DVI) system is being considered instead of conventional cold leg injection (CLI) system. It is known that the DVI system greatly enhances the reliability of the emergency core cooling (ECC) system. However, there is still a dispute on its performance in terms of water delivery to the reactor core during the reflood period of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Thus, experimental validation is under progress. In this paper, a new scaling method, using time and velocity reduced linear scaling law, is suggested for the design of a scaled-down experimental facility to investigate the direct ECC bypass phenomena in PWR downcomer. (authors)

  3. ECCS flow verification to support transient analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, C.; Jacobs, R.H.; Ballard, J.E. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago, IL (United States). Nuclear Fuel Services Dept.

    1994-12-31

    The RETRAN code has been used to develop a model of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS). The model was developed in order to provide conservative injection flow data to be used in various LOCA and non-LOCA analyses and evaluations and to ensure that ECCS pump runout does not occur. The analyses were also needed in order to address a number of ECCS performance issues identified by Westinghouse. These issues include how previous analyses modeled miniflow, RCP seal injection, ECCS branch line resistance, pump suction boost during recirculation, injection line flow imbalances, and, of particular importance, ECCS flow measurement inaccuracies. In turn, these issues directly impact pump runout concerns, Technical Specification verification, and ECCS injection flow during transient conditions. The RETRAN ECCS model has proven to be quite versatile, easy to use, and requires only minimal information about the physical construction and performance of the ECCS system.

  4. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 tests S-05-2A and S-05-2B (alternate ECC injection tests)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Jr., M. L.; Collins, B. L.; Sackett, K. E.

    1977-04-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Tests S-05-2A and S-05-2B of the Semiscale Mod-1 alternate ECC injection test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Tests S-05-2A and S-05-2B were conducted from initial conditions of 2263 psia and 543/sup 0/F and 2272 psia and 542/sup 0/F, respectively, to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the cold leg broken loop piping. During the tests, cooling water was injected into the intact loop pump suction and broken loop cold leg to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR with flow rates based on system volume scaling. For Test S-05-2A the intact loop pump speed was held constant throughout the test at the initial blowdown value. During Test S-05-2B the pump speed was reduced and stopped according to a predetermined coastdown schedule.

  5. Industry Application ECCS / LOCA Integrated Cladding/Emergency Core Cooling System Performance: Demonstration of LOTUS-Baseline Coupled Analysis of the South Texas Plant Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Szilard, Ronaldo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Epiney, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Parisi, Carlo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vaghetto, Rodolfo [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Vanni, Alessandro [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Neptune, Kaleb [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Under the auspices of the DOE LWRS Program RISMC Industry Application ECCS/LOCA, INL has engaged staff from both South Texas Project (STP) and the Texas A&M University (TAMU) to produce a generic pressurized water reactor (PWR) model including reactor core, clad/fuel design and systems thermal hydraulics based on the South Texas Project (STP) nuclear power plant, a 4-Loop Westinghouse PWR. A RISMC toolkit, named LOCA Toolkit for the U.S. (LOTUS), has been developed for use in this generic PWR plant model to assess safety margins for the proposed NRC 10 CFR 50.46c rule, Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) performance during LOCA. This demonstration includes coupled analysis of core design, fuel design, thermalhydraulics and systems analysis, using advanced risk analysis tools and methods to investigate a wide range of results. Within this context, a multi-physics best estimate plus uncertainty (MPBEPU) methodology framework is proposed.

  6. Experimental Study of the APR+ Direct ECC Bypass in the Air-water Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kihwan; Choi, Hae-Seob; Park, Kil-won; Kwon, Tae-Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The APR+ is an improved Korean Nuclear Power Reactor, which has been developed as a two loop evolutionary PWR (Pressure Water Reactor) with a number of advanced design features to enhance safety based on the APR-1400 technology. The emergency core cooling system (ECC) of the APR+ is different with that of the APR-1400, though the APR+ adopted a direct vessel injection (DVI) system which is the same design features of the APR-14000. The main difference of the DVI+ is the emergency core barrel duct (ECBD) which is designed to increase the amount of the injection water to the core region. The performance of the DVI system has been an important issues for past decades, and many researchers have studied the related thermal-hydraulic technical issues such as the ECC bypass fraction, the steam condensation effect, temperature distribution, sub-cooling margin, and etc. However, the previous research cannot be directly applicable to the APR+ owing to the unique features of the DVI+. The current study will elaborate on the experimental evaluation of the direct ECC bypass performance. The 1/5 ECC bypass test facility which is designed with a linearly reduced 1/5 scale referring to the APR+ was used to investigate the effect of the DVI+ injection nozzle location and the broken cold leg velocity on the direct ECC bypass fraction. However, air is used as a working fluid to simulate the steam flow induced from the broken cold leg, and thus, the direct contact condensation effect is not considered in this study. Experimental study for the direct ECC bypass phenomena has been carryout out with various the injection mode and air velocity conditions. The tests were performed in the 1/5 scale ECC bypass test facility, and the test condition was defined using a scaling law referring to the APR+ reactor. Test results showed that the direct ECC bypass fraction was greatly enhanced compared with the reference test (w/o ECBD)

  7. Simulation of a large break loss of coolant (LBLOCA), without actuation of the emergency injection systems (ECCS) for a BWR-5; Simulacion de un escenario de perdida de refrigerante grande (LBLOCA), sin actuacion de los sistemas de inyeccion de emergencia (ECCS) para un reactor BWR-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas V, J.; Mugica R, C. A.; Lopez M, R., E-mail: jaime.cardenas@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper the analysis of scenario for the loss of coolant case was realized with break at the bottom of a recirculation loop of a BWR-5 with containment type Mark II and a thermal power of 2317 MWt considering that not have coolant injection. This in order to observe the speed of progression of the accident, the phenomenology of the scenario, the time to reach the limit pressure of containment venting and the amount of radionuclides released into the environment. This simulation was performed using the MELCOR code version 2.1. The scenario posits a break in one of the shear recirculation loops. The emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and the reactor core isolation cooling (Rcic) have not credit throughout the event, which allowed achieve greater severity on scenario. The venting of the primary containment was conducted via valve of 30 inches instead of the line of 24 inches of wet well, this in order to have a larger area of exhaust of fission products directly to the reactor building. The venting took place when the pressure in the primary containment reached the 4.5 kg/cm{sup 2} and remained open for the rest of the scenario to maximize the amount released of radionuclides to the atmosphere. The safety relief valves were considered functional they do not present mechanical failure or limit their ability to release pressure due to the large number of performances in safety mode. The results of the analysis covers about 48 hours, time at which the accident evolution was observed; behavior of level, pressure in the vessel and the fuel temperature profile was analyzed. For progression of the scenario outside the vessel, the pressure and temperature of the primary containment, level and temperature of the suppression pool, the hydrogen accumulation in the container and the radionuclides mass released into the atmosphere were analyzed. (Author)

  8. Incoherent vertical ion losses during multiturn stacking cooling beam injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syresin, E. M.

    2014-07-01

    The efficiency of the multiturn ion injection with electron cooling depends on two parameters, namely, cooling efficiency and ion lifetime. The lifetime of freshly injected ions is usually shorter than the lifetime of strongly cooled stacked ions. Freshly injected ions are lost in the vertical direction because the vertical acceptance of the synchrotron is usually a few times smaller than the horizontal acceptance. Incoherent vertical losses of freshly injected ions arise from their multiple scattering by residual gas atoms and transverse diffusion caused by stack noise. Reduced ion lifetime limits the multiturn injection efficiency. Analytical estimations and BETACOOL-based numerical evaluations of the vertical ion losses during multiturn injection are presented in comparison with the experimental data obtained at the HIMAC synchrotron and the S-LSR storage ring.

  9. Cooling simulation of plastic injection molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analyses the cooling of mold and plastic part during injectionmolding and the continued cooling of plastic part after being ejected from mold using the heat transfer theory and Boundary Element Method (BEM) to predict the temperature distribution in both mold and plastic part,and presents the experiments carried out with plates of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) to verify the validity of the cooling analysis software used to simulate the temperature distribution in ABS plate parts, and concludes that the analysis software agree qualitatively well with actual experimental findings.

  10. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Anderson, Howard L., Jr.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2011-06-01

    Injection of CO{sub 2}-laden flue gas can decrease the potential for silica and calcite scale formation in cooling tower blowdown by lowering solution pH to decrease equilibrium calcite solubility and kinetic rates of silica polymerization. Flue gas injection might best inhibit scale formation in power plant cooling towers that use impaired makeup waters - for example, groundwaters that contain relatively high levels of calcium, alkalinity, and silica. Groundwaters brought to the surface for cooling will degas CO{sub 2} and increase their pH by 1-2 units, possibly precipitating calcite in the process. Recarbonation with flue gas can lower the pHs of these fluids back to roughly their initial pH. Flue gas carbonation probably cannot lower pHs to much below pH 6 because the pHs of impaired waters, once outgassed at the surface, are likely to be relatively alkaline. Silica polymerization to form scale occurs most rapidly at pH {approx} 8.3 at 25 C; polymerization is slower at higher and lower pH. pH 7 fluids containing {approx}220 ppm SiO{sub 2} require > 180 hours equilibration to begin forming scale whereas at pH 8.3 scale formation is complete within 36 hours. Flue gas injection that lowers pHs to {approx} 7 should allow substantially higher concentration factors. Periodic cycling to lower recoveries - hence lower silica concentrations - might be required though. Higher concentration factors enabled by flue gas injection should decrease concentrate volumes and disposal costs by roughly half.

  11. IIST small break LOCA experiments with passive core cooling injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.-J. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-3, Longtan, Taiwan 325 (China)]. E-mail cjchang@iner.gov.tw; Lee, C.-H. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-3, Longtan, Taiwan 325 (China); Hong, W.-T. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-3, Longtan, Taiwan 325 (China); Wang, Lance L.C. [Lungmen Project Quality Supervisory and Directory Committee, Taiwan Power Company, 62, Yeh-Hai St., Kung-Liao, Taipei County, Taiwan 238 (China)

    2006-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of a passive core cooling system (PCCS) with passive injection during the cold-leg small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) experiments conducted at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) Integral System Test (IIST) facility. Four tests were performed simulating break sizes of 0.2-2% (approximately corresponding to 1.25-4'' breaks for a referenced nuclear power plant) at cold-leg for assessing the PCCS capability in accident management. The key thermal-hydraulic phenomena to core heat removal for PCCS are observed and discussed. The experimental results show that the PCCS has successfully provided a continuous removal of core heat and a long term core cooling can be reached for all cases of SBLOCA.

  12. Condensation during gravity driven ECC: Experiments with PACTEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munther, R.; Kalli, H. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland); Kouhia, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    This paper provides the results of the second series of gravity driven emergency core cooling (ECC) experiments with PACTEL (Parallel Channel Test Loop). The simulated accident was a small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) with a break in a cold leg. The ECC flow was provided from a core makeup tank (CMT) located at a higher elevation than the main part of the primary system. The CMT was pressurized with pipings from the pressurizer and a cold leg. The tests indicated that steam condensation in the CMT can prevent ECC and lead to core uncovery.

  13. Joule-Thomson Cooling Due to CO2 Injection into Natural Gas Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2006-01-01

    Depleted natural gas reservoirs are a promising target for Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery (CSEGR). The focus of this study is on evaluating the importance of Joule-Thomson cooling during CO2 injection into depleted natural gas reservoirs. Joule-Thomson cooling is the adiabatic cooling that accompanies the expansion of a real gas. If Joule-Thomson cooling were extreme, injectivity and formation permeability could be altered by the freezing of residual water, formation of ...

  14. Design of conformal cooling for plastic injection moulding by heat transfer simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Marques

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooling channels of a mold for plastic injection have to be as close as possible to the part geometry in order to ensure fast and homogeneous cooling. However, conventional methods to manufacture cooling channels (drilling can only produce linear holes. Selective laser melting (SLM is an additive manufacturing technique capable to manufacture complex cooling channels (known as conformal cooling. Nevertheless, because of the high costs of SLM the benefits of conformal collings are still not clear. The current work investigates two designs of conformal coolings: i parallel circuit; ii serial circuit. Both coolings are evaluated against to traditional cooling circuits (linear channels by CAE simulation to produce parts of polypropylene. The results show that if the conformal cooling is not properly designed it cannot provide reasonable results. The deformation of the product can be reduced significantly after injection but the cycle time reduced not more than 6%.

  15. [Patient's pain feeling and surgeon's comfort--ECCE versus phacoemulsification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałuzny, Jakub J; Eliks, Iwona; Mierzejewski, Andrzej; Kałuzny, Bartłomiej

    2004-01-01

    To compare patient's pain and surgeon's comfort during ECCE performed under retrobulbar anesthesia and phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia. 120 patients scheduled for planned routine cataract extraction were divided in 2 groups: group 1-60 eyes, ECCE under retrobulbar anesthesia and group II-60 eyes, phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia. Immediately after operation patients were asked, to answer questions about their feeling during surgery. Simultaneously, the surgeon filled up the questionnaire, concerning patients behavior during the entire procedure. Statistically significant higher level of pain was reported in group I (ECCE). The most painful moment of the procedure was retrobulbar injection. During surgery pain feeling in both groups was similar. Both types of anesthesia provided very good level of surgeon's comfort. The longer operation, the higher level of pain and lower surgeon's comfort were reported in both groups. Patients having ECCE performed under retrobulbar anesthesia reported more pain comparing to phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia. Both anesthesia methods provided high level of surgeon's comfort.

  16. INVESTIGATION STUDIES ON SUB-COOLING OF CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS USING HELIUM INJECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In cryogenic propellants, the sub-cooling of cryogenic propellants contained in tanks is an important and effective method for bringing down the lift-off mass of launch vehicle and thus the performance of the rocket engine is greatly improved. This study presents the technical and experimental studies conducted on cryogenic liquids such as Liquid Oxygen, Liquid Nitrogen and Liquid Hydrogen using helium injection method. The influence of cooled Helium on the degree of sub-cooling and the variation in flow rate of Helium gas admitted are discussed. The experimental and theoretical studies indicate that the sub-cooling technique using helium injection is a very simple method and can be very well adopted in propellant tanks used for ground and launch vehicle applications. The overall cooling effect for rocket application is also discussed. The critical values of the non-dimensional parameters and injected helium temperatures are also estimated.

  17. Comparative analysis of different process simulation settings of a micro injection molded part featuring conformal cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul

    2015-01-01

    different simulation models are established: a version including the part without the surrounding mold block, an advanced version including the mold block and conventional cooling channels, and a third version alike the second with additional conformal cooling for efficient thermal management...... of the implementation of the actual mold block, conventional cooling, and conformal cooling. In the comparison, characteristic quality criteria for injection molding are studied, such as the filling behavior of the cavity, the injection pressure, the temperature distribution, and the resulting part warpage....... Additionally, the analysis of the cooling channels exploiting computational fluid dynamics is introduced as helpful tool for the mold design process. It is observed that the comprehensive implementation of the actual injection molding system and conditions is highly relevant at sub-mm/micro dimensional scales...

  18. Evaluation of Process Cooling in Subsea Separation, Boosting and Injection Systems (SSBI)

    OpenAIRE

    Gyllenhammar, Svenn Emil

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of subsea process systems will combine the subsea gas compression technology currently under qualification with the previously developed subsea processing technologies, including separation, multiphase pumping and produced water re-injection. These systems will benefit from process cooling. This paper is an evaluation of the use of process cooling in subsea separation, boosting and injection (SSBI) systems including compression. Fouling is the biggest uncertainty, and pote...

  19. Influences of Hole Shape on Film Cooling Characteristics with CO2 Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guangchao; Zhu Huiren; Fan Huiming

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the data about heat transfer coefficient ratios, film cooling effectiveness and heat loads for the injection through cylindrical holes, 3-in-1 holes and fanned holes in order to characterize the film cooling performance downstream of a row of holes with 45° inclination and 3 hole spacing apart. The trip wire is placed upstream at a distance of 10 times diameter of the cooling hole from the hole center to keep mainstream fully turbulent. Both inlet and outlet of 3-in-1 holes have a 15° lateral expansion. The outlet of faaned holes has a lateral expansion. CO2 is applied for secondary injection to obtain a density ratio of 1.5. Momentum flux ratio varies from 1 to 4. The results indicate that the increased momentum flux ratio significantly inoreases heat transfer coefficient and slightly improve film cooling effectiveness for the injection through cylindrical holes. A weak dependence of heat transfer coefficient and film cooling effectiveness, respectively, on momentum flux ratio has been identified for the injection through 3-in-1 holes. The increase of the momentum flux ratio decreases heat transfer coefficient and significantly increases film cooling effectiveness for the injection through fanned holes. In terms of the film cooling performance, the fanned holes are the best while the cylindrical holes are the worst among the three hole shapes under study.

  20. Performance Evaluation of a Software Engineering Tool for Automated Design of Cooling Systems in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauregui-Becker, Juan M.; Tosello, Guido; van Houten, Fred J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a software tool for automating the design of cooling systems for injection moulding and a validation of its performance. Cooling system designs were automatically generated by the proposed software tool and by applying a best practice tool engineering design approach. The two...

  1. Experimental and computational studies of film cooling with compound angle injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, R.J.; Eckert, E.R.G.; Patankar, S.V.; Simon, T.W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The thermal efficiency of gas turbine systems depends largely on the turbine inlet temperature. Recent decades have seen a steady rise in the inlet temperature and a resulting reduction in fuel consumption. At the same time, it has been necessary to employ intensive cooling of the hot components. Among various cooling methods, film cooling has become a standard method for cooling of the turbine airfoils and combustion chamber walls. The University of Minnesota program is a combined experimental and computational study of various film-cooling configurations. Whereas a large number of parameters influence film cooling processes, this research focuses on compound angle injection through a single row and through two rows of holes. Later work will investigate the values of contoured hole designs. An appreciation of the advantages of compound angle injection has risen recently with the demand for more effective cooling and with improved understanding of the flow; this project should continue to further this understanding. Approaches being applied include: (1) a new measurement system that extends the mass/heat transfer analogy to obtain both local film cooling and local mass (heat) transfer results in a single system, (2) direct measurement of three-dimensional turbulent transport in a highly-disturbed flow, (3) the use of compound angle and shaped holes to optimize film cooling performance, and (4) an exploration of anisotropy corrections to turbulence modeling of film cooling jets.

  2. Experimental and computational studies of film cooling with compound angle injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, R.J.; Eckert, E.R.G.; Patankar, S.V. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The thermal efficiency of gas turbine systems depends largely on the turbine inlet temperature. Recent decades have seen a steady rise in the inlet temperature and a resulting reduction in fuel consumption. At the same time, it has been necessary to employ intensive cooling of the hot components. Among various cooling methods, film cooling has become a standard method for cooling of the turbine airfoils and combustion chamber walls. The University of Minnesota program is a combined experimental and computational study of various film-cooling configurations. Whereas a large number of parameters influence film cooling processes, this research focuses on compound angle injection through a single row and through two rows of holes. Later work will investigate the values of contoured hole designs. An appreciation of the advantages of compound angle injection has risen recently with the demand for more effective cooling and with improved understanding of the flow; this project should continue to further this understanding. Approaches being applied include: (1) a new measurement system that extends the mass/heat transfer analogy to obtain both local film cooling and local mass (heat) transfer results in a single system, (2) direct measurement of three-dimensional turbulent transport in a highly-disturbed flow, (3) the use of compound angle and shaped holes to optimize film cooling performance, and (4) an exploration of anisotropy corrections to turbulence modeling of film cooling jets.

  3. Computer Aided Design of The Cooling System for Plastic Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan GÜRÜN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of plastic injection molds and their cooling systems affect both the dimension, the shape, the quality of a plastic part and the cycle time of process and the cost of mold. In this study, the solid model design of a plastic injection mold and the design of cooling sysytem were possibly carried out without the designer interaction. Developed program permited the use of three types of the cooling system and the different cavity orientations and the multible plastic part placement into the mold cores. The program which was developed by using Visual LISP language and the VBA (Visual BASIC for Application modules, was applicated in the AutoCAD software domain. Trial studies were presented that the solid model design of plastic injection molds and the cooling systems increased the reliability, the flexibility and the speed of the design.

  4. Comparative Exergoeconomic Analyses of Gas Turbine Steam Injection Cycles with and without Fogging Inlet Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Athari; Saeed Soltani; Marc A. Rosen; Seyed Mohammad Seyed Mahmoudi; Tatiana Morosuk

    2015-01-01

    The results are reported of exergoeconomic analyses of a simple gas turbine cycle without a fogging system (SGT), a simple steam injection gas turbine cycle (STIG), and a steam injection gas turbine cycle with inlet fogging cooler (FSTIG). The results show that (1) a gas-turbine cycle with steam injection and simultaneous cooling has a higher power output than the other considered cycle; (2) at maximum energy efficiency conditions the gas turbine has the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle...

  5. Extrusion of ECC-Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Li, Victor C.

    1999-01-01

    in recent years at Department of Civil and Envirionmetal Engineering, University of Michigan. These materials have been developed with the special aim of producing high performance , strain hardening materials with low volume concentrations of short fibers in a cementitious material.ECC material spcimens...... have until now been produced by traditional casting processes. In the present paper results from a recent collaborative reserach project are documented - demonstrating that ECC materials can be extruded in the process referred to above.......An extrusion process especially designed for extrusion of pipes made from fiber reinforced cementitious materials has been developed at Department of Structural Engineering and Materials at the Technical University of DenmarkEngineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) materials have been developed...

  6. Numerical Simulation of Injection Molding Cooling Process Based on 3D Surface Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUIShu-biao; ZHOUHua-min; LIDe-qun

    2004-01-01

    The design of the coohng system of injection molds directly affects both productivity and the quality of the final part. Using the cooling process CAE system to instruct the mold design, the efficiency and quality of design can be improved greatly. At the same time, it is helpful to confirm the cooling system structure and optimize the process conditions. In this paper, the 3D surface model of mold cavity is used to replace the middle-plane model in the simulation by Boundary Element Method, which break the bottleneck of the application of the injection molding simulation softwares base on the middle-plane model. With the improvements of this paper, a practical and commercial simulation software of injection molding cooling process named as HsCAE3D6.0 is developed.

  7. Analysis of Precooling Injection Transient of Steam Generator for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After a postulated design basis accident leads high temperature gas cooled reactor to emergency shutdown, steam generator still remains with high temperature level and needs to be cooled down by a precooling before reactor restarts with clearing of fault. For the large difference of coolant temperature between inlet and outlet of steam generator in normal operation, the temperature distribution on the components of steam generator is very complicated. Therefore, the temperature descending rate of the components in steam generator needs to be limited to avoid the potential damage during the precooling stage. In this paper, a pebble-bed high temperature gas cooled reactor is modeled by thermal-hydraulic system analysis code and several postulated precooling injection transients are simulated and compared to evaluate their effects, which will provide support for the precooling design. The analysis results show that enough precooling injection is necessary to satisfy the precooling requirements, and larger mass flow rate of precooling water injection will accelerate the precooling process. The temperature decrease of steam generator is related to the precooling injection scenarios, and the maximal mass flow rate of the precooling injection should be limited to avoid the excessively quick temperature change of the structures in steam generator.

  8. Cooling Effect of Water Injection on a High-Temperature Supersonic Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The high temperature and high pressure supersonic jet is one of the key problems in the design of solid rocket motors. To reduce the jet temperature and noise, cooling water is typically injected into the exhaust plume. Numerical simulations for the gas-liquid multiphase flow field with mixture multiphase model were developed and a series of experiments were carried out. By introducing the energy source terms caused by the vaporization of liquid water into the energy equation, a coupling solution was developed to calculate the multiphase flow field. The temperature data predictions agreed well with the experimental results. When water was injected into the plume, the high temperature core region area was reduced, and the temperature on the head face was much lower than that without water. The relationship between the reduction of temperature on the bottom plate and the momentum ratio is developed, which can be used to predict the cooling effect of water injection in many cases.

  9. Comparative Exergoeconomic Analyses of Gas Turbine Steam Injection Cycles with and without Fogging Inlet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Athari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of exergoeconomic analyses of a simple gas turbine cycle without a fogging system (SGT, a simple steam injection gas turbine cycle (STIG, and a steam injection gas turbine cycle with inlet fogging cooler (FSTIG. The results show that (1 a gas-turbine cycle with steam injection and simultaneous cooling has a higher power output than the other considered cycle; (2 at maximum energy efficiency conditions the gas turbine has the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle components and the lowest value of exergy efficiency is calculated for the fog cooler, where the mixing of air and water at greatly different temperatures causes the high exergy destruction; and (3 utilization of the fogging cooler in the steam injection cycle increases the exergy destruction in the combustion chamber. Furthermore, the simple gas turbine cycle is found to be more economic as its relative cost difference, total unit product cost, and exergoeconomic factors are less than those for the two other configurations. However, its efficiency and net power output are notably lower than for the gas turbine with steam injection and/or fog cooling. The total unit product cost is highest for the simple gas turbine with steam injection.

  10. Utilizing of inner porous structure in injection moulds for application of special cooling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, M.; Bobek, J.; Šafka, J.; Habr, J.; Nováková, I.; Běhálek, L.

    2016-04-01

    The article is focused on impact evaluation of controlled inner structure of production tools and new cooling method on regulation of thermal processes for injection moulding technology. The mould inserts with porous structure were cooled by means of liquid CO2 which is very progressive cooling method and enables very fast and intensive heat transfer among the plastic product, the production tool and cooling medium. The inserts were created using rapid prototype technology (DLSM) and they had a bi-component structure consisting of thin compact surface layer and defined porous inner structure of open cell character where liquid CO2 was flowing through. This analyse includes the evaluation of cooling efficiency for different inner structures and different time profiles for dosing of liquid CO2 into the porous structure. The thermal processes were monitored using thermocouples and IR thermal analyse of product surface and experimental device. Intensive heat removal influenced also the final structure and the shape and dimensional accuracy of the moulded parts that were made of semi-crystalline polymer. The range of final impacts of using intensive cooling method on the plastic parts was defined by DSC and dimensional analyses.

  11. Injection locking of a high power ultraviolet laser diode for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Toshiyuki; Miranda, Martin; Inoue, Ryotaro; Kozuma, Mikio

    2015-07-01

    We developed a high-power laser system at a wavelength of 399 nm for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms with ultraviolet laser diodes. The system is composed of an external cavity laser diode providing frequency stabilized output at a power of 40 mW and another laser diode for amplifying the laser power up to 220 mW by injection locking. The systematic method for optimization of our injection locking can also be applied to high power light sources at any other wavelengths. Our system does not depend on complex nonlinear frequency-doubling and can be made compact, which will be useful for providing light sources for laser cooling experiments including transportable optical lattice clocks.

  12. Experiments of ECCS strainer blockage and debris settling in suppression pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, G.E.; Johnson, A.B.; Murthy, P.; Padmanabhan

    1996-03-01

    If a rupture occurs in a nuclear power station pipe that leads to or from the reactor pressure vessel, the resultant Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) would initiate a chain of events involving complex flow phenomena. In a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), the steam or liquid pipe break pressurizes the dry well, forcing the inert containment gases and steam through downcomers into the suppression pool, thoroughly mixing any particulates and pipe insulation debris carried with the gas flow to the pool. As the steam flow decreases, its unsteady condensation at the end of the downcomers (Condensation Oscillation and Chugging) produces continued water motion in the suppression pool and downcomers. During the blowdown event, high pressure and then low pressure pumps automatically start injecting water from the suppression pool into the reactor to keep its temperature under control. Proper functioning of this Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) is critical for the first 30 minutes or so, before operators have time to consider and align alternative sources of cooling water. A major concern for proper operation of the ECCS is the effect of fragmented insulation and plant particulates on the head loss at pump suction strainers. Sufficient loss could exceed the NPSH margin, causing cavitation with a resultant loss of pump capacity and longevity. The bead loss increases with the mass of debris accumulated on the pump strainers, which in turn is dependent on the debris concentration versus time in the suppression pool. This paper describes two sets of experiments that quantified the strainer head loss. One set of experiments considered the mixing and settling of fibrous insulation debris and fine iron oxide particles in the suppression pool during and after chugging. These tests used a reduced scale facility which duplicated the kinetic energy per unit water volume to define the concentration of the actual materials in the pool versus time.

  13. ECCE 41. konverents Tallinnas / Urmo Kala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kala, Urmo

    2005-01-01

    9.-11. juunini 2005. a. toimus Tallinnas Eesti Ehitusinseneride Liidu korraldusel Euroopa ehitusinseneride liitude ühenduse (ECCE) 41. konverents. ECCE on nõuandvaks organiks Euroopa Liidu struktuuridele ja liikmesriikide valitsustele ehituspoliitika, ehitusstandardite, ehitusalase hariduse, ehituse ohutuse ja kvaliteedinõuete väljatöötamisel

  14. Stagnation region gas film cooling: Spanwise angled injection from multiple rows of holes. [gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckey, D. W.; Lecuyer, M. R.

    1981-01-01

    The stagnation region of a cylinder in a cross flow was used in experiments conducted with both a single row and multiple rows of spanwise angled (25 deg) coolant holes for a range of the coolant blowing ratio with a freestream to wall temperature ratio approximately equal to 1.7 and R(eD) = 90,000. Data from local heat flux measurements are presented for injection from a single row located at 5 deg, 22.9 deg, 40.8 deg, 58.7 deg from stagnation using a hole spacing ratio of S/d(o) = 5 and 10. Three multiple row configurations were also investigated. Data are presented for a uniform blowing distribution and for a nonuniform blowing distribution simulating a plenum supply. The data for local Stanton Number reduction demonstrated a lack of lateral spreading by the coolant jets. Heat flux levels larger than those without film cooling were observed directly behind the coolant holes as the blowing ratio exceeded a particular value. The data were spanwise averaged to illustrate the influence of injection location, blowing ratio and hole spacing. The large values of blowing ratio for the blowing distribution simulating a plenum supply resulted in heat flux levels behind the holes in excess of the values without film cooling. An increase in freestream turbulence intensity from 4.4 to 9.5 percent had a negligible effect on the film cooling performance.

  15. TRACE code validation for BWR spray cooling injection based on GOTA facility experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racca, S. [San Piero a Grado Nuclear Research Group (GRNSPG), Pisa (Italy); Kozlowski, T. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Best estimate codes have been used in the past thirty years for the design, licensing and safety of NPP. Nevertheless, large efforts are necessary for the qualification and the assessment of such codes. The aim of this work is to study the main phenomena involved in the emergency spray cooling injection in a Swedish designed BWR. For this purpose, data from the Swedish separate effect test facility GOTA have been simulated using TRACE version 5.0 Patch 2. Furthermore, uncertainty calculations have been performed with the propagation of input errors method and the identification of the input parameters that mostly influence the peak cladding temperature has been performed. (author)

  16. Injection method of barrier bucket supported by misaligned electron cooling for CRing

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Guo-Dong; Xia, Jia-Wen; Mao, Li-Jun; Yin, Da-Yu; Chai, Wei-Ping; Shi, Jian; Sheng, Li-Na; Smirnov, A; Wu, Bo; Zhao, He

    2016-01-01

    A new accelerator complex HIAF (the High Intensity Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility) is approved in China. It is designed to provide intense primary and radioactive ion beams for researches in high energy density physics, nuclear physics, atomic physics as well as other applications. In order to achieve a high intensity up to 5e11ppp 238U34+, CRing needs to stack more than 5 bunches transferred from BRing. However, the normal bucket to bucket injection scheme can only achieve an intensity gain of 2, so an injection method, fixed barrier bucket (BB) supported by electron cooling, is proposed. To suppress the severe space charge effect during the stacking process, misalignment is adopted in the cooler to control the transverse emittance. In this paper the simulation and optimization with BETACOOL program are presented.

  17. Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  18. Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  19. Injection method of barrier bucket supported by off-aligned electron cooling for CRing of HIAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guo-Dong; Yang, Jian-Cheng; Xia, Jia-Wen; Mao, Li-Jun; Yin, Da-Yu; Chai, Wei-Ping; Shi, Jian; Sheng, Li-Na; Smirnov, A.; Wu, Bo; Zhao, He

    2016-08-01

    A new accelerator complex, HIAF (the High Intensity Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility), has been approved in China. It is designed to provide intense primary and radioactive ion beams for research in high energy density physics, nuclear physics, atomic physics as well as other applications. In order to achieve a high intensity of up to 5×1011 ppp 238U34+, the Compression Ring (CRing) needs to stack more than 5 bunches transferred from the Booster Ring (BRing). However, the normal bucket to bucket injection scheme can only achieve an intensity gain of 2, so an injection method, fixed barrier bucket (BB) supported by electron cooling, is proposed. To suppress the severe space charge effect during the stacking process, off-alignment is adopted in the cooler to control the transverse emittance. In this paper, simulation and optimization with the BETACOOL program are presented. Supported by New Interdisciplinary and Advanced Pilot Fund of Chinese Academy of Sciences

  20. Cooling of the LHC Injection Kicker Magnet Ferrite Yoke: Measurements and Future Proposals

    CERN Document Server

    Sobiech, Z; Bouleghlimat, S; Ducimetière, L; Garlaschè, M; Kramer, T; Namora, V; Noulibos, R; Sillanoli, Y; Weterings, W

    2014-01-01

    LHC operation with high intensity beam, stable for many hours, resulted in significant heating of the ferrite yoke of the LHC Injection Kicker Magnets. For one kicker magnet the ferrite yoke approached its Curie temperature. As a result of a long thermal time-constant the yoke can require several hours to cool sufficiently to allow re-injection of beam, thus limiting the running efficiency of the LHC. The beam screen, which screens the ferrite yoke from wakefields, has been upgraded to limit ferrite heating. In addition it is important to improve the cooling of the ferrite yoke: one method is to increase the internal emissivity of the cylindrical vacuum tank, in which the kicker magnet is installed. This paper describes a method developed for measuring the emissivity of the inside of the tanks, which has been benchmarked against measurements of the ferrite yoke temperature during heat treatment in an oven and transient thermal simulations. Conclusions are drawn regarding an ion bombardment technique evaluated...

  1. Beam Induced Ferrite Heating of the LHC Injection Kickers and Proposals for Improved Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J; Calatroni, S; Day, H; Ducimetière, L; Garlaschè, M; Gomes Namora, V; Mertens, V; Sobiech, Z; Taborelli, M; Uythoven, J; Weterings, W

    2013-01-01

    The two LHC injection kicker systems produce an integrated field strength of 1.3 T·m with a flattop duration variable up to 7860 ns, and rise and fall times of less than 900 ns and 3000 ns, respectively. A beam screen is placed in the aperture of each magnet, which consists of a ceramic tube with conductors in the inner wall. The conductors provide a path for the beam image current and screen the ferrite yoke against wakefields. Recent LHC operation, with high intensity beam stable for many hours, resulted in significant heating of both the ferrite yoke and beam impedance reduction ferrites. For one kicker magnet the ferrite yoke approached its Curie temperature. As a result of a long thermal time-constant the ferrite yoke can require several hours to cool sufficiently to allow re-injection of beam, thus limiting the running efficiency of the LHC. Thermal measurement data has been analysed, a thermal model developed and emissivity measurements carried out. Various measures to improve the ferrite cooling have...

  2. Numerical Investigation of Active Tip-clearance Control through Tip Cooling Injection in an Axial Turbine Cascade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maosheng Niu; Shusheng Zang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of an active tip-clearance control method based on cooling injection from the blade tip surface. It aims to study the influences of air injection on controlling tip clearance flow, with emphasis on the effects of the injection location on secondary flow and the potential thermal benefits from the cooling jet. The results show that injection location plays an important role in the redistribution of secondary flow within the cascade passage. Injection located much closer to the pressure-side comer performs better in reducing tip clearance massflow and its associated losses. However, it also intensifies tip passage vortex, due to less re-straint deriving from the reduced tip clearance vortex. Lower plenum total pressure is required to inject equivalent amount of cooling air, but the heat transfer condition on the blade tip surface is a bit worse than that with injection from the reattachment region. Thus the optimum location of air injection should be at the tip separation vortex re-gion.

  3. ECC Ozonesonde Calibration and Observations: Satellite Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Francis J.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The reliability of the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozonesonde depends on the care exercised in preparing the instrument for use. Although the ECC can be quickly prepared and flown, generally within less then one day if necessary, it is best to prepare the instrument at least one week prior to use, and as our tests have confirmed even 2-3 weeks prior to use may actually be better. There are a number of factors that must be considered when preparing an ECC. These basically are the pump efficiency, volumetric flow rate, temperature of the air entering the pump, and the background current. Also of importance is the concentration of the potassium iodide solution. Tests conducted at Wallops Island (38 N) has enabled us to identify potential problem areas and ways to avoid them. The calibration and pre-flight preparation methods will be discussed. The method of calibrating the ECC also is used at Ascension Island (8 S) and Natal, Brazil (5 S). Comparisons between vertical profiles of the ECC instrument and satellites will be reviewed as well as comparison with ground based instruments, such as, the Dobson Spectrophotometer and hand held Microtops photometers.

  4. Effect of external turbulence on the efficiency of film cooling with coolant injection into a transverse trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalatov, A. A.; Panchenko, N. A.; Severin, S. D.

    2017-09-01

    Film cooling is among the basic methods used for thermal protection of blades in modern high-temperature gas turbines. Results of computer simulation of film cooling with coolant injection via a row of conventional inclined holes or a row of holes in a trench are presented in this paper. The ANSYS CFX 14 commercial software package was used for CFD-modeling. The effect is studied of the mainstream turbulence on the film cooling efficiency for the blowing ratio range between 0.6 and 2.3 and three different turbulence intensities of 1, 5, and 10%. The mainstream velocity was 150 and 400 m/s, while the temperatures of the mainstream and the injected coolant were 1100 and 500°C, respectively. It is demonstrated that, for the coolant injection via one row of trenched holes, an increase in the mainstream turbulence intensity reduces the film cooling efficiency in the entire investigated range of blowing ratios. It was revealed that freestream turbulence had varied effects on the film cooling efficiency depending on the blowing ratio and mainstream velocity in a blade channel. Thus, an increase in the mainstream turbulence intensity from 1 to 10% decreases the surface-averaged film cooling efficiency by 3-10% at a high mainstream velocity (400 m/s) in the blade channel and by 12-23% at a moderate velocity (of 150 m/s). Here, lower film cooling efficiencies correspond to higher blowing ratios. The effect of mainstream turbulence intensity on the film cooling efficiency decreases with increasing the mainstream velocity in the modeled channel for both investigated configurations.

  5. Effect of pre-cooling injection site on pain perception in pediatric dentistry: “A randomized clinical trial”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Faezeh; Banakar, Shahin; Rostami, Shima

    2013-01-01

    Background: Injection of local anesthesia is one of the most important reasons for development of avoidance behavior in children. Efforts have been performed to decrease pain perception of injection. The present research evaluated the effect of cooling the injection site on pain perception before infiltration of local anesthetics. Materials and Methods: A prospective single-blind crossover clinical trial was used to investigate pain perception in 50 healthy pediatric patients who needed bilateral buccal infiltration of local anesthetics for dental treatment. They received a topical anesthetic agent (Benzocaine) on one side (control) for 1 min and topical anesthetic agent plus one minute of ice pack on the other side (trial) prior to the injection. A dentist blind to the study assessed the patients’ reaction during injection. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was defined at P pediatric patients. PMID:24379869

  6. Comparative Experiments to Assess the Effects of Accumulator Nitrogen Injection on Passive Core Cooling During Small Break LOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuquan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The accumulator is a passive safety injection device for emergency core cooling systems. As an important safety feature for providing a high-speed injection flow to the core by compressed nitrogen gas pressure during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA, the accumulator injects its precharged nitrogen into the system after its coolant has been emptied. Attention has been drawn to the possible negative effects caused by such a nitrogen injection in passive safety nuclear power plants. Although some experimental work on the nitrogen injection has been done, there have been no comparative tests in which the effects on the system responses and the core safety have been clearly assessed. In this study, a new thermal hydraulic integral test facility—the advanced core-cooling mechanism experiment (ACME—was designed and constructed to support the CAP1400 safety review. The ACME test facility was used to study the nitrogen injection effects on the system responses to the small break loss-of-coolant accident LOCA (SBLOCA transient. Two comparison test groups—a 2-inch cold leg break and a double-ended direct-vessel-injection (DEDVI line break—were conducted. Each group consists of a nitrogen injection test and a nitrogen isolation comparison test with the same break conditions. To assess the nitrogen injection effects, the experimental data that are representative of the system responses and the core safety were compared and analyzed. The results of the comparison show that the effects of nitrogen injection on system responses and core safety are significantly different between the 2-inch and DEDVI breaks. The mechanisms of the different effects on the transient were also investigated. The amount of nitrogen injected, along with its heat absorption, was likewise evaluated in order to assess its effect on the system depressurization process. The results of the comparison and analyses in this study are important for recognizing and understanding the

  7. Attacks and countermeasures on AES and ECC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Henrik; Andersen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is widely used in LTE and Wi-Fi communication systems. AES has recently been exposed to new attacks which have questioned the overall security of AES. The newest attack is a so called biclique attack, which is using the fact that the content of the state array...... side-channels attacks can be applied to ECC. This paper reflects an ongoing research in the field of countermeasures against the attacks mentioned above....

