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Sample records for cooling ecc injection

  1. Method of injecting cooling water in emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto; Adachi, Michihiro; Tasaka, Kanji; Suzuki, Mitsuhiro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a cooling water injection method in an ECCS, which can perform effective cooling of the reactor core. Method: In a method of injecting cooling water in an ECCS as a countermeasure against a rupture accident of a pwr type reactor, cooling water in the first pressure storage injection system is injected into the upper plenum of the reactor pressure vessel at a set pressure of from 50 to 90 atg. and a set temperature of from 80 to 200 0 C, cooling water in the second pressure storage injection system is injected into the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel at a pressure of from 25 to 60 atg. which is lower than the set pressure and a temperature less than 60 0 C, and further in combination with these procedures, cooling water of less than 60 0 C is injected into a high-temperature side piping, in the high-pressure injection system of upstroke of 100 atg. by means of a pump and the low-pressure injection system of upstroke of 20 atg. also by means of a pump, thereby cooling the reactor core. (Aizawa, K.)

  2. Cooling water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, ECCS system is constituted as a so-called stand-by system which is not used during usual operation and there is a significant discontinuity in relation with the usual system. It is extremely important that ECCS operates upon occurrence of accidents just as specified. In view of the above in the present invention, the stand-by system is disposed along the same line with the usual system. That is, a driving water supply pump for supplying driving water to a jet pump is driven by a driving mechanism. The driving mechanism drives continuously the driving water supply pump in a case if an expected accident such as loss of the function of the water supply pump, as well as during normal operation. That is, all of the water supply pump, jet pump, driving water supply pump and driving mechanism therefor are caused to operate also during normal operation. The operation of them are not initiated upon accident. Thus, the cooling water injection system can perform at high reliability to remarkably improve the plant safety. (K.M.)

  3. Investigation of Characteristics of Impinging Jet for 1/5-Scale ECC injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Byung Soo; Ko, Yung Joo; Bae, Hwang; Kwon, Tae Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    In ECCS of SMART reactor, safety injection pump discharges cooling water into the core to maintain the water level by filling the amount of loss of coolant under emergency situation such as SBLOCA. Once the ECCS starts to operate, the injected water will be impinged to the upper wall of core support barrel (CBS). And the water will fall along the wall forming liquid film or droplets as shown in Fig. 1(b) due to high Reynolds number. The breakup and film flow will be bypassed by high temperature and pressure steam-water mixture cross flow from RCP discharge into the atmosphere through broken injection nozzle. Then, the flow phenomena in the downcomer is very complex situation with including jet impingement, jet breakup, liquid entrainment, steam condensation, counter-current flow and etc. In this study, the hydraulic features of impinging jet were investigated through visualization for full scale test for simulation of SMART ECC jet and SWAT test of 1/5 simulated test for ECCS of SMART reactor and measurement of the film width. And the scaling method for SWAT test was discussed considering jet break up and other phenomena

  4. Experiments on injection performance of SMART ECC facility using SWAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Il; Cho, Seok; Ko, Yung Joo; Min, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Yong Cheol; Kwon, Tae Soon; Yi, Sung Jae; Lee, Won Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), an advanced integrated PWR is now in the under developing stages by KAERI. Such integral PWR excludes large-size piping of the primary system of conventional PWR and incorporates the SGs into RPV, which means no LBLOCA could occur in SMART. Therefore, the SBLOCA is considered as a major DBA (Design Basis Accident) in SMART and it is mainly analyzed by using TASS/SMR computer code. The TASS/SMR code should be validated using experimental data from both Integral Effect Test and Separate Effect Test facilities. To investigate injection performance of the ECC system, on SET facility, named as SWAT (SMART ECC Water Asymmetric Two-phase choking test facility), has been constructed at KAERI. The SWAT simulates the geometric configurations of the SG-side upper downcomer annulus and ECCSs of those of SMART. It is designed based on the modified linear scaling method with a scaling ratio of 1/5, to preserve the geometrical similarity and minimize gravitational distortion. The purpose of the SWAT tests is to investigate the safety injection performance, such as the ECC bypass in the downcomer and the penetration rate in the core during the SBLOCA, and hence to produce experimental data to validate and the prediction capability of safety analysis codes, TASS/SMR

  5. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 Test S-05-3 (alternate ECC injection test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, E.M.; Patton, M.L. Jr.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-03-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-05-3 of the Semiscale Mod-1 alternate ECC injection test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-05-3 was conducted from initial conditions of 2263 psia and 545 0 F to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the cold leg broken loop piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg sides of the intact and broken loops and into the vessel upper plenum to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. For Test S-05-3, specifically the effects of upper plenum coolant injection on core thermal and system response were being investigated

  6. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 Test S-05-1 (alternate ECC injection test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, E.M.; Patton, M.L. Jr.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-02-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-05-1 of the Semiscale Mod-1 alternate ECC injection test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-05-1 was conducted from initial conditions of 2263 psia and 544 0 F to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the cold leg broken loop piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the vessel lower plenum to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR, with the flow rate based on system volume scaling

  7. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 Test S-05-5 (alternate ECC injection test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, B.L.; Patton, M.L. Jr.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-04-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-05-5 of the Semiscale Mod-1 alternate ECC injection test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-05-5 was conducted from initial conditions of 2263 psia and 537 0 F to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the cold leg broken loop piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg of the intact and broken loops to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. The upper plenum was vented through a reflood bypass line interconnecting the hot and cold legs of the broken loop

  8. Safety evaluation report on Westinghouse Electric Company ECCS evaluation model for plants equipped with upper head injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauben, G.N.; Wagner, N.H.; Israel, S.L.; McPherson, G.D.; Hodges, M.W.

    1978-04-01

    For plants which include an ice condenser containment concept, Westinghouse has planned an additional safety system known as the upper head injection (UHI) system to augment the emergency core cooling system. This system is comprised of additional accumulator tanks and piping arranged to supply cooling water to the top of the core during the blowdown period following a postulated large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The objective of UHI is to add to the core cooling provided by the conventional emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and so permit operation at linear heat rates comparable to those permitted in plants utilizing the dry containment concept. In this way, plants which include the UHI system would have greater operating flexibility while still meeting the acceptance criteria as defined in paragraph 50.46 of 10 CFR Part 50. This review is concerned with those changes to the Westinghouse ECCS evaluation model that have been proposed for the UHI-LOCA model

  9. A study of ECC water bypass reduction technology for an improvement of core cooling capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C. G.; Kwon, T. S.; Yun, B. J.

    2006-02-01

    The research for the reduction of ECC water bypass fraction was mainly performed to develop the flow mechanisms that ECC water can penetrate more effectively into a lower downcomer. Evaluation were carried out for the effect of major parameters on the bypass of ECC water in the downcomer with DVI. The following various physical models were derived for the reduction of the bypass fraction of ECC water: models of changing DVI injection angle, models of rearranging relative angles of DVI nozzles, model of grooved-and-subchannel type core barrel, model of dual core barrel. CFD analysis and MARS design verification were performed for the derived models as a first step performance estimation. Through out air-water verification experiments, quantitative evaluation were performed for each model, and three most efficient models were suggested. Examination were carried out for the requirement of structural modification and the change in structural integrity due to the adoption of one of the schemes

  10. Safety design/analysis and scenario for prevention of CDA with ECCS in lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoru, Takahashi; Vaclav, Dostal; Abu Khalid, Rivai; Novitrian; Yumi, Yamada

    2007-01-01

    Safety design has been developed to show safety feature of Pb-Bi-cooled direct contact boiling water small fast reactor (PBWFR). The core is designed to have negative void reactivity even if the entire core and upper plenum are voided by steam intrusion from above. In-vessel type control rod driving mechanisms are used to prevent control rods from accidental ejection due to high pressure in the reactor vessel. In cases of coolant leakage from reactor vessel and feed water pipes, Pb-Bi coolant level in the reactor vessel is kept at the required level for decay heat removal by means of closed type guard vessel. Dual pipes are adopted to avoid leak of water in the feedwater system. Pump trip in feedwater systems initiates loss of coolant flow (LOF) event, although there is no concern of loss of flow accident due to primary pump trip. Injection of high pressure water slows down the flow-coast-down of feedwater at the LOF event. It has been evaluated that the fuel temperature is kept lower than safety limits at the unprotected loss of flow and heat sink (ATWS). A scenario for prevention of the core disruptive accident (CDA) with the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) is examined. The reactor becomes super-critical when the reactor vessel is filled with water. It is necessary to use water with boric acid for the ECC system, and additional backup rods for sub-critical core in water injection. (authors)

  11. ECC delivery to lower plenum under downcomer injection part 2. RELAP5 assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Young Seok; Shin, An Dong; Kim, Hho Jung

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, the capability of the thermal-hydraulic codes, RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 gamma, in predicting the steam-water interaction and the related ECC delivery to lower plenum under downcomer injection condition during refill phase is evaluated using the experimental data of the UPTF Test 21A. The facility is modeled in detail, and the test condition simulated for code calculations. The calculation result is compared with the applicable measurement data and discussed for the pressure response, ECC bypass behavior, lower plenum delivery, global water mass distribution, and local behavior in downcomer

  12. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA's), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs

  13. Diablo Canyon ECCS enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, A.; Lee, T.P.; Walter, L.E.

    2004-01-01

    Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) operated by Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG and E) is a Westinghouse designed four loop plant. In recent years, several issues were identified regarding the compliance of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) surveillance tests to the ECCS analyses assumptions. These concerns are related mostly to the High Head Safety Injection (HHSI) and the Intermediate Head Safety Injection (IHSI) systems where the injection line throttle valves are adjusted during outage surveillance testing to ensure compliance with the Technical Specifications (TS). To resolve all of the identified issues PG and E performed an ECCS reanalysis and upgraded the ECCS surveillance test program and also had Westinghouse perform a containment reanalysis using their latest model. As a result of these plant specific enhancement efforts, DCPP widened the operating window for TS surveillance testing, lowered the ECCS pumps' acceptance performance curves, and re-gained Peak Clad Temperature (PCT) and containment peak pressure margins. These enhancements are generically applicable to other plants and are addressed in this paper. (author)

  14. Compendium of ECCS [Emergency Core Cooling Systems] research for realistic LOCA [loss-of-coolant accidents] analysis: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    In the United States, Emergency Core Cooling Systems (ECCS) are required for light water reactors (LWRs) to provide cooling of the reactor core in the event of a break or leak in the reactor piping or an inadvertent opening of a valve. These accidents are called loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA), and they range from small leaks up to a postulated full break of the largest pipe in the reactor cooling system. Federal government regulations provide that LOCA analysis be performed to show that the ECCS will maintain fuel rod cladding temperatures, cladding oxidation, and hydrogen production within certain limits. The NRC and others have completed a large body of research which investigated fuel rod behavior and LOCA/ECCS performance. It is now possible to make a realistic estimate of the ECCS performance during a LOCA and to quantify the uncertainty of this calculation. The purpose of this report is to summarize this research and to serve as a general reference for the extensive research effort that has been performed. The report: (1) summarizes the understanding of LOCA phenomena in 1974; (2) reviews experimental and analytical programs developed to address the phenomena; (3) describes the best-estimate computer codes developed by the NRC; (4) discusses the salient technical aspects of the physical phenomena and our current understanding of them; (5) discusses probabilistic risk assessment results and perspectives, and (6) evaluates the impact of research results on the ECCS regulations. 736 refs., 412 figs., 66 tabs

  15. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 Test S-05-2 (alternate ECC injection test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, E.M.; Collins, B.L.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-02-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-05-2 of the Semiscale Mod-1 alternate emergency core coolant (ECC) injection test series. This test is one of several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-05-2 was conducted from an initial cold leg fluid temperature of 545 0 F and an initial pressure of 2263 psia. A simulated double-ended offset shear cold leg break was used to investigate core and system response to a depressurization and reflood transient with ECC injection at the intact loop pump suction and broken loop cold leg. A reduced lower plenum volume was used for this test to more accurately represent the lower plenum of a PWR, based on system volume scaling. System flow was set to achieve a core fluid temperature differential of 65 0 F at a core power level of 1.44 MW. The flow resistance of the intact loop was based on core area scaling. An electrically heated core with a slightly peaked radial power profile was used in the pressure vessel to simulate the predicted surface heat flux of nuclear fuel rods during a loss-of-coolant accident

  16. Experimental results of the SMART ECC injection performance with reduced scale of test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Il; Cho, Seok; Ko, Yung Joo; Shin, Yong Cheol; Kwon, Tae Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    SMART pressurized water reactor type is different from the existing integral NSSS commercial pressurized water reactor system which is equipped with the main features. In addition, RCS piping is removed and the feature of the SBLOCA is a major design break accident. SWAT (SMART ECC Water Asymmetric Two-phase choking test facility) test facility is to simulate the 2 inch SBLOCA of the SMART using with reduced scale. The Test was performed to produce experimental data for the validation of the TASS/SMR-S thermal hydraulic analysis code, and to investigate the related thermal hydraulic phenomena in the down-comer region during the 2 inch SBLOCA of the safety inject line. The particular phenomena for the observation are ECC bypass and multi-dimensional flow characteristics to verify the effectiveness and performance of the safety injection system. In this paper, the corresponding steady state test conditions, including initial and boundary conditions along with major measuring parameters, and related experimental results were described

  17. Quick Look Report of the SMART ECC injection performance test I3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seok; Ko, Yong Ju; Cho, Young Il; Kim, Jeong Tak; Choi, Nam Hyun; Park, Choon Kyong; Kwon, Tae Soon; Lee, Sung Jae [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The objective of this report is to describe test results of the Test I3 simulating the 2 inch SBLOCA of the SMART using the SWAT test facility. The Test I3 was performed to produce experimental data for the validation of the TASS/SMR-S thermal hydraulic analysis code, and to investigate the related thermal hydraulic phenomena in the down-comer region during the 2 inch SBLOCA of the safety inject line. The particular phenomena for the observation are ECC bypass and multi-dimensional flow characteristics to verify the effectiveness and performance of the safety injection system. In this report, the corresponding steady state test conditions, including initial and boundary conditions along with major measuring parameters, and related experimental results were described

  18. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) for a Westinghouse type 312, three loop pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shopsky, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) is a Safeguards System designed to cool the core in the unlikely event of a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the primary reactor coolant system as well as to provide additional shutdown capability following a steam break accident. The system is designed for a high reliability of providing emergency coolant and shutdown reactivity to the core for all anticipated occurrences of such accidents. The ECCS by performing its intended function assures that fuel and clad damage is minimized during accident conditions thus reducing release of fission products from the fuel. The ECCS is designed to perform its function despite sustaining a single failure by the judicious use of equipment and flow path redundancy within and outside the containment structure. By the use of an analytic tool, a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), it is shown that the ECCS is in compliance with the Single Failure Criterion established for active failures of fluid systems during short and long term cooling of the reactor core following a LOCA or steam break accident. An analysis was also performed with regards to passive failure of ECCS components during long-term cooling of the core following an accident. The design of the ECCS was verified as being able to tolerate a single passive failure during long-term cooling of the reactor core following an accident. The FMEA conducted qualitatively demonstrates the reliability of the ECCS (concerning active components) to perform its intended safety function

  19. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 Test S-05-4 (alternate ECC injection test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, B.L.; Feldman, E.M.

    1977-03-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-05-4 of the Semiscale Mod-1 alternate emergency core coolant injection test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-05-4 was conducted from initial conditions of 2266 psia and 543 0 F to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the cold leg broken loop piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg of each loop and into the vessel upper plenum to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. The upper plenum coolant injection was scaled according to the heat stored in the metal mass of the upper plenum

  20. Effects of high temperature ECC injection on small and large break BWR LOCA simulation tests in ROSA-III program (RUNs 940 and 941)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Hideo; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Anoda, Yoshinari; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Murata, Hideo; Tasaka, Kanji

    1990-03-01

    The ROSA-III program, of which principal results are summarized in a report of JAERI 1307, conducted small and large-break loss-of-coolant experiments (RUNs 940 and 941) with high water temperature of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) are one of the parametric study with respect to the ECCS effect on core cooling. This report presents all the experiment results of these two tests and describes additional finding with respect to the hot ECC effects on core cooling phenomena. By comparing these two tests (water temperature of 393 K) with the standard ECC tests of RUNs 922 and 926 (water temperature of 313 K), it was found that the ECC subcooling variation had a small influence on the core cooling phenomena in 5 % small break tests but had larger influence on them in 200 % break tests. The ECC subcooling effects described in the previous report are reviewed and the temperature distribution in the pressure vessel is investigated for these four tests. (author)

  1. UPTF-TRAM test A3. Turn-over of the hot-leg injected ECC in the steam generator direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenckhoff; Brand, B.; Weiss, P.

    1993-06-01

    The UPTF TRAM test A3 was a separate effects test to investigate the interaction between the hot leg-injected ECC and the single-phase or two-phase natural circulation in the hot leg in the case of an SBLOCA in a PWR. The experimental investigation of 7 runs was mainly concentrated on the following phenomena: - Transport of hot leg injected ECC water to the upper plenum or in the direction of steam generator, depending on the loop mass flow, -Utilization of the condensation potential of ECC water, - Mixing of the saturated water with the ECC water, - Effect of hot leg injection on the flow phenomena in the hot leg, - Effect of pressure (3 and 15 bar) on the scaling and hence the verification of the scaling concept applied. A preliminary evaluation of the test is presented in the Quick Look Report. (orig.) [de

  2. Numerical study of hot-leg ECC injection into the upper plenum of a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, B.J.; Torrey, M.D.; Rivard, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    In certain pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs, emergency core coolant (ECC) is injected through the hot legs into the upper plenum. The condensation of steam on this subcooled liquid stream reduces the pressure in the hot legs and upper plenum and thereby affects flow conditions throughout the reactor. In the present study, we examine countercurrent steam-water flow in the hot leg to determine the deceleration of the ECC flow that results from an adverse pressure gradient and from momentum exchange from the steam by interfacial drag and condensation. For the parameters examined in the study, water flow reversal is observed for a pressure drop of 22 to 32 mBar over the 1.5 m hot leg. We have also performed a three-dimensional study of subcooled water injection into air and steam environments of the upper plenum. The ECC water is deflected by an array of cylindrical guide tubes in its passage through the upper plenum. Comparisons of the air-water results with data obtained in a full scale experiment shows reasonable agreement, but indicates that there may be too much resistance to horizontal flow about the columns because of the use of a stair-step representation of the cylindrical guide tube cross section. Calculations of flow past single columns of stair-step, square and circular cross section do indicate excessive water deeentrainment by the noncircular column. This has prompted the use of an arbitrary mesh computational procedure to more accuratey represent the circular cross-section guide tubes. 15 figures

  3. Emergency response guide-B ECCS guideline evaluation analyses for N reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.C.; Callow, R.A.

    1989-07-01

    INEL conducted two ECCS analyses for Westinghouse Hanford. Both analyses will assist in the evaluation of proposed changes to the N Reactor Emergency Response Guide-B (ERG-B) Emergency Core System (ECCS) guideline. The analyses were a sensitivity study for reduced-ECCS flow rates and a mechanistically determined confinement steam source for a delayed-ECCS LOCA sequence. The reduced-ECCS sensitivity study established the maximum allowable reduction in ECCS flow as a function of time after core refill for a large break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) sequence in the N Reactor. The maximum allowable ECCS flow reduction is defined as the maximum flow reduction for which ECCS continues to provide adequate core cooling. The delayed-ECCS analysis established the liquid and steam break flows and enthalpies during the reflood of a hot core following a delayed ECCS injection LOCA sequence. A simulation of a large, hot leg manifold break with a seven-minute ECCS injection delay was used as a representative LOCA sequence. Both analyses were perform using the RELAP5/MOD2.5 transient computer code. 13 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Heat and mass transfer in the stratified flow with ECCS injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strubelj, L.; Tiselj, I.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important problems in the light-water nuclear thermal-hydraulics is behaviour of the cold emergency core cooling water injected from the top or from the bottom into the horizontal section of the cold leg near the reactor vessel during the loss of coolant accident. The stratified flows appear where cold water is injected in partially or fully uncovered horizontal cold leg. The hot steam condenses on cold water surface what is also called direct contact condensation. Direct contact condensation and condensation induced water-hammer in a horizontal pipe were experimentally investigated at PMK-2 test facility of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Research Institute KFKI. The cold water is injected through small pipe into lower horizontal part of the section, and then water fills the vertical pipeline and floods the horizontal test section of the pipeline of the PMK-2 integral test facility. As liquid water floods the horizontal part of the pipeline, the counter current horizontally stratified flow is being observed. During the flooding of the pipeline, the steam-liquid interface area increases and therefore the steam condensation rate and the steam velocity also increase and can lead to bubble entrapment. Water level at one cross-section and four local void fraction and temperature at the top of horizontal test pipeline was measured and compared with simulation. Condensed steam increases the water temperature that is why the local temperature measurements are the most important information, from which condensation rate can be estimated, since mass of condensed steam was not measured. Numerical simulation of the experiment with thermal phase change is presented. Surface renewal concept with small eddies is used for calculation of condensation heat transfer coefficient. Two simulations were performed: simulation of whole experimental domain (lower horizontal, vertical and test horizontal pipeline) and simplified simulation of only upper horizontal test section

  5. Analysis of emergency core cooling capability of direct vessel vertical injection using CFX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang H.; Yu, Yong H.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2003-01-01

    More reliable and efficient safety injection system is of utmost importance in the design of advanced reactors such as the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe). In this work, a new idea is proposed to inject the Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) water utilizing a dedicated nozzle with a vertically downward elbow. The Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) system is located horizontally above the cold leg in the APR1400. However, the horizontal injection method may not always satisfy the ECC penetration requirement into the core on account of rather involved multidimensional thermal and hydraulic phenomena occurring in the annular reactor downcomer such as bypass, impingement, entrainment and sweepout, condensation oscillation, etc. Thus, a novel concept is called for from the reactor safety point of view. The Direct Vessel Vertical Injection (DVVI) system is one of these efforts to penetrate as much the ECC water through the downcomer into the core as is practically achievable. The DVVI system can increase the momentum of the downward flow, thus minimizing the effect of water impingement on the core barrel and the direct bypass though the break. To support the claim of increased downward momentum of flow in the DVVI system, computational fluid dynamics analyses were performed using CFX. The new concept of the DVVI system, which can certainly help increase the core thermal margin, is found to be more efficient than DVI. If the structural problem in the manufacturing process is properly solved, this concept can safely be applied in the advanced nuclear reactor design

  6. Simulation of a large break loss of coolant (LBLOCA), without actuation of the emergency injection systems (ECCS) for a BWR-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas V, J.; Mugica R, C. A.; Lopez M, R.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the analysis of scenario for the loss of coolant case was realized with break at the bottom of a recirculation loop of a BWR-5 with containment type Mark II and a thermal power of 2317 MWt considering that not have coolant injection. This in order to observe the speed of progression of the accident, the phenomenology of the scenario, the time to reach the limit pressure of containment venting and the amount of radionuclides released into the environment. This simulation was performed using the MELCOR code version 2.1. The scenario posits a break in one of the shear recirculation loops. The emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and the reactor core isolation cooling (Rcic) have not credit throughout the event, which allowed achieve greater severity on scenario. The venting of the primary containment was conducted via valve of 30 inches instead of the line of 24 inches of wet well, this in order to have a larger area of exhaust of fission products directly to the reactor building. The venting took place when the pressure in the primary containment reached the 4.5 kg/cm 2 and remained open for the rest of the scenario to maximize the amount released of radionuclides to the atmosphere. The safety relief valves were considered functional they do not present mechanical failure or limit their ability to release pressure due to the large number of performances in safety mode. The results of the analysis covers about 48 hours, time at which the accident evolution was observed; behavior of level, pressure in the vessel and the fuel temperature profile was analyzed. For progression of the scenario outside the vessel, the pressure and temperature of the primary containment, level and temperature of the suppression pool, the hydrogen accumulation in the container and the radionuclides mass released into the atmosphere were analyzed. (Author)

  7. Industry Application ECCS / LOCA Integrated Cladding/Emergency Core Cooling System Performance: Demonstration of LOTUS-Baseline Coupled Analysis of the South Texas Plant Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Szilard, Ronaldo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Epiney, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Parisi, Carlo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vaghetto, Rodolfo [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Vanni, Alessandro [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Neptune, Kaleb [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Under the auspices of the DOE LWRS Program RISMC Industry Application ECCS/LOCA, INL has engaged staff from both South Texas Project (STP) and the Texas A&M University (TAMU) to produce a generic pressurized water reactor (PWR) model including reactor core, clad/fuel design and systems thermal hydraulics based on the South Texas Project (STP) nuclear power plant, a 4-Loop Westinghouse PWR. A RISMC toolkit, named LOCA Toolkit for the U.S. (LOTUS), has been developed for use in this generic PWR plant model to assess safety margins for the proposed NRC 10 CFR 50.46c rule, Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) performance during LOCA. This demonstration includes coupled analysis of core design, fuel design, thermalhydraulics and systems analysis, using advanced risk analysis tools and methods to investigate a wide range of results. Within this context, a multi-physics best estimate plus uncertainty (MPBEPU) methodology framework is proposed.

  8. Analysis and prevention of water hammer for the emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jun

    2008-01-01

    Emergency core cooling system (ECCS) is an engineered safety feature of nuclear power plant. If the water hammer happens during ECCS injection, the piping system may be broken. It will cause loss of ECC system and affect the safety of reactor core. Based on the functions and characteristics of ECCS and the theory of water hammer, the paper analyzed the potential risk of water hammer in ECCS in Qinshan III, and proposed modifications to prevent the water-hammer damage during ECCS injection. (authors)

  9. Method and device for controlling ECCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Murase, Michio.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To accomplish reactor cooling without exposing fuel assemblies out of the coolant and also without inducing counter-current flow (CCFL) brake likely to be caused by excess injection of water even in case of malfunction of one system in a loss-of-coolant accident. Method: In a BWR type reactor having more than two independent ECCS, the lower plenum water level is measured and when the lower plenum is full of water, the ECCS are kept in a fully closed state, and reversely when the lower plenum is not full of water, more coolant than the lost quantity of water will be injected into the plenum at a higher pressure than a pressure at which fuel rods just begin to be exposed to the steam phase. The subcool energy of the emergency coolant to be injected is determined by the decay heat of the core and the change rate of a container pressure. However, the quantity of the emergency coolant is controlled such that the subcool energy will always become less than the overheating energy in the core range and the lower plenum range, thus improving safety and enabling the removal of a prior-art ECCS. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. ECCS Operability With One or More Subsystem(s) Inoperable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swantner, Stephen R.; Andrachek, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Plant Technical Specifications are issued by the US NRC to ensure that safe nuclear power plant operation is maintained within the assumptions for parameters and Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) made in the plant safety analysis reports. The Technical Specifications are made up of Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs), which are the minimum set of requirements that must be met based on the assumptions of the safety analysis, Actions, which are the remedial or compensatory actions that must be taken if the LCO is not met, and Surveillance Requirements, that demonstrate that the LCO is met. The Technical Specification Actions contain Completion Times (CTs) which are the time within which remedial actions must be taken, in the event that the LCO is not met. The Improved Standard Technical Specifications (ISTS) for Westinghouse plants are contained in NUREG-1431, Revision 2. Condition A of Technical Specification 3.5.2 (ECCS- Operating) in NUREG-1431, Revision 2, allows components to be taken out of service for up to 72 hours, as long as 100% of the ECCS flow equivalent to a single Operable ECCS train exists. Condition A would allow, for example, the A train low head safety injection (LHSI) and the B train high head safety injection (HHSI) pumps to be taken out of service (for 72 hours) as long as it could be demonstrated that the remaining components could provide 100% train equivalent flow capacity. The 'cross-training' allowed by this Condition in the ISTS provides flexibility when performing routine pre-planned preventive maintenance and testing, as well as during emergent corrective maintenance and testing associated with random component inoperabilities. Without this flexibility, a unit would have to initiate a plant shutdown within 1 hour, if component(s) were inoperable in different trains. In order to implement this flexibility, the various combinations of components in opposite trains must be evaluated to determine whether 100% of the ECCS flow

  11. Effects of surface deposition and droplet injection on film cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jin; Cui, Pei; Vujanović, Milan; Baleta, Jakov; Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cooling effectiveness is significantly affected by the deposition size. • Coverage area for model without mist is reduced by increasing the deposition height. • Wall temperature is decreased by 15% with 2% mist injection. • Cooling coverage is increased by more than three times with 2% mist injection. • Cooling effectiveness for mist models is improved by increasing deposition height. - Abstract: In the present research, the influence of the particle dispersion onto the continuous phase in film cooling application was analysed by means of numerical simulations. The interaction between the water droplets and the main stream plays an important role in the results. The prediction of two-phase flow is investigated by employing the discrete phase model (DPM). The results present heat transfer characteristics in the near-wall region under the influence of mist cooling. The local wall temperature distribution and film cooling effectiveness are obtained, and results show that the film cooling characteristics on the downstream wall are affected by different height of surface deposits. It is also found that smaller deposits without mist injection provide a lower wall temperature and a better cooling performance. With 2% mist injection, evaporation of water droplets improves film cooling effectiveness, and higher deposits cause lateral and downstream spread of water droplets. The results indicate that mist injection can significantly enhance film cooling performance.

  12. Simulation of a large break loss of coolant (LBLOCA), without actuation of the emergency injection systems (ECCS) for a BWR-5; Simulacion de un escenario de perdida de refrigerante grande (LBLOCA), sin actuacion de los sistemas de inyeccion de emergencia (ECCS) para un reactor BWR-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas V, J.; Mugica R, C. A.; Lopez M, R., E-mail: jaime.cardenas@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper the analysis of scenario for the loss of coolant case was realized with break at the bottom of a recirculation loop of a BWR-5 with containment type Mark II and a thermal power of 2317 MWt considering that not have coolant injection. This in order to observe the speed of progression of the accident, the phenomenology of the scenario, the time to reach the limit pressure of containment venting and the amount of radionuclides released into the environment. This simulation was performed using the MELCOR code version 2.1. The scenario posits a break in one of the shear recirculation loops. The emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and the reactor core isolation cooling (Rcic) have not credit throughout the event, which allowed achieve greater severity on scenario. The venting of the primary containment was conducted via valve of 30 inches instead of the line of 24 inches of wet well, this in order to have a larger area of exhaust of fission products directly to the reactor building. The venting took place when the pressure in the primary containment reached the 4.5 kg/cm{sup 2} and remained open for the rest of the scenario to maximize the amount released of radionuclides to the atmosphere. The safety relief valves were considered functional they do not present mechanical failure or limit their ability to release pressure due to the large number of performances in safety mode. The results of the analysis covers about 48 hours, time at which the accident evolution was observed; behavior of level, pressure in the vessel and the fuel temperature profile was analyzed. For progression of the scenario outside the vessel, the pressure and temperature of the primary containment, level and temperature of the suppression pool, the hydrogen accumulation in the container and the radionuclides mass released into the atmosphere were analyzed. (Author)

  13. The Heat Exchanger for Passive Part ECCS of WWER-1000 on Base of the Thermo siphons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirov, V.; Chulkin, O.

    2008-01-01

    One of NPP's systems providing safe operation is the system of emergency core cooling system (ECCS), which primary function in accidents is to flood the nuclear reactor core and to assure the sub critical condition and core cooling. At injection of cold water in reactor thermal stresses and thermal fatigue in the vessel cladding and constructional materials are arise. Low temperature of the water injected in reactor is a reason of occurrence of these undesirable consequences. Some variants of the water heating in accumulators of ECCS are considered. Now at Ukrainian NPPs the electrical heating in accumulators is used. Electrical heaters create the essential additional loading to diesel generators at imposing of two accidents - the large break and losses of power supplies on own needs. It is offered to use a heater in accumulators that working by a principle two-phase thermal siphon which advantages is: small dimensions, small delay and design reliability. In such heat exchanger the heating medium is a direct steam and the heated up medium is water with boric acid from accumulators of ECCS. Under requirements of the service regulations of ECCS accumulators it is necessary to guarantee injected water heating up to 90 ?? in case of a small break and to 150 ?? in case of the large break. Results of calculations for different external diameters of a tube of thermal siphon which have allowed to define the constructive sizes of heat exchanger, providing necessary conditions for required functioning of passive part ECCS are submitted The calculation and analysis of operating modes of the changed circuit of passive part ECCS for various accidents is carried out. The calculated pressure drop indicates that changes do not have essential influence on system work as a whole. Thus, the submitted decision provides the increase of reliability of ECCS at small and large breaks accidents, i.e. in all modes stipulated by the project.(author)

  14. Development of Calculation Algorithm for ECCS Kinematic Shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Chan; Yoon, Duk-Joo; Ha, Sang-Jun [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The void fraction of inverted U-pipes in front of SI(Safety Injection) pumps impact on the pipe system of ECCS(Emergency Core Cooling Systems). This phenomena is called as 'Kinematic Shock'. The purpose of this paper is to achieve the more exactly calculation when the kinematic shock is calculated by simplified equation. The behavior of the void packet of the ECCS pipes is illustrated by the simplified (other name is kinematic shock equation).. The kinematic shock is defined as the depth of total length of void clusters in the pipes of ECCS when the void cluster is continually reached along the part of pipes in vertical direction. In this paper, the simplified equation is evaluated by comparing calculation error each other.]. The more exact methods of calculating the depth of the kinematic shock in ECCS is achieved. The error of kinematic shock calculation is strongly depended on the calculation search gap and the order of Taylor's expansion. From this study, to select the suitable search gap and the suitable calculation order, differential root method, secant method, and Taylor's expansion form are compared one another.

  15. Evaluation of mispositioned ECCS valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.A.; O'Brien, J.F.; McIntire, D.C.; Barlow, R.T.

    1977-09-01

    In October of 1975, Westinghouse submitted NS-CE-787, dated October 17, 1975, to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and entered into discussions with them concerning the spurious movement of certain motor-operated valves (MOV's) in the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) to a position defeating the ECCS function at a time when this function is required. On November 25, 1975, the discussion turned to the possible movement of a manually controlled, motor-operated valve due to a fault in its electrical circuitry and the NRC staff expressed concerns about other possible failure modes that might lead to such a valve movement. The NRC meeting minutes document these concerns. This report is an item-by-item response to the concerns expressed by the NRC staff at that meeting and incorporates the original electrical fault analysis

  16. Advanced DVI for ECC direct bypass mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Song, Chul-Hwa; Baek, Won-Pil

    2009-01-01

    An ECC direct bypass fraction during a late reflood phase of a LBLOCA is strongly dependent on the characteristics of the cross flow and the geometrical configuration of a DVI in the downcomer of a pressurized light water reactor. The important design parameters of a DVI are the elevation, the azimuthal angle, and the separator to prevent a steam-water interaction. An ECC sub-channel to separate or to isolate an ECC water from a high-speed cross flow is one of the important design features to mitigate the ECC bypass phenomena. A dual core barrel cylinder as an ECC flow separator is located between a reactor vessel and a core barrel outer wall in the downcomer annulus. A new narrow gap between the core barrel and the additional dual core barrel plays the role of a downward ECC flow channel or an ECC flow separator in a high-speed cross flow field of the downcomer annulus. The flow zone around a broken cold leg in the downcomer annulus has the role of a high ECC direct bypass due to a strong suction force while the wake zone of a hot leg has the role of an ECC penetration. Thus, the relative azimuthal angle of the DVI nozzle from the broken cold leg is an important design parameter. A large azimuthal angle from a cold leg to a hot leg needs to avoid a high suction flow zone when an ECC water is being injected. The other enhancing mechanism of an ECC penetration is a grooved core barrel which has small rectangular-shaped grooves vertically arranged on the core barrel wall of the reactor vessel downcomer annulus. These grooves have the role for a generation of a vortex induced by a high-speed cross flow. Since the stagnant flow in a lateral direction and rotational vortex provides the pulling force of an ECC drop or film to flow down into the lower downcomer annulus by gravity, the ECC direct bypass fraction is reduced when compared to the current design of a smoothed wall. An open channel of grooves generates a stagnant vortex, while a closed channel of grooves

  17. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masaki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To actuate an automatic pressure down system (ADS) and a low pressure emergency core cooling system (ECCS) upon water level reduction of a nuclear reactor other than loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Constitution: ADS in a BWR type reactor is disposed for reducing the pressure in a reactor container thereby enabling coolant injection from a low pressure ECCS upon LOCA. That is, ADS has been actuated by AND signal for a reactor water level low signal and a dry well pressure high signal. In the present invention, ADS can be actuated further also by AND signal of the reactor water level low signal, the high pressure ECCS and not-operation signal of reactor isolation cooling system. In such an emergency core cooling system thus constituted, ADS operates in the same manner as usual upon LOCA and, further, ADS is operated also upon loss of feedwater accident in the reactor pressure vessel in the case where there is a necessity for actuating the low pressure ECCS, although other high pressure ECCS and reactor isolation cooling system are not operated. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the reliability upon reactor core accident and mitigate the operator burden. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Transient computational fluid dynamics analysis of emergency core cooling injection at natural circulation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuerer, Martina, E-mail: Martina.Scheuerer@grs.de [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Forschungsinstitute, 85748 Garching (Germany); Weis, Johannes, E-mail: Johannes.Weis@grs.de [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Forschungsinstitute, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pressurized thermal shocks are important phenomena for plant life extension and aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal-hydraulics of PTS have been studied experimentally and numerically. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the Large Scale Test Facility a loss of coolant accident was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFD software is validated to simulate the buoyancy driven flow after ECC injection. - Abstract: Within the framework of the European Nuclear Reactor Integrated Simulation Project (NURISP), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is validated for the simulation of the thermo-hydraulics of pressurized thermal shocks. A proposed validation experiment is the test series performed within the OECD ROSA V project in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF). The LSTF is a 1:48 volume-scaled model of a four-loop Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR). ROSA V Test 1-1 investigates temperature stratification under natural circulation conditions. This paper describes calculations which were performed with the ANSYS CFD software for emergency core cooling injection into one loop at single-phase flow conditions. Following the OECD/NEA CFD Best Practice Guidelines (Mahaffy, 2007) the influence of grid resolution, discretisation schemes, and turbulence models (shear stress transport and Reynolds stress model) on the mixing in the cold leg were investigated. A half-model was used for these simulations. The transient calculations were started from a steady-state solution at natural circulation conditions. The final calculations were obtained in a complete model of the downcomer. The results are in good agreement with data.