  8. Effects of cooling rate on vermicular graphite percentage in a brake drum produced by one-step cored wire injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-shuang Feng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a vermicular graphite cast iron brake drum was produced by cored wire injection in a one-step method. Silica sand and low-density alumina-silicate ceramic were used as molding materials in order to investigate the effect of cooling rate on percentage of vermicular graphite and mechanical properties of the brake drum casting. Several thermocouples were inserted into the casting in the desired positions to measure the temperature change. By means of one-step cored wire injection, the two residual concentrations of Mg and RE were effectively controlled in the ranges of 0.013%-0.017% and 0.019%-0.025%, respectively, which are crucial for the production of vermicular graphite cast iron and the formation of vermicular graphite. In addition, the cooling rate had a significant effect on the vermicular graphite percentage. In the case of the silica mold brake drum casting, there was an obvious difference in the cooling rate with the wall change, leading to a change in vermicular graphite percentage from 70.8% to 90%. In the low-density alumina-silicate ceramic mold casting, no obvious change in temperature was detected by the thermocouples and the percentage of the vermicular graphite was stable at 85%. Therefore, the vermicular graphite cast iron brake drum with a better combination of mechanical properties could be obtained.

  9. Design process of the nanofluid injection mechanism in nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myoung-Suk; Jee, Changhyun; Park, Sangjun; Bang, In Choel; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2011-04-27

    Nanofluids, which are engineered suspensions of nanoparticles in a solvent such as water, have been found to show enhanced coolant properties such as higher critical heat flux and surface wettability at modest concentrations, which is a useful characteristic in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This study attempted to provide an example of engineering applications in NPPs using nanofluid technology. From these motivations, the conceptual designs of the emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) assisted by nanofluid injection mechanism were proposed after following a design framework to develop complex engineering systems. We focused on the analysis of functional requirements for integrating the conventional ECCSs and nanofluid injection mechanism without loss of performance and reliability. Three candidates of nanofluid-engineered ECCS proposed in previous researches were investigated by applying axiomatic design (AD) in the manner of reverse engineering and it enabled to identify the compatibility of functional requirements and potential design vulnerabilities. The methods to enhance such vulnerabilities were referred from TRIZ and concretized for the ECCS of the Korean nuclear power plant. The results show a method to decouple the ECCS designs with the installation of a separate nanofluids injection tank adjacent to the safety injection tanks such that a low pH environment for nanofluids can be maintained at atmospheric pressure which is favorable for their injection in passive manner.

  10. Design process of the nanofluid injection mechanism in nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang In Choel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanofluids, which are engineered suspensions of nanoparticles in a solvent such as water, have been found to show enhanced coolant properties such as higher critical heat flux and surface wettability at modest concentrations, which is a useful characteristic in nuclear power plants (NPPs. This study attempted to provide an example of engineering applications in NPPs using nanofluid technology. From these motivations, the conceptual designs of the emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs assisted by nanofluid injection mechanism were proposed after following a design framework to develop complex engineering systems. We focused on the analysis of functional requirements for integrating the conventional ECCSs and nanofluid injection mechanism without loss of performance and reliability. Three candidates of nanofluid-engineered ECCS proposed in previous researches were investigated by applying axiomatic design (AD in the manner of reverse engineering and it enabled to identify the compatibility of functional requirements and potential design vulnerabilities. The methods to enhance such vulnerabilities were referred from TRIZ and concretized for the ECCS of the Korean nuclear power plant. The results show a method to decouple the ECCS designs with the installation of a separate nanofluids injection tank adjacent to the safety injection tanks such that a low pH environment for nanofluids can be maintained at atmospheric pressure which is favorable for their injection in passive manner.

  11. Noise-based Stego-ECC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahardjo Budi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of inserting noise into stream of ciphered text is proposed. The goal of inserting noise is to increase the level of uncertainty, thus making it harder for an attacker to detect data and noise. This form of steganography is implemented using Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC. The process of embedding the noise to the message in the encryption process and removing the noise from the message in the decryption process is proposed in this work by modifying ElGamal to allow auto detection of data and noise.

  12. CSCM Navier-Stokes thermal/aerodynamic analysis of hypersonic nozzle flows with slot injection and wall cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codding, William H.; Lombard, C. K.; Yang, J. Y.

    1988-01-01

    The Conservative Supra-Characteristic Method (CSCM) Navier-Stokes solver is applied to ascertain the problems inherent in the design of a nominal Mach 14 nozzle for NASA-Ames' 3.5-ft Hypersonic Wind Tunnel; attention is given to the effects of boundary layer cooling systems on the aerodynamic redesign of the nozzle throat region. Complete nozzle flowfields are calculated with and without slot injection of either hot or cold fluid into the boundary layer just upstream of the throat, as well as with alternatively adiabatic and cold walls. The CSCM method is capable of resolving subtle differences in the flows.

  13. Development of system performance verification test technology for KNGR; optimal design and performance test for DVI of ECC water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kune Yull; Yoon, Sang Hyuk; Noh, Sang Woo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Il Suk [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    In this study, we completed the works for the specific thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the reactor downcomer during a operation of DVI system. The choices for a filed of study are focused on the general abilities and flow behaviors of DVI system in the downcomer, and we intended to be able to suggest the applicable data to the APR1400 for the inclusive, actual, various area from the phenomena caused by the ECC injection to the code analysis of steam flow, ECC bypass and the downcomer water level decrease. 28 refs., 77 figs., 14 tabs. (Author)

  14. Computational Analysis of Safety Injection Tank Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Oan; Nietiadia, Yohanes Setiawan; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Addad, Yacine; Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-10-15

    The APR 1400 is a large pressurized water reactor (PWR). Just like many other water reactors, it has an emergency core cooling system (ECCS). One of the most important components in the ECCS is the safety injection tank (SIT). Inside the SIT, a fluidic device is installed, which passively controls the mass flow of the safety injection and eliminates the need for low pressure safety injection pumps. As more passive safety mechanisms are being pursued, it has become more important to understand flow structure and the loss mechanism within the fluidic device. Current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations have had limited success in predicting the fluid flow accurately. This study proposes to find a more exact result using CFD and more realistic modeling. The SIT of APR1400 was analyzed using MARS and CFD. CFD calculation was executed first to obtain the form loss factor. Using the two form loss factors from the vendor and calculation, calculation using MARS was performed to compare with experiment. The accumulator model in MARS was quite accurate in predicting the water level. The pipe model showed some difference with the experimental data in the water level.

  15. ECC over RSA for Asymmetric Encryption-A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh Gupta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is used to transmit the data securely in open network. This paper gives the survey of Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (ECC used in many applications. ECC is a when compared to RSA and discrete logarithm systems, is a better option for the future. For this reason ECC is such an excellent choice for doing asymmetric cryptography in portable devices right now. The smaller ECC keys it turn makes the cryptographic operations that must be performed by the communicating devices to be embedded into considerably smaller hardware, so that software applications may complete cryptographic operations with fewer processor cycles, and operations can be performed much faster, while still retaining equivalent security. This means, in turn, reduced power consumption, less space consumed on the printed circuit board, and software applications that run more rapidly make lower memory demands. In brief, for communication using smaller devices and asymmetric cryptosystem we need ECC.

  16. ECCE Toolkit: Prototyping Sensor-Based Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Andrea; Aedo, Ignacio; Díaz, Paloma

    2017-01-01

    Building and exploring physical user interfaces requires high technical skills and hours of specialized work. The behavior of multiple devices with heterogeneous input/output channels and connectivity has to be programmed in a context where not only the software interface matters, but also the hardware components are critical (e.g., sensors and actuators). Prototyping physical interaction is hindered by the challenges of: (1) programming interactions among physical sensors/actuators and digital interfaces; (2) implementing functionality for different platforms in different programming languages; and (3) building custom electronic-incorporated objects. We present ECCE (Entities, Components, Couplings and Ecosystems), a toolkit for non-programmers that copes with these issues by abstracting from low-level implementations, thus lowering the complexity of prototyping small-scale, sensor-based physical interfaces to support the design process. A user evaluation provides insights and use cases of the kind of applications that can be developed with the toolkit. PMID:28241502

  17. An ECC-Based Blind Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuh-Gwo Jeng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is increasingly applied to the E-commerce world, especially to the untraceable payment system and the electronic voting system. Protocols for these systems strongly require the anonymous digital signature property, and thus a blind signature strategy is the answer to it. Chaum stated that every blind signature protocol should hold two fundamental properties, blindness and intractableness. All blind signature schemes proposed previously almost are based on the integer factorization problems, discrete logarithm problems, or the quadratic residues, which are shown by Lee et al. that none of the schemes is able to meet the two fundamental properties above. Therefore, an ECC-based blind signature scheme that possesses both the above properties is proposed in this paper.

  18. ECCE Toolkit: Prototyping Sensor-Based Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Andrea; Aedo, Ignacio; Díaz, Paloma

    2017-02-23

    Building and exploring physical user interfaces requires high technical skills and hours of specialized work. The behavior of multiple devices with heterogeneous input/output channels and connectivity has to be programmed in a context where not only the software interface matters, but also the hardware components are critical (e.g., sensors and actuators). Prototyping physical interaction is hindered by the challenges of: (1) programming interactions among physical sensors/actuators and digital interfaces; (2) implementing functionality for different platforms in different programming languages; and (3) building custom electronic-incorporated objects. We present ECCE (Entities, Components, Couplings and Ecosystems), a toolkit for non-programmers that copes with these issues by abstracting from low-level implementations, thus lowering the complexity of prototyping small-scale, sensor-based physical interfaces to support the design process. A user evaluation provides insights and use cases of the kind of applications that can be developed with the toolkit.

  19. ECCE Toolkit: Prototyping Sensor-Based Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bellucci

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Building and exploring physical user interfaces requires high technical skills and hours of specialized work. The behavior of multiple devices with heterogeneous input/output channels and connectivity has to be programmed in a context where not only the software interface matters, but also the hardware components are critical (e.g., sensors and actuators. Prototyping physical interaction is hindered by the challenges of: (1 programming interactions among physical sensors/actuators and digital interfaces; (2 implementing functionality for different platforms in different programming languages; and (3 building custom electronic-incorporated objects. We present ECCE (Entities, Components, Couplings and Ecosystems, a toolkit for non-programmers that copes with these issues by abstracting from low-level implementations, thus lowering the complexity of prototyping small-scale, sensor-based physical interfaces to support the design process. A user evaluation provides insights and use cases of the kind of applications that can be developed with the toolkit.

  20. 注射模冷却过程 CAE技术%The CAE Technology for the Cooling Process of Injection Moulds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申长雨; 陈静波; 刘春太; 李倩

    2001-01-01

    注射模冷却系统设计直接影响到塑件的生产效率和质量,冷却过程 CAE技术可预测出冷却介质的流动状态、模壁的温度、热流分布及冷却时间等,为设计人员评估设计方案,优化冷却系统设计提供了先进实用的工具。并简要介绍了注射模冷却过程 CAE技术的基本原理及在注射模冷却系统设计中的应用。%The design of the cooling system of injection moulds directly affects the production efficiency and quality of the injected parts. The CAE technology for the cooling process could predict the flowing status of the cooling medium, the temperature of the cavity wall, the distribution of the heat flow and the cooling time, etc. It provides for the designers with advanced and practical tool to evaluate the design scheme and optimize the design of the cooling system. And a brief introduction was made on the basic principle of the CAE technology for the cooling process of injection moulds and its application in the design of the cooling system.

  1. The injection of liquid cool CO2 in a warm depleted gas reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, C.; Maas, J.H.; Loeve, D.

    2013-01-01

    The P18-4 compartment (operated by TAQA Energy B.V.) would be injected by CO2 at a minimum temperature of 12 degrees C. At these temperatures, the CO2 phase will either be a gas or a liquid. As the initial temperature of the reservoir is 120 oC, the CO2 will eventually be the gaseous or (at higher

  2. Mathematical Model of Two Phase Flow in Natural Draft Wet-Cooling Tower Including Flue Gas Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyhlík Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The previously developed model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow, heat and mass transfer is extended to be able to take into account the flow of supersaturated moist air. The two phase flow model is based on void fraction of gas phase which is included in the governing equations. Homogeneous equilibrium model, where the two phases are well mixed and have the same velocity, is used. The effect of flue gas injection is included into the developed mathematical model by using source terms in governing equations and by using momentum flux coefficient and kinetic energy flux coefficient. Heat and mass transfer in the fill zone is described by the system of ordinary differential equations, where the mass transfer is represented by measured fill Merkel number and heat transfer is calculated using prescribed Lewis factor.

  3. Trace Code Validation for BWR Spray Cooling Injection and CCFL Condition Based on GÖTA Facility Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Racca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Best estimate codes have been used in the past thirty years for the design, licensing, and safety of NPP. Nevertheless, large efforts are necessary for the qualification and the assessment of such codes. The aim of this work is to study the main phenomena involved in the emergency spray cooling injection in a Swedish-designed BWR. For this purpose, data from the Swedish separate effect test facility GÖTA have been simulated using TRACE version 5.0 Patch 2. Furthermore, uncertainty calculations have been performed with the propagation of input errors method, and the identification of the input parameters that mostly influence the peak cladding temperature has been performed.

  4. Phase characteristics of rare earth elements in metallic fuel for a sodium-cooled fast reactor by injection casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Seoung Woo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Oh, Seok Jin; Park, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Chan Bock; Youn, Young-Sang; Kim, Jong-Yun

    2017-04-01

    Uranium-zirconium-rare earth (U-Zr-RE) fuel slugs for a sodium-cooled fast reactor were manufactured using a modified injection casting method, and investigated with respect to their uniformity, distribution, composition, and phase behavior according to RE content. Nd, Ce, Pr, and La were chosen as four representative lanthanide elements because they are considered to be major RE components of fuel ingots after pyroprocessing. Immiscible layers were found on the top layers of the melt-residue commensurate with higher fuel slug RE content. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) data showed that RE elements in the melt-residue were distributed uniformly throughout the fuel slugs. RE element agglomeration did not contaminate the fuel slugs but strongly affected the RE content of the slugs.

  5. The CSNI/PWG-1 international task group on ECCS reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandervag, O.; Riekert, T.; Serkiz, A.; Hyvarinen, J.

    1996-03-01

    A steam line loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) occurred when a safety relief valve inadvertently opened in the Barseback-2 nuclear power plant. The steam jet stripped fibrous insulation from adjacent pipework. Part of that insulation debris was transported to the wetwell pool and clogged the intake strainers for the drywell spray system after about one hour. Although the incident in itself was not very serious, it revealed a weakness in the defense-in-depth concept which under other circumstances could have led to failure of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) to provide water to the core. Before the Barseback-2 LOCA, international regulators of nuclear power plants and the nuclear power plant industry had considered safety questions related to strainer clogging as resolved. Many European countries had followed the guidance for strainers in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) contained in United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Regulatory Guide 1.82, Water Sources for Long Term Recirculation Cooling Following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident, 1974. However, data obtained from European experimental programs carried out in the late seventies to determine the performance of strainers indicated that this guide was not adequate. In addition, Swedish plant owners had used this guidance to judge performance of emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) in their plants. Analyses at that time had indicated that strainer clogging, if occurring at all, would at least not occur during the first ten hours after a LOCA. Since operation of the ECCS would be needed for a long time, backflushing capabilities and monitors of pressure drop across the strainers were installed in older Swedish BWR plants with small strainer areas. These actions were judged to be adequate compliance with the revised USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.82, Rev. 1, issued in 1985. Safety questions related to strainer clogging were considered to have been resolved until the incident happened in Barseback-2.

  6. Shear behavior of reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paegle, Ieva; Fischer, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of the shear behavior of beams consisting of steel reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC). Based on the strain hardening and multiple cracking behavior of ECC, this study investigates the extent to which ECC can improve the shear...... randomly distributed PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) fiber beams with different stirrup spacing and reinforced concrete (RC) beams for comparison. Displacement and strain measurements taken using the ARAMIS photogrammetric data acquisition system by means of processing at high frame rate captured images of applied...

  7. Optimization of Cooling System for Injection Molding Product Based on CAE%基于CAE技术注塑模冷却系统优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冲

    2014-01-01

    The design proposal for a cooling system is critical for molding quality, molding cycle and production efficiency of products in the course of plastic injection molding. Based on theory of cooling in injection molding, deficiencies of the design of the cooling system are obtained by analyzing numerical simulation of molding injection molded plastic part of automobile wheel hub cap by CAE technology, with temperature distribution of a mould, part temperature at ejection, ejection time and warping deformation of parts during plastic injection molding as indices of cooling performances, while the cooling systems are compared, improved and optimized. Practices prove that the product quality conforms to requirements, and the optimization method for a cooling system is reliable and effective, which has certain referential value for structural design of plastic injection moulds.%在塑料注塑成型过程中,冷却系统的方案设计对产品的成型质量、成型周期以及生产效率起到了关键性作用。基于注塑成型冷却理论,运用CAE技术对汽车轮轴盖注塑件进行数值模拟成型分析,以成型过程中模具温度、塑件顶出温度时间和塑件翘曲变形分布为性能指标,获取冷却系统设计的不足之处,进行方案改进优化。实践证明,冷却系统优化方法可靠有效,产品质量符合要求,对注塑模具结构设计有一定的参考价值。

  8. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Process Conditions on Residual Wall Thickness and Cooling and Surface Characteristics of Water-Assisted Injection Molded Hollow Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungpil Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, water-assisted injection molding was employed in the automobile industry to manufacture three-dimensional hollow tube-type products with functionalities. However, process optimization is difficult in the case of water-assisted injection molding because of the various rheological interactions between the injected water and the polymer. In this study, the boiling phenomenon that occurs because of the high melt temperature when injecting water and the molding characteristics of the hollow section during the water-assisted injection process were analyzed by a water-assisted injection molding analysis. In addition, the changes in the residual wall thickness accompanying changes in the process conditions were compared with the analysis results by considering water-assisted injection molding based on gas-assisted injection molding. Furthermore, by comparing the cooling characteristics and inner wall surface qualities corresponding to the formation of the hollow section by gas and water injections, a water-assisted injection molding technique was proposed for manufacturing hollow products with functionality.

  9. Present soil data for the ECCES-program system. [ECCES - Environmental Calculations of Consequences of Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, P.B.

    1986-01-01

    This is a status report that presents area and soil data, soil characteristics and input data used in the ECCES-program system for Danish arable soils. Input of ions to the upper soil layer with rain, fertilizer and lime are described together with the parameters used to describe the properties of different soil types. Together with a series of other reports, this report forms part of the description of the ECCES-model developed at Risoe National Laboratory.

  10. Effect of intramuscular injection of butafosfan and cobalamin on the quality of Fresh and Cooled Stallion Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Cazales Penino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of butafosfan in combination with cobalamin modulates many cellular metabolic functions in several species. Its use enhances productive and reproductive performance and reduces stress responses in animals. Despite all these attributes, so far there have been no controlled studies to evaluate the effects of butafosfan and cobalamin on the quality of stallion semen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the action of butafosfan in combination with cobalamin on the quality of fresh and cooled stallion semen. Four healthy stallions were kept in the same place and under the same management conditions during the entire experiment. Stallions were randomly assigned to two treatment groups in a 2x2 crossover design. Group A stallions were treated with an intramuscular injection of butafosfan twice a week for 80 days, while group B did not receive any treatment. After that, both groups were not treated for another 80 days allowing a washout period for the treated group. Then, the groups were reversed, and group B was treated with butafosfan and group A acted as the control for another 80 days. Semen was collected twice a week, diluted in skim milk and evaluated for total sperm count, total and progressive sperm motility, membrane integrity (CFDA/PI staining and membrane functionality (HOS test at 0 and 24 hours after preservation at 5ºC. Data were analyzed by comparing the values obtained from the treated stallions between the 60th and 84th days of treatment and the values obtained from the same stallion during the control period. The ejaculates of the washout period and between days 1 and 63 of treatment were not considered. A total of 85 ejaculates were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Means were compared by the Tukey test at the 5% level of significance. No significant differences were observed in fresh and cooled semen regarding the total sperm count, total motility, progressive motility, membrane integrity and membrane functionality in the

  11. Application of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) in modular floor panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus Helgi; Fischer, Gregor; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design, manufacturing, and structural behavior of a prefabricated floor panel consisting of a modular assembly of a thin-walled ECC slab and steel truss girders. The features of this composite structure include light weight, the modular manufacturing process...... with adaptability to various loading requirements, and the efficient utilization of material resources and industrial byproducts. The work described in this paper is a continuation of previous activities on composite floor panels in which light gage steel joists were integrally cast with the ECC slab. The modular...... concept introduced in this paper aims at improvements in the manufacturing process of the panels by casting the ECC slab separately and subsequently joining it with the steel trusses. The focus of this paper is on design and manufacturing of a prototype modular panel and on its structural behavior under...

  12. Visual outcomes after anterior vitrectomy: comparison of ECCE and phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrow, J C

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether vitrectomy instrumentation improved outcomes when vitreous loss occurred during either extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) or phacoemulsification (PE) with posterior chamber lens implantation (PCIOL). A consecutive series of ECCE + PCIOL (group 1: 1985-1989) and PE + PCIOL (group 2: 1993-1997) surgeries by a single surgeon was reviewed retrospectively. In group 1, 14 of 647 patients (2.2%) and in group 2, 9 of 665 patients (1.4%) experienced vitreous loss. In group 1, final visual acuity averaged 20/83; in group 2, 20/25 (P = .005). Average follow-up was 5.7 years (group 1) and 3.2 years (group 2). Uveitis, glaucoma, corneal problems, and retinal problems were assessed. Anterior vitrectomy reduced complications from vitreous loss. Fewer vitreous losses occurred with PE than ECCE. Patients with vitreous loss after PE attained better vision.

  13. Intraocular pressure following ECCE, phacoemulsification, and PC-IOL implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooner, K S; Cooksey, J C; Perry, P; Zimmerman, T J

    1988-09-01

    Abnormal intraocular pressure (IOP), either transient or permanent, may follow extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with phacoemulsification (PE) and posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation. We retrospectively studied IOP measurements at different intervals post ECCE and PE in 242 eyes of 211 patients: 105 males, 106 females, 198 Caucasians and 13 blacks. Elevated IOP (greater than 23 mm Hg) was observed in 20 eyes (8.2%). Only two patients (0.8%) had persistent (greater than 3 months) IOP elevation and needed antiglaucoma therapy. Six more eyes (2.5%), however, developed glaucoma after 1 year. Hence, the incidence of secondary pseudophakic glaucoma at the conclusion of this study was 3.3%. No patient required laser or other mechanical surgery for IOP control. ECCE and PE with PC-IOL does not appear to adversely affect IOP. Patients, however, must be followed closely, as some may develop glaucoma months after surgery.

  14. Implementation of Sub-Cooling of Cryogenic Propellants by Injection of Non-condensing Gas to the Generalized Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggett, Daniel J.; Majumdar, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenic propellants are readily heated when used. This poses a problem for rocket engine efficiency and effective boot-strapping of the engine, as seen in the "hot" LOX (Liquid Oxygen) problem on the S-1 stage of the Saturn vehicle. In order to remedy this issue, cryogenic fluids were found to be sub-cooled by injection of a warm non-condensing gas. Experimental results show that the mechanism behind the sub-cooling is evaporative cooling. It has been shown that a sub-cooled temperature difference of approximately 13 deg F below saturation temperature [1]. The phenomenon of sub-cooling of cryogenic propellants by a non-condensing gas is not readily available with the General Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) [2]. GFSSP is a thermal-fluid program used to analyze a wide variety of systems that are directly impacted by thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. In order to model this phenomenon, additional capabilities had to be added to GFSSP in the form of a FORTRAN coded sub-routine to calculate the temperature of the sub-cooled fluid. Once this was accomplished, the sub-routine was implemented to a GFSSP model that was created to replicate an experiment that was conducted to validate the GFSSP results.

  15. Modeling of ECC materials using numerical formulations based on plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the considerations for the establishment of a damage model for ECC. Three different length scales are used in the approach for deriving the damage model. On each length scale important phenomena are investigated by use of numerical and analytical calculations. On the micro...... scale it is shown that the cohesive law for a unidirectional fiber reinforced cementitious composite can be found through superposition of the cohesive law for mortar and the fiber bridging curve. On the meso scale I it is shown that the maximum crack opening observed during crack propagation in ECC...

  16. Ecce homo, a fisio-psicologia de um tipo

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    No presente estudo, pretendemos realizar uma leitura de Ecce homo balizada pelo procedimento genealógico, pela fisio-psicologia e pela tipologia presentes no pensamento de Nietzsche. Acreditamos que a mudança que se opera no tratamento do humano a partir dessas três noções permite a Nietzsche, em Ecce homo, realizar uma espécie de duplo movimento. Por um lado, o filósofo realiza a máxima afirmação da vida e de si mesmo, dando expressão a uma série de estados afetivos que o constitui. Por outr...

  17. Un Ecce Homo de Antonio del Castillo en Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes González, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The author presents a previously unknown painting by the Baroque artist from Cordoba, Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra. It is an Ecce Homo, a late work, and located in a private collection in Granada.Este artículo presenta el último aporte en el catálogo del pintor barroco cordobés Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra. Se trata de un lienzo con la iconografía del Ecce Homo, perteneciente a su última etapa artística, localizado en una colección particular de Granada.

  18. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): an infectious transmissible oral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Poureslami; W.E. van Amerongen

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries in babies and toddlers is called Early Childhood Caries (ECC). It is an infectious and transmissible die-to-bacterial disease. Detailed knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents facilitates a more comprehensive approach toward prevention. Mutans streptoc

  19. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): an infectious transmissible oral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poureslami, H.R.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries in babies and toddlers is called Early Childhood Caries (ECC). It is an infectious and transmissible die-to-bacterial disease. Detailed knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents facilitates a more comprehensive approach toward prevention. Mutans

  20. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): an infectious transmissible oral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poureslami, H.R.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries in babies and toddlers is called Early Childhood Caries (ECC). It is an infectious and transmissible die-to-bacterial disease. Detailed knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents facilitates a more comprehensive approach toward prevention. Mutans streptoc

  1. Modeling of ECC materials using numerical formulations based on plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the considerations for the establishment of a damage model for ECC. Three different length scales are used in the approach for deriving the damage model. On each length scale important phenomena are investigated by use of numerical and analytical calculations. On the micro sc...

  2. Effect of Turbulence Intensity on Cross-Injection Film Cooling at a Stepped or Smooth Endwall of a Gas Turbine Vane Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pey-Shey Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with a film cooling technique applicable to the protection of the endwalls of a gas turbine vane. In the experiments, cross-injection coolant flow from two-row, paired, inclined holes with nonintersecting centerlines was utilized. The test model is a scaled two-half vane. The levels of turbulence intensity used in the experiments are T.I.=1.8%, 7%, and 12%. Other parameters considered in the film cooling experiments include three inlet Reynolds numbers (9.20×104 , 1.24×105, and  1.50×105, three blowing ratios (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0, and three endwall conditions (smooth endwall and stepped endwall with forward-facing or backward-facing step. Thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC technique with steady-state heat transfer experiments was used to obtain the whole-field film cooling effectiveness. Results show that, at low turbulence intensity, increasing Reynolds number decreases the effectiveness in most of the vane passage. There is no monotonic trend of influence by Reynolds number at high turbulence intensity. The effect of blowing ratio on the effectiveness has opposite trends at low and high turbulence levels. Increasing turbulent intensity decreases the effectiveness, especially near the inlet of the vane passage. With a stepped endwall, turbulence intensity has only mild effect on the film cooling effectiveness.

  3. Effect of turbulence intensity on cross-injection film cooling at a stepped or smooth endwall of a gas turbine vane passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pey-Shey; Tsai, Shen-Ta; Jhuo, Yue-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study is concerned with a film cooling technique applicable to the protection of the endwalls of a gas turbine vane. In the experiments, cross-injection coolant flow from two-row, paired, inclined holes with nonintersecting centerlines was utilized. The test model is a scaled two-half vane. The levels of turbulence intensity used in the experiments are T.I. = 1.8%, 7%, and 12%. Other parameters considered in the film cooling experiments include three inlet Reynolds numbers (9.20 × 10(4), 1.24 × 10(5), and 1.50 × 10(5)), three blowing ratios (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0), and three endwall conditions (smooth endwall and stepped endwall with forward-facing or backward-facing step). Thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC) technique with steady-state heat transfer experiments was used to obtain the whole-field film cooling effectiveness. Results show that, at low turbulence intensity, increasing Reynolds number decreases the effectiveness in most of the vane passage. There is no monotonic trend of influence by Reynolds number at high turbulence intensity. The effect of blowing ratio on the effectiveness has opposite trends at low and high turbulence levels. Increasing turbulent intensity decreases the effectiveness, especially near the inlet of the vane passage. With a stepped endwall, turbulence intensity has only mild effect on the film cooling effectiveness.

  4. Effect of Vortex Circulation on Injectant from a Single Film-Cooling Hole and a Row of Film-Cooling Holes in a Turbulent Boundary Layer. Part 1. Injection Beneath the Vortex Downwash

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    distribution is unlimited ~ PERFORMING ORGAN IZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 5 MONITORING ORGANIZ ATION REPORT NUMBER(S) )a NAM E OF PERF ORMING ORGANIZATION 6b...California, March, 1987. Ort1::, A., "The Thermal Behavoir of Film Cooled Turbulent Boundary Layers as Affected by Long1tudinal Vort1ces", M.E

  5. The microstructure of self-healed PVA ECC under wet and dry cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Huan Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-healing of ECC (Engineered Cementitious Composites subjected to cyclic wetting and drying regimes is investigated in this paper. ECC structures subjected to outdoor environmental conditions such as wind and rain runoff can be simulated by accelerated test method of wetting and drying cycles. Uniaxial tensile tests of ECC M45 and ECC 2.8FA specimen are conducted respectively. It is found that crack width of ECC 2.8FA is around 10 μm with increased amount of fly ash, while the crack width of ECC M45 is around 100 μm. New insights about the microstructure and chemical composition analysis of ECC specimens initially cracked to 2% strain and then self-healed under wet-dry cycles are presented.

  6. An overview of the BWR ECCS strainer blockage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, A.W.; Marshall, M.L. Jr.; Elliott, R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This Paper provides a brief overview of actions taken in the mid 1980s to resolve Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-43, {open_quotes}Containment Emergency Sump Performance,{close_quotes} and their relationship to the BWR strainer blockage issue; the importance of insights gained from the Barseback-2 (a Swedish BWR) incident in 1992 and from ECCS strainer testing and inspections at the Perry nuclear power plant in 1992 and 1993; an analysis of an US BWR/4 with a Mark I containment; an international community sharing of knowledge relevant to ECCS strainer blockage, additional experimental programs; and identification of actions needed to resolve the strainer blockage issue and the status of such efforts.

  7. HIGH SPEED POINT ARITHMETIC ARCHITECTURE FOR ECC ON FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahila Bilal,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Elliptic curve cryptography plays a crucial role in networking and communication security. ECC have evolved in the recent past as an important alternative to established systems like RSA. This paper describes the implementation of an elliptic curve coprocessor based on the FPGA , which can provide a significant speedup for these cryptosystems. The FPGA configuration file is synthesized from VHDL code applying different hardware synthesis products. The implementation of ECC lies in three levels: scalar multiplication, point addition/doubling and finite field modular arithmetic. In this paper, we present a novel fast architecture for the point addition/doubling level in the projective coordinate. The proposed Architecture is based on Binary Field. The Design performs multiplication using Polynomial Basis. Analysis shows that, with reasonable hardware overhead, our architecture can achieve a high speedup for the point addition operation and point Doubling operation.Furthermore, the architecture is parameterized for different data widths to evaluate the optimal resource utilization.

  8. Experimental Study on the Compressive Behavior of CFRP/ECCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wen-bin

    2010-01-01

    In this study, nine square concrete columns, including six CFRP/ECCs and three plain concrete control specimen columns, were prepared. The CFRP tubes with fibers oriented in the hoop direction were manufactured with 10, 20, or 40 mm rounded corner radii at vertical edges. A 100 mm overlap in the direction of fibers was provided to ensure a proper bond. Uniaxial compression tests were conducted to investigate the compressive behaviors including the axial strength, stress-strain response, and ductility. It is evident that the CFRP tube confinement can improve the compressive behavior of concrete core, in terms of axial compressive strength or axial deformability. Based on the experimental results and some existing test database attained by other researchers, a design-oriented model is developed. The predictions of the model for CFRP/ECCs show good agreement with test results.

  9. Super Massive Star Clusters: From Superwinds to a Cooling Catastrophe and the Re-processing of the Injected Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Silich, S; Muñoz-Tunón, C; Palous, J

    2006-01-01

    Different hydrodynamic regimes for the gaseous outflows generated by multiple supernovae explosions and stellar winds occurring within compact and massive star clusters are discussed. It is shown that there exists the threshold energy that separates clusters whose outflows evolve in the quasi-adiabatic or radiative regime from those within which catastrophic cooling and a positive feedback star-forming mode sets in. The role of the surrounding ISM and the observational appearance of the star cluster winds evolving in different hydrodynamic regimes are also discussed.

  10. Self-Healing of Microcracks in Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) Under a Natural Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Victor C.; Emily N. Herbert

    2013-01-01

    This paper builds on previous self-healing engineered cementitious composites (ECC) research by allowing ECC to heal outdoors, in the natural environment, under random and sometimes extreme environmental conditions. Development of an ECC material that can heal itself in the natural environment could lower infrastructure maintenance costs and allow for more sustainable development in the future by increasing service life and decreasing the amount of resources and energy needed for repairs. Det...

  11. Feeding pattern a dual risk? otitis media (OM and early childhood caries (ECC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sangeetha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence of Otitis media (OM and Early childhood caries (ECC and their coexistence in children with a history of faulty feeding patterns. Method: Children aged 5 years and below were recruited at random from dental and medical hospitals. Parents of these children were posed with questions about the feeding methods, feeding patterns such as duration, frequency, position, burping, specific childhood illness etc. Children (120 were examined for ECC by a Paedodontist and OM by an Otolaryngologist and were segregated into three groups i.e. Control group, ECC group and OM group respectively. The ECC group was sub grouped into ECC only and ECC&OM group. The OM group was also similarly sub grouped into OM group and OM&ECC group. Collected data were tabulated and subjected for statistical analysis using Pearson Chi – square test. Results: Prevalence of ECC, OM, and their coexistence increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Overall Prevalence of their coexistence in children was 51.25%. Significant percentages (25% of children in the OM group were fed in supine position. Children fed on demand (47.5% experienced ECC. overall 85% (p=.017 of children had coexistence of ECC&OM fed on demand and during bed time. Significant numbers of children who were burped occasionally after feeding (35% or were not burped at all (12.5% were affected with both ECC and OM. Conclusion: Prevalence of their coexistence was higher in children with OM. Significant association existed between on demand feeding and ECC; supine feeding position and OM. Risk factors in common for both the disease were combined feeding position, on demand, bed time feeding and occasionally burping.

  12. Petawatt laser-driven wakefield accelerator: All-optical electron injection via collision of laser pulses and radiation cooling of accelerated electron bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmykov, Serguei; Avitzour, Yoav; Yi, S. Austin; Shvets, Gennady

    2007-11-01

    We explore an electron injection into the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) using nearly head-on collision of the petawatt ultrashort (˜30 fs) laser pulse (driver) with a low- amplitude laser (seed) beam of the same duration and polarization. To eliminate the threat to the main laser amplifier we consider two options: (i) a frequency-shifted seed and (ii) a seed pulse propagating at a small angle to the axis. We show that the emission of synchrotron radiation due to betatron oscillations of trapped and accelerated electrons results in significant transverse cooling of quasi- monoenergetic accelerated electrons (with energies above 1 GeV). At the same time, the energy losses due to the synchrotron emission preserve the final energy spread of the electron beam. The ``dark current'' due to the electron trapping in multiple wake buckets and the effect of beam loading (wake destruction at the instant of beams collision) are discussed.

  13. eccCL: parallelized GPU implementation of Ensemble Classifier Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemenschneider, Mona; Herbst, Alexander; Rasch, Ari; Gorlatch, Sergei; Heider, Dominik

    2017-08-17

    Multi-label classification has recently gained great attention in diverse fields of research, e.g., in biomedical application such as protein function prediction or drug resistance testing in HIV. In this context, the concept of Classifier Chains has been shown to improve prediction accuracy, especially when applied as Ensemble Classifier Chains. However, these techniques lack computational efficiency when applied on large amounts of data, e.g., derived from next-generation sequencing experiments. By adapting algorithms for the use of graphics processing units, computational efficiency can be greatly improved due to parallelization of computations. Here, we provide a parallelized and optimized graphics processing unit implementation (eccCL) of Classifier Chains and Ensemble Classifier Chains. Additionally to the OpenCL implementation, we provide an R-Package with an easy to use R-interface for parallelized graphics processing unit usage. eccCL is a handy implementation of Classifier Chains on GPUs, which is able to process up to over 25,000 instances per second, and thus can be used efficiently in high-throughput experiments. The software is available at http://www.heiderlab.de .

  14. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Man Wai; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Lieberman, Martin; Lee, Jessica Y; Scoville, Richard; Hannon, Cindy; Maramaldi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC) has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM) approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI) collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR) for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  15. Development of CANDU ECCS performance evaluation methodology and guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kwang Hyun; Park, Kyung Soo; Chu, Won Ho [Korea Maritime Univ., Jinhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    The objectives of the present work are to carry out technical evaluation and review of CANDU safety analysis methods in order to assist development of performance evaluation methods and review guides for CANDU ECCS. The applicability of PWR ECCS analysis models are examined and it suggests that unique data or models for CANDU are required for the following phenomena: break characteristics and flow, frictional pressure drop, post-CHF heat transfer correlations, core flow distribution during blowdown, containment pressure, and reflux rate. For safety analysis of CANDU, conservative analysis or best estimate analysis can be used. The main advantage of BE analysis is a more realistic prediction of margins to acceptance criteria. The expectation is that margins demonstrated with BE methods would be larger that when a conservative approach is applied. Some outstanding safety analysis issues can be resolved by demonstration that accident consequences are more benign than previously predicted. Success criteria for analysis and review of Large LOCA can be developed by top-down approach. The highest-level success criteria can be extracted from C-6 and from them, the lower level criteria can be developed step-by-step, in a logical fashion. The overall objectives for analysis and review are to verify radiological consequences and frequency are met.

  16. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Wai Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  17. [Visco-hydraulic irrigation of the lens cortex. A safe ECCE method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedburg, D

    1994-12-01

    The safe and effective Hydrojet nucleus expression (Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1993; 202:288-291) should be completed by a safe non traumatic and easy to perform method of cortex removal. OPERATION TECHNIQUE: 8-mm tunnel incision, spiral capsulorhexis, hydrodissection and viscodissection of the nucleus, hydrojet nucleus expression. The lens cortex can be separated from the lens capsule by injection of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (Metho), the viscoelastic substance acts as a wedge to separate the cortex from the capsule step by step. Finally the cortex is expressed by the injection of Metho. The capsule remains so clean, that often polishing is not necessary. PMMA lenses with an over all diameter of 10 or 11-mm and 7-mm optics were implanted. In 100 consecutive cases complications which occurred intraoperatively or within the following 2 days were listed. The following complications occurred: Hyphaema (2x, the blood disappeared spontaneously within 4-5 days), small cortex flake in the anterior chamber (2x), rhexis rim not intact (1x, nevertheless exact lens centration in the bag). No lesion of the capsule/zonule diaphragm, no fibrin reaction, no corneal edema. The method described is a safe method for ECCE. Capsulorhexis and tunnel incision are required. The method does not need any high technology equipment.

  18. Mechanical Behavior of Rectangular Steel-Reinforced ECC/Concrete Composite Column under Eccentric Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘金龙; 鲁冰; 顾大伟; 夏正昊; 夏天阳

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the seismic performance, deformation ability and ultimate load-carrying capacity of columns with rectangular cross section, engineered cementitious composite (ECC) is introduced to partially substitute concrete in the edge zone of reinforced concrete columns and form reinforced ECC/concrete composite columns. Firstly, based on the assumption of plane remaining plane and the simplified constitutive models, the calculation method of the load-carrying capacity of reinforced ECC/concrete columns is proposed. The stress and strain distribu-tions and crack propagation of the composite columns in different states of eccentric compressive loading are ana-lyzed. Then, nonlinear finite element analysis is conducted to study the mechanical performance of reinforced ECC/concrete composite columns with rectangular cross section. It is found that the simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical results, indicating that the proposed method for calculating the load-carrying capacity of concrete/ECC composite columns is valid. Finally, based on the proposed method, the effects of ECC thickness, com-pressive strength of concrete and longitudinal reinforcement ratio on the mechanical performance of reinforced ECC/concrete composite columns are analyzed. Calculation results indicate that increasing the thickness of ECC layer or longitudinal reinforcement ratio can effectively increase the ultimate load-carrying capacity of the composite column with both small and large eccentricity, but increasing the strength of concrete can only increase the ultimate load-carrying capacity of the composite column with small eccentricity.

  19. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gara, Alan; Cheng, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2016-02-02

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  20. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-06-18

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  1. [Combination surgery (ECCE+IOL+TE) and intraocular pressure levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornová, J

    1997-08-01

    The authors investigated the effect of a combined operation, ECCE + TE + IOL, on reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), changes in antiglaucomatous treatment and on vision six months after operation. In 1994 36 eyes were operated, 16 eyes with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), 8 eyes with angular glaucoma (PACG) and 12 eyes with marked exfoliative syndrome (CG). Six months after operation the IOP declined from 26.4 mm Hg to 13.3 mm Hg (P 0.05), antiglaucomatous treatment was reduced from 2.55 to 1.11 (P 0.05), vision improved by 0.39, i.e. by 2-3 lines of optotypes (P 0.05). 89% of the operated patients have a vision better than 0.5. Comparison of values before and after operation revealed a more marked drop of IOP in CG (P 0.05) than in POAG.