  19. Transient computational fluid dynamics analysis of emergency core cooling injection at natural circulation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuerer, Martina; Weis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pressurized thermal shocks are important phenomena for plant life extension and aging. ► The thermal-hydraulics of PTS have been studied experimentally and numerically. ► In the Large Scale Test Facility a loss of coolant accident was investigated. ► CFD software is validated to simulate the buoyancy driven flow after ECC injection. - Abstract: Within the framework of the European Nuclear Reactor Integrated Simulation Project (NURISP), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is validated for the simulation of the thermo-hydraulics of pressurized thermal shocks. A proposed validation experiment is the test series performed within the OECD ROSA V project in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF). The LSTF is a 1:48 volume-scaled model of a four-loop Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR). ROSA V Test 1-1 investigates temperature stratification under natural circulation conditions. This paper describes calculations which were performed with the ANSYS CFD software for emergency core cooling injection into one loop at single-phase flow conditions. Following the OECD/NEA CFD Best Practice Guidelines (Mahaffy, 2007) the influence of grid resolution, discretisation schemes, and turbulence models (shear stress transport and Reynolds stress model) on the mixing in the cold leg were investigated. A half-model was used for these simulations. The transient calculations were started from a steady-state solution at natural circulation conditions. The final calculations were obtained in a complete model of the downcomer. The results are in good agreement with data.

  20. Condensation during gravity driven ECC: Experiments with PACTEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munther, R.; Kalli, H. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland); Kouhia, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    This paper provides the results of the second series of gravity driven emergency core cooling (ECC) experiments with PACTEL (Parallel Channel Test Loop). The simulated accident was a small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) with a break in a cold leg. The ECC flow was provided from a core makeup tank (CMT) located at a higher elevation than the main part of the primary system. The CMT was pressurized with pipings from the pressurizer and a cold leg. The tests indicated that steam condensation in the CMT can prevent ECC and lead to core uncovery.

  1. Experimental feasibility study of radial injection cooling of three-pad radial air foil bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Suman K.

    Air foil bearings use ambient air as a lubricant allowing environment-friendly operation. When they are designed, installed, and operated properly, air foil bearings are very cost effective and reliable solution to oil-free turbomachinery. Because air is used as a lubricant, there are no mechanical contacts between the rotor and bearings and when the rotor is lifted off the bearing, near frictionless quiet operation is possible. However, due to the high speed operation, thermal management is one of the very important design factors to consider. Most widely accepted practice of the cooling method is axial cooling, which uses cooling air passing through heat exchange channels formed underneath the bearing pad. Advantage is no hardware modification to implement the axial cooling because elastic foundation structure of foil bearing serves as a heat exchange channels. Disadvantage is axial temperature gradient on the journal shaft and bearing. This work presents the experimental feasibility study of alternative cooling method using radial injection of cooling air directly on the rotor shaft. The injection speeds, number of nozzles, location of nozzles, total air flow rate are important factors determining the effectiveness of the radial injection cooling method. Effectiveness of the radial injection cooling was compared with traditional axial cooling method. A previously constructed test rig was modified to accommodate a new motor with higher torque and radial injection cooling. The radial injection cooling utilizes the direct air injection to the inlet region of air film from three locations at 120° from one another with each location having three axially separated holes. In axial cooling, a certain axial pressure gradient is applied across the bearing to induce axial cooling air through bump foil channels. For the comparison of the two methods, the same amount of cooling air flow rate was used for both axial cooling and radial injection. Cooling air flow rate was

  2. ECC cusp analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregliasco, R.G. (Centro Atomico Bariloche and CONICET, S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina)); Garibotti, C.R. (Centro Atomico Bariloche and CONICET, S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina)); Barrachina, R. (Centro Atomico Bariloche and CONICET, S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina))

    1994-03-01

    We measured the ionization double differential cross section for the H[sup +][yields]He 100 keV collision at the proximities of the ECC cusp and all around 0 . We propose an angular function expansion and a procedure for data analysis. We demonstrate that, in this way, the difficulties and shortcomings presented in the standard data processing are overcome. In our experimental results we distinguish the presence of characteristic shapes for the ionization depending on whether the module of the electron velocity is greater or smaller than the projectile velocity. (orig.)

  3. Design of conformal cooling for plastic injection moulding by heat transfer simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Marques

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooling channels of a mold for plastic injection have to be as close as possible to the part geometry in order to ensure fast and homogeneous cooling. However, conventional methods to manufacture cooling channels (drilling can only produce linear holes. Selective laser melting (SLM is an additive manufacturing technique capable to manufacture complex cooling channels (known as conformal cooling. Nevertheless, because of the high costs of SLM the benefits of conformal collings are still not clear. The current work investigates two designs of conformal coolings: i parallel circuit; ii serial circuit. Both coolings are evaluated against to traditional cooling circuits (linear channels by CAE simulation to produce parts of polypropylene. The results show that if the conformal cooling is not properly designed it cannot provide reasonable results. The deformation of the product can be reduced significantly after injection but the cycle time reduced not more than 6%.

  4. Evaluation of ECC bypass data with a nonlinear constrained MLE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, T.A.; Collier, R.P.; Kurth, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, Battelle's Columbus Laboratories have been involved in scale-model tests of emergency core cooling (ECC) systems for hypothesized loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors (PWR). These tests are intended to increase our understanding of ECC bypass, which can occur when steam flow from the reactor core causes the emergency coolant to bypass the core and flow directly to the break. One objective of these experiments is the development of a correlation which relates the flow rate of water penetrating to the core to the steam flow rate. This correlation is derived from data obtained from a 2/15 scale model PWR at various ECC water injection rates, subcoolings, pressures, and steam flows. The general form of the correlation being studied is a modification of the correlation first proposed by Wallis. The correlation model is inherently nonlinear and implicit in form, and the model variables are all subject to error. Therefore, the usual nonlinear analysis techniques are inappropriate. A nonlinear constrained maximum-likelihood-estimation technique has been used to obtain estimates of the model parameters, and a Battelle-developed code, NLINMLE, has been used to analyze the data. The application of this technique is illustrated by sample calculations of estimates of the model parameters and their associated confidence intervals for selected experimental data sets. 5 figures, 7 tables

  5. Coolant Mixing in a Pressurized Water Reactor: Deboration Transients, Steam-Line Breaks, and Emergency Core Cooling Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasser, Horst-Michael; Grunwald, Gerhard; Hoehne, Thomas; Kliem, Soeren; Rohde, Ulrich; Weiss, Frank-Peter

    2003-01-01

    emergency core cooling (ECC) water entering the RPV through the ECC injection into the cold leg. The experimental results show an incomplete mixing with typical concentration and temperature distributions at the core inlet, which strongly depend on the boundary conditions. Computational fluid dynamics calculations were found to be in good agreement with the experiments

  6. Safety verification for the ECCS driven by the electrically 4 trains during LBLOCA reflood phase using ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yusun; Park, Hyun-sik; Kang, Kyoung-ho; Choi, Nam-hyun; Min, Kyoung-ho; Choi, Ki-yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Safety improvement by adopting 4 train emergency core cooling system was validated experimentally. • General thermal hydraulic behaviors of the system during LBLOCA reflood phase were successfully demonstrated. • Key parameters such as the liquid levels, the PCTs, the quenching time, and the ECC bypass ratios were investigated. • Asymmetric effects of the different combination of safety injection were negligible during the reflood period. - Abstract: The APR1400 is equipped with four safety injection pumps driven by two emergency diesel generators. However, the design has been changed so that the four safety injection pumps are driven by 4 emergency diesel generators during the design certification process from the U.S. NRC. Thus, 4 safety injection pumps (SIPs) are completely independent electrically and mechanically and three safety injection pumps are available in a single failure condition. This design change could have a certain effects on the thermal-hydraulic phenomenon occurring in the downcomer region during the late reflood phase of a large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA). Thus, in this study, a verification experiment for the reflood phase of a LBLOCA was performed to evaluate the core cooling performance of the 4 train emergency core cooling system (ECCS) with an assumption of a single failure. And the different combinations of three SIPs positions were tested to investigate the asymmetric effects on the reactor core cooling performance. The overall experimental results revealed the typical thermal–hydraulic trends expected to occur during the reflood phase of a large-break LOCA scenario for the APR1400. Experiment with the injection of three SIPs showed a faster core quenching time and lower bypass ratio than that of the case in which two SIPs were injected. The RPV wall temperature distributions showed the similar trend in spite of the different SIP combinations

  7. Performance Evaluation of a Software Engineering Tool for Automated Design of Cooling Systems in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauregui-Becker, Juan M.; Tosello, Guido; van Houten, Fred J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a software tool for automating the design of cooling systems for injection moulding and a validation of its performance. Cooling system designs were automatically generated by the proposed software tool and by applying a best practice tool engineering design approach. The two...

  8. Core-power and decay-time limits for disabled automatic-actuation of LOFT ECCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    The Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) for the LOFT reactor may need to be disabled for modifications or repairs of hardware or instrumentation or for component testing during periods when the reactor system is hot and pressurized, or it may be desirable to enable the ECCS to be disabled without the necessity of cooling down and depressurizing the reactor. LTR 113-47 has shown that the LOFT ECCS can be safely bypassed or disabled when the total core power does not exceed 25 kW. A modified policy involves disabling the automatic actuation of the LOFT ECCS, but still retaining the manual activation capability. Disabling of the automatic actuation can be safely utilized, without subjecting the fuel cladding to unacceptable temperatures, when the LOFT power decays to 70 kW; this power level permits a maximum delay of 20 minutes following a LOCA for the manual actuation of ECCS

  9. Experimental and computational studies of film cooling with compound angle injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, R.J.; Eckert, E.R.G.; Patankar, S.V. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The thermal efficiency of gas turbine systems depends largely on the turbine inlet temperature. Recent decades have seen a steady rise in the inlet temperature and a resulting reduction in fuel consumption. At the same time, it has been necessary to employ intensive cooling of the hot components. Among various cooling methods, film cooling has become a standard method for cooling of the turbine airfoils and combustion chamber walls. The University of Minnesota program is a combined experimental and computational study of various film-cooling configurations. Whereas a large number of parameters influence film cooling processes, this research focuses on compound angle injection through a single row and through two rows of holes. Later work will investigate the values of contoured hole designs. An appreciation of the advantages of compound angle injection has risen recently with the demand for more effective cooling and with improved understanding of the flow; this project should continue to further this understanding. Approaches being applied include: (1) a new measurement system that extends the mass/heat transfer analogy to obtain both local film cooling and local mass (heat) transfer results in a single system, (2) direct measurement of three-dimensional turbulent transport in a highly-disturbed flow, (3) the use of compound angle and shaped holes to optimize film cooling performance, and (4) an exploration of anisotropy corrections to turbulence modeling of film cooling jets.

  10. Computer Aided Design of The Cooling System for Plastic Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan GÜRÜN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of plastic injection molds and their cooling systems affect both the dimension, the shape, the quality of a plastic part and the cycle time of process and the cost of mold. In this study, the solid model design of a plastic injection mold and the design of cooling sysytem were possibly carried out without the designer interaction. Developed program permited the use of three types of the cooling system and the different cavity orientations and the multible plastic part placement into the mold cores. The program which was developed by using Visual LISP language and the VBA (Visual BASIC for Application modules, was applicated in the AutoCAD software domain. Trial studies were presented that the solid model design of plastic injection molds and the cooling systems increased the reliability, the flexibility and the speed of the design.

  11. Fast cooling phenomena with ice pellet injection in the JIPP T-IIU Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, M.; Sato, K.N.; Ogawa, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Ice pellet injection experiments were carried out in the JIPP T-IIU Tokamak in order to study thermal (cooling) transport just after injection. The cut-off problem of ECE signals due to the rise in density has been resolved by careful measurements of the temperature profile at a high time resolution (Δt = 2μs) during its decay phase. The phenomenon of ultra-fast cooling (so-called pre-cooling) has been identified using the two different methods of ECE and soft X-ray (SXR) measurements. In the outer region (r > r q=1 ) of the plasma the cooling propagation velocity is comparable to or slightly greater than the pellet velocity, while in the central region (r q=1 ) the propagation velocity is significantly greater than the pellet velocity. Ice pellets were injected into various kinds of JIPP T-IIU plasmas, the current and sawtooth phase of which had different values, including a no-sawtooth plasma. The existence of the q = 1 surface and arrival of a pellet near the q = 1 surface have turned out to be necessary conditions for pre-cooling, and even just after the sawtooth crash the pre-cooling starts around the q = 1 surface, not at the plasma center. Simultaneous measurements of electron temperature and density profiles indicate that the central temperature always decreases before the central density increases. Some anomalous transport might be induced by pellet injection at the central region. (Author)

  12. Modeling of Cooling Channels of Injection Mould using Functionally Graded Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ki Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The cycle time in injection moulding greatly depends on the cooling time of the plastic part that is controlled by cooling channels. Cooling channels are required to facilitate the heat transfer rate from the die to the coolant without reducing the strength of the die. Employing layered manufacturing techniques (LMT), a die embedding conformal cooling channels can be fabricated directly while conventional cooling channels are usually made of straight drilled hole. Meanwhile, H13 tool steel is widely used as the die material because of its high thermal resistance and dimensional stability. However, H13 with a low thermal conductivity is not efficient for certain part geometries. In this context, the use of functionally graded materials (FGMs) between H13 and copper may circumvent a tradeoff between the strength and the heat transfer rate. This paper presents a method for modeling of conformal cooling channels made of FGMs

  13. Design Development of SMART ECC Water Asymmetric Two-phase choking test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Il; Cho, Seok; Ko, Yung Joo; Shin, Yong Cheol; Kwon, Tae Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    SMART pressurized water reactor type is different from the existing integral NSSS commercial pressurized water reactor system which is equipped with the main features. In addition RCS piping is removed and the feature of the SBLOCA is a major design break accident. The TASS / SMR code is analyzed SMART SBLOCA. In order to verify analysis code, SMART analysis for verification of conservatism is promoting using data for experiments with Integral Effect Test and Separate Effect. In this paper, the design feature of the SWAT (SMART ECC Water Asymmetric Two-phase choking test facility) is described. SWAT is linearly reduced to a 1/5 ratio while the geometrical shape is conserved. In major shape of SMART ECC injection performance test, distortions which caused by gravitational effects are minimized. Because both the emergency core cooling water injection nozzle height and the break nozzle height match the RCP Suction Nozzle height in test section of the main forms. The main part of the test section is SG-side upper down-comer. The boundary conditions are saturated steam and water flow condition and drain flow rate to control the collapsed water level in the down-comer

  14. Cycle time improvement for plastic injection moulding process by sub groove modification in conformal cooling channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, K.; Wahab, M. S.; Batcha, M. F. M.; Shayfull, Z.; Raus, A. A.; Ahmed, Aqeel

    2017-09-01

    Mould designers have been struggling for the improvement of the cooling system performance, despite the fact that the cooling system complexity is physically limited by the fabrication capability of the conventional tooling methods. However, the growth of Solid Free Form Technology (SFF) allow the mould designer to develop more than just a regular conformal cooling channel. Numerous researchers demonstrate that conformal cooling channel was tremendously given significant result in the improvement of productivity and quality in the plastic injection moulding process. This paper presents the research work that applies the passive enhancement method in square shape cooling channel to enhance the efficiency of cooling performance by adding the sub groove to the cooling channel itself. Previous design that uses square shape cooling channel was improved by adding various numbers of sub groove to meet the best sub groove design that able reduced the cooling time. The effect of sub groove design on cooling time was investigated by Autodesk Modlflow Insight software. The simulation results showed that the various sub groove designs give different values to ejection time. The Design 7 showed the lowest value of ejection time with 24.3% increment. The addition of sub groove significantly increased a coolant velocity and a rate of heat transfer from molten plastic to coolant.

  15. Effect of an upstream bulge configuration on film cooling with and without mist injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Li, Qianqian; Sundén, Bengt; Ma, Ting; Cui, Pei

    2017-12-01

    To meet the economic requirements of power output, the increased inlet temperature of modern gas turbines is above the melting point of the material. Therefore, high-efficient cooling technology is needed to protect the blades from the hot mainstream. In this study, film cooling was investigated in a simplified channel. A bulge located upstream of the film hole was numerically investigated by analysis of the film cooling effectiveness distribution downstream of the wall. The flow distribution in the plate channel is first presented. Comparing with a case without bulge, different cases with bulge heights of 0.1d, 0.3d and 0.5d were examined with blowing ratios of 0.5 and 1.0. Cases with 1% mist injection were also included in order to obtain better cooling performance. Results show that the bulge configuration located upstream the film hole makes the cooling film more uniform, and enhanceslateral cooling effectiveness. Unlike other cases, the configuration with a 0.3d-height bulge shows a good balance in improving the downstream and lateral cooling effectiveness. Compared with the case without mist at M = 0.5, the 0.3d-height bulge with 1% mist injection increases lateral average effectiveness by 559% at x/d = 55. In addition, a reduction of the thermal stress concentration can be obtained by increasing the height of the bulge configuration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of Cooling Water Injection into Supersonic Rocket Engine Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hansen; Jeansonne, Christopher; Menon, Shyam

    2017-11-01

    Water spray cooling of the exhaust plume from a rocket undergoing static testing is critical in preventing thermal wear of the test stand structure, and suppressing the acoustic noise signature. A scaled test facility has been developed that utilizes non-intrusive diagnostic techniques including Focusing Color Schlieren (FCS) and Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry (PDPA) to examine the interaction of a pressure-fed water jet with a supersonic flow of compressed air. FCS is used to visually assess the interaction of the water jet with the strong density gradients in the supersonic air flow. PDPA is used in conjunction to gain statistical information regarding water droplet size and velocity as the jet is broken up. Measurement results, along with numerical simulations and jet penetration models are used to explain the observed phenomena. Following the cold flow testing campaign a scaled hybrid rocket engine will be constructed to continue tests in a combusting flow environment similar to that generated by the rocket engines tested at NASA facilities. LaSPACE.

  17. Injection molding of ceramic filled polypropylene: The effect of thermal conductivity and cooling rate on crystallinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suplicz, A.; Szabo, F.; Kovacs, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • BN, talc and TiO 2 in 30 vol% were compounded with polypropylene matrix. • According to the DSC measurements, the fillers are good nucleating agents. • The thermal conductivity of the fillers influences the cooling rate of the melt. • The higher the cooling rate is, the lower the crystallinity in the polymer matrix. - Abstract: Three different nano- and micro-sized ceramic powders (boron-nitride (BN), talc and titanium-dioxide (TiO 2 )) in 30 vol% have been compounded with a polypropylene (PP) matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the particles are dispersed smoothly in the matrix and larger aggregates cannot be discovered. The cooling gradients and the cooling rate in the injection-molded samples were estimated with numerical simulations and finite element analysis software. It was proved with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements that the cooling rate has significant influence on the crystallinity of the compounds. At a low cooling rate BN works as a nucleating agent so the crystallinity of the compound is higher than that of unfilled PP. On the other hand, at a high cooling rate, the crystallinity of the compound is lower than that of unfilled PP because of its higher thermal conductivity. The higher the thermal conductivity is, the higher the real cooling rate in the material, which influences the crystallization kinetics significantly

  18. Analysis of Precooling Injection Transient of Steam Generator for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After a postulated design basis accident leads high temperature gas cooled reactor to emergency shutdown, steam generator still remains with high temperature level and needs to be cooled down by a precooling before reactor restarts with clearing of fault. For the large difference of coolant temperature between inlet and outlet of steam generator in normal operation, the temperature distribution on the components of steam generator is very complicated. Therefore, the temperature descending rate of the components in steam generator needs to be limited to avoid the potential damage during the precooling stage. In this paper, a pebble-bed high temperature gas cooled reactor is modeled by thermal-hydraulic system analysis code and several postulated precooling injection transients are simulated and compared to evaluate their effects, which will provide support for the precooling design. The analysis results show that enough precooling injection is necessary to satisfy the precooling requirements, and larger mass flow rate of precooling water injection will accelerate the precooling process. The temperature decrease of steam generator is related to the precooling injection scenarios, and the maximal mass flow rate of the precooling injection should be limited to avoid the excessively quick temperature change of the structures in steam generator.

  19. Core-power and decay-time limits for disabled automatic-actuation of LOFT ECCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    The Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) for the LOFT reactor may need to be disabled for modifications or repairs of hardware or instrumentation or for component testing during periods when the reactor system is hot and pressurized, or it may be desirable to enable the ECCS to be disabled without the necessity of cooling down and depressurizing the reactor. A policy involves disabling the automatic-actuation of the LOFT ECCS, but still retaining the manual actuation capability. Disabling of the automatic actuation can be safely utilized, without subjecting the fuel cladding to unacceptable temperatures, when the LOFT power decays to 33 kW; this power level permits a maximum delay of 20 minutes following a LOCA for the manual actuation of ECCS. For the operating power of the L2-2 Experiment, the required decay-periods (with operating periods of 40 and 2000 hours) are about 21 and 389 hours, respectively. With operating periods of 40 and 2000 hours at Core-I full power, the required decay-periods are about 42 and 973 hours, respectively. After these decay periods the automatic actuation of the LOFT ECCS can be disabled assuming a maximum delay of 20 minutes following a LOCA for the manual actuation of ECCS. The automatic and manual lineup of the ECCS may be waived if decay power is less than 11 kW

  20. Method of controlling ECCS system in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oohashi, Hideaki; Ikehara, Morihiko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate the risk of misoperation and thereby improve the reliability of ECCS system upon accident. Method: ECCS system for nuclear reactor is automatically started by either of signals from a water level detector in a pressure vessel or from a pressure detector in a reactor container. Further, the ECCS system is started or stopped by the manual operation irrespective of the signals, and the signals from the pressure detector are isolated from the ECCS-starting signal by the contacts which actuate interlocked with the stopping operation of the manual operation switch. Then, after stopping the ECCS system by the manual operation, the ECCS system is started by the signals from the water level detector irrespective of the signals from the pressure detector. (Seki, T.)

  1. The JAERI code system for evaluation of BWR ECCS performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohsaka, Atsuo; Akimoto, Masayuki; Asahi, Yoshiro; Abe, Kiyoharu; Muramatsu, Ken; Araya, Fumimasa; Sato, Kazuo

    1982-12-01

    Development of respective computer code system of BWR and PWR for evaluation of ECCS has been conducted since 1973 considering the differences of the reactor cooling system, core structure and ECCS. The first version of the BWR code system, of which developmental work started earlier than that of the PWR, has been completed. The BWR code system is designed to provide computational tools to analyze all phases of LOCAs and to evaluate the performance of the ECCS including an ''Evaluation Model (EM)'' feature in compliance with the requirements of the current Japanese Evaluation Guideline of ECCS. The BWR code system could be used for licensing purpose, i.e. for ECCS performance evaluation or audit calculations to cross-examine the methods and results of applicants or vendors. The BWR code system presented in this report comprises several computer codes, each of which analyzes a particular phase of a LOCA or a system blowdown depending on a range of LOCAs, i.e. large and small breaks in a variety of locations in the reactor system. The system includes ALARM-B1, HYDY-B1 and THYDE-B1 for analysis of the system blowdown for various break sizes, THYDE-B-REFLOOD for analysis of the reflood phase and SCORCH-B2 for the calculation of the fuel assembl hot plane temperature. When the multiple codes are used to analyze a broad range of LOCA as stated above, it is very important to evaluate the adequacy and consistency between the codes used to cover an entire break spectrum. The system consistency together with the system performance are discussed for a large commercial BWR. (author)

  2. Utilizing of inner porous structure in injection moulds for application of special cooling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, M; Bobek, J; Habr, J; Běhálek, L; Šafka, J; Nováková, I

    2016-01-01

    The article is focused on impact evaluation of controlled inner structure of production tools and new cooling method on regulation of thermal processes for injection moulding technology. The mould inserts with porous structure were cooled by means of liquid CO 2 which is very progressive cooling method and enables very fast and intensive heat transfer among the plastic product, the production tool and cooling medium. The inserts were created using rapid prototype technology (DLSM) and they had a bi-component structure consisting of thin compact surface layer and defined porous inner structure of open cell character where liquid CO 2 was flowing through. This analyse includes the evaluation of cooling efficiency for different inner structures and different time profiles for dosing of liquid CO 2 into the porous structure. The thermal processes were monitored using thermocouples and IR thermal analyse of product surface and experimental device. Intensive heat removal influenced also the final structure and the shape and dimensional accuracy of the moulded parts that were made of semi-crystalline polymer. The range of final impacts of using intensive cooling method on the plastic parts was defined by DSC and dimensional analyses. (paper)

  3. Artificial cooling due to quiet injection in bounded plasma particle simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.S.

    1988-01-01

    An explanation is proposed for an artificial cooling effect seen in electrostatic particle-in-cell plasma simulations. The effect hinges on heat transport from the trapped electrons to fluctuations of the electric field, which are kept at a sub-thermal level through the continuous ''quiet'' injection of passing electrons. Further simulations are done which test and support the explanation. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc

  4. Interactive Real-time Simulation of a Nuclear Reactor Emergency Core Cooling System on a Desktop Computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muncharoen, C.; Chanyotha, S.; Bereznai, G.

    1998-01-01

    The simulation of the Emergency Core Cooling System for a 900 MW nuclear power plant has been developed by using object oriented programming language. It is capable of generating code that executes in real-time on a PENTIUM 100 or equivalent personal computer. Graphical user interface ECCS screens have been developed using Lab VIEW to allow interactive control of ECCS. The usual simulator functions, such as freeze, run, iterate, have been provided, and a number of malfunctions may be activated. A large pipe break near the reactor inlet header has been simulated to verify the response of the ECCS model. LOCA detection, ECC initiation, injection and recovery phased are all modeled, and give results consistent with safety analysis data for a 100% break. With stand alone ECCS simulation, the changes of flow and pressure in ECCS can be observed. The operator can study operational procedures and get used to LOCA in case of the LOCA. Practicing with malfunction, the operator will improve problem solving skills and gain a deeper comprehension of ECCS

  5. Direct ECC bypass phenomena in the MIDAS test facility during LBLOCA reflood phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, B. J.; Kweon, T. S.; Ah, D. J.; Ju, I. C.; Song, C. H.; Park, J. K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental results of ECC Direct Bypass Phenomena in the downcomer during the late reflood phase of LBLOCA of the reactor that adopts Direct Vessel Injection as a ECC system. The experiments have been performed in MIDAS test facility using superheated steam and water. The test condition was determined, based on the preliminary analysis of TRAC code, from modified linear scaling method of 1/4.93 length scale. To measure the direct bypass fraction according to the nozzle location, separate effect tests have been performed in case of DVI-4(farthest from broken cold leg) injection, DVI-2(closest to broken cold leg) injection, and DVI-2 and 4 injection, respectively. Also the test was carried out varying the steam flow rate greatly to investigate the effect of steam flow rate on the direct bypass fraction of ECC water. Test results show that the direct bypass fraction of ECC water depends significantly on the injected steam mass flow rate. DVI-4 tests show that the direct bypass fraction increases drastically as the steam flow rate increases. However, in DVI-2 test most of the injected ECC water penetrates into lower downcomer. The direct bypass characteristic in each of DVI-2 and DVI-4 tests is reflected into the direct bypass characteristic curve of DVI-2 and 4 test. The steam condensation reaches to the theoretically allowable maximum value

  6. Historical information on ORNL proposals for ECCS testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This document contains a compilation of the correspondence and preliminary report which the Oak Ridge National Laboratory submitted to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission on the subject of in situ testing of emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) in pressurized water reactors. Most of the correspondence, which was prepared four to five years ago, deals with an ORNL proposal to evaluate the merits of conducting an in situ ECCS test in a full-scale commercial power plant. The end result of this work was to be a report in which the feasibility of conducting such an experiment would be discussed and a ''rough'' cost estimate provided. In support of this proposal, ORNL prepared a brief preliminary prospectus which identified some of the key questions that were to be addressed should the evaluation study be funded

  7. LOFT ECC Pitot Tube and Thermocouple Rake Penetration thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolan, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    A thermal analysis of the LOFT ECC Pitot Tube and Thermocouple Rake Penetration was performed using COUPLE, a two-dimensional finite element computer code. Four transients which conservatively cover all transients the rake will be exposed to were included in this analysis in order to comply with the ASME Code Section III requirements. The transients conservatively cover hot and cold leg operation, and nuclear and nonnuclear operation. The four transients include the LOCE with ECC injection transient, the single control rod drop transient, the scram transient, and the heatup with 0 to 100% load change transient. Temperature distributions in the rake were obtained for each of the four transients and several plots of node temperatures vs. time are given

  8. Investigating the cooling ability of reactor vessel head injection in the Maanshan PWR using CFD simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng Yungshin; Lin Chihhung; Wan Jongrong; Shih Chunkuan; Tsai, F. Peter

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce the crack growth rate on the welding of penetration pipe, Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) of Maanshan nuclear power plant (NPP) uses vessel head injection to cool vessel lid and control rod driving components. The injection flow from the cold leg is drained by the pressure difference between cold leg and upper internal components. In this study, 10 million meshes model with 4 sub-models have been developed to simulate the thermal-hydraulic behavior by commercial CFD program FLUENT. The results indicate that the injection nozzles can provide good cooling ability to reduce the maximum temperature for lid on the vessel head. The maximum temperature of vessel lid is about 293.81degC. Based on the simulated temperature, ASME CODE N-729-1 was further used to recount the effective degradation years (EDY) and reinspection years (RIY) factors. It demonstrates that the EDY and RIY factors are still less than 1.0. Therefore, the re-inspection period for Maanshan PWR would not be significantly affected by the miner temperature difference. (author)

  9. Experiment data report for semiscale Mod-1 test S-04-1 (baseline ECC test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crapo, H.S.; Collins, B.L.; Sackett, K.E.

    1976-09-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-04-1 of the Semiscale Mod-1 Baseline ECC Test Series. This test is among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor system. Test S-04-1 was conducted from an initial cold leg fluid temperature of 542 0 F and an initial pressure of 2,263 psia. A simulated double-ended offset shear cold leg break was used to investigate the system response to a depressurization and reflood transient using system volume scaled coolant injection parameters. System flow was set to achieve a core fluid temperature differential of 66 0 F at a full core power of 1.6 MW. The flow resistance of the intact loop was based on core area scaling. An electrically heated core with a flat radial power profile was used in the pressure vessel to simulate the effects of a nuclear core. During system depressurization, core power was reduced from the initial level of 1.6 MW in such a manner as to simulate the surface heat flux response of nuclear fuel rods until such time that departure from nucleate boiling might occur. Blowdown to the pressure suppression system was accompanied by simulated emergency core cooling injection into both the intact and broken loops. Coolant injection was continued until test termination at 200 seconds after initiation of blowdown

  10. Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  11. Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  12. Cooling of the LHC Injection Kicker Magnet Ferrite Yoke: Measurements and Future Proposals

    CERN Document Server

    Sobiech, Z; Bouleghlimat, S; Ducimetière, L; Garlaschè, M; Kramer, T; Namora, V; Noulibos, R; Sillanoli, Y; Weterings, W

    2014-01-01

    LHC operation with high intensity beam, stable for many hours, resulted in significant heating of the ferrite yoke of the LHC Injection Kicker Magnets. For one kicker magnet the ferrite yoke approached its Curie temperature. As a result of a long thermal time-constant the yoke can require several hours to cool sufficiently to allow re-injection of beam, thus limiting the running efficiency of the LHC. The beam screen, which screens the ferrite yoke from wakefields, has been upgraded to limit ferrite heating. In addition it is important to improve the cooling of the ferrite yoke: one method is to increase the internal emissivity of the cylindrical vacuum tank, in which the kicker magnet is installed. This paper describes a method developed for measuring the emissivity of the inside of the tanks, which has been benchmarked against measurements of the ferrite yoke temperature during heat treatment in an oven and transient thermal simulations. Conclusions are drawn regarding an ion bombardment technique evaluated...

  13. Integration of steam injection and inlet air cooling for a gas turbine generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.J.; Chiou, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    The temperature of exhaust gases from simple cycle gas turbine generation sets (GENSETs) is usually very high (around 500 deg. C), and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is often used to recover the energy from the exhaust gases and generate steam. The generated steams can be either used for many useful processes (heating, drying, separation etc.) or used back in the power generation system for enhancing power generation capacity and efficiency. Two well-proven techniques, namely steam injection gas turbine (STIG) and inlet air cooling (IAC) are very effective features that can use the generated steam to improve the power generation capacity and efficiency. Since the energy level of the generated steam needed for steam injection is different from that needed by an absorption chiller to cool the inlet air, a proper arrangement is required to implement both the STIG and the IAC features into the simple cycle GENSET. In this study, a computer code was developed to simulate a Tai power's Frame 7B simple cycle GENSET. Under the condition of local summer weather, the benefits obtained from the system implementing both STIG and IAC features are more than a 70% boost in power and 20.4% improvement in heat rate

  14. Beam Induced Ferrite Heating of the LHC Injection Kickers and Proposals for Improved Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J; Calatroni, S; Day, H; Ducimetière, L; Garlaschè, M; Gomes Namora, V; Mertens, V; Sobiech, Z; Taborelli, M; Uythoven, J; Weterings, W

    2013-01-01

    The two LHC injection kicker systems produce an integrated field strength of 1.3 T·m with a flattop duration variable up to 7860 ns, and rise and fall times of less than 900 ns and 3000 ns, respectively. A beam screen is placed in the aperture of each magnet, which consists of a ceramic tube with conductors in the inner wall. The conductors provide a path for the beam image current and screen the ferrite yoke against wakefields. Recent LHC operation, with high intensity beam stable for many hours, resulted in significant heating of both the ferrite yoke and beam impedance reduction ferrites. For one kicker magnet the ferrite yoke approached its Curie temperature. As a result of a long thermal time-constant the ferrite yoke can require several hours to cool sufficiently to allow re-injection of beam, thus limiting the running efficiency of the LHC. Thermal measurement data has been analysed, a thermal model developed and emissivity measurements carried out. Various measures to improve the ferrite cooling have...

  15. Status of experimental verification of ECCS efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, D.; Watzinger, H.

    1978-01-01

    For the emergency cooling system of KWU pressurized water reactors with combined hot and cold leg injection an outline is given of the status of experiments designed to prove the efficiency of the emergency cooling system. This proof has been established by basic investigations which clarify the physical processes, by ''separate effects tests'' to derive and check correlations, and finally by investigations on the PKL test facility, in which a 1300 MWe pressurized water reactor including the primary circuts is simulated. These ''system effects tests'' are used to verify computer codes which are ultimately used to make predictions for the reactor. (author)

  16. Mechanism of Film Cooling with One Inlet and Double Outlet Hole Injection at Various Turbulence Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangchao; Chen, Yukai; Kou, Zhihai; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Guochen

    2018-03-01

    The trunk-branch hole was designed as a novel film cooling concept, which aims for improving film cooling performance by producing anti-vortex. The trunk-branch hole is easily manufactured in comparison with the expanded hole since it consists of two cylindrical holes. The effect of turbulence on the film cooling effectiveness with a trunk-branch hole injection was investigated at the blowing ratios of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 by numerical simulation. The turbulence intensities from 0.4 % to 20 % were considered. The realizable graphic id="j_tjj-2016-0024_ingr_001" xlink.href="graphic/j_tjj-2016-0024_inline1.png" />k-ɛ k - ɛ turbulence model and the enhanced wall function were used. The more effective anti-vortex occurs at the low blowing ratio of 0.5 %. The high turbulence intensity causes the effectiveness evenly distributed in the spanwise direction. The increase of turbulence intensity leads to a slight decrease of the spanwise averaged effectiveness at the low blowing ratio of 0.5, but a significant increase at the high blowing ratios of 1.5 and 2.0. The optimal blowing ratio of the averaged surface effectiveness is improved from 1.0 to 1.5 when the turbulence intensity increases from 0.4 % to 20 %.

  17. Study on the Effect of water Injection Momentum on the Cooling Effect of Rocket Engine Exhaust Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kan; Qiang, Yanhui; Zhong, Chenghang; Yu, Shaozhen

    2017-10-01

    For the study of water injection momentum factors impact on flow field of the rocket engine tail flame, the numerical computation model of gas-liquid two phase flow in the coupling of high temperature and high speed gas flow and low temperature liquid water is established. The accuracy and reliability of the numerical model are verified by experiments. Based on the numerical model, the relationship between the flow rate and the cooling effect is analyzed by changing the water injection momentum of the water spray pipes. And the effective mathematical expression is obtained. What’s more, by changing the number of the water spray and using small flow water injection, the cooling effect is analyzed to check the application range of the mathematical expressions. The results show that: the impact and erosion of the gas flow field could be reduced greatly by water injection, and there are two parts in the gas flow field, which are the slow cooling area and the fast cooling area. In the fast cooling area, the influence of the water flow momentum and nozzle quantity on the cooling effect can be expressed by mathematical functions without causing bifurcation flow for the mainstream gas. The conclusion provides a theoretical reference for the engineering application.