  2. 模具温度对注塑成型加工的影响及其冷却探析%Research on Influence of Mold Temperature and Cooling in Injection Molding Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李谟树

    2011-01-01

    针对注塑成型的技术要求,分析模具温度的冷却过程和决定模具温度冷却效果的影响因素,以及冷却系统的散热与功能参数的计算方法,对于优化模具结构设计、提升注塑成型加工的效益具有重要意义.%Mold temperature of the cooling process and the effect factors of mold temperature were analyzed based on technical requirements for injection molding process. The calculation of cooling system and functional parameters was of great importance to optimize design of the cooling system and injection molding process.

  3. Refractive results after phacoemulsification and ECCE. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam-Johansen, M; Olsen, T

    1993-06-01

    The refractive results were evaluated in 79 patients undergoing cataract extraction by phacoemulsification using a 6-7 mm tunnel incision, and compared with a group of 77 patients undergoing planned extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) by the same surgeon. A mean increase in the keratometric cylinder of 0.05D and 0.52D was found in the phacoemulsification and the extracapsular cataract extraction group, respectively. This was significantly different from zero for the extracapsular cataract extraction group (p 0.05). By vector analysis, the mean surgically induced astigmatism was 0.91D and 1.36D in the phacoemulsification and the extracapsular cataract extraction group, respectively (p < 0.01). The IOL power prediction error (spectacle plane) was found to be 0.17D (+/- 0.69 SD) in the phacoemulsification group and 0.02 D (+/- 0.79 SD) in the extracapsular cataract extraction group, respectively. We conclude that phacoemulsification improves the surgical control of the refractive outcome of cataract surgery.

  4. Manual ECCE, the present state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, M

    1994-11-01

    Manual ECCE has proved to be safe surgery compatible with small incision, no stitches, possible topical anesthesia, very cost effective and quick rehabilitation. The technique has a learning curve and needs experience. "Mini-nuc" stands for mini nucleus. This surgery can be achieved only if performed under positive intraocular pressure (IOP). A BSS bottle is connected to the eye by an anterior chamber maintainer (ACM). The height of the BSS bottle controls the IOP during the surgery. Controlled IOP is a principle suggested for all kinds of cataract surgery. It creates continuous flow which washes out of the eye cortex debris, blood, pigment, etc. The BSS contains antibiotics and adrenalin, it creates low turbulence due to the small amount of BSS used per case, 30-50 cc. A round capsulorhexis is essential. A special way of hydrodissection creates a very small hard core nucleus delivered to the anterior chamber and is extracted out through a sclero-corneal tunnel using a glide introduced under the nucleus to guide the nucleus out. Positive IOP during all stages of surgery creates the best operative conditions for controlled surgery throughout all manipulations. This technique is a very cost effective system and at the same time provides a high quality procedure.

  5. Pressure vessel fracture studies pertaining to a PWR LOCA-ECC thermal shock: experiments TSE-1 and TSE-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheverton, R.D.

    1976-09-01

    The LOCA-ECC Thermal Shock Program was established to investigate the potential for flaw propagation in pressurized-water reactor (PWR) vessels during injection of emergency core coolant following a loss-of-coolant accident. Studies thus far have included fracture mechanics analyses of typical PWRs, the design and construction of a thermal shock test facility, determination of material properties for test specimens, and two thermal shock experiments with 0.53-m-OD (21-in.) by 0.15-m-wall (6-in.) cylindrical test specimens. The PWR calculations indicated that under some circumstances crack propagation could be expected and that experiments should be conducted for cracks that would have the potential for propagation at least halfway through the wall.

  6. Application of Interfacial Propagation and Kinking Crack Concept to ECC/Concrete Overlay Repair System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw ChiaHwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the application of ultraductile engineered cementitious composite (ECC as overlay in the repair of deteriorated concrete structures is performed in this paper. Also, interfacial crack kinking and trapping mechanism experimentally observed in ECC/concrete overlay repair system are described by comparison of toughness and energy release rate. The mechanism involves cycles of extension, kinking, and arrest of interfacial crack into the overlay. Experimental testing of overlay repair system reveals significant improvements in load carrying capacity and ductility over conventional concrete overlay. The commonly observed overlay system failure mode of delamination or spalling is eliminated when ECC is applied. These failure modes are suppressed when ECC is used as an ideal and durable candidate overlay repair material.

  7. Preestrita pihtimus : Friedrich Nietzsche ja tema substantsiaalne mina (Ecce homo) / Jaan Undusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Undusk, Jaan, 1958-

    1998-01-01

    Varem ilmunud raamatu järelsõnana: Nietzsche, Friedrich. Ecce homo : kuidas saadakse selleks, mis ollakse / tlk. Jaan Undusk. Tallinn : Vagabund, 1996. Sisu: Poeetiline, filosoofiline, dionüüsiline kaanon ; Künism contra hulluskahtlus ; Antikristlik pihtimus ; Egoretoorika

  8. Preestrita pihtimus : Friedrich Nietzsche ja tema substantsiaalne mina (Ecce homo) / Jaan Undusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Undusk, Jaan, 1958-

    1998-01-01

    Varem ilmunud raamatu järelsõnana: Nietzsche, Friedrich. Ecce homo : kuidas saadakse selleks, mis ollakse / tlk. Jaan Undusk. Tallinn : Vagabund, 1996. Sisu: Poeetiline, filosoofiline, dionüüsiline kaanon ; Künism contra hulluskahtlus ; Antikristlik pihtimus ; Egoretoorika

  9. Clinical research on cool or hot properties of cinobufacini injection%华蟾素注射液寒热药性的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟笑枫; 王双双; 岳小强; 李柏; 陈喆

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the cold or hot properties of Cinobufacini injection by observing the changes in tongue texture and color during the treatment in patients with primary liver cancer. Methods Changes in texture and color of the tongue, hot or cool properties of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes, and therapeutic effi-cacy were analyzed quantitatively in 48 patients with primary liver cancer before and after treatment with Cinobufacini injection by using a comprehensive system of TCM tongue inspection. Results After treatment with Cinobufacini in-jection, there was a trend of increasing percentages of purple-red or crimson tongues and decreasing percentages of light white, light red and purple tongues in the patients compared with baseline, as reflected quantitatively by the lowered G value in RGB system (P<0.05). After therapy, the number of patients with hot syndromes obviously in-creased (P<0.05). Patients with cold syndromes seemed to have better responses to the therapy as judged by remission of tumor and the progression-free survival. Conclusion Monotherapy with Cinobufacini injection may result in more hot TCM syndromes.%目的:通过观察原发性肝癌患者接受华蟾素注射液治疗过程中客观舌质颜色等的动态变化,分析该药的寒热药性。方法借助中医舌诊综合分析系统,对48例原发性肝癌患者接受华蟾素注射液治疗前后的舌质颜色、寒热证候和临床疗效进行动态观察。结果接受华蟾素治疗后患者紫红、红绛舌的构成比有升高趋势,而淡白、淡红舌和紫舌比例有下降趋势,体现在量化指标上表现为治疗后舌色G分量值降低(P<0.05);接受华蟾素治疗后,热证患者明显增多(P<0.05);通过观察瘤体缓解情况和无进展生存率等疗效指标,寒证患者可能对华蟾素治疗具有更高的敏感性。结论单味中药制剂华蟾素注射液的药性可能偏热。

  10. New External Calibration Curves (ECCs) for the Estimation of Molecular Weights in Various Common NMR Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Sebastian; Neufeld, Roman; Dzemski, Martin; Stalke, Dietmar

    2016-06-13

    New external calibration curves (ECCs) for the estimation of aggregation states of small molecules in solution by DOSY NMR spectroscopy for a range of different common NMR solvents ([D6 ]DMSO, C6 D12 , C6 D6 , CDCl3 , and CD2 Cl2 ) are introduced and applied. ECCs are of avail to estimate molecular weights (MWs) from diffusion coefficients of previously unknown aggregates. This enables a straightforward and elaborate examination of (de)aggregation phenomena in solution.

  11. Self-Healing of Microcracks in Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC Under a Natural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor C. Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on previous self-healing engineered cementitious composites (ECC research by allowing ECC to heal outdoors, in the natural environment, under random and sometimes extreme environmental conditions. Development of an ECC material that can heal itself in the natural environment could lower infrastructure maintenance costs and allow for more sustainable development in the future by increasing service life and decreasing the amount of resources and energy needed for repairs. Determining to what extent current ECC materials self-heal in the natural environment is the first step in the development of an ECC that can completely heal itself when exposed to everyday environmental conditions. This study monitored outdoor ECC specimens for one year using resonant frequency (RF and mechanical reloading to determine the rate and extent of self-healing in the natural environment. It was found that the level of RF, stiffness, and first cracking strength recovery increased as the duration of natural environment exposure increased. For specimens that underwent multiple damage cycles, it was found that the level of recovery was highly dependent on the average temperature and amount of precipitation between each damage event. However, RF, stiffness, and first cracking strength recovery data for specimens that underwent multiple loading cycles suggest that self-healing functionality can be maintained under multiple damage events.

  12. Self-Healing of Microcracks in Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) Under a Natural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Emily N; Li, Victor C

    2013-07-15

    This paper builds on previous self-healing engineered cementitious composites (ECC) research by allowing ECC to heal outdoors, in the natural environment, under random and sometimes extreme environmental conditions. Development of an ECC material that can heal itself in the natural environment could lower infrastructure maintenance costs and allow for more sustainable development in the future by increasing service life and decreasing the amount of resources and energy needed for repairs. Determining to what extent current ECC materials self-heal in the natural environment is the first step in the development of an ECC that can completely heal itself when exposed to everyday environmental conditions. This study monitored outdoor ECC specimens for one year using resonant frequency (RF) and mechanical reloading to determine the rate and extent of self-healing in the natural environment. It was found that the level of RF, stiffness, and first cracking strength recovery increased as the duration of natural environment exposure increased. For specimens that underwent multiple damage cycles, it was found that the level of recovery was highly dependent on the average temperature and amount of precipitation between each damage event. However, RF, stiffness, and first cracking strength recovery data for specimens that underwent multiple loading cycles suggest that self-healing functionality can be maintained under multiple damage events.

  13. 基于FPGA的椭圆曲线密码(ECC)算法硬件设计%Hardware Design of Elliptic Curve Cryptography(ECC) Based on FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵曼; 徐和根

    2013-01-01

    Elliptic curve cryptosystem ( ECC) is a public key encryption system with the most secure unit key security at present, the application of FPGA and hardware design to implement the ECC cryptography have become a concern in the field of information security. The further study of the elliptic curve encryption and decryption is based on the theory, using the verilog hardware description language and schematic design method to achieve the ECC encryption algorithm, with high-speed and low-power characteristics.%椭圆曲线密码体制(elliptic curve cryptosystem,ECC)是目前已知的单位密钥安全性最高的一种公钥加密体制,使用FPGA等硬件设计方法来实现ECC密码系统已成为信息安全领域引人关注的研究.该文在深入研究椭圆曲线加解密理论基础上,使用Verilog硬件描述语言和原理图输入法共同实现了ECC加密算法,具有高速、低功耗的特点.

  14. Energy-dissipating and self-repairing SMA-ECC composite material system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Mo; Song, Gangbing

    2015-02-01

    Structural component ductility and energy dissipation capacity are crucial factors for achieving reinforced concrete structures more resistant to dynamic loading such as earthquakes. Furthermore, limiting post-event residual damage and deformation allows for immediate re-operation or minimal repairs. These desirable characteristics for structural ‘resilience’, however, present significant challenges due to the brittle nature of concrete, its deformation incompatibility with ductile steel, and the plastic yielding of steel reinforcement. Here, we developed a new composite material system that integrates the unique ductile feature of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) with superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA). In contrast to steel reinforced concrete (RC) and SMA reinforced concrete (SMA-RC), the SMA-ECC beams studied in this research exhibited extraordinary energy dissipation capacity, minimal residual deformation, and full self-recovery of damage under cyclic flexural loading. We found that the tensile strain capacity of ECC, tailored up to 5.5% in this study, allows it to work compatibly with superelastic SMA. Furthermore, the distributed microcracking damage mechanism in ECC is critical for sufficient and reliable recovery of damage upon unloading. This research demonstrates the potential of SMA-ECC for improving resilience of concrete structures under extreme hazard events.

  15. Holistic care patient with Early Childhood Caries (ECC: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Maulani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a specific form of severe dental caries that affects infants and young children. ECC progresses rapidly in those who are at high risk, and often goes untreated. Children experiencing caries as infants or toddlers have a much greater probability of subsequent caries in both primary and permanent dentitions. This case showed management holistic care for children with ECC.A five year old boy patient accompanied with her parents were reported to the Pedodontic Clinic Padjadjaran University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of decayed upper anterior teeth and pain in the molar teeth. Clinical examinations found dental caries almost all teeth in the maxilla and mandible. Based on panoramic radiograph, treatments that can be done are strip crown glass ionomer restorations, pulp treatments, extractions and fixed space maintainer. Patients diagnosed with severe ECC, patient and parents described on this type of caries. During treatment the patient was given oral hygiene instruction and recommend daily use of tooth mouse. After all treatment were completed, fluoride topical, and fissure sealants, recall check up after three months was scheduled. Holistic care needed in handling children with ECC.

  16. Comparison of outcomes following combined ECCE-trabeculectomy versus phacoemulsification-trabeculectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tous, Horacio M; Nevárez, Juan

    2006-12-01

    To analyze and compare the main outcomes between trabeculectomies combined with extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) versus those with phacoemulsification (Phaco). The authors retrospectively reviewed one surgeon's 357 consecutive cases (475 eyes) of combined cataract extraction, intraocular lens implantation and Mitomycin enhanced trabeculectomy. Patients were divided into two groups, those who underwent extracapsular cataract extraction (80 eyes) and those having phacoemulsification (395 eyes). Analysis of postoperative visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, postoperative adverse events and additional procedures required, was done. Minimum follow-up was 12 months with an average of 53 months. There was no significant difference (p = 1.000) between the groups in terms of visual acuity improvement rate, 66% (ECCE) versus 59% (Phaco). Postoperatively IOP with both techniques fell significantly (p ECCE vs. 14.1 mmHg Phaco, p = 1.0000). Postoperative pressure spikes occurred in 6% versus 10% (p = 0.3995) of the eyes. No significant difference (55% ECCE versus 63% Phaco, p = 0.1674) between the two groups in terms of glaucoma medication reduction was found. The total number of postoperative complications (89% versus 68.5%) were significantly higher (p = 0.0001) in the ECCE-group, as well as the total number of eyes which required further interventions (86% versus 64%, p = 0.0001). Both combined surgery techniques are effective and yielded similar long-term results. However phacoemulsification can decrease the post operative complications associated with this surgery.

  17. Behavior of cooling jet in the lateral injection in film cooling. 1st Report. ; Time-averaged velocity and temperature field. Span hoko ni fukidasu makureikyaku ni okeru reikyaku kuki no kyodo. 1. ; Jikan heikin sokudoba to ondoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, A. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Yamamoto, M. (Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)); Shizawa, T.; Honami, S. (Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-02-25

    In order to improve the gas turbine blade film cooling technology, this paper elucidates flow field and temperature field of secondary air blown out into a span direction; derives the temperature distribution on the wall face; and describes cooling air behavior in film cooling. The wall face temperature distribution measured with a temperature measuring system using liquid crystal has shown relatively good correspondence with the temperature distribution in the vicinity of the wall face as measured by a two-wire probe. Film cooling by blowing air into the span direction has shown good attachment of the secondary air onto the wall face in the secondary air blowing direction. However, in the opposite direction to the air blowing direction, air has attached to the wall face only poorly because of vortex movements of the primary air due to being dragged in. The secondary air has departed from the wall face as the blow-out ratio has been increased, resulting in drop in the cooling efficiency. A 'Z' direction position that the temperature of the secondary air shows a maximum value differs from a 'Z' direction position having a peak in the wall face cooling efficiency, the difference having become more noticeable with increasing blow-out ratio. A region with lower cooling efficiency due to rolling-in of the primary air exists near the blow-out hole, where rolling-in of the primary air is recognized prominently as the blow-out ratio has been increased. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Lightweight ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Debiao; Kumar, Neeraj; Chilamkurti, Naveen; Lee, Jong-Hyouk

    2014-10-01

    The radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely adopted and being deployed as a dominant identification technology in a health care domain such as medical information authentication, patient tracking, blood transfusion medicine, etc. With more and more stringent security and privacy requirements to RFID based authentication schemes, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) based RFID authentication schemes have been proposed to meet the requirements. However, many recently published ECC based RFID authentication schemes have serious security weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a new ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol that overcomes the weaknesses of the existing schemes. A comprehensive security analysis has been conducted to show strong security properties that are provided from the proposed authentication scheme. Moreover, the performance of the proposed authentication scheme is analyzed in terms of computational cost, communicational cost, and storage requirement.

  19. Intraocular pressure following ECCE and IOL implantation in patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooner, K S; Dulaney, D D; Zimmerman, T J

    1988-08-01

    Patients with glaucoma may suffer optic nerve head damage due to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) after any intraocular procedure. We retrospectively reviewed the IOP data in 82 consecutive patients (103 eyes) with glaucoma after extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation. Nine eyes had previous trabeculectomy and three eyes required combined trabeculectomy with ECCE and PC-IOL. The average follow-up period is 1.5 years (range 0.5 to 6 years). The postoperative IOP rise of 8 mm Hg over baseline or above 23 mm Hg was observed in 45 eyes (49.5%). Two eyes needed argon laser trabeculoplasty and one required trabeculectomy to control postoperative IOP elevation. Most of the patients required the same or lesser number of medications for IOP control after surgery. Results suggest that ECCE with PC-IOL may be a relatively safe procedure in cataract patients with preexisting glaucoma.

  20. Clinical outcomes and costs of cataract surgery performed by planned ECCE and phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, X; Comas, M; Castilla, M; Cots, F; Alarcón, S

    1998-01-01

    To compare clinical outcomes and costs of cataract surgery between patients operated with standard extracapsular extraction (ECCE) and those undergoing phacoemulsification. Patients from the Ophthalmology Department of a teaching hospital in Barcelona (Spain) scheduled for cataract surgery, not combined with any other ophthalmic procedure. A retrospective analysis has been performed on a database of 1046 patients undergoing ECCE and phacoemulsification. The outcome measures used were: surgical complications, visual acuity and costs of surgery and of follow-up. Overall rate of all complications and postoperative visual acuity were compared between the two groups, adjusting for age, preoperative visual acuity, medical and ocular comorbidity. 31.9% of the patients (334) underwent phacoemulsification, and 68.1% (712) underwent ECCE. Patients undergoing phacoemulsification presented a frequency of intra- and postoperative complications lower than those undergoing ECCE (odds ratio 0.57, 95%CI 0.37-0.87 and 0.66, 95%CI 0.46-0.96, respectively), specifically for intraoperative iris trauma (3.1% vs 0.3%, p = 0.004), residual posterior capsular opacity (2% vs 0.3%, p = 0.035) and postoperative corneal edema (7.4% vs 3.6%, p = 0.016). Costs of intervention and follow-up were lower for phacoemulsification compared with ECCE (23.9% and 14%, respectively). But global costs were slightly higher for phacoemulsification (4.87%), due to supply costs, which were more than twice those of ECCE. Phacoemulsification, when performed by an experienced surgeon, has better clinical outcomes than planned extracapsular extraction, and costs may be lower since supply costs are expected to decrease as the phacoemulsification technique becomes more widespread.

  1. BREASTFEEDING AND EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES (ECC SEVERITY OF CHILDREN UNDER THREE YEARS OLD IN DKI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risqa Rina Darwita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years old are constantly increasing. One of the cause is the increase consumption of cariogenic carbohydrate. Breast milk have buffer capacity that eventually able to prevent caries. The aims of this research are to discover the correlation between breastfeeding with the severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC in children under three years old, to provide information on prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years, and to explain factors influencing the incidence of ECC. This research designed cross sectionally and conducted upon 565 children aged 12-38 months, selected using multistage cluster random sampling. The ECC prevalence of children under three years in DKI Jakarta is 52.7%, with average score of def-t 2.85. Bivariate analysis showed that, variables which correlate with the level of ECC are; the way to deliver (p=0,012, frequency (p=0,002, duration (p=0,002, salivary buffer capacity (p=0.013, habitual consumption of sugary diet (p=0.005, child’s dental hygiene behavior (p=0.002, and mother’s education (p=0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that ECC can be explained by these variables: age, mother’s education, the way to deliver and frequency of breast milk complements/replacement of consumtions, child’s brushing habit, plaque pH, and salivary buffer capacity. Resulting determination coefficient 32.1%. There is no significant correlation between breastfeeding and the level of Early Childhood Caries (ECC. The role of protective qualities of breastfeeding are not shown because of bias in obtaining data influence the incidence of caries.

  2. Stacking with stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspers, Fritz E-mail: Fritz.Caspers@cern.ch; Moehl, Dieter

    2004-10-11

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 10{sup 5} the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some

  3. Continuous soil VOCl measurements with automated flux chambers and micro-ECD gas chromatography coupled with the thermal desorption and cooled injection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodovskaya, M. S.; Svensson, T.; Pitts, A.; Delmonte, J.; Nesic, Z.; Oberg, G.

    2010-12-01

    automated chamber was continuously pumped through the glass tubes filled with carbon-based absorbent (Carbotrap 300) to capture and retain VOCl. At the end of each measurement period, the tubes are brought back to the lab, and the content is analyzed by Agilent 7890 GC/micro-ECD coupled with the Gerstel Thermal Desorption System (TDS) and Cooled Injection System (CIS). The ultra sensitive micro-ECD detection and high-efficiency capillary column (Rtx®-VMS, 20m x 0.18mm ID x 1.0µm) allows rapid separation and quantification of the mid-weight VOCl such as chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and bromochloromethane. The GC-method dynamic range is linear within 0.1-200.0ng, and the analytical precision is determined to be 4%. The described system can be used for the analysis of soil/atmosphere exchange of VOCl at the detection limit of 1.9ng m-2 h-1, which is far below previously reported average soil emission levels from forest soils. The high precision GC analysis combined with the automatic chambers makes it possible to study the high spatial and temporal variability of soil VOCl fluxes.

  4. Preliminary analysis of modeling of Pars and steam injectors to support long-term operation of LWR passive ECCS using a best estimate thermal-hydraulics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales S, J. B.; Sanchez J, J. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito Interior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Espinosa P, G., E-mail: jaimebmoraless@gmail.co [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    In order to control the amount of hydrogen produced, during the chemical reaction of steam and strongly overheated zirconium in a LWR severe accident, several control methos have been proposed. In a considerable number of nuclear power plants the initial preferred solution was either the use of an inert containment atmosphere or the use of igniters. However, the use of Pars (Passive autocatalytic recombiners) has been considered an important addition to this set of H{sub 2} controls. Pars have appealing features such as, low maintenance, do not require active components to start operation, and can initiate the H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} recombination at low concentrations. However, under certain conditions these Pars may trigger H{sub 2} ignition leading to deflagration s with possible containment damages. Combustions, poisons and liquid may inhibit or reduce the Pars operation. Advanced LWR designs (generation III + and IV) are also considering the use of Pars as a supporting system to the long term operation of their passive ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling Systems) because they may transport the energy of containment H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gases to external sinks. Even when the ECCS of modern nuclear power plants are designed to maintain containment conditions under established limits, there are small amounts of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} produced mainly by H{sub 2}O radiolysis, and after several days of containment isolation, these gases may accumulate in places where the possibility of a H{sub 2} deflagration increases. Therefore, the use of Pars looks initially as an interesting solution to long-term H{sub 2} control during a Dba. However, the H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} recombination is an exothermic process resulting in additional steam and energy releases to the containment. In order to avoid a direct deposition of the steam and energy (Pars produced) into the containment atmosphere, we propose to use them to operate steam injectors that can bring cold water to replenish ECCS

  5. Spectroscopy of the $^{1}S_{0}-\\,^{3}P_{1}$ line in laser cooled Yb with an injection-locked diode laser at 1111.6nm

    CERN Document Server

    Kostylev, Nikita; Tobar, Michael E; McFerran, John J

    2014-01-01

    We generate sub-MHz linewidth 555.8nm radiation through the use of laser injection locking of a semiconductor diode at 1111.6nm followed by frequency doubling in a resonant cavity. The integrity of the injection lock is investigated by studying an offset-beat signal between slave and master lasers, and by performing spectroscopy on the $(6s)^{2}$ $^{1}S_{0}-(6s6p)$$^{3}P_{1}$ transition in magneto-optically trapped ytterbium.

  6. MICROORGANISMS FOUND IN SECONDARY CATARACT MATERIAL OF ECCE PATIENTS, A STUDY WITH SEM AND TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KALICHARAN, D; JONGEBLOED, WL; LOS, LI; WORST, JGF

    1993-01-01

    Globular secondary cataract material, removed from 24 patients with ECCE after ophthalmic cleaning of the anterior capsule, were investigated with SEM and TEM. Besides spherical, somewhat oval shaped bodies of various shape and size comparable with those found in cataractous lenses, (an)aerobic

  7. Zirconia crowns--an esthetic and resistant restorative alternative for ECC affected primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planells del Pozo, P; Fuks, A B

    2014-01-01

    The present report discusses briefly the problem of ECC in very young children and the recommended approaches for prevention and treatment. The esthetic restoration of the maxillary incisors with Zirconia Nu Smile crowns is described. It is also stressed that the luxation injury two months after placement did not damage the appearance nor the stability of the crowns.

  8. Complete genome sequences of Escherichia coli strains 1303 and ECC-1470 isolated from bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Witten, Anika; Scheutz, Flemming; Schukken, Ynte; Daniel, Rolf; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the leading causative agent of acute bovine mastitis. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. coli O70:H32 strain 1303, isolated from an acute case of bovine mastitis, and E. coli Ont:Hnt strain ECC-1470, isolated from a persistent infection.

  9. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Moon, Yonghwi; Li, Lihua; Rustchenko, Elena; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Feng, Changyong; Gill, Steven R.; McLaren, Sean; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yanfang; Quivey, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. Methods Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4 Results A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman’s correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (p60% of them demonstrated identical C. albicans REAG-B pattern. C. albicans isolated from >65% of child-mother pairs demonstrated similar susceptibility to caspofungin in spot assay, while no caspofungin resistant strains were

  10. Preparation and evaluation of {sup 68}Ga-ECC as a PET renal imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizaei, Alireza; Jaililan, Amir Reza; Mazidi, Mohammad; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Yousefnia, Hassan; Shabani, Gholamli; Ardaneh, Khosro [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Geramifar, Patham; Beiki, Davood [Research Center for Nuclear Medicine, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Development of a gallium-68-labeled renal tracer can be a good substitute for Tc-99m, a known SPECT tracer. In this study, effort was made to develop {sup 68}Ga-ethylenecysteamine cysteine ({sup 68}Ga-ECC). Ga-ECC was prepared using generator-based {sup 68}GaCl3 and ethylenecysteamine cysteine (ECC) at optimized conditions. Stability of the complex was checked in human serum followed by partition coefficient determination of the tracer. The biodistribution of the tracer in rats was studied using tissue counting and PET/CT imaging up to 120 min. Ga-ECC was prepared at optimized conditions in 15 min at 90 °C (radiochemical purity ≈97 ± 0.88 % ITLC, >99 % HPLC, specific activity: 210 ± 5 GBq/mM). {sup 68}Ga-ECC was a water-soluble complex based on partition coefficient data (log P; −1.378) and was stable in the presence of human serum for 2 h at 37 °C. The biodistribution of the tracer demonstrated high kidney excretion of the tracer in 10–20 min. The SUV{sub max} ratios of the liver to left kidney were 0.38 and 0.39 for 30 and 90 min, respectively, indicating high kidney uptake. Initial biodistribution results showed significant kidney and urinary excretion of the tracer comparable to that of the homologous {sup 99m}Tc compound. The complex could be a possible PET kidney imaging agent with a fast imaging time.

  11. Stacking with Stochastic Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles seen by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly protected from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently shielded against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 105, the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters)....

  12. Indirect rapid manufacture of injection mould with conformal cooling channels based on SLS%基于SLS的随形冷却通道注射模间接快速制造技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程蓉; 伍晓宇; 郑建平

    2011-01-01

    介绍了在广泛考察国内外制造随形冷却通道注射模技术的基础上,摈弃普遍采用的直接制模技术,提出将选择性激光烧结(SLS)技术和铸造工艺相结合,间接快速制造随形冷却通道注射模的新的制造工艺方法.利用SLS技术对腹膜砂和环氧树脂混加的材料成型注射模的布尔结构铸造砂型,对砂型进行后处理后,浇注铝合金形成模具铸件,最后对模具铸件进行清粉和后处理,完成注射模制造.同传统的随形水路模具制造技术相比较,本方法能成型较为复杂的随形冷却通道,并且由于直接用铝合金铸造成模具,其致密度、强度和尺寸精度相比较传统的脱脂、高温烧结和低温浸渍改性的环氧树脂等工艺方法得到的模具性能大幅度提高.该注射模寿命可达50 000次/副,强度可达588MPa.从塑件质量可以得出,此工艺是一种快速制造适合小批量生产注射模的切实可行的方法.%Based on extensive survey of the manufacturing technology at home and abroad for injection mould with conformal cooling channels, a widely adopted direct molding technology was abandoned and a new indirect manufacturing process combining selective laser sintering (SLS) technology and casting technology was put forwarded for injection mould with conformal cooling channels. SLS technology was used in peritoneal and epoxy resin sand mixed material for forming Boolean stucture of sand of injection mould; after post-processing of sand casting, alimium alloy was applied and mould casting was formed, finally the powder of casting was cleaned and the last post-processing process for manufacturing an injection mould was completed. Compared with Waditional conformal cooling channels mould manufacturing technology, this method can form more complex conformal cooling channels; and because of the direct mould forming by aluminium alloy casting, the densitY, strength and dimension precision of the mould are increased

  13. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  14. Electrical properties of III-Nitride LEDs: Recombination-based injection model and theoretical limits to electrical efficiency and electroluminescent cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Aurelien; Hurni, Christophe A.; Young, Nathan G.; Craven, Michael D.

    2016-08-01

    The current-voltage characteristic and ideality factor of III-Nitride quantum well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on bulk GaN substrates are investigated. At operating temperature, these electrical properties exhibit a simple behavior. A model in which only active-region recombinations have a contribution to the LED current is found to account for experimental results. The limit of LED electrical efficiency is discussed based on the model and on thermodynamic arguments, and implications for electroluminescent cooling are examined.

  15. Stochastic Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

  16. Modifying the ECC-based grouping-proof RFID system to increase inpatient medication safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wen-Tsai; Chiou, Shin-Yan; Lu, Erl-Huei; Chang, Henry Ker-Chang

    2014-09-01

    RFID technology is increasingly used in applications that require tracking, identification, and authentication. It attaches RFID-readable tags to objects for identification and execution of specific RFID-enabled applications. Recently, research has focused on the use of grouping-proofs for preserving privacy in RFID applications, wherein a proof of two or more tags must be simultaneously scanned. In 2010, a privacy-preserving grouping proof protocol for RFID based on ECC in public-key cryptosystem was proposed but was shown to be vulnerable to tracking attacks. A proposed enhancement protocol was also shown to have defects which prevented proper execution. In 2012, Lin et al. proposed a more efficient RFID ECC-based grouping proof protocol to promote inpatient medication safety. However, we found this protocol is also vulnerable to tracking and impersonation attacks. We then propose a secure privacy-preserving RFID grouping proof protocol for inpatient medication safety and demonstrate its resistance to such attacks.

  17. Nd:YAG laser removal of pupillary membranes developed after ECCE with PC-IOL implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozobolis, V P; Pallikaris, I G; Tsambarlakis, I G; Vlachonikolis, I G

    1997-12-01

    To define the frequency of development of pupillary membranes after ECCE with PC-IOL implantation, and to remove the pupillary membranes using the Nd:YAG laser. From 400 patients who had undergone ECCE and were free from local or systemic illness affecting the blood-ocular barrier, 20 eyes developed pupillary membranes Nd:YAG laser was used to remove these pupillary membranes. The frequency of pupillary membranes was found to be 5% (9.8% in pex eyes and 3.3% to the non-pex eyes). Visual acuity improved in 17 eyes by 2 to 5 Snellen lines. No serious complications were observed, endothelium inclusive. Pseudoexfoliation might play a significant role in the development of postoperative pupillary membranes which could be successfully treated with the use of Nd:YAG laser. The safety of the procedure has to be evaluated in relation to the corneal endothelium damage in long-term.

  18. [ECCE with self-sealing cataract incision. Technique and clinical results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, D T; Wollensak, J; Drosch, S

    1995-06-01

    We present of modified technique for sutureless ECCE with a trapezoidal tunnel incision of 11 mm. The operation can be performed in a closed system because of the self-sealing wound construction. Compared to the sutured corneoscleral ECCE the new procedure has important advantages: the procedure is safe even during the critical phase following nucleus extraction. The procedure is therefore safer, faster, more economical and suture-induced astigmatism is avoided. Clinical experience after 2 years showed that postoperative complications were reduced significantly. Iris prolapse, wound dehiscens and hyphema occurred at a rate of 2%. The astigmatism (Jaffe analysis) was at a rate of 2 D, stable within 4 weeks after surgery, and did not change up to 2 years postoperatively. The astigmatism induced was then reduced about 0.5 D by a radical suture.

  19. Prosthetic Oral Rehabilitation of a Child With S-ECC: A Case Report with Histopathologic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannure, P N; Moraes, G G; Borba, McU; Abrahão, A; Andrade, Mtrc; Fidalgo, Tks

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment planning of a young child with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) as well as the prosthetic rehabilitation technique. A 3-year-old female child was referred to the pediatric dentistry clinic with the chief complaint of tooth pain, difficulty in eating and recurrent hospitalizations caused by dental infections. The mother reported intermittent episodes of fever and recurrent swelling of child's face. The girl presented angular cheilitis and was referred to a dietitian. The treatment plain consisted on a behavior changes in oral hygiene habits, exodontias of all primary teeth and oral rehabilitation with a prosthesis. The extracted teeth with periapical lesions were submitted to histopathologic analysis (hematoxilin and eosin staining) and revealed an inflammatory infiltrate. The aesthetic requirement of children with S-ECC has been a challenge to pediatric dentists. In the present case, the oral rehabilitation provided for the children better aesthetic, nutrition, phonation, and functional conditions.

  20. The final cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    Thursday 29th May, the cool-down of the final sector (sector 4-5) of LHC has begun, one week after the start of the cool-down of sector 1-2. It will take five weeks for the sectors to be cooled from room temperature to 5 K and a further two weeks to complete the cool down to 1.9 K and the commissioning of cryogenic instrumentation, as well as to fine tune the cryogenic plants and the cooling loops of cryostats.Nearly a year and half has passed since sector 7-8 was cooled for the first time in January 2007. For Laurent Tavian, AT/CRG Group Leader, reaching the final phase of the cool down is an important milestone, confirming the basic design of the cryogenic system and the ability to operate complete sectors. “All the sectors have to operate at the same time otherwise we cannot inject the beam into the machine. The stability and reliability of the cryogenic system and its utilities are now very important. That will be the new challenge for the coming months,” he explains. The status of the cool down of ...

  1. Comparison of data on Early Childhood Caries (ECC) with previous data for Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD) in an Italian kindergarten population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, R; Besostri, A; Meneghetti, B; Beghetto, M

    2004-06-01

    This was to assess the prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) among preschool children attending nursery schools and to compare the results with those of a previous survey where the investigators used the term and diagnosis for Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD) syndrome. A cross-sectional survey of 1006 children aged 1-6 years was carried out. WHO recommendations for oral health surveys were used for caries diagnosis (non cavitated lesions were excluded). In addition, a comparison was made for prevalence of ECC between immigrant and native born children. Data were compared for ECC in the present survey with BBTD data in a previous study (1994) in the same area with a sample of 401 children aged 4 years. All examinations were by one examiner (Cohen's Kappa=0.96). Of the 1006 children originally selected 52 children aged more than 71 months were excluded according to published ECC definition and diagnostic criteria. The overall sample was 29 children aged <36 months; 271 aged 3 years; 364 aged 4 years and 290 aged 5 years. ECC was diagnosed in 19.7% of the overall sample. The prevalence of ECC (and S-ECC) were respectively by age: <36 months S-ECC=17.2%; at 3 years: 13.28% (6.64%); at 4 years: 18.95% (9.34%); at 5 years: 26.9% (12.75%). In the native born children (916) the ECC was 18.34%, while in immigrants (38) it was 52.63% (p<0.001). In 1994 the prevalence of BBTD syndrome was 11.9% and in the present study 6.5%. The ECC prevalence, as, ECC and severe (S-ECC),increased with age. In immigrant children ECC was 3 times (S-ECC 6 times) more frequent than in native born. Using the BBTD diagnosis the prevalence had dropped from 11.9% in 1994 to 6.5% in the present survey.

  2. Pressure vessel fracture studies pertaining to a PWR LOCA-ECC thermal shock: experiments TSE-3 and TSE-4 and update of TSE-1 and TSE-2 analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheverton, R.D.; Bolt, S.E.

    1977-11-04

    The LOCA-ECC Thermal Shock Program was established to investigate the potential for flaw propagation in pressurized-water reactor (PWR) vessels during injection of emergency core coolant following a loss-of-coolant accident. Studies thus far have included fracture mechanics analyses of typical PWRs, the design and construction of a thermal shock test facility, determination of material properties for test specimens, and four thermal shock experiments with 0.53-m-OD (21-in.) by 0.15-m-wall (6-in.) cylindrical test specimens. In the first experiment, initiation was not expected and did not occur, although there was a small amount of subcritical crack growth. In the second experiment, initiation of a semicircular flaw took place as expected; the final length along the surface was about four times the initial length, but there was no radial growth. The third and fourth experiments were similar, and the long axial flaw initiated in good agreement with predictions.

  3. A Secure-Enhanced Data Aggregation Based on ECC in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Data aggregation is an important technique for reducing the energy consumption of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, compromised aggregators may forge false values as the aggregated results of their child nodes in order to conduct stealthy attacks or steal other nodes’ privacy. This paper proposes a Secure-Enhanced Data Aggregation based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (SEDA-ECC. The design of SEDA-ECC is based on the principles of privacy homomorphic encryption (PH and divide-and-conquer. An aggregation tree disjoint method is first adopted to divide the tree into three subtrees of similar sizes, and a PH-based aggregation is performed in each subtree to generate an aggregated subtree result. Then the forged result can be identified by the base station (BS by comparing the aggregated count value. Finally, the aggregated result can be calculated by the BS according to the remaining results that have not been forged. Extensive analysis and simulations show that SEDA-ECC can achieve the highest security level on the aggregated result with appropriate energy consumption compared with other asymmetric schemes.

  4. Large Eddy Simulation of a Film Cooling Flow Injected from an Inclined Discrete Cylindrical Hole into a Crossflow with Zero-Pressure Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Perry L.; Shyam, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is performed of a high blowing ratio (M = 1.7) film cooling flow with density ratio of unity. Mean results are compared with experimental data to show the degree of fidelity achieved in the simulation. While the trends in the LES prediction are a noticeable improvement over Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) predictions, there is still a lack a spreading on the underside of the lifted jet. This is likely due to the inability of the LES to capture the full range of influential eddies on the underside of the jet due to their smaller structure. The unsteady structures in the turbulent coolant jet are also explored and related to turbulent mixing characteristics

  5. Convento del Santo Ecce-Homo síntesis histórica y esbozo analítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Corradine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Convento del Santo ECCE-HOMO, Síntesis histórica y esbozo-analítico/ Alberto Corradine. No. 6-7, 1971-1972; p. 57-68. El autor describe y analiza el estilo arquitectónico del ECCE-HOMO señalando especialmente la influencia del estilo mudejar venido de España en el siglo XVII. 

  6. Convento del santo ecce-homo síntesis histórica y esbozo analítico

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Corradine

    2012-01-01

    Convento del Santo ECCE-HOMO, Síntesis histórica y esbozo-analítico/ Alberto Corradine. No. 6-7, 1971-1972; p. 57-68. El autor describe y analiza el estilo arquitectónico del ECCE-HOMO señalando especialmente la influencia del estilo mudejar venido de España en el siglo XVII. 

  7. PERFORMANCE, EMISSION AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A METHYL ESTER SUNFLOWER OILEUCALYPTUS OIL IN A SINGLE CYLINDER AIR COOLED AND DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMILVENDHAN.D,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass derived fuels are preferred as alternative fuels for IC engine due to its abundant availability and renewable nature. In the present work the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder constant speed , direct injection diesel engine using methyl ester of sun flower oil – eucalyptus oil blend as an alternative fuel were studied and the results are compared with thestandard diesel fuel operation. Result indicated that 50% reduction in smoke, 34% reduction in HC emission and a 37.5% reduction in CO emission for the MeS50Eu50 blend with 2.8 % increase in NOx emission at full load. Brake thermal efficiency was increased 2.7 % for eS50Eu50 blend.