  18. Analysis of neutronics and dynamic characteristics with reactivity injection in LBE cooled sub-critical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sen; Wu Yican; Jin Ming; Chen Zhibin; Bai Yunqing; Zhao Zhumin

    2014-01-01

    Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (ADS) has particular neutronics behaviors compared with the critical system. Prompt jump approximation point reactor kinetics equations taken external source into account have been deduced using an approach of prompt jump approximation. And the relationship between injection reactivity and power ampliation has been achieved. In addition, based on the RELAP5 code the prolong development of point reactor kinetics code used into assessing sub-critical system have been promoted. Different sub-criticality (k eff = 0.90, 0.95, 0.97, 0.98 and 0.99) have been assessed in preliminary design of a type of natural circulation cooling sub-critical reactor under conditions of reactivity injection +1 β in one second. It shows that the external source prompt transient approximation method has an accurate solution after injecting reactivity around short time and has a capacity to solve the dynamic equation, and the sub-critical system has an inner stability while the deeper sub-criticality the less impact on the sub-critical system. (authors)

  19. Fabrication of uranium alloy fuel slug for sodium-cooled fast reactor by injection casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Hwan Kim; Hoon Song; Ki Hwan Kim; Chan Bock Lee

    2014-01-01

    Metal fuel slugs of U-Zr alloys for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) have been fabricated using an injection casting method. However, casting alloys containing volatile radioactive constituents such as Am can cause problems in a conventional injection casting method. Therefore, in this study, several injection-casting methods were applied to evaluate the volatility of the metal-fuel elements and control the transport of volatile elements. Mn was selected as a volatile surrogate alloy since it possesses a total vapor pressure equivalent to that of minor actinide-bearing fuels for SFRs. U-10 wt% Zr and U-10 wt% Zr-5 wt% Mn metal fuels were prepared, and the casting processes were evaluated. The casting soundness of the fuel slugs was characterized by gamma-ray radiography and immersion density measurements. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was used to determine the chemical composition of fuel slugs. Fuel losses after casting were also evaluated according to the casting conditions. (author)

  20. Direct vessel inclined injection system for reduction of emergency core coolant direct bypass in advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang H.; Lee, Jong G.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2006-01-01

    Multidimensional thermal hydraulics in the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe) downcomer during a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) plays a pivotal role in determining the capability of the safety injection system. APR1400 adopts the direct vessel injection (DVI) method for more effective core penetration of the emergency core cooling (ECC) water than the cold leg injection (CLI) method in the OPR1000 (Optimized Power Reactor 1000 MWe). The DVI method turned out to be prone to occasionally lack in efficacious delivery of ECC to the reactor core during the reflood phase of a LBLOCA, however. This study intends to demonstrate a direct vessel inclined injection (DVII) method, one of various ideas with which to maximize the ECC core penetration and to minimize the direct bypass through the break during the reflood phase of a LBLOCA. The 1/7 scaled down THETA (Transient Hydrodynamics Engineering Test Apparatus) tests show that a vertical inclined nozzle angle of the DVII system increases the downward momentum of the injected ECC water by reducing the degree of impingement on the reactor downcomer, whereby lessening the extent of the direct bypass through the break. The proposed method may be combined with other innovative measures with which to ensure an enough thermal margin in the core during the course of a LBLOCA in APR1400

  1. Gravity driven emergency core cooling experiments with the PACTEL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munther, R.; Kalli, H.; Kouhia, J.

    1996-01-01

    PACTEL (Parallel Channel Test Loop) is an experimental out-of-pile facility designed to simulated the major components and system behaviour of a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) during different postulated LOCAs and transients. The reference reactor to the PACTEL facility is Loviisa type WWER-440. The recently made modifications enable experiments to be conducted also on the passive core cooling. In these experiments the passive core cooling system consisted of one core makeup tank (CMT) and pressure balancing lines from the pressurizer and from a cold leg connected to the top of the CMT in order to maintain the tank in pressure equilibrium with the primary system during ECC injection. The line from the pressurizer to the core makeup tank was normally open. The ECC flow was provided from the CMT located at a higher elevation than the main part of the primary system. A total number of nine experiments have been performed by now. 4 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Gravity driven emergency core cooling experiments with the PACTEL facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munther, R; Kalli, H [University of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland); Kouhia, J [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    PACTEL (Parallel Channel Test Loop) is an experimental out-of-pile facility designed to simulated the major components and system behaviour of a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) during different postulated LOCAs and transients. The reference reactor to the PACTEL facility is Loviisa type WWER-440. The recently made modifications enable experiments to be conducted also on the passive core cooling. In these experiments the passive core cooling system consisted of one core makeup tank (CMT) and pressure balancing lines from the pressurizer and from a cold leg connected to the top of the CMT in order to maintain the tank in pressure equilibrium with the primary system during ECC injection. The line from the pressurizer to the core makeup tank was normally open. The ECC flow was provided from the CMT located at a higher elevation than the main part of the primary system. A total number of nine experiments have been performed by now. 4 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs.

  3. A PWR reactor downcomer modification for reduction of ECC bypass flow during LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, N.; Bosevski, T.

    1986-01-01

    The ECC bypass phenomenon in the PWR reactor down-comer, which delays the reactor vessel refilling, after cold leg large break LOCA accident, has been subject of analysis in this paper. In the paper, a particular construction modification of the reactor down-comer has been suggested by inserting vertical ribs, aimed to intensify the reactor ECC refilling following the LOCA accident, and to advance the thermal-hydraulics safety of post-accidental cooling of the PWR reactors. To verify the effectiveness of the suggested down-comer construction modification, some properly selected results, obtained by corresponding verified mathematical model, have been presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Accomplishments of LOCA/ECCS experimental research at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Kanji; Murao, Yoshio; Koizumi, Yasuo

    1984-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has investigated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA)/emergency core cooling system (ECCS) from 1970. Major results of the LOCA/ECCS research are summarized in this report. ROSA-II program was LOCA/ECCS research for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and ROSA-III program was for a boiling water reactor (BWR). The both test facilities were scaled at approximately 1/400 of the respective reference PWR and BWR. Large scale reflood test is research on reflood phenomena during a large break LOCA of PWR. The test facility is scaled at approximately 1/20 of the reference PWR and the research is still being continued. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the gravity-injection capability for core cooling after a loss-of-SDC event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Bang, Young Seok; Kim, Hho Jung

    1999-01-01

    In order to evaluate the gravity-drain capability to maintain core cooling after a loss-of-shutdown-cooling event during shutdown operation, the plant conditions of the Young Gwang Units 3 and 4 were reviewed. The six cases of possible gravity-drain paths using the water of the refueling water storage tank (RWST) were identified and the thermal hydraulic analyses were performed using RELAP5/MOD3.2 code. The core cooling capability was dependent on the gravity-drain paths and the drain rate. In the cases with the injection path and opening on the different leg side, the system was well depressurized after gravity-injection and the core boiling was successfully prevented for a long-term transient. However, in the cases with the injection path and opening on the cold leg side, the core coolant continued boiling although the system pressure remains atmospheric after gravity-injection because the cold water injected from the RWST was bypassed the core region. In the cases with the higher pressurizer opening than the RWST water level, the system was also pressurized by the water-hold in the pressurizer and the core was uncovered because the gravity-injection from the RWST stopped due to the high system pressure. In addition, from the sensitivity study on the gravity-injection flow rates, it was found that about 54 kg/s of RWST drain rate was required to maintain the core cooling. Those analysis results would provide useful information to operators coping with the event

  6. Powder Injection Molding - An innovative manufacturing method for He-cooled DEMO divertor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Steffen; Norajitra, Prachai; Piotter, Volker; Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, Hans-Joachim; Spatafora, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    At Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), a He-cooled divertor design for future fusion power plants has been developed. This concept is based on the use of modular cooling fingers made from tungsten and tungsten alloy, which are presently considered the most promising divertor materials to withstand the specific heat load of 10 MW/m 2 . Since a large number of the finger modules (n > 250,000) are needed for the whole reactor, developing a mass-oriented manufacturing method is indispensable. In this regard, an innovative manufacturing technology, Powder Injection Molding (PIM), has been adapted to W processing at KIT since a couple of years. This production method is deemed promising in view of large-scale production of tungsten parts with high near-net-shape precision, hence, offering an advantage of cost-saving process compared to conventional machining. The complete technological PIM process for tungsten materials and its application on manufacturing of real divertor components, including the design of a new PIM tool is outlined and, results of the examination of the finished product after heat-treatment are discussed. A binary tungsten powder feedstock with a solid load of 50 vol.% was developed and successfully tested in molding experiments. After design, simulation and manufacturing of a new PIM tool, real divertor parts are produced. After heat-treatment (pre-sintering and HIP) the successful finished samples showed a sintered density of approximately 99%, a hardness of 457 HV0.1, a grain size of approximately 5 μm and a microstructure without cracks and porosity.

  7. Cutaneous cooling to manage botulinum toxin injection-associated pain in patients with facial palsy: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucks, N; Thomas, A; Hallam, M J; Venables, V; Neville, C; Nduka, C

    2015-12-01

    Botulinum toxin injections are an effective, well-established treatment to manage synkinesis secondary to chronic facial palsy, but they entail painful injections at multiple sites on the face up to four times per year. Cutaneous cooling has long been recognised to provide an analgesic effect for cutaneous procedures, but evidence to date has been anecdotal or weak. This randomised controlled trial aims to assess the analgesic efficacy of cutaneous cooling using a cold gel pack versus a room-temperature Control. The analgesic efficacy of a 1-min application of a Treatment cold (3-5 °C) gel pack versus a Control (room-temperature (20 °C)) gel pack prior to botulinum toxin injection into the platysma was assessed via visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of pain before, during and after the procedure. Thirty-five patients received both trial arms during two separate clinic appointments. Cold gel packs provided a statistically significant reduction in pain compared with a room-temperature Control (from 26.4- to 10.2-mm VAS improvement (p injected or the order in which the Treatment or Control gel packs were applied. Cryoanalgesia using a fridge-cooled gel pack provides an effective, safe and cheap method for reducing pain at the botulinum toxin injection site in patients with facial palsy. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary test conditions for KNGR SBLOCA DVI ECCS performance test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Kyoo Whan; Song, Jin Ho; Chung, Young Jong; Sim, Suk Ku; Park, Jong Kyun

    1999-03-01

    The Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) adopts 4-train Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) configuration and injects the safety injection water directly into the downcomer through the 8.5'' DVI nozzle. Thus, the thermal hydraulic phenomena such as ECCS mixing and bypass are expected to be different from those observed in the cold leg injection. In order to investigate the realistic injection phenomena and modify the analysis code developed in the basis of cold leg injection, thermal hydraulic test with the performance evaluation is required. Preliminarily, the sequence of events and major thermal hydraulic phenomena during the small break LOCA for KNGR are identified from the analysis results calculated by the CEFLASH-4AS/REM. It is shown from the analysis results that the major transient behaviors including the core mixture level are largely affected by the downcomer modeling. Therefore, to investigate the proper thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring in the downcomer with limited budget and time, the separate effects test focusing on this region is considered to be effective and the conceptual test facility based on this recommended. For this test facility the test initial and boundary conditions are developed using the CEFLASH-4AS/REM analysis results that will be used as input for the preliminary test requirements. The final test requirements will be developed through the further discussions with the test performance group. (Author). 10 refs., 18 tabs., 4 figs

  9. ECC2K-130 on NVIDIA GPUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Chen, H.-C.; Cheng, C.M.; Lange, T.; Niederhagen, R.F.; Schwabe, P.; Yang, B.Y.

    2012-01-01

    [Updated version of paper at Indocrypt 2010] A major cryptanalytic computation is currently underway on multiple platforms, including standard CPUs, FPGAs, PlayStations and GPUs, to break the Certicom ECC2K-130 challenge. This challenge is to compute an elliptic-curve discrete logarithm on a Koblitz

  10. ECC2K-130 on NVIDIA GPUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Chen, H.-C.; Cheng, C.M.; Lange, T.; Niederhagen, R.F.; Schwabe, P.; Yang, B.Y.; Gong, G.; Gupta, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    A major cryptanalytic computation is currently underway on multiple platforms, including standard CPUs, FPGAs, PlayStations and Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), to break the Certicom ECC2K-130 challenge. This challenge is to compute an elliptic-curve discrete logarithm on a Koblitz curve over $\\rm

  11. Comparative Experiments to Assess the Effects of Accumulator Nitrogen Injection on Passive Core Cooling During Small Break LOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuquan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The accumulator is a passive safety injection device for emergency core cooling systems. As an important safety feature for providing a high-speed injection flow to the core by compressed nitrogen gas pressure during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA, the accumulator injects its precharged nitrogen into the system after its coolant has been emptied. Attention has been drawn to the possible negative effects caused by such a nitrogen injection in passive safety nuclear power plants. Although some experimental work on the nitrogen injection has been done, there have been no comparative tests in which the effects on the system responses and the core safety have been clearly assessed. In this study, a new thermal hydraulic integral test facility—the advanced core-cooling mechanism experiment (ACME—was designed and constructed to support the CAP1400 safety review. The ACME test facility was used to study the nitrogen injection effects on the system responses to the small break loss-of-coolant accident LOCA (SBLOCA transient. Two comparison test groups—a 2-inch cold leg break and a double-ended direct-vessel-injection (DEDVI line break—were conducted. Each group consists of a nitrogen injection test and a nitrogen isolation comparison test with the same break conditions. To assess the nitrogen injection effects, the experimental data that are representative of the system responses and the core safety were compared and analyzed. The results of the comparison show that the effects of nitrogen injection on system responses and core safety are significantly different between the 2-inch and DEDVI breaks. The mechanisms of the different effects on the transient were also investigated. The amount of nitrogen injected, along with its heat absorption, was likewise evaluated in order to assess its effect on the system depressurization process. The results of the comparison and analyses in this study are important for recognizing and understanding the

  12. Comparative experiments to assess the effects of accumulator nitrogen injection on passive core cooling during small break LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, YuQuan; Hao, Botao; Zhong, Jia; Wan Nam [State Nuclear Power Technology R and D Center, South Park, Beijing Future Science and Technology City, Beijing (China)

    2017-02-15

    The accumulator is a passive safety injection device for emergency core cooling systems. As an important safety feature for providing a high-speed injection flow to the core by compressed nitrogen gas pressure during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), the accumulator injects its precharged nitrogen into the system after its coolant has been emptied. Attention has been drawn to the possible negative effects caused by such a nitrogen injection in passive safety nuclear power plants. Although some experimental work on the nitrogen injection has been done, there have been no comparative tests in which the effects on the system responses and the core safety have been clearly assessed. In this study, a new thermal hydraulic integral test facility—the advanced core-cooling mechanism experiment (ACME)—was designed and constructed to support the CAP1400 safety review. The ACME test facility was used to study the nitrogen injection effects on the system responses to the small break loss-of-coolant accident LOCA (SBLOCA) transient. Two comparison test groups—a 2-inch cold leg break and a double-ended direct-vessel-injection (DEDVI) line break—were conducted. Each group consists of a nitrogen injection test and a nitrogen isolation comparison test with the same break conditions. To assess the nitrogen injection effects, the experimental data that are representative of the system responses and the core safety were compared and analyzed. The results of the comparison show that the effects of nitrogen injection on system responses and core safety are significantly different between the 2-inch and DEDVI breaks. The mechanisms of the different effects on the transient were also investigated. The amount of nitrogen injected, along with its heat absorption, was likewise evaluated in order to assess its effect on the system depressurization process. The results of the comparison and analyses in this study are important for recognizing and understanding the potential negative

  13. Powder Injection Molding for mass production of He-cooled divertor parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, S.; Norajitra, P.; Piotter, V.; Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, H.-J.

    2011-01-01

    A He-cooled divertor for future fusion power plants has been developed at KIT. Tungsten and tungsten alloys are presently considered the most promising materials for functional and structural divertor components. The advantages of tungsten materials lie, e.g. in the high melting point, and low activation, the disadvantages are high hardness and brittleness. The machinig of tungsten, e.g. milling, is very complex and cost-intensive. Powder Injection Molding (PIM) is a method for cost effective mass production of near-net-shape parts with high precision. The complete W-PIM process route is outlined and, results of product examination discussed. A binary tungsten powder feedstock with a grain size distribution in the range 0.7-1.7 μm FSSS, and a solid load of 50 vol.% was developed. After heat treatment, the successfully finished samples showed promising results, i.e. 97.6% theoretical density, a grain size of approximately 5 μm, and a hardness of 457 HV0.1.

  14. Conclusions Drawn from the Investigation of LOCA-Induced Insulation Debris Generation and its Impact on Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) at German NPPs - Approach Taken by / Perspective of The German TSO (TuV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, J.

    2004-01-01

    Initiated by the Barsebaeck incident in 1992 and the following activities related to the LOCA-induced insulation debris generation and its impact on emergency core cooling, investigations on German PWRs and BWRs were performed in these areas. The investigations on the German BWRs were carried out in detail immediately after the Barsebaeck incident in the years 1992 through 1994. Detailed investigations on the German PWRs started after the issue of the OECD report in 1996. Therefore the investigations on the impact of LOCA-induced insulation debris generation on strainer plugging carried out in Germany in the last years were focused mainly on the German PWRs. In the framework of these investigations of the German PWRs, the relevant parameters and phenomena were investigated in detail by the plant owners in the years from 1997 through 1999. The results were summarised in reports for each plant. The main results of the investigations conducted by the plant owners were that the plant owners considered backfitting in German PWRs is not necessary to guarantee emergency core cooling following a LOCA with insulation debris generation. As the technical support organisation for the German Bavarian and Hessian state authority, the TUV Suddeutschland was called upon to examine these investigations and the conclusions drawn by the plant owners. We compared each of the parameters and phenomena against the state of knowledge. The results of our examination in 1999 showed that the investigations of the plant owners were generally correct, but we stated also, that due to existing uncertainties, further investigations are necessary to validate the results. To meet these demands, the plant owners installed a working group for planning and performing newer, more realistic large-scale experiments (scaling factor 1:4) to investigate the transport mechanism of the insulation material within the containment sump, the head loss at the strainers and to estimate the amount of insulation

  15. Developing Optimal Procedure of Emergency Outside Cooling Water Injection for APR1400 Extended SBO Scenario Using MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jong Rok; Oh, Seung Jong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we examined optimum operator actions to mitigate extended SBO using MARS code. Particularly, this paper focuses on analyzing outside core cooling water injection scenario, and aimed to develop optimal extended SBO procedure. Supplying outside emergency cooling water is the key feature of flexible strategy in extended SBO situation. An optimum strategy to maintain core cooling is developed for typical extended SBO. MARS APR1400 best estimate model was used to find optimal procedure. Also RCP seal leakage effect was considered importantly. Recent Fukushima accident shows the importance of mitigation capability against extended SBO scenarios. In Korea, all nuclear power plants incorporated various measures against Fukushima-like events. For APR1400 NPP, outside connectors are installed to inject cooling water using fire trucks or portable pumps. Using these connectors, outside cooling water can be provided to reactor, steam generators (SG), containment spray system, and spent fuel pool. In U. S., similar approach is chosen to provide a diverse and flexible means to prevent fuel damage (core and SFP) in external event conditions resulting in extended loss of AC power and loss of ultimate heat sink. Hence, hardware necessary to cope with extended SBO is already available for APR1400. However, considering the complex and stressful condition encountered by operators during extended SBO, it is important to develop guidelines/procedures to best cope with the event.

  16. Effect of cross-flow direction of coolant on film cooling effectiveness with one inlet and double outlet hole injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangchao Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of cross-flow directions of an internal coolant on film cooling performance, the discharge coefficients and film cooling effectiveness with one inlet and double outlet hole injections were simulated. The numerical results show that two different cross-flow directions of the coolant cause the same decrease in the discharge coefficients as that in the case of supplying coolant by a plenum. The different proportion of the mass flow out of the two outlets of the film hole results in different values of the film cooling effectiveness for three different cases of coolant supplies. The film cooling effectiveness is the highest for the case of supplying coolant by the plenum. At a lower blowing ratio of 1.0, the film cooling effectiveness with coolant injection from the right entrance of the passage is higher than that from the left entrance of the passage. At a higher blowing ratio of 2.0, the opposite result is found.

  17. Experimental characterization of cooled EGR in a gasoline direct injection engine for reducing fuel consumption and nitrogen oxide emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ki; Lee, Jungkoo; Kim, Kyungcheol; Park, Seongho; Kim, Hyung-Man

    2015-11-01

    The emphasis on increasing fuel economy and reducing emissions is increasing. Attention has turned to how the performance of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine can be improved to achieve lower fuel consumption and NOx emission. Therefore, positive effects can reduce fuel consumption and NOx emission as well as knock suppression. The cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ranges within the characteristic map are characterized from the experimental results at various speeds and brake mean effective pressures in a GDI engine. The results show that the application of cooled EGR system brought in 3.63 % reduction as for the fuel consumption and 4.34 % as for NOx emission.

  18. A study on design of the trip computer for ECCS based on dynamic safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seog Nam

    2000-02-01

    The Emergency Core Cooling system in current nuclear power plants typically has a considerable number of complex functions and largely cumbersome operator interfaces. Functions for initiation, switch-over between various phases of operation, interlocks, monitoring, and alarming are usually performed by relay and analog comparator logic which is difficult to maintain and test. To improve problems of an analog based ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) System, the trip computer for ECCS based on Dynamic Safety System is implemented. The Dynamic Safety System (DSS) is a computer based reactor protection system that has fail-safe nature and performs a dynamic self-testing. The most important feature of the DSS is the introduction of test signal that send the system into a tripped state. The test signals are interleaved between the plant signals to produce an output which switches between a tripped and health state. The dynamic operation is a key feature of the failsafe design of the system. In this thesis, a possible implementation of the DSS using PLC is presented for a CANDU reactor. ECC System of the CANDU Reactor is selected as the reference system. The function of the DSS is implemented In PLC with the CONCEPT language. CONCEPT was developed by GROUPE SCHNEIDER as a graphic user interface programming tool for the Quantum PLC. A MMI display for ECCS based on DSS is implemented with LOOKOUT as an object driven programming tool. The Validation test has been performed by S/W Input Simulator as per Validation Test Procedure. The result of the test was checked and displayed on the MMI display. From the test results, it is shown that the DSS based ECC System operates correctly in all conditions

  19. Multi-dimensional analysis of the ECC behavior in the UPI plant Kori Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sungwon; Chung, Bub-Dong; Bang, Young Seok

    2008-01-01

    A multi-dimensional transient analysis during the LBLOCA of the Kori Unit 1 has been performed by using the MARS code. Based on 1-D nodalization of the Kori Unit 1, the reactor vessel nodalizations have been replaced by the multi-dimensional component. The multi-dimensional component for the reactor vessel is designed as 5 radial, 8 peripheral, and 21 vertical grids. It is assumed that the fuel assemblies are homogeneously distributed in inner 3 radial grids. The outer 1 radial grid region is modeled as the core bypass. The outer-model 1 radial grid is used for the downcomer region. The corresponding heat structures and fuels are modified to fit for the multi-dimensional reactor vessel model. The form drag coefficients for the upper plenum and the core have been designated as 0.6 and 9.39, respectively. The form drag coefficients for the radial and peripheral directions are assigned to the same on the assumption of homogeneous distribution of the flow obstacles. After obtaining the 102% power steady operation condition, cold leg LOCA simulation is performed during 400 second period. The multi-dimensional steady run results show no severe differences compared to the traditional 1-D nodalization results. After the ECC injection starts, a liquid pool is maintained at the upper plenum because the ECCS water can not overcome the upward gas flow that comes from the reactor core through the upper tie plate. The depth of ECCS water pool is predicted as about 20% of the total height from the upper tie plate and the center line of the hot leg pipe. At the vicinity region of the active ECCS show higher depth of liquid pool. The accumulated water flow rate passing the upper tie plate is calculated by the transient result. Much downward water flow is obtained at the outer-most region of upper plenum space. The downward flow dominant region is about 32.3% of the total upper tie plate area. The accumulated ECCS bypass ratio is predicted as 27.64% at 300 second. It is calculated

  20. Design process of the nanofluid injection mechanism in nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang In Choel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanofluids, which are engineered suspensions of nanoparticles in a solvent such as water, have been found to show enhanced coolant properties such as higher critical heat flux and surface wettability at modest concentrations, which is a useful characteristic in nuclear power plants (NPPs. This study attempted to provide an example of engineering applications in NPPs using nanofluid technology. From these motivations, the conceptual designs of the emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs assisted by nanofluid injection mechanism were proposed after following a design framework to develop complex engineering systems. We focused on the analysis of functional requirements for integrating the conventional ECCSs and nanofluid injection mechanism without loss of performance and reliability. Three candidates of nanofluid-engineered ECCS proposed in previous researches were investigated by applying axiomatic design (AD in the manner of reverse engineering and it enabled to identify the compatibility of functional requirements and potential design vulnerabilities. The methods to enhance such vulnerabilities were referred from TRIZ and concretized for the ECCS of the Korean nuclear power plant. The results show a method to decouple the ECCS designs with the installation of a separate nanofluids injection tank adjacent to the safety injection tanks such that a low pH environment for nanofluids can be maintained at atmospheric pressure which is favorable for their injection in passive manner.

  1. Two-phase flow dynamics in ECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albraaten, P.J.

    1981-07-01

    The present report summarizes the achievements within the project ''Two-phase Systems and ECC''. The results during 1978 - 1980 are accounted for in brief as they have been documented in earlier reports. The results during the first half of 1981 are accounted for in greater detail. They contain a new model for the Basset force and test runs with this model using the test code RISQUE. Furthermore, test runs have been performed with TRAC-PD2 MOD 1. This code was implemented on Edwards Pipe Blowdown experiment (a standard test case) and UC-Berkeley Reflooding experiment (a non-standard test case.) (Auth.)

  2. Noise-based Stego-ECC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahardjo Budi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of inserting noise into stream of ciphered text is proposed. The goal of inserting noise is to increase the level of uncertainty, thus making it harder for an attacker to detect data and noise. This form of steganography is implemented using Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC. The process of embedding the noise to the message in the encryption process and removing the noise from the message in the decryption process is proposed in this work by modifying ElGamal to allow auto detection of data and noise.

  3. Shear behavior of reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paegle, Ieva; Fischer, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of the shear behavior of beams consisting of steel reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC). Based on the strain hardening and multiple cracking behavior of ECC, this study investigates the extent to which ECC can improve the shear...... capacity of beams loaded primarily in shear and if ECC can partially or fully replace the conventional transverse steel reinforcement in beams. However, there is a lack of understanding of how the fibers affect the shear carrying capacity and deformation behavior of structural members if used either...

  4. Evaluation for In-Vessel Retention Capabilities with In-Vessel Injection and External Reactor Vessel Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Seong; Ryu, In Chul; Moon, Young Tae [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    If the accident has not progressed to the point of substantial changes in the core geometry, establishing adequate cooling is as straightforward as re-establishing flow through the reactor core. However, if the accident has progressed to the point where the core geometry is substantially altered as a result of material melting and relocation, as was the case in the TMI-2 accident, the means of cooling the debris are not as straightforward. From this time on, the reactor core was either completely or nearly covered by water, with high pressure injection flow initiated shortly after three hours into the accident. However, the core debris was not coolable in this configuration and a substantial quantity of molten core material drained into the bypass region, with approximately twenty metric tons of molten debris draining into the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head. Hence, the core configuration developed at approximately three hours into the accident was not coolable, even submerged in water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate in-vessel retention capabilities with in-vessel injection (IVI) and external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) available in a reactor application by using the integrated severe accident analysis code. The MAAP5 models were improved to facilitate evaluation of the in-vessel retention capability of APR1400. In-vessel retention capabilities have been analyzed for the APR1400 using the MAAP5.03 code. The results show that in-vessel retention is feasible when in-vessel injection is initiated within a relatively short time frame under the simulation condition used in the present study.

  5. Evaluation for In-Vessel Retention Capabilities with In-Vessel Injection and External Reactor Vessel Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Seong; Ryu, In Chul; Moon, Young Tae

    2016-01-01

    If the accident has not progressed to the point of substantial changes in the core geometry, establishing adequate cooling is as straightforward as re-establishing flow through the reactor core. However, if the accident has progressed to the point where the core geometry is substantially altered as a result of material melting and relocation, as was the case in the TMI-2 accident, the means of cooling the debris are not as straightforward. From this time on, the reactor core was either completely or nearly covered by water, with high pressure injection flow initiated shortly after three hours into the accident. However, the core debris was not coolable in this configuration and a substantial quantity of molten core material drained into the bypass region, with approximately twenty metric tons of molten debris draining into the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head. Hence, the core configuration developed at approximately three hours into the accident was not coolable, even submerged in water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate in-vessel retention capabilities with in-vessel injection (IVI) and external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) available in a reactor application by using the integrated severe accident analysis code. The MAAP5 models were improved to facilitate evaluation of the in-vessel retention capability of APR1400. In-vessel retention capabilities have been analyzed for the APR1400 using the MAAP5.03 code. The results show that in-vessel retention is feasible when in-vessel injection is initiated within a relatively short time frame under the simulation condition used in the present study

  6. Minimum containment pressure and its effect on ECCS performance of APR-1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Goo; Bang, Young S.; Kim, Hho Jung

    2004-01-01

    The containment pressure has a strong effect on the late reheat behavior for a large break LOCA, associated with the DVI issue. The downcomer boiling, which occurs during the post-reflood phase, has a negative effect on core cooling for a LBLOCA. Because the downcomer boiling is enhanced as the containment pressure decreases, how to determine containment pressure is important to the evaluation of ECCS performance. In spite of its importance of containment pressure, there are few studies on the containment pressure and the interaction between RCS and containment thermal hydraulics. To have a better knowledge of the effect of containment pressure on APR-1400 ECCS performance, a parametric study for containment pressure has been carried out. Also, the interaction between RCS and containment behavior has been also investigated

  7. A LOCA analysis for AHWR caused by ECCS header rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, B.; Gawai, Amol; Gupta, S.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    Loss of coolant accident (LOCA) analyses for the proposed 750 MWth Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), initiated by the rupture of 8 inch NB ECCS header has been carried out. This paper narrates the description of AHWR and associated ECCS, postulated scenario with which the analyses is carried out, results, discussion and conclusion

  8. ECCE Toolkit: Prototyping Sensor-Based Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bellucci

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Building and exploring physical user interfaces requires high technical skills and hours of specialized work. The behavior of multiple devices with heterogeneous input/output channels and connectivity has to be programmed in a context where not only the software interface matters, but also the hardware components are critical (e.g., sensors and actuators. Prototyping physical interaction is hindered by the challenges of: (1 programming interactions among physical sensors/actuators and digital interfaces; (2 implementing functionality for different platforms in different programming languages; and (3 building custom electronic-incorporated objects. We present ECCE (Entities, Components, Couplings and Ecosystems, a toolkit for non-programmers that copes with these issues by abstracting from low-level implementations, thus lowering the complexity of prototyping small-scale, sensor-based physical interfaces to support the design process. A user evaluation provides insights and use cases of the kind of applications that can be developed with the toolkit.

  9. Scaling and design report of ECC performance test facility (SWAT) of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seok; Ko, Yong Ju; Cho, Young Il; Kim, Jeong Tak; Choi, Nam Hyun; Shin Yong Chul; Park, Choon Kyong; Kwon, Tae Soon; Lee, Sung Jae

    2010-12-01

    SWAT (SMART ECC Water Asymmetric Two-phase choking test facility) was designed by 1/5 scaling ratio using the modified linear scaling method. The design characteristics of the SMART such that the elevation of RCP suction nozzles is the same with that of the ECC injection nozzles are maintained to reduce a distortion caused by the gravitational effect. Thermal hydraulic phenomena in a test facility designed by the modified linear scaling method can be simulated more accurately than those by the full-height and reduced area scaling method. The main part of the test section is SG-side upper down-comer. The boundary conditions are saturated steam and water flow condition and drain flow rate to control the collapsed water level in the down-comer. The test data of the SWAT can produce the well-defined boundary condition to validate the thermal hydraulic analysis code for the SMART

  10. Scaling and design report of ECC performance test facility (SWAT) of SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seok; Ko, Yong Ju; Cho, Young Il; Kim, Jeong Tak; Choi, Nam Hyun; Shin Yong Chul; Park, Choon Kyong; Kwon, Tae Soon; Lee, Sung Jae [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    SWAT (SMART ECC Water Asymmetric Two-phase choking test facility) was designed by 1/5 scaling ratio using the modified linear scaling method. The design characteristics of the SMART such that the elevation of RCP suction nozzles is the same with that of the ECC injection nozzles are maintained to reduce a distortion caused by the gravitational effect. Thermal hydraulic phenomena in a test facility designed by the modified linear scaling method can be simulated more accurately than those by the full-height and reduced area scaling method. The main part of the test section is SG-side upper down-comer. The boundary conditions are saturated steam and water flow condition and drain flow rate to control the collapsed water level in the down-comer. The test data of the SWAT can produce the well-defined boundary condition to validate the thermal hydraulic analysis code for the SMART

  11. Heat transfer analytical models for the rapid determination of cooling time in crystalline thermoplastic injection molding and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Delaunay; Baptiste, Pignon; Nicolas, Boyard; Vincent, Sobotka

    2018-05-01

    Heat transfer during the cooling of a thermoplastic injected part directly affects the solidification of the polymer and consequently the quality of the part in term of mechanical properties, geometric tolerance and surface aspect. This paper proposes to mold designers a methodology based on analytical models to provide quickly the time to reach the ejection temperature depending of the temperature and the position of cooling channels. The obtained cooling time is the first step of the thermal conception of the mold. The presented methodology is dedicated to the determination of solidification time of a semi-crystalline polymer slab. It allows the calculation of the crystallization time of the part and is based on the analytical solution of the Stefan problem in a semi-infinite medium. The crystallization is then considered as a phase change with an effective crystallization temperature, which is obtained from Fast Scanning Calorimetry (FSC) results. The crystallization time is then corrected to take the finite thickness of the part into account. To check the accuracy of such approach, the solidification time is calculated by solving the heat conduction equation coupled to the crystallization kinetics of the polymer. The impact of the nature of the contact between the polymer and the mold is evaluated. The thermal contact resistance (TCR) appears as significant parameter that needs to be taken into account in the cooling time calculation. The results of the simplified model including or not TCR are compared in the case of a polypropylene (PP) with experiments carried out with an instrumented mold. Then, the methodology is applied for a part made with PolyEtherEtherKetone (PEEK).

  12. Update Knowledge Base for Long-term Core Cooling Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrell, Maria; Sandervag, Oddbjoern; Amri, Abdallah; ); Bang, Young S.; Blomart, Philippe; Broecker, Annette; Pointner, Winfried; Ganzmann, Ingo; Lenogue, Bruno; Guzonas, David; Herer, Christophe; Mattei, Jean-Marie; Tricottet, Matthieu; Masaoka, Hideaki; Soltesz, Vojtech; Tarkiainen, Seppo; Ui, Atsushi; Villalba, Cristina; Zigler, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    This revision of the Knowledge Base for Emergency Core Cooling System Recirculation Reliability (NEA/CSNI/R (95)11) describes the current status (late 2012) of the knowledge base on emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and containment spray system (CSS) suction strainer performance and long-term cooling in operating power reactors. New reactors, such as the AP1000, EPR and APR1400 that are under construction in some Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries, are not addressed in detail in this revision. The containment sump (also known as the emergency or recirculation sump in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) or the suppression pools or wet wells in boiling water reactors (BWRs)) and associated ECCS strainers are parts of the ECCS in both reactor types. All nuclear power plants (NPPs) are required to have an ECCS that is capable of mitigating a design basis accident (DBA). The containment sump collects reactor coolant, ECCS injection water, and containment spray solutions, if applicable, after a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The sump serves as the water source to support long-term recirculation for residual heat removal, emergency core cooling, and containment atmosphere clean-up. This water source, the related pump suction inlets, and the piping between the source and inlets are important safety-related components. In addition, if fibrous material is deposited at the fuel element spacers, core cooling can be endangered. The performance of ECCS/CSS strainers was recognized many years ago as an important regulatory and safety issue. One of the primary concerns is the potential for debris generated by a jet of high-pressure coolant during a LOCA to clog the strainer and obstruct core cooling. The issue was considered resolved for all reactor types in the mid-1990s and the OECD/NEA/CSNI published report NEA/CSNI/R(95)11 in 1996 to document the state of knowledge of ECCS performance

  13. Comparative analysis of different process simulation settings of a micro injection molded part featuring conformal cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul

    2015-01-01

    . In the reported work, process simulations using Autodesk Moldflow Insight 2015® are applied to a micro mechanical part to be fabricated by micro injection molding and with over-all dimensions of 12.0 × 3.0 × 0.8 mm³ and micro features (micro hole, diameter of 580 μm, and sharp radii down to 100 μm). Three...

  14. An experimental study on the cathode humidification and evaporative cooling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells using direct water injection method at high current densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seong Hoon; Kim, Min Soo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposal of a cathode humidification and evaporative cooling system for PEM fuel cells. • An external-mixing air-assist atomizer is used to produce a very fine water spray. • The system is effective in both cathode humidification and stack cooling. • Increased water flow rate improves stack performance and evaporative cooling capacity. • At a given water flow rate, lower stack temperatures cause greater humidification effect. - Abstract: Humidification and cooling are critical issues in enhancing the efficiency and durability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, existing humidifiers and cooling systems have the disadvantage that they must be quite large to achieve adequate PEMFC performance. In this study, to eliminate the need for a bulky humidifier and to lighten the cooling load of PEMFCs, a cathode humidification and evaporative cooling system using an external-mixing air-assist atomizer was developed and its performance was investigated. The atomization performance of the nozzle was analyzed experimentally under various operating conditions with minimal changes in the system design. Experiments with a five-cell PEMFC stack with an active area of 250 cm"2 were carried out to analyze the effects of various parameters (such as the operating temperature, current density, and water injection flow rate) on the evaporation of injected water for humidification and cooling performances. The experimental results demonstrate that the direct water injection method proposed in this study is quite effective in cathode humidification and stack cooling in PEM fuel cells at high current densities. The stack performance was improved by humidification effect and the coolant temperature at the stack outlet decreased by evaporative cooling effect.