  8. Predicting Clearance Mechanism in Drug Discovery: Extended Clearance Classification System (ECCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Manthena V; Steyn, Stefanus J; Allerton, Charlotte; El-Kattan, Ayman F

    2015-12-01

    Early prediction of clearance mechanisms allows for the rapid progression of drug discovery and development programs, and facilitates risk assessment of the pharmacokinetic variability associated with drug interactions and pharmacogenomics. Here we propose a scientific framework--Extended Clearance Classification System (ECCS)--which can be used to predict the predominant clearance mechanism (rate-determining process) based on physicochemical properties and passive membrane permeability. Compounds are classified as: Class 1A--metabolism as primary systemic clearance mechanism (high permeability acids/zwitterions with molecular weight (MW) ≤400 Da), Class 1B--transporter-mediated hepatic uptake as primary systemic clearance mechanism (high permeability acids/zwitterions with MW >400 Da), Class 2--metabolism as primary clearance mechanism (high permeability bases/neutrals), Class 3A--renal clearance (low permeability acids/zwitterions with MW ≤400 Da), Class 3B--transporter mediated hepatic uptake or renal clearance (low permeability acids/zwitterions with MW >400 Da), and Class 4--renal clearance (low permeability bases/neutrals). The performance of the ECCS framework was validated using 307 compounds with single clearance mechanism contributing to ≥70% of systemic clearance. The apparent permeability across clonal cell line of Madin - Darby canine kidney cells, selected for low endogenous efflux transporter expression, with a cut-off of 5 × 10(-6) cm/s was used for permeability classification, and the ionization (at pH7) was assigned based on calculated pKa. The proposed scheme correctly predicted the rate-determining clearance mechanism to be either metabolism, hepatic uptake or renal for ~92% of total compounds. We discuss the general characteristics of each ECCS class, as well as compare and contrast the framework with the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS

  9. The course of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy following ECCE with posterior chamber IOL implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raniel, Y; Teichner, Y; Friedman, Z

    1994-01-01

    A prospective study on the effect of ECCE + IOL implantation on the course of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in 59 eyes showed that in one to three years following surgery, progression of DR, including the development of newly formed one, occurred in 28.8% of the eyes. This was more marked in patient with IDDM (IDDM-46%, NIDDM-24%) as well as in eyes with pre-operative BDR (pre-operative BDR-62.5%, no pre-operative BDR-16.3%). Final visual acuity was better in eyes without pre-operative DR as well as in eyes that did not show progression of the retinopathy.

  10. Microorganisms found in secondary cataract material of ECCE patients, a study with SEM and TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalicharan, D; Jongebloed, W L; Los, L I; Worst, J G

    1993-01-01

    Globular secondary cataract material, removed from 24 patients with ECCE after ophthalmic cleaning of the anterior capsule, were investigated with SEM and TEM. Besides spherical, somewhat oval shaped bodies of various shape and size comparable with those found in cataractous lenses, (an)aerobic bacteria and yeast cells were found in approximately 70% of the cases, all of them in eyes without intra-ocular inflammation. Probably these bacteria have been transferred from the conjunctiva during IOL.-implantation and were encapsulated without starting an inflammation.

  11. Post-manufacturing, 17-times acceptable raw bit error rate enhancement, dynamic codeword transition ECC scheme for highly reliable solid-state drives, SSDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanakamaru, Shuhei; Fukuda, Mayumi; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Esumi, Atsushi; Ito, Mitsuyoshi; Li, Kai; Takeuchi, Ken

    2011-04-01

    A dynamic codeword transition ECC scheme is proposed for highly reliable solid-state drives, SSDs. By monitoring the error number or the write/erase cycles, the ECC codeword dynamically increases from 512 Byte (+parity) to 1 KByte, 2 KByte, 4 KByte…32 KByte. The proposed ECC with a larger codeword decreases the failure rate after ECC. As a result, the acceptable raw bit error rate, BER, before ECC is enhanced. Assuming a NAND Flash memory which requires 8-bit correction in 512 Byte codeword ECC, a 17-times higher acceptable raw BER than the conventional fixed 512 Byte codeword ECC is realized for the mobile phone application without an interleaving. For the MP3 player, digital-still camera and high-speed memory card applications with a dual channel interleaving, 15-times higher acceptable raw BER is achieved. Finally, for the SSD application with 8 channel interleaving, 13-times higher acceptable raw BER is realized. Because the ratio of the user data to the parity bits is the same in each ECC codeword, no additional memory area is required. Note that the reliability of SSD is improved after the manufacturing without cost penalty. Compared with the conventional ECC with the fixed large 32 KByte codeword, the proposed scheme achieves a lower power consumption by introducing the "best-effort" type operation. In the proposed scheme, during the most of the lifetime of SSD, a weak ECC with a shorter codeword such as 512 Byte (+parity), 1 KByte and 2 KByte is used and 98% lower power consumption is realized. At the life-end of SSD, a strong ECC with a 32 KByte codeword is used and the highly reliable operation is achieved. The random read performance is also discussed. The random read performance is estimated by the latency. The latency is below 1.5 ms for ECC codeword up to 32 KByte. This latency is below the average latency of 15,000 rpm HDD, 2 ms.

  12. Corticosteroid injections, eccentric decline squat training and heavy slow resistance training in patellar tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M; Kovanen, V; Aagaard, P

    2009-01-01

    A randomized-controlled single-blind trial was conducted to investigate the clinical, structural and functional effects of peritendinous corticosteroid injections (CORT), eccentric decline squat training (ECC) and heavy slow resistance training (HSR) in patellar tendinopathy. Thirty-nine male...

  13. [3 1/2 years experiences with ECCE with tunnel incision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häberle, H; Anders, N; Antoni, H J; Pham, D T; Wollensak, J

    1997-01-01

    Since January 1992 planned extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) is performed routinely with the no-stitch technique at our clinic. To minimize surgically induced astigmatism further, modified wound constructions for planned ECCE with on 1.1-mm tunnel width were evaluated. The follow-up time was up to 3 years postoperatively. For 250 eyes wound closure was performed prospectively either sutureless (n = 70), with a single perpendicular suture (n = 100) or cross sutures (n = 40) at the 12 o'clock position or sutureless in the temporal position (n = 40). The complication rate was 4% (filtering bleb, iris prolapse or transient hypotonia). There were no wound ruptures, but once endophthalmitis was observed. Late mean astigmatism after up to 3 years follow-up for vertical incision was 2.05 +/- 1.16 D (1.01 +/- 0.96 D preoperatively) for sutureless wound closure, 1.63 +/- 1.08 D (0.86 +/- 0.95 D) for perpendicular and 1.76 +/- 0.88 D (0.73 +/- 0.55 D) for cross-sutures. A temporal incision resulted in 0.78 +/- 0.52 D (1.0 +/- 0.69 D) of astigmatism and was only performed on eyes with against the rule astigmatism preoperatively. Surgically induced astigmatism was stabilized early. For with the rule astigmatism preoperatively, a 12 o'clock incision with a perpendicular single suture is recommended and for against the rule astigmatism, a temporal incision.

  14. [Comparison of corneal endothelial cells after ECCE and phacoemulsification of the lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnavec, B; Cuvala, J; Cernák, A; Vodrázková, E

    1997-08-01

    The authors evaluate the finding on the corneal endothelium before and after operation of cataract. For examination of the endothelium they used a specular microscope SP 1.000 of Topcon Co. The group comprised 64 eyes of 64 patients. The patients were divided at random into two groups. The first group comprised 26 patients, where ECCE was performed. The second group comprised 38 patients and the opaque lens was removed by phacoemulsification. The mean age in the first group was 69.3 years and in the second group 70.7 years. The same viscoelastic material (methylcellulose) was used and the same synthetic lens from PMMA material was implanted into the capsule. The endothelium was examined one day after operation and on the 7th to 10th day after operation. The following parameters were evaluated: density of the endothelial cells in the centre, mean cell size, polymegethism, coefficient of variation, pleomorphism. In the group of patients who had ECCE the loss of endothelial cells was 18.53%, in the group with phacoemulsification of the nucleus the loss was 16.43%. This difference is not statistically significant. After operation in both groups enlargement of the minimal, maximal as well as mean cell size was observed, the coefficient of variation increased while the grade of cell hexagonality decreased. However these differences in endothelial cells were not statistically significant. After operation of cataract not only endothelial cells are lost but also significant changes in cell morphology occur.

  15. A Provably-Secure ECC-Based Authentication Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Nam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000. Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC, and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure schemes.

  16. University and place branding: The case of universities located in ECC (European Capital of Culture cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Rekettye

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the globalising landscape of higher education more and more universities are going international. These universities are facing growing competition, especially in enrolling international students. International competition forces them to use marketing and especially branding activity. University branding requires that the higher education institutions clearly define their differentiating features. One of the most important differentiating features is the place where the institution is located. University and place branding should work together to help the potential students in their decisions to choose the place of their study. The ECC (European Capital of Culture program which started in 1985 has helped many cities to identify their values and to develop their place branding activities. The study examines how the European Capital of Culture designation of the city helped the marketing activities of the universities located in these cities. The study attempts to explore to what extent universities located in ECCs used this special feature of their cities in their international marketing communication. The paper also attempts to analyse the effects the European Capital of Culture title could have on the international student enrolment activity of the concerned universities.

  17. Danish Cool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Anne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Danish Cool. Keld Helmer-Petersen, Photography and the Photobook Handout exhibition text in English and Chinese by Anne Elisabeth Toft, Curator The exhibition Danish Cool. Keld Helmer-Petersen, Photography and the Photobook presents the ground-breaking work of late Danish photographer Keld Helmer...

  18. Mechanical interaction of Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) rebar in tensile loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus Helgi; Fischer, Gregor; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a preliminary study of the composite interaction of Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC), reinforced with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) rebar. The main topic of this paper will focus on the interaction of the two materials (ECC and GFRP) during axial loading......, particularly in post cracking phase of the concrete matrix. The experimental program carried out in this study examined composite behavior under monotonic and cyclic loading of the specimens in the elastic and inelastic deformation phases. The stiffness development of the composite during loading was evaluated...

  19. Simulation of strain-hardening in ECC uniaxial test specimen by use of a damage mechanics formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the considerations for the establishment of a damage model for ECC. Three different length scales are used in the approach for deriving the damage model. On each length scale important phenomena are investigated by use of numerical and analytical calculations. On the micro...... scale it is shown that the cohesive law for a unidirectional fiber reinforced cementitious composite can be found through superposition of the cohesive law for mortar and the fiber bridging curve. On the meso scale I it is shown that the maximum crack opening observed during crack propagation in ECC...

  20. Enhanced Injection Molding Simulation of Advanced Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Zink

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most time-consuming phase of the injection molding cycle is cooling. Cooling efficiency can be enhanced with the application of conformal cooling systems or high thermal conductivity copper molds. The conformal cooling channels are placed along the geometry of the injection-molded product, and thus they can extract more heat and heat removal is more uniform than in the case of conventional cooling systems. In the case of copper mold inserts, cooling channels are made by drilling and heat removal is facilitated by the high thermal conductivity coefficient of copper, which is several times that of steel. Designing optimal cooling systems is a complex process; a proper design requires injection molding simulations, but the accuracy of calculations depends on how precise the input parameters and boundary conditions are. In this study, three cooling circuit designs and three mold materials (Ampcoloy 940, 1.2311 (P20 steel, and MS1 steel were used and compared using numerical methods. The effect of different mold designs and materials on cooling efficiency were examined using calculated and measured results. The simulation model was adjusted to the measurement results by considering the joint gap between the mold inserts.

  1. Adapted ECC ozonesonde for long-duration flights aboard boundary-layer pressurised balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheusi, François; Durand, Pierre; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Attié, Jean-Luc; Commun, Philippe; Barret, Brice; Basdevant, Claude; Clenet, Antoine; Derrien, Solène; Doerenbecher, Alexis; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Fontaine, Alain; Hache, Emeric; Jambert, Corinne; Jaumouillé, Elodie; Meyerfeld, Yves; Roblou, Laurent; Tocquer, Flore

    2016-12-01

    Since the 1970s, the French space agency CNES has developed boundary-layer pressurised balloons (BLPBs) with the capability to transport lightweight scientific payloads at isopycnic level and offer a quasi-Lagrangian sampling of the lower atmosphere over very long distances and durations (up to several weeks).Electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are widely used under small sounding balloons. However, their autonomy is limited to a few hours owing to power consumption and electrolyte evaporation. An adaptation of the ECC sonde has been developed specifically for long-duration BLPB flights. Compared to conventional ECC sondes, the main feature is the possibility of programming periodic measurement sequences (with possible remote control during the flight). To increase the ozonesonde autonomy, the strategy has been adopted of short measurement sequences (2-3 min) regularly spaced in time (e.g. every 15 min). The rest of the time, the sonde pump is turned off. Results of preliminary ground-based tests are first presented. In particular, the sonde was able to provide correct ozone concentrations against a reference UV-absorption ozone analyser every 15 min for 4 days. Then we illustrate results from 16 BLBP flights launched over the western Mediterranean during three summer field campaigns of the ChArMEx project (http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr): TRAQA in 2012, and ADRIMED and SAFMED in 2013. BLPB drifting altitudes were in the range 0.25-3.2 km. The longest flight lasted more than 32 h and covered more than 1000 km. Satisfactory data were obtained when compared to independent ozone measurements close in space and time. The quasi-Lagrangian measurements allowed a first look at ozone diurnal evolution in the marine boundary layer as well as in the lower free troposphere. During some flight segments, there was indication of photochemical ozone production in the marine boundary layer or even in the free troposphere, at rates ranging from 1 to 2 ppbv h -1, which

  2. Modified ECC ozone sonde for long-duration flights aboard isopicnic drifting balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheusi, Francois; Durand, Pierre; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Attié, Jean-Luc; Commun, Philippe; Barret, Brice; Basdevant, Claude; Clénet, Antoine; Fontaine, Alain; Jambert, Corinne; Meyerfeld, Yves; Roblou, Laurent; Tocquer, Flore

    2015-04-01

    Since few years, the French space agency CNES has developed boundary-layer pressurized balloons (BLPB) with the capability to transport scientific payloads at isopicnic level over very long distances and durations (up to several weeks in absence of navigation limits). However, the autonomy of conventional electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozone sondes, that are widely used for tropospheric and stratospheric soundings, is limited to few hours due to power consumption and electrolyte evaporation (owing to air bubbling in the cathode solution). In collaboration with the French research community, CNES has developed a new ozone payload suited for long duration flights aboard BLPB. The mechanical elements (Teflon pump and motor) and the electrochemical cell of conventional ECC sondes have been kept but the electronic implementation is entirely new. The main feature is the possibility of programming periodic measurement sequences -- with possible remote control during the flight. To increase the ozone sonde autonomy, a strategy has been adopted of short measurement sequences (typically 2-3 min) regularly spaced in time (e.g. every 15 min, which is usually sufficient for air quality studies). The rest of the time, the sonde is at rest (pump motor off). The response time of an ECC sonde to an ozone concentration step is below one minute. Consequently, the measurement sequence is typically composed of a one-minute spin-up period after the pump has been turned on, followed by a one- to two-minute acquisition period. All time intervals can be adjusted before and during the flight. Results of a preliminary ground-based test in spring 2012 are first presented. The sonde provided correct ozone concentrations against a reference UV analyzer every 15 minutes during 4 days. Then we illustrate results from 16 BLBP flights launched in the low troposphere over the Mediterranean during summer field campaings in 2012 and 2013 (TRAQA and ChArMEx programmes). BLPB drifting

  3. Development of Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling System Using Electrochemical Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Qu, Ming [Purdue University; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Bahar, Bamdad [Xergy Inc.; Parmelee, William [Xergy Inc.; Fackler, Scott [Xergy Inc.; Sherrer, Richard [Xergy Inc.; Zerby, Jacob [Xergy Inc.; Chouhan, Ashish [University of Delaware; Prasad, Ajay [University of Delaware

    2017-01-01

    Separate sensible and latent cooling systems offer superior energy efficiency performance compared to conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems. In this paper we describe an innovative non-vapor compression system that uses electrochemical compressor (ECC) to pump hydrogen between 2-metal hydride reservoirs to provide the sensible cooling effect. The heat rejected during this process is used to regenerate the ionic liquid (IL) used for desiccant dehumidification. The overall system design is illustrated. The Xergy version 4C electrochemical compressor, while not designed as a high pressure system, develops in excess of 2 MPa (300 psia) and pressure ratios > 30. The projected base efficiency improvement of the electrochemical compressor is expected to be ~ 20% with higher efficiency when in low capacity mode due to being throttleable to lower capacity with improved efficiency. The IL was tailored to maximize the absorption/desorption rate of water vapor at moderate regeneration temperature. This IL, namely, [EMIm].OAc, is a hydrophilic IL with a working concentration range of 28.98% when operating between 25 75 C. The ECC metal hydride system is expected to show superior performance to typical vapor compression systems. As such, the combined efficiency gains from the use of ECC and separate and sensible cooling would offer significant potential savings to existing vapor compression cooling technology. A high efficiency Window Air Conditioner system is described based on this novel configuration. The system s schematic is provided. Models compared well with actual operating data obtained by running the prototype system. Finally, a model of an LiCl desiccant system in conjunction with the ECC-based metal hydride heat exchangers is provided.

  4. A Secure ECC-based RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol to Enhance Patient Medication Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunhua; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fagen

    2016-01-01

    Patient medication safety is an important issue in patient medication systems. In order to prevent medication errors, integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology into automated patient medication systems is required in hospitals. Based on RFID technology, such systems can provide medical evidence for patients' prescriptions and medicine doses, etc. Due to the mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, RFID authentication scheme is the best choice for automated patient medication systems. In this paper, we present a RFID mutual authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) to enhance patient medication safety. Our scheme can achieve security requirements and overcome various attacks existing in other schemes. In addition, our scheme has better performance in terms of computational cost and communication overhead. Therefore, the proposed scheme is well suitable for patient medication systems.

  5. BIOGRAPHY OR A DECLARATION OF PHILOSOPHICAL AMBITION: HOW TO READ ECCE HOMO BY NIETZSCHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Schneider Hardt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the book Ecce homo, by Nietzsche, defending that the text is an interpretation of the philosopher himself on her own thought, not to give the book a sacred tone, nor to stress his biography, but affirming a dissonant thought that indicates his philosophical ambition. With no constraints, Nietzsche presents his conflicts, passions, deceptions, announcing a tragic dimension of life that is not guided by pessimism, but by happiness of living intensely, understanding suffering as one of the facets of life. His philosophy derives from a life demand, transfigured by an experience that promotes self cultivation and the possibility of “becoming what one really is” through the “applying” of one’s own genealogic method.

  6. General description of KAERI LBLOCA realistic evaluation model (REM) for ECCS evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Yong; Lee, Young Jin; Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Won Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    A realistic evaluation model (REM) for LBLOCA licensing calculation is developed for application to pressurezed ligh water reactors. The developmental aim of the KAERI-REM is to provide a systematic methodology that is simple in structure and to used and built upon sound logical reasoning, for improving the code capability to realistically describe the LBLOCA phenomena and for evaluating the associated uncertainties. The method strives to be faithful to the intention of being best-estimate, that is, the method aims to evaluate the best-estimate values and the associated uncertainties while complying to the requirements in the ECCS regulations. As a demonstration, KAERI-REM was applied to quantify the safety margin for LBLOCA for Kori 3 and 4 and appended to this report. (Author) 11 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Cost-minimization analysis of capsulotomy after ECCE and IOL implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsumitkul, S; La Nauze, J

    1996-06-01

    An economic evaluation of capsulotomy for posterior capsular opacification after extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation was carried out using a cost minimization model. This model demonstrates the use of cost comparison to aid the decision making process. A flow-chart of capsulotomy mode, with associated complications, is illustrated. Costs of complications are calculated using assigned probability for each tree. Overall comparative costs are displayed graphically Further, the model is presented using a computer-assisted spreadsheet with an added calculation program. Variables can therefore be adjusted with instantaneous outcomes visually displayed. We present several examples with different sets of variables and find that, in most instances, YAG capsulotomy is a more economical option than surgical capsulotomy. This finding is a relevant finding in planning for eye health programs, particularly in developing countries. We suggest that the model be modified using local parameters in order to provide optimal benefits in similar health programs.

  8. Implementation and verification of different ECC mitigation designs for BRAMs in flash-based FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhenlei; Zhang, Zhangang; Liu, Jie; Su, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Embedded RAM blocks (BRAMs) in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are susceptible to single event effects (SEEs) induced by environmental factors such as cosmic rays, heavy ions, alpha particles and so on. As technology scales, the issue will be more serious. In order to tackle this issue, two different error correcting codes (ECCs), the shortened Hamming codes and shortened BCH codes, are investigated in this paper. The concrete design methods of the codes are presented. Also, the codes are both implemented in flash-based FPGAs. Finally, the synthesis report and simulation results are presented in the paper. Moreover, the heavy-ion experiments are performed, the experimental results indicate that the error cross-section using the shortened Hamming codes can be reduced by two orders of magnitude compared with the device without mitigation, and no errors are discovered in the experiments for the device using the shortened BCH codes.

  9. Interference of sulphur dioxide to balloon-borne ECC ozone sensors over the Valley of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal decrease in the ozonesonde sensor signal occurred during air-pollution study campaigns in November 2011 and March 2012 in Mexico City. Sharp drops around 5 km a.s.l. and above were observed in November 2011, and a broad deficit in the convective boundary layer in March 2012. Various circumstantial evidence indicates that the decrease was due to interference of SO2 gas to Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC ozone sensors. The sharp drops in November 2011 are considered to be caused by the SO2 plume from the Popocatépetl volcano to the south-east of Mexico City. Response experiments of the ECC sensor to representative atmospheric trace gases showed that only SO2 could generate the observed abrupt drops. The vertical structure of the plume reproduced by a Lagrangian particle diffusion simulation also supported this assumption. The near-ground deficit in March 2012 is considered to be generated by the SO2 plume from the Tula industrial complex to the north-west of Mexico City. Sporadic large SO2 emission is known to occur from this region, and before and at the ozonesonde launching time, large intermittent peaks of SO2 concentration were recorded at the ground-level monitoring stations. The difference between the O3 concentration obtained by ozonesonde and that by UV-based O3 monitor was consistent with the SO2 concentration measured by a UV-based monitor on the ground. The plume vertical profiles estimated by the Lagrangian particle diffusion simulation agreed fairly well with the observed profile. Statistical analysis of the wind field in Mexico City revealed that the Popocatépetl effect is most likely to occur from June to October, and the Tula effect all the year.

  10. Interference of sulphur dioxide to balloon-borne ECC ozone sensors over the Valley of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, I.; Basaldud, R.; Horikoshi, N.; Okazaki, Y.; Benítez Garcia, S. E.; Ortínez, A.; Ramos Benítez, V. R.; Cárdenas, B.; Wakamatsu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal decrease in the ozonesonde sensor signal occurred during air-pollution study campaigns in November 2011 and March 2012 in Mexico City. Sharp drops around 5 km a.s.l. and above were observed in November 2011, and a broad deficit in the convective boundary layer in March 2012. Various circumstantial evidence indicates that the decrease was due to interference of SO2 gas to Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozone sensors. The sharp drops in November 2011 are considered to be caused by the SO2 plume from the Popocatépetl volcano to the south-east of Mexico City. Response experiments of the ECC sensor to representative atmospheric trace gases showed that only SO2 could generate the observed abrupt drops. The vertical structure of the plume reproduced by a Lagrangian particle diffusion simulation also supported this assumption. The near-ground deficit in March 2012 is considered to be generated by the SO2 plume from the Tula industrial complex to the north-west of Mexico City. Sporadic large SO2 emission is known to occur from this region, and before and at the ozonesonde launching time, large intermittent peaks of SO2 concentration were recorded at the ground-level monitoring stations. The difference between the O3 concentration obtained by ozonesonde and that by UV-based O3 monitor was consistent with the SO2 concentration measured by a UV-based monitor on the ground. The plume vertical profiles estimated by the Lagrangian particle diffusion simulation agreed fairly well with the observed profile. Statistical analysis of the wind field in Mexico City revealed that the Popocatépetl effect is most likely to occur from June to October, and the Tula effect all the year.

  11. Computer Simulation of the E.C.C.S. Buckling Curve using a Monte-Carlo Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strating, J.; Vos, H.

    1973-01-01

    The application of a Monte-Carlo simulation procedure to obtain the distribution function of the maximum load of a hinged column with imperfections is discussed. Buckling tests carried out by the E.C.C.S. on IPE 160 sections have been simulated. Information concerning the column variables is obtaine

  12. Incorporating Indigenous Knowledge and Practice into ECCE: A Comparison of Programs in The Gambia, Senegal and Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudee, Alicia Ranck

    2009-01-01

    Early Childhood Development (ECD) has emerged as a theme in international and African dialogue on education in recent years. UNESCO's Division of Basic Education Early Childhood promotes an integrated approach to Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) policy development and review. The study examines how this is implemented in three West…

  13. Parametric study of the potential for BWR ECCS strainer blockage due to LOCA generated debris. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigler, G.; Brideau, J.; Rao, D.V.; Shaffer, C.; Souto, F.; Thomas, W. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report documents a plant-specific study for a BWR/4 with a Mark I containment that evaluated the potential for LOCA generated debris and the probability of losing long term recirculation capability due ECCS pump suction strainer blockage. The major elements of this study were: (1) acquisition of detailed piping layouts and installed insulation details for a reference BWR; (2) analysis of plant specific piping weld failure probabilities to estimate the LOCA frequency; (3) development of an insulation and other debris generation and drywell transport models for the reference BWR; (4) modeling of debris transport in the suppression pool; (5) development of strainer blockage head loss models for estimating loss of NPSH margin; (6) estimation of core damage frequency attributable to loss of ECCS recirculation capability following a LOCA. Elements 2 through 5 were combined into a computer code, BLOCKAGE 2.3. A point estimate of overall DEGB pipe break frequency (per Rx-year) of 1.59E-04 was calculated for the reference plant, with a corresponding overall ECCS loss of NPSH frequency (per Rx-year) of 1.58E-04. The calculated point estimate of core damage frequency (per Rx-year) due to blockage related accident sequences for the reference BWR ranged from 4.2E-06 to 2.5E-05. The results of this study show that unacceptable strainer blockage and loss of NPSH margin can occur within the first few minutes after ECCS pumps achieve maximum flows when the ECCS strainers are exposed to LOCA generated fibrous debris in the presence of particulates (sludge, paint chips, concrete dust). Generic or unconditional extrapolation of these reference plant calculated results should not be undertaken.

  14. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    2001-05-13

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling.

  15. Ventilative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Kolokotroni, Maria

    This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state-of-the-art of ventil......This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state...

  16. Cool snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Brock, Steen; Brunsø, Karen

    2016-01-01

    such a product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...

  17. Stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisognano, J.; Leemann, C.

    1982-03-01

    Stochastic cooling is the damping of betatron oscillations and momentum spread of a particle beam by a feedback system. In its simplest form, a pickup electrode detects the transverse positions or momenta of particles in a storage ring, and the signal produced is amplified and applied downstream to a kicker. The time delay of the cable and electronics is designed to match the transit time of particles along the arc of the storage ring between the pickup and kicker so that an individual particle receives the amplified version of the signal it produced at the pick-up. If there were only a single particle in the ring, it is obvious that betatron oscillations and momentum offset could be damped. However, in addition to its own signal, a particle receives signals from other beam particles. In the limit of an infinite number of particles, no damping could be achieved; we have Liouville's theorem with constant density of the phase space fluid. For a finite, albeit large number of particles, there remains a residue of the single particle damping which is of practical use in accumulating low phase space density beams of particles such as antiprotons. It was the realization of this fact that led to the invention of stochastic cooling by S. van der Meer in 1968. Since its conception, stochastic cooling has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. The earliest experiments were performed at the ISR in 1974, with the subsequent ICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led to the design and construction of the Antiproton Accumulator at CERN and the beginnings of p anti p colliding beam physics at the SPS. Experiments in stochastic cooling have been performed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBL, and a design is currently under development for a anti p accumulator for the Tevatron.

  18. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medroxyprogesterone intramuscular (into a muscle) injection and medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous (under the skin) injection are used to prevent pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which ...

  19. Pentamidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentamidine injection is used to treat pneumonia caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis carinii. It is in ... Pentamidine injection comes as powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) ...

  20. 斜接管射流流动特性数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Flow Characteristics of Lean Jet to Cross-Flow in Safety Injection of Reactor Cooling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海军; 王为术; 贺慧宁; 罗毓珊

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, a numerical simulation was performed to study the flow characteristics of lean jet to cross-flow in a main tube in the safety injection of reactor cooling system. The influence scope and mixing characteristics of the confined lean jet in cross-flow were studied. It can be concluded that three basic flow regimes are marked, namely the attached lean jet, lift-off lean jet and impinging lean jet. The velocity ratio VR is the key factor in the flow state. The depth and region of jet to main flow are enhanced with the increase of the velocity ratio. The jet flow penetrates through the main flow with the increase of the velocity ratio. At higher velocity ratio, the jet flow strikes the main flow bottom and circumfluence happens in upriver of main flow. The vortex flow characteristics dominate the flow near region of jet to cross-flow and the mixture of jet to cross-flow. At different velocity ratio VR, the vortex grows from the same displacement, but the vortex type and the vortex is different. At higher velocity ratio, the vortex develops fleetly, wears off sharp and dies out sharp. The study is very important to the heat transfer experiments of cross-flow jet and thermal stress analysis in the designs of nuclear engineering.%采用数值模拟方法对受限斜射流的流动特性、射流发展影响区域、射流发展关键因素及射流涡特性进行研究.研究表明:受限斜射流存在附壁斜射流、离升斜射流和冲击斜射流3种基本流型.流速比(V)是斜接管射流流动特性的关键特征参数;射流影响区域随V的增大而越大;在高V下,射流强烈冲击主管底面,并在上游形成明显回流区.射流涡特性决定斜射流近区域流场特性和射流的混合;V越大,射流涡强度越大,射流涡发展、破碎和耗散越快.

  1. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  2. A very cool cooling system

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 Gigatracker is a jewel of technology: its sensor, which delivers the time of the crossing particles with a precision of less than 200 picoseconds (better than similar LHC detectors), has a cooling system that might become the precursor to a completely new detector technique.   The 115 metre long vacuum tank of the NA62 experiment. The NA62 Gigatracker (GTK) is composed of a set of three innovative silicon pixel detectors, whose job is to measure the arrival time and the position of the incoming beam particles. Installed in the heart of the NA62 detector, the silicon sensors are cooled down (to about -20 degrees Celsius) by a microfluidic silicon device. “The cooling system is needed to remove the heat produced by the readout chips the silicon sensor is bonded to,” explains Alessandro Mapelli, microsystems engineer working in the Physics department. “For the NA62 Gigatracker we have designed a cooling plate on top of which both the silicon sensor and the...

  3. Secure Cluster Based Routing Using SAT/ILP Techniques and ECC EL-Gamal Threshold Cryptography in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. P. Kanagaraju. Me, (Ph. D

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Elliptic curve cryptography ( ECC a promising and important because it requires less computing power, bandwidth, and also the memory when comparing to other cryptosystems The clustering algorithm using the Integer Linear Programming (ILP and Boolean Satisfiability (SAT solvers. These improvements will secure the application of SAT and ILP techniques in modeling composite engineering problem that is the Clustering Problem in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs. The Clustering Problem in MANETs consists of selecting the most appropriate nodes of a given MANET topology as clusterheads, and ensuring that regular nodes are related to clusterheads such that the lifetime of the network is maximized. In which, discussing SAT/ILP techniques for clustering techniques and ECC El Gamal Threshold Cryptography for the security. Through our implementation, explored the possibility of using ECCEG-TC in MANETs.

  4. Ageing and COPD affect different domains of nutritional status: the ECCE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, S; Spatafora, M; Paglino, G; Pedone, C; Corsonello, A; Scichilone, N; Antonelli-Incalzi, R; Bellia, V

    2011-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ageing may contribute to malnutrition. We aimed to explore whether COPD and ageing determine malnutrition in different manners. 460 stable COPD outpatients (376 males and 84 females) from the Extrapulmonary Consequences of COPD in the Elderly (ECCE) study database were investigated (age 75.0±5.9 yrs; forced expiratory volume in 1 s 54.7±18.3% predicted). Nutritional status was evaluated using the Mini Nutritional Assessment® (MNA) questionnaire. From the MNA, three scores exploring the domains of the nutritional status were calculated: body composition, energy intake and body functionality scores. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages were negatively correlated with five MNA items exploring mobility, patient's perception of own nutrition and health status, and arm and calf circumferences (lowest Spearman's rho (rs)=-0.011; highest p=0.039). GOLD stages were independently correlated with body composition and body functionality scores (model r2=0.073). Age was negatively correlated with four MNA items exploring loss of appetite, fluid intake, mobility and autonomy in daily life (lowest rs=-0.013; highest p=0.030). Age was independently correlated with body functionality score (model r2=0.037). Severe COPD and ageing are independent and probably concurrent conditions leading to malnutrition. The MNA questionnaire allows a valuable insight into the complexity of components of nutritional status and may provide useful clues for treatment strategies.

  5. Estimated net value and uncertainty for automating ECCS switchover at PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, B.; Brideau, J.; Comes, L.; Darby, J.; Guttmann, H.; Sciacca, F.; Souto, F.; Thomas, W.; Zigler, G. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Question for resolution of Generic Safety Issue No. 24 is whether or not PWRs that currently rely on a manual system for ECCS switchover to recirculation should be required to install an automatic system. Risk estimates are obtained by reevaluating the contributions to core damage frequencies (CDFs) associated with failures of manual and semiautomatic switchover at a representative PWR. This study considers each separate instruction of the corresponding emergency operating procedures (EOPs), the mechanism for each control, and the relation of each control to its neighbors. Important contributions to CDF include human errors that result in completely coupled failure of both trains and failure to enter the required EOP. It is found that changeover to a semiautomatic system is not justified on the basis of cost-benefit analysis: going from a manual to a semiautomatic system reduces the CDF by 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per reactor-year, but the probability that the net cost of the modification being less than $1, 000 per person-rem is about 20% without license renewal. Scoping analyses, using optimist assumptions, were performed for a changeover to a semiautomatic system with automatic actuation and to a fully automatic system; in these cases the probability of a net cost being less than $1,000/person-rem is about 50% without license renewal and over 95% with license renewal.

  6. Peltier cooling of fermionic quantum gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Ch; Georges, A; Kollath, C

    2014-11-14

    We propose a cooling scheme for fermionic quantum gases, based on the principles of the Peltier thermoelectric effect and energy filtering. The system to be cooled is connected to another harmonically trapped gas acting as a reservoir. The cooling is achieved by two simultaneous processes: (i) the system is evaporatively cooled, and (ii) cold fermions from deep below the Fermi surface of the reservoir are injected below the Fermi level of the system, in order to fill the "holes" in the energy distribution. This is achieved by a suitable energy dependence of the transmission coefficient connecting the system to the reservoir. The two processes can be viewed as simultaneous evaporative cooling of particles and holes. We show that both a significantly lower entropy per particle and faster cooling rate can be achieved in this way than by using only evaporative cooling.

  7. Peltier Cooling of Fermionic Quantum Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Ch.; Georges, A.; Kollath, C.

    2014-11-01

    We propose a cooling scheme for fermionic quantum gases, based on the principles of the Peltier thermoelectric effect and energy filtering. The system to be cooled is connected to another harmonically trapped gas acting as a reservoir. The cooling is achieved by two simultaneous processes: (i) the system is evaporatively cooled, and (ii) cold fermions from deep below the Fermi surface of the reservoir are injected below the Fermi level of the system, in order to fill the "holes" in the energy distribution. This is achieved by a suitable energy dependence of the transmission coefficient connecting the system to the reservoir. The two processes can be viewed as simultaneous evaporative cooling of particles and holes. We show that both a significantly lower entropy per particle and faster cooling rate can be achieved in this way than by using only evaporative cooling.

  8. Cooling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, Todd R; Vyas, Brijesh; Kota, Krishna; Simon, Elina

    2017-01-31

    An apparatus and a method are provided. Use is made of a wick structure configured to receive a liquid and generate vapor in when such wick structure is heated by heat transferred from heat sources to be cooled off. A vapor channel is provided configured to receive the vapor generated and direct said vapor away from the wick structure. In some embodiments, heat conductors are used to transfer the heat from the heat sources to the liquid in the wick structure.

  9. Comparison of results and complications following combined ECCE-trabeculectomy versus small-incision-trabeculectomy and posterior chamber lens implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedrich, A; Menapace, R; Hirsch, U; Papapanos, P; Derbolav, A; Ries, E

    To compare the efficacy and complication rate of two standard cataract extraction techniques with different incision lengths when combined with trabeculectomy. 54 eyes after combined ECCE, posterior chamber lens implantation and trabeculectomy (ECCE-group) are compared with 49 eyes following phacoemulsification, trabeculectomy and implantation of a folded flexible posterior chamber lens (small-incision group). Minimum follow-up was 24 months. Glaucoma control was achieved in all eyes of both groups. There was a tendency towards a higher number of patients without therapy in the small-incision group (82% versus 65%, p = 0.07). Final mean IOP (14.2 +/- 3.0 mmHg versus 15.5 +/- 2.7 mmHg, p = 0.02) and mean therapy index (0.2 +/- 0.5 versus 0.4 +/- 0.6, p = 0.03) were significantly lower in the small-incision group. Postoperative complications such as severe fibrin effusion (41% versus 18%, p = 0.018), early postoperative IOP rises > 25 mmHg (18% versus 2%, p = 0.009), filtering bleb scarring (63% versus 8%, p ECCE-group. With the decrease of the incision size necessary for the cataract extraction a reduction of postoperative complications and better functional results are achieved in combined cataract/glaucoma surgery.

  10. Numerical simulation of boron injection in a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinoco, Hernan, E-mail: htb@forsmark.vattenfall.s [Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, SE-742 03 Osthammar (Sweden); Buchwald, Przemyslaw [Reactor Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Frid, Wiktor, E-mail: wiktor@reactor.sci.kth.s [Reactor Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    The present study constitutes a first step to understand the process of boron injection, transport and mixing in a BWR. It consists of transient CFD simulations of boron injection in a model of the downcomer of Forsmark's Unit 3 containing about 6 million elements. The two cases studied are unintentional start of boron injection under normal operation and loss of offsite power with partial ATWS leaving 10% of the core power uncontrolled. The flow conditions of the second case are defined by means of an analysis with RELAP5, assuming boron injection start directly after the first ECCS injection. Recent publications show that meaningful conservative results may be obtained for boron or thermal mixing in PWRs with grids as coarse as that utilized here, provided that higher order discretization schemes are used to minimize numerical diffusion. The obtained results indicate an apparently strong influence of the scenario in the behavior of the injection process. The normal operation simulation shows that virtually all boron solution flows down to the Main Recirculation Pump inlet located directly below the boron inlet nozzle. The loss of offsite power simulation shows initially a spread of the boron solution over the entire sectional area of the lower part of the downcomer filled with colder water. This remaining effect of the ECCS injection lasts until all this water has left the downcomer. Above this region, the boron injection jet develops in a vertical streak, eventually resembling the injection of the normal operation scenario. Due to the initial spread, this boron injection will probably cause larger temporal and spatial concentration variations in the core. In both cases, these variations may cause reactivity transients and fuel damage due to local power escalation. To settle this issue, an analysis using an extended model containing the downcomer, the MRPs and the Lower Plenum will be carried out. Also, the simulation time will be extended to a scale of

  11. Eficácia do resfriamento da pele no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A nas distonias faciais Skin cooling efficacy on pain relief in periocular injections with botulinum toxin A in facial dystonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Barros Bandeira de Mello Monteiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do resfriamento da pele com gelo no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A na região periocular em pacientes portadores de distonia facial. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo prospectivo, 13 pacientes receberam injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A em região glabelar (m. prócero e periocular (m. orbicular para tratamento de distonia facial. Antes das aplicações, um lado da região glabelar foi resfriado com gelo durante 5 minutos, enquanto no outro lado foi aplicada pomada Epitezan®, funcionando como placebo. A aplicação foi feita primeiramente no lado resfriado. Após a aplicação em cada um dos lados os pacientes foram instruídos a dar uma nota para a dor desencadeada pela injeção, em uma escala de 0 a 10 onde 0 era ausência de dor e 10 a dor mais intensa. RESULTADOS: A média das notas dadas pelos pacientes à dor desencadeada pela injeção no lado onde foi aplicado placebo foi 3,92 ± 3,28. No local onde foi aplicado gelo a média das notas foi de 2,92 ± 2,18 (p PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of skin cooling with ice on pain relief in periocular injection with botulinum toxin type A in patients with facial dystonias. METHODS: In this prospective study, 13 patients received botulinum toxin type A injection in glabela (procerus m. and periocular region (orbicular m. for facial dystonias treatment. Before the injections, one side of the glabela was submitted to a 5-minute cooling period, while the opposite side had Epitezan® cream applied, as a placebo. The application was done at the cooled side first. After the application on each side the patients were instructed to rate the pain associated with the injection on a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 indicating no pain and 10 the worst pain. RESULTS: The average pain score on the side where cold was applied was 3,92 ± 3,28, while on the control side the average pain score was 2,92 ± 2,18 (p < 0,0166. CONCLUSION: In this study

  12. Comparison of allele frequency for HLA-DR and HLA-DQ between patients with ECC and caries-free children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagherian A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early childhood caries (ECC is one of the most common diseases of childhood. The etiology of ECC is multifactorial and both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. Genetic variations in the hosts may contribute to changes in the risk for dental caries. Genetic factors such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA have recently been suggested as a predisposing factor. Aim: The aim of this study was to look for an association between HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 with ECC for developing new strategies for the diagnosis as well as the prevention of the disease. Design: In this study, we extracted the genomic DNAs from whole blood samples of 44 patients with ECC and 35 caries-free children by the salting-out method. We amplified the genomic DNA by PCR-SSP and then HLA-typing was performed for all alleles. Results: The results revealed a significant increase in the frequency of HLA-DRB1FNx0104 in the patient group (P = 0.019. The odds ratio for this allele was detected to be 10. The frequency of HLA-DQB1 alleles was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: The above results suggest that HLA-DRB1FNx0104 is associated with the susceptibility to ECC. Thus HLA-DRB1FNx0104 detection as a molecular marker for early diagnosis of ECC may be recommended.