  15. LHI (low head safety injection) emergency cooling pump test for the EPR trademark in operation with solid matter loaded water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzmann, I.; Schulte, C.

    2010-01-01

    Emergency cooling pumps are essential and indispensable components of the NPP safety philosophy. In case of a loss-of coolant accident solid matter (debris: fibrous insulation material, concrete dust, pigment particles) might be released into the coolant, LHSI (low head safety injection) pumps have to ensure their performance capacity for a certain amount of debris without damage or loss of power. The authors describe the development of a test facility. The LHSI was tested in continuous operation over a time period of 14 days with a debris content of 1500 ppm (90% mineral wool fibers, 3% concrete dust, 3% pigment particles, 4% microporous insulation material). The pump did not show any damage or loss of hydraulic power. Further tests including thermoshock conditions (temperature changes of 160 C) are planned.

  16. Phase characteristics of rare earth elements in metallic fuel for a sodium-cooled fast reactor by injection casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk, Seoung Woo, E-mail: swkuk@kaeri.re.kr [Next Generation Fuel Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Oh, Seok Jin; Park, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Chan Bock [Next Generation Fuel Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Young-Sang [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Yun [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Radiochemistry & Nuclear Nonproliferation, University of Science & Technology, Gajeong-ro 217, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34113 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    Uranium-zirconium-rare earth (U-Zr-RE) fuel slugs for a sodium-cooled fast reactor were manufactured using a modified injection casting method, and investigated with respect to their uniformity, distribution, composition, and phase behavior according to RE content. Nd, Ce, Pr, and La were chosen as four representative lanthanide elements because they are considered to be major RE components of fuel ingots after pyroprocessing. Immiscible layers were found on the top layers of the melt-residue commensurate with higher fuel slug RE content. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) data showed that RE elements in the melt-residue were distributed uniformly throughout the fuel slugs. RE element agglomeration did not contaminate the fuel slugs but strongly affected the RE content of the slugs.

  17. Mathematical Model of Two Phase Flow in Natural Draft Wet-Cooling Tower Including Flue Gas Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyhlík Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The previously developed model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow, heat and mass transfer is extended to be able to take into account the flow of supersaturated moist air. The two phase flow model is based on void fraction of gas phase which is included in the governing equations. Homogeneous equilibrium model, where the two phases are well mixed and have the same velocity, is used. The effect of flue gas injection is included into the developed mathematical model by using source terms in governing equations and by using momentum flux coefficient and kinetic energy flux coefficient. Heat and mass transfer in the fill zone is described by the system of ordinary differential equations, where the mass transfer is represented by measured fill Merkel number and heat transfer is calculated using prescribed Lewis factor.

  18. Parametric simulation on enhancement of the Regenerative Gas Turbine performance by effect of Inlet Air Cooling system and Steam Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadel Abdulrazzaq Alkumait

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq being one of the developing countries of the world considers energy efficiency and the impact of its generation on the environment an imperative process in improvement of its power generation policies. Iraq bearing high temperatures all year long results in reduction of air density, therefore, Inlet air Cooling and Steam Injection Gas Turbines are a striking addition to the regenerative gas turbines. Regenerating Gas turbines tend to have a high back work ratio and a high exhaust temperature, thus, it leads to a low efficiency in power generation in hotter climate. Moreover, STIG and IAC through fog cooling have known to be the best retrofitting methods available in the industry which improve the efficiency of generation from 30.5 to 43% and increase the power output from 22MW to 33.5MW as the outcomes of computer simulations reveal. Additionally, this happens without bringing about much extensive change to original features of the power generation cycle. Furthermore, STIG and spray coolers have also resulted in power boosting and exceeding generation efficiency of gas turbine power plant.

  19. Parametric Simulation on Enhancement of the Regenerative Gas Turbine Performance by Effect of Inlet Air Cooling System and Steam Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadel A. Alkumait

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aadel Abdulrazzaq Alkumait/Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences 22(1 (201538-44Iraq being one of the developing countries of the world considers energy efficiency and the impact of its generation on the environment an imperative process in improvement of its power generation policies. Iraq bearing high temperatures all year long results in reduction of air density, therefore, Inlet air Cooling and Steam Injection Gas Turbines are a striking addition to the regenerative gas turbines. Regenerating Gas turbines tend to have a high back work ratio and a high exhaust temperature, thus, it leads to a low efficiency in power generation in hotter climate. Moreover, STIG and IAC through fog cooling have known to be the best retrofitting methods available in the industry which improve the efficiency of generation from 30.5 to 43% and increase the power output from 22MW to 33.5MW as the outcomes of computer simulations reveal. Additionally, this happens without bringing about much extensive change to original features of the power generation cycle. Furthermore, STIG and spray coolers have also resulted in power boosting and exceeding generation efficiency of gas turbine power plant.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Process Conditions on Residual Wall Thickness and Cooling and Surface Characteristics of Water-Assisted Injection Molded Hollow Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungpil Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, water-assisted injection molding was employed in the automobile industry to manufacture three-dimensional hollow tube-type products with functionalities. However, process optimization is difficult in the case of water-assisted injection molding because of the various rheological interactions between the injected water and the polymer. In this study, the boiling phenomenon that occurs because of the high melt temperature when injecting water and the molding characteristics of the hollow section during the water-assisted injection process were analyzed by a water-assisted injection molding analysis. In addition, the changes in the residual wall thickness accompanying changes in the process conditions were compared with the analysis results by considering water-assisted injection molding based on gas-assisted injection molding. Furthermore, by comparing the cooling characteristics and inner wall surface qualities corresponding to the formation of the hollow section by gas and water injections, a water-assisted injection molding technique was proposed for manufacturing hollow products with functionality.

  1. Effect of intramuscular injection of butafosfan and cobalamin on the quality of Fresh and Cooled Stallion Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Cazales Penino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of butafosfan in combination with cobalamin modulates many cellular metabolic functions in several species. Its use enhances productive and reproductive performance and reduces stress responses in animals. Despite all these attributes, so far there have been no controlled studies to evaluate the effects of butafosfan and cobalamin on the quality of stallion semen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the action of butafosfan in combination with cobalamin on the quality of fresh and cooled stallion semen. Four healthy stallions were kept in the same place and under the same management conditions during the entire experiment. Stallions were randomly assigned to two treatment groups in a 2x2 crossover design. Group A stallions were treated with an intramuscular injection of butafosfan twice a week for 80 days, while group B did not receive any treatment. After that, both groups were not treated for another 80 days allowing a washout period for the treated group. Then, the groups were reversed, and group B was treated with butafosfan and group A acted as the control for another 80 days. Semen was collected twice a week, diluted in skim milk and evaluated for total sperm count, total and progressive sperm motility, membrane integrity (CFDA/PI staining and membrane functionality (HOS test at 0 and 24 hours after preservation at 5ºC. Data were analyzed by comparing the values obtained from the treated stallions between the 60th and 84th days of treatment and the values obtained from the same stallion during the control period. The ejaculates of the washout period and between days 1 and 63 of treatment were not considered. A total of 85 ejaculates were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Means were compared by the Tukey test at the 5% level of significance. No significant differences were observed in fresh and cooled semen regarding the total sperm count, total motility, progressive motility, membrane integrity and membrane functionality in the

  2. Improving safety margin of LWRs by rethinking the emergency core cooling system criteria and safety system capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youho, E-mail: euo@kaist.ac.kr; Kim, Bokyung, E-mail: bkkim2@kaist.ac.kr; NO, Hee Cheon, E-mail: hcno@kaist.ac.kr

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Zircaloy embrittlement criteria can increase to 1370 °C for CP-ECR lower than 13%. • The draft ECCS criteria of U.S. NRC allow less than 5% in power margin. • The Japanese fracture-based criteria allow around 5% in power margin. • Increasing SIT inventory is effective in assuring safety margin for power uprates. - Abstract: This study investigates the engineering compatibility between emergency core cooling system criteria and safety water injection systems, in the pursuit of safety margin increase of light water reactors. This study proposes an acceptable temperature increase to 1370 °C as long as equivalent cladding reacted calculated by the Cathcart–Pawel equation is below 13%, after an extensive literature review. The influence of different ECCS criteria on the safety margin during large break loss of coolant accident is investigated for OPR-1000 by the system code MARS-KS, implemented with the KINS-REM method. The fracture-based emergency core cooling system (ECCS) criteria proposed in this study are shown to enable power margins up to 10%. In the meantime, the draft U.S. NRC’s embrittlement criteria (burnup-sensitive) and Japanese fracture-based criteria are shown to allow less than 5%, and around 5% of power margins, respectively. Increasing safety injection tank (SIT) water inventory is the key, yet convenient, way of assuring safety margin for power increase. More than 20% increase in the SIT water inventory is required to allow 15% power margins, for the U.S. NRC’s burnup-dependent embrittlement criteria. Controlling SIT water inventory would be a useful option that could allow the industrial desire to pursue power margins even under the recent atmosphere of imposing stricter ECCS criteria for the considerable burnup effects.

  3. Potentials of cooled EGR and water injection for knock resistance and fuel consumption improvements of gasoline engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozza, Fabio; De Bellis, Vincenzo; Teodosio, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 1D simulation of a turbocharged VVA engine under knock limited operation. • Description of turbulence, combustion and knock by phenomenological models. • Comparison of EGR and ported water injection at high load for knock mitigation and fuel economy. • Virtual calibration of engine control parameters by a 1D model. - Abstract: It is well known that the downsizing philosophy allows the improvement of the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) at part load operation for spark ignition (SI) engines. On the other hand, the BSFC is penalized at high load because of the knock occurrence and of further limitations on the turbine inlet temperature (TIT). Knock control forces the adoption of a late combustion phasing, causing a deterioration of the thermodynamic efficiency, while the TIT control requires the enrichment of the air-to-fuel ratio (A/F), with additional BSFC drawbacks. In this work, two promising techniques are investigated by a 1D approach with the aim of improving the fuel economy of a turbocharged SI engine at full load knock-limited operation. The first technique is the recirculation of low-pressure cooled exhaust gas (EGR), while the second is the injection of liquid water at the intake ports. Proper “in-house developed” sub-models are used to describe the turbulence, combustion and knock phenomena. The effects of the above techniques are studied in six operating points at full load and different speeds for various A/F levels and inert content, by varying the EGR rate and water-to-fuel ratio. The presented results highlight that both the solutions involve significant BSFC improvements, especially in the operating conditions at medium engine speeds. In fact, the introduction of inert gas in the cylinder contributes to reduce the knock tendency, resulting in the possibility to advance the combustion phasing and reduce, or even avoid, the mixture over-fuelling. The heat subtracted by the water evaporation enhances the above effects

  4. Numerical simulation of flow characteristics of lean jet to cross-flow in safety injection of reactor cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haijun; He Huining; Luo Yushan; Wang Weishu

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, a numerical simulation was performed to study the flow characteristics of lean jet to cross flow in a main tube in the safety injection of reactor cooling system. The influence scope and mixing characteristics of the confined lean jet in cross-flow were studied. It can be concluded that three basic flow regimes are marked, namely the attached lean jet, lift-off lean jet and impinging lean jet. The velocity ratio V R is the key factor in the flow state. The depth and region of jet to main flow are enhanced with the increase of the velocity ratio. The jet flow penetrates through the main flow with the increase of the velocity ratio. At higher velocity ratio, the jet flow strikes the main flow bottom and circumfluence happens in upriver of main flow. The vortex flow characteristics dominate the flow near region of jet to cross-flow and the mixture of jet to cross-flow. At different velocity ratio V R , the vortex grows from the same displacement, but the vortex type and the vortex is different. At higher velocity ratio, the vortex develops fleetly, wears off sharp and dies out sharp. The study is very important to the heat transfer experiments of cross-flow jet and thermal stress analysis in the designs of nuclear engineering. (authors)

  5. Experimental evaluation of desuperheating and oil cooling process through liquid injection in two-staged ammonia refrigeration systems with screw compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatanović, Ivan; Rudonja, Nedžad

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of achieving desuperheating through liquid injection in two-staged refrigeration systems based on screw compressors. The oil cooling process by refrigerant injection is also included. The basic thermodynamic principles of desuperheating and compressor cooling as well as short comparison with traditional method with a thermosyphon system have also been presented. Finally, the collected data referring to a big refrigeration plant are analyzed in the paper. Specific ammonia system concept applied in this refrigeration plant has demonstrated its advantages and disadvantages. - Highlights: ► An experiment was setup during a frozen food factory refrigeration system reconstruction and adaptation. ► Desuperheating and low-stage compressors oil cooling process were investigated. ► Efficiency of compression process and high-stage compressors functioning were examined. ► Evaporation temperature reduction has great influence on the need for injected liquid refrigerant. ► Several cases in which desuperheating and oil cooling process application are justified were determined.

  6. Assessment of human effective absorbed dose of 67 Ga-ECC based on biodistribution rat data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Yousefnia, Hassan; Lahooti, Afsaneh; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Afarideh, Hossien

    2015-02-01

    In a diagnostic context, determination of absorbed dose is required before the introduction of a new radiopharmaceutical to the market to obtain marketing authorization from the relevant agencies. In this work, the absorbed dose of [67 Ga]-ethylenecysteamine cysteine [(67 Ga)ECC] to human organs was determined by using distribution data for rats. For biodistribution data, the animals were sacrificed by CO2 asphyxiation at selected times after injection (0.5, 2 and 48 h, n = 3 for each time interval), then the tissue (blood, heart, lung, brain, intestine, feces, skin, stomach, kidneys, liver, muscle and bone) were removed. The absorbed dose was determined by Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) method after calculating cumulated activities in each organ. Our prediction shows that a 185-MBq injection of (67)Ga-ECC into the humans might result in an estimated absorbed dose of 0.029 mGy in the whole body. The highest absorbed doses are observed in the spleen and liver with 33.766 and 16.847 mGy, respectively. The results show that this radiopharmaceutical can be a good SPECT tracer since it can be produced easily and also the absorbed dose in each organ is less than permitted absorbed dose.

  7. Application of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) in modular floor panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus Helgi; Fischer, Gregor; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design, manufacturing, and structural behavior of a prefabricated floor panel consisting of a modular assembly of a thin-walled ECC slab and steel truss girders. The features of this composite structure include light weight, the modular manufacturing process...... concept introduced in this paper aims at improvements in the manufacturing process of the panels by casting the ECC slab separately and subsequently joining it with the steel trusses. The focus of this paper is on design and manufacturing of a prototype modular panel and on its structural behavior under...

  8. Modeling of ECC materials using numerical formulations based on plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2006-01-01

    scale it is shown that the cohesive law for a unidirectional fiber reinforced cementitious composite can be found through superposition of the cohesive law for mortar and the fiber bridging curve. On the meso scale I it is shown that the maximum crack opening observed during crack propagation in ECC...

  9. ECCS evaluation of B and W's 205-FA NSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, R.J.; Anderson, G.E. Jr.; Dunn, B.M.

    1975-06-01

    The effectiveness of the ECCS for B and W's 205-fuel assembly plants is evaluated and shown to meet all the requirements of 10 CFR 50.46. The results of various sensitivity studies, a spectrum of breaks, and an analysis to determine allowable linear heat rates under 10 CFR 50.46 are presented. (14 references) (U.S.)

  10. Large break LOCA analysis for retrofitted ECCS at MAPS using modified computer code ATMIKA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, Mukesh; Khan, T.A.; Yadav, S.K.; Pramod, P.; Rammohan, H.P.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Computer code ATMIKA which has been used for thermal hydraulic analysis is based on unequal velocity equal temperature (UVET) model. Thermal hydraulic transient was predicted using three conservation equations and drift flux model. The modified drift flux model is now able to predict counter current flow and the relative velocity in vertical channel more accurately. Apart from this, stratification model is also introduced to predict the fuel behaviour under stratified condition. Many more improvements were carried out with respect to solution of conservation equation, heat transfer package and frictional pressure drop model. All these modifications have been well validated with published data on RD-12/RD-14 experiments. This paper describes the code modifications and also deals with the application of the code for the large break LOCA analysis for retrofitted emergency core cooling system (ECCS) being implemented at Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS). This paper also brings out the effect of accumulator on stratification and fuel behaviour

  11. Combined effects of cooled EGR and a higher geometric compression ratio on thermal efficiency improvement of a downsized boosted spark-ignition direct-injection engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Jianye; Xu, Min; Li, Tie; Gao, Yi; Wang, Jiasheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments for the effects of cooled EGR and two compression ratios (CR) on fuel efficiency were conducted. • The mechanism for the observed fuel efficiency behaviors by cooled EGR and high CR was clarified. • Cooled EGR offers more fuel efficiency improvement than elevating CR from 9.3 to 10.9. • Combining 18–25% cooled EGR with 10.9 CR lead to 2.1–3.5% brake thermal efficiency improvements. - Abstract: The downsized boosted spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine has proven to be one of the most promising concepts to improve vehicle fuel economy. However, the boosted engine is typically designed at a lower geometric compression ratio (CR) due to the increased knock tendency in comparison to naturally aspirated engines, limiting the potential of improving fuel economy. On the other hand, cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has drawn attention due to the potential to suppress knock and improve fuel economy. Combing the effects of boosting, increased CR and cooled EGR to further improve fuel economy within acceptable knock tolerance has been investigated using a 2.0 L downsized boosted SIDI engine over a wide range of engine operating conditions from 1000 rpm to 3000 rpm at low to high loads. To clarify the mechanism of this complicated effects, the first law of thermodynamics analysis was conducted with the inputs from GT-Power® engine simulation. Experiment results indicate that cooled EGR provides more brake thermal efficiency improvement than increasing geometric CR from 9.3 to 10.9. The benefit of brake thermal efficiency from the higher CR is limited to low load conditions. The attributes for improving brake thermal efficiency by cooled EGR include reduced heat transfer loss, reduced pumping work and increased ratio of specific heats for all the engine operating conditions, as well as higher degree of constant volume heat release only for the knock-limited high load conditions. The combined effects of 18–25% cooled EGR

  12. An overview of the BWR ECCS strainer blockage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.; Marshall, M.L. Jr.; Elliott, R.

    1996-01-01

    This Paper provides a brief overview of actions taken in the mid 1980s to resolve Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-43, open-quotes Containment Emergency Sump Performance,close quotes and their relationship to the BWR strainer blockage issue; the importance of insights gained from the Barseback-2 (a Swedish BWR) incident in 1992 and from ECCS strainer testing and inspections at the Perry nuclear power plant in 1992 and 1993; an analysis of an US BWR/4 with a Mark I containment; an international community sharing of knowledge relevant to ECCS strainer blockage, additional experimental programs; and identification of actions needed to resolve the strainer blockage issue and the status of such efforts

  13. Measurement and analysis of the ECC cusp structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregliasco, R.G.; Garibotti, C.R.; Barrachina, R.O. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche)

    1994-03-28

    We measured the electron capture to the continuum (ECC) peak in the ionization of He atoms by the collision of 50, 100 and 200 keV H[sup +] and 100 keV amu[sup -1]He[sup 2+]. We exhaustively scanned the double differential cross section between the angles -1.5[sup o] to 10[sup o] and within the velocities (1 [+-] 0.15)[upsilon][sub i] where [upsilon][sub i] is the impact velocity. We propose a new method for analysing the ECC structure which is independent of the spectrometer transmission function modellization and enables a direct comparison with the available theories. Furthermore, we distinguish two regimes for the ionization process, depending on whether the electron velocity is larger or smaller than the projectile velocity. (Author).

  14. The microstructure of self-healed PVA ECC under wet and dry cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Huan Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-healing of ECC (Engineered Cementitious Composites subjected to cyclic wetting and drying regimes is investigated in this paper. ECC structures subjected to outdoor environmental conditions such as wind and rain runoff can be simulated by accelerated test method of wetting and drying cycles. Uniaxial tensile tests of ECC M45 and ECC 2.8FA specimen are conducted respectively. It is found that crack width of ECC 2.8FA is around 10 μm with increased amount of fly ash, while the crack width of ECC M45 is around 100 μm. New insights about the microstructure and chemical composition analysis of ECC specimens initially cracked to 2% strain and then self-healed under wet-dry cycles are presented.

  15. Effect of turbulence intensity on cross-injection film cooling at a stepped or smooth endwall of a gas turbine vane passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pey-Shey; Tsai, Shen-Ta; Jhuo, Yue-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study is concerned with a film cooling technique applicable to the protection of the endwalls of a gas turbine vane. In the experiments, cross-injection coolant flow from two-row, paired, inclined holes with nonintersecting centerlines was utilized. The test model is a scaled two-half vane. The levels of turbulence intensity used in the experiments are T.I. = 1.8%, 7%, and 12%. Other parameters considered in the film cooling experiments include three inlet Reynolds numbers (9.20 × 10(4), 1.24 × 10(5), and 1.50 × 10(5)), three blowing ratios (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0), and three endwall conditions (smooth endwall and stepped endwall with forward-facing or backward-facing step). Thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC) technique with steady-state heat transfer experiments was used to obtain the whole-field film cooling effectiveness. Results show that, at low turbulence intensity, increasing Reynolds number decreases the effectiveness in most of the vane passage. There is no monotonic trend of influence by Reynolds number at high turbulence intensity. The effect of blowing ratio on the effectiveness has opposite trends at low and high turbulence levels. Increasing turbulent intensity decreases the effectiveness, especially near the inlet of the vane passage. With a stepped endwall, turbulence intensity has only mild effect on the film cooling effectiveness.

  16. Effect of Turbulence Intensity on Cross-Injection Film Cooling at a Stepped or Smooth Endwall of a Gas Turbine Vane Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pey-Shey Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with a film cooling technique applicable to the protection of the endwalls of a gas turbine vane. In the experiments, cross-injection coolant flow from two-row, paired, inclined holes with nonintersecting centerlines was utilized. The test model is a scaled two-half vane. The levels of turbulence intensity used in the experiments are T.I.=1.8%, 7%, and 12%. Other parameters considered in the film cooling experiments include three inlet Reynolds numbers (9.20×104 , 1.24×105, and  1.50×105, three blowing ratios (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0, and three endwall conditions (smooth endwall and stepped endwall with forward-facing or backward-facing step. Thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC technique with steady-state heat transfer experiments was used to obtain the whole-field film cooling effectiveness. Results show that, at low turbulence intensity, increasing Reynolds number decreases the effectiveness in most of the vane passage. There is no monotonic trend of influence by Reynolds number at high turbulence intensity. The effect of blowing ratio on the effectiveness has opposite trends at low and high turbulence levels. Increasing turbulent intensity decreases the effectiveness, especially near the inlet of the vane passage. With a stepped endwall, turbulence intensity has only mild effect on the film cooling effectiveness.

  17. Developing of two-dimensional model of the corium cooling and behavior with non-condensible gas injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; Cho, Jae Seon; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Do Hyoung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of the non-condensible gas injection into the molten corium on the heat transfer and dynamic behavior within the melt when molten core-concrete interaction occurs during the hypothetical severe accident. Corium behavior with gas injection effect is two phase fluid pattern in which droplet has dispersed gas phase in continuous liquid phase of corium. To analyze this behavior, two dimensional governing equation using the governing equation, the computer program is accomplished using the finite difference method and SIMPLER algorithm. And benchmarking calculation is performed for the KfK experiment, which consider the gas injection effect. After this pre-calculation, an analyses is performed with typical corium under severe accidents. It is concluded that the heat transfer within corium increases as the metal components of the corium and gas injection velocity increase. 88 refs., 23 tabs., 35 figs. (author)

  18. A self-injected, diode-pumped, solid-state ring laser for laser cooling of Li atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miake, Yudai; Mukaiyama, Takashi, E-mail: muka@ils.uec.ac.jp [Institute for Laser Science, University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); O’Hara, Kenneth M. [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802-6300 (United States); Gensemer, Stephen [CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    We have constructed a solid-state light source for experiments with laser cooled lithium atoms based on a Nd:Y V O{sub 4} ring laser with second-harmonic generation. Unidirectional lasing, an improved mode selection, and a high output power of the ring laser were achieved by weak coupling to an external cavity which contained the lossy elements required for single frequency operation. Continuous frequency tuning is accomplished by controlling two piezoelectric transducers (PZTs) in the internal and the external cavities simultaneously. The light source has been utilized to trap and cool fermionic lithium atoms into the quantum degenerate regime.

  19. Performance-based ECCS cladding acceptance criteria: A new simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoino, A.; Alfonsi, A.; Rabiti, C.; Szilard, R.H.; Giannetti, F.; Caruso, G.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new methodology to demonstrate compliance with the new ECCS acceptance criteria is described. • A wide spectrum of fuel rod initial burnup states can be analysed in the design phase. • The coupled suite PHISICS/RELAP5-3D has been used in the analyses. • A demo simulation of the equilibrium cycle, load-following and a LOCA analysis has been performed. - Abstract: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is currently proposing rulemaking to revise the Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) and therefore the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) acceptance criteria, to include the effects of higher burnup on cladding performance as well as to address other technical issues. As motivated by the new rule, the need to use advanced cladding designs may be a result. A loss of operational margin may result due to the more restrictive cladding embrittlement criteria. Initial and future compliance with the rule may significantly increase vendor workload and licensee cost, as a spectrum of fuel rod initial burnup states may need to be analyzed to demonstrate compliance. Consequently, there will be an increased focus on licensee decision making related to LOCA analysis to minimize cost and impact, and to manage margin. The study here presented has been part of a big project used to investigate technical issues and approaches for future industrial applications within the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway. Specifically, the primary aim of this study is to lay out a roadmap to demonstrate the application of the new methodology. The present analysis shows a simplified version of the methodology of an industrial application on the Core Design and the Multi-Cycle Analysis.

  20. Parametric Effects of Debris Source, Environments, and Design Options on the Overall Performance of ECCS Recirculation Sump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Woon; Kim, Chang Hyun

    2006-01-01

    A primary safety issue regarding long-term recirculation core cooling following a LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) is that LOCA-generated debris may be transported to the recirculation sump screen, resulting in adverse blockage on the sump screen and deterioration of available NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head) of ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System). USNRC identified this as Generic Safety Issue (GSI) 191 and issued the Generic Letter 04-02 to resolve the issue. The GL required that all PWR owners perform an engineering assessment of their containment recirculation sumps to ensure they will not suffer from excessive blockage. The guidance report (GR) for PWR sump performance evaluation has been developed by NEI (Nuclear Energy Institute) and approved by the USNRC. In Korea, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) is performing the assessment of Kori unit 1 and planning for remaining plants in the near future. The objective of the assessment is to derive required plant modifications including insulation, sump screen, etc. To derive the cost-effective modification items, we have to get insight on the parametric effects of plant conditions and design. Therefore, the general effects of debris source, containment environments and debris interceptor on the performance of ECCS recirculation sump with respect to head loss are parametrically investigated

  1. Intercomparison of ozone measurements between Lidar and ECC-sondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabbe, G.C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Boesenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Dier, H. [Meteorologisches Obs., Lindenberg (Germany); Goersdorf, U. [Meteorologisches Obs., Lindenberg (Germany); Matthias, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Peters, G. [Meteorologisches Obs., Lindenberg (Germany); Schaberl, T. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Senff, C. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    1996-02-01

    An intercomparison experiment for measurements of ozone vertical profiles in the lower troposphere was performed using a ground-based ozone DIAL (DIfferential Absorption Lidar) and ECC-sondes (Electrochemical Concentration Cell) attached to tethered as well as free flying balloons, which took place in June of 1994. The tethered balloon was used for ozone soundings in the planetary boundary layer up to an altitude of 500 m, while in the free troposphere free flying balloons were used. For the time series of up to 90 min obtained with the tethersondes both averages and standard deviations are compared. The mean difference for all measurements amounted to 3.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} only, corresponding to 3.5%. For the instantaneous profiles compared to the free flying sondes the differences were only marginally larger, with a mean value of 3.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} corresponding to 4.1%. With two exceptions all averages for a single profile stayed below 7 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Larger individual excursions were observed. In some cases, in particular in regions of steep aerosol gradients at layer boundaries, most probably the lidar values cause the deviation, while in other cases the ECC-sonde is suspected to yield erroneous results. For the measured standard deviation those retrieved from DIAL measurements are generally larger than measured by the ECC-sondes, especially in regions of inhomogeneous aerosol distribution. For the measurements reported here, this is attributed to residual errors in the aerosol correction of the DIAL measurements. The general agreement found in this intercomparison is regarded as excellent, DIAL is proven to be a very valuable tool for detailed studies of the ozone distribution in the lower troposphere. (orig.)

  2. Using ECC DRAM to Adaptively Increase Memory Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yixin; Ghose, Saugata; Li, Tianshi; Govindan, Sriram; Sharma, Bikash; Kelly, Bryan; Boroumand, Amirali; Mutlu, Onur

    2017-01-01

    Modern DRAM modules are often equipped with hardware error correction capabilities, especially for DRAM deployed in large-scale data centers, as process technology scaling has increased the susceptibility of these devices to errors. To provide fast error detection and correction, error-correcting codes (ECC) are placed on an additional DRAM chip in a DRAM module. This additional chip expands the raw capacity of a DRAM module by 12.5%, but the applications are unable to use any of this extra c...

  3. Performance Verification for Safety Injection Tank with Fluidic Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, Seok Jeong; Kim, Da Yong

    2014-01-01

    In LBLOCA, the SITs of a conventional nuclear power plant deliver excessive cooling water to the reactor vessel causing the water to flow into the containment atmosphere. In an effort to make it more efficient, Fluidic Device (FD) is installed inside a SIT of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR 1400). FD, a complete passive controller which doesn't require actuating power, controls injection flow rates which are susceptible to a change in the flow resistance inside a vortex chamber of FD. When SIT Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) water level is above the top of the stand pipe, the water enters the vortex chamber through both the top of the stand pipe and the control ports resulting in injection of the water at a large flow rate. When the water level drops below the top of the stand pipe, the water only enters the vortex chamber through the control ports resulting in vortex formation in the vortex chamber and a relatively small flow injection. Performance verification of SIT shall be carried out because SITs play an integral role to mitigate accidents. In this paper, the performance verification method of SIT with FD is presented. In this paper, the equations for calculation of flow resistance coefficient (K) are induced to evaluate on-site performance of APR 1400 SIT with FD. Then, the equations are applied to the performance verification of SIT with FD and good results are obtained

  4. Emergency reactor core cooling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Iwata, Yasutaka.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides an emergency reactor core cooling device for a BWR type nuclear power plant. Namely, D/S pit (gas/water separator storage pool) water is used as a water source for the emergency reactor core cooling facility upon occurrence of loss of coolant accidents (LOCA) by introducing the D/S pit water to the emergency reactor core cooling (ECCS) pump. As a result, the function as the ECCS facility can be eliminated from the function of the condensate storage tank which has been used as the ECCS facility. If the function is unnecessary, the level of quality control and that of earthquake resistance of the condensate storage tank can be lowered to a level of ordinary facilities to provide an effect of reducing the cost. On the other hand, since the D/S pit as the alternative water source is usually a facility at high quality control level and earthquake resistant level, there is no problem. The quality of the water in the D/S pit can be maintained constant by elevating pressure of the D/S pit water by a suppression pool cleanup (SPCU) pump to pass it through a filtration desalter thereby purifying the D/S pit water during the plant operation. (I.S.)

  5. Emergency reactor core cooling facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Iwata, Yasutaka

    1996-11-01

    The present invention provides an emergency reactor core cooling device for a BWR type nuclear power plant. Namely, D/S pit (gas/water separator storage pool) water is used as a water source for the emergency reactor core cooling facility upon occurrence of loss of coolant accidents (LOCA) by introducing the D/S pit water to the emergency reactor core cooling (ECCS) pump. As a result, the function as the ECCS facility can be eliminated from the function of the condensate storage tank which has been used as the ECCS facility. If the function is unnecessary, the level of quality control and that of earthquake resistance of the condensate storage tank can be lowered to a level of ordinary facilities to provide an effect of reducing the cost. On the other hand, since the D/S pit as the alternative water source is usually a facility at high quality control level and earthquake resistant level, there is no problem. The quality of the water in the D/S pit can be maintained constant by elevating pressure of the D/S pit water by a suppression pool cleanup (SPCU) pump to pass it through a filtration desalter thereby purifying the D/S pit water during the plant operation. (I.S.)

  6. Control of spontaneous combustion of coal in goaf at high geotemperatureby injecting liquid carbon dioxide: inertand cooling characteristics of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenling; Wen, Hu; Yu, Zhijin; Wang, Chao; Ma, Li

    2018-02-01

    The spontaneous combustion of coal in goaf at high geo temperatures is threatening safety production in coalmine. The TG-DSC is employed to study the variation of mass and energy at 4 atmospheres (mixed gases of N2, O2 and CO2) and heating rates (10°C/min) during oxidation of coal samples. The apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor of coal oxidation decrease rapidly with increasing theCO2 concentration. Furthermore, its reaction rate is slow, its heat released reduces. Based on the conditions of 1301 face in the Longgucoalmine, a three-dimensional geometry model is developed to simulate the distributions stream field and temperature field and the variation characteristics ofCO2 concentration field after injecting liquidCO2. The results indicate that oxygen reached to depths of˜120m in goaf, 100m in the side of inlet air, and 10m in the side of outlet air before injecting liquidCO2. After injecting liquidCO2for 28.8min, the width of oxidation and heat accumulation zone is shortened by 20m, and the distance is 80m in the side of working face and 40˜60m in goafin the direction of dip affected by temperature.

  7. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Man Wai; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Lieberman, Martin; Lee, Jessica Y; Scoville, Richard; Hannon, Cindy; Maramaldi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC) has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM) approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI) collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR) for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  8. Development of CANDU ECCS performance evaluation methodology and guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kwang Hyun; Park, Kyung Soo; Chu, Won Ho [Korea Maritime Univ., Jinhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    The objectives of the present work are to carry out technical evaluation and review of CANDU safety analysis methods in order to assist development of performance evaluation methods and review guides for CANDU ECCS. The applicability of PWR ECCS analysis models are examined and it suggests that unique data or models for CANDU are required for the following phenomena: break characteristics and flow, frictional pressure drop, post-CHF heat transfer correlations, core flow distribution during blowdown, containment pressure, and reflux rate. For safety analysis of CANDU, conservative analysis or best estimate analysis can be used. The main advantage of BE analysis is a more realistic prediction of margins to acceptance criteria. The expectation is that margins demonstrated with BE methods would be larger that when a conservative approach is applied. Some outstanding safety analysis issues can be resolved by demonstration that accident consequences are more benign than previously predicted. Success criteria for analysis and review of Large LOCA can be developed by top-down approach. The highest-level success criteria can be extracted from C-6 and from them, the lower level criteria can be developed step-by-step, in a logical fashion. The overall objectives for analysis and review are to verify radiological consequences and frequency are met.

  9. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Wai Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  10. Interaction of Liquid Film Flow of Direct Vessel Injection Under the Cross Directional Gas Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han-sol; Lee, Jae-young [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Euh, Dong-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In order to obtain a proper scaling law of the flow, local information of the flow was investigated experimentally and also numerically. A series of experiments were conducted in the 1/20 modified linear scaled plate type test rig to analyze a liquid film from ECC water injection through the DVI nozzle to the downcomer wall. The present study investigates liquid film flow generated in a downcomer of direct vessel injection (DVI) system which is employed as an emergency core cooling (ECC) system during a loss of coolant accident in the Korea nuclear power plant APR1400. During the late reflooding, complicated multi-phase flow phenomena including the wavy film flow, film breakup, entrainment, liquid film shift due to interfacial drag and gas jet impingement occur. A confocal chromatic sensor was used to measure the local instantaneous liquid film thickness and a hydraulic jump in the film flow and boundaries of the film flow. It was found that CFD analysis results without surface tension model showed some difference with the data in surface tension dominated flow region. For the interaction between a liquid film and gas shear flow, CFD results make a good agreement with the real liquid film dynamics in the case of low film Reynolds number or low Weber number flow. In the 1/20 scaled plate type experiment and simulation, the deformed spreading profile results seem to accord with each other at the relatively low We and Re regime.

  11. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-06-18

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  12. Experiment data report for semiscale Mod-1 test S-04-2 (baseline ECC test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crapo, H.S.; Collins, B.L.; Sackett, K.E.

    1976-09-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-04-2 of the Semiscale Mod-1 Baseline ECC test series. This test is among Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor system. Test S-04-2 was conducted from an initial cold leg fluid temperature of 542 0 F and an initial pressure of 2,263 psia. A simulated double-ended offset shear cold leg break was used to investigate the system response to a depressurization and reflood transient using emergency core coolant injection parameters based on downcomer volume scaling. System flow was set to achieve a core fluid temperature differential of 66 0 F at a full core power of 1.6 MW. The flow resistance of the intact loop was based on core area scaling. An electrically heated core with a flat radial power profile was used in the pressure vessel to simulate the effects of a nuclear core. During system depressurization, core power was reduced from the initial level of 1.6 MW to simulate the surface heat flux response of nuclear fuel rods until such sime that departure from nucleate boiling might occur. Blowdown to the pressure suppression system was accompanied by simulated emergency core coolant injection into both the intact and broken loops. Coolant injection was continued until test termination at 200 seconds after initiation of blowdown. The purpose of the report is to make available the uninterpreted data from Test S-04-2 for future data analysis and test results reporting activities. The data, presented in the form of graphs in engineering units, have been analyzed only to the extent necessary to assure that they are reasonable and consistent

  13. Simulation of the injection system of cooling water to low pressure (Lpci) for a boiling water reactor (BWR) based on RELAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado C, R. A.; Lopez S, E.; Chavez M, C.

    2012-10-01

    The present article describes the modeling and simulation of the Injection System of Cooling Water to Low Pressure (Lpci) for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. Is very important to be able to predict the behavior of the nuclear plant in the case of an emergency stop, and while nearer to the reality are the results of a simulation, better is the safety protocol that can be devised. In the Engineering Faculty of the UNAM at the present is had logical models of the safety systems, but due to the nature of the same, these simulations do not provide of the quantity of enough information to be able to reproduce with more accuracy the behavior of the Lpci in the case of a severe accident. For this reason, the RELAP code was used for the flows modeling, components and structures of heat transfers in relation to the system Lpci. The modeling of the components is carried out with base on technical information of the nuclear plant and the results will be corroborated with information in reference documents as the Rasp (the Reactor analysis support package) and the Fsar (Final safety analysis report) for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. (Author)

  14. Pressure vessel fracture studies pertaining to a PWR LOCA-ECC thermal shock: experiments TSE-1 and TSE-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheverton, R.D.

    1976-09-01

    The LOCA-ECC Thermal Shock Program was established to investigate the potential for flaw propagation in pressurized-water reactor (PWR) vessels during injection of emergency core coolant following a loss-of-coolant accident. Studies thus far have included fracture mechanics analyses of typical PWRs, the design and construction of a thermal shock test facility, determination of material properties for test specimens, and two thermal shock experiments with 0.53-m-OD (21-in.) by 0.15-m-wall (6-in.) cylindrical test specimens. The PWR calculations indicated that under some circumstances crack propagation could be expected and that experiments should be conducted for cracks that would have the potential for propagation at least halfway through the wall

  15. Predictive Eco-Cruise Control (ECC) system : model development, modeling and potential benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The research develops a reference model of a predictive eco-cruise control (ECC) system that intelligently modulates vehicle speed within a pre-set speed range to minimize vehicle fuel consumption levels using roadway topographic information. The stu...

  16. Application of Interfacial Propagation and Kinking Crack Concept to ECC/Concrete Overlay Repair System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw ChiaHwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the application of ultraductile engineered cementitious composite (ECC as overlay in the repair of deteriorated concrete structures is performed in this paper. Also, interfacial crack kinking and trapping mechanism experimentally observed in ECC/concrete overlay repair system are described by comparison of toughness and energy release rate. The mechanism involves cycles of extension, kinking, and arrest of interfacial crack into the overlay. Experimental testing of overlay repair system reveals significant improvements in load carrying capacity and ductility over conventional concrete overlay. The commonly observed overlay system failure mode of delamination or spalling is eliminated when ECC is applied. These failure modes are suppressed when ECC is used as an ideal and durable candidate overlay repair material.

  17. Preestrita pihtimus : Friedrich Nietzsche ja tema substantsiaalne mina (Ecce homo) / Jaan Undusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Undusk, Jaan, 1958-

    1998-01-01

    Varem ilmunud raamatu järelsõnana: Nietzsche, Friedrich. Ecce homo : kuidas saadakse selleks, mis ollakse / tlk. Jaan Undusk. Tallinn : Vagabund, 1996. Sisu: Poeetiline, filosoofiline, dionüüsiline kaanon ; Künism contra hulluskahtlus ; Antikristlik pihtimus ; Egoretoorika

  18. Emergency core cooling systems in CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This report contains the responses by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety to three questions posed by the Atomic Energy Control Board concerning the need for Emergency Core Cooling Systems (ECCS) in CANDU nuclear power plants, the effectiveness requirement for such systems, and the extent to which experimental evidence should be available to demonstrate compliance with effectiveness standards

  19. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Ken.

    1989-01-01

    In PWR type reactors, a cooling water spray portion of emergency core cooling pipelines incorporated into pipelines on high temperature side is protruded to the inside of an upper plenum. Upon rupture of primary pipelines, pressure in a pressure vessel is abruptly reduced to generate a great amount of steams in the reactor core, which are discharged at a high flow rate into the primary pipelines on high temperature side. However, since the inside of the upper plenum has a larger area and the steam flow is slow, as compared with that of the pipelines on the high temperature side, ECCS water can surely be supplied into the reactor core to promote the re-flooding of the reactor core and effectively cool the reactor. Since the nuclear reactor can effectively be cooled to enable the promotion of pressure reduction and effective supply of coolants during the period of pressure reduction upon LOCA, the capacity of the pressure accumulation vessel can be decreased. Further, the re-flooding time for the reactor is shortened to provide an effect contributing to the improvement of the safety and the reduction of the cost. (N.H.)

  20. Analysis of loss of coolant accident and emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Kiyoharu; Kobayashi, Kenji; Hayata, Kunihisa; Tasaka, Kanji; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, the analysis for the performance evaluation of emergency core cooling system is described, which is the safety protection device to the loss of coolant accidents due to the break of primary cooling pipings of light water reactors. In the LOCA analysis for the performance evaluation of ECCS, it must be shown that a reactor core keeps the form which can be cooled with the ECCS in case of LOCA, and the overheat of the core can be prevented. Namely, the shattering of fuel cladding tubes is never to occur, and for the purpose, the maximum temperature of Zircaloy 2 or 4 cladding tubes must be limited to 1200 deg C, and the relative thickness of oxide film must be below 15%. The calculation for determining the temperature of cladding tubes in case of the LOCA in BWRs and PWRs is explained. First, the primary cooling system, the ECCS and the related installations of BWRs and PWRs are outlined. The code systems for LOCA/ECCS analysis are divid ed into several steps, such as blowdown process, reflooding process and heatup calculation. The examples of the sensitivity analysis of the codes are shown. The LOCA experiments carried out so far in Japan and foreign countries and the LOCA analysis of a BWR with RELAP-4J code are described. The guidance for the performance evaluation of ECCS was established in 1975 by the Reactor Safety Deliberation Committee in Japan, and the contents are quoted. (Kako, I.)

  1. The prevalence and risks of early childhood caries (ECC) in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jewair, Thikriat S; Leake, James L

    2010-10-14

    To determine the prevalence and risks of early childhood caries (ECC) among children less than 71 months of age in Toronto, Canada, and to evaluate the association between parental/caregiver depression and ECC. A secondary analysis of data previously collected by the Toronto Public Health as part of the 2003 Toronto Perinatal and Child Health Survey was performed. The 90-item survey was conducted over the telephone to 1,000 families with children from zero years (birth) to six years of age. Parents/caregivers were asked about factors related to the development and health of their children. For this study, only children younger than six years of age (less than 71 months) were included (n=833). The primary outcome of interest was self-reported and measured by the response to the question of whether a physician/dentist had ever told the parent/caregiver his/her child had ECC. The prevalence of ECC was 4.7 percent (37 of 791 children). The child's age, his/her history of dental visits, teeth brushing, the use of fluoridated toothpaste, the parent's/caregiver's depressive tendencies, the language spoken at home, and the household annual income were all significant in the bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression identified four factors associated with ECC: the child's age (being three years of age or older), having at least one parent/caregiver with depression, not speaking English at home, and having an annual household income less than $40,000 in Canadian dollars (CAD). While a child's age, home language, and household income are known risks for ECC, the finding that parental/caregiver depression may be related to ECC is new. Multiple risk factors are involved in the development of early childhood caries. Of particular importance are demographic (e.g., child's age), social (e.g., annual household income), and psychosocial factors (e.g., parental/caregiver depression) that are indirectly linked to ECC. More attention needs to be placed on understanding the role

  2. Preliminary Evaluation Methodology of ECCS Performance for Design Basis LOCA Redefinition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Gu; Ahn, Seung Hoon; Seul, Kwang Won

    2010-01-01

    To improve their existing regulations, the USNRC has made efforts to develop the risk-informed and performance-based regulation (RIPBR) approaches. As a part of these efforts, the rule revision of 10CFR50.46 (ECCS Acceptance Criteria) is underway, considering some options for 4 categories of spectrum of break sizes, ECCS functional reliability, ECCS evaluation model, and ECCS acceptance criteria. Since the potential for safety benefits and unnecessary burden reduction from design basis LOCA redefinition is high relative to other options, the USNRC is proceeding with the rulemaking for design basis LOCA redefinition. An instantaneous break with a flow rate equivalent to a double ended guillotine break (DEGB) of the largest primary piping system in the plant is widely recognized as an extremely unlikely event, while redefinition of design basis LOCA can affect the existing regulatory practices and approaches. In this study, the status of the design basis LOCA redefinition and OECD/NEA SMAP (Safety Margin Action Plan) methodology are introduced. Preliminary evaluation methodology of ECCS performance for LOCA is developed and discussed for design basis LOCA redefinition

  3. Energy-dissipating and self-repairing SMA-ECC composite material system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Mo; Song, Gangbing

    2015-01-01

    Structural component ductility and energy dissipation capacity are crucial factors for achieving reinforced concrete structures more resistant to dynamic loading such as earthquakes. Furthermore, limiting post-event residual damage and deformation allows for immediate re-operation or minimal repairs. These desirable characteristics for structural ‘resilience’, however, present significant challenges due to the brittle nature of concrete, its deformation incompatibility with ductile steel, and the plastic yielding of steel reinforcement. Here, we developed a new composite material system that integrates the unique ductile feature of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) with superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA). In contrast to steel reinforced concrete (RC) and SMA reinforced concrete (SMA-RC), the SMA-ECC beams studied in this research exhibited extraordinary energy dissipation capacity, minimal residual deformation, and full self-recovery of damage under cyclic flexural loading. We found that the tensile strain capacity of ECC, tailored up to 5.5% in this study, allows it to work compatibly with superelastic SMA. Furthermore, the distributed microcracking damage mechanism in ECC is critical for sufficient and reliable recovery of damage upon unloading. This research demonstrates the potential of SMA-ECC for improving resilience of concrete structures under extreme hazard events. (paper)

  4. Holistic care patient with Early Childhood Caries (ECC: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Maulani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a specific form of severe dental caries that affects infants and young children. ECC progresses rapidly in those who are at high risk, and often goes untreated. Children experiencing caries as infants or toddlers have a much greater probability of subsequent caries in both primary and permanent dentitions. This case showed management holistic care for children with ECC.A five year old boy patient accompanied with her parents were reported to the Pedodontic Clinic Padjadjaran University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of decayed upper anterior teeth and pain in the molar teeth. Clinical examinations found dental caries almost all teeth in the maxilla and mandible. Based on panoramic radiograph, treatments that can be done are strip crown glass ionomer restorations, pulp treatments, extractions and fixed space maintainer. Patients diagnosed with severe ECC, patient and parents described on this type of caries. During treatment the patient was given oral hygiene instruction and recommend daily use of tooth mouse. After all treatment were completed, fluoride topical, and fissure sealants, recall check up after three months was scheduled. Holistic care needed in handling children with ECC.

  5. On the energy shift the ECC cusp. Does the shift really exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkadi, L.; Barrachina, R.O.

    2004-01-01

    The cusplike 'electron capture to the continuum' (ECC) peak appearing in the spectrum of the forward emitted electrons in ion-atom collisions are generally thought to be a divergence. Recently Shah et al., however, claimed that 'the ECC cusp is indeed a cusp, and not a divergence smoothed by the experiment'. These authors measured the ECC cusp for collisions of 10- and 20-keV protons with H 2 and He, and found that the peak was shifted to lower velocity than its expected position. We also carried out CTMC calculations (for the case of 20-keV protons on He) by which we demonstrated that the shift really exists but its value depends on the angular window of the electron detection. (K.A.)

  6. Lightweight ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Debiao; Kumar, Neeraj; Chilamkurti, Naveen; Lee, Jong-Hyouk

    2014-10-01

    The radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely adopted and being deployed as a dominant identification technology in a health care domain such as medical information authentication, patient tracking, blood transfusion medicine, etc. With more and more stringent security and privacy requirements to RFID based authentication schemes, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) based RFID authentication schemes have been proposed to meet the requirements. However, many recently published ECC based RFID authentication schemes have serious security weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a new ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol that overcomes the weaknesses of the existing schemes. A comprehensive security analysis has been conducted to show strong security properties that are provided from the proposed authentication scheme. Moreover, the performance of the proposed authentication scheme is analyzed in terms of computational cost, communicational cost, and storage requirement.

  7. BREASTFEEDING AND EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES (ECC SEVERITY OF CHILDREN UNDER THREE YEARS OLD IN DKI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risqa Rina Darwita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years old are constantly increasing. One of the cause is the increase consumption of cariogenic carbohydrate. Breast milk have buffer capacity that eventually able to prevent caries. The aims of this research are to discover the correlation between breastfeeding with the severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC in children under three years old, to provide information on prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years, and to explain factors influencing the incidence of ECC. This research designed cross sectionally and conducted upon 565 children aged 12-38 months, selected using multistage cluster random sampling. The ECC prevalence of children under three years in DKI Jakarta is 52.7%, with average score of def-t 2.85. Bivariate analysis showed that, variables which correlate with the level of ECC are; the way to deliver (p=0,012, frequency (p=0,002, duration (p=0,002, salivary buffer capacity (p=0.013, habitual consumption of sugary diet (p=0.005, child’s dental hygiene behavior (p=0.002, and mother’s education (p=0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that ECC can be explained by these variables: age, mother’s education, the way to deliver and frequency of breast milk complements/replacement of consumtions, child’s brushing habit, plaque pH, and salivary buffer capacity. Resulting determination coefficient 32.1%. There is no significant correlation between breastfeeding and the level of Early Childhood Caries (ECC. The role of protective qualities of breastfeeding are not shown because of bias in obtaining data influence the incidence of caries.

  8. Is 300 Seconds ACT Safe and Efficient during MiECC Procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Adrian; Hausmann, Harald; Schaarschmidt, Jan; Szlapka, Michal; Scharpenberg, Martin; Eberle, Thomas; Hasenkam, J Michael

    2017-12-31

     The recommended minimum activated clotting time (ACT) level for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) of 480 seconds originated from investigations with bubble oxygenators and uncoated extracorporeal circulation (ECC) systems. Modern minimal invasive ECC (MiECC) systems are completely closed circuits containing a membrane oxygenator and a tip-to-tip surface coating. We hypothesized that surface coating and the "closed-loop" design allow the MiECC to safely run with lower ACT levels and that an ACT level of 300 seconds can be safely applied without thromboembolic complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential risks during application of reduced heparin levels in patients undergoing coronary surgery.  In this study, 68 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with MiECC were randomized to either the study group with an ACT target of 300 seconds or the control group with an ACT of 450 seconds. All other factors of MiECC remained unchanged.  The study group received significantly less heparin and protamine (heparin [international units] median [min-max], Red_AC: 32,800 [23,000-51,500] vs. Full_AC: 50,000 [35,000-65,000] p  ACT in the study group was significantly lower at the start of MiECC (mean ± standard deviation: study group 400 ± 112 vs. control group 633 ± 177; p  ACT levels were: study group 344 ± 60 versus control group 506 ± 80. In both groups, the values of the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) decreased simultaneously. None of the study participants experienced thromboembolic complications.  Since no evidence of increased thrombin formation (ETP) was found from a laboratory standpoint, we concluded that the use of MiECC with a reduced anticoagulation strategy seems possible. This alternative anticoagulation strategy leads to significant reduction in dosages of both heparin and protamine. We can confidently move forward with investigating this anticoagulation concept. However, to

  9. Reassessment of debris ingestion effects on emergency core cooling-system pump performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciacca, F.W.; Rao, D.V.

    2004-01-01

    A study sponsored by the United States (US) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was performed to reassess the effects of ingesting loss of coolant accident (LOCA) generated materials into emergency core cooling system (ECCS) pumps and the subsequent impact of this debris on the pumps' ability to provide long-term cooling to the reactor core. ECCS intake systems have been designed to screen out large post-LOCA debris materials. However, small-sized debris can penetrate these intake strainers or screens and reach critical pump components. Prior NRC-sponsored evaluations of possible debris and gas ingestion into ECCS pumps and attendant impacts on pump performance were performed in the early 1980's. The earlier study focused primarily on pressurised water reactor (PWR) ECCS pumps. This issue was revisited both to factor in our improved knowledge of LOCA generated debris and to address specifically both boiling water reactor (BWR) and PWR ECCS pumps. This study discusses the potential effects of ingested debris on pump seals, bearing assemblies, cyclone debris separators, and seal cooling water subsystems. This assessment included both near-term (less than one hour) and long-term (greater than one hour) effects introduced by the postulated LOCA. The work reported herein was performed during 1996-1997. (authors)

  10. Preservation of Postharvest Quality of Leafy Amaranth (Amaranthus spp. Vegetables Using Evaporative Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Ambuko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables are very highly perishable and must be utilized immediately after harvest. Their fast deterioration is attributed to various biological and environmental factors with temperature playing a central role. Evaporative cooling is a low-cost temporary storage technology that offers smallholder vegetable farmers an alternative to expensive cold rooms. The present study sought to determine the effectiveness of evaporative cooling using zero energy brick cooler (ZEBC and evaporative charcoal cooler (ECC, to preserve the postharvest quality of leafy amaranth vegetables. Freshly harvested vegetables were separated into bundles weighing 300 grams and stored under ZEBC, ECC, and ambient room conditions (control. Real time changes in temperature and relative humidity (RH as well as changes in quality attributes (physiological weight loss (PWL, wilting index, hue angle, and vitamin C were determined during the storage period. The temperature difference between the ZEBC and ECC versus the ambient air ranged between 4 and 10°C. Significantly higher RH (80–100% was recorded in both evaporative cooling chambers. At the end of storage, higher PWL (47.6% was recorded at ambient room conditions compared to 10.5 and 6.7% under ZEBC and ECC, respectively. A rapid decline in vitamin C (51% was reported in vegetables stored at ambient room conditions. Overall, there was better vegetable quality preservation under ECC and ZEBC.

  11. Regulatory guide in support of ECCS rule revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovmassian, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff is proposing to amend 10 CFR 50.46 and Appendix K to allow licensees to use best estimate calculations to estimate emergency core cooling system performance. This estimate in conjunction with an estimate of the uncertainty in the calculation would then be used to assure that the licensing limits set forth in 10 CFR 50.46(b) are not exceeded. The NRC staff has prepared a draft regulatory guide to assist licensees and applicants in complying with these proposed amendments. This paper sets forth the objectives of this regulatory guide, the approach taken, the difficulties encountered, and the current status of this effort

  12. Effects of upper plenum injection on thermo-hydrodynamic behavior under refill and reflood phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi; Sobajima, Makoto; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi; Ohnuki, Akira; Osakabe, Masahiro

    1984-12-01

    In order to investigate the thermo-hydrodynamic behavior in core under simultaneous ECC water injection into the upper plenum and the intact cold leg during the refill and reflood phases of a PWR-LOCA, Tests S1-SH3 and S1-SH4 were performed by using Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF) with the injection of saturated and 67K subcooled water into the upper plenum, respectively, under the same cold leg injection condition. The following major findings were obtained by examining these test results. (1) Although the core was cooled by the fall back water from the upper plenum into the core during the period of high injection rate into the upper plenum, the core was cooled mainly by the bottom flooding after the BOCREC (Bottom of core recovery). (2) The possible fall back flow rate estimated with a CCFL correlation rapidly decreased after the BOCREC because of the increase of steam generation rate in core. (3) Continuous fall back of subcooled water was not observed even under the condition with large upper plenum injection rate of subcooled water and with steam outflow through the lower plenum into the downcomer. The fall back was intermittently limited by the rapid increase of upward steam flow which was generated in the core due to the evaporation of the fall back water. (4) The rising of liquid level in the lower plenum was suppressed by the pressurization in core due to the evaporation of fall back water before the BOCREC and therefore the beginning of bottom reflood was delayed. Some selected data from Tests S1-SH3 and S1-SH4 are also included in this report. (author)

  13. Reactor core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masahiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To safely and effectively cool down the reactor core after it has been shut down but is still hot due to after-heat. Constitution: Since the coolant extraction nozzle is situated at a location higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the coolant sprayed from the nozzle, is free from sucking immediately from the extraction nozzle and is therefore used effectively to cool the reactor core. As all the portions from the top to the bottom of the reactor are cooled simultaneously, the efficiency of the reactor cooling process is increased. Since the coolant extraction nozzle can be installed at a point considerably higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the distance from the coolant surface to the point of the coolant extraction nozzle can be made large, preventing cavitation near the coolant extraction nozzle. Therefore, without increasing the capacity of the heat exchanger, the reactor can be cooled down after a shutdown safely and efficiently. (Kawakami, Y.)

  14. ECCS analysis of B and W's 177-FA lowered-loop NSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.C.; Biller, J.R.; Dunn, B.M.

    1975-06-01

    The effectiveness for the ECCS for B and W's 177-FA Lowered-Loop NSS is shown to meet the five criteria of 10 CFR 50.46. A spectrum analysis is performed and the worst case is used to establish allowable linear heat rates as a function of elevation in the core. (U.S.)

  15. MICROORGANISMS FOUND IN SECONDARY CATARACT MATERIAL OF ECCE PATIENTS, A STUDY WITH SEM AND TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KALICHARAN, D; JONGEBLOED, WL; LOS, LI; WORST, JGF

    1993-01-01

    Globular secondary cataract material, removed from 24 patients with ECCE after ophthalmic cleaning of the anterior capsule, were investigated with SEM and TEM. Besides spherical, somewhat oval shaped bodies of various shape and size comparable with those found in cataractous lenses, (an)aerobic

  16. Complete genome sequences of Escherichia coli strains 1303 and ECC-1470 isolated from bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Witten, Anika; Scheutz, Flemming; Schukken, Ynte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075051907; Daniel, Rolf; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the leading causative agent of acute bovine mastitis. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. coli O70:H32 strain 1303, isolated from an acute case of bovine mastitis, and E. coli Ont:Hnt strain ECC-1470, isolated from a persistent infection.

  17. Stacking with stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspers, Fritz E-mail: Fritz.Caspers@cern.ch; Moehl, Dieter

    2004-10-11

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 10{sup 5} the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some

  18. Preparation and evaluation of 68Ga-ECC as a PET renal imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizaei, Alireza; Jaililan, Amir Reza; Mazidi, Mohammad; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Yousefnia, Hassan; Shabani, Gholamli; Ardaneh, Khosro; Geramifar, Patham; Beiki, Davood

    2015-01-01

    Development of a gallium-68-labeled renal tracer can be a good substitute for Tc-99m, a known SPECT tracer. In this study, effort was made to develop 68 Ga-ethylenecysteamine cysteine ( 68 Ga-ECC). Ga-ECC was prepared using generator-based 68 GaCl3 and ethylenecysteamine cysteine (ECC) at optimized conditions. Stability of the complex was checked in human serum followed by partition coefficient determination of the tracer. The biodistribution of the tracer in rats was studied using tissue counting and PET/CT imaging up to 120 min. Ga-ECC was prepared at optimized conditions in 15 min at 90 °C (radiochemical purity ≈97 ± 0.88 % ITLC, >99 % HPLC, specific activity: 210 ± 5 GBq/mM). 68 Ga-ECC was a water-soluble complex based on partition coefficient data (log P; −1.378) and was stable in the presence of human serum for 2 h at 37 °C. The biodistribution of the tracer demonstrated high kidney excretion of the tracer in 10–20 min. The SUV max ratios of the liver to left kidney were 0.38 and 0.39 for 30 and 90 min, respectively, indicating high kidney uptake. Initial biodistribution results showed significant kidney and urinary excretion of the tracer comparable to that of the homologous 99m Tc compound. The complex could be a possible PET kidney imaging agent with a fast imaging time

  19. Preparation and evaluation of {sup 68}Ga-ECC as a PET renal imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizaei, Alireza; Jaililan, Amir Reza; Mazidi, Mohammad; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Yousefnia, Hassan; Shabani, Gholamli; Ardaneh, Khosro [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Geramifar, Patham; Beiki, Davood [Research Center for Nuclear Medicine, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Development of a gallium-68-labeled renal tracer can be a good substitute for Tc-99m, a known SPECT tracer. In this study, effort was made to develop {sup 68}Ga-ethylenecysteamine cysteine ({sup 68}Ga-ECC). Ga-ECC was prepared using generator-based {sup 68}GaCl3 and ethylenecysteamine cysteine (ECC) at optimized conditions. Stability of the complex was checked in human serum followed by partition coefficient determination of the tracer. The biodistribution of the tracer in rats was studied using tissue counting and PET/CT imaging up to 120 min. Ga-ECC was prepared at optimized conditions in 15 min at 90 °C (radiochemical purity ≈97 ± 0.88 % ITLC, >99 % HPLC, specific activity: 210 ± 5 GBq/mM). {sup 68}Ga-ECC was a water-soluble complex based on partition coefficient data (log P; −1.378) and was stable in the presence of human serum for 2 h at 37 °C. The biodistribution of the tracer demonstrated high kidney excretion of the tracer in 10–20 min. The SUV{sub max} ratios of the liver to left kidney were 0.38 and 0.39 for 30 and 90 min, respectively, indicating high kidney uptake. Initial biodistribution results showed significant kidney and urinary excretion of the tracer comparable to that of the homologous {sup 99m}Tc compound. The complex could be a possible PET kidney imaging agent with a fast imaging time.

  20. Cooling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    After an introduction to the general concepts of cooling of charged particle beams, some specific cooling methods are discussed, namely stochastic, electron and laser cooling. The treatment concentrates on the physical ideas of the cooling methods and only very crude derivations of cooling times are given. At the end three other proposed cooling schemes are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  1. Emergency reactor cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Ken.

    1993-01-01

    An emergency nuclear reactor cooling device comprises a water reservoir, emergency core cooling water pipelines having one end connected to a water feeding sparger, fire extinguishing facility pipelines, cooling water pressurizing pumps, a diesel driving machine for driving the pumps and a battery. In a water reservoir, cooling water is stored by an amount required for cooling the reactor upon emergency and for fire extinguishing, and fire extinguishing facility pipelines connecting the water reservoir and the fire extinguishing facility are in communication with the emergency core cooling water pipelines connected to the water feeding sparger by system connection pipelines. Pumps are operated by a diesel power generator to introduce cooling water from the reservoir to the emergency core cooling water pipelines. Then, even in a case where AC electric power source is entirely lost and the emergency core cooling system can not be used, the diesel driving machine is operated using an exclusive battery, thereby enabling to inject cooling water from the water reservoir to a reactor pressure vessel and a reactor container by the diesel drive pump. (N.H.)

  2. Emergency reactor cooling circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Hidefumi; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-01-01

    Cooling water in a gravitationally dropping water reservoir is injected into a reactor pressure vessel passing through a pipeline upon occurrence of emergency. The pipeline is inclined downwardly having one end thereof being in communication with the pressure vessel. During normal operation, the cooling water in the upper portion of the inclined pipeline is heated by convection heat transfer from the communication portion with the pressure vessel. On the other hand, cooling water present at a position lower than the communication portion forms cooling water lumps. Accordingly, temperature stratification layers are formed in the inclined pipeline. Therefore, temperature rise of water in a vertical pipeline connected to the inclined pipeline is small. With such a constitution, the amount of heat lost from the pressure vessel by way of the water injection pipeline is reduced. Further, there is no worry that cooling water to be injected upon occurrence of emergency is boiled under reduced pressure in the injection pipeline to delay the depressurization of the pressure vessel. (I.N.)

  3. Modifying the ECC-based grouping-proof RFID system to increase inpatient medication safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wen-Tsai; Chiou, Shin-Yan; Lu, Erl-Huei; Chang, Henry Ker-Chang

    2014-09-01

    RFID technology is increasingly used in applications that require tracking, identification, and authentication. It attaches RFID-readable tags to objects for identification and execution of specific RFID-enabled applications. Recently, research has focused on the use of grouping-proofs for preserving privacy in RFID applications, wherein a proof of two or more tags must be simultaneously scanned. In 2010, a privacy-preserving grouping proof protocol for RFID based on ECC in public-key cryptosystem was proposed but was shown to be vulnerable to tracking attacks. A proposed enhancement protocol was also shown to have defects which prevented proper execution. In 2012, Lin et al. proposed a more efficient RFID ECC-based grouping proof protocol to promote inpatient medication safety. However, we found this protocol is also vulnerable to tracking and impersonation attacks. We then propose a secure privacy-preserving RFID grouping proof protocol for inpatient medication safety and demonstrate its resistance to such attacks.

  4. Prosthetic Oral Rehabilitation of a Child With S-ECC: A Case Report with Histopathologic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannure, P N; Moraes, G G; Borba, McU; Abrahão, A; Andrade, Mtrc; Fidalgo, Tks

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment planning of a young child with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) as well as the prosthetic rehabilitation technique. A 3-year-old female child was referred to the pediatric dentistry clinic with the chief complaint of tooth pain, difficulty in eating and recurrent hospitalizations caused by dental infections. The mother reported intermittent episodes of fever and recurrent swelling of child's face. The girl presented angular cheilitis and was referred to a dietitian. The treatment plain consisted on a behavior changes in oral hygiene habits, exodontias of all primary teeth and oral rehabilitation with a prosthesis. The extracted teeth with periapical lesions were submitted to histopathologic analysis (hematoxilin and eosin staining) and revealed an inflammatory infiltrate. The aesthetic requirement of children with S-ECC has been a challenge to pediatric dentists. In the present case, the oral rehabilitation provided for the children better aesthetic, nutrition, phonation, and functional conditions.

  5. The E.C.C. programme in the field of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.

    1976-01-01

    After a description of the aims of the E.C.C. in the field of radioactive wastes, the contents and the structure of the programme developed for this purpose as well as its time schedule and financing, are presented. The state of work progress and the first results of the actions taken, whose application is marked by an active cooperation of numerous national experts are quoted [fr

  6. Audit of ECCS Availability for CANDU Reactors with an extended O/H interval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    KINS conducts regulatory periodic inspections of the safety and performance of each nuclear installation during the planned outage every 20 months, pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act. For CANDU reactors, planned outage or overhaul (O/H) have been performed every 15 months. KHNP has been making efforts to extend the O/H intervals of CANDU reactors into 20 months since 2001. Low ECCS availability is one of the regulatory pending issues in the related licensing

  7. Pressure vessel fracture studies pertaining to a PWR LOCA-ECC thermal shock: experiments TSE-3 and TSE-4 and update of TSE-1 and TSE-2 analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheverton, R.D.; Bolt, S.E.

    1977-01-01

    The LOCA-ECC Thermal Shock Program was established to investigate the potential for flaw propagation in pressurized-water reactor (PWR) vessels during injection of emergency core coolant following a loss-of-coolant accident. Studies thus far have included fracture mechanics analyses of typical PWRs, the design and construction of a thermal shock test facility, determination of material properties for test specimens, and four thermal shock experiments with 0.53-m-OD (21-in.) by 0.15-m-wall (6-in.) cylindrical test specimens. In the first experiment, initiation was not expected and did not occur, although there was a small amount of subcritical crack growth. In the second experiment, initiation of a semicircular flaw took place as expected; the final length along the surface was about four times the initial length, but there was no radial growth. The third and fourth experiments were similar, and the long axial flaw initiated in good agreement with predictions

  8. A Secure-Enhanced Data Aggregation Based on ECC in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Data aggregation is an important technique for reducing the energy consumption of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, compromised aggregators may forge false values as the aggregated results of their child nodes in order to conduct stealthy attacks or steal other nodes’ privacy. This paper proposes a Secure-Enhanced Data Aggregation based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (SEDA-ECC. The design of SEDA-ECC is based on the principles of privacy homomorphic encryption (PH and divide-and-conquer. An aggregation tree disjoint method is first adopted to divide the tree into three subtrees of similar sizes, and a PH-based aggregation is performed in each subtree to generate an aggregated subtree result. Then the forged result can be identified by the base station (BS by comparing the aggregated count value. Finally, the aggregated result can be calculated by the BS according to the remaining results that have not been forged. Extensive analysis and simulations show that SEDA-ECC can achieve the highest security level on the aggregated result with appropriate energy consumption compared with other asymmetric schemes.

  9. Gonioscopic changes in conventional ECCE vs manual SICS: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Joseph, Sundararajan D, Rajvin Samuel Ponraj, Srinivasan M, Veluchamy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to observe and compare the Gonioscopic changes in the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye after surgeries namely; Conventional Extra capsular cataract extraction (ECCE with Posterior chamber Intraocular lens (PC IOL implantation, Manual Small incision Cataract Surgery with PCIOL implantation. The clinical study was undertaken after Institutional Ethical committee clearance, securing the inform consent, total number of 100 patients were enrolled in the study. 50 ECCE; 50 SICS consisting of 57 Males and 43 Females aged between 40 – 80yrs who were admitted and operated for Cataract at Meenakshi Medical college Hospital & Research institute. The following parameters are studied: Gonioscopic changes in the angle, namely the PAS formation in the quadrants, pigment dispersion in each of the methods. After this study, we arrive to a conclusion that complications in the angle of anterior chamber occur mostly in Conventional with insignificant change in manual SICS. So manual Small incision Cataract Surgery with PCIOL implantation is preferable over Conventional ECCE with PCIOL implantation.

  10. Thermohydraulics of emergency core cooling in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This report, by a group of experts of the OECD-NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations, reviews the current state-of-knowledge in the field of emergency core cooling (ECC) for design-basis, loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA) and core uncover transients in pressurized- and boiling-water reactors. An overview of the LOCA scenarios and ECC phenomenology is provided for each type of reactor, together with a brief description of their ECC systems. Separate-effects and integral-test facilities, which contribute to understanding and assessing the phenomenology, are reviewed together with similarity and scaling compromises. All relevant LOCA phenomena are then brought together in the form of tables. Each phenomenon is weighted in terms of its importance to the course of a LOCA, and appraised for the adequacy of its data base and analytical modelling. This qualitative procedure focusses attention on the modelling requirements of dominant LOCA phenomena and the current capabilities of the two-fluid models in two-phase flows. This leads into the key issue with ECC: quantitative code assessment and the application of system codes to predict with a well defined uncertainty the behaviour of a nuclear power plant. This issue, the methodologies being developed for code assessment and the question of how good is good enough are discussed in detail. Some general conclusions and recommendations for future research activities are provided

  11. Quorum sensing in the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora: the role of expR(Ecc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, R A; Eriksson, A R; Heikinheimo, R; Mäe, A; Pirhonen, M; Kõiv, V; Hyytiäinen, H; Tuikkala, A; Palva, E T

    2000-04-01

    The production of the main virulence determinants of the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, the extracellular cell wall-degrading enzymes, is partly controlled by the diffusible signal molecule N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OHHL). OHHL is synthesized by the product of the expI/carI gene. Linked to expI we found a gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator of the LuxR-family. This gene, expR(Ecc), is transcribed convergently to the expI gene and the two open reading frames are partially overlapping. The ExpR(Ecc) protein showed extensive amino acid sequence similarity to the repressor EsaR from Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (formerly Erwinia stewartii subsp. stewartii) and to the ExpR(Ech) protein of Erwinia chrysanthemi. Inactivation of the E. carotovora subsp. carotovora expR(Ecc) gene caused no decrease in virulence or production of virulence determinants in vitro. In contrast, there was a slight increase in the maceration capacity of the mutant strain. The effects of ExpR(Ecc) were probably mediated by changes in OHHL levels. Inactivation of expR(Ecc) resulted in increased OHHL levels during early logarithmic growth. In addition, overexpression of expR(Ecc) caused a clear decrease in the production of virulence determinants and part of this effect was likely to be caused by OHHL binding to ExpR(Ecc). ExpR(Ecc) did not appear to exhibit transcriptional regulation of expI, but the effect on OHHL was apparently due to other mechanisms.

  12. Cooling device for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji.

    1996-01-01

    Upon assembling a static container cooling system to an emergency reactor core cooling system using dynamic pumps in a power plant, the present invention provides a cooling device of lowered center of gravity and having a good cooling effect by lowering the position of a cooling water pool of the static container cooling system. Namely, the emergency reactor core cooling system injects water to the inside of a pressure vessel using emergency cooling water stored in a suppression pool as at least one water source upon loss of reactor coolant accident. In addition, a cooling water pool incorporating a heat exchanger is disposed at the circumference of the suppression pool at the outside of the container. A dry well and the heat exchanger are connected by way of steam supply pipes, and the heat exchanger is connected with the suppression pool by way of a gas exhaustion pipe and a condensate returning pipeline. With such a constitution, the position of the heat exchanger is made higher than an ordinary water level of the suppression pool. As a result, the emergency cooling water of the suppression pool water is injected to the pressure vessel by the operation of the reactor cooling pumps upon loss of coolant accident to cool the reactor core. (I.S.)

  13. Intricate and Cell Type-Specific Populations of Endogenous Circular DNA (eccDNA) in Caenorhabditis elegans and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoura, Massa J; Gabdank, Idan; Hansen, Loren; Merker, Jason; Gotlib, Jason; Levene, Stephen D; Fire, Andrew Z

    2017-10-05

    Investigations aimed at defining the 3D configuration of eukaryotic chromosomes have consistently encountered an endogenous population of chromosome-derived circular genomic DNA, referred to as extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA). While the production, distribution, and activities of eccDNAs remain understudied, eccDNA formation from specific regions of the linear genome has profound consequences on the regulatory and coding capabilities for these regions. Here, we define eccDNA distributions in Caenorhabditis elegans and in three human cell types, utilizing a set of DNA topology-dependent approaches for enrichment and characterization. The use of parallel biophysical, enzymatic, and informatic approaches provides a comprehensive profiling of eccDNA robust to isolation and analysis methodology. Results in human and nematode systems provide quantitative analysis of the eccDNA loci at both unique and repetitive regions. Our studies converge on and support a consistent picture, in which endogenous genomic DNA circles are present in normal physiological states, and in which the circles come from both coding and noncoding genomic regions. Prominent among the coding regions generating DNA circles are several genes known to produce a diversity of protein isoforms, with mucin proteins and titin as specific examples. Copyright © 2017 Shoura et al.