  13. Experimental and theoretical study for the multidimensional phenomena of the ECC bypass in the DVI system downcomer during reflood phase of the LBLOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chul Hwa; Cho, Hyoung Kyu; Yun, Byong Jo; Euh, Dong Jin; Kwon, Tae Soon

    2005-02-01

    In the present study, a new scaling methodology, 'Modified Linear Scaling', was developed which can reproduce the multidimensional ECC behaviors in the DVI system downcomer and its applicability was experimentally and analytically evaluated. An exploratory test was performed to identify the mechanism and flow patterns of the ECC bypass and to investigate the effect of the downcomer geometry on the ECC bypass. Based on the observation results, an analysis for the two-dimensional film flow was conducted, which was found to the dominant flow regime in the DVI system downcomer and it introduced the Wallis parameters as the major scaling parameters of the direct ECC bypass. From the experiments and analysis, scaling requirements of the multidimensional phenomena were derived that the aspect ratio of the test facility and the film spreading width of the ECC should be preserved in the proto and reduced model. The modified linear scaling was developed which can satisfy the scaling requirements from the two-dimensional two-fluid equations and some important phenomena, which may not be fully represented by the equations, were additionally analyzed as a local phenomena scaling. The applicability of the scaling methodology is experimentally and analytically evaluated from the separate effect tests for the direct ECC bypass and sweep-out in various scales of the test sections and the developed analytical models.

  14. Modeling of the Radiation Doses during Dismantling of RBMK-1500 Reactor Pressurized Tanks from Emergency Core Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simonis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Decommissioning of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant involves multiple problems. One of them is personnel radiation safety during the performance of dismantling activities. In this paper, modeling results of radiation doses during the dismantling of the pressurized tank from the emergency core cooling system (ECCS PT of RBMK-1500 reactor are presented. The radiological surveys indicate that the inner surface of the ECCS PT is contaminated with radioactive products of corrosion and sediments due to the radioactive water. The effective doses to the workers have been modeled for different strategies of ECCS PT dismantling. In order to select the optimal personnel radiation safety, the modeling has been performed by the means of computer code “VISIPLAN 3D ALARA Planning tool” developed by SCK CEN (Belgium. The impacts of dismantling tools, shielding types, and extract ventilation flow rate on effective doses during the dismantling of ECCS PT have been analyzed. The total effective personnel doses have been obtained by summarizing the effective personnel doses from various sources of exposure, that is, direct radiation from radioactive equipment, internal radiation due to inhalation of radioactive aerosols, and direct radiation from radioactive aerosols arising during hot cutting in premises. The uncertainty of the collective doses is also presented in this paper.

  15. ATLAS - Liquid Cooling Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Bonneau, P.

    1998-01-01

    Photo 1 - Cooling Unit - Side View Photo 2 - Cooling Unit - Detail Manifolds Photo 3 - Cooling Unit - Rear View Photo 4 - Cooling Unit - Detail Pump, Heater and Exchanger Photo 5 - Cooling Unit - Detail Pump and Fridge Photo 6 - Cooling Unit - Front View

  16. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such ... if you are allergic to doripenem injection; other carbapenem antibiotics such as imipenem/cilastatin (Primaxin) or meropenem ( ...

  17. Methotrexate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methotrexate injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat gestational trophoblastic tumors (a ... in bones) after surgery to remove the tumor. Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis ( ...

  18. Bendamustine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendamustine injection is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white ... injection. You should use birth control to prevent pregnancy in yourself or your partner during your treatment ...

  19. Caspofungin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspofungin injection is used in adults and children 3 months of age and older to treat yeast ... people with a weakened ability to fight infection. Caspofungin injection is in a class of antifungal medications ...

  20. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temozolomide is used to treat certain types of brain tumors. Temozolomide is in a class of medications called alkylating ... Temozolomide injection comes as a powder to be added to fluid and injected over 90 minutes intravenously ( ...

  1. Pembrolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with ... who have a specific type of melanoma tumor. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain ...

  2. Lacosamide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants like lacosamide injection to treat various conditions during ...

  3. Midazolam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called benzodiazepines. It works by slowing activity in the brain ... breast-feeding.talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of receiving midazolam injection if you ...

  4. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  5. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  6. Etanercept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will be using the prefilled syringe or automatic injection device, tell your doctor if you or the person who will be injecting the medication for you are allergic to rubber or latex.tell your doctor and pharmacist what ...

  7. Cyclosporine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyclosporine injection is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by ... who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat people ...

  8. Estrogen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estradiol cypionate and estradiol valerate forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot ... should consider a different treatment. These forms of estrogen injection are also sometimes used to treat the ...

  9. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefotaxime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory ... skin, blood, bone, joint, and urinary tract infections. Cefotaxime injection may also be used before surgery, and ...

  10. Performance testing of engineered corium cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomperski, S., E-mail: lomperski@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States); Farmer, M.T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experiments tested two engineered corium cooling systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The systems passively inject water into corium from below. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These systems cool corium much faster than top flooding. - Abstract: The coolability of ex-vessel core debris continues to be an issue of concern in the realm of light water reactor safety. Extensive research into corium/concrete interaction phenomena has been unable to establish the certainty of melt quench and stabilization within the containment boundary for all credible cases of cooling restricted to top flooding. As a result, there has been continuing interest in engineered systems that can augment cooling. This paper describes the testing of two passive cooling concepts that inject water into corium from below via nozzles embedded within the basemat: one with porous concrete nozzles and the other with a type of composite nozzle. The latter supplements water injection with noncondensable gas to stabilize flow and suppress vapor explosions. Each test involved a 136 kg melt composed of 56/23/14 wt% UO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2}/siliceous concrete at an initial depth of 30 cm. The setup with the porous concrete nozzles successfully injected water into the melt at heads as low as 2.3 m. The composite nozzle test was partially successful, with three nozzles delivering coolant while a fourth was damaged by the melt and failed to inject water. The melts cooled twice as fast as similar ones tested in a top flooding configuration. These experiments confirmed earlier work at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and elsewhere indicating that cooling via bottom water injection is a particularly effective method for quenching ex-vessel corium melts.

  11. Cool visitors

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Pictured, from left to right: Tim Izo (saxophone, flute, guitar), Bobby Grant (tour manager), George Pajon (guitar). What do the LHC and a world-famous hip-hop group have in common? They are cool! On Saturday, 1st July, before their appearance at the Montreux Jazz Festival, three members of the 'Black Eyed Peas' came on a surprise visit to CERN, inspired by Dan Brown's Angels and Demons. At short notice, Connie Potter (Head of the ATLAS secretariat) organized a guided tour of ATLAS and the AD 'antimatter factory'. Still curious, lead vocalist Will.I.Am met CERN physicist Rolf Landua after the concert to ask many more questions on particles, CERN, and the origin of the Universe.

  12. Prevalence and socio-behavioral influence of early childhood caries, ECC, and feeding habits among 6 – 36 months old children in Uganda and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumo Ray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood caries (ECC is a serious problem that has remained unexplored in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to identify possible socio-behavioral correlates of ECC focusing 6–36 months old children and their caretakers. Methods Cross sectional studies were conducted in a high fluoride rural area, Manyara, Tanzania and a low fluoride urban area, Kampala, Uganda. Totals of 1221 and 816 child - caretaker pairs attending health care facilities for growth monitoring were recruited in Manyara and Kampala, respectively. All caretakers completed face to face interviews at the health care facility. Children underwent oral clinical examination whereby ECC and Enamel hypoplasia were recorded using the dmft (WHO 1997 and the DDE index (FDI 1992. Results The prevalence of ECC was 3.7% in Manyara and 17.6% in Kampala. According to multiple logistic regression analyses, received oral health information from health worker was the strongest determinant of ECC in Manyara, adjusted OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.09 – 0.93. In Kampala, visible plaque, high sugar intake and presence of enamel hypoplasia associated with ECC, adjusted ORs 2.8 (95% CI 1.61- 4.95, 3.0 (95% CI 1.39 – 6.34 and 2.3 (95% CI 1.36 - 3.95. Conclusion Oral health education aimed at caretakers of 6–36 months, including health care workers’ information regarding the detrimental consequences for oral health of frequent sugar consumption and poor oral hygiene is important for prevention of ECC in Tanzania and Uganda.

  13. Ustekinumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do not inject into an area where the skin is tender, bruised, red, or hard or where you have scars or stretch marks.Your doctor or pharmacist will ... injection.you should know that ustekinumab injection may decrease your ability ... new or changing skin lesions, minor infections (such as open cuts or ...

  14. Ranitidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranitidine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be mixed with another fluid and injected intravenously (into a vein) over 5 to 20 minutes. Ranitidine may also be injected into a muscle. It is usually given every 6 to 8 hours, but may also be given ...

  15. R&D Plan for RISMC Industry Application #1: ECCS/LOCA Cladding Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Epiney, Aaron Simon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tu, Lei [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is finalizing a rulemaking change that would revise the requirements in 10 CFR 50.46. In the proposed new rulemaking, designated as 10 CFR 50.46c, the NRC proposes a fuel performance-based equivalent cladding reacted (ECR) criterion as a function of cladding hydrogen content before the accident (pre-transient) in order to include the effects of higher burnup on cladding performance as well as to address other technical issues. A loss of operational margin may result due to the more restrictive cladding embrittlement criteria. Initial and future compliance with the rule may significantly increase vendor workload and licensee costs as a spectrum of fuel rod initial burnup states may need to be analyzed to demonstrate compliance. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has initiated a project, as part of the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRS), to develop analytical capabilities to support the industry in the transition to the new rule. This project is called the Industry Application 1 (IA1) within the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway of LWRS. The general idea behind the initiative is the development of an Integrated Evaluation Model (IEM). The motivation is to develop a multiphysics framework to analyze how uncertainties are propagated across the stream of physical disciplines and data involved, as well as how risks are evaluated in a LOCA safety analysis as regulated under 10 CFR 50.46c. This IEM is called LOTUS which stands for LOCA Toolkit for US, and it represents the LWRS Program’s response to the proposed new rule making. The focus of this report is to complete an R&D plan to describe the demonstration of the LOCA/ECCS RISMC Industry Application # 1 using the advanced RISMC Toolkit and methodologies. This report includes the description and development plan for a RISMC LOCA tool that fully couples advanced MOOSE tools already in development in order to characterize and optimize

  16. Prevention of early childhood caries (ECC) through parental toothbrushing training and fluoride varnish application: a 24-month randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Emily Ming; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Chu, Chun Hung; Wong, May Chun Mei

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of hands-on training in parental toothbrushing, with or without semi-annual applications of 5% sodium fluoride varnish in preventing ECC. Study was conducted in Hong Kong where water is optimally fluoridated. Children aged 8-23 months were recruited and randomly allocated to one of three groups: Gp 1 - control, one-off oral health education talk to parents; Gp 2 - oral health education talk and parental toothbrushing training, reinforced every 6 months; Gp 3 - semi-annual application of fluoride varnish onto child's teeth in addition to the intervention provided to Gp 2. Clinical examinations of the children and interviews were conducted at baseline and after 24 months to assess the children's dental caries status and toothbrushing behaviour. Out of the 450 child-parent dyads recruited at baseline, 415 (92%) remained after 24 months. At baseline, 2% of the children had non-cavitated enamel caries lesions and the mean dmft score was 0.03 ± 0.24. Most of the children did not have daily parental toothbrushing (65-73%) and self toothbrushing (86-90%). At 24-month follow-up, including both non-cavitated and cavitated carious lesions, the incidences of ECC in Gp 1 to Gp 3 were 11.9%, 11.8%, and 17.5%, respectively (p>0.05); and the mean new dmft scores in Gp 1 to Gp 3 were 0.3, 0.2, and 0.3, respectively (p>0.05). Proportions of parents who practiced parental toothbrushing twice daily were 62.7%, 60.4%, and 65.7% in Gp 1 to Gp 3, respectively (p>0.05). In a water fluoridated area, hands-on training in parental toothbrushing, with or without semi-annual application of 5% sodium fluoride varnish may not have additional effect on preventing ECC in young children with low risk of dental caries compared to provision of oral health education to parents. In a water fluoridated area, provision of individual oral health education to parents may be sufficient for preventing ECC in young children below age 3. Supplemental training in parental

  17. Effect of sucrose concentration on sucrose-dependent adhesion and glucosyltransferase expression of S. mutans in children with severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Wenqing; Lin, Jiacheng; Chen, Zhuoyu; Yu, Dongsheng

    2014-09-09

    Sucrose, extracellular polysaccharide, and glucosyltransferases (GTFs) are key factors in sucrose-dependent adhesion and play important roles in the process of severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC). However, whether sucrose concentration regulates gtf expression, extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, and sucrose-dependent adhesion is related to the different genotypes of S. mutans isolated from ECC in children and still needs to be investigated. In this study, 52 strains of S. mutans were isolated from children with S-ECC and caries-free (CF) children. Water-insoluble glucan (WIG) synthesis was detected by the anthrone method, adhesion capacity by the turbidimetric method, and expression of gtf by RT-PCR in an in vitro model containing 1%-20% sucrose. The genotypes of S. mutans were analyzed by AP-PCR. The results showed that WIG synthesis, adhesion capacity, and gtf expression increased significantly when the sucrose concentration was from 1% to 10%. WIG synthesis and gtfB as well as gtfC expression of the 1% and 5% groups were significantly lower than those of the 10% and 20% groups (p S. mutans detected from individuals in the S-ECC group exhibited a significant difference in diversity compared with those from CF individuals (p S. mutans, and the 10% sucrose level can be seen as a "turning point" and essential factor for the prevention of S-ECC.

  18. Low-Profile Dual-Wideband MIMO Antenna with Low ECC for LTE and Wi-Fi Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gye-Taek Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low-profile dual-wideband multiple input multiple output (MIMO antenna with low envelop correlation coefficient (ECC for long-term evolution (LTE and wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi applications. The antenna covers LTE band 7 and Wi-Fi as well as wireless broadband (Wibro and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax (except for the 3.5-GHz band. To aid with integration of a practical mobile terminal, the MIMO antenna elements are placed at appropriate locations by analyzing the surface current distribution and without using any additional isolation techniques. The measured bandwidths with reflection coefficients of 20 dB in the operating frequency ranges of both LTE band 7 and Wi-Fi. Additionally, the calculated ECC is in the range 0.005<ρ<0.025, which is considerably lower than the ρ<0.5 required for MIMO applications. The measured radiation patterns are appropriate for mobile terminals, and omnidirectional radiation patterns are obtained.

  19. AN ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY IN ENGLISH CONVERSATION CLUB (ECC PROGRAM AT THE 3rd SEMESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fadhly Farhy Abbas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on students’ speaking ability who had followed the EnglishConversation Club (ECC program especially for the third semester of English Department. Thepurpose of this study was to analyze the students’ speaking ability at the 3rd semester in the EnglishConversation Club FKIP UNILAK Pekanbaru. The type of the research was mixed method in typeof explanatory design. The number of participant was 53 students. The researcher used twoinstruments, those were test and interview. In analyzing the data, it used in descriptive statistics.The result of the analysis showed that the average score of 3rd semester students’ speaking abilitywas 45.42. It can be concluded that the students’ speaking ability was categorized into failed . Thescore of Standard Deviation was 7.02, Variance was 49.30, and Range was 36 points . It meansthat the students’ speaking ability was homogeneous. According to the Z-Score, it can be seen that49.06% students’ ability was higher than average and 50.94% students ability was below theaverage. In conclusion, the students’ ability in learning speaking English was failed, it had beenaffected by some factors, those were lack of vocabulary, grammar and motivation. It was supportedby the interview, eventhough the students’ perception to English Conversation Club (ECCprogram was positive, but in fact, the students’ frequency to speak English was seldom, they wereless practice speaking English everyday.Keywords : Speaking , English Conversation Club (ECC

  20. Improved Thermoelectrically Cooled Laser-Diode Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesne, Thomas R.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Famiglietti, Joe

    1994-01-01

    Cooling decreases wavelength and increases efficiency and lifetime. Two improved thermoelectrically cooled laser-diode assemblies incorporate commercial laser diodes providing combination of both high wavelength stability and broad wavelength tuning which are broadly tunable, highly stable devices for injection seeding of pulsed, high-power tunable alexandrite lasers used in lidar remote sensing of water vapor at wavelengths in vicinity of 727 nanometers. Provide temperature control needed to take advantage of tunability of commercial AlGaAs laser diodes in present injection-seeding application.

  1. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...

  2. Design of ECC system based on System Generator%基于System Generator的ECC加解密系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖雪芳; 苏航; 雷国伟

    2012-01-01

    Based on several key algorithms of ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem), each module of the algorithms was designed via Modelsim tool. Then the source codes of each module were generated into its counterpart of ECC system by System Generator, and the modules were grouped into ECC system. Finally, the system was simulated and verified by experimental results.%根据椭圆曲线密码体制的几种关键算法,采用Modelsim仿真工具设计相应的算法模块.然后将各模块代码通过System Generator生成对应的系统模块,再将这些模块搭建成完整的ECC系统.最后对整个ECC系统进行仿真,实验数据进一步验证了该设计的正确性.

  3. Effect of Sucrose Concentration on Sucrose-Dependent Adhesion and Glucosyltransferase Expression of S. mutans in Children with Severe Early-Childhood Caries (S-ECC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose, extracellular polysaccharide, and glucosyltransferases (GTFs are key factors in sucrose-dependent adhesion and play important roles in the process of severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC. However, whether sucrose concentration regulates gtf expression, extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, and sucrose-dependent adhesion is related to the different genotypes of S. mutans isolated from ECC in children and still needs to be investigated. In this study, 52 strains of S. mutans were isolated from children with S-ECC and caries-free (CF children. Water-insoluble glucan (WIG synthesis was detected by the anthrone method, adhesion capacity by the turbidimetric method, and expression of gtf by RT-PCR in an in vitro model containing 1%–20% sucrose. The genotypes of S. mutans were analyzed by AP-PCR. The results showed that WIG synthesis, adhesion capacity, and gtf expression increased significantly when the sucrose concentration was from 1% to 10%. WIG synthesis and gtfB as well as gtfC expression of the 1% and 5% groups were significantly lower than those of the 10% and 20% groups (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences between the 10% and 20% groups. The fingerprints of S. mutans detected from individuals in the S-ECC group exhibited a significant difference in diversity compared with those from CF individuals (p < 0.05. Further, the expression of gtfB and gtfC in the S-ECC group was significantly different among the 1- to 5-genotype groups (p < 0.05. It can be concluded that sucrose-dependent adhesion might be related to the diversity of genotypes of S. mutans, and the 10% sucrose level can be seen as a “turning point” and essential factor for the prevention of S-ECC.

  4. Recent Development in Turbine Blade Film Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Chin Han

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbines are extensively used for aircraft propulsion, land-based power generation, and industrial applications. Thermal efficiency and power output of gas turbines increase with increasing turbine rotor inlet temperature (RIT. The current RIT level in advanced gas turbines is far above the .melting point of the blade material. Therefore, along with high temperature material development, a sophisticated cooling scheme must be developed for continuous safe operation of gas turbines with high performance. Gas turbine blades are cooled internally and externally. This paper focuses on external blade cooling or so-called film cooling. In film cooling, relatively cool air is injected from the inside of the blade to the outside surface which forms a protective layer between the blade surface and hot gas streams. Performance of film cooling primarily depends on the coolant to mainstream pressure ratio, temperature ratio, and film hole location and geometry under representative engine flow conditions. In the past number of years there has been considerable progress in turbine film cooling research and this paper is limited to review a few selected publications to reflect recent development in turbine blade film cooling.

  5. Injection MD

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Drosdal, L; Gianfelice, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Papaphilippou, Y; Vanbavinckhove, G

    2012-01-01

    This note summarizes the results obtained at injection during the 2nd MD block and the floating MD block in July. Highlights are presented for injection in the LHC with the Q20 SPS optics, influence of the supercycle and injection with 25 ns bunch spacing. Beams were successfully injected into the LHC using the Q20 optics [1, 3]. Small corrections were needed to steer the beam in the transfer lines. Dispersion measurements were conducted for both beams. The horizontal normalized dispersion in TI2 was a factor 2 smaller for Q20 with respect to Q26, for TI8 on the other hand the opposite was observed. The results for injection loss dependency on super cycle composition show only a small increase in losses for beam 2. The losses observed must therefore mainly come from other sources such as shot-by-shot stability or quality of scraping. For the injection with 25 ns bunch spacing bunches were injected for both beams. For B1 up to the maximum of 288 bunches. For B2 on the other only up to 144 bunches were injected...

  6. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  7. Research on Energy Efficiency Specific Gravity of Air Cooling System for Oil Injection Screw Air Compressor%喷油螺杆空压机风冷却系统能效比重研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭强; 沈坤华; 肖银娥; 朱海峰; 郑鹏程; 章正峰

    2013-01-01

    根据当前螺杆空压机能效标准和产品标准的规定,结合螺杆空压机实际应用的具体条件,依据物质能量守恒定律,推导出螺杆空压机风冷却系统能效比重的计算公式,得出具体的计算结果,供风冷却螺杆空压机设计、节能管理、标准化工作者参考.%According to the specifications of current energy and product standards for screw compressor,combined with the concrete conditions of practical application of screw compressor,the calculating formula for energy efficiency specific gravity of air cooling system for screw compressor is deduced and the concrete calculating results are obtained based on law of energy conservation,which provides references for design,energy-saving management and standardization staff of air cooling screw compressor.

  8. Corticosteroid injections, eccentric decline squat training and heavy slow resistance training in patellar tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M.; Kovanen, V.; Aagaard, P.

    2009-01-01

    A randomized-controlled single-blind trial was conducted to investigate the clinical, structural and functional effects of peritendinous corticosteroid injections (CORT), eccentric decline squat training (ECC) and heavy slow resistance training (HSR) in patellar tendinopathy. Thirty-nine male...... patients were randomized to CORT, ECC or HSR for 12 weeks. We assessed function and symptoms (VISA-p questionnaire), tendon pain during activity (VAS), treatment satisfaction, tendon swelling, tendon vascularization, tendon mechanical properties and collagen crosslink properties. Assessments were made at 0...... weeks, 12 weeks and at follow-up (half-year). All groups improved in VISA-p and VAS from 0 to 12 weeks (P tendon swelling decreased (-13 +/- 9% and -12 +/- 13%, P

  9. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  10. Mepolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or do not go away: pain, redness, swelling, warmth, burning, or itching in the place mepolizumab was injected headache dry and itchy skin with or without red, scaly rashes back pain muscle spasms Some side ...

  11. Metoclopramide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and feeling of fullness that lasts long after meals. Metoclopramide injection is also used to prevent nausea ... tranylcypromine (Parnate); narcotic medications for pain; sedatives; sleeping pills; tetracycline (Bristacycline, Sumycin); tranquilizers. Your doctor may need ...

  12. Ramucirumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dose of ramucirumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse if you experience any of the following while you receive ramucirumab: uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body; back pain or spasms; chest pain and tightness; chills; flushing; ...

  13. Alemtuzumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemtuzumab injection is used to treat B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (a slowly developing cancer in which ... of white blood cell accumulate in the body). Alemtuzumab is in a class of medications called monoclonal ...

  14. Ferumoxytol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  15. Fludarabine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludarabine injection is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white ... a reliable method of birth control to prevent pregnancy during this time. Talk to your doctor for ...

  16. Insulin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or buttocks. Do not inject insulin into muscles, scars, or moles. Use a different site for each ... you are using insulin.Alcohol may cause a decrease in blood sugar. Ask your doctor about the ...

  17. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a person who was not in the hospital), skin infections, and infections of the abdomen (area between the ... that developed in people who were in a hospital or foot infections in people who have diabetes. Tigecycline injection is ...

  18. Golimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golimumab injection is used alone or with other medications to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders ( ... did not help or could not be tolerated. Golimumab is in a class of medications called tumor ...

  19. Albiglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will develop tumors of the thyroid gland, including medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). ... symptoms or those listed in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, stop using albiglutide injection and call your doctor ...

  20. Dexamethasone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body tissues,) gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Dexamethasone injection is also used for diagnostic testing. ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  1. Hydrocortisone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own organs), gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Hydrocortisone injection is also used to treat certain ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  2. Methylprednisolone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own organs), gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Methylprednisolone injection is also used to treat certain ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  3. Glatiramer Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To inject glatiramer, follow these steps: Remove one blister pack from the carton of glatiramer syringes and place ... paper label and remove the syringe from the blister pack. Check your prefilled syringe to be sure it ...

  4. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are ...

  5. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... autoinjector in hot water, microwave, or place in sunlight.Before you use evolocumab injection, look at the ... chills pain or burning during urination muscle or back pain dizziness stomach pain Some side effects can be ...

  6. Cidofovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidofovir injection is used along with another medication (probenecid) to treat cytomegaloviral retinitis (CMV retinitis) in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Cidofovir is in a class of medications called antivirals. ...

  7. Brivaracetam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... older. Brivaracetam in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants like brivaracetam injection to treat various conditions during ...

  8. Diphenhydramine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not to use diphenhydramine injection if you are breastfeeding because of the risk of harm to infants.tell your doctor if you have or have ever had asthma or other types of lung disease; glaucoma (a ...

  9. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valve, respiratory tract (including pneumonia), biliary tract, and urinary tract infections. Cefazolin injection also may be used before, during, ... to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website ( ...

  10. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin, blood, bone, joint, female genital tract, and urinary tract infections. Ceftazidime injection is in a class of medications ... to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website ( ...

  11. Fluconazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fungal infections of the eye, prostate (a male reproductive organ), skin and nails. Fluconazole injection is ... Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan); oral contraceptives (birth control pills); oral medication for diabetes such ...

  12. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available.Moxifloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause ... you are allergic to moxifloxacin, other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available ...

  13. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available. Levofloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ... severe reaction to levofloxacin; any other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available ...

  14. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available. Ciprofloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ... reaction to ciprofloxacin or any other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic such as gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available in the ...

  15. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...

  16. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an arm or leg sudden changes in vision pain with eye movement Chloramphenicol injection may cause a condition called gray syndrome in premature and newborn infants. There have also been reports of gray ...

  17. Ionization cooling ring for muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palmer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Practical ionization cooling rings could lead to lower cost or improved performance in neutrino factory or muon collider designs. The ring modeled here uses realistic three-dimensional fields. The performance of the ring compares favorably with the linear cooling channel used in the second U.S. Neutrino Factory Study. The normalized 6D emittance of an ideal ring is decreased by a factor of approximately 240, compared with a factor of only 15 for the linear channel. We also examine such real-world effects as windows on the absorbers and rf cavities and leaving empty lattice cells for injection and extraction. For realistic conditions the ring decreases the normalized 6D emittance by a factor of 49.

  18. Emittance Reduction between EBIS LINAC and Booster by Electron Beam Cooling; Is Single Pass Cooling Possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch,A.

    2008-04-01

    Electron beam cooling is examined as an option to reduce momentum of gold ions exiting the EBIS LINAC before injection into the booster. Electron beam parameters are based on experimental data (obtained at BNL) of electron beams extracted from a plasma cathode. Preliminary calculations indicate that single pass cooling is feasible; momentum spread can be reduced by more than an order of magnitude in less than one meter.

  19. 医用水凝胶在面部注射美容中的应用及临床疗效观察%Clinical observation of medical hydrogel cooling dressings application to facial injection treatments in cosmetic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋志甫; 赵志力; 李华锋; 石成方; 杨蓉娅

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价医用水凝胶作为冷敷材料在注射美容中的作用。方法随机选取70例实施面部注射的患者,采用自身对照方法,注射前及注射后左侧面部使用水凝胶作为冷敷材料,右侧面部作为空白对照组,分别于注射中、注射后30 min及注射后1周观察并评价注射部位瘀斑消退时间、疼痛感、红热、肿胀及干紧等不适感症状评分。结果患者左侧面部注射部位瘀斑消退时间明显短于自身右侧面部注射部位(P<0.01),注射中及注射术后30 min疼痛感左侧明显低于右侧,两组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。左侧面部注射部位红热、肿胀及干紧症状评分明显优于自身对照组,两组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论医用水凝胶作为接触式降温敷料,可以有效改善注射治疗后的瘀斑症状,并明显减轻局部疼痛、皮肤红热、肿胀及干紧等不适症状。%ObjectiveTo evaluate the safety, efifcacy, and patient acceptance of hydrogel dressings applied in facial injection treatments. MethodsSeventy patients with the implementation of facial injection were randomly selected, hydrogel dressing was applied to their left-side face, right-side face was selected as control, the following clinical indicators were observed and evaluated during injection, at 30 minutes and 72 hours after injection: bleeding, bruising, pain, dry red swelling and adverse reactions. Comparisons were made between left-side face and right-side face.ResultsThere were signiifcant difference in the operative & postoperative criteria of bleeding, bruises, pain and dry red swelling between left-side face and right-side face. There were no complications of surface irregularities or contact dermatitis from the application or maintenance of hydrogel dressings.ConclusionsHydrogel dressings are safe and effective to reduce adverse reactions of injection treatments, and patients are compliant with

  20. Performance Evaluation of the Concept of Hybrid Heat Pipe as Passive In-core Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As an arising issue for inherent safety of nuclear power plant, the concept of hybrid heat pipe as passive in-core cooling systems was introduced. Hybrid heat pipe has unique features that it is inserted in core directly to remove decay heat from nuclear fuel without any changes of structures of existing facilities of nuclear power plant, substituting conventional control rod. Hybrid heat pipe consists of metal cladding, working fluid, wick structure, and neutron absorber. Same with working principle of the heat pipe, heat is transported by phase change of working fluid inside metal cask. Figure 1 shows the systematic design of the hybrid heat pipe cooling system. In this study, the concept of a hybrid heat pipe was introduced as a Passive IN-core Cooling Systems (PINCs) and demonstrated for internal design features of heat pipe containing neutron absorber. Using a commercial CFD code, single hybrid heat pipe model was analyzed to evaluate thermal performance in designated operating condition. Also, 1-dimensional reactor transient analysis was done by calculating temperature change of the coolant inside reactor pressure vessel using MATLAB. As a passive decay heat removal device, hybrid heat pipe was suggested with a concept of combination of heat pipe and control rod. Hybrid heat pipe has distinct feature that it can be a unique solution to cool the reactor when depressurization process is impossible so that refueling water cannot be injected into RPV by conventional ECCS. It contains neutron absorber material inside heat pipe, so it can stop the reactor and at the same time, remove decay heat in core. For evaluating the concept of hybrid heat pipe, its thermal performance was analyzed using CFD and one-dimensional transient analysis. From single hybrid heat pipe simulation, the hybrid heat pipe can transport heat from the core inside to outside about 18.20 kW, and total thermal resistance of hybrid heat pipe is 0.015 .deg. C/W. Due to unique features of long heat

  1. Severe Accident Analysis of Core Cooling by Passive Cavity Injection System for Small Modular Reactor%模块式小型堆非能动堆腔注水冷却堆芯的严重事故分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛辉辉; 陈树; 邓坚; 向清安; 肖红

    2015-01-01

    以模块式小型堆为研究对象,使用MELCOR程序建立了电厂模型.选取安注管线双端剪切断裂严重事故为保守事故序列,非能动堆腔注水系统(Passive Cavity Injection System,PCIS)投入后,分析堆芯热量通过吊篮和压力容器壁进入堆腔水的传热过程,并评价燃料棒结构状态.计算结果表明,堆芯支承板保持支撑燃料组件,堆芯大部分燃料组件包壳保持棒状结构状态,PCIS冷却压力容器外壁面带出堆芯热量实现堆芯冷却.

  2. Study on CO2 injection effect on flow rate and temperature based on coupling effect of inerting and cooling%惰化降温耦合作用下的采空区低温 CO2注入流量与温度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝朝瑜; 黄戈; 王继仁; 贺飞

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the use of LCO2 in the prevention of gob coal spontaneous combustion accidents ,for the 209 working face of coal seam III3 in the Xuandong No .2 Coal Mine .Numerical simulation by FLUENT is used to study the influence of low temperature CO2 injection volume and temperature in goaf on the highest temperature in oxidation zone ,the oxidation zone width and maximum temperature in the high temperature region .It is found that with the increase of the injection flow rate ,oxidation zone width and temperature first decrease and then tend to be almost constant .The injection temperature drop has little effect on the hot spots of the return air side ,while the maximum temperature zone temperature can be reduced in inlet side of goaf .Research shows that when the injection rate increases to a certain extent ,the effect of reducing the goaf oxidation zone width becomes small while the injection temperature drop has minor effect on the cooling of high‐temperature combustion dangerous region .%为了更好地使用LCO2预防采空区煤自燃安全事故,结合宣东二号煤矿Ⅲ3煤层209工作面的实际条件,利用FL U EN T数值模拟的方法,分别研究了低温CO2的不同注入流量与温度对采空区氧化带内最高点温度、氧化带宽度和最大高温区域温度的影响。发现随着注入流量的增大,氧化带宽度与温度先逐渐下降后趋于平缓,注入温度的下降对回风侧高温点影响不大,而能将入风侧采空区最大高温区域温度降低。研究表明,注入流量增大到一定程度后对缩小采空区氧化带宽度的作用变小,而注入温度的下降对回风侧存在高温发火危险的采空区降温效果不佳。

  3. Liquid-Cooled Garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A liquid-cooled bra, offshoot of Apollo moon suit technology, aids the cancer-detection technique known as infrared thermography. Water flowing through tubes in the bra cools the skin surface to improve resolution of thermograph image.

  4. Data center cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J; Dang, Hien P; Parida, Pritish R; Schultz, Mark D; Sharma, Arun

    2015-03-17

    A data center cooling system may include heat transfer equipment to cool a liquid coolant without vapor compression refrigeration, and the liquid coolant is used on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack housed in the data center. The system may also include a controller-apparatus to regulate the liquid coolant flow to the liquid cooled information technology equipment rack through a range of liquid coolant flow values based upon information technology equipment temperature thresholds.

  5. Bursty star formation feedback and cooling outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Suarez, Teresita; Peiris, Hiranya V; Slyz, Adrianne; Devriendt, Julien

    2016-01-01

    We study how outflows of gas launched from a central galaxy undergoing repeated starbursts propagate through the circumgalactic medium (CGM), using the simulation code RAMSES. We assume that the outflow from the disk can be modelled as a rapidly moving bubble of hot gas at $\\mathrm{\\sim1\\;kpc}$ above disk, then ask what happens as it moves out further into the halo around the galaxy on $\\mathrm{\\sim 100\\;kpc}$ scales. To do this we run 60 two-dimensional simulations scanning over parameters of the outflow. Each of these is repeated with and without radiative cooling, assuming a primordial gas composition to give a lower bound on the importance of cooling. In a large fraction of radiative-cooling cases we are able to form rapidly outflowing cool gas from in situ cooling of the flow. We show that the amount of cool gas formed depends strongly on the 'burstiness' of energy injection; sharper, stronger bursts typically lead to a larger fraction of cool gas forming in the outflow. The abundance ratio of ions in th...

  6. Stochastic cooling in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

    2009-05-04

    After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

  7. Sarilumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the needle. Do not try to warm the medication by heating it in a microwave, placing it in warm water or in direct sunlight, or through any other method.Before injecting, check the prefilled syringe to be sure that the expiration date printed on the package has not passed. Look ...

  8. Enfuvirtide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inject enfuvirtide into any skin that has a tattoo, scar, bruise, mole, a burn site, or has ... Enfuvirtide may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: itching, swelling, pain, tingling, discomfort, ...

  9. Fluorouracil Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer. Treatment with fluorouracil injection may cause serious side effects. ... this medication.If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor ... (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/ ...

  10. Lanreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanreotide injection is used to treat people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features; joint pain; and other symptoms) who have not successfully, or cannot be treated ...

  11. Paliperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body slow movements or shuffling walk painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours cough, chills and/or other signs of infection Paliperidone injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.If you experience a ...

  12. Ziprasidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stiffness falling confusion sweating loss of consciousness painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours Ziprasidone injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while receiving this medication.If you experience a ...

  13. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control slow movements or shuffling walk falling painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours Risperidone extended-release injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while receiving this medication.If you experience a ...

  14. Laser cooling of solids

    OpenAIRE

    Nemova, Galina

    2009-01-01

    Parallel to advances in laser cooling of atoms and ions in dilute gas phase, which has progressed immensely, resulting in physics Nobel prizes in 1997 and 2001, major progress has recently been made in laser cooling of solids. I compare the physical nature of the laser cooling of atoms and ions with that of the laser cooling of solids. I point out all advantages of this new and very promising area of laser physics. Laser cooling of solids (optical refrigeration) at the present time can be lar...

  15. Cooling off with physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Chris [Unilever R and D (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    You might think of ice cream as a delicious treat to be enjoyed on a sunny summer's day. However, to the ice-cream scientists who recently gathered in Thessaloniki in Greece for the 2nd International Ice Cream Symposium, it is a complex composite material. Ice cream consists of three dispersed phases: ice crystals, which have a mean size of 50 microns, air bubbles with a diameter of about 70 microns, and fat droplets with a size of 1 micron. These phases are held together by what is called the matrix - not a sci-fi film, but a viscous solution of sugars, milk proteins and polysaccharides. The microstructure, and hence the texture that you experience when you eat ice cream, is created in a freezing process that has remained fundamentally unchanged since the first ice-cream maker was patented in the 1840s. The ingredients - water, milk protein, fat, sugar, emulsifiers, stabilizers, flavours and a lot of air - are mixed together before being pasteurized and homogenized. They are then pumped into a cylinder that is cooled from the outside with a refrigerant. As the mixture touches the cylinder wall it freezes and forms ice crystals, which are quickly scraped off by a rotating blade. The blade is attached to a beater that disperses the ice crystals into the mixture. At the same time, air is injected and broken down into small bubbles by the shear that the beater generates. As the mixture passes along the cylinder, the number of ice crystals increases and its temperature drops. As a result, the viscosity of the mixture increases, so that more energy input is needed to rotate the beater. This energy is dissipated as heat, and when the ice cream reaches about -6 deg. C the energy input through the beater equals the energy removed as heat by the refrigerant. The process therefore becomes self-limiting and it is not possible to cool the ice cream any further. However, at -6 deg. C the microstructure is unstable. The ice cream therefore has to be removed from the freezer

  16. Subcutaneous (SQ) injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    SQ injections; Sub-Q injections; Diabetes subcutaneous injection; Insulin subcutaneous injection ... NIH. Giving a subcutaneous injection . Rockville, MD. National ... of Health and Human Services NIH publications; 2015. Available ...

  17. Risk-Informed Margin Management (RIMM) Industry Applications IA1 - Integrated Cladding ECCS/LOCA Performance Analysis - Problem Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frepoli, Cesare [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yurko, Joseph P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swindlehurst, Gregg [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bayless, Paul D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The U. S. NRC is currently proposing rulemaking designated as “10 CFR 50.46c” to revise the LOCA/ECCS acceptance criteria to include the effects of higher burnup on cladding performance as well as to address some other issues. The NRC is also currently resolving the public comments with the final rule expected to be issued in the summer of 2016. The impact of the final 50.46c rule on the industry will involve updating of fuel vendor LOCA evaluation models, NRC review and approval, and licensee submittal of new LOCA evaluations or reanalyses and associated technical specification revisions for NRC review and approval. The rule implementation process, both industry and NRC activities, is expected to take 5-10 years following the rule effective date. The need to use advanced cladding designs is expected. A loss of operational margin will result due to the more restrictive cladding embrittlement criteria. Initial and future compliance with the rule may significantly increase vendor workload and licensee cost as a spectrum of fuel rod initial burnup states may need to be analyzed to demonstrate compliance. Consequently there will be an increased focus on licensee decision making related to LOCA analysis to minimize cost and impact, and to manage margin.

  18. [Pre- and postoperative corneal topography after combined single suture and running suture in ECCE. An analysis using the video keratoscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickel, B; Holschbach, A; Strobel, J

    1993-12-01

    In a prospective study with 45 patients undergoing extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with implantation of posterior chamber lens, curvature measurements of the cornea by means of computerized videokeratoscope were taken postoperatively. Analysis of the corneal shape on color-coded topographic maps of astigmatism showed an hourglass-shaped formation in all patients with a main axis in the sense of general astigmatism. Within a 3-mm zone (optical zone) the steepest meridian in all eyes was 96.1 +/- 13.3 degrees with an astigmatism of +4.4 +/- 2.1 D (1st postoperative day). Postoperatively we found that 35.6% of the patients examined had irregular astigmatism that could not be corroborated by the readings from the Javal ophthalmometer. An irregular astigmatism, corneal topographic analysis reveals regions peripheral to the center with a peak corneal refractive power of +43.8 +/- 1.4 D. In contrast to the conventional methods (for example, Javal ophthalmometer, autokeratometer), computerized videokeratoscope analysis provides additional and useful information on the corneal topography after intraocular operations.

  19. Stochastic cooling in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

    2012-05-20

    The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

  20. Cooling by Thermodynamic Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitsas, S. N.

    2017-03-01

    A method is described for cooling conductive channels to below ambient temperature. The thermodynamic induction principle dictates that the electrically biased channel will cool if the electrical conductance decreases with temperature. The extent of this cooling is calculated in detail for both cases of ballistic and conventional transport with specific calculations for carbon nanotubes and conventional metals, followed by discussions for semiconductors, graphene, and metal-insulator transition systems. A theorem is established for ballistic transport stating that net cooling is not possible. For conventional transport, net cooling is possible over a broad temperature range, with the range being size-dependent. A temperature clamping scheme for establishing a metastable nonequilibrium stationary state is detailed and followed with discussion of possible applications to on-chip thermoelectric cooling in integrated circuitry and quantum computer systems.

  1. Cooling by Thermodynamic Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitsas, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    A method is described for cooling conductive channels to below ambient temperature. The thermodynamic induction principle dictates that the electrically biased channel will cool if the electrical conductance decreases with temperature. The extent of this cooling is calculated in detail for both cases of ballistic and conventional transport with specific calculations for carbon nanotubes and conventional metals, followed by discussions for semiconductors, graphene, and metal-insulator transition systems. A theorem is established for ballistic transport stating that net cooling is not possible. For conventional transport, net cooling is possible over a broad temperature range, with the range being size-dependent. A temperature clamping scheme for establishing a metastable nonequilibrium stationary state is detailed and followed with discussion of possible applications to on-chip thermoelectric cooling in integrated circuitry and quantum computer systems.

  2. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...... cooling system that includes such considerations as thermal comfort of the occupants, which design parameters will influence the cooling capacity and how the system should be controlled. Examples of applications are presented....

  3. Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1978-01-01

    In 1977, in a record-time of 9 months, the magnets of the g-2 experiment were modified and used to build a proton/antiproton storage ring: the "Initial Cooling Experiment" (ICE). It served for the verification of the cooling methods to be used for the "Antiproton Project". Stochastic cooling was proven the same year, electron cooling followed later. Also, with ICE the experimental lower limit for the antiproton lifetime was raised by 9 orders of magnitude: from 2 microseconds to 32 hours. For its previous life as g-2 storage ring, see 7405430. More on ICE: 7711282, 7809081, 7908242.

  4. High energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhomchuk, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  5. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Philip Albert; Lindberg, Frank A.; Garcen, Walter

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  6. Simulation of the injection system of cooling water to low pressure (Lpci) for a boiling water reactor (BWR) based on RELAP; Simulacion del sistema de inyeccion de agua de refrigeracion a baja presion (LPCI) para un reactor de agua en ebullicion (BWR) basado en RELAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado C, R. A.; Lopez S, E.; Chavez M, C., E-mail: renedelgado2015@hotmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito Interior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The present article describes the modeling and simulation of the Injection System of Cooling Water to Low Pressure (Lpci) for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. Is very important to be able to predict the behavior of the nuclear plant in the case of an emergency stop, and while nearer to the reality are the results of a simulation, better is the safety protocol that can be devised. In the Engineering Faculty of the UNAM at the present is had logical models of the safety systems, but due to the nature of the same, these simulations do not provide of the quantity of enough information to be able to reproduce with more accuracy the behavior of the Lpci in the case of a severe accident. For this reason, the RELAP code was used for the flows modeling, components and structures of heat transfers in relation to the system Lpci. The modeling of the components is carried out with base on technical information of the nuclear plant and the results will be corroborated with information in reference documents as the Rasp (the Reactor analysis support package) and the Fsar (Final safety analysis report) for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. (Author)

  7. Bursty star formation feedback and cooling outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Teresita; Pontzen, Andrew; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Slyz, Adrianne; Devriendt, Julien

    2016-10-01

    We study how outflows of gas launched from a central galaxy undergoing repeated starbursts propagate through the circum-galactic medium (CGM), using the simulation code RAMSES. We assume that the outflow from the disc can be modelled as a rapidly moving bubble of hot gas at ˜1 kpc above disc, then ask what happens as it moves out further into the halo around the galaxy on ˜100 kpc scales. To do this, we run 60 two-dimensional simulations scanning over parameters of the outflow. Each of these is repeated with and without radiative cooling, assuming a primordial gas composition to give a lower bound on the importance of cooling. In a large fraction of radiative-cooling cases we are able to form rapidly outflowing cool gas from in situ cooling of the flow. We show that the amount of cool gas formed depends strongly on the `burstiness' of energy injection; sharper, stronger bursts typically lead to a larger fraction of cool gas forming in the outflow. The abundance ratio of ions in the CGM may therefore change in response to the detailed historical pattern of star formation. For instance, outflows generated by star formation with short, intense bursts contain up to 60 per cent of their gas mass at temperatures <5 × 104 K; for near-continuous star formation, the figure is ≲5 per cent. Further study of cosmological simulations, and of idealized simulations with e.g. metal-cooling, magnetic fields and/or thermal conduction, will help to understand the precise signature of bursty outflows on observed ion abundances.

  8. Mass Transfer Cooling Near The Stagnation Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Leonard

    1959-01-01

    A simplified analysis is made of mass transfer cooling, that is, injection of a foreign gas, near the stagnation point for two-dimensional and axisymmetric bodies. The reduction in heat transfer is given in terms of the properties of the coolant gas and it is shown that the heat transfer may be reduced considerably by the introduction of a gas having appropriate thermal and diffusive properties. The mechanism by which heat transfer is reduced is discussed.

  9. Film Cooling in Fuel Rich Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    12 2.3 Hydrocarbon Combustion Hydrocarbon combustion is a chemical reaction globally following equation 2.8 in air. The heat release from this reaction ...following reaction completion in the WSR at the measured ”stack” temperature, and second for an adiabatic flame temperature and enthalpy rise for the...schemes for hot section turbine blades involve injecting cool, oxygen-rich air adjacent to the surface, the potential arises for reaction with the

  10. Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens versus extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber intraocular lens for age-related cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Samantha R; Riaz, Yasmin; Evans, Jennifer R

    2014-01-29

    Age-related cataract is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Therefore, it is important to establish the most effective surgical technique for cataract surgery. The aim of this review is to examine the effects of two types of cataract surgery for age-related cataract: phacoemulsification and extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE). We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 4), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to May 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to May 2013), Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (CPCI-S) (January 1970 to May 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 13 May 2013. We included randomised controlled trials of phacoemulsification compared to ECCE for age-related cataract. Two authors independently selected and assessed all studies. We defined two primary outcomes: 'good functional vision' (presenting visual acuity of 6/12 or better) and 'poor visual outcome' (best corrected visual acuity of less than 6/60) at three and 12 months after surgery. We also collected data on intra and postoperative complications, and the cost of the procedures. We included 11 trials in this review with a total of 1228 participants, ranging from age 45 to 94. The studies were generally at unclear risk of bias due to poorly reported trial methods. No study reported presenting visual acuity, so we report both uncorrected (UCVA) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA

  11. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC). Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 6o children aged 2-5 years, which were divided into 3 groups: children with at least one cervical caries; children with at least one proximal caries and caries-free. The infected dentine was collected from cervical and proximal caries lesions and plaque samples were collected from the three groups in order to compare the frequency of candida albicans in the collected sites. All samples were cultured in Sabouraud and CHROMagar medium and the cases that were positive for candida albicans were cultured in germ tube. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: The mean age of the children was 3.9 years. From 100 samples, candida albicans samples were isolated in 55%, mold fungi were found in 29% cases and there was no fungal growth in 16% of the samples. In plaque samples, candida albicans were found in 15% of caries-free samples, 20% of the proximal and 80% of the cervical caries. In samples extracted from the caries, candida albicans were found in 60% of the proximal and 100% of the cervical caries. Mothers with university educational level had children with more cervical decays, caries free and proximal caries, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that prevalence of Candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesions of children with early childhood caries were relatively high and the prevalence was higher in cervical caries group. PMID:24551436

  12. Elastocaloric cooling: Stretch to actively cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossmer, Hinnerk; Kohl, Manfred

    2016-10-01

    The elastocaloric effect can be exploited in solid-state cooling technologies as an alternative to conventional vapour compression. Now, an elastocaloric device based on the concept of active regeneration achieves a temperature lift of 15.3 K and efficiencies competitive with other caloric-based approaches.

  13. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  14. Solar absorption cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.-S.

    2007-01-01

    As the world concerns more and more on global climate changes and depleting energy resources, solar cooling technology receives increasing interests from the public as an environment-friendly and sustainable alternative. However, making a competitive solar cooling machine for the market still

  15. Passive evaporative cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzoulis, A.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Passive techniques for cooling are a great way to cope with the energy problem of the present day. This manual introduces passive cooling by evaporation. These methods have been used for many years in traditi

  16. Data center cooling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Dang, Hien P.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-08-11

    A method aspect for removing heat from a data center may use liquid coolant cooled without vapor compression refrigeration on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack. The method may also include regulating liquid coolant flow to the data center through a range of liquid coolant flow values with a controller-apparatus based upon information technology equipment temperature threshold of the data center.

  17. Liquid Cooled Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Astronauts working on the surface of the moon had to wear liquid-cooled garments under their space suits as protection from lunar temperatures which sometimes reach 250 degrees Fahrenheit. In community service projects conducted by NASA's Ames Research Center, the technology developed for astronaut needs has been adapted to portable cooling systems which will permit two youngsters to lead more normal lives.

  18. Solar absorption cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.-S.

    2007-01-01

    As the world concerns more and more on global climate changes and depleting energy resources, solar cooling technology receives increasing interests from the public as an environment-friendly and sustainable alternative. However, making a competitive solar cooling machine for the market still remain

  19. Coherent electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  20. Modeling gasodynamic vortex cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, A. E.; Fauve, S.

    2017-08-01

    We aim at studying gasodynamic vortex cooling in an analytically solvable, thermodynamically consistent model that can explain limitations on the cooling efficiency. To this end, we study an angular plus radial flow between two (coaxial) rotating permeable cylinders. Full account is taken of compressibility, viscosity, and heat conductivity. For a weak inward radial flow the model qualitatively describes the vortex cooling effect, in terms of both temperature and the decrease of the stagnation enthalpy, seen in short uniflow vortex (Ranque) tubes. The cooling does not result from external work and its efficiency is defined as the ratio of the lowest temperature reached adiabatically (for the given pressure gradient) to the lowest temperature actually reached. We show that for the vortex cooling the efficiency is strictly smaller than 1, but in another configuration with an outward radial flow, we find that the efficiency can be larger than 1. This is related to both the geometry and the finite heat conductivity.

  1. Hydronic rooftop cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian Eric; Berman, Mark J.

    2008-01-29

    A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

  2. INITIAL COOLING EXPERIMENT (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    ICE was built in 1977, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring (see 7405430). Its purpose was to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project. Stochastic cooling proved a resounding success early in 1978 and the antiproton project could go ahead, now entirely based on stochastic cooling. Electron cooling was experimented with in 1979. The 26 kV equipment is housed in the cage to the left of the picture, adjacent to the "e-cooler" located in a straight section of the ring. With some modifications, the cooler was later transplanted into LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) and then, with further modifications, into the AD (Antiproton Decelerator), where it cools antiprotons to this day (2006). See also: 7711282, 7802099, 7809081.

  3. INITIAL COOLING EXPERIMENT (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    ICE was built in 1977, in a record time of 9 months, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring. Its purpose was to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project, to be launched in 1978. Already early in 1978, stochastic cooling proved a resounding success, such that the antiproton (p-pbar)project was entirely based on it. Tests of electron cooling followed later: protons of 46 MeV kinetic energy were cooled with an electron beam of 26 kV and 1.3 A. The cage seen prominently in the foreground houses the HV equipment, adjacent to the "cooler" installed in a straight section of the ring. With some modifications, the cooler was later transplanted into LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) and then, with further modifications, into the AD (Antiproton Decelerator), where it cools antiprotons to this day (2006). See also: 7711282, 7802099, 7908242.

  4. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  5. Measuring the coolness of interactive products: the COOL questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Anders; Raptis, Dimitrios; Kjeldskov, Jesper;

    2016-01-01

    is the COOL questionnaire. We based the creation of the questionnaire on literature suggesting that perceived coolness is decomposed to outer cool (the style of a product) and inner cool (the personality characteristics assigned to it). In this paper, we focused on inner cool, and we identified 11 inner cool......, rebelliousness and usability. These factors and their underlying 16 question items comprise the COOL questionnaire. The whole process of creating the questionnaire is presented in detail in this paper and we conclude by discussing our work against related work on coolness and HCI....

  6. Cortical inactivation by cooling in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben eCoomber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Reversible inactivation of the cortex by surface cooling is a powerful method for studying the function of a particular area. Implanted cooling cryoloops have been used to study the role of individual cortical areas in auditory processing of awake-behaving cats. Cryoloops have also been used in rodents for reversible inactivation of the cortex, but recently there has been a concern that the cryoloop may also cool non-cortical structures either directly or via the perfusion of blood, cooled as it passed close to the cooling loop. In this study we have confirmed that the loop can inactivate most of the auditory cortex without causing a significant reduction in temperature of the auditory thalamus or other sub-cortical structures. We placed a cryoloop on the surface of the guinea pig cortex, cooled it to 2°C and measured thermal gradients across the neocortical surface. We found that the temperature dropped to 20-24°C among cells within a radius of about 2.5mm away from the loop. This temperature drop was sufficient to reduce activity of most cortical cells and led to the inactivation of almost the entire auditory region. When the temperature of thalamus, midbrain, and middle ear were measured directly during cortical cooling, there was a small drop in temperature (about 4°C but this was not sufficient to directly reduce neural activity. In an effort to visualise the extent of neural inactivation we measured the uptake of thallium ions following an intravenous injection. This confirmed that there was a large reduction of activity across much of the ipsilateral cortex and only a small reduction in subcortical structures.

  7. Commissioning of electron cooling in CSRm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-Dong; LI Jie; MAO Li-Jun; LI Guo-Hong; ZHAN Wen-Long; XIA Jia-Wen; ZHAO Hong-Wei; XIAO Guo-Qing; YUAN You-Jin; SONG Ming-Tao; LIU Yong; YANG Jian-Cheng; GAO Da-Qing; ZHOU Zhong-Zu; HE Yuan; ZHANG Wei; ZHANG Jian-Hua; MAO Rui-Shi; ZHAO Tie-Cheng; Parkhomchuk Vasily

    2009-01-01

    A new generation electron cooler has started operation in the heavy ion synchrotron CSRm which is used to increase the intensity of heavy ions.Transverse cooling of the ion beam after horizontal multi-turn injection allows beam accumulation at the injection energy.After optimization of the accumulation process an intensity increase in a synchrotron pulse by more than one order of magnitude has been achieved.In given accumulation time interval of 10 seconds,108 particles have been accumulated and accelerated to the final energy.The momentum spread after accumulation and acceleration in the 10-4 range has been demonstrated in six species of ion beams.Primary measurements of accumulation process varying with electron energy,electron beam current,electron beam profile,expansion factor and injection interval have been performed.The lifetimes of ion beams in the presence of electron beams were roughly measured with the help of DCCT signal.

  8. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannotti, Maurizio [Barry Univ., Miami Shores, FL (United States). Physical Sciences; Irastorza, Igor [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Redondo, Javier [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2015-12-15

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a preference for a mild non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP represents the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO.

  9. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    CERN Document Server

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a preference for a mild non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP represents the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO.

  10. Water-cooled electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Dumont, G; Righini, B

    2000-01-01

    LHC experiments demand on cooling of electronic instrumentation will be extremely high. A large number of racks will be located in underground caverns and counting rooms, where cooling by conventional climatisation would be prohibitively expensive. A series of tests on the direct water cooling of VMEbus units and of their standard power supplies is reported. A maximum dissipation of 60 W for each module and more than 1000 W delivered by the power supply to the crate have been reached. These values comply with the VMEbus specifications. (3 refs).

  11. SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ECC ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM OVER PRIME FIELDS%素数域上ECC加密算法的软件实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊

    2012-01-01

    椭圆曲线密码是目前公认的每比特安全性最高的密码体制,它具有安全性高、速度快、密钥短、实现时所需占用资源少等优点,非常适合应用于银行结算、电子商务和通信等领域,因此研究椭圆曲线密码的实现有重要意义.首先讨论椭圆曲线密码基本理论,然后介绍安全椭圆曲线选取方法以及经典的ECC加密算法,最后在Core(TM)2 Duo CPU E7500 2.93GHz实验平台上用标准C语言对该算法进行实现,验证该加密算法的可行性.%The elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is generally recognised at present as the most secure encryption system, which provides highest level of security strength-per-bit and has many advantages such as higher safety property, faster speed, shorter key lengths and fewer computational resources for implementation, and is very suitable for the sectors of bank settlement, e-commerce and communication. Therefore it is of significance to study the software implementation of ECC encryption algorithm. In this paper, we first introduce the basic theory of elliptic curve cryptography, and then describe the way to select a secure elliptic curve and the classic ECC encryption algorithm. Finally, we implement this algorithm in C and the assembler on a Core(TM)2 Duo CPU E75OO 2.93GHz workstation, and testify the feasibility of it.

  12. Cooling Devices in Laser therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anupam; Sarda, Aarti; De, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Cooling devices and methods are now integrated into most laser systems, with a view to protecting the epidermis, reducing pain and erythema and improving the efficacy of laser. On the basis of method employed, it can be divided into contact cooling and non-contact cooling. With respect to timing of irradiation of laser, the nomenclatures include pre-cooling, parallel cooling and post-cooling. The choice of the cooling device is dictated by the laser device, the physician's personal choice with respect to user-friendliness, comfort of the patient, the price and maintenance costs of the device. We hereby briefly review the various techniques of cooling, employed in laser practice.

  13. 基于ECC的认证协议及动态密钥管理方案%The Authentication Protocol and Dynamic Key Management Based on ECC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹阳

    2009-01-01

    针对当前无线网络中认证和密钥管理存在的安全缺陷,通过对椭圆曲线密码体制(ECC)的研究,结合ECMOV密钥协商协议和IEEE 802.1X扩展认证协议EAP-TLS及X.509证书,提出了一种在无线局域网中基于ECC的双向认证协议及密钥管理方案.

  14. LHC cooling gains ground

    CERN Multimedia

    Huillet-Miraton Catherine

    The nominal cryogenic conditions of 1.9 K have been achieved in sectors 5-6 and 7-8. This means that a quarter of the machine has reached the nominal conditions for LHC operation, having attained a temperature of below 2 K (-271°C), which is colder than interstellar space! Elsewhere, the cryogenic system in Sector 8-1 has been filled with liquid helium and cooled to 2K and will soon be available for magnet testing. Sectors 6-7 and 2-3 are being cooled down and cool-down operations have started in Sector 3-4. Finally, preparations are in hand for the cool-down of Sector 1-2 in May and of Sector 4-5, which is currently being consolidated. The LHC should be completely cold for the summer. For more information: http://lhc.web.cern.ch/lhc/Cooldown_status.htm.

  15. Why Exercise Is Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Why Exercise Is Cool KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Exercise Is ... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ...

  16. Waveguide cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B. C. J.; Hartop, R. W.

    1981-04-01

    An improved system is described for cooling high power waveguides by the use of cooling ducts extending along the waveguide, which minimizes hot spots at the flanges where waveguide sections are connected together. The cooling duct extends along substantially the full length of the waveguide section, and each flange at the end of the section has a through hole with an inner end connected to the duct and an opposite end that can be aligned with a flange hole in another waveguide section. Earth flange is formed with a drainage groove in its face, between the through hole and the waveguide conduit to prevent leakage of cooling fluid into the waveguide. The ducts have narrowed sections immediately adjacent to the flanges to provide room for the installation of fasteners closely around the waveguide channel.

  17. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  18. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  19. Investigation of the cooling film distribution in liquid rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antonio Silva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of the investigation of a cooling method widely used in the combustion chambers, which is called cooling film, and it is applied to a liquid rocket engine that uses as propellants liquid oxygen and kerosene. Starting from an engine cooling, whose film is formed through the fuel spray guns positioned on the periphery of the injection system, the film was experimentally examined, it is formed by liquid that seeped through the inner wall of the combustion chamber. The parameter used for validation and refinement of the theoretical penetration of the film was cooling, as this parameter is of paramount importance to obtain an efficient thermal protection inside the combustion chamber. Cold tests confirmed a penetrating cold enough cooling of the film for the length of the combustion chamber of the studied engine.

  20. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...... is considered as extruded profiles are inadequate for compact designs. An optimal pin fin shape and configuration is sought also taking manufacturing costs into consideration. Standard methods for geometrical modeling and thermal analysis are applied....

  1. Anomalous law of cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Rubí, J. Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergo a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature ma...

  2. Cooling tower waste reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, S.J.; Celeste, J.; Chine, R.; Scott, C.

    1998-05-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the two main cooling tower systems (central and northwest) were upgraded during the summer of 1997 to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. In 1996, these two tower systems generated approximately 135,400 lbs (61,400 kg) of hazardous sludge, which is more than 90 percent of the hazardous waste for the site annually. At both, wet decks (cascade reservoirs) were covered to block sunlight. Covering the cascade reservoirs reduced the amount of chemical conditioners (e.g. algaecide and biocide), required and in turn the amount of waste generated was reduced. Additionally, at the northwest cooling tower system, a sand filtration system was installed to allow cyclical filtering and backflushing, and new pumps, piping, and spray nozzles were installed to increase agitation. the appurtenance upgrade increased the efficiency of the cooling towers. The sand filtration system at the northwest cooling tower system enables operators to continuously maintain the cooling tower water quality without taking the towers out of service. Operational costs (including waste handling and disposal) and maintenance activities are compared for the cooling towers before and after upgrades. Additionally, the effectiveness of the sand filter system in conjunction with the wet deck covers (northwest cooling tower system), versus the cascade reservoir covers alone (south cooling tower south) is discussed. the overall expected return on investment is calculated to be in excess of 250 percent. this upgrade has been incorporated into the 1998 DOE complex-wide water conservation project being led by Sandia National Laboratory/Albuquerque.

  3. Cooling with Superfluid Helium

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P

    2014-01-01

    The technical properties of helium II (‘superfluid’ helium) are presented in view of its applications to the cooling of superconducting devices, particularly in particle accelerators. Cooling schemes are discussed in terms of heat transfer performance and limitations. Large-capacity refrigeration techniques below 2 K are reviewed, with regard to thermodynamic cycles as well as process machinery. Examples drawn from existing or planned projects illustrate the presentation. Keywords: superfluid helium, cryogenics

  4. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  5. Alternative Room Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Fazle Rabbi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing population results in an increasing demand for much more residential and commercial buildings, which leads to vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation of those buildings. Natural air ventilation system is not sufficient for conventional building structures. Hence fans and air-conditioners are must to meet the requirement of proper ventilation as well as space conditioning. Globally building sector consumes largest energy in heating, cooling, ventilation and space conditioning. This load can be minimized by the application of solar chimney and modification in building structure for heating, cooling, ventilation and space conditioning. Passive solar cooling is a subject of interest to provide cooling by using the sun, a powerful energy source. This is done for ensuring human comfort in hot climates. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers defines Comfort as ‘that state of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment.’ The present paper describes the development of a solar passive cooling system, which can provide thermal cooling throughout the summer season in hot and humid climates. The constructed passive system works on natural convection mode of air. Such system reduces the inside temperature of up to 5°C from the atmospheric temperature. Temperature can further be reduced by the judicious use of night ventilation.

  6. Comparing Social Stories™ to Cool versus Not Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Mitchell, Erin; Townley-Cochran, Donna; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Leaf, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compared the cool versus not cool procedure to Social Stories™ for teaching various social behaviors to one individual diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The researchers randomly assigned three social skills to the cool versus not cool procedure and three social skills to the Social Stories™ procedure. Naturalistic probes…

  7. Bubbles as tracers of heat input to cooling flows

    CERN Document Server

    Binney, J; Omma, H

    2007-01-01

    We examine the distribution of injected energy in three-dimensional, adaptive-grid simulations of the heating of cooling flows. We show that less than 10 percent of the injected energy goes into bubbles. Consequently, the energy input from the nucleus is underestimated by a factor of order 6 when it is taken to be given by PVgamma/(gamma-1), where P and V are the pressure and volume of the bubble, and gamma the ratio of principal specific heats.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Supersonic Film Cooling in Supersonic Flow in Hypersonic Inlet with Isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silong Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Supersonic film cooling is an efficient method to cool the engine with extremely high heat load. In order to study supersonic film cooling in a real advanced engine, a two-dimensional model of the hypersonic inlet in a scramjet engine with supersonic film cooling in the isolator is built and validated through experimental data. The simulation results show that the cooling effect under different coolant injection angles does not show clear differences; a small injection angle can ensure both the cooling effect and good aerodynamic performances (e.g., flow coefficient of the hypersonic inlet. Under selected coolant injection angle and inlet Mach number, the cooling efficiency increases along with the injection Mach number of the coolant flow, only causing a little total pressure loss in the isolator. Along with the increase of the inlet Mach number of the hypersonic inlet, the cooling efficiency does not present a monotonic change because of the complex shock waves. However, the wall temperature shows a monotonic increase when the inlet Mach number increases. The mass flow rate of coolant flow should be increased to cool the engine more efficiently according to the mass flow rate of the main stream when the inlet Mach number increases.

  9. Slot film cooling: A comprehensive experimental characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffan, Fernando

    When components of a propulsion system are exposed to elevated flow temperatures there is a risk for catastrophic failure if the components are not properly protected from the thermal loads. Among several strategies, slot film cooling is one of the most commonly used, yet poorly understood active cooling techniques. Tangential injection of a relatively cool fluid layer protects the surface(s) in question, but the turbulent mixing between the hot mainstream and cooler film along with the presence of the wall presents an inherently complex problem where kinematics, thermal transport and multimodal heat transfer are coupled. Furthermore, new propulsion designs rely heavily on CFD analysis to verify their viability. These CFD models require validation of their results, and the current literature does not provide a comprehensive data set for film cooling that meets all the demands for proper validation, namely a comprehensive (kinematic, thermal and boundary condition data) data set obtained over a wide range of conditions. This body of work aims at solving the fundamental issue of validation by providing high quality comprehensive film cooling data (kinematics, thermal mixing, heat transfer). 3 distinct velocity ratios (VR=u c/uinfinity) are examined corresponding to wall-wake (VR˜0.5), min-shear (VR ˜ 1.0), and wall-jet (VR˜2.0) type flows at injection, while the temperature ratio TR= Tinfinity/Tc is approximately 1.5 for all cases. Turbulence intensities at injection are 2-4% for the mainstream (urms/uinfinity, vrms/uinfinity,), and on the order of 8-10% for the coolant (urms/uc, vrms/uc,). A special emphasis is placed on inlet characterization, since inlet data in the literature is often incomplete or is of relatively low quality for CFD development. The data reveals that min-shear injection provides the best performance, followed by the wall-jet. The wall-wake case is comparably poor in performance. The comprehensive data suggests that this relative performance

  10. Measuring the coolness of interactive products: the COOL questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Anders; Raptis, Dimitrios; Kjeldskov, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    characteristics. These were used to create an initial pool of question items and 2236 participants were asked to assess 16 mobile devices. By performing exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, we identified three factors that can measure the perceived inner coolness of interactive products: desirability...... is the COOL questionnaire. We based the creation of the questionnaire on literature suggesting that perceived coolness is decomposed to outer cool (the style of a product) and inner cool (the personality characteristics assigned to it). In this paper, we focused on inner cool, and we identified 11 inner cool...

  11. Bias in peak clad temperature predictions due to uncertainties in modeling of ECC bypass and dissolved non-condensable gas phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Neymotin, L.Y.; Jo, J.; Wulff, W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1990-09-01

    This report describes a general method for estimating the effect on the Reflood Phase PCT from systematic errors (biases) associated with the modelling of the ECCS and dissolved nitrogen, and the application of this method in estimating biases in the Reflood Phase PCT (second PCT) predicted by the TRAC/PF1/MOD1, Version 14.3. The bias in the second PCT due to the uncertainty in the existing code models for ECCS related phenomena is {minus}19{degree}K ({minus}34{degree}F). The negative bias implies that the code models for this phenomena are conservative. The bias in the second PCT due to the lack of modelling of dissolved N{sub 2} in the code is estimated to be 9.9{degree}K (17.8{degree}F). The positive bias implies that the absence of dissolved N{sub 2} model makes the code prediction of PCT non-conservative. The bias estimation in this report is a major exception among all other uncertainty and bias assessments performed in conjunction with the CSAU methodology demonstration, because this bias estimation benefitted from using full-scale test data from the full-scale Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF). Thus, the bias estimates presented here are unaffected by scale distortions in test facilities. Data from small size facilities were also available and an estimate of bias based on these data will be conservative. 35 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to treat ... in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications ...

  13. The definition of cool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, A.

    2005-05-01

    A new air cooling system at Agnico-Eagle's LaRonde mine, located in the Abitibi Region of Quebec is described. The new system serves a mine operating at 7,250 plus feet level. The system is installed at the surface; it utilizes ammonia to cool water, which cools the air. The system consists of four compressors which lower the temperature of the ammonia to minus 2 degrees C. Water, which at this temperature is 14 degrees, and ammonia pass through a plate heat exchanger simultaneously, however, without coming into contact with each other. The heat transfer that occurs causes the water's temperature to drop to 2 degrees C. The total volume of water cooled is 220 litres per second. The system is capable of reducing 636,000 cfm of air from 30 degrees C to 6 degrees C, to which 214,000 cfm of non-cooled air is added. This mixture, which is maintained at approximately 8 degrees C throughout the summer season, is sent underground to the deepest parts of the mine. The system runs from June to September, depending on the weather. In the evenings, when the temperature dips to around four to five degrees C, the water is shut down and side doors are opened to prevent the water from freezing.

  14. Nietzsche como destino da filosofia e da humanidade? interpretação contextual do § 1 do capítulo "por que sou um destino", de ecce homo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Stegmaier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following translation is a reduced and revised version of the paper Schicksal Nietzsche? Zu Nietzsches Selbsteinschätzung als Schicksal der Philosophie und der Menschheit (Ecce Homo, Warum ich ein Schicksal bin §1" - originally published in Nietzsche-Studien 37 (2008 - which was specially prepared to be presented in lecture organized by the Grupo de Pesquisa Spinoza & Nietzsche (Spinoza & Nietzsche research group - SpiN, in the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro's Federal University, on September 14, 2009. In the text, the autor employs his own philological-hermeneutical methodology, which is called contextual interpretation, in the purpose to clarify the concepts of the first aphorism from "Why I am a destiny", from Ecce Homo, in its own context, in the context of Ecce Homo and in the context of the entire work from Nietzsche.

  15. Nietzsche como destino da filosofia e da humanidade? interpretação contextual do § 1 do capítulo "por que sou um destino", de ecce homo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Stegmaier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A tradução que se segue é uma versão resumida e revisada do artigo "Schicksal Nietzsche? Zu Nietzsches Selbsteinschätzung als Schicksal der Philosophie und der Menschheit (Ecce Homo, Warum ich ein Schicksal bin §1" - publicado originalmente em Nietzsche-Studien 37 (2008 - que foi especialmente preparada para ser apresentada em palestra organizada pelo Grupo de Pesquisa Spinoza & Nietzsche (SpiN, na Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, em 14/09/2009. No texto, o autor faz uso de sua própria metodologia filológico-hermenêutica, denominada interpretação contextual, com vistas a esclarecer os conceitos do primeiro aforismo de "por que sou um destino", de Ecce Homo no seu contexto próprio, no contexto de Ecce Homo e no contexto da obra de Nietzsche como um todo.

  16. Manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS) with posterior chamber intraocular lens versus extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber intraocular lens for age-related cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Marcus; Evans, Jennifer R; Mehta, Jod S

    2014-11-18

    Age-related cataract is the opacification of the lens, which occurs as a result of denaturation of lens proteins. Age-related cataract remains the leading cause of blindness globally, except in the most developed countries. A key question is what is the best way of removing the lens, especially in lower income settings. To compare two different techniques of lens removal in cataract surgery: manual small incision surgery (MSICS) and extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE). We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 8), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to September 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to September 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to September 2014), Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S), (January 1990 to September 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 23 September 2014. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) only. Participants in the trials were people with age-related cataract. We included trials where MSICS with a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) implant was compared to ECCE with a posterior chamber IOL implant. Data were collected independently by two authors. We aimed to collect data on presenting visual acuity 6/12 or better and best-corrected visual acuity of less than 6/60 at three months and one year after surgery. Other outcomes included intraoperative complications, long-term complications (one year or more after surgery), quality of life, and cost

  17. Aspects of Household Cooling Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mrzyglod, Matthias; Holzer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Actually available household cooling appliances in the highest efficiency class may consume less then 10W average electrical power. To achieve such power consumptions special challenges for the cooling system had to overcome. The related cooling system design has to consider several effects, which arise from the corresponding low cooling capacity demand, start/stop cycles and additional power consumptions by control accessories. The lecture provides symptomatic aspects of cooling technology, ...

  18. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allergic to iron dextran injection; any other iron injections such as ferric carboxymaltose (Injectafer), ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron sucrose (Venofer), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit);any other ...

  19. Doppler cooling a microsphere

    CERN Document Server

    Barker, P F

    2010-01-01

    Doppler cooling the center-of-mass motion of an optically levitated microsphere via the velocity dependent scattering force from narrow whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances is described. Light that is red detuned from the WGM resonance can be used to damp the center-of-mass motion in a process analogous to the Doppler cooling of atoms. Leakage of photons out of the microsphere when the incident field is near resonant with the narrow WGM resonance acts to damp the motion of the sphere. The scattering force is not limited by saturation, but can be controlled by the incident power. Cooling times on the order of seconds are calculated for a 20 micron diameter silica microsphere trapped within optical tweezers, with a Doppler temperature limit in the microKelvin regime.

  20. Natural radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.

    1979-01-01

    Natural radiative cooling at night was measured based on the surface-radiation spectrum after the heat balance of the surface exposed to the sun had been reradiated. A concept equivalent to the sky temperature and a concept useful for obtaining the net heat flux are discussed. The highest possible equilibrium temperature of the selective surface can be lowered; however, how to apply this practically is not yet known. A simple radiator, completely enclosed by a transparent screen, can produce a significant and inexpensive cooling effect. The results of experiments carried out in an area such as Padua, Italy, where the climate is not suitable for cooling purposes can still be predicted theoretically. The possibility of using the collector for heat collection during the day and as a radiator at night is indicated.

  1. Clean cooling; Saubere Kuehlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-07-01

    The round hybrid cooling towers which Balcke-Duerr GmbH is currently building for the 550-MW-IGCC-power-station of a refinery project on Sardinia have to meet particularly stringent requirements as seawater is used for cooling. The advantages are: Avoidance of visible plume with minimal energy consumption, optimal plume exit velocity and discharge, greatest possible stability of the plume column, avoidance of interference and recirculation, high operating reliability of the cooling tower. (orig.) [Deutsch] Derzeit werden die Kuehltuerme fuer ein 550-MW-IGCC-Kraftwerk einer Raffinierie auf Sardinien errichtet. Die Anforderungen an die Technik sind hoch, denn gekuehlt wird mit Seewasser. Zum Einsatz kommen Hybridrundkuehltuerme der Balcke-Duerr GmbH, Ratingen. Damit setzt das Unternehmen diesen Typ erstmals ausserhalb von Deutschland ein. (orig.)

  2. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Don E [ORNL; Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL; Becklehimer, Jeff [Cray, Inc.; Donovan, Matthew J [ORNL; Layton, Christopher C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  3. Exercise in injection moulding: Predicting the non-uniform shrinkage from PVT data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard

    Injection moulding is a widely spread technique for producing plastic parts of many kinds, for example bowls, chairs, coverings for mobile phones etc. The basic principle of injection moulding is to inject molten plastic into a closed, cooled mould (i. e. tool), where it solidifies to give the pr...

  4. Progress Toward Intercombination Line Cooling in Strontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Sarah B.; Simien, Clayton; Vudayagiri, Ashok; Killian, Thomas C.

    2002-05-01

    An external-cavity, grating-tuned diode laser system is being developed for laser cooling on the 689 nm intercombination line of Strontium (^1S0 arrow ^2P_1, Γ= (2π)*7.5 kHz), using commercially availably laser diodes. We are making progress toward locking the external-cavity diode laser to a heat pipe to produce a few mW of tunable, stabilized, single-mode power at 689 nm. The output from this laser can be injected into a slave laser to produce up to 35 mW of stabilized polarized single-mode power. The completed laser system will be used for both high-resolution spectroscopy and laser cooling. The design of this laser system as well as preliminary results will be presented.

  5. Research on Cooling Effectiveness in Stepped Slot Film Cooling Vane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yulong; WU Hong; ZHOU Feng; RONG Chengjun

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most important developments in air cooling technology for hot parts of the aero-engine,film cooling technology has been widely used.Film cooling hole structure exists mainly in areas that have high temperature,uneven cooling effectiveness issues when in actual use.The first stage turbine vanes of the aero-engine consume the largest portion of cooling air,thereby the research on reducing the amount of cooling air has the greatest potential.A new stepped slot film cooling vane with a high cooling effectiveness and a high cooling uniformity was researched initially.Through numerical methods,the affecting factors of the cooling effectiveness of a vane with the stepped slot film cooling structure were researched.This paper focuses on the cooling effectiveness and the pressure loss in different blowing ratio conditions,then the most reasonable and scientific structure parameter can be obtained by analyzing the results.The results show that 1.0 mm is the optimum slot width and 10.0 is the most reasonable blowing ratio.Under this condition,the vane achieved the best cooling result and the highest cooling effectiveness,and also retained a low pressure loss.

  6. TURBINE COOLING FLOW AND THE RESULTING DECREASE IN TURBINE EFFICIENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauntner, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    This algorithm has been developed for calculating both the quantity of compressor bleed flow required to cool a turbine and the resulting decrease in efficiency due to cooling air injected into the gas stream. Because of the trend toward higher turbine inlet temperatures, it is important to accurately predict the required cooling flow. This program is intended for use with axial flow, air-breathing jet propulsion engines with a variety of airfoil cooling configurations. The algorithm results have compared extremely well with figures given by major engine manufacturers for given bulk metal temperatures and cooling configurations. The program calculates the required cooling flow and corresponding decrease in stage efficiency for each row of airfoils throughout the turbine. These values are combined with the thermodynamic efficiency of the uncooled turbine to predict the total bleed airflow required and the altered turbine efficiency. There are ten airfoil cooling configurations and the algorithm allows a different option for each row of cooled airfoils. Materials technology is incorporated and requires the date of the first year of service for the turbine stator vane and rotor blade. The user must specify pressure, temperatures, and gas flows into the turbine. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 3080 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 61K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1980.

  7. Anomalous law of cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  8. Anomalous law of cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  9. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2002-01-01

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  10. A Cool Emperor Penguin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    哇,这只帝企鹅的胸前居然有个心形!It’s cool!(乐天:没错,它的胸前少了这幺撮毛,应该会感觉挺凉快的)cool在这里可不是“凉快”的意思,而是“酷.帅气”的意思。我们《英语大王》的英文名字就叫English Cool Kids哦!(乐天拿出一副墨镜戴上:

  11. Rapid cooled lens cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, David M.; Hsu, Ike C.

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes the optomechanical design, thermal analysis, fabrication, and test evaluation processes followed in developing a rapid cooled, infrared lens cell. Thermal analysis was the key engineering discipline exercised in the design phase. The effect of thermal stress on the lens, induced by rapid cooling of the lens cell, was investigated. Features of this lens cell that minimized the thermal stress will be discussed in a dedicated section. The results of thermal analysis on the selected lens cell design and the selection of the flow channel design in the heat exchanger will be discussed. Throughout the paper engineering drawings, illustrations, analytical results, and photographs of actual hardware are presented.

  12. Gas cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-06-01

    Although most of the development work on fast breeder reactors has been devoted to the use of liquid metal cooling, interest has been expressed for a number of years in alternative breeder concepts using other coolants. One of a number of concepts in which interest has been retained is the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). As presently envisioned, it would operate on the uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycle, similar to that used in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), and would use helium gas as the coolant.

  13. Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Palao, J P; Gordon, J M; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

    2001-01-01

    The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

  14. Asymmetric Laser Radiant Cooling in Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, E V; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    Laser pulses with small spatial and temporal dimensions can interact with a fraction of the electron bunches circulating in Compton storage rings. We studied synchrotron dynamics of such bunches when laser photons scatter off from the electrons with energy higher than the synchronous energy. In this case of ‘asymmetric cooling', as shown theoretically, the stationary energy spread is much smaller than under conditions of regular scattering; the oscillations are damped faster. Coherent oscillations of large amplitude may be damped in one synchrotron period, which makes this method feasible for injection the bunches into a ring in the longitudinal phase space. The theoretical results are validated with simulations.

  15. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  16. Cooling of Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorian H.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the theoretical basis for modeling the cooling evolution of compact stars starting from Boltzmann equations in curved space-time. We open a discussion on observational verification of different neutron star models by consistent statistics. Particular interest has the question of existence of quark matter deep inside of compact object, which has to have a specific influence on the cooling history of the star. Besides of consideration of several constraints and features of cooling evolution, which are susceptible of being critical for internal structure of hot compact stars we have introduced a method of extraction of the mass distribution of the neutron stars from temperature and age data. The resulting mass distribution has been compared with the one suggested by supernove simulations. This method can be considered as an additional checking tool for the consistency of theoretical modeling of neutron stars. We conclude that the cooling data allowed existence of neutron stars with quark cores even with one-flavor quark matter.

  17. Elementary stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G

    1983-12-01

    Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)

  18. Tapered Six-Dimensional Cooling Channel for a Muon Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, R.B.; Fernow, R.C.