  14. Large Eddy Simulation of a Film Cooling Flow Injected from an Inclined Discrete Cylindrical Hole into a Crossflow with Zero-Pressure Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Perry L.; Shyam, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is performed of a high blowing ratio (M = 1.7) film cooling flow with density ratio of unity. Mean results are compared with experimental data to show the degree of fidelity achieved in the simulation. While the trends in the LES prediction are a noticeable improvement over Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) predictions, there is still a lack a spreading on the underside of the lifted jet. This is likely due to the inability of the LES to capture the full range of influential eddies on the underside of the jet due to their smaller structure. The unsteady structures in the turbulent coolant jet are also explored and related to turbulent mixing characteristics

  15. Exxon Nuclear Company ECCS evaluation of a 2-loop Westinghouse PWR with dry containment using the ENC WREM-II ECCS model. Large break example problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajicek, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    This document is presented as a demonstration of the ENC WREM-II ECCS model calculational procedure applied to a Westinghouse 2-loop PWR with a dry containment (R. E. Ginna plant, for example). The hypothesized Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) investigated was a split break with an area equal to twice the pipe cross-sectional area. The break was assumed to occur in one pump discharge pipe (DECLS break). The analyses involved calculations using the ENC WREM-II model. The following codes were used: RELAP4-EM/ENC26A for blowdown and hot channel analyses, RELAP4-EM FLOOD/ENC26A for core reflood analysis, CONTEMPT LT/22 modified for containment backpressure analysis, and TOODEE2/APR77 for heatup analysis

  16. The final cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    Thursday 29th May, the cool-down of the final sector (sector 4-5) of LHC has begun, one week after the start of the cool-down of sector 1-2. It will take five weeks for the sectors to be cooled from room temperature to 5 K and a further two weeks to complete the cool down to 1.9 K and the commissioning of cryogenic instrumentation, as well as to fine tune the cryogenic plants and the cooling loops of cryostats.Nearly a year and half has passed since sector 7-8 was cooled for the first time in January 2007. For Laurent Tavian, AT/CRG Group Leader, reaching the final phase of the cool down is an important milestone, confirming the basic design of the cryogenic system and the ability to operate complete sectors. “All the sectors have to operate at the same time otherwise we cannot inject the beam into the machine. The stability and reliability of the cryogenic system and its utilities are now very important. That will be the new challenge for the coming months,” he explains. The status of the cool down of ...

  17. Emergency core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzaki, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Akihiro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve core cooling effect by making the operation region for a plurality of water injection pumps more broader. Constitution: An emergency reactor core cooling device actuated upon failure of recycling pipe ways is adapted to be fed with cooling water through a thermal sleeve by way of a plurality of water injection pump from pool water in a condensate storage tank and a pressure suppression chamber as water feed source. Exhaust pipes and suction pipes of each of the pumps are connected by way of switching valves and the valves are switched so that the pumps are set to a series operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is high and the pumps are set to a parallel operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is low. (Furukawa, Y.)

  18. Analysis of the dynamic behaviour of the low-pressure emergency core cooling system tank at Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The low pressure emergency core cooling system tanks (LP ECCS) at WWER-440/V213 units have unique worm-shaped geometry. Analytical and experimental investigations were performed to make an adequate basis for seismic assessment of the worm-shaped tank. The full scale dynamic tests results are presented in comparison with shaking table model experiments and analytical studies. (author)

  19. Analysis of the dynamic behaviour of the low pressure emergency core cooling system tank at Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamas, K.

    2001-01-01

    The low pressure emergency core cooling system tanks (LP ECCS) at WWER-440/V213 units have unique worm-shaped geometry. Analytical and experimental investigations were performed to make an adequate basis for seismic assessment of the worm-shaped tank. The full scale dynamic tests results are presented in comparison with shaking table model experiments and analytical studies. (author)

  20. Unlimited cooling capacity of the passive-type emergency core cooling system of the MARS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandini, G.; Caira, M.; Naviglio, A.; Sorabella, L.

    1995-01-01

    The MARS nuclear plant is equipped with a 600 MWth PWR type nuclear steam supply system, with completely innovative engineered core safeguards. The most relevant innovative safety system of this plant is its Emergency Core Cooling System, which is completely passive (with only one non static component). The Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) of the MARS reactor is natural-circulation, passive-type, and its intervention follows a core flow decrease, whatever was the cause. The operation of the system is based on a cascade of three fluid systems, functionally interfacing through heat exchangers; the first fluid system is connected to the reactor vessel and the last one includes an atmospheric-pressure condenser, cooled by external air. The infinite thermal capacity of the final heat sink provides the system an unlimited autonomy. The capability and operability of the system are based on its integrity and on the integrity of the primary coolant boundary (both of them are permanently enclosed in a pressurized containment; 100% redundancy is also foreseen) and on the operation of only one non static component (a check valve), with 400% redundancy. In the paper, all main thermal hydraulic transients occurring as a consequence of postulated accidents are analysed, to verify the capability of the passive-type ECCS to intervene always in time, without causing undue conditions of reduced coolability of the core (DNB, etc.), and to verify its capability to guarantee a long-term (indefinite) coolability of the core without the need of any external intervention. (author)

  1. On the energy shift of the ECC cusp. Does the shift really exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, R.O.; Sarkadi, L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The cusplike 'electron capture to the continuum' (ECC) peak appearing in the spectrum of the forward emitted electrons in ion-atom collisions is generally thought to be a divergence. The peak is centered at electron velocity that matches that of the projectile. Recently Illescas et al. [1] claimed, however, that 'the cusp is not a divergence smoothed by the experiment, and is slightly shifted from the impact-velocity value'. In a subsequent work Shah et al. [2] measured the ECC cusp for collisions of 10- and 20- keV protons with H2 and He, and found that the peak was indeed shifted to a velocity below its expected position. Their classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) calculations reproduced the observation well. In the present work we demonstrate by our CTMC calculations (made for the case of 20-keV protons on He) that the intensity, width and position of the ECC cusp do depend on the experimental conditions by which the electrons are detected (first of all, the acceptance angle of the electron spectrometer). We also present experimental data for this collision system. While the latter data are well reproduced by our CTMC calculations, neither the theoretical results, nor the experimental data of the present work support of the findings of Shah et al. [2]. At the same time, analyzing the problem in the framework of the general final-state interaction theory of cusp formation [3], we concluded that 'rigorously' speaking Shah et al. [2] are right when they state that the ECC cusp is not a divergence. The divergence is smeared out by the scattering of the projectile. However, this effect is negligibly small at the lowest energy that was considered in their paper, 10 keV. At this impact energy the projectile motion is smeared within an angular region Δθ th ∼ 0.06 deg, which is much smaller than the acceptance angle of the experiment, Δθ exp ∼ 1.5 deg

  2. Assessment of compliance with regulatory requirements for a best estimate methodology for evaluation of ECCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Un Chul; Jang, Jin Wook; Lim, Ho Gon; Jeong, Ik [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Suk Ku [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    Best estimate methodology for evaluation of ECCS proposed by KEPCO(KREM) os using thermal-hydraulic best-estimate code and the topical report for the methodology is described that it meets the regulatory requirement of USNRC regulatory guide. In this research the assessment of compliance with regulatory guide. In this research the assessment of compliance with regulatory requirements for the methodology is performed. The state of licensing procedure of other countries and best-estimate evaluation methodologies of Europe is also investigated, The applicability of models and propriety of procedure of uncertainty analysis of KREM are appraised and compliance with USNRC regulatory guide is assessed.

  3. Fuel Cooling in Absence of Forced Flow at Shutdown Condition with PHTS Partially Drained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parasca, L.; Pecheanu, D.L., E-mail: laurentiu.parasca@cne.ro, E-mail: doru.pecheanu@cne.ro [Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant, Cernavoda (Romania)

    2014-09-15

    During the plant outage for maintenance on primary side (e.g. for the main Heat Transport System pumps maintenance, the Steam Generators inspection), there are situations which require the primary heat transport system (HTS) drainage to a certain level for opening the circuit. The primary fuel heat sink for this configuration is provided by the shutdown cooling system (SDCS). In case of losing the forced cooling (e.g. due to the loss of SDCS, design basis earthquake-DBE), flow conditions in the reactor core may become stagnant. Inside the fuel channels, natural circulation phenomena known as Intermittent Buoyancy Induced Flow (IBIF) will initiate, providing an alternate heat sink mechanism for the fuel. However, this heat sink is effective only for a limited period of time (recall time). The recall time is defined as the elapsed time until the water temperature in the HTS headers exceeds a certain limit. Until then, compensatory measures need to be taken (e.g. by re-establishing the forced flow or initiate Emergency Core Cooling system injection) to preclude fuel failures. The present paper briefly presents the results of an analysis performed to demonstrate that fuel temperature remains within acceptable limits during IBIF transient. One of the objectives of this analysis was to determine the earliest moment since the reactor shut down when maintenance activities on the HTS can be started such that IBIF is effective in case of losing the forced circulation. The resulting peak fuel sheath and pressure tube temperatures due to fuel heat up shall be within the acceptable limits to preclude fuel defect or fuel channel defects.Thermalhydraulic circuit conditions were obtained using a CATHENA model for the primary side of HTS (drained to a certain level), an ECC system model and a system model for SDCS. A single channel model was developed in GOTHIC code for the fuel assessment analysis. (author)

  4. Corticosteroid injections, eccentric decline squat training and heavy slow resistance training in patellar tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M.; Kovanen, V.; Aagaard, P.

    2009-01-01

    A randomized-controlled single-blind trial was conducted to investigate the clinical, structural and functional effects of peritendinous corticosteroid injections (CORT), eccentric decline squat training (ECC) and heavy slow resistance training (HSR) in patellar tendinopathy. Thirty-nine male...

  5. Thermal shock studies associated with injection of emergency core coolant in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheverton, R.D.; Bolt, S.E.; Iskander, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    Studies to determine the accuracy of calculational techniques for predicting crack initiation and arrest in PWR vessels due to thermal shock from ECC injection are described. The reference calculational model is reviewed, the experimental program and facilities are described, and some thermal shock experiments and results are discussed

  6. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boernke, F.

    1975-01-01

    The need for the use of cooling systems in power plant engineering is dealt with from the point of view of a non-polluting form of energy production. The various cooling system concepts up to the modern natural-draught cooling towers are illustrated by examples. (TK/AK) [de

  7. A provably-secure ECC-based authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2014-11-06

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme) is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000). Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure) schemes.

  8. A Provably-Secure ECC-Based Authentication Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme) is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000). Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure) schemes. PMID:25384009

  9. A Provably-Secure ECC-Based Authentication Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Nam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000. Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC, and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure schemes.

  10. Factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in children of pre-school age in the city of Zagreb, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulić-Dukić, O; Jurić, H; Dukić, W; Glavina, D

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in pre-school children in the city of Zagreb, Croatia. The investigation was carried out on the sample of 145 children (77 boys and 68 girls) aged between 2 and 5 years, including clinical examination of dental status and survey on the habits among the parents. The overall prevalence of ECC was 30%: in girls it was 25%, and in boys 48%. The study on the risk factors was designed as a classic case-control study. The mean value of dmfs index among the cases amounted to 8.6, in comparison to 5.2 in the control group (pteeth-brushing habit after first 24 months did (p importance of early introduction of teeth-brushing and giving up the nightly consumption of sweet beverages in prevention of ECC.

  11. Sodium cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokkyo, N; Inoue, K; Maeda, H

    1968-11-21

    In a sodium cooled fast neutron reactor, an ultrasonic generator is installed at a fuel assembly hold-down mechanism positioned above a blanket or fission gas reservoir located above the core. During operation of the reactor an ultrsonic wave of frequency 10/sup 3/ - 10/sup 4/ Hz is constantly transmitted to the core to resonantly inject the primary bubble with ultrasonic energy to thereby facilitate its growth. Hence, small bubbles grow gradually to prevent the sudden boiling of sodium if an accident occurs in the cooling system during operation of the reactor.

  12. Enhanced Injection Molding Simulation of Advanced Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Zink

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most time-consuming phase of the injection molding cycle is cooling. Cooling efficiency can be enhanced with the application of conformal cooling systems or high thermal conductivity copper molds. The conformal cooling channels are placed along the geometry of the injection-molded product, and thus they can extract more heat and heat removal is more uniform than in the case of conventional cooling systems. In the case of copper mold inserts, cooling channels are made by drilling and heat removal is facilitated by the high thermal conductivity coefficient of copper, which is several times that of steel. Designing optimal cooling systems is a complex process; a proper design requires injection molding simulations, but the accuracy of calculations depends on how precise the input parameters and boundary conditions are. In this study, three cooling circuit designs and three mold materials (Ampcoloy 940, 1.2311 (P20 steel, and MS1 steel were used and compared using numerical methods. The effect of different mold designs and materials on cooling efficiency were examined using calculated and measured results. The simulation model was adjusted to the measurement results by considering the joint gap between the mold inserts.

  13. Assessment of some interfacial shear correlations in a model of ECC bypass flow in PWR reactor downcomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, N.K.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1987-01-01

    The bypass/refill process in the PWR reactor downcomer, following a large rupture of a cold leg coolant supply pipe, is a complicated thermo-hydraulic two-phase flow phenomenon. Mathematical modeling of such phenomena is always accompanied with a difficult task of selection of suitable constitutive correlations. In a typically hydrodynamic phenomenon, like ECC refill process of the reactor lower plenum is considered, the phasic interfacial friction is the most influential constitutive correlation. Therefore, assessment of the well-known widely-used interfacial friction constitutive correlations in the model of ECC bypass/refill process, is the subject of this paper

  14. Mechanical interaction of Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) rebar in tensile loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus Helgi; Fischer, Gregor; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a preliminary study of the composite interaction of Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC), reinforced with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) rebar. The main topic of this paper will focus on the interaction of the two materials (ECC and GFRP) during axial loading......, particularly in post cracking phase of the concrete matrix. The experimental program carried out in this study examined composite behavior under monotonic and cyclic loading of the specimens in the elastic and inelastic deformation phases. The stiffness development of the composite during loading was evaluated...

  15. Factors Predisposing to Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in Children of Pre-School Age in the City of Zagreb, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Lulić-Dukić, O.; Jurić, H.; Dukić, W.; Glavina, D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in pre-school children in the city of Zagreb, Croatia. The investigation was carried out on the sample of 145 children (77 boys and 68 girls) aged between 2 and 5 years, including clinical examination of dental status and survey on the habits among the parents. The overall prevalence of ECC was 30%: in girls it was 25%, and in boys 48%. The study on the risk factors was designed as a c...

  16. Quantification of four major metabolites of embryotoxic N-methyl- and N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in human urine by cooled-injection gas chromatography and isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Birgit K; Koslitz, Stephan; Meier, Swetlana; Belov, Vladimir N; Koch, Holger M; Weiss, Tobias; Brüning, Thomas; Käfferlein, Heiko U

    2012-04-17

    N-Methyl- and N-ethyl-2-pyrollidone (NMP and NEP) are frequently used industrial solvents and were shown to be embryotoxic in animal experiments. We developed a sensitive, specific, and robust analytical method based on cooled-injection (CIS) gas chromatography and isotope dilution mass spectrometry to analyze 5-hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI), two newly identified presumed metabolites of NEP, and their corresponding methyl counterparts (5-HNMP, 2-HMSI) in human urine. The urine was spiked with deuterium-labeled analogues of these metabolites. The analytes were separated from urinary matrix by solid-phase extraction and silylated prior to quantification. Validation of this method was carried out by using both, spiked pooled urine samples and urine samples from 56 individuals of the general population with no known occupational exposure to NMP and NEP. Interday and intraday imprecision was better than 8% for all metabolites, while the limits of detection were between 5 and 20 μg/L depending on the analyte. The high sensitivity of the method enables us to quantify NMP and NEP metabolites at current environmental exposures by human biomonitoring.

  17. Modified ECC ozone sonde for long-duration flights aboard isopicnic drifting balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheusi, Francois; Durand, Pierre; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Attié, Jean-Luc; Commun, Philippe; Barret, Brice; Basdevant, Claude; Clénet, Antoine; Fontaine, Alain; Jambert, Corinne; Meyerfeld, Yves; Roblou, Laurent; Tocquer, Flore

    2015-04-01

    Since few years, the French space agency CNES has developed boundary-layer pressurized balloons (BLPB) with the capability to transport scientific payloads at isopicnic level over very long distances and durations (up to several weeks in absence of navigation limits). However, the autonomy of conventional electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozone sondes, that are widely used for tropospheric and stratospheric soundings, is limited to few hours due to power consumption and electrolyte evaporation (owing to air bubbling in the cathode solution). In collaboration with the French research community, CNES has developed a new ozone payload suited for long duration flights aboard BLPB. The mechanical elements (Teflon pump and motor) and the electrochemical cell of conventional ECC sondes have been kept but the electronic implementation is entirely new. The main feature is the possibility of programming periodic measurement sequences -- with possible remote control during the flight. To increase the ozone sonde autonomy, a strategy has been adopted of short measurement sequences (typically 2-3 min) regularly spaced in time (e.g. every 15 min, which is usually sufficient for air quality studies). The rest of the time, the sonde is at rest (pump motor off). The response time of an ECC sonde to an ozone concentration step is below one minute. Consequently, the measurement sequence is typically composed of a one-minute spin-up period after the pump has been turned on, followed by a one- to two-minute acquisition period. All time intervals can be adjusted before and during the flight. Results of a preliminary ground-based test in spring 2012 are first presented. The sonde provided correct ozone concentrations against a reference UV analyzer every 15 minutes during 4 days. Then we illustrate results from 16 BLBP flights launched in the low troposphere over the Mediterranean during summer field campaings in 2012 and 2013 (TRAQA and ChArMEx programmes). BLPB drifting

  18. Adapted ECC ozonesonde for long-duration flights aboard boundary-layer pressurised balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheusi, François; Durand, Pierre; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Attié, Jean-Luc; Commun, Philippe; Barret, Brice; Basdevant, Claude; Clenet, Antoine; Derrien, Solène; Doerenbecher, Alexis; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Fontaine, Alain; Hache, Emeric; Jambert, Corinne; Jaumouillé, Elodie; Meyerfeld, Yves; Roblou, Laurent; Tocquer, Flore

    2016-12-01

    Since the 1970s, the French space agency CNES has developed boundary-layer pressurised balloons (BLPBs) with the capability to transport lightweight scientific payloads at isopycnic level and offer a quasi-Lagrangian sampling of the lower atmosphere over very long distances and durations (up to several weeks).Electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are widely used under small sounding balloons. However, their autonomy is limited to a few hours owing to power consumption and electrolyte evaporation. An adaptation of the ECC sonde has been developed specifically for long-duration BLPB flights. Compared to conventional ECC sondes, the main feature is the possibility of programming periodic measurement sequences (with possible remote control during the flight). To increase the ozonesonde autonomy, the strategy has been adopted of short measurement sequences (2-3 min) regularly spaced in time (e.g. every 15 min). The rest of the time, the sonde pump is turned off. Results of preliminary ground-based tests are first presented. In particular, the sonde was able to provide correct ozone concentrations against a reference UV-absorption ozone analyser every 15 min for 4 days. Then we illustrate results from 16 BLBP flights launched over the western Mediterranean during three summer field campaigns of the ChArMEx project (http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr): TRAQA in 2012, and ADRIMED and SAFMED in 2013. BLPB drifting altitudes were in the range 0.25-3.2 km. The longest flight lasted more than 32 h and covered more than 1000 km. Satisfactory data were obtained when compared to independent ozone measurements close in space and time. The quasi-Lagrangian measurements allowed a first look at ozone diurnal evolution in the marine boundary layer as well as in the lower free troposphere. During some flight segments, there was indication of photochemical ozone production in the marine boundary layer or even in the free troposphere, at rates ranging from 1 to 2 ppbv h -1, which

  19. Considerations for Probabilistic Analyses to Assess Potential Changes to Large-Break LOCA Definition for ECCS Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkowski, G.; Rudland, D.; Wolterman, R.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Scott, P.; Rahman, S.; Fairbanks, C.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S.NRC has undertaken a study to explore changes to the body of Part 50 of the U.S. Federal Code of Regulations, to incorporate risk-informed attributes. One of the regulations selected for this study is 10 CFR 50.46, A cceptance Criteria for Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Light-Water Nuclear Power Reactors . These changes will potentially enhance safety and reduce unnecessary burden on utilities. Specific attention is being paid to redefining the maximum pipe break size for LB-LOCA by determining the spectrum of pipe diameter (or equivalent opening area) versus failure probabilities. In this regard, it is necessary to ensure that all contributors to probabilistic failures are accounted for when redefining ECCS requirements. This paper describes initial efforts being conducted for the U.S.NRC on redefining the LB-LOCA requirements. Consideration of the major contributors to probabilistic failure, and deterministic aspects for modeling them, are being addressed. At this time three major contributors to probabilistic failures are being considered. These include: (1) Analyses of the failure probability from cracking mechanisms that could involve rupture or large opening areas from either through-wall or surface flaws, whether the pipe system was approved for leak-before-break (LBB) or not. (2) Future degradation mechanisms, such as recent occurrence of PWSCC in PWR piping need to be included. This degradation mechanism was not recognized as being an issue when LBB was approved for many plants or when the initial risk-informed inspection plans were developed. (3) Other indirect causes of loss of pressure-boundary integrity than from cracks in the pipe system also should be included. The failure probability from probabilistic fracture mechanics will not account for these other indirect causes that could result in a large opening in the pressure boundary: i.e., failure of bolts on a steam generator manway, flanges, and valves; outside force damage from the

  20. Cold leg injection reflood test results in the SCTF Core-I under constant system pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Hiromichi; Iwamura, Takamichi; Sobajima, Makoto; Osakabe, Masahiro; Ohnuki, Akira; Abe, Yutaka; Murao, Yoshio.

    1990-08-01

    The Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF) was constructed to investigate two-dimensional thermal-hydrodynamics in the core and the interaction in fluid behavior between the core and the upper plenum during the last part of blowdown, refill and reflood phases of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The present report describes the analytical results on the system behavior observed in the SCTF Core-I cold leg injection tests, S1-14 (Run 520), S1-15 (521), S1-16 (522), S1-17 (523), S1-20 (530), S1-21 (531), S1-23 (536) and S1-24 (537), performed under constant system pressure condition during transient. Major discussion items are: (1) steam binding, (2) U-tube oscillations, (3) bypass of ECC water (4) core cooling behavior, (5) effect of vent valve and (6) other parameter effects. These results give us very useful information and suggestion on reflood behavior. (author)

  1. Reactor cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Etsuji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate cleaning steps in the pipelines upon reactor shut-down by connecting a filtrating and desalting device to the cooling system to thereby always clean up the water in the pipelines. Constitution: A filtrating and desalting device is connected to the pipelines in the cooling system by way of drain valves and a check valve. Desalted water is taken out from the exit of the filtrating and desalting device and injected to one end of the cooling system pipelines by way of the drain valve and the check valve and then returned by way of another drain valve to the desalting device. Water in the pipelines is thus always desalted and the cleaning step in the pipelines is no more required in the shut-down. (Kawakami, Y.)

  2. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  3. A Secure ECC-based RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol to Enhance Patient Medication Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunhua; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fagen

    2016-01-01

    Patient medication safety is an important issue in patient medication systems. In order to prevent medication errors, integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology into automated patient medication systems is required in hospitals. Based on RFID technology, such systems can provide medical evidence for patients' prescriptions and medicine doses, etc. Due to the mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, RFID authentication scheme is the best choice for automated patient medication systems. In this paper, we present a RFID mutual authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) to enhance patient medication safety. Our scheme can achieve security requirements and overcome various attacks existing in other schemes. In addition, our scheme has better performance in terms of computational cost and communication overhead. Therefore, the proposed scheme is well suitable for patient medication systems.

  4. Guideline on in-service testing (IST) of ECCS for nuclear power stations in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, N.; Honjin, M.; Yamazaki, M.; Iwami, H.

    2001-01-01

    In Japan, METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) periodic inspections are conducted every 13 months in accordance with the EUIL (Electric Utility Industry Law) for light water reactors. On the other hand, during operation, many kinds of function tests are conducted in accordance with Technical Specifications or utilities voluntary test procedures. However, these maintenance activities during outages are in other respects considered too costly and more than necessary because of its predetermined maintenance interval and its old-fashioned full scope maintenance menu. In these circumstances, the ASME O and M Codes and Standards, which are applied to nuclear power plants in the United States, came to be one of the issues to be considered among Japanese utilities. This is because the ASME O and M Codes and Standards, which are developed to verify the operational readiness of equipment or systems by condition based maintenance or performance testing without overhauls, will be considered to suggest a rational alternative to our existing maintenance activities. Because there had been no standard for function tests other than the METI inspection procedures in Japan, activities started for the development of Japanese Operation and Maintenance Guideline (hereinafter called the Japanese OM Guideline or the Guideline) for function tests and condition monitoring. The Japanese OM Guideline is not proclaimed for regulatory use, but the long-term objective is to provide a substantial basis to change the current maintenance activities including regulatory inspection. The Guideline is composed of five parts, which are general requirements, pumps, valves, snubbers and ECCS systems. This paper gives a summary of the ECCS part of the Japanese OM Guideline, in particular, focusing on the differences between the Guideline and the ASME O and M Standards, and topics or discussion during their establishment. (author)

  5. Fracture mechanics evaluation of LOFT lower plenum injection nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, P.K.; Reuter, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis to establish whether or not a leak-before-break concept would apply to the LOFT lower plenum injection nozzle is described. The analysis encompassed the structure from the inlet side of valve V-2170 to the lower plenum nozzle-to-reactor vessel weld on the left side of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS). The defect that was assumed to exist was of such a size that the probability of its being missed by the applicable inspection technique was near zero. The Inconel 600 nozzle forging with an initial assumed defect size of 0.64 cm (0.25 in.) deep would behave as follows: (1) the axially oriented defect would result in leak before rupture (the number of cycles to rupture was 11,000), (2) the circumferentially oriented defect would result in a rupture before leak. The number of cycles to failure would be in excess of 14,000. Based on the conservative assumption that the thermal stresses were membrane stresses as opposed to a bending stress, the following were found. For the Inconel 82 weld metal (thickness of 1.3 cm [0.53 in.]) and AISI 316 SST valve body, with an initial assumed defect of 0.25 cm (0.1 in.), the crack would grow through the thickness in a minimum of 3950 cycles and to a critical rupture crack length of 5.1 cm (2.0 in.) in an additional 80 cycles. The Inconel 82 weld metal at the shell body (thickness of 9.7 cm or 3.8 in.) with an assumed defect 1.3 cm (0.5 in.) deep would fail in 334 cycles. Calculations made assuming a linear stress gradient instead of the above-mentioned flat distribution through the wall indicated that the number of stress cycles increased to 2200

  6. Incorporating Indigenous Knowledge and Practice into ECCE: A Comparison of Programs in The Gambia, Senegal and Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudee, Alicia Ranck

    2009-01-01

    Early Childhood Development (ECD) has emerged as a theme in international and African dialogue on education in recent years. UNESCO's Division of Basic Education Early Childhood promotes an integrated approach to Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) policy development and review. The study examines how this is implemented in three West…

  7. Simultaneous algae-polluted water treatment and electricity generation using a biocathode-coupled electrocoagulation cell (bio-ECC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue; Qu, Youpeng; Li, Chao; Han, Xiaoyu; Ambuchi, John J; Liu, Junfeng; Yu, Yanling; Feng, Yujie

    2017-10-15

    How to utilize electrocoagulation (EC) technology for algae-polluted water treatment in an energy-efficient manner remains a critical challenge for its widespread application. Herein, a novel biocathode-coupled electrocoagulation cell (bio-ECC) with sacrificial iron anode and nitrifying biocathode was developed. Under different solution conductivities (2.33±0.25mScm -1 and 4.94±0.55mScm -1 ), the bio-ECC achieved almost complete removal of algae cells. The maximum power densities of 8.41 and 11.33Wm -3 at corresponding current densities of 48.03Am -3 and 66.26Am -3 were obtained, with the positive energy balance of 4.52 and 7.44Wm -3 . In addition, the bio-ECC exhibited excellent NH 4 + -N removal performance with the nitrogen removal rates of 7.28mgL -1 h -1 and 6.77mgL -1 h -1 in cathode chamber, indicating the superiority of bio-ECC in NH 4 + -N removal. Pyrosequencing revealed that nitrifiers including Nitrospira, Nitrobacter, Nitrosococcus, and Nitrosomonas were enriched in biocathode. The removal mechanisms of algae in anode chamber were also explored by AFM and SEM-EDX tests. These results provide a proof-of-concept study of transferring energy-intensive EC process into an energy-neutral process with high-efficiency algae removal and electricity recovery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Simulation of strain-hardening in ECC uniaxial test specimen by use of a damage mechanics formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2006-01-01

    scale it is shown that the cohesive law for a unidirectional fiber reinforced cementitious composite can be found through superposition of the cohesive law for mortar and the fiber bridging curve. On the meso scale I it is shown that the maximum crack opening observed during crack propagation in ECC...

  9. PEP cooling water systems and underground piped utilities design criteria report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, F.; Robbins, D.

    1975-10-01

    This paper discusses the cooling systems required by the PEP Storage Ring. Particular topics discussed are: Cooling tower systems, RF cavity and vacuum chamber LCW cooling systems, klystron and ring magnet LLW cooling systems, Injection magnet LCW Cooling Systems; PEP interaction area detector LCW Cooling Systems; and underground piped utilities. 1 ref., 20 figs

  10. Simulation of a severe accident at a typical PWR due to break of a hot leg ECCS line using MELCOR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Min; Sabundjian, Gaianê, E-mail: smlee@ipen.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to simulate a severe accident at a typical PWR caused by break in Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) line of a hot leg using the MELCOR code. The nodalization of this typical PWR was elaborated by the Global Research for Safety (GRS) and provided to the CNEN for analysis of the severe accidents at the Angra 2, which is similar to that PWR. Although both of them are not identical the results obtained for that typical PWR may be valuable because of the lack of officially published calculation for Angra 2. Relevant parameters such as pressure, temperature and water level in various control volumes after the break in the hot leg were calculated as well as degree of core degradation and hydrogen concentration in containment. The result obtained in this work could be considered satisfactory in the sense that the physical phenomena reproduced by the simulation were in general very reasonable, and most of the events occurred within acceptable time intervals. However, the uncertainty analysis was not carried out in this work. Furthermore, this scenario could be used as a base for the study of the effectiveness of some preventive or/and mitigating measures of Severe Accident Management (SAMG) by adding associated conditions for each measure in its input. (author)

  11. Simulation of a severe accident at a typical PWR due to break of a hot leg ECCS line using MELCOR code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Sabundjian, Gaianê

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to simulate a severe accident at a typical PWR caused by break in Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) line of a hot leg using the MELCOR code. The nodalization of this typical PWR was elaborated by the Global Research for Safety (GRS) and provided to the CNEN for analysis of the severe accidents at the Angra 2, which is similar to that PWR. Although both of them are not identical the results obtained for that typical PWR may be valuable because of the lack of officially published calculation for Angra 2. Relevant parameters such as pressure, temperature and water level in various control volumes after the break in the hot leg were calculated as well as degree of core degradation and hydrogen concentration in containment. The result obtained in this work could be considered satisfactory in the sense that the physical phenomena reproduced by the simulation were in general very reasonable, and most of the events occurred within acceptable time intervals. However, the uncertainty analysis was not carried out in this work. Furthermore, this scenario could be used as a base for the study of the effectiveness of some preventive or/and mitigating measures of Severe Accident Management (SAMG) by adding associated conditions for each measure in its input. (author)

  12. Design evaluation of emergency core cooling systems using Axiomatic Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Gyunyoung [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)]. E-mail: gheo@mit.edu; Lee, Song Kyu [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-01-15

    In designing nuclear power plants (NPPs), the evaluation of safety is one of the important issues. As a measure for evaluating safety, this paper proposes a methodology to examine the design process of emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) in NPPs using Axiomatic Design (AD). This is particularly important for identifying vulnerabilities and creating solutions. Korean Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe (APR1400) adopted the ECCS, which was improved to meet the stronger safety regulations than that of the current Optimized Power Reactor 1000 MWe (OPR1000). To improve the performance and safety of the ECCS, the various design strategies such as independency or redundancy were implemented, and their effectiveness was confirmed by calculating core damage frequency. We suggest an alternative viewpoint of evaluating the deployment of design strategies in terms of AD methodology. AD suggests two design principles and the visualization tools for organizing design process. The important benefit of AD is that it is capable of providing suitable priorities for deploying design strategies. The reverse engineering driven by AD has been able to show that the design process of the ECCS of APR1400 was improved in comparison to that of OPR1000 from the viewpoint of the coordination of design strategies.

  13. Parametric study of the potential for BWR ECCS strainer blockage due to LOCA generated debris. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigler, G.; Brideau, J.; Rao, D.V.; Shaffer, C.; Souto, F.; Thomas, W.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents a plant-specific study for a BWR/4 with a Mark I containment that evaluated the potential for LOCA generated debris and the probability of losing long term recirculation capability due ECCS pump suction strainer blockage. The major elements of this study were: (1) acquisition of detailed piping layouts and installed insulation details for a reference BWR; (2) analysis of plant specific piping weld failure probabilities to estimate the LOCA frequency; (3) development of an insulation and other debris generation and drywell transport models for the reference BWR; (4) modeling of debris transport in the suppression pool; (5) development of strainer blockage head loss models for estimating loss of NPSH margin; (6) estimation of core damage frequency attributable to loss of ECCS recirculation capability following a LOCA. Elements 2 through 5 were combined into a computer code, BLOCKAGE 2.3. A point estimate of overall DEGB pipe break frequency (per Rx-year) of 1.59E-04 was calculated for the reference plant, with a corresponding overall ECCS loss of NPSH frequency (per Rx-year) of 1.58E-04. The calculated point estimate of core damage frequency (per Rx-year) due to blockage related accident sequences for the reference BWR ranged from 4.2E-06 to 2.5E-05. The results of this study show that unacceptable strainer blockage and loss of NPSH margin can occur within the first few minutes after ECCS pumps achieve maximum flows when the ECCS strainers are exposed to LOCA generated fibrous debris in the presence of particulates (sludge, paint chips, concrete dust). Generic or unconditional extrapolation of these reference plant calculated results should not be undertaken

  14. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  15. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  16. Ventilative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Kolokotroni, Maria

    This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state-of-the-art of ventil......This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state......-of-the-art of ventilative cooling potentials and limitations, its consideration in current energy performance regulations, available building components and control strategies and analysis methods and tools. In addition, the report provides twenty six examples of operational buildings using ventilative cooling ranging from...

  17. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Nobuaki.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor comprises a static emergency reactor core cooling system having an automatic depressurization system and a gravitationally dropping type water injection system and a container cooling system by an isolation condenser. A depressurization pipeline of the automatic depressurization system connected to a reactor pressure vessel branches in the midway. The branched depressurizing pipelines are extended into an upper dry well and a lower dry well, in which depressurization valves are disposed at the top end portions of the pipelines respectively. If loss-of-coolant accidents should occur, the depressurization valve of the automatic depressurization system is actuated by lowering of water level in the pressure vessel. This causes nitrogen gases in the upper and the lower dry wells to transfer together with discharged steams effectively to a suppression pool passing through a bent tube. Accordingly, the gravitationally dropping type water injection system can be actuated faster. Further, subsequent cooling for the reactor vessel can be ensured sufficiently by the isolation condenser. (I.N.)