    2011-03-28

    A high-luminosity muon collider requires a reduction of the six-dimensional emittance of the captured muon beam by a factor of {approx} 10{sup 6}. Most of this cooling takes place in a dispersive channel that simultaneously reduces all six phase space dimensions. We describe a tapered 6D cooling channel that should meet the requirements of a muon collider. The parameters of the channel are given and preliminary simulations are shown of the expected performance. A complete scheme for cooling a muon beam sufficiently for use in a muon collider has been previously described. This scheme uses separate 6D ionization cooling channels for the two signs of the particle charge. In each, a channel first reduces the emittance of a train of muon bunches until they can be injected into a bunch-merging system. The single muon bunches, one of each sign, are then sent through a second tapered 6D cooling channel where the transverse emittance is reduced as much as possible and the longitudinal emittance is cooled to a value below that needed for the collider. The beam can then be recombined and sent through a final cooling channel using high-field solenoids that cools the transverse emittance to the required values for the collider while allowing the longitudinal emittance to grow. This paper mainly describes the design of the 6D cooling channel before bunch merging. Cooling efficiency is conveniently measured using a parameter Q, which is defined as the rate of change of 6D emittance divided by the rate of change of the number of muons in the beam. In a given lattice Q starts off small due to losses from initial matching, then rises to a large value (Q {approx} 15 is typical for the channels discussed here), and finally falls as the emittance of the beam approaches its equilibrium value. The idea for the 6D cooling channel described here originated with the RFOFO cooling ring. This design evolved into a helical channel referred to as a 'Guggenheim' in order to avoid

  19. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipuleucel-T injection is used to treat certain types of advanced prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T injection is in a class of medications called ... Sipuleucel-T injection comes as a suspension (liquid) to be injected over about 60 minutes into a vein ...

  20. NAND flash error correction arithmetic based on ECC embedded BCH code%ECC嵌入BCH码的NAND闪存纠错算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进; 金龙旭; 李国宁; 张珂; 傅瑶; 朱鹏

    2012-01-01

    针对现有闪存基于硬件ECC纠错算法的纠错能力差,而基于RS码和BCH码纠错算法的译码耗时长的问题,提出一种适于空间应用的硬件ECC嵌入BCH码的闪存纠错算法.分析了闪存内部组织结构特点及闪存硬件ECC纠错原理,提出了一种嵌入BCH(2084,2048,3)码的闪存纠错算法.采用一种蝶形阵列处理机制来迭代计算BCH校验码.使用地面检测设备对闪存纠错算法进行了试验验证.结果表明,纠错算法能快速稳定、可靠地工作,在Flash单页2 kB/页下,可以纠正24b错误.该纠错提高了空间相机图像存储系统的可靠性.%In order to resolve the problem of the low error correcting capability of hardware ECC and the being time-consuming of decoder based on RS code or BCH code, a NAND flash error correction algorithm based on hardware ECC embedded BCH code for space application was proposed in this paper. First, this paper presents the structural characteristic of flash. Then the principle of data flash hardware ECC was analyzed. An embedded BCH code error correction arithmetic was put fonvard. Then the check code of BCH encoder was calculated by an 8-bit parallel butterfly array processing mechanism. Finally, the verification experiments to NAND controller in the prototype machine of XX-X space multi-spectral camera were carried out. The experiments results showed that the proposed error correction algorithms can operate fast, efficiently, reliably, and stably. The algorithm is able to correct 24b errors in 2 kB/page. The algorithm can improve the reliability of the space camera data storage.

  1. Detectors for low energy electron cooling in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlier, F. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Low energy operation of RHIC is of particular interest to study the location of a possible critical point in the QCD phase diagram. The performance of RHIC at energies equal to or lower than 10 GV/nucleon is limited by nonlinearities, Intra-BeamScattering (IBS) processes and space-charge effects. To successfully address the luminosity and ion store lifetime limitations imposed by IBS the method of electron cooling has been envisaged. During electron cooling processes electrons are injected along with the ion beam at the nominal ion bunch velocities. The velocity spread of the ion beam is reduced in all planes through Coulomb interactions between the cold electron beam and the ion beam. The electron cooling system proposed for RHIC will be the first of its kind to use bunched beams for the delivery of the electron bunches, and will therefore be accompanied by the necessary challenges. The designed electron cooler will be located in IP2. The electron bunches will be accelerated by a linac before being injected along side the ion beams. Thirty consecutive electron bunches will be injected to overlap with a single ion bunch. They will first cool the yellow beam before being extracted turned by 180-degrees and reinjected into the blue beam for cooling. As such, both the yellow and blue beams will be cooled by the same ion bunches. This will pose considerable challenges to ensure proper electron beam quality to cool the second ion beam. Furthermore, no ondulator will be used in the electron cooler so radiative recombination between the ions and the electrons will occur.

  2. Sorption cooling: a valid extension to passive cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornink, D.J.; Burger, J.F.; Brake, ter H.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Passive cooling has shown to be a very dependable cryogenic cooling method for space missions. Several missions employ passive radiators to cool down their delicate sensor systems for many years, without consuming power, without exporting vibrations or producing electromagnetic interference. So for

  3. Comments on Ionization Cooling Channel Characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Neuffer, David

    2013-01-01

    Ionization cooling channels with a wide variety of characteristics and cooling properties are being developed. These channels can produce cooling performances that are largely consistent with the ionization cooling theory developed previously. In this paper we review ionization cooling theory, discuss its application to presently developing cooling channels, and discuss criteria for optimizing cooling.

  4. Comments on Ionization Cooling Channel Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Neuffer, David

    2013-01-01

    Ionization cooling channels with a wide variety of characteristics and cooling properties are being developed. These channels can produce cooling performances that are largely consistent with the ionization cooling theory developed previously. In this paper we review ionization cooling theory, discuss its application to presently developing cooling channels, and discuss criteria for optimizing cooling.

  5. STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR BUNCHED BEAMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.

    2005-05-16

    Problems associated with bunched beam stochastic cooling are reviewed. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system for RHIC is under construction and has been partially commissioned. The state of the system and future plans are discussed.

  6. ALP hints from cooling anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Giannotti, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    We review the current status of the anomalies in stellar cooling and argue that, among the new physics candidates, an axion-like particle would represent the best option to account for the hinted additional cooling.

  7. Cooling devices in laser therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooling devices and methods are now integrated into most laser systems, with a view to protecting the epidermis, reducing pain and erythema and improving the efficacy of laser. On the basis of method employed, it can be divided into contact cooling and non-contact cooling. With respect to timing of irradiation of laser, the nomenclatures include pre-cooling, parallel cooling and post-cooling. The choice of the cooling device is dictated by the laser device, the physician′s personal choice with respect to user-friendliness, comfort of the patient, the price and maintenance costs of the device. We hereby briefly review the various techniques of cooling, employed in laser practice.

  8. Experimental assessment of film cooling performance of short cylindrical holes on a flat surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuldeep; Premachandran, B.; Ravi, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    The present study is an experimental investigation of film-cooling over a flat surface from the short cylindrical holes. The film cooling holes used in the combustion chamber and the afterburner liner of an aero engine has length-to-diameter (L/D) typically in the range 1-2, while the cooling holes used in turbine blades has L/D > 3. Based on the classification given in the literature, cooling holes with L/D ≤ 3 are named as short holes and cooling holes with L/D > 3 are named as long holes. Short film cooling holes cause jetting of the secondary fluid whereas the secondary fluid emerging from long holes has characteristics similar to fully developed turbulent flow in pipe. In order to understand the difference in the film cooling performance of long and short cooling holes, experimental study is carried out for five values of L/D in the range 1-5, five injection angles, α = 15°-90° and five mainstream Reynolds number 1.25 × 105-6.25 × 105 and two blowing ratios, M = 0.5-1.0. The surface temperature of the test plate is monitored using infrared thermography. The results obtained from the present study showed that the film-cooling effectiveness is higher for the longest holes (L/D = 5) investigated in the present work in comparison to that for the shorter holes. Short holes are found to give better effectiveness at the lowest investigated injection angle i.e. α = 15° in the near cooling hole region, whereas film cooling effectiveness obtained at injection angle, α = 45° is found to be better than other injection angles for longest investigated holes, i.e. L/D = 5.

  9. Experimental assessment of film cooling performance of short cylindrical holes on a flat surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuldeep; Premachandran, B.; Ravi, M. R.

    2016-03-01

    The present study is an experimental investigation of film-cooling over a flat surface from the short cylindrical holes. The film cooling holes used in the combustion chamber and the afterburner liner of an aero engine has length-to-diameter (L/D) typically in the range 1-2, while the cooling holes used in turbine blades has L/D > 3. Based on the classification given in the literature, cooling holes with L/D ≤ 3 are named as short holes and cooling holes with L/D > 3 are named as long holes. Short film cooling holes cause jetting of the secondary fluid whereas the secondary fluid emerging from long holes has characteristics similar to fully developed turbulent flow in pipe. In order to understand the difference in the film cooling performance of long and short cooling holes, experimental study is carried out for five values of L/D in the range 1-5, five injection angles, α = 15°-90° and five mainstream Reynolds number 1.25 × 105-6.25 × 105 and two blowing ratios, M = 0.5-1.0. The surface temperature of the test plate is monitored using infrared thermography. The results obtained from the present study showed that the film-cooling effectiveness is higher for the longest holes (L/D = 5) investigated in the present work in comparison to that for the shorter holes. Short holes are found to give better effectiveness at the lowest investigated injection angle i.e. α = 15° in the near cooling hole region, whereas film cooling effectiveness obtained at injection angle, α = 45° is found to be better than other injection angles for longest investigated holes, i.e. L/D = 5.

  10. On Maximal Injectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yi WANG; Guo ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    A right R-module E over a ring R is said to be maximally injective in case for any maximal right ideal m of R, every R-homomorphism f : m → E can be extended to an R-homomorphism f' : R → E. In this paper, we first construct an example to show that maximal injectivity is a proper generalization of injectivity. Then we prove that any right R-module over a left perfect ring R is maximally injective if and only if it is injective. We also give a partial affirmative answer to Faith's conjecture by further investigating the property of maximally injective rings. Finally, we get an approximation to Faith's conjecture, which asserts that every injective right R-module over any left perfect right self-injective ring R is the injective hull of a projective submodule.

  11. Self pumping magnetic cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, V.; Wang, Z.; Ray, A.; Sridhar, I.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    Efficient thermal management and heat recovery devices are of high technological significance for innovative energy conservation solutions. We describe a study of a self-pumping magnetic cooling device, which does not require external energy input, employing Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles suspended in water. The device performance depends strongly on magnetic field strength, nanoparticle content in the fluid and heat load temperature. Cooling (ΔT) by ~20 °C and ~28 °C was achieved by the application of 0.3 T magnetic field when the initial temperature of the heat load was 64 °C and 87 °C, respectively. These experiments results were in good agreement with simulations performed with COMSOL Multiphysics. Our system is a self-regulating device; as the heat load increases, the magnetization of the ferrofluid decreases; leading to an increase in the fluid velocity and consequently, faster heat transfer from the heat source to the heat sink.

  12. Cooled particle accelerator target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2005-06-14

    A novel particle beam target comprising: a rotating target disc mounted on a retainer and thermally coupled to a first array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially inwardly from the retainer and mesh without physical contact with a second array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially outwardly from and are thermally coupled to a cooling mechanism capable of removing heat from said second array of spaced-apart fins and located within the first array of spaced-apart parallel fins. Radiant thermal exchange between the two arrays of parallel plate fins provides removal of heat from the rotating disc. A method of cooling the rotating target is also described.

  13. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pulliam, Elias Noel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  14. Magnetic entropy and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Some manifestations of magnetism are well-known and utilized on an everyday basis, e.g. using a refrigerator magnet for hanging that important note on the refrigerator door. Others are, so far, more exotic, such as cooling by making use of the magnetocaloric eect. This eect can cause a change...... or nitrogen liquefaction or for room-temperature cooling. The magnetocaloric eect can further be used to determine phase transition boundaries, if a change in the magnetic state occurs at the boundary.In this talk, I will introduce the magnetocaloric eect (MCE) and the two equations, which characterize...... in the temperature of a magnetic material when a magnetic eld is applied or removed. For many years, experimentalists have made use of dilute paramagnetic materials to achieve milliKelvin temperatures by use of the magnetocaloric eect. Also, research is done on materials, which might be used for hydrogen, helium...

  15. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  16. Heating, ventilation and cooling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available content and is evaporated by the air stream with less moisture. Enthalpy wheels are more effective at transferring energy between the air streams as both sensible and latent heat is transferred. Ground-Coupled Heat Exchanger Ground-coupled heat... with high diurnal temperature variations. Evaporative Coolers Evaporative coolers work on the concept that the evaporation of water has a cooling effect on its immediate environment due to the latent heat that it absorbs in order to evaporate...

  17. Cooled Ion Frequency Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    when the cooling laser is turned off, the ions are heated by: (1) background gas collisions and (2) a plasma heating process which may be " resonant ...causes heating in our Penning traps. One way resonant particle transport is mediated is by misalignm.nt between the trap’s magnetic and electric axis...using computer solutions. The trap of Fig. 1 is noteworthy because although the inner surfaces of the trap are machined with simple conical cuts, the

  18. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Barton, Donald; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruhwiler, David L; Burger, Al; Burov, Alexey; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Eidelman, Yury I; Favale, Anthony; Fedotov, Alexei V; Fischer, Wolfram; Funk, L W; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Harrison, Michael; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Koop, Ivan; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Mahler, George; Malitsky, Nikolay; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Merminga, Lia; Meshkov, Igor; Mirabella, Kerry; Montag, Christoph; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Parzen, George; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Shatunov, Yuri; Sidorin, Anatoly O; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Trbojevic, Dejan; Troubnikov, Grigory; Wang, Gang; Wei, Jie; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang; ain, Animesh K

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.ags...

  19. Low mass integrated cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Low mass on - detec tor cooling systems are being developed and stud ied by the Detector Technology group (PH - DT) in the CERN Physics Department in close collaboration with LHC and non - LHC experiments . Two approaches are currently being investigated. The first approach, for barrel configurations, consists in integrating the cooli ng apparatus in light mechanical structures support ing the detectors. In this case , the thermal management can be achieved either with light cooling pipes and thin plates or with a network of microchannels embedded in thin strips of silicon or polyimide . Both configuratio ns are being investigated in the context of the 2018 upgrade program of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). Moreover, it is also possible to use a s ilicon microchannel cooling device itself as structural support for the detectors and electronics. Such a configur ation has been adopted by the NA62 collaboration for the ir GigaTracKer (GTK) as well as by the LHCb collaboration for the 2018 major upgrade of...

  20. Simulation of Desiccant Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaruddin A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Desiccant cooling system has been an attractive topic for study lately, due to its environmentally friendly nature. It also consume less electricity and capable to be operated without refrigerant. A simulation study was conducted using 1.5 m long ducting equipped with one desiccant wheel, one sensible heat exchanger wheel, one evaporative cooling chamber and two blowers and one electric heater. The simulation study used 8.16 m/s primary air, the drying coefficient from desiccant wheel, k1=2.1 (1/s, mass transfer coefficient in evaporative cooling, k2=1.2 kg vapor/s, heat transfer coefficient in desiccant wheel, h1=4.5 W/m2 oC, and heat transfer coefficient in sensible heat exchanger wheel h2= 4.5 W/m2 oC. The simulation results show that the final temperature before entering into the air conditioning room was 25 oC and RH of 65 %, were in accordance with the Indonesian comfort index.

  1. Ultraefficient Cooling of Resonators: Beating Sideband Cooling with Quantum Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoting; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Strauch, Frederick; Jacobs, Kurt

    2012-02-01

    There is presently a great deal of interest in cooling high-frequency micro- and nano-mechanical oscillators to their ground states. The present state of the art in cooling mechanical resonators is a version of sideband cooling, which was originally developed in the context of cooling trapped ions. Here we present a method based on quantum control that uses the same configuration as sideband cooling--coupling the resonator to be cooled to a second microwave (or optical) auxiliary resonator--but will cool significantly colder. This is achieved by applying optimal control and varying the strength of the coupling between the two resonators over a time on the order of the period of the mechanical resonator. As part of our analysis, we also obtain a method for fast, high-fidelity quantum information transfer between resonators.

  2. Evaluation on Long-term Cooling of CANDU after Sump Blockage using MARS-KS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Seon Oh; Cho, Yong Jin [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    There was a real incident that part of the fibrous insulation debris stripped by steam jet was transported to the pool and clogged the intake strainers of the drywell spray system, which revealed a weakness in the defense-in-depth concept which under other circumstances could have led to the ECCS failing to provide coolant to the core. Since the above Barseback-2 incident in 1992, lots of the international activities have been carried out to identify essential parameters and physical phenomena and to promote consensus on the technical issues, important for safety and possible paths for their resolution. In nuclear power plant under operation, if an unplanned reactor trip or a power reduction occurs, operators are required to maintain the reactor in a stable state according to emergency operating procedure (EOP) and to take diagnosis and appropriate mitigation actions if necessary. Subject to the EOP of Wolsong unit 1 (the first Korean PHWR NPP) under LOCA, intact or broken loops are diagnosed using the available plant information such as pressure and temperature of outlet headers. For the intact loop, effective long-term cooling is envisioned through the operation of shutdown cooling system as implemented in the EOP. In this work, the adequacy of long-term cooling during the recirculation phase of LOCA was evaluated under the postulated condition of the reduced flow path of the recirculation sump due to the inflow of substantial amount of debris released by the break flow with high energy. For the intact loop, although the incipience of boiling in the fuel channel was evaluated to occur, the effective long-term cooling can be achieved through the shutdown cooling system as guided in the EOP.

  3. Cooling lubricants; Kuehlschmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Breuer, D. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Blome, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Deininger, C. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Hahn, J.U. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Kleine, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Nies, E. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Pflaumbaum, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Stockmann, R. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Willert, G. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Sonnenschein, G. [Maschinenbau- und Metall-Berufsgenossenschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    As a rule, the base substances used are certain liquid hydrocarbons from mineral oils as well as from native and synthetic oils. Through the addition of further substances the cooling lubricant takes on the particular qualities required for the use in question. Employees working with cooling lubricants are exposed to various hazards. The assessment of the concentrations at the work station is carried out on the basis of existing technical rules for contact with hazardous substances. However, the application/implementation of compulsory investigation and supervision in accordance with these rules is made difficult by the fact that cooling lubricants are, as a rule, made up of complicated compound mixtures. In addition to protecting employees from exposure to mists and vapours from the cooling lubricants, protection for the skin is also of particular importance. Cooling lubricants should not, if at all possible, be brought into contact with the skin. Cleansing the skin and skin care is just as important as changing working clothes regularly, and hygiene and cleanliness at the workplace. Unavoidable emissions are to be immediately collected at the point where they arise or are released and safely disposed of. This means taking into account all sources of emissions. The programme presented in this report therefore gives a very detailed account of the individual protective measures and provides recommendations for the design of technical protection facilities. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Als Basisstoffe dienen in der Regel bestimmte fluessige Kohlenwasserstoffverbindungen aus Mineraloelen sowie aus nativen oder synthetischen Oelen. Durch die Zugabe von weiteren Stoffen erlangt der Kuehlschmierstoff seine fuer den jeweiligen Anwendungsabfall geforderten Eigenschaften. Beschaeftigte, die mit Kuehlschmierstoffen umgehen, sind unterschiedliche Gefahren ausgesetzt. Die Beurteilung der Kuehlschmierstoffkonzentrationen in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz erfolgt auf der Grundlage bestehender

  4. Crack Distribution and Mechanical Performance of Self-healing of Engineered Cementitious Composites(ECC) Materials%工程水泥基材料裂缝分布及自愈合后力学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚黎黎; 施惠生

    2012-01-01

    Crack distribution, mechanical performance recovery of self-healing engineered cementitious composites(ECC) materials under wet/dry conditioning cycles and nano-identation analyses of the microphases in ECC at 0. 3%, 0. 5%, 1. 0% and 2. 0% pre-loading were investigated. The results suggest that ECC has many characteristics that contribute to self-healing behavior. Majority of ECC cracks are below 30 μm in width. Both ultimate tensile strength and tensile strain capacity of the majority specimens at reloading are higher than the control specimens. The modulus of elasticity, hardness and stiffness of healed products is about 34. 8 Gpa, 1. 6 Gpa and 0. 1 mN/nm respectively.%在0.3%,0.5%,1.0%,2.0%预加拉伸应变破坏下,进行了2种配比、不同龄期的工程水泥基复合材料(ECC)的裂缝分布、干湿循环自愈合后力学性能的恢复及不同物相的纳米压痕测试.结果表明:ECC具有很多有利于裂缝自愈合行为的特性,其裂缝宽度大都在30μm以下,自愈合后,其最终强度及拉伸应变能力均能达到甚至超过对比试件,裂缝自愈合产物的弹性模量约为34.8 GPa,硬度约为1.6 GPa,刚度约为0.1 mN/nm.

  5. Injectable hydrogels as unique biomedical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin; Ding, Jiandong

    2008-08-01

    A concentrated fish soup could be gelled in the winter and re-solled upon heating. In contrast, some synthetic copolymers exhibit an inverse sol-gel transition with spontaneous physical gelation upon heating instead of cooling. If the transition in water takes place below the body temperature and the chemicals are biocompatible and biodegradable, such gelling behavior makes the associated physical gels injectable biomaterials with unique applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering etc. Various therapeutic agents or cells can be entrapped in situ and form a depot merely by a syringe injection of their aqueous solutions at target sites with minimal invasiveness and pain. This tutorial review summarizes and comments on this soft matter, especially thermogelling poly(ethylene glycol)-(biodegradable polyester) block copolymers. The main types of injectable hydrogels are also briefly introduced, including both physical gels and chemical gels.

  6. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Combivir), a medication used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Epoetin alfa injection is also used before ... inject epoetin alfa, as directed by your doctor. Write down the date, time, dose of epoetin alfa ...

  7. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is used to treat Dupuytren's contracture (a painless thickening and tightening of tissue [cord] beneath ... of tissue can be felt upon examination. Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is also used to treat Peyronie's ...

  8. Iron Sucrose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called iron ...

  9. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or ICSI, is a form of in vitro fertilization in which fertilization occurs outside of the ... laboratory dish. Within a few hours, a single sperm is injected through a fine needle into the ...

  10. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  11. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  12. Other Injectable Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... July 17, 2013 Last Edited: February 22, 2017 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: cg-infusion-sets,meds-bg-injectables,cg-injection-aids, In this section Treatment and Care Medication Insulin & ...

  13. Injection losses and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Bracco, C; Dehning, B; Di Mauro, A; Drosdal, L; Emery, J; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Höfle, W; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Radaelli, S; Shaposhnilova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

    2012-01-01

    Injection losses are compared for 2010 and 2011 operation. Mitigation techniques which were put in place in 2010 to reduce losses at injection are described. Issues in 2011 operation, their potential improvements and the performance reach for 2012 are shown.

  14. Laser Cooling of Molecular Anions

    CERN Document Server

    Yzombard, Pauline; Gerber, Sebastian; Doser, Michael; Comparat, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scheme for laser cooling of negatively charged molecules. We briefly summarise the requirements for such laser cooling and we identify a number of potential candidates. A detailed computation study with C$\\_2^-$, the most studied molecular anion, is carried out. Simulations of 3D laser cooling in a gas phase show that this molecule could be cooled down to below 1 mK in only a few tens of milliseconds, using standard lasers. Sisyphus cooling, where no photo-detachment process is present, as well as Doppler laser cooling of trapped C$\\_2^-$, are also simulated. This cooling scheme has an impact on the study of cold molecules, molecular anions, charged particle sources and antimatter physics.

  15. Laser cooling of molecular anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yzombard, Pauline; Hamamda, Mehdi; Gerber, Sebastian; Doser, Michael; Comparat, Daniel

    2015-05-29

    We propose a scheme for laser cooling of negatively charged molecules. We briefly summarize the requirements for such laser cooling and we identify a number of potential candidates. A detailed computation study with C_{2}^{-}, the most studied molecular anion, is carried out. Simulations of 3D laser cooling in a gas phase show that this molecule could be cooled down to below 1 mK in only a few tens of milliseconds, using standard lasers. Sisyphus cooling, where no photodetachment process is present, as well as Doppler laser cooling of trapped C_{2}^{-}, are also simulated. This cooling scheme has an impact on the study of cold molecules, molecular anions, charged particle sources, and antimatter physics.

  16. Genetic Algorithm for Injection Mould Design and Moulding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K; F; Chu; J; K; L; Ho; C; K; Mok

    2002-01-01

    Obtaining the optimal values of the parameters for th e design of a required mould and the operation of the moulding process are diffi cult, this is due to the complexity of product geometry and the variation of pla stic material properties. The typical parameters for the mould design and mouldi ng process are melt flow length, injection pressure, holding pressure, back pres sure, injection speed, melt temperature, mould temperature, clamping force, inje ction time, holding time and cooling time. This pape...

  17. Gas Vapor Injection on Refrigerant Cycle Using Piston Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Colmek, Sophie; Goderneaux, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Gas vapor injection on refrigerant cycle is always used with Scroll, Rotary or others compressors technology to improve efficiency of the system at low and high ambient temperatures. Probably this kind of compressor is more adapted than the piston technology owing to their mechanical system. In this paper, we present the challenge of vapor injection realized on piston technology compressor range non for improving the cooling capacity of the system but to maintain the compressor temperature in...

  18. Process integration: Cooling water systems design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique for grassroot design of cooling water system for wastewater minimization which incorporates the performances of the cooling towers involved. The study focuses mainly on cooling systems consisting of multiple cooling...

  19. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  20. Mitomycin C-augmented trabeculectomy: subtenon injection versus soaked sponges: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakravan, Mohammad; Esfandiari, Hamed; Yazdani, Shahin; Douzandeh, Azadeh; Amouhashemi, Nassim; Yaseri, Mehdi; Pakravan, Parto

    2017-09-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of subtenon injection of mitomycin C (MMC) with that of conventional application of MMC-soaked sponges in trabeculectomy. In this multicentre randomised clinical trial, 80 consecutive open-angle glaucoma cases were randomised into two groups; group 1 received a subtenon injection of 0.1 mL of 0.01% MMC, while group 2 received 0.02% MMC-soaked sponges. Primary outcome measure was intraocular pressure (IOP), and secondary outcome measures were endothelial cell count (ECC) changes and bleb morphology according to the Indiana Bleb Appearance Grading Scale. Outcome measures were compared at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Complete and qualified success was defined as IOP within 6-15 mm Hg without and with medications at month 6, respectively. Mean preoperative IOP was 21.8±5.1 in group 1, which reduced to 10.3±3.7 mm Hg at final visit (p<0.001). Corresponding values for group 2 were 21.8±5 and 10.8±3.5 mm Hg respectively (p<0.001). Complete success was 82.5% in both groups, and qualified success was 0 and 2.5% in groups 1 and 2, respectively. (p=0.316) The blebs tended to be more diffuse, less vascularised and shallower in group 1, at month 6 (p=0.45,<0.001 and <0.007 respectively). ECCs did not change significantly at final visit (p=0.813). Subtenon injection of MMC is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional soaked sponge method. This method produces more favourable bleb morphology after trabeculectomy. NCT02385370, Post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Beam injection into RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  2. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  3. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  4. Solar heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffie, J A; Beckman, W A

    1976-01-16

    We have adequate theory and engineering capability to design, install, and use equipment for solar space and water heating. Energy can be delivered at costs that are competitive now with such high-cost energy sources as much fuel-generated, electrical resistance heating. The technology of heating is being improved through collector developments, improved materials, and studies of new ways to carry out the heating processes. Solar cooling is still in the experimental stage. Relatively few experiments have yielded information on solar operation of absorption coolers, on use of night sky radiation in locations with clear skies, on the combination of a solar-operated Rankine engine and a compression cooler, and on open cycle, humidification-dehumidification systems. Many more possibilities for exploration exist. Solar cooling may benefit from collector developments that permit energy delivery at higher temperatures and thus solar operation of additional kinds of cycles. Improved solar cooling capability can open up new applications of solar energy, particularly for larger buildings, and can result in markets for retrofitting existing buildings. Solar energy for buildings can, in the next decade, make a significant contribution to the national energy economy and to the pocketbooks of many individual users. very large-aggregate enterprises in manufacture, sale, and installation of solar energy equipment can result, which can involve a spectrum of large and small businesses. In our view, the technology is here or will soon be at hand; thus the basic decisions as to whether the United States uses this resource will be political in nature.

  5. Laser Cooling of Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    observed in a range of glasses and crystals doped with Yb3+ (ZBLANP [19–22], ZBLAN [23,24], CNBZn [9,25] BIG [25, 26], KGd(WO4)2 [9], KY(WO4)2 [9], YAG [27...Yb3+-doped fluorozirconate glass ZBLAN , Phys. Rev. B 75, 144302 (2007). [40] C. W. Hoyt, Laser Cooling in Thulium-doped Solids, Ph. D. Thesis...date, optical refrigeration research has been confined to glasses and crystals doped with rare- earth elements and direct-band semiconductors such as

  6. Passive residual energy utilization system in thermal cycles on water-cooled power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placco, Guilherme M.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F., E-mail: placco@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAV/DCTA) Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Santos, Rubens S. dos, E-mail: rsantos@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN -RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work presents a concept of a residual energy utilization in nuclear plants thermal cycles. After taking notice of the causes of the Fukushima nuclear plant accident, an idea arose to adapt a passive thermal circuit as part of the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System). One of the research topics of IEAv (Institute for Advanced Studies), as part of the heat conversion of a space nuclear power system is a passive multi fluid turbine. One of the main characteristics of this device is its passive capability of staying inert and be brought to power at moments notice. During the first experiments and testing of this passive device, it became clear that any small amount of gas flow would generate power. Given that in the first stages of the Fukushima accident and even during the whole event there was plenty availability of steam flow that would be the proper condition to make the proposed system to work. This system starts in case of failure of the ECCS, including loss of site power, loss of diesel generators and loss of the battery power. This system does not requires electricity to run and will work with bleed steam. It will generate enough power to supply the plant safety system avoiding overheating of the reactor core produced by the decay heat. This passive system uses a modified Tesla type turbine. With the tests conducted until now, it is possible to ensure that the operation of this new turbine in a thermal cycle is very satisfactory and it performs as expected. (author)

  7. THE COOLING OF CORONAL PLASMAS. IV. CATASTROPHIC COOLING OF LOOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cargill, P. J. [Space and Atmospheric Physics, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, S. J., E-mail: p.cargill@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We examine the radiative cooling of coronal loops and demonstrate that the recently identified catastrophic cooling is due to the inability of a loop to sustain radiative/enthalpy cooling below a critical temperature, which can be >1 MK in flares, 0.5-1 MK in active regions, and 0.1 MK in long tenuous loops. Catastrophic cooling is characterized by a rapid fall in coronal temperature, while the coronal density changes by a small amount. Analytic expressions for the critical temperature are derived and show good agreement with numerical results. This effect considerably limits the lifetime of coronal plasmas below the critical temperature.

  8. Cooling Performance of an Impingement Cooling Device Combined with Pins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongliang QUAN; Songling LIU; Jianghai LI; Gaowen LIU

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study and one dimensional model analysis were conducted to investigate cooling performance of an integrated impingement and pin fin cooling device. A typical configuration specimen was made and tested in a large scale low speed closed-looped wind tunnel. Detailed two-dimensional contour maps of the temperature and cooling effectiveness were obtained for different pressure ratios and therefore different coolant flow-rates through the tested specimen. The experimental results showed that very high cooling effectiveness can be achieved by this cooling device with relatively small amount of coolant flow. Based on the theory of transpiration cooling in porous material, a one dimensional heat transfer model was established to analyze the effect of various parameters on cooling effectiveness. It was found from this model that the variation of heat transfer on the gas side, including heat transfer coefficient and film cooling effectiveness, of the specimen created much more effect on its cooling effectiveness than that of the coolant side. The predictions of the one-dimensional mode were compared and agreed well with the experimental data.

  9. Mixture distribution measurement using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in hydrogen direct injection stratified charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shudo, Toshio [Applied Energy System Group, Division of Energy and Environmental Systems, Hokkaido University, N13 W8 Kita-Ward, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Oba, Shuji [Mazda Motor Corporation, Hiroshima 730-8670 (Japan)

    2009-03-15

    Reduction in cooling loss due to the heat transfer from burning gas to the combustion chamber wall is very important for improving the thermal efficiency in hydrogen engines. The previous research has shown that the direct injection stratified charge can be a technique to reduce the cooling loss and improve thermal efficiency in hydrogen combustion. For effective reductions in cooling loss by the stratified charge, it is very important to know the relation between the fuel injection conditions and mixture distribution. The current research employs the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy as a method to measure the hydrogen concentration distribution in the direct injection stratified charge. Measurement of instantaneous local equivalence ratio by the method clears the characteristics of mixture formation in hydrogen direct injection stratified charge. This research also tries to actively control the mixture distribution using a split fuel injection. (author)

  10. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebarjadi, M., E-mail: m.zebarjadi@rutgers.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Institute of Advanced Materials, Devices, and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  11. Optical stochastic cooling in Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, V

    2012-01-01

    Intrabeam scattering is the major mechanism resulting in a growth of beam emittances and fast luminosity degradation in the Tevatron. As a result in the case of optimal collider operation only about 40% of antiprotons are used to the store end and the rest are discarded. Beam cooling is the only effective remedy to increase the particle burn rate and, consequently, the luminosity. Unfortunately neither electron nor stochastic cooling can be effective at the Tevatron energy and bunch density. Thus the optical stochastic cooling (OSC) is the only promising technology capable to cool the Tevatron beam. Possible ways of such cooling implementation in the Tevatron and advances in the OSC cooling theory are discussed in this paper. The technique looks promising and potentially can double the average Tevatron luminosity without increasing its peak value and the antiproton production.

  12. Analysis of Related Factors of Children S-ECC%S-ECC儿童乳牙患龋的主要相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊鲁娜; 王丁

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate S-ECC related behavioural and social factors by the way of questionnaire.To provide fundamental data and guidance for oral health care.Methods Oral examination and questionnaire in 3~6 years old children,Calculation and finishing using statistical software SPSS14.0.Results The main risk factors to S-ECC are the children life style,including feeding habits and frequency of sugar intakes,education of parents and attitudes to the oral health. Conclusion We should strengthen oral health education to the children and their parents,and the monitoring and evaluation of health education programs.Simple and effective health care project should be found to control the caries of deciduous teeth and improve the life quality in children.%  目的通过问卷调查的方式,希望能了解与S-ECC相关的行为和社会学因素,从而对今后乳牙龋病的预防治疗提供辅助依据。方法选择医院门诊和北京城市幼儿园中3~6岁儿童,进行口腔检查并对受检者的父亲或者母亲发放调查问卷。使用统计软件SPSS14.0进行计算和整理。结果无龋组和S-ECC组儿童的父母文化程度、儿童夜间饮奶习惯、常喝的饮品、睡前吃零食习惯和第一次看牙原因有显著差异。其他问卷中的因素,均无显著差异。结论应加强对儿童及家长的口腔健康教育,加强健康教育项目的监测与评估,寻找简单有效的保健项目,控制乳牙龋病,提高儿童生活质量。

  13. Un ejemplo de constitución genérica en la literatura espiritual: el «paso» del Ecce Homo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pego Puigbó, Armando

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Spiritual Literature represents a very special branch within the literary system. In this article the genre of the «paso», which is completely different from the dramatic one, will be discussed beyond the traditional approches, based on thematic, formal and discoursive features. In this way, in the «paso» a possible connection of a literary kind with a kind of knowledge and experience is proposed. The Renaissance Genre-Theory can provide a view which allows us to surpass the narrow frame of mimesis. The literary kind is opened to the world, which is represented through the communicative powers of rhetoric devices. The «paso» belongs to the epidictic genre. The praise of Christ adopts the narration of a passage taken out from the Passion, according to figurae sententiae waiting for affective answers. But its spiritual condition is produced by cultural implications which warrant the correct interpretation of its meanings. Examples of Ecce homo by Francisco de Osuna, Juan de Ávila and fray Luis de Granada are analysed according to this purpose.La literatura espiritual representa una rama muy especial dentro del sistema literario. En este artículo, se discutirá el género del «paso», en nada parecido a su homónimo dramático, más allá de los criterios temático, formal y discursivo. En el «paso» puede proponerse una posible conexión entre una clase literaria y una clase de conocimiento y experiencia. La teoría renacentista de los géneros es capaz de ofrecer una perspectiva que supera el estrecho marco de la mímesis. La clase literaria se abre al mundo real, representado por medio de la fuerza comunicativa de los procedimientos retóricos. En este sentido el «paso» pertenece al género epidíctico en cuanto que la alabanza de Cristo adopta la forma de una narración extraída del relato de la Pasión. Las figuras de pensamiento buscan una respuesta afectiva, cuyo empleo y sentido son correctamente interpretados a través de

  14. Electron Cooling Experiments in CSR

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaodong, Yang

    2011-01-01

    The six species heavy ion beam was accumulated with the help of electron cooling in the main ring of Cooler Storage Ring of Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou(HIRFL-CSR), the ion beam accumulation dependence on the parameters of cooler was investigated experimentally. The 400MeV/u 12C6+ and 200MeV/u 129Xe54+ was stored and cooled in the experimental ring CSRe, the cooling force was measured in different condition.

  15. Radiative cooling for thermophotovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiguang; Sun, Xingshu; Bermel, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Radiative cooling has recently garnered a great deal of attention for its potential as an alternative method for photovoltaic thermal management. Here, we will consider the limits of radiative cooling for thermal management of electronics broadly, as well as a specific application to thermal power generation. We show that radiative cooling power can increase rapidly with temperature, and is particularly beneficial in systems lacking standard convective cooling. This finding indicates that systems previously operating at elevated temperatures (e.g., 80°C) can be passively cooled close to ambient under appropriate conditions with a reasonable cooling area. To examine these general principles for a previously unexplored application, we consider the problem of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion of heat to electricity via thermal radiation illuminating a photovoltaic diode. Since TPV systems generally operate in vacuum, convective cooling is sharply limited, but radiative cooling can be implemented with proper choice of materials and structures. In this work, realistic simulations of system performance are performed using the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) techniques to capture thermal emitter radiation, PV diode absorption, and radiative cooling. We subsequently optimize the structural geometry within realistic design constraints to find the best configurations to minimize operating temperature. It is found that low-iron soda-lime glass can potentially cool the PV diode by a substantial amount, even to below ambient temperatures. The cooling effect can be further improved by adding 2D-periodic photonic crystal structures. We find that the improvement of efficiency can be as much as an 18% relative increase, relative to the non-radiatively cooled baseline, as well as a potentially significant improvement in PV diode lifetime.

  16. To Be Cool or Uncool?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁会珍

    2007-01-01

    The western world has always been divided into two types of people-the cool and the uncool. It is a division that __1__ in school. The cool kids are good at __2__. They are __3__ with the opposite sex. They are good-looking and people want to __4__ their style. They can do their homework but they don't make a big effort. That would __5__ be cool.

  17. Electron cooling experiments in CSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARKHOMCHUK; Vasily; REVA; Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The six species heavy ion beam was accumulated with the help of electron cooling in the main ring of Cooler Storage Ring of Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL-CSR). The ion beam accumulation dependence on the parameters of cooler was investigated experimentally. The 400 MeV/u 12C6+ and 200 MeV/u 129Xe54+ were stored and cooled in the experimental ring CSRe, and the cooling force was measured in different conditions.

  18. Workshop 4 Converter cooling & recuperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Peter; Hindman, Don

    1995-01-01

    Cooling the PV converter increases the overall TPV system efficiency, and more than offsets the losses incurred in providing cooling systems. Convective air flow methods may be sufficient, and several standard water cooling systems, including thermo-syphon radiators, capillary pumps or microchannel plates, are available. Recuperation is used to increase system efficiency, rather than to increase the emitter temperature. Recuperators operating at comparable high temperatures, such as in high temperature turbines have worked effectively.

  19. Stochastic cooling technology at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquinelli, R.J. E-mail: pasquin@fnal.gov

    2004-10-11

    The first antiproton cooling systems were installed and commissioned at Fermilab in 1984-1985. In the interim period, there have been several major upgrades, system improvements, and complete reincarnation of cooling systems. This paper will present some of the technology that was pioneered at Fermilab to implement stochastic cooling systems in both the Antiproton Source and Recycler accelerators. Current performance data will also be presented.

  20. Optimization of injection pressure for a compression ignition engine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    techniques, such as heating of fuel lines, trans-esterification, modification of .... cylinder, 4 stroke, naturally aspirated, direct injection, water cooled, eddy current .... Initially the engine was run with diesel to know the performance at 180 bar .... modeling, Alternate fuels, Heat transfer, Refrigeration and Air-conditioning. She.

  1. Development of Integrated Simulation System for Plastic Injection Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGXue-wen; LIDe-qun; ZHOUHua-min

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulation of injection molding have had success in predicting the behavior of polymer melt in extremely complicated geometries. Most of the current numerical solutions are based on finite-element/finite-difference/boundary-element/volume-control methods and the surface model. This paper discusses the development of an integrated CAE system for injection molding in detail, and presents the mathematics for numerical simulation of filling, packing,cooling, stress and warpage in injection molding. The developed system named as HsCAE3D is introduced at the end.

  2. Fabrication of micro gear wheels by micropowder injection molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiqing Yin; Xuanhui Qu; Chengchang Jia

    2008-01-01

    The micropowder injection molding technology was investigated to fabricate the microsized gear wheels on a conventional injection molding machine. The feedstock comprised of carbonyl ferrum powder and a wax-based thermoplastic binder. Microinjection molding was fulfilled at about 423 K under 100 MPa. The heating system was applied to the die to improve the fluidity of the feedstock and subsequently the cooling system was used to enhance the strength of the green compacts after injection by decreasing the temperature of the die. The gear wheels were realized successfully with their addendum circle diameter ranging from 800 to 200 m and with the center hole as small as 60 μtm.

  3. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  4. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  5. Regeneratively Cooled Porous Media Jacket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Greg (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); London, Adam Pollok (Inventor); Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The fluid and heat transfer theory for regenerative cooling of a rocket combustion chamber with a porous media coolant jacket is presented. This model is used to design a regeneratively cooled rocket or other high temperature engine cooling jacket. Cooling jackets comprising impermeable inner and outer walls, and porous media channels are disclosed. Also disclosed are porous media coolant jackets with additional structures designed to transfer heat directly from the inner wall to the outer wall, and structures designed to direct movement of the coolant fluid from the inner wall to the outer wall. Methods of making such jackets are also disclosed.

  6. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  7. ATLAS' major cooling project

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, a considerable effort has been put into commissioning the various units of ATLAS' complex cryogenic system. This is in preparation for the imminent cooling of some of the largest components of the detector in their final underground configuration. The liquid helium and nitrogen ATLAS refrigerators in USA 15. Cryogenics plays a vital role in operating massive detectors such as ATLAS. In many ways the liquefied argon, nitrogen and helium are the life-blood of the detector. ATLAS could not function without cryogens that will be constantly pumped via proximity systems to the superconducting magnets and subdetectors. In recent weeks compressors at the surface and underground refrigerators, dewars, pumps, linkages and all manner of other components related to the cryogenic system have been tested and commissioned. Fifty metres underground The helium and nitrogen refrigerators, installed inside the service cavern, are an important part of the ATLAS cryogenic system. Two independent helium refrigerators ...

  8. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... be pregnant What medicines you are taking, including herbs, supplements, and other drugs you bought without a ...

  9. Air cooled absorption chillers for solar cooling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, W. J.; Reimann, R. C.

    1982-03-01

    The chemical composition of a 'best' absorption refrigerant system is identified, and those properties of the system necessary to design hot water operated, air cooled chilling equipment are determined. Air cooled chillers from single family residential sizes into the commercial rooftop size range are designed and operated.

  10. Entropy Injection as a Global Feedback Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, S P; Benson, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Both preheating of the intergalactic medium and radiative cooling of low entropy gas have been proposed to explain the deviation from self-similarity in the cluster L_x-T_x relation and the observed entropy floor in these systems. However, severe overcooling of gas in groups is necessary for radiative cooling alone to explain the observations. Non-gravitational entropy injection must therefore still be important in these systems. We point out that on scales of groups and below, gas heated to the required entropy floor cannot cool in a Hubble time, regardless of its subsequent adiabatic compression. Preheating therefore shuts off the gas supply to galaxies, and should be an important global feedback mechanism for galaxy formation. Constraints on global gas cooling can be placed from the joint evolution of the comoving star formation rate and neutral gas density. Preheating at high redshift can be ruled out; however the data does not rule out passive gas consumption without inflow since z~2. Since for preheated...

  11. Numerical and experimental investigation of turbine blade film cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkache, Amar; Dizene, Rabah

    2017-06-01

    The blades in a gas turbine engine are exposed to extreme temperature levels that exceed the melting temperature of the material. Therefore, efficient cooling is a requirement for high performance of the gas turbine engine. The present study investigates film cooling by means of 3D numerical simulations using a commercial code: Fluent. Three numerical models, namely k-ɛ, RSM and SST turbulence models; are applied and then prediction results are compared to experimental measurements conducted by PIV technique. The experimental model realized in the ENSEMA laboratory uses a flat plate with several rows of staggered holes. The performance of the injected flow into the mainstream is analyzed. The comparison shows that the RANS closure models improve the over-predictions of center-line film cooling velocities that is caused by the limitations of the RANS method due to its isotropy eddy diffusivity.

  12. Thin-Film Evaporative Cooling for Side-Pumped Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brian K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method are provided for cooling a crystal rod of a side-pumped laser. A transparent housing receives the crystal rod therethrough so that an annular gap is defined between the housing and the radial surface of the crystal rod. A fluid coolant is injected into the annular gap such the annular gap is partially filled with the fluid coolant while the radial surface of the crystal rod is wetted as a thin film all along the axial length thereof.

  13. 基于ECC的移动自组网成员控制方案%Member Control Scheme of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Based on ECC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿永军; 陈红军; 郑明辉

    2012-01-01

    A distributed key generation protocol is proposed by ECC based on Peterson distributed key generation scheme, which can resist malicious attack of outer or inner node. A secure member control sckeme is also proposed by using threshold digital sisgnature. By analyzing the scheme's performance and security, a conclusion is drawn that the member control policy is suitable for mobile Ad Hoc networks of limited resource devices.%基于Pederson分布式密钥产生方案,采用椭圆曲线密码体制提出一个分布式密钥产生协议,该方案高效且能抵制内外恶意节点的攻击,并采用门限数字签名方案给出一个安全的移动自组网的成员控制方案.通过方案的性能和安全性分析得出结论,该成员控制策略非常适合于资源受限的移动自组网.

  14. Underground Injection Control (UIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provide information on: individual injection well classes; regulations specific to each well class; technical guidance; compliance assistance; federal, state, and tribal/territory roles and responsibilities.

  15. Ferric Carboxymaltose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pharmacist if you are allergic to ferric carboxymaltose injection, ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron dextran (Dexferrum, Infed), iron sucrose (Venofer), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit); any other ...

  16. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  17. Residual stress distribution in injection molded parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Postawa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the results of the investigations of influence of the amorphous polystyrene (PSprocessing on the diversity of the internal stresses observed in the injection moulded piece.Design/methodology/approach: For the tests, the standardized mould piece designed for the investigations ofthe processing shrinkage of thermoplastics materials has been used. The samples have been prepared using theDesign of Experiment (DoE theory.The state of internal stresses has been analysed by means of photoelastic method (used stress viewer equipmenton the basis of the layout and size of the isochromatics (fields with the same colour, which determine the mouldpiece’s areas where the same value for the difference of main tensions. In the article the results of investigationsof influence of 5 chosen processing parameters such as injection temperature Tw, mould temperature Tf,clamping pressure pd, cooling time tch and the injection speed vw on the changes in isochromatics layout as adeterminant for diversity of internal stresses in injection moulded pieces have been presented.Findings: The performed investigations of the influence of injection conditions on the state of internal stressesreached for injection mould pieces were to determine the parameters of injection at which the achieved state ofthe stresses in the mould piece (described by the difference of main tensions will show the lowest values.Practical implications: Effects of examinations of influence of processing conditions on residual stress ininjection molded parts (presented in the article could find practical application in polymer industry, both smalland large enterprises.Originality/value: New approach to fast estimation of value of residual stresses were present in the paper.

  18. Ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) mutations C4958S and C4961S reveal excitation-coupled calcium entry (ECCE) is independent of sarcoplasmic reticulum store depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurne, Alanna M; O'Brien, Jennifer J; Wingrove, Douglas; Cherednichenko, Gennady; Allen, Paul D; Beam, Kurt G; Pessah, Isaac N

    2005-11-04

    Bi-directional signaling between ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) and dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) in skeletal muscle serves as a prominent example of conformational coupling. Evidence for a physiological mechanism that upon depolarization of myotubes tightly couples three calcium channels, DHPR, RyR1, and a Ca(2+) entry channel with SOCC-like properties, has recently been presented. This form of conformational coupling, termed excitation-coupled calcium entry (ECCE) is triggered by the alpha(1s)-DHPR voltage sensor and is highly dependent on RyR1 conformation. In this report, we substitute RyR1 cysteines 4958 or 4961 within the TXCFICG motif, common to all ER/SR Ca(2+) channels, with serine. When expressed in skeletal myotubes, C4958S- and C4961S-RyR1 properly target and restore L-type current via the DHPR. However, these mutants do not respond to RyR activators and do not support skeletal type EC coupling. Nonetheless, depolarization of cells expressing C4958S- or C4961S-RyR1 triggers calcium entry via ECCE that resembles that for wild-type RyR1, except for substantially slowed inactivation and deactivation kinetics. ECCE in these cells is completely independent of store depletion, displays a cation selectivity of Ca(2+)>Sr(2+) approximately Ba(2+), and is fully inhibited by SKF-96365 or 2-APB. Mutation of other non-CXXC motif cysteines within the RyR1 transmembrane assembly (C3635S, C4876S, and C4882S) did not replicate the phenotype observed with C4958S- and C4961S-RyR1. This study demonstrates the essential role of Cys(4958) and Cys(4961) within an invariant CXXC motif for stabilizing conformations of RyR1 that influence both its function as a release channel and its interaction with ECCE channels.

  19. Nietzsche como destino da filosofia e da humanidade? interpretação contextual do § 1 do capítulo "por que sou um destino", de ecce homo

    OpenAIRE

    Stegmaier,Werner

    2010-01-01

    The following translation is a reduced and revised version of the paper Schicksal Nietzsche? Zu Nietzsches Selbsteinschätzung als Schicksal der Philosophie und der Menschheit (Ecce Homo, Warum ich ein Schicksal bin §1)" - originally published in Nietzsche-Studien 37 (2008) - which was specially prepared to be presented in lecture organized by the Grupo de Pesquisa Spinoza & Nietzsche (Spinoza & Nietzsche research group - SpiN), in the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Jan...

  20. Feasibility assessment of vacuum cooling followed by immersion vacuum cooling on water-cooked pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hui; Liu, Yi; Dai, Ruitong; Li, Xingmin

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum cooling followed by immersion vacuum cooling was designed to cool water-cooked pork (1.5±0.05 kg) compared with air blast cooling (4±0.5°C, 2 m/s), vacuum cooling (10 mbar) and immersion vacuum cooling. This combined cooling method was: vacuum cooling to an intermediate temperature of 25°C and then immersion vacuum cooling with water of 10°C to the final temperature of 10°C. It was found that the cooling loss of this combined cooling method was significantly lower (Pvacuum cooling. This combined cooling was faster (Pvacuum cooling in terms of cooling rate. Moreover, the pork cooled by combined cooling method had significant differences (P<0.05) in water content, color and shear force. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Active Stabilization of a Diode Laser Injection Lock

    CERN Document Server

    Saxberg, Brendan; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-01-01

    We report on a device to electronically stabilize the optical injection lock of a semiconductor diode laser. Our technique uses as discriminator the peak height of the laser's transmission signal on a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity and feeds back to the diode current, thereby maintaining maximum optical power in the injected mode. A two-component feedback algorithm provides constant optimization of the injection lock, keeping it robust to slow thermal drifts and allowing fast recovery from sudden failures such as temporary occlusion of the injection beam. We demonstrate the successful performance of our stabilization method in a diode laser setup at 399 nm used for laser cooling of Yb atoms. The device eases the requirements on passive stabilization and can benefit any diode laser injection lock application, particularly those where several such locks are employed.

  2. Active stabilization of a diode laser injection lock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxberg, Brendan; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-06-01

    We report on a device to electronically stabilize the optical injection lock of a semiconductor diode laser. Our technique uses as discriminator the peak height of the laser's transmission signal on a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity and feeds back to the diode current, thereby maintaining maximum optical power in the injected mode. A two-component feedback algorithm provides constant optimization of the injection lock, keeping it robust to slow thermal drifts and allowing fast recovery from sudden failures such as temporary occlusion of the injection beam. We demonstrate the successful performance of our stabilization method in a diode laser setup at 399 nm used for laser cooling of Yb atoms. The device eases the requirements on passive stabilization and can benefit any diode laser injection lock application, particularly those where several such locks are employed.

  3. Temperature gradient driven lasing and stimulated cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Sandner, K

    2012-01-01

    A laser can be understood as thermodynamic engine converting heat to a coherent single mode field close to Carnot efficiency. From this perspective spectral shaping of the excitation light generates a higher effective temperature on the pump than on the gain transition. Here, using a toy model of a quantum well structure with two suitably designed tunnel-coupled wells kept at different temperature, we study a laser operated on an actual spatial temperature gradient between pump and gain region. We predict gain and narrow band laser emission for a sufficient temperature gradient and resonator quality. Lasing appears concurrent with amplified heat flow and points to a new form of stimulated solid state cooling. Such a mechanism could raise the operating temperature limit of quantum cascade lasers by substituting phonon emission driven injection, which generates intrinsic heat, by an extended model with phonon absorption steps.

  4. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  5. Dialogues in the COOL Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, S.I.P.; Kroeze, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Options for the Long-term (COOL) Project is a participatory integrated assessment (PIA) comprising extensive dialogues at three levels: national, European and global. The objective of the COOL Project was to ‘develop strategic notions on how to achieve drastic reductions of greenhouse ga

  6. Be Cool, Man! / Jevgeni Levik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levik, Jevgeni

    2005-01-01

    Järg 1995. aasta kriminaalkomöödiale "Tooge jupats" ("Get Shorty") : mängufilm "Be Cool, Chili Palmer on tagasi!" ("Be Cool") : režissöör F. Gary Gray, peaosades J. Travolta ja U. Thurman : USA 2005. Lisatud J. Travolta ja U. Thurmani lühiintervjuud

  7. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  8. Be Cool, Man! / Jevgeni Levik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levik, Jevgeni

    2005-01-01

    Järg 1995. aasta kriminaalkomöödiale "Tooge jupats" ("Get Shorty") : mängufilm "Be Cool, Chili Palmer on tagasi!" ("Be Cool") : režissöör F. Gary Gray, peaosades J. Travolta ja U. Thurman : USA 2005. Lisatud J. Travolta ja U. Thurmani lühiintervjuud

  9. Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    220 Figure 140. Water-cooled chilled water plant with primary/secondary...enough to buffer the space by carrying away solar loads in unoccupied volumes, such as ceiling plenums. For rooftop installations, where ceiling...and are significant for the three-month period and generally exceed 68%. Larger chilled water plants with water-cooled condensers can operate with

  10. Triatomic molecules laser-cooled

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Molecules containing three atoms have been laser-cooled to ultracold temperatures for the first time. John Doyle and colleagues at Harvard University in the US used a technique called Sisyphus cooling to chill an ensemble of about a million strontium-monohydroxide molecules to 750 μK.

  11. Fuel economy opportunities for internal combustion engines by means of oil-cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. F.; Li, J. C.; Qin, W. X.; Wei, Z. Y.; Chen, J.

    1997-06-01

    Comparative experiments of oil and water-cooling were performed on a 4-cylinder automotive gasoline engine and a single-cylinder direct injection Diesel engine. Measurements were made to investigate the variation of fuel consumption, combustor wall temperature and engine emissions (HC, CO, NOx and smoke) with two cooling media at steady-state conditions. Significant improvement of fuel economy was found mainly at partial load conditions with oil-cooling in comparison with the baseline water-cooling both for the two engines. The experimental results also showed general trend of reduction in engine emissions using oil as the coolant. Measurements of wall temperature demonstrated that oil-cooling resulted in considerable increase of the combustor wall temperature and reduce of warm-up period in starting process. For automotive gasoline engine, road tests indicated the same trend of fuel economy improvement with oil-cooling. The performance of the automotive oil-cooled engine was further improved by internal cooling with water or methanol injection.

  12. Computational Analysis of Droplet Mass and Size Effect on Mist/Air Impingement Cooling Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenglei Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Impingement cooling has been widely employed to cool gas turbine hot components such as combustor liners, combustor transition pieces, turbine vanes, and blades. A promising technology is proposed to enhance impingement cooling with water droplets injection. However, previous studies were conducted on blade shower head film cooling, and less attention was given to the transition piece cooling. As a continuous effort to develop a realistic mist impingement cooling scheme, this paper focuses on simulating mist impingement cooling under typical gas turbine operating conditions of high temperature and pressure in a double chamber model. Furthermore, the paper presents the effect of cooling effectiveness by changing the mass and size of the droplets. Based on the heat-mass transfer analogy, the results of these experiments prove that the mass of 3E – 3 kg/s droplets with diameters of 5–35 μm could enhance 90% cooling effectiveness and reduce 122 K of wall temperature. The results of this paper can provide guidance for corresponding experiments and serve as the qualification reference for future more complicated studies with convex surface cooling.

  13. Design optimisation of a nanofluid injection system for LOCA events in a nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Călimănescu, I.; Stan, L. C.; Velcea, D. D.

    2016-08-01

    The safety issues inside a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) are encompassing their capacity to ensure the heat sink, meaning the capacity of the systems to release the heat from the rector to the environment. The nanofluids having good heat transfer properties, are recommended to be used in such applications. The paper is solving the following scenario: considering the Safety Injection tank and the Nanofluid injection Tank, and considering the Nanofluid injection Tank filled with a 10% alumina-water nanofluid, how can we select the best design of the connecting point between the pipes of the SIT and the Nanofluid Tank and the pressures inside of any of these tanks in order to have the biggest density of nanoparticles leaving the tanks toward the cold leg. In conclusion the biggest influence over the rate of disposal of the nanofluid inside ECCS is that of the pressure inside the SIT followed in order by the injection pipe diameter and the pressure inside the nanofluid tank. The optimum balance of these three design parameters may be reached following the procedure shown in this paper.

  14. A novel electronic cooling concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnappan, R.; Beam, J. E.

    Advanced electrical power conditioning systems for the More Electric Aircraft Initiative involve high currents and high voltages with the attendant waste heat generation and cooling problems. The use of solid state switching devices such as MCTs for these systems will result in power dissipation of several hundred Watts per square centimeter. Conventional forced air or low velocity single phase fluid cooling is inadequate to handle the waste heat dissipation of these high power devices. More advanced and innovative methods of cooling which can use fluids available in the aircraft and also easy to package are sought. A new approach called 'venturi flow cooling concept' is described. It is shown that localized cooling up to 200 W/sq cm is possible at the venturi throat region where the MCTs can be mounted. PAO coolant with Pr = 56 at 40 C can be conveniently used in aircraft.

  15. Laser cooling to quantum degeneracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellmer, Simon; Pasquiou, Benjamin; Grimm, Rudolf; Schreck, Florian

    2013-06-28

    We report on Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of strontium atoms, using laser cooling as the only cooling mechanism. The condensate is formed within a sample that is continuously Doppler cooled to below 1  μK on a narrow-linewidth transition. The critical phase-space density for condensation is reached in a central region of the sample, in which atoms are rendered transparent for laser cooling photons. The density in this region is enhanced by an additional dipole trap potential. Thermal equilibrium between the gas in this central region and the surrounding laser cooled part of the cloud is established by elastic collisions. Condensates of up to 10(5) atoms can be repeatedly formed on a time scale of 100 ms, with prospects for the generation of a continuous atom laser.

  16. Simulating the Cooling Flow of Cool-Core Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    We carry out high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of a cool core cluster, resolving the flow from Mpc scales down to pc scales. We do not (yet) include any AGN heating, focusing instead on cooling in order to understand how gas gets to the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of the cluster. We find that, as the gas cools, the cluster develops a very flat temperature profile, undergoing a cooling catastrophe only in the central 10-100 pc of the cluster. Outside of this region, the flow is smooth, with no local cooling instabilities, and naturally produces very little low-temperature gas (below a few keV), in agreement with observations. The gas cooling in the center of the cluster rapidly forms a thin accretion disk. The amount of cold gas produced at the very center grows rapidly until a reasonable estimate of the resulting AGN heating rate (assuming even a moderate accretion efficiency) would overwhelm cooling. We argue that this naturally produces a thermostat which links the coolin...

  17. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section 153.432 Shipping COAST... Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling systems. (a) Each cargo cooling system must have an equivalent standby... cooling system. (b) Each tankship that has a cargo tank with a required cooling system must have a manual...

  18. [Intra-articular injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Ch

    2015-09-01

    It is not unusual for a specialist or general practitioner to be presented with a pathology which necessitates the use of an intra-articular injection of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid or a local anaesthetic. It would seem to be interesting to update and to precise the techniques and methods of intraarticular injections which have appeared in recent international publications, when we know that 30 % of the injections given into the knee and so called "dry" are incorrect and, therefore, inefficient. The indication of an articular injection depends, firstly, on the diagnosis which should be done with great care; after which should be an objective analysis complete with secondary effects linked to both the injection and the product used. The conditions of asepsis, the choice of needles and quantities of the injection and even the ways of the injections should be reviewed in detail. The last studies clearly question the secondary effects of the cartilage degradations of the cortisone given as an intra-articular injection and shows its efficiency on the pain and inflammatory phenomonen in osteoarthritis. Studies on hyaluronic acid are often contradictory going from a modest result to an important pain relief but it is necessary to be aware that the objective criteria are difficult to interpret. The use of local anaesthetics in intra-articular is limited by the few indications in view of the major risk of aggravating the pre-existing lesions by the disappearing signs of pain.

  19. Injection of Deuterium Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Andersen, P.; Andersen, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Some details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated...

  20. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.P. Acthar Gel® ... Corticotropin repository injection comes as a long acting gel to inject under the skin or into a ... prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, or herbal products you are taking or plan to take. ...

  1. Separably injective Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Avilés, Antonio; Castillo, Jesús M F; González, Manuel; Moreno, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    This monograph contains a detailed exposition of the up-to-date theory of separably injective spaces: new and old results are put into perspective with concrete examples (such as l∞/c0 and C(K) spaces, where K is a finite height compact space or an F-space, ultrapowers of L∞ spaces and spaces of universal disposition). It is no exaggeration to say that the theory of separably injective Banach spaces is strikingly different from that of injective spaces. For instance, separably injective Banach spaces are not necessarily isometric to, or complemented subspaces of, spaces of continuous functions on a compact space. Moreover, in contrast to the scarcity of examples and general results concerning injective spaces, we know of many different types of separably injective spaces and there is a rich theory around them. The monograph is completed with a preparatory chapter on injective spaces, a chapter on higher cardinal versions of separable injectivity and a lively discussion of open problems and further lines o...

  2. Convective cooling of photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, E.; Gibbons, C. [Energy Engineering Group, Mechanical Engineering Department, Cork Institute of Technology, Bishopstown, Cork (Ireland)

    2004-07-01

    Most solar cells presently on the market are based on silicon wafers, the so-called first generation technology. As this technology has matured costs have become increasingly dominated by material costs. In the last ten years, continuous work has brought the efficiency of standard cells to the 25% region. A switch to second generation or thin film technology cells now seems imminent. Thin film technology eliminates the silicon wafer and offer the prospect of reducing material and manufacturing costs, but they exhibit lower efficiencies of around 10% for a commercial device. Third generation or tandem cells are currently at a 'proof of concept' research level, with a theoretical conversion rate of 86.8% being asserted Whatever the material construction and manufacturing method of cells, the thermal effect of overheating will prevail in the semiconductor and it is accepted that a lowered temperature will bring about an increase in conversion efficiency. The aim of this project is to improve the efficiency of PV electrical output, by convectively cooling the cells through perforations in them. As the cells heat up they lose efficiency. As the panel heats up a loss in efficiency of 0.5% per C increase in temperature has been recorded. (orig.)

  3. Central cooling: absorptive chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-08-01

    This technology evaluation covers commercially available single-effect, lithium-bromide absorption chillers ranging in nominal cooling capacities of 3 to 1,660 tons and double-effect lithium-bromide chillers from 385 to 1,060 tons. The nominal COP measured at operating conditions of 12 psig input steam for the single-effect machine, 85/sup 0/ entering condenser water, and 44/sup 0/F exiting chilled-water, ranges from 0.6 to 0.65. The nominal COP for the double-effect machine varies from 1.0 to 1.15 with 144 psig entering steam. Data are provided to estimate absorption-chiller performance at off-nominal operating conditions. The part-load performance curves along with cost estimating functions help the system design engineer select absorption equipment for a particular application based on life-cycle costs. Several suggestions are offered which may be useful for interfacing an absorption chiller with the remaining Integrated Community Energy System. The ammonia-water absorption chillers are not considered to be readily available technology for ICES application; therefore, performance and cost data on them are not included in this evaluation.

  4. Performance of Air-cooled Engine Cylinders Using Blower Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schey, Oscar W; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1936-01-01

    An investigation was made to obtain information on the minimum quantity of air and power required to cool conventional air cooled cylinders at various operating conditions when using a blower. The results of these tests show that the minimum power required for satisfactory cooling with an overall blower efficiency of 100 percent varied from 2 to 6 percent of the engine power depending on the operating conditions. The shape of the jacket had a large effect on the cylinder temperatures. Increasing the air speed over the front of the cylinder by keeping the greater part of the circumference of the cylinder covered by the jacket reduced the temperatures over the entire cylinder.

  5. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael; Abata, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    effects of DME in high pressure injection have also been observed. DME has a higher compressibility than diesel fuel, resulting in larger pressure oscillations in the injection system during the injection process. The oscillations with DME also have a slower delay rate than those of diesel fuel......A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump...... in the same system. As a first attempt to simulate combustion of DME in Diesel engines, the results of the spray studies have been incorporated into a simplified spray combustion model. A turbulent jet structure was adjusted to fit the penetration rates of the observed sprays. The observed spray widths agreed...

  6. The role of cooling flows in galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nulsen, P E J

    1995-01-01

    The present structure of galaxies is governed by the radiative dissipation of the gravitational and supernova energy injected during formation. A crucial aspect of this process is whether the gas cools as fast as it falls into the gravitational potential well. If it does then rapid normal star formation is assumed to ensue. If not, and the gas can still cool by the present time, then the situation resembles that of a cooling flow, such as commonly found in clusters of galaxies. The cooled matter is assumed to accumulate as very cold clouds and/or low mass stars, i.e. as baryonic dark matter. In this paper we investigate the likelihood of a cooling flow phase during the hierarchical formation of galaxies. We concentrate on the behaviour of the gas, using a highly simplified treatment of the evolution of the dark matter potential within which the gas evolves. We assume that normal star formation is limited by how much gas the associated supernovae can unbind and allow the gas profile to flatten as a consequence...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE FOR FORMING SMALL PLASTIC ARTICLES FOR SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    OYETUNJI, A.

    2010-01-01

    Development of small injection moulding machine for forming small plastic articles in small-scale industries was studied. This work which entailed design, construction and test small injection moulding machine that was capable of forming small plastic articles by injecting molten resins into a closed, cooled mould, where it solidifies to give the desired products was developed. The machine was designed and constructed to work as a prototype for producing very small plastic components. Design ...

  8. Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, George

    2010-07-27

    A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

  9. New Approaches to Final Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Neuffer, David

    2015-01-01

    A high-energy muon collider scenario requires a "final cooling" system that reduces transverse emittance by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of the alternative approach. A more explicit understanding of solenoidal cooling beam dynamics is introduced.

  10. Cooling towers principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G B; Osborn, Peter D

    1990-01-01

    Cooling Towers: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the theory and practice, so that installations are correctly designed and operated. As with all branches of engineering, new technology calls for a level of technical knowledge which becomes progressively higher; this new edition seeks to ensure that the principles and practice of cooling towers are set against a background of up-to-date technology. The book is organized into three sections. Section A on cooling tower practice covers topics such as the design and operation of c

  11. CLIC inner detectors cooling simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Ramos, F.; Villarejo Bermudez, M.

    2014-01-01

    The strict requirements in terms of material budget for the inner region of the CLIC detector concepts require the use of a dry gas for the cooling of the respective sen- sors. This, in conjunction with the compactness of the inner volumes, poses several challenges for the design of a cooling system that is able to fulfil the required detec- tor specifications. This note introduces a detector cooling strategy using dry air as a coolant and shows the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations used to validate the proposed strategy.

  12. Groundwater cooling of a supercomputer in Perth, Western Australia: hydrogeological simulations and thermal sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Heather A.; Schaubs, Peter M.; Rachakonda, Praveen K.; Trefry, Michael G.; Reid, Lynn B.; Lester, Daniel R.; Metcalfe, Guy; Poulet, Thomas; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater cooling (GWC) is a sustainable alternative to conventional cooling technologies for supercomputers. A GWC system has been implemented for the Pawsey Supercomputing Centre in Perth, Western Australia. Groundwater is extracted from the Mullaloo Aquifer at 20.8 °C and passes through a heat exchanger before returning to the same aquifer. Hydrogeological simulations of the GWC system were used to assess its performance and sustainability. Simulations were run with cooling capacities of 0.5 or 2.5 Mega Watts thermal (MWth), with scenarios representing various combinations of pumping rate, injection temperature and hydrogeological parameter values. The simulated system generates a thermal plume in the Mullaloo Aquifer and overlying Superficial Aquifer. Thermal breakthrough (transfer of heat from injection to production wells) occurred in 2.7-4.3 years for a 2.5 MWth system. Shielding (reinjection of cool groundwater between the injection and production wells) resulted in earlier thermal breakthrough but reduced the rate of temperature increase after breakthrough, such that shielding was beneficial after approximately 5 years pumping. Increasing injection temperature was preferable to increasing flow rate for maintaining cooling capacity after thermal breakthrough. Thermal impacts on existing wells were small, with up to 10 wells experiencing a temperature increase ≥ 0.1 °C (largest increase 6 °C).

  13. Passive low energy cooling of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Baruch

    1994-01-01

    A practical sourcebook for building designers, providing comprehensive discussion of the impact of basic architectural choices on cooling efficiency, including the layout and orientation of the structure, window size and shading, exterior color, and even the use of plantings around the site. All major varieties of passive cooling systems are presented, with extensive analysis of performance in different types of buildings and in different climates: ventilation; radiant cooling; evaporative cooling; soil cooling; and cooling of outdoor spaces.

  14. An Improved Double-Gene Identity Authentication Protocol based on ECC%一种改进的基于ECC双因子身份认证协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丁; 马晓旭

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of information technology and network technology, the Internet real-name system now becomes an important trend of network supervision and management, while the user iden-tity authentication is the key to the real-name system. The identity authentication protocol based on smart-card is firstly described, and then the flaw of this protocol is discussed. With this, a double-gene identity authentication protocol based on ECC is proposed. And by using the elliptic curve discrete logarithm prob-lem and timestamp factor, the security of this protocol is ensured, the problem of smart-loss attack solved, and the high efficiency of the protocol maintained.%随着信息技术和网络技术的快速发展,互联网实名制已经成为网络监督和管理的重要趋势,而用户身份认证又是实名制管理体系中的关键技术。首先介绍了基于智能卡的身份认证协议,讨论了该协议存在的不足,并在此基础上,提出了一种基于ECC双因子的身份认证协议,通过椭圆曲线离散对数难题和时间戳因素确保协议的安全性,解决了丢失智能卡攻击的问题,并且保持了协议的高效性。

  15. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...... index of the nanostructured surfaces was estimated from atomic force micrographs and the theoretical reflectance was calculated using the transfer matrix method and effective medium theory. The measured reflectance shows good agreement with the theory of graded index antireflective nanostructures...

  16. ALICE Injected Beam Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE (point 2) interaction region is sensitive to beam orbit errors arising from magnet setting errors on injection. In this report, beam accident scenarios under injection for ALICE are described, focusing on ultra- fast error injection scenarios for the interaction straight correctors and dipoles. Beam 1 and beam 2 accident scenarios are considered, where the errors can lead to beam orbits striking the ALICE vacuum chamber or elements of the machine. The required thresholds for magnet current interlocks are calculated to avoid machine and detector risk.

  17. LHCb Injected Beam Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb (point 8) interaction region is sensitive to beam orbit errors arising from magnet setting errors on injection. In this report, beam accident scenarios under injection for LHCb are described, focusing on ultra- fast error injection scenarios for the interaction straight correctors and dipoles. Beam 1 and beam 2 accident scenarios are considered, where the errors can lead to beam orbits striking the LHCb vacuum chamber or elements of the machine. The required thresholds for magnet current interlocks are calculated to avoid machine and detector risk.

  18. Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

    2013-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed.

  19. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watkins, Thomas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); List, III, Frederick Alyious [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carver, Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); England, Roger [Cummins, Inc, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the proposed project between Cummins and ORNL is to significantly reduce the cost of the tooling (machining and materials) required to create injection molds to make plastic components. Presently, the high cost of this tooling forces the design decision to make cast aluminum parts because Cummins typical production volumes are too low to allow injection molded plastic parts to be cost effective with the amortized cost of the injection molding tooling. In addition to reducing the weight of components, polymer injection molding allows the opportunity for the alternative cooling methods, via nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas cooling offers an environmentally and economically attractive cooling option, if the mold can be manufactured economically. In this project, a current injection molding design was optimized for cooling using nitrogen gas. The various components of the injection mold tooling were fabricated using the Renishaw powder bed laser additive manufacturing technology. Subsequent machining was performed on the as deposited components to form a working assembly. The injection mold is scheduled to be tested in a projection setting at a commercial vendor selected by Cummins.

  20. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  1. Cooling Technology for Electronic Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Wataru

    The rapid growth of data processing speed in computers has been sustained by the advances in cooling technology. This article first presents a review of the published data of heat loads in recent Japanese large-scale computers. The survey indicates that, since around 1980, the high-level integration of microelectronic circuits has brought about almost four fold increase in the power dissipation from logic chips. The integration also has invited the evolutions of multichip modules and new schemes of electronic interconnections. Forced convection air-cooling and liquid cooling coupled with thermal connectors are discussed with reference to the designs employed in actual computers. More advanced cooling schemes are also discussed. Finally, the importance of thermal environmental control of computer rooms is emphasized.

  2. Cooled Ceramic Turbine Vane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — N&R Engineering will investigate the feasibility of cooled ceramics, such as ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine blade concepts that can decrease specific...

  3. Surface-induced evaporative cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Min; Yan Bo; Cheng Feng; Wang Yu-Zhu

    2009-01-01

    The effects of surface-induced evaporative cooling on an atom chip are investigated. The evolutions of temperature, number and phase-space density of the atom cloud are measured when the atom cloud is brought close to the surface. Rapid decrease of the temperature and number of the atoms is found when the atom-surface distance is < 100 μm. A gain of about a factor of five on the phase-space density is obtained. It is found that the efficiency of the surface-induced evaporative cooling depends on the atom-surface distance and the shape of the evaporative trap. When the atoms are moved very close to the surface, severe heating is observed, which dominates when the holding time is > 8 ms. It is important that the surface-induced evaporative cooling offers novel possibilities for the realization of a continuous condensation, where a spatially varying evaporative cooling is required.

  4. Turbine Blade Cooling System Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    GIRARDEAU, Julian; PAILHES, Jérôme; SEBASTIAN, Patrick; PARDO, Frédéric; Nadeau, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The authors wish to thank turbine designers from TURBOMECA SAFRAN Group.; International audience; Designing high performance cooling systems suitable for preserving the service lifetime of nozzle guide vanes of turboshaft engines leads to significant aerodynamic losses. These losses jeopardize the performance of the whole engine. In the same time, a low efficiency cooling system may affect the costs of maintenance repair and overhaul of the engine as component life decreases. Consequently, de...

  5. DETERMINATION OF RADIATOR COOLING SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Yakubovich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a methodology for calculation of a radiator cooling surface with due account of heat transfer non-uniformity on depth of its core. Calculation of radiator cooling surfaces of «Belarus-1221» and «Belarus-3022» tractors has been carried out in the paper. The paper also advances standard size series of radiators for powerful «Belarus» tractor type.

  6. Quantum limit of photothermal cooling

    CERN Document Server

    De Liberato, Simone; Nori, Franco

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of cooling a mechanical oscillator using the photothermal (bolometric) force. Contrary to previous attempts to model this system, we take into account the noise effects due to the granular nature of photon absorption. This allows us to tackle the cooling problem down to the noise dominated regime and to find reasonable estimates for the lowest achievable phonon occupation in the cantilever.

  7. Cooling Shelf For Electronic Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, Herbert J.

    1989-01-01

    Heat-pipe action cools and maintains electronics at nearly constant temperature. System designed to control temperatures of spacecraft shelves or baseplates by combining honeycomb sandwich panel with reservoir of noncondensable gas and processing resulting device as variable-conductance heat pipe. Device provides flat surface for mounting heat-dissipating electronics that is effectively cooled and maintained at nearly constant temperature. Potentially useful in freeze drying, refrigeration, and air conditioning.

  8. Optimizing stratospheric sulfur geoengineering by seasonally changing sulfur injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Anton; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Lehtinen, Kari; Korhonen, Hannele

    2015-04-01

    radiative forcing (-4.41 W/m2 at top of atmosphere) as if sulfur is injected only to the equator (-4.40 W/m2). However zonal mean distribution would be different and forcing is concentrated relatively more to the midlatitudes and less to the equator. Cooling effect from the geoengineering and warming effect from the increased greenhouse gas has been shown in many studies to lead to cooling in the equator and warming in the poles compared the preindustrial conditions. Changing the injection area seasonally might prevent this from happening and lead globally to more homogeneous temperature change.

  9. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  10. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injected into a muscle, it blocks the nerve signals that cause uncontrollable tightening and movements of the ... any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.if ...

  11. Amphotericin B Liposomal Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lining of the spinal cord and brain) and visceral leishmaniasis (a parasitic disease that usually affects spleen, ... complex injection: fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, flushing, back pain with or without chest tightness, chest pain, shortness ...

  12. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    To the right is the PS ring viewed along the direction of the protons. At the left the injection line coming from the 50 MeV Linac 1 (bottom) and going towards the 800 MeV booster, or deflected to the right to be injected directly into straight section 16. The drumlike element behind the (blue) dipole magnet is a 'debuncher' (a 200 MHz cavity). See photos 7409014X and 7409009.

  13. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  14. Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve O' Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

    2012-02-17

    Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

  15. Cryogenic cooling system for HTS cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Shigeru [Taiyo Nippon Sanso, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Recently, Research and development activity of HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power application is very progressive worldwide. Especially, HTS cable system and HTSFCL (HTS Fault current limiter) system are proceeding to practical stages. In such system and equipment, cryogenic cooling system, which makes HTS equipment cooled lower than critical temperature, is one of crucial components. In this article, cryogenic cooling system for HTS application, mainly cable, is reviewed. Cryogenic cooling system can be categorized into conduction cooling system and immersion cooling system. In practical HTS power application area, immersion cooling system with sub-cooled liquid nitrogen is preferred. The immersion cooling system is besides grouped into open cycle system and closed cycle system. Turbo-Brayton refrigerator is a key component for closed cycle system. Those two cooling systems are focused in this article. And, each design and component of the cooling system is explained.

  16. Microtextured Surfaces for Turbine Blade Impingement Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Gas turbine engine technology is constantly challenged to operate at higher combustor outlet temperatures. In a modern gas turbine engine, these temperatures can exceed the blade and disk material limits by 600 F or more, necessitating both internal and film cooling schemes in addition to the use of thermal barrier coatings. Internal convective cooling is inadequate in many blade locations, and both internal and film cooling approaches can lead to significant performance penalties in the engine. Micro Cooling Concepts, Inc., has developed a turbine blade cooling concept that provides enhanced internal impingement cooling effectiveness via the use of microstructured impingement surfaces. These surfaces significantly increase the cooling capability of the impinging flow, as compared to a conventional untextured surface. This approach can be combined with microchannel cooling and external film cooling to tailor the cooling capability per the external heating profile. The cooling system then can be optimized to minimize impact on engine performance.

  17. Floor cooling and air-cooling, the effects on thermal comfort or different cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijpheer, N.C.; Bakker, E.J.; Ligthart, F.A.T.M.; Opstelten, I.J. [ECN Energie in de Gebouwde Omgeving en Netten, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    One of the research areas of the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) concerns the built environment. Several facilities to conduct research activities are at ECN's disposal. One of these facilities, are five research dwellings located on the premises of ECN. Measured data from these facilities together with weather data and computer models are used to evaluate innovative energy concepts and components in energy systems. Experiments with different cooling systems in ECN's research dwellings are executed to evaluate their effective influence on both energy use and thermal comfort. Influence of inhabitants' behaviour is taken into account in these experiments. The thermal comfort is indicated by the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) as defined by P.O. Fanger. For this paper, the results of measurements with a floor cooling and air cooling system are assessed. Effects on the PMV measured during experiments with the two different cooling systems will be presented.

  18. Determining the effects of thermal conductivity on epoxy molds using profiled cooling channels with metal inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altaf, Khurram; Rani, Abdul Ahmad Majdi; Ahmad, Faiz; Baharom, Masri [Mechanical Engineering Dept., Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Raghavan, Vijay R. [OYL Manufacturing, Sungai Buloh (Malaysia)

    2016-11-15

    Polymer injection molds are generally manufactured with metallic materials, such as tool steel, which provide reliable working of molds and extended service life. The manufacture of injection molds with steel is a prolonged process because of the strength of steel. For a short prototype production run, one of the suitable choices could be the use of aluminum-filled epoxy material, which can produce a functional mold in a short time as compared with a conventionally machined tool. Aluminum-filled epoxy tooling is a good choice for short production runs for engineering applications, yet works best for relatively simple shapes. The advantages in relation to the fabrication of injection molds with epoxy-based materials include time saving in producing the mold, epoxy curing at ambient temperature, and ease of machining and post processing. Nevertheless, one major drawback of epoxy material is its poor thermal conductivity, which results in a relatively longer cooling time for epoxy injection molds. This study investigates some of the innovative ideas for enhancing the thermal conductivity for epoxy molds. The basic concept behind these ideas was to embed a highly thermally conductive metal insert within the mold between cavities with an innovative design of cooling channels called profiled cooling channels. This technique will increase the effective thermal conductivity of the epoxy mold, leading to the reduction in cooling time for the injection molded polymer part. Experimental analysis conducted in the current study also verified that the mold with profiled cooling channels and embedded metal insert has significantly reduced the cooling time.

  19. Bunched Beam Cooling in the Fermilab Recycler

    CERN Document Server

    Neuffer, David V; Burov, Alexey; Nagaitsev, Sergei

    2005-01-01

    Stochastic cooling with bunched beam in a linear bucket has been obtained and implemented operationally in the fermilab recycler. In this implementation the particle bunch length is much greater than the cooling system wavelengths. The simultaneous longitudinal bunching enables cooling to much smaller longitudinal emittances than the coasting beam or barrier bucket system. Characteristics and limitations of bunched beam stochastic cooling are discussed.

  20. A new Newton's law of cooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, M

    1972-12-22

    Several physiologists confuse Fourier's law of animal heat flow with Newton's law of cooling. A critique of this error in 1932 remained ineffective. In 1969 Molnar tested Newton's cooling law. In 1971 Strunk found Newtonian cooling unrealistic for animals. Unfortunately, he called the Fourier formulation of animal heat flow, requiring post-Newtonian observations, a "contemporary Newtonian law of cooling."