  18. Numerical simulation of boron injection in a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinoco, Hernan, E-mail: htb@forsmark.vattenfall.s [Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, SE-742 03 Osthammar (Sweden); Buchwald, Przemyslaw [Reactor Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Frid, Wiktor, E-mail: wiktor@reactor.sci.kth.s [Reactor Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    The present study constitutes a first step to understand the process of boron injection, transport and mixing in a BWR. It consists of transient CFD simulations of boron injection in a model of the downcomer of Forsmark's Unit 3 containing about 6 million elements. The two cases studied are unintentional start of boron injection under normal operation and loss of offsite power with partial ATWS leaving 10% of the core power uncontrolled. The flow conditions of the second case are defined by means of an analysis with RELAP5, assuming boron injection start directly after the first ECCS injection. Recent publications show that meaningful conservative results may be obtained for boron or thermal mixing in PWRs with grids as coarse as that utilized here, provided that higher order discretization schemes are used to minimize numerical diffusion. The obtained results indicate an apparently strong influence of the scenario in the behavior of the injection process. The normal operation simulation shows that virtually all boron solution flows down to the Main Recirculation Pump inlet located directly below the boron inlet nozzle. The loss of offsite power simulation shows initially a spread of the boron solution over the entire sectional area of the lower part of the downcomer filled with colder water. This remaining effect of the ECCS injection lasts until all this water has left the downcomer. Above this region, the boron injection jet develops in a vertical streak, eventually resembling the injection of the normal operation scenario. Due to the initial spread, this boron injection will probably cause larger temporal and spatial concentration variations in the core. In both cases, these variations may cause reactivity transients and fuel damage due to local power escalation. To settle this issue, an analysis using an extended model containing the downcomer, the MRPs and the Lower Plenum will be carried out. Also, the simulation time will be extended to a scale of

  19. Numerical simulation of boron injection in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinoco, Hernan; Buchwald, Przemyslaw; Frid, Wiktor

    2010-01-01

    The present study constitutes a first step to understand the process of boron injection, transport and mixing in a BWR. It consists of transient CFD simulations of boron injection in a model of the downcomer of Forsmark's Unit 3 containing about 6 million elements. The two cases studied are unintentional start of boron injection under normal operation and loss of offsite power with partial ATWS leaving 10% of the core power uncontrolled. The flow conditions of the second case are defined by means of an analysis with RELAP5, assuming boron injection start directly after the first ECCS injection. Recent publications show that meaningful conservative results may be obtained for boron or thermal mixing in PWRs with grids as coarse as that utilized here, provided that higher order discretization schemes are used to minimize numerical diffusion. The obtained results indicate an apparently strong influence of the scenario in the behavior of the injection process. The normal operation simulation shows that virtually all boron solution flows down to the Main Recirculation Pump inlet located directly below the boron inlet nozzle. The loss of offsite power simulation shows initially a spread of the boron solution over the entire sectional area of the lower part of the downcomer filled with colder water. This remaining effect of the ECCS injection lasts until all this water has left the downcomer. Above this region, the boron injection jet develops in a vertical streak, eventually resembling the injection of the normal operation scenario. Due to the initial spread, this boron injection will probably cause larger temporal and spatial concentration variations in the core. In both cases, these variations may cause reactivity transients and fuel damage due to local power escalation. To settle this issue, an analysis using an extended model containing the downcomer, the MRPs and the Lower Plenum will be carried out. Also, the simulation time will be extended to a scale of several

  20. Estimated net value and uncertainty for automating ECCS switchover at PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, B.; Brideau, J.; Comes, L.; Darby, J.; Guttmann, H.; Sciacca, F.; Souto, F.; Thomas, W.; Zigler, G.

    1996-02-01

    Question for resolution of Generic Safety Issue No. 24 is whether or not PWRs that currently rely on a manual system for ECCS switchover to recirculation should be required to install an automatic system. Risk estimates are obtained by reevaluating the contributions to core damage frequencies (CDFs) associated with failures of manual and semiautomatic switchover at a representative PWR. This study considers each separate instruction of the corresponding emergency operating procedures (EOPs), the mechanism for each control, and the relation of each control to its neighbors. Important contributions to CDF include human errors that result in completely coupled failure of both trains and failure to enter the required EOP. It is found that changeover to a semiautomatic system is not justified on the basis of cost-benefit analysis: going from a manual to a semiautomatic system reduces the CDF by 1.7 x 10 -5 per reactor-year, but the probability that the net cost of the modification being less than $1, 000 per person-rem is about 20% without license renewal. Scoping analyses, using optimist assumptions, were performed for a changeover to a semiautomatic system with automatic actuation and to a fully automatic system; in these cases the probability of a net cost being less than $1,000/person-rem is about 50% without license renewal and over 95% with license renewal

  1. A robust ECC based mutual authentication protocol with anonymity for session initiation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Zahid; Chen, Gongliang; Li, Jianhua; Li, Linsen; Alzahrani, Bander

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is found as a substantial application-layer protocol for the multimedia services. It is extensively used for managing, altering, terminating and distributing the multimedia sessions. Authentication plays a pivotal role in SIP environment. Currently, Lu et al. presented an authentication protocol for SIP and profess that newly proposed protocol is protected against all the familiar attacks. However, the detailed analysis describes that the Lu et al.'s protocol is exposed against server masquerading attack and user's masquerading attack. Moreover, it also fails to protect the user's identity as well as it possesses incorrect login and authentication phase. In order to establish a suitable and efficient protocol, having ability to overcome all these discrepancies, a robust ECC-based novel mutual authentication mechanism with anonymity for SIP is presented in this manuscript. The improved protocol contains an explicit parameter for user to cope the issues of security and correctness and is found to be more secure and relatively effective to protect the user's privacy, user's masquerading and server masquerading as it is verified through the comprehensive formal and informal security analysis.

  2. A robust ECC based mutual authentication protocol with anonymity for session initiation protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Mehmood

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is found as a substantial application-layer protocol for the multimedia services. It is extensively used for managing, altering, terminating and distributing the multimedia sessions. Authentication plays a pivotal role in SIP environment. Currently, Lu et al. presented an authentication protocol for SIP and profess that newly proposed protocol is protected against all the familiar attacks. However, the detailed analysis describes that the Lu et al.'s protocol is exposed against server masquerading attack and user's masquerading attack. Moreover, it also fails to protect the user's identity as well as it possesses incorrect login and authentication phase. In order to establish a suitable and efficient protocol, having ability to overcome all these discrepancies, a robust ECC-based novel mutual authentication mechanism with anonymity for SIP is presented in this manuscript. The improved protocol contains an explicit parameter for user to cope the issues of security and correctness and is found to be more secure and relatively effective to protect the user's privacy, user's masquerading and server masquerading as it is verified through the comprehensive formal and informal security analysis.

  3. FPGA implementation of PCI to CAMAC interface for Embedded CAMAC Controller (ECC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, K.; Behere, Anita; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    CAMAC controllers are used for control systems and nuclear physics experiments. Control applications need more number of physically distributed crates with regular scanning of all the parameters, the control being with a centralized computer. On the other hand, nuclear physics experiments need a high throughput with a large number of parameters in one or more crates. The nature of events is random hence buffering of data in LIST mode acquisition is needed. For a large number of parameters, this translates to high transfer rate. Hence it is essential that the CAMAC readout time is minimized and also the data transfer speed is improved to achieve maximum effective throughput. The ECC is designed to achieve these objectives using an embedded controller with PC architecture having PCI bus as interface for add on logic. The PCI Add-on to CAMAC interface protocol has been implemented in an AL TERA FPGA and all the functionality coded in VHDL. This paper discusses the design aspects of the FPGA implementation of the PCI to CAMAC interface. (author)

  4. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling

  5. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    2001-05-13

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling.

  6. Risk-based assessment of the allowable outage times for the unit 1 leningrad nuclear power plant ECCS components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukhar, Sergey; Vinnikov, Bronislav

    2009-01-01

    Present paper describes a method for risk - informed assessment of the Allowable Outage Times (AOTs). The AOT is the time, when components of a safety system allowed to be out of service during power operation or during shutdown operation off a plant. If the components are not restored during the time, the plant in operation must be shut down or the plant in a given shutdown mode has to go to safer shutdown mode. Application of the method is also provided for the equipment of the Unit 1 Leningrad NPP ECCS components. For solution of the problem it is necessary to carry out two series of computations using a Living PSA model, level 1. In the first series of the computations the core damage frequency (CDFb) for the base configuration of the plant is determined (there is no equipment out of service). Here the symbol 'b' means the base configuration of a plant. In the second series of the computations the core damage frequency (CDFi) for the configuration of the plant with the component (which is out of service) is calculated. That is here CDFi is determined for the failure probability of the component equal to 1.0 (component 'i' is unavailable). Then it is necessary to determine so called Risk Increase Factor (RIF) using the following ratio: RIFi = CDFi / CDFb. At last the AOT is calculated with the help of the ratio: AOTi = Tppr / RIFi, where Tppr is a period of time between two Planned Preventive Repairs (PPRs). 1. Using the risk based approach the AOTs were calculated for a set of the components of the Unit 1 Leningrad NPP ECCS components. 2. The main conclusion from the analysis is that the current deterministic AOTs for the ECCS components are conservative and should be extended. 3. The risk based extension of the AOTs for the ECCS components can prevent the Unit 1 Leningrad NPP to enter into the operating modes with increased risk. (author)

  7. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korik, L.; Burger, R.

    1992-01-01

    What is the effect of 0.6C (1F) temperature rise across turbines, compressors, or evaporators? Enthalpy charts indicate for every 0.6C (1F) hotter water off the cooling tower will require an additional 2 1/2% more energy cost. Therefore, running 2.2C (4F) warmer due to substandard cooling towers could result in a 10% penalty for overcoming high heads and temperatures. If it costs $1,250,000.00 a year to operate the system, $125,000.00 is the energy penalty for hotter water. This paper investigates extra fuel costs involved in maintaining design electric production with cooling water 0.6C (1F) to 3C (5.5F) hotter than design. If design KWH cannot be maintained, paper will calculate dollar loss of saleable electricity. The presentation will conclude with examining the main causes of deficient cold water production. State-of-the-art upgrading and methodology available to retrofit existing cooling towers to optimize lower cooling water temperatures will be discussed

  8. Comprehensive Oral Health Care to Reduce the Incidence of Severe Early Childhood Caries (s-ECC) in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yan; Guo, Yan; Yuan, Chao; Xu, Tao; Zheng, Shu Guo

    2016-03-01

    To explore the effectiveness of comprehensive oral health care to reduce the caries incidence for children with severe early childhood caries (s-ECC) in an urban area in China. A total of 357 children aged 3 to 4 years old and diagnosed with s-ECC were recruited in this randomised controlled, single-blinded clinical trial for 1 year. Children of two different kindergarten classes were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into a test group (205 children) and a control group (152 children). The test group received comprehensive oral health care, which included: oral health examination, oral health education, topical fluoride application and dental treatment, and the children in the control group only received the oral health examination. The evaluation of the oral health questionnaire for parents was also performed. An evaluation was carried out at the time of recruitment and 1 year later to explore the effectiveness of the comprehensive oral health care model. The differences in decayed teeth (dt), decayed tooth surfaces (ds), filled teeth (ft), filled tooth surfaces (fs) and the ratio of ft /(dt + ft) between the two groups were statistically significant (P comprehensive oral health care program reduces and prevents caries amongst children with s-ECC.

  9. Comparison of allele frequency for HLA-DR and HLA-DQ between patients with ECC and caries-free children

    OpenAIRE

    Bagherian A; Nematollahi H; Afshari J; Moheghi N

    2008-01-01

    Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is one of the most common diseases of childhood. The etiology of ECC is multifactorial and both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. Genetic variations in the hosts may contribute to changes in the risk for dental caries. Genetic factors such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) have recently been suggested as a predisposing factor. Aim: The aim of this study was to look for an association between HLA-D...

  10. Cooling tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbaeck, P; Heneby, H

    1976-01-22

    Cooling towers to be transported on road vehicles as a unit are not allowed to exceed certain dimensions. In order to improve the efficiency of such a cooling tower (of cross-flow design and box-type body) with given dimensions, it is proposed to arrange at least one of the scrubbing bodies displaceable within a module or box. Then it can be moved out of the casing into working position, thereby increasing the front surface available for the inlet of air (and with it the efficiency) by nearly a factor of two.

  11. Provision of reliable core cooling in vessel-type boiling reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alferov, N.S.; Balunov, B.F.; Davydov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for providing reliable core cooling in vessel-type boiling reactors with natural circulation for heat supply are analysed. The solution of this problem is reduced to satisfaction of two conditions such as: water confinement over the reactor core necessary in case of an accident and confinement of sufficient coolant flow rate through the bottom cross section of fuel assemblies for some time. The reliable fuel element cooling under conditions of a maximum credible accident (brittle failure of a reactor vessel) is shown to be provided practically in any accident, using the safety vessel in combination with the application of means of standard operation and minimal composition and capacity of ECCS

  12. Emergency core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubokoya, Takashi; Okataku, Yasukuni.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain the fuel soundness upon loss of primary coolant accidents in a pressure tube type nuclear reactor by injecting cooling heavy water at an early stage, to suppress the temperature of fuel cans at a lower level. Constitution: When a thermometer detects the temperature rise and a pressure gauge detects that the pressure for the primary coolants is reduced slightly from that in the normal operation upon loss of coolant accidents in the vicinity of the primary coolant circuit, heavy water is caused to flow in the heavy water feed pipeway by a controller. This enables to inject the heavy water into the reactor core in a short time upon loss of the primary coolant accidents to suppress the temperature rise in the fuel can thereby maintain the fuel soundness. (Moriyama, K.)

  13. A study on design improvement of the emergency core cooling system for a nuclear ship reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruko, Yoshinori

    1982-01-01

    ECCS performances are predicted for the N.S. ''MUTSU'' Reactor using new computing techniques. The actual performances are found to be inadequate with regard to the total injection flow rate and the infection head of the High Pressure Injection System (HPIS). The actual Safety Injection (SI) Signal is also shown to be inoperative in a gas phase LOCA. Because of this fact, the ECCS has been improved by replacing the existing HPIS with two large high pressure pumps and by adding ''Reactor Pressure Low-Low'' and ''Containment Pressure High'' signals. This report deals with a numerical study of the dynamical behavior of the N.S. MUTSU Reactor in the postulated small break LOCA, which has been calculated to verify the design improvement by evaluating the new ECCS performances on the basis of RELAP4/MOD6/SUS and TOODEE2/SUS codes. In conclusion, the improved system performs satisfactorily in the whole range of gas phase breaks and in the small break range of liquid phase LOCA. (author)

  14. Granisetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granisetron immediate-release injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and to ... nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with ...

  15. Edaravone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which ... die, causing the muscles to shrink and weaken). Edaravone injection is in a class of medications called ...

  16. Meropenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  17. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  18. Colistimethate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  19. Defibrotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defibrotide injection is used to treat adults and children with hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD; blocked blood ... the body and then returned to the body). Defibrotide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  20. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  1. Comparison of allele frequency for HLA-DR and HLA-DQ between patients with ECC and caries-free children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagherian A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early childhood caries (ECC is one of the most common diseases of childhood. The etiology of ECC is multifactorial and both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. Genetic variations in the hosts may contribute to changes in the risk for dental caries. Genetic factors such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA have recently been suggested as a predisposing factor. Aim: The aim of this study was to look for an association between HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 with ECC for developing new strategies for the diagnosis as well as the prevention of the disease. Design: In this study, we extracted the genomic DNAs from whole blood samples of 44 patients with ECC and 35 caries-free children by the salting-out method. We amplified the genomic DNA by PCR-SSP and then HLA-typing was performed for all alleles. Results: The results revealed a significant increase in the frequency of HLA-DRB1FNx0104 in the patient group (P = 0.019. The odds ratio for this allele was detected to be 10. The frequency of HLA-DQB1 alleles was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: The above results suggest that HLA-DRB1FNx0104 is associated with the susceptibility to ECC. Thus HLA-DRB1FNx0104 detection as a molecular marker for early diagnosis of ECC may be recommended.

  2. Eficácia do resfriamento da pele no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A nas distonias faciais Skin cooling efficacy on pain relief in periocular injections with botulinum toxin A in facial dystonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Barros Bandeira de Mello Monteiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do resfriamento da pele com gelo no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A na região periocular em pacientes portadores de distonia facial. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo prospectivo, 13 pacientes receberam injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A em região glabelar (m. prócero e periocular (m. orbicular para tratamento de distonia facial. Antes das aplicações, um lado da região glabelar foi resfriado com gelo durante 5 minutos, enquanto no outro lado foi aplicada pomada Epitezan®, funcionando como placebo. A aplicação foi feita primeiramente no lado resfriado. Após a aplicação em cada um dos lados os pacientes foram instruídos a dar uma nota para a dor desencadeada pela injeção, em uma escala de 0 a 10 onde 0 era ausência de dor e 10 a dor mais intensa. RESULTADOS: A média das notas dadas pelos pacientes à dor desencadeada pela injeção no lado onde foi aplicado placebo foi 3,92 ± 3,28. No local onde foi aplicado gelo a média das notas foi de 2,92 ± 2,18 (p PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of skin cooling with ice on pain relief in periocular injection with botulinum toxin type A in patients with facial dystonias. METHODS: In this prospective study, 13 patients received botulinum toxin type A injection in glabela (procerus m. and periocular region (orbicular m. for facial dystonias treatment. Before the injections, one side of the glabela was submitted to a 5-minute cooling period, while the opposite side had Epitezan® cream applied, as a placebo. The application was done at the cooled side first. After the application on each side the patients were instructed to rate the pain associated with the injection on a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 indicating no pain and 10 the worst pain. RESULTS: The average pain score on the side where cold was applied was 3,92 ± 3,28, while on the control side the average pain score was 2,92 ± 2,18 (p < 0,0166. CONCLUSION: In this study

  3. Evaluation of the long duration efficiency of the ECC storage facility of Cogema La Hague plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baganz, C.; Bouland, P.; Breton, E.

    2004-01-01

    The ECC facility of Cogema La Hague has been designed in view of the storage of 24000 CSD-C type containers produced by the ACC facility. It comprises a reception and unloading unit, and a modular storage unit (alveoles). The safety of the facility is based on: a controlled ventilation (low pressurization rooms, controlled atmosphere, heat and toxic gases evacuation), a construction ensuring the static confinement, the sub-criticality and the radiological protection, and the possibility of natural ventilation of the alveoles (earthquake-dimensioned equipments). On the basis of these safety functions, the conformability of the facility with respect to long duration has been analyzed considering three aspects of the facility: the infrastructure, the waste packages and the ventilation system. In normal operation, a foreseeable service life of at least 100 years is established: simpleness and accessibility of ventilation systems, no significant corrosion of packages, durability of the reinforced concrete structure. The demonstration of a service life greater than 100 years would require the improvement of our knowledge about concretes in terms of experience feedback. The behaviour of the facility in terms of loss of technical mastery has been considered too. The scenario retained for this situation is the prolonged stoppage (several months or years) of the nuclear ventilation after a 100 years of disposal. After this period of time, both the thermal power and the hydrogen generation from waste packages will have significantly diminished, allowing a loss of technical mastery era of several years with no impact on concretes integrity. However, during long situations of non-controlled atmosphere, the corrosion behaviour of stainless steels is not predictable. (J.S.)

  4. Stochastic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisognano, J.; Leemann, C.

    1982-03-01

    Stochastic cooling is the damping of betatron oscillations and momentum spread of a particle beam by a feedback system. In its simplest form, a pickup electrode detects the transverse positions or momenta of particles in a storage ring, and the signal produced is amplified and applied downstream to a kicker. The time delay of the cable and electronics is designed to match the transit time of particles along the arc of the storage ring between the pickup and kicker so that an individual particle receives the amplified version of the signal it produced at the pick-up. If there were only a single particle in the ring, it is obvious that betatron oscillations and momentum offset could be damped. However, in addition to its own signal, a particle receives signals from other beam particles. In the limit of an infinite number of particles, no damping could be achieved; we have Liouville's theorem with constant density of the phase space fluid. For a finite, albeit large number of particles, there remains a residue of the single particle damping which is of practical use in accumulating low phase space density beams of particles such as antiprotons. It was the realization of this fact that led to the invention of stochastic cooling by S. van der Meer in 1968. Since its conception, stochastic cooling has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. The earliest experiments were performed at the ISR in 1974, with the subsequent ICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led to the design and construction of the Antiproton Accumulator at CERN and the beginnings of p anti p colliding beam physics at the SPS. Experiments in stochastic cooling have been performed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBL, and a design is currently under development for a anti p accumulator for the Tevatron

  5. A very cool cooling system

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 Gigatracker is a jewel of technology: its sensor, which delivers the time of the crossing particles with a precision of less than 200 picoseconds (better than similar LHC detectors), has a cooling system that might become the precursor to a completely new detector technique.   The 115 metre long vacuum tank of the NA62 experiment. The NA62 Gigatracker (GTK) is composed of a set of three innovative silicon pixel detectors, whose job is to measure the arrival time and the position of the incoming beam particles. Installed in the heart of the NA62 detector, the silicon sensors are cooled down (to about -20 degrees Celsius) by a microfluidic silicon device. “The cooling system is needed to remove the heat produced by the readout chips the silicon sensor is bonded to,” explains Alessandro Mapelli, microsystems engineer working in the Physics department. “For the NA62 Gigatracker we have designed a cooling plate on top of which both the silicon sensor and the...

  6. Cooling pancakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.R.; Wilson, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    In theories of galaxy formation with a damping cut-off in the density fluctuation spectrum, the first non-linear structures to form are Zeldovich pancakes in which dissipation separates gas from any collisionless dark matter then present. One-dimensional numerical simulations of the collapse, shock heating, and subsequent thermal evolution of pancakes are described. Neutrinos (or any other cool collisionless particles) are followed by direct N-body methods and the gas by Eulerian hydrodynamics with conduction as well as cooling included. It is found that the pressure is relatively uniform within the shocked region and approximately equals the instantaneous ram pressure acting at the shock front. An analytic theory based upon this result accurately describes the numerical calculations. (author)

  7. Cool Sportswear

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    New athletic wear design based on the circulating liquid cooling system used in the astronaut's space suits, allows athletes to perform more strenuous activity without becoming overheated. Techni-Clothes gear incorporates packets containing a heat-absorbing gel that slips into an insulated pocket of the athletic garment and is positioned near parts of the body where heat transfer is most efficient. A gel packet is good for about one hour. Easily replaced from a supply of spares in an insulated container worn on the belt. The products, targeted primarily for runners and joggers and any other athlete whose performance may be affected by hot weather, include cooling headbands, wrist bands and running shorts with gel-pack pockets.

  8. Cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    Progress on the thermal effects project is reported with regard to physiology and distribution of Corbicula; power plant effects studies on burrowing mayfly populations; comparative thermal responses of largemouth bass from northern and southern populations; temperature selection by striped bass in Cherokee Reservoir; fish population studies; and predictive thermoregulation by fishes. Progress is also reported on the following; cause and ecological ramifications of threadfin shad impingement; entrainment project; aquaculture project; pathogenic amoeba project; and cooling tower drift project

  9. Lamination cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Kobayashi, Daryl M.

    2005-10-11

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a lamination cooling system including a stack of laminations, each defining a plurality of apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define a plurality of cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack, and gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed to prevent a liquid cooling fluid in the passageways from escaping between the laminations. The gaps are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. The apertures of each lamination can be coincident with the same-sized apertures of adjacent laminations to form straight passageways, or they can vary in size, shape and/or position to form non-axial passageways, angled passageways, bidirectional passageways, and manifold sections of passageways that connect a plurality of different passageway sections. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  10. Lamination cooling system formation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

    2009-05-12

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  11. R&D Plan for RISMC Industry Application #1: ECCS/LOCA Cladding Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Epiney, Aaron Simon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tu, Lei [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is finalizing a rulemaking change that would revise the requirements in 10 CFR 50.46. In the proposed new rulemaking, designated as 10 CFR 50.46c, the NRC proposes a fuel performance-based equivalent cladding reacted (ECR) criterion as a function of cladding hydrogen content before the accident (pre-transient) in order to include the effects of higher burnup on cladding performance as well as to address other technical issues. A loss of operational margin may result due to the more restrictive cladding embrittlement criteria. Initial and future compliance with the rule may significantly increase vendor workload and licensee costs as a spectrum of fuel rod initial burnup states may need to be analyzed to demonstrate compliance. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has initiated a project, as part of the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRS), to develop analytical capabilities to support the industry in the transition to the new rule. This project is called the Industry Application 1 (IA1) within the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway of LWRS. The general idea behind the initiative is the development of an Integrated Evaluation Model (IEM). The motivation is to develop a multiphysics framework to analyze how uncertainties are propagated across the stream of physical disciplines and data involved, as well as how risks are evaluated in a LOCA safety analysis as regulated under 10 CFR 50.46c. This IEM is called LOTUS which stands for LOCA Toolkit for US, and it represents the LWRS Program’s response to the proposed new rule making. The focus of this report is to complete an R&D plan to describe the demonstration of the LOCA/ECCS RISMC Industry Application # 1 using the advanced RISMC Toolkit and methodologies. This report includes the description and development plan for a RISMC LOCA tool that fully couples advanced MOOSE tools already in development in order to characterize and optimize

  12. Feeding practice among 6-36 months old in Tanzania and Uganda: reliability and relationship with early childhood caries, ECC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumo, Ray; Bardsen, Asgeir; Mashoto, Kijakazi; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2013-09-01

    To assess the reproducibility of caregivers' responses to dietary recall from birth and 24-h dietary recall with respect to infants' intake of sugared snacks and to assess whether those assessment methods provide comparable results for groups of infants. Re-test reliability and clinical covariates of time to first exposure of sugared snacks and time to termination of breastfeeding were also examined. It was hypothesized that time to first exposure/termination would vary according to socio-demographic profile and ECC. Interviews and clinical oral examinations were carried out in Kampala and Manyara, including 1221 and 816 child-caregiver pairs. Reproducibility was assessed using Cohen's kappa and Intra Class Correlation Coefficient, ICC. Adjusted Cox regression was used to model time to first exposure of sugared snacks and time to termination of breastfeeding. Cohen's kappa for intake of sugar items ranged from 0.40-1.0, with no differences observed between average intakes at test-re-test. Mean sugar score based on 24-h recall increased significantly by increasing quartiles of the sugar score based on recall from birth. Cox regression revealed that the odds ratio, OR, for early exposure to various sugared snacks and the ORs for early termination of breastfeeding were significantly smaller in infants with than without ECC. Fair-to-good reproducibility was established. Infant's sugar consumption emerge as early as 6 months of age. Survival of any breastfeeding and non-exposure to sugared snacks was most prolonged among infants with ECC. This has implications for interventions needed to improve feeding habits of infants and toddlers.

  13. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure ...

  14. Hydromorphone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anyone else to use your medication. Store hydromorphone injection in a safe place so that no one else can use it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how much medication is left so ... with hydromorphone injection may increase the risk that you will develop ...

  15. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an older adult, you should know that ketorolac injection is not as safe as other medications that can be used to treat your condition. Your doctor may choose to prescribe a different medication ... to ketorolac injection.Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the ...

  16. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (pak'' li tax' el)Paclitaxel injection must be given in a hospital or medical facility under the supervision of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer.Paclitaxel injection may cause a large decrease in the number of white blood cells (a type of blood cell ...

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY IN ENGLISH CONVERSATION CLUB (ECC PROGRAM AT THE 3rd SEMESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fadhly Farhy Abbas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on students’ speaking ability who had followed the EnglishConversation Club (ECC program especially for the third semester of English Department. Thepurpose of this study was to analyze the students’ speaking ability at the 3rd semester in the EnglishConversation Club FKIP UNILAK Pekanbaru. The type of the research was mixed method in typeof explanatory design. The number of participant was 53 students. The researcher used twoinstruments, those were test and interview. In analyzing the data, it used in descriptive statistics.The result of the analysis showed that the average score of 3rd semester students’ speaking abilitywas 45.42. It can be concluded that the students’ speaking ability was categorized into failed . Thescore of Standard Deviation was 7.02, Variance was 49.30, and Range was 36 points . It meansthat the students’ speaking ability was homogeneous. According to the Z-Score, it can be seen that49.06% students’ ability was higher than average and 50.94% students ability was below theaverage. In conclusion, the students’ ability in learning speaking English was failed, it had beenaffected by some factors, those were lack of vocabulary, grammar and motivation. It was supportedby the interview, eventhough the students’ perception to English Conversation Club (ECCprogram was positive, but in fact, the students’ frequency to speak English was seldom, they wereless practice speaking English everyday.Keywords : Speaking , English Conversation Club (ECC

  18. Reliability investigation for the ECC subsystem of a 1300 MWe-PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalovic, M.

    1983-01-01

    In this study, a fault-tree analysis is used for reliability investigation of Emergency Core Cooling Sub-system of a 1300 MWe pressurised water reactor. Basic assumptions of the study are large break in the reactor coolant system and independence of the pseudo-components. Relatively high non-availability of the sub-system was calculated. Critical component and minimum cut set are determined. (author)

  19. Cooled Beam Diagnostics on LEIR

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquille, G; Carli, C; Chanel, M; Prieto, V; Sautier, R; Tan, J

    2008-01-01

    Electron cooling is central in the preparation of dense bunches of lead beams for the LHC. Ion beam pulses from the LINAC3 are transformed into short highbrightness bunches using multi-turn injection, cooling and accumulation in the Low Energy Ion Ring, LEIR [1]. The cooling process must therefore be continuously monitored in order to guarantee that the lead ions have the required characteristics in terms of beam size and momentum spread. In LEIR a number of systems have been developed to perform these measurements. These include Schottky diagnostics, ionisation profile monitors and scrapers. Along with their associated acquisition and analysis software packages these instruments have proved to be invaluable for the optimisation of the electron cooler.

  20. Cool snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Brock, Steen; Brunsø, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Young people snack and their snacking habits are not always healthy. We address the questions whether it is possible to develop a new snack product that adolescents will find attractive, even though it is based on ingredients as healthy as fruits and vegetables, and we argue that developing...... such a product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...... people's snacking behaviour and then to develop and test new, healthier snacking solutions. These new snacking solutions were tested and found to be favourably accepted by young people. The paper therefore provides a proof of principle that the development of snacks that are both healthy and attractive...

  1. Cool visitors

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Pictured, from left to right: Tim Izo (saxophone, flute, guitar), Bobby Grant (tour manager), George Pajon (guitar). What do the LHC and a world-famous hip-hop group have in common? They are cool! On Saturday, 1st July, before their appearance at the Montreux Jazz Festival, three members of the 'Black Eyed Peas' came on a surprise visit to CERN, inspired by Dan Brown's Angels and Demons. At short notice, Connie Potter (Head of the ATLAS secretariat) organized a guided tour of ATLAS and the AD 'antimatter factory'. Still curious, lead vocalist Will.I.Am met CERN physicist Rolf Landua after the concert to ask many more questions on particles, CERN, and the origin of the Universe.

  2. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

  3. Buprenorphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opiate partial agonists. It works to prevent withdrawal symptoms ... help. If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can't be awakened, ...

  4. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  5. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... haloperidol extended-release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  6. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to decrease the number of asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and ... about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack. If your asthma symptoms get worse or if ...

  7. Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2009-01-01

    The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in 2008. The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on. The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in 2009.

  8. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  9. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  10. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  11. Daptomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work for treating colds, flu, or other viral infections. ...

  12. Ceftaroline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  13. Aztreonam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as aztreonam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  14. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  15. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  16. Cefotetan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotetan injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  17. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  18. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as tigecycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  19. Ertapenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  20. Ceftriaxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.Using ...

  1. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  2. Telavancin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called lipoglycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as telavancin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  3. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  4. Vancomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  5. Octreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carton and protect it from light. Dispose of multi-dose vials of the immediate-release injection 14 ... and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out ...

  6. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using moxifloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  7. Delafloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using delafloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  8. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using levofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  9. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using ciprofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  10. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Alirocumab injection may ...

  11. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibody. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Evolocumab injection may ...

  12. Acyclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  13. Butorphanol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using butorphanol injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  14. Cooled heavy ion beams at the ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, M.; Beckert, K.; Bosch, F.; Eickhoff, H.; Franzke, B.; Klepper, O.; Nolden, F.; Reich, H.; Schlitt, B.; Spaedtke, P.; Winkler, T.

    1996-01-01

    The storage ring ESR has been used in various operational modes for experiments with electron cooled heavy ion beams. Besides the standard storage mode including injection and beam accumulation the deceleration of highly charged ions has been demonstrated. Beams of highly charged ions have been injected and accumulated and finally decelerated to a minimum energy of 50 MeV/u. An ultraslow extraction method using charge changing processes is now also available for cooled beams of highly charged ions. For in ring experiments the internal gas jet and the cold electron beam of the cooling system are applied as targets. High precision mass spectrometry by Schottky noise detection has been demonstrated. Operation at transition energy has been achieved with cooled beams opening the field for experiments which require an isochronous revolution of the ions. (orig.)

  15. Hydraulic analysis of emergency core cooling system of reactor RP-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo Padilla, Alberto; Moreyra, Geraldo Lazaro; Nieto Malpartida, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    For design of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) of reactor RP-10 from Peru is very important the hydraulic analysis of this system. In this paper, based on a basic design of the ECCS are showed the conservation equations, the parabolic movement, being deduced from them the equations to evaluate regarding the time the variables to consider in the design: level of the emergency water in the reserve tank, flow, reaches of sprinkle, etc. In this analysis is considered a quasi-stationary flow for simplify the calculation. The developed model was implemented in a computer program denominated ECCSRP10, in language Fortran 77, whose results are shown in form graph. From analysis of results we can conclude that for the system of pipe of the ECCS the appropriate diameter is of 2 , and that the maximum flow possible to give is of 5 m 3 /h for to assure a minimum time of refrigeration of 150000 seconds. Experimental tests were made in a prototype of the pipe system being demonstrated that the obtained results of the simplified calculation agree with the values registered with a global approach of 10%. (author)

  16. Divertor cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Tadakazu; Hayashi, Katsumi; Handa, Hiroyuki

    1993-01-01

    Cooling water for a divertor cooling system cools the divertor, thereafter, passes through pipelines connecting the exit pipelines of the divertor cooling system and the inlet pipelines of a blanket cooling system and is introduced to the blanket cooling system in a vacuum vessel. It undergoes emission of neutrons, and cooling water in the divertor cooling system containing a great amount of N-16 which is generated by radioactivation of O-16 is introduced to the blanket cooling system in the vacuum vessel by way of pipelines, and after cooling, passes through exit pipelines of the blanket cooling system and is introduced to the outside of the vacuum vessel. Radiation of N-16 in the cooling water is decayed sufficiently with passage of time during cooling of the blanket, thereby enabling to decrease the amount of shielding materials such as facilities and pipelines, and ensure spaces. (N.H.)

  17. WORKSHOP: Beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Cooling - the control of unruly particles to provide well-behaved beams - has become a major new tool in accelerator physics. The main approaches of electron cooling pioneered by Gersh Budker at Novosibirsk and stochastic cooling by Simon van der Meer at CERN, are now complemented by additional ideas, such as laser cooling of ions and ionization cooling of muons

  18. Passive device for emergency core cooling of pressurized water reactors. Pasivno ustrojstvo za bezopasnost na vodo-voden atomen reaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, D

    1984-02-28

    The device proposed ensures additional margin of reactor subcriticality in case of post-accident emergency core cooling (ECC), using concentrated solution of chemical absorber and hot water from the secondary circuit. It consists of: a) a differential cylinder with a differential piston in it, with a lid and a seal, connected to a pipeline for secondary coolant; b) a pipeline for the secondary coolant; c) a volume between the lid and the piston for the secondary coolant from the steam generator; d) a discharge pipeline with a check valve of seal type connecting the inner volume of the differential cylinder to the discharge line; and e) a pipeline from the high-pressure volume of the differential cylinder filled with concentrated chemical absorber solution, to one of the main circulation loops. The device permits ECC innovation of the operating non-standard nuclear power plants with PWR type reactors.

  19. Exxon Nuclear WREM-based NJP-BWR ECCS evaluation model and example application to the Oyster Creek Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krysinski, T.L.; Bjornard, T.A.; Steves, L.H.

    1975-01-01

    A proposed integrated ECCS model for non-jet pump boiling water reactors is presented, using the RELAP4-EM/BLOWDOWN and RELAP4-EM/SMALL BREAK portions of the Exxon Nuclear WREM-based Generic PWR Evaluation Model coupled with the ENC NJP-BWR Fuel Heatup Model. The results of the application of the proposed model to Oyster Creek are summarized. The results of the break size sensitivity study using the proposed model for the Oyster Creek Plant are presented. The application of the above results yielded the MAPLHGR curves. Included are a description of the proposed non-jet pump boiling water reaction evaluation model, justification of its conformance with TOCFR50, Appendix K, the adopted Oyster Creek plant model, and results of the analysis and sensitivity studies. (auth)

  20. Advanced diesel electronic fuel injection and turbocharging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, N. J.; Barkhimer, R. L.; Steinmeyer, D. C.; Kelly, J. E.

    1993-12-01

    The program investigated advanced diesel air charging and fuel injection systems to improve specific power, fuel economy, noise, exhaust emissions, and cold startability. The techniques explored included variable fuel injection rate shaping, variable injection timing, full-authority electronic engine control, turbo-compound cooling, regenerative air circulation as a cold start aid, and variable geometry turbocharging. A Servojet electronic fuel injection system was designed and manufactured for the Cummins VTA-903 engine. A special Servojet twin turbocharger exhaust system was also installed. A series of high speed combustion flame photos was taken using the single cylinder optical engine at Michigan Technological University. Various fuel injection rate shapes and nozzle configurations were evaluated. Single-cylinder bench tests were performed to evaluate regenerative inlet air heating techniques as an aid to cold starting. An exhaust-driven axial cooling air fan was manufactured and tested on the VTA-903 engine.

  1. Renewable Heating And Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  2. Study of Impact Damage in PVA-ECC Beam under Low-Velocity Impact Loading Using Piezoceramic Transducers and PVDF Thin-Film Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Baoxin; Kong, Qingzhao; Qian, Hui; Patil, Devendra; Lim, Ing; Li, Mo; Liu, Dong; Song, Gangbing

    2018-02-24

    Compared to conventional concrete, polyvinyl alcohol fiber reinforced engineering cementitious composite (PVA-ECC) offers high-strength, ductility, formability, and excellent fatigue resistance. However, impact-induced structural damage is a major concern and has not been previously characterized in PVA-ECC structures. We investigate the damage of PVA-ECC beams under low-velocity impact loading. A series of ball-drop impact tests were performed at different drop weights and heights to simulate various impact energies. The impact results of PVA-ECC beams were compared with mortar beams. A combination of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) thin-film sensors and piezoceramic-based smart aggregate were used for impact monitoring, which included impact initiation and crack evolution. Short-time Fourier transform (STFT) of the signal received by PVDF thin-film sensors was performed to identify impact events, while active-sensing approach was utilized to detect impact-induced crack evolution by the attenuation of a propagated guided wave. Wavelet packet-based energy analysis was performed to quantify failure development under repeated impact tests.

  3. Calculations of combined radiation and convection heat transfer in rod bundles under emergency cooling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, K.H.; Gonzalez-Santalo, J.M.; Tien, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    A model has been developed to calculate the heat transfer coefficients from the fuel rods to the steam-droplet mixture typical of Boiling Water Reactors under Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) operation conditions during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The model includes the heat transfer by convection to the vapor, the radiation from the surfaces to both the water droplets and the vapor, and the effects of droplet evaporation. The combined convection and radiation heat transfer coefficient can be evaluated with respect to the characteristic droplet size. Calculations of the heat transfer coefficient based on the droplet sizes obtained from the existing literature are consistent with those determined empirically from the Full-Length-Emergency-Cooling-Heat-Transfer (FLECHT) program. The present model can also be used to assess the effects of geometrical distortions (or deviations from nominal dimensions) on the heat transfer to the cooling medium in a rod bundle

  4. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study.

  5. Teduglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications ... of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  6. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are taking the medication to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the ...

  7. Triptorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puberty too soon, resulting in faster than normal bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in children 2 years and older. Triptorelin injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. It works by decreasing the amount ...

  8. Permeability enhancement by shock cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Luke; Heap, Michael; Reuschlé, Thierry; Baud, Patrick; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The permeability of an efficient reservoir, e.g. a geothermal reservoir, should be sufficient to permit the circulation of fluids. Generally speaking, permeability decreases over the life cycle of the geothermal system. As a result, is usually necessary to artificially maintain and enhance the natural permeability of these systems. One of the methods of enhancement -- studied here -- is thermal stimulation (injecting cold water at low pressure). This goal of this method is to encourage new thermal cracks within the reservoir host rocks, thereby increasing reservoir permeability. To investigate the development of thermal microcracking in the laboratory we selected two granites: a fine-grained (Garibaldi Grey granite, grain size = 0.5 mm) and a course-grained granite (Lanhelin granite, grain size = 2 mm). Both granites have an initial porosity of about 1%. Our samples were heated to a range of temperatures (100-1000 °C) and were either cooled slowly (1 °C/min) or shock cooled (100 °C/s). A systematic microstructural (2D crack area density, using standard stereological techniques, and 3D BET specific surface area measurements) and rock physical property (porosity, P-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, and permeability) analysis was undertaken to understand the influence of slow and shock cooling on our reservoir granites. Microstructurally, we observe that the 2D crack surface area per unit volume and the specific surface area increase as a result of thermal stressing, and, for the same maximum temperature, crack surface area is higher in the shock cooled samples. This observation is echoed by our rock physical property measurements: we see greater changes for the shock cooled samples. We can conclude that shock cooling is an extremely efficient method of generating thermal microcracks and modifying rock physical properties. Our study highlights that thermal treatments are likely to be an efficient method for the "matrix" permeability enhancement of

  9. Cooled Water Production System,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invention refers to the field of air conditioning and regards an apparatus for obtaining cooled water . The purpose of the invention is to develop...such a system for obtaining cooled water which would permit the maximum use of the cooling effect of the water -cooling tower.

  10. Process fluid cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system of heat exchangers is disclosed for cooling process fluids. The system is particularly applicable to cooling steam generator blowdown fluid in a nuclear plant prior to chemical purification of the fluid in which it minimizes the potential of boiling of the plant cooling water which cools the blowdown fluid

  11. Performance Evaluation of the Concept of Hybrid Heat Pipe as Passive In-core Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Bang, In Cheol

    2015-01-01

    As an arising issue for inherent safety of nuclear power plant, the concept of hybrid heat pipe as passive in-core cooling systems was introduced. Hybrid heat pipe has unique features that it is inserted in core directly to remove decay heat from nuclear fuel without any changes of structures of existing facilities of nuclear power plant, substituting conventional control rod. Hybrid heat pipe consists of metal cladding, working fluid, wick structure, and neutron absorber. Same with working principle of the heat pipe, heat is transported by phase change of working fluid inside metal cask. Figure 1 shows the systematic design of the hybrid heat pipe cooling system. In this study, the concept of a hybrid heat pipe was introduced as a Passive IN-core Cooling Systems (PINCs) and demonstrated for internal design features of heat pipe containing neutron absorber. Using a commercial CFD code, single hybrid heat pipe model was analyzed to evaluate thermal performance in designated operating condition. Also, 1-dimensional reactor transient analysis was done by calculating temperature change of the coolant inside reactor pressure vessel using MATLAB. As a passive decay heat removal device, hybrid heat pipe was suggested with a concept of combination of heat pipe and control rod. Hybrid heat pipe has distinct feature that it can be a unique solution to cool the reactor when depressurization process is impossible so that refueling water cannot be injected into RPV by conventional ECCS. It contains neutron absorber material inside heat pipe, so it can stop the reactor and at the same time, remove decay heat in core. For evaluating the concept of hybrid heat pipe, its thermal performance was analyzed using CFD and one-dimensional transient analysis. From single hybrid heat pipe simulation, the hybrid heat pipe can transport heat from the core inside to outside about 18.20 kW, and total thermal resistance of hybrid heat pipe is 0.015 .deg. C/W. Due to unique features of long heat

  12. Ionization cooling ring for muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palmer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Practical ionization cooling rings could lead to lower cost or improved performance in neutrino factory or muon collider designs. The ring modeled here uses realistic three-dimensional fields. The performance of the ring compares favorably with the linear cooling channel used in the second U.S. Neutrino Factory Study. The normalized 6D emittance of an ideal ring is decreased by a factor of approximately 240, compared with a factor of only 15 for the linear channel. We also examine such real-world effects as windows on the absorbers and rf cavities and leaving empty lattice cells for injection and extraction. For realistic conditions the ring decreases the normalized 6D emittance by a factor of 49.

  13. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  14. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC; Johnson, Thomas Edward [Greer, SC; Lacy, Benjamin Paul [Greer, SC; Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Simpsonville, SC

    2011-02-15

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  15. Emergency core cooling system sump chemical effects on strainer head loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.K.; Qiu, L.; Guzonas, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical precipitates formed in the recovery water following a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) have the potential to increase head loss across the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) strainer, and could lead to cavitation of the ECCS pumps, pump failure and loss of core cooling. AECL, as a strainer vendor and research organization, has been involved in the investigation of chemical effects on head loss for its CANDU® and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) customers. The chemical constituents of the recovery sump water depend on the combination of chemistry control additives and the corrosion and dissolution products from metals, concrete, and insulation materials. Some of these dissolution and corrosion products (e.g., aluminum and calcium) may form significant quantities of precipitates. The presence of chemistry control additives such as sodium hydroxide, trisodium phosphate and boric acid can significantly influence the precipitates formed. While a number of compounds may be shown to be thermodynamically possible under the conditions assumed for precipitation, kinetic factors play a large role in the morphology of precipitates. Precipitation is also influenced by insulation debris, which can trap precipitates and act as nucleation sites for heterogeneous precipitation. This paper outlines the AECL approach to resolving the issue of chemical effects on ECCS strainer head loss, which included modeling, bench top testing and reduced-scale testing; the latter conducted using a temperature-controlled variable-flow closed-loop test rig that included an AECL Finned Strainer® test section equipped with a differential pressure transmitter. Models of corrosion product release and the effects of precipitates on head loss will also be presented. Finally, this paper discusses the precipitates found in test debris beds and presents a possible method for chemical effects head loss modeling. (author)

  16. A methodology for the estimation of release of fission products during LOCA with loss of ECCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lele, H.G.; Majumdar, P.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Gupta, S.K.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2002-01-01

    A Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a nuclear reactor along with the failure of the Emergency Core Cooling System can cause sustained voiding of the core. In such a situation the core experiences very low flow which leads to poor heat removal from the reactor core. The heat to be removed from the core includes stored heat, heat generated due to metal water reaction at high temperatures, decay heat etc. The poor heat removal leads to heating of the fuel pins to high temperatures. The heating of fuel pins is further enhanced due to metal-water reaction at high temperatures. These high temperatures of the fuel pins can lead to fission product release, which is transported into the Primary Heat Transport (PHT) system and can enter the containment through the break. Analysis is involved due to the complexity of the system and the phenomena to be simulated. In this paper a multistage analysis methodology is presented that involves the development and application of a number of computer programs to model the various phenomena involved. The computer code PHTACT computes the activity release from the fuel as a function of fuel temperatures and cladding oxidation, its distribution into the PHT system and release into the containment. Computation of thermal hydraulic parameters during LOCA is done using the thermal hydraulic analysis code RELAP5. The detailed simulation of fuel pin temperatures is done using computer code HT/MOD4. The convective boundary conditions required for the code are obtained from RELAP5. Creep deformation is considered in the computation of dimensional changes of the coolant channel and estimation of flow blockage due to clad ballooning. The progression of various reaction layers due to high temperature reaction between fuel and clad and clad and steam is also computed, which affects the structural strength of the clad. Different approaches are possible and analysis can be carried out in different phases depending upon the complexities to be

  17. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Akira; Kobayashi, Masahide.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To enable a stable operation of an emergency core cooling system by preventing the system from the automatic stopping at an abnormally high level of the reactor water during its operation. Constitution: A pump flow rate signal and a reactor water level signal are used and, when the reactor water level is increased to a predetermined level, the pump flow rate is controlled by the reactor water level signal instead of the flow rate signal. Specifically, when the reactor water level is gradually increased by the water injection from the pump and exceeds a setting signal for the water level, the water level deviation signal acts as a demand signal for the decrease in the flow rate of the pump and the output signal from the water level controller is also decreased depending on the control constant. At a certain point, the output signal from the water level controller becomes smaller than the output signal from the flow rate controller. Thus, the output signal from the water level controller is outputted as the output signal for the lower level preference device. In this way, the reactor water level and the pump flow rate can be controlled within a range not exceeding the predetermined pump flow rate. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Restaurant Food Cooling Practices†

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROWN, LAURA GREEN; RIPLEY, DANNY; BLADE, HENRY; REIMANN, DAVE; EVERSTINE, KAREN; NICHOLAS, DAVE; EGAN, JESSICA; KOKTAVY, NICOLE; QUILLIAM, DANIELA N.

    2017-01-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study. PMID:23212014

  19. Summary of CCTF test results - assessment of current safety evaluation analysis on reflood behaviour during a LOCA in a PWR with cold-leg-injection-type ECCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Tadashi; Murao, Yoshio; Sugimoto, Jun; Akimoto, Hajime; Okubo, Tsutomu; Hojo, Tsuneyuki

    1988-01-01

    The conservatism of the current safety analysis was assessed by comparing the predicted results with cylindrical core test facility (CCTF) test results performed at JAERI. The WREM code was selected for the assessment. The overall conservatism of the WREM code on the peak clad temperature prediction was confirmed against CCTF EM test which simulated the typical initial and boundary conditions in the safety evaluation analysis. The WREM code predicted the reasonable core boundary conditions and the conservatism of the code came mainly from the core calculation. The conservatism of the WREM code against CCTF data could be attributed to the following three points: (i) no horizontal mixing assumption between subchannels at each elevation, (ii) no modeling on heat transfer enhancement caused by the radial core power profile, (iii) usage of conservative heat transfer correlations in the code. (orig./HP)

  20. Optimization of Injection Moulding Process Parameters in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem ... Cooling time was found to be the factor with most significant effect on ... Keywords: High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Injection Moulding, Process .... value of shrinkage behavior is expected to be.

  1. Risk-Informed Margin Management (RIMM) Industry Applications IA1 - Integrated Cladding ECCS/LOCA Performance Analysis - Problem Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frepoli, Cesare [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yurko, Joseph P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swindlehurst, Gregg [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bayless, Paul D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The U. S. NRC is currently proposing rulemaking designated as “10 CFR 50.46c” to revise the LOCA/ECCS acceptance criteria to include the effects of higher burnup on cladding performance as well as to address some other issues. The NRC is also currently resolving the public comments with the final rule expected to be issued in the summer of 2016. The impact of the final 50.46c rule on the industry will involve updating of fuel vendor LOCA evaluation models, NRC review and approval, and licensee submittal of new LOCA evaluations or reanalyses and associated technical specification revisions for NRC review and approval. The rule implementation process, both industry and NRC activities, is expected to take 5-10 years following the rule effective date. The need to use advanced cladding designs is expected. A loss of operational margin will result due to the more restrictive cladding embrittlement criteria. Initial and future compliance with the rule may significantly increase vendor workload and licensee cost as a spectrum of fuel rod initial burnup states may need to be analyzed to demonstrate compliance. Consequently there will be an increased focus on licensee decision making related to LOCA analysis to minimize cost and impact, and to manage margin.

  2. A photographic portrait of Father Benignus Wanat, discalced Carmelite, with Christ’s head Ecce Homo in the background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Platowska-Sapetowa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This photographic memory of the late Father Benignus Józef Wanat OCD is based upon a high quality photo, anonymously posted and found accidentally on Facebook on 11 April 2013 after his funeral. Investigations established that the photographer, Jacek Praśkiewicz, is a photographer from Kielce. Additionally, the work includes a descriptive analysis of various aspects of several works of art: a psycho-physical description of the character portrayed its settings and lighting, a description of the ceremonial costume used and its symbolic elements. It has been established that the photo was taken at a celebration of an anniversary held on 12 December 2008. What is crucial to emphasise is this: the relationship of the portrayed person (Fr Benignus Józef Wanat OCD with the portrait’s background, which uses a fragmented image of Christ Ecce Homo, which is of unknown provenance. This latter aspect included a description of the work which is very important, because it shows the supporting facts taken from the biography of Father Benignus, corroborated by the statements of witnesses, of his imitative attitude to Christ, in relation to God-Man suffering in humble silence and bringing aid to his fellow human even to the extent of the sacrifice of his life. [Translatio by Fr E. Wanat SDS

  3. Study on safety analysis of VVER-1200/V491 in scenario of Loss of Coolant Accidents along with partly failure of ECCS using RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Minh Giang; Ha Thi Anh Dao; Hoang Tan Hung; Bui Thi Hoa; Nguyen Thi Tu Oanh; Dinh Anh Tuan; Pham Tuan Nam

    2017-01-01

    The advanced VVER-1200/V491 reactor designed with passive safety systems to deal with design extension conditions is primarily selected as priority candidate for Ninh Thuan 1 nuclear power plant project. So that, in order to enhance competence of nuclear safety and toward participation on review Safety Analysis Report (SAR) of Ninh Thuan nuclear Power project the study on safety analysis of VVER-1200/V491 in scenario of Loss of Coolant Accidents along with partly failure of ECCS is implemented. As requirement of the study, the input deck file of VVER-1200/V491 for RELAP5 and analysis report for some special case of LOCAs along with partly failure of ECCS are issued. (author)

  4. Verification of LOCA/ECCS analysis codes ALARM-B2 and THYDE-B1 by comparison with RELAP4/MOD6/U4/J3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Takashi

    1982-08-01

    For a verification study of ALARM-B2 code and THYDE-B1 code which are the component of the JAERI code system for evaluation of BWR ECCS performance, calculations for typical small and large break LOCA in BWR were done, and compared with those by RELAP4/MOD6/U4/J3 code. This report describes the influences of differences between the analytical models incorporated in the individual code and the problems identified by this verification study. (author)

  5. JUELICH: COSY acceleration and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The COSY cooler synchrotron at the KFA Forschungszentrum Jülich, inaugurated on 1 April, is now well on its way towards precision-defined high energy beams to open new fields for Jülich physics experiments. In two important goals, on 25 May the first beam cooled by electrons circulated inside the accelerator, then on 25 July physicists succeeded in accelerating the beam from the 270 MeV/c injection momentum to 600 MeV. Shortly after, this was pushed well above 1 GeV. Throughout the tuning process the number of stored particles increased steadily, finally peaking at 1.1 x 10 11 , a value compatible with the predicted limit at the injection energy. This success was the result of a painstaking search for the optimum parameter set, the commissioning crew being acutely aware that bringing such a large machine on line was a major experiment in its own right. The 3.3 GeV/c COSY machine belongs to the new class of hadron storage and cooler synchrotrons which started with CERN's LEAR low energy antiproton ring. COSY will 'sharpen' its beams to a narrow momentum spread using both electron and stochastic cooling to control the circulating particles. In addition it will provide space for internal experiments. Both features will allow for novel experimental approaches, and more than 100 physicists are eagerly waiting for the first proton reactions in their detectors

  6. Water cooling coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S; Ito, Y; Kazawa, Y

    1975-02-05

    Object: To provide a water cooling coil in a toroidal nuclear fusion device, in which coil is formed into a small-size in section so as not to increase dimensions, weight or the like of machineries including the coil. Structure: A conductor arranged as an outermost layer of a multiple-wind water cooling coil comprises a hollow conductor, which is directly cooled by fluid, and as a consequence, a solid conductor disposed interiorly thereof is cooled indirectly.

  7. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while measures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices were inadequately carried out. Lack of job aid posters that promote safe injection and safe disposal of ...

  8. The Cool Colors Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, second from left, a sample from the Cool Colors Project, a roof product ) (Jeff Chiu - AP) more Cool Colors make the front page of The Sacramento Bee (3rd highest circulation newspaper in California) on 14 August 2006! Read the article online or as a PDF. The Cool Colors Project

  9. Cooling off with physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Chris [Unilever R and D (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    You might think of ice cream as a delicious treat to be enjoyed on a sunny summer's day. However, to the ice-cream scientists who recently gathered in Thessaloniki in Greece for the 2nd International Ice Cream Symposium, it is a complex composite material. Ice cream consists of three dispersed phases: ice crystals, which have a mean size of 50 microns, air bubbles with a diameter of about 70 microns, and fat droplets with a size of 1 micron. These phases are held together by what is called the matrix - not a sci-fi film, but a viscous solution of sugars, milk proteins and polysaccharides. The microstructure, and hence the texture that you experience when you eat ice cream, is created in a freezing process that has remained fundamentally unchanged since the first ice-cream maker was patented in the 1840s. The ingredients - water, milk protein, fat, sugar, emulsifiers, stabilizers, flavours and a lot of air - are mixed together before being pasteurized and homogenized. They are then pumped into a cylinder that is cooled from the outside with a refrigerant. As the mixture touches the cylinder wall it freezes and forms ice crystals, which are quickly scraped off by a rotating blade. The blade is attached to a beater that disperses the ice crystals into the mixture. At the same time, air is injected and broken down into small bubbles by the shear that the beater generates. As the mixture passes along the cylinder, the number of ice crystals increases and its temperature drops. As a result, the viscosity of the mixture increases, so that more energy input is needed to rotate the beater. This energy is dissipated as heat, and when the ice cream reaches about -6 deg. C the energy input through the beater equals the energy removed as heat by the refrigerant. The process therefore becomes self-limiting and it is not possible to cool the ice cream any further. However, at -6 deg. C the microstructure is unstable. The ice cream therefore has to be removed from the freezer

  10. Performance study of ejector cooling cycle at critical mode under superheated primary flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashtoush, Bourhan; Alshare, Aiman; Al-Rifai, Saja

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The ECC is modeled using EES Software and it is validated with published data. • Detailed analysis of the ECC with different refrigerants is conducted. • The constant pressure mixing is better than constant area mixing ejectors. • R134a is the selected refrigerant for the best cooling cycle performance. • The superheated primary flow at critical mode is achieved with EJ2 ejector used. - Abstract: In this work the performance of the ejector cooling cycle is investigated at critical mode, where, the effects of ejector geometry, refrigerant type, and operating condition are studied. The ejector cooling cycle is modeled with EES Software. The mass, momentum, and energy conservation principles are applied to the secondary and primary flows to investigate the performance of the ejector cooling cycle under superheated primary flow. The refrigerant R134 a is selected based on the merit of its environmental and performance characteristics. The primary working fluid in the refrigeration cycle is maintained at superheated conditions for optimal ejector performance. The solar generator temperature ranges are 80–100 °C. The operating temperature of evaporator range is 8–12 °C and the optimal condensation temperature is in the range of 28–40 °C. It is found that constant-pressure mixing ejector generates higher backpressure than constant-area mixing ejector for the same entrainment ratio and COP. The type of ejector is selected based on the performance criteria of the critical backpressure and choking condition of the primary flow, the so called EJ2 type ejector meets the criteria. The COP is found to be in the range of 0.59–0.67 at condenser backpressure of 24 bar due to higher critical condenser pressure and higher generator temperature

  11. Cooling water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  12. Simulation of the injection system of cooling water to low pressure (Lpci) for a boiling water reactor (BWR) based on RELAP; Simulacion del sistema de inyeccion de agua de refrigeracion a baja presion (LPCI) para un reactor de agua en ebullicion (BWR) basado en RELAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado C, R. A.; Lopez S, E.; Chavez M, C., E-mail: renedelgado2015@hotmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito Interior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The present article describes the modeling and simulation of the Injection System of Cooling Water to Low Pressure (Lpci) for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. Is very important to be able to predict the behavior of the nuclear plant in the case of an emergency stop, and while nearer to the reality are the results of a simulation, better is the safety protocol that can be devised. In the Engineering Faculty of the UNAM at the present is had logical models of the safety systems, but due to the nature of the same, these simulations do not provide of the quantity of enough information to be able to reproduce with more accuracy the behavior of the Lpci in the case of a severe accident. For this reason, the RELAP code was used for the flows modeling, components and structures of heat transfers in relation to the system Lpci. The modeling of the components is carried out with base on technical information of the nuclear plant and the results will be corroborated with information in reference documents as the Rasp (the Reactor analysis support package) and the Fsar (Final safety analysis report) for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. (Author)

  13. Cooling tower calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonkova, J.

    1988-01-01

    The problems are summed up of the dynamic calculation of cooling towers with forced and natural air draft. The quantities and relations are given characterizing the simultaneous exchange of momentum, heat and mass in evaporative water cooling by atmospheric air in the packings of cooling towers. The method of solution is clarified in the calculation of evaporation criteria and thermal characteristics of countercurrent and cross current cooling systems. The procedure is demonstrated of the calculation of cooling towers, and correction curves and the effect assessed of the operating mode at constant air number or constant outlet air volume flow on their course in ventilator cooling towers. In cooling towers with the natural air draft the flow unevenness is assessed of water and air relative to its effect on the resulting cooling efficiency of the towers. The calculation is demonstrated of thermal and resistance response curves and cooling curves of hydraulically unevenly loaded towers owing to the water flow rate parameter graded radially by 20% along the cross-section of the packing. Flow rate unevenness of air due to wind impact on the outlet air flow from the tower significantly affects the temperatures of cooled water in natural air draft cooling towers of a design with lower demands on aerodynamics, as early as at wind velocity of 2 m.s -1 as was demonstrated on a concrete example. (author). 11 figs., 10 refs

  14. CFD Analysis of the Safety Injection Tank and Fluidic Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Oan; Nietiadi, Yohanes Setiawan; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Addad, Yacine [KUSTAR, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-05-15

    One of the most important components in the ECCS is the safety injection tank (SIT). Inside the SIT, a fluidic device is installed, which passively controls the mass flow of the safety injection and eliminates the need for low pressure safety injection pumps. As more passive safety mechanisms are being pursued, it has become more important to understand flow structure and the loss mechanism within the fluidic device. Current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations have had limited success in predicting the fluid flow accurately. This study proposes to find a more exact result using CFD and more realistic modeling to predict the performance during accident scenarios more accurately. The safety injection tank with fluidic device was analyzed thoroughly using CFD. The preliminary calculation used 60,000 meshes for the initial test calculation. The results fit the experimental results surprisingly despite its coarse grid. Nonetheless, the mesh resolution was increased to capture the vortex in the fluidic device precisely. Once a detailed CFD computation is finished, a small-scale experiment will be conducted for the given conditions. Using the experimental results and the CFD model, physical models can be improved to fit the results more accurately.

  15. Optimization of injection moulding process parameters in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, optimal injection moulding conditions for minimum shrinkage during moulding of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) were obtained by Taguchi method. The result showed that melting temperature of 190OC, injection pressure of 55 MPa, refilling pressure of 85 MPa and cooling time of 11 seconds gave ...

  16. Compartmentalized safety coolant injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    A safety coolant injection system for nuclear reactors wherein a core reflood tank is provided to afford more reliable reflooding of the reactor core in the event of a break in one of the reactor coolant supply loops. Each reactor coolant supply loop is arranged in a separate compartment in the containment structure to contain and control the flow of spilled coolant so as to permit its use during emergency core cooling procedures. A spillway allows spilled coolant in the compartment to pass into the emergency water storage tank from where it can be pumped back to the reactor vessel. (author)

  17. Laser cooling of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushkin, S V

    2009-01-01

    Laser cooling is an important emerging technology in such areas as the cooling of semiconductors. The book examines and suggests solutions for a range of problems in the development of miniature solid-state laser refrigerators, self-cooling solid-state lasers and optical echo-processors. It begins by looking at the basic theory of laser cooling before considering such topics as self-cooling of active elements of solid-state lasers, laser cooling of solid-state information media of optical echo-processors, and problems of cooling solid-state quantum processors. Laser Cooling of Solids is an important contribution to the development of compact laser-powered cryogenic refrigerators, both for the academic community and those in the microelectronics and other industries. Provides a timely review of this promising field of research and discusses the fundamentals and theory of laser cooling Particular attention is given to the physics of cooling processes and the mathematical description of these processes Reviews p...

  18. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... sures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene ... injection practices lead to high prevalence of NSSIs in operating rooms. .... guidelines, the availability of training courses to HCWs, and provi-.

  19. ECCS control circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To afford a sufficient margin to pressure vibrations upon starting of an automatic depressurization system by dispersing pressure vibration in suppression water due to the opening action of an automatic releaf valve in the automatic depressurization system thereby reducing the dynamic load exerted to the surface of the suppression walls. Constitution: Upon occurrence of loss of coolant accidents, an automatic releaf valve for automatic depressurization is opened to deliver the steams in the pressure vessel into the suppression pool. Since a plurality of automatic releaf valves have usually been disposed, if they are opened simultaneously, excess dynamic loads are exerted due to the pressure vibrations to the wall surface of the suppression pool. In this invention, a control circuit is disposed such that the opening timing for each of the automatic releaf valves is deviated upon occurrence of a driving signal for the automatic depressurization system to thereby disperse the pressure vibrations in the suppression water. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...... cooling system that includes such considerations as thermal comfort of the occupants, which design parameters will influence the cooling capacity and how the system should be controlled. Examples of applications are presented....

  1. The cooling of particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1994-10-01

    A review is given of the various methods which can be employed for cooling particle beams. These methods include radiation damping, stimulated radiation damping, ionization cooling, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, laser cooling, and laser cooling with beam coupling. Laser Cooling has provided beams of the lowest temperatures, namely 1 mK, but only for ions and only for the longitudinal temperature. Recent theoretical work has suggested how laser cooling, with the coupling of beam motion, can be used to reduce the ion beam temperature in all three directions. The majority of this paper is devoted to describing laser cooling and laser cooling with beam coupling

  2. Analysis of film cooling in rocket nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Keith A.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings on the NASA contract NAG8-212, Task No. 3. The overall project consists of three tasks, all of which have been successfully completed. In addition, some supporting supplemental work, not required by the contract, has been performed and is documented herein. Task 1 involved the modification of the wall functions in the code FDNS (Finite Difference Navier-Stokes) to use a Reynolds Analogy-based method. This task was completed in August, 1992. Task 2 involved the verification of the code against experimentally available data. The data chosen for comparison was from an experiment involving the injection of helium from a wall jet. Results obtained in completing this task also show the sensitivity of the FDNS code to unknown conditions at the injection slot. This task was completed in September, 1992. Task 3 required the computation of the flow of hot exhaust gases through the P&W 40K subscale nozzle. Computations were performed both with and without film coolant injection. This task was completed in July, 1993. The FDNS program tends to overpredict heat fluxes, but, with suitable modeling of backside cooling, may give reasonable wall temperature predictions. For film cooling in the P&W 40K calorimeter subscale nozzle, the average wall temperature is reduced from 1750R to about 1050R by the film cooling. The average wall heat flux is reduced by a factor of 3.

  3. Turbine airfoil cooling system with cooling systems using high and low pressure cooling fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Messmann, Stephen John; Scribner, Carmen Andrew

    2017-10-25

    A turbine airfoil cooling system including a low pressure cooling system and a high pressure cooling system for a turbine airfoil of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, the low pressure cooling system may be an ambient air cooling system, and the high pressure cooling system may be a compressor bleed air cooling system. In at least one embodiment, the compressor bleed air cooling system in communication with a high pressure subsystem that may be a snubber cooling system positioned within a snubber. A delivery system including a movable air supply tube may be used to separate the low and high pressure cooling subsystems. The delivery system may enable high pressure cooling air to be passed to the snubber cooling system separate from low pressure cooling fluid supplied by the low pressure cooling system to other portions of the turbine airfoil cooling system.

  4. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Philip Albert; Lindberg, Frank A.; Garcen, Walter

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  5. Semioptimal practicable algorithmic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

    2011-01-01

    Algorithmic cooling (AC) of spins applies entropy manipulation algorithms in open spin systems in order to cool spins far beyond Shannon's entropy bound. Algorithmic cooling of nuclear spins was demonstrated experimentally and may contribute to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Several cooling algorithms were suggested in recent years, including practicable algorithmic cooling (PAC) and exhaustive AC. Practicable algorithms have simple implementations, yet their level of cooling is far from optimal; exhaustive algorithms, on the other hand, cool much better, and some even reach (asymptotically) an optimal level of cooling, but they are not practicable. We introduce here semioptimal practicable AC (SOPAC), wherein a few cycles (typically two to six) are performed at each recursive level. Two classes of SOPAC algorithms are proposed and analyzed. Both attain cooling levels significantly better than PAC and are much more efficient than the exhaustive algorithms. These algorithms are shown to bridge the gap between PAC and exhaustive AC. In addition, we calculated the number of spins required by SOPAC in order to purify qubits for quantum computation. As few as 12 and 7 spins are required (in an ideal scenario) to yield a mildly pure spin (60% polarized) from initial polarizations of 1% and 10%, respectively. In the latter case, about five more spins are sufficient to produce a highly pure spin (99.99% polarized), which could be relevant for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

  6. Injection Molding Parameters Calculations by Using Visual Basic (VB) Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony, B. Jain A. R.; Karthikeyen, S.; Alex, B. Jeslin A. R.; Hasan, Z. Jahid Ali

    2018-03-01

    Now a day’s manufacturing industry plays a vital role in production sectors. To fabricate a component lot of design calculation has to be done. There is a chance of human errors occurs during design calculations. The aim of this project is to create a special module using visual basic (VB) programming to calculate injection molding parameters to avoid human errors. To create an injection mold for a spur gear component the following parameters have to be calculated such as Cooling Capacity, Cooling Channel Diameter, and Cooling Channel Length, Runner Length and Runner Diameter, Gate Diameter and Gate Pressure. To calculate the above injection molding parameters a separate module has been created using Visual Basic (VB) Programming to reduce the human errors. The outcome of the module dimensions is the injection molding components such as mold cavity and core design, ejector plate design.

  7. Injection Laryngoplasty Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Haldun Oðuz

    2013-01-01

    Injection laryngoplasty is one of the treatment options for voice problems. In the recent years, more safe and more biocompatible injection materials are available on the market. Long and short term injection materials are discussed in this review.

  8. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to ... early in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of ...

  9. Facility for electron cooling experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budker, G.I.; Dikanskij, N.S.; Kudelajnen, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    The NAP-M proton storage ring intended for electron cooling experiments is described. The NAP-M magnetic system comprises four bending magnets and eight correction elements. located at the ends of rectilinear gaps. An electron beam facility is located in one of the rectilinear gaps. An 1.5 MeV electrostatic accelerator is used as a proton injector. The NAP-M accelerating system includes a driving generator, a power amplifier and a resonator. The proton beam lifetime (at the RF-system switched-off) up to 7 s has been obtained at the NAP-N at the injection energy, and up to 600 s at 65 MeV and the proton current of 120 μA

  10. Twenty-third water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 3, structural and seismic engineering, primary systems integrity, equipment operability and aging, ECCS strainer blockage research and regulatory issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty- Third Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 23-25, 1995. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. This document, Volume 3, presents topics in Structural & Seismic Engineering, Primary Systems Integrity, Equipment Operability and Aging, and ECCS Strainer Blockage Research & Regulatory Issues. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  11. Twenty-third water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 3, structural and seismic engineering, primary systems integrity, equipment operability and aging, ECCS strainer blockage research and regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1996-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty- Third Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 23-25, 1995. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. This document, Volume 3, presents topics in Structural ampersand Seismic Engineering, Primary Systems Integrity, Equipment Operability and Aging, and ECCS Strainer Blockage Research ampersand Regulatory Issues. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  12. Hydraulic analysis of emergency core cooling system of reactor RP-10; Analisis hidraulico del sistema de refrigeracion de emergencia del nucleo del reactor RP-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo Padilla, Alberto; Moreyra, Geraldo Lazaro; Nieto Malpartida, Manuel [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)]. E-mail: agallardo@ipen.gob.pe; glazaro@ipen.gob.pe; mnieto@ipen.gob.pe

    2002-07-01

    For design of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) of reactor RP-10 from Peru is very important the hydraulic analysis of this system. In this paper, based on a basic design of the ECCS are showed the conservation equations, the parabolic movement, being deduced from them the equations to evaluate regarding the time the variables to consider in the design: level of the emergency water in the reserve tank, flow, reaches of sprinkle, etc. In this analysis is considered a quasi-stationary flow for simplify the calculation. The developed model was implemented in a computer program denominated ECCSRP10, in language Fortran 77, whose results are shown in form graph. From analysis of results we can conclude that for the system of pipe of the ECCS the appropriate diameter is of 2 in., and that the maximum flow possible to give is of 5 m{sup 3}/h for to assure a minimum time of refrigeration of 150000 seconds. Experimental tests were made in a prototype of the pipe system being demonstrated that the obtained results of the simplified calculation agree with the values registered with a global approach of 10%. (author)

  13. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  14. Solar absorption cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    As the world concerns more and more on global climate changes and depleting energy resources, solar cooling technology receives increasing interests from the public as an environment-friendly and sustainable alternative. However, making a competitive solar cooling machine for the market still

  15. Gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakilian, M.

    1977-05-01

    The present study is the second part of a general survey of Gas Cooled Reactors (GCRs). In this part, the course of development, overall performance and present development status of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTCRs) and advances of HTGR systems are reviewed. (author)

  16. Coherent electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  17. Technical specification improvements to containment heat removal and emergency core cooling systems: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, W.P.; Ha, C.; Pentzien, D.C.; Visweswaran, S.

    1988-07-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis for technical specification improvements to the emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) and containment heat removal systems (EPRI Research Project 2142-3). The objective of this project is to further develop a reliability- and risk-based methodology to provide improvements by considering groups of surveillance test intervals and allowed out-of-service times jointly. This was done for the technical specifications for the ECCS, containment heat removal equipment, and supporting systems of a boiling water reactor plant. The project (1) developed a methodology for optimizing groups of surveillance test intervals and allowed out-of-service times jointly, (2) applied the methodology in a case study of a specific operating plant, Hatch-2, and (3) evaluated benefits of the application. The results of the case study demonstrate that beneficial technical specification improvements can be realized with application of the methodology. By tightening a small group of sensitive surveillance test intervals (STIs) and allowed out-of-service times (AOTs), a larger group of less sensitive STIs and AOTs can be extended resulting in an overall plant operating cost improvement without reducing the plant safety. The reliability- and risk-based methodology and results from this project can be effectively applied for technical specification improvements at other operating plants

  18. Charge exchange cooling in the tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, B. Grant

    1978-01-01

    Method and apparatus for cooling a plasma of warm charged species confined in the center mirror cell of the tandem mirror apparatus by injecting cold neutral species of the plasma into at least one mirroring region of the center mirror cell, the cooling due to the loss of warm charged species through charge exchange with the cold neutral species with resulting diffusion of the warm neutral species out of the plasma.

  19. Charge exchange cooling in the tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for cooling a plasma confined in the center mirror cell of the tandem mirror apparatus by injecting cold neutral species of the plasma into at least one mirroring region of the center mirror cell. The cooling is due to the loss of warm charged species through charge exchange with the cold neutral species with resulting diffusion of the warm neutral species out of the plasma

  20. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriner, J.

    1986-08-01

    The topics discussed are the stochastic cooling systems in use at Fermilab and some of the techniques that have been employed to meet the particular requirements of the anti-proton source. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab became of paramount importance about 5 years ago when the anti-proton source group at Fermilab abandoned the electron cooling ring in favor of a high flux anti-proton source which relied solely on stochastic cooling to achieve the phase space densities necessary for colliding proton and anti-proton beams. The Fermilab systems have constituted a substantial advance in the techniques of cooling including: large pickup arrays operating at microwave frequencies, extensive use of cryogenic techniques to reduce thermal noise, super-conducting notch filters, and the development of tools for controlling and for accurately phasing the system

  1. Cooled-Spool Piston Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed cooled-spool piston compressor driven by hydraulic power and features internal cooling of piston by flowing hydraulic fluid to limit temperature of compressed gas. Provides sufficient cooling for higher compression ratios or reactive gases. Unlike conventional piston compressors, all parts of compressed gas lie at all times within relatively short distance of cooled surface so that gas cooled more effectively.

  2. Reactor core cooling device for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Masahiko.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a reactor core cooling facility upon rupture of pipelines in a BWR type nuclear power plant. That is, when rupture of pipelines should occur in the reactor container, an releasing safety valve operates instantly and then a depressurization valve operates to depressurize the inside of a reactor pressure vessel. Further, an injection valve of cooling water injection pipelines is opened and cooling water is injected to cool the reactor core from the time when the pressure is lowered to a level capable of injecting water to the pressure vessel by the static water head of a pool water as a water source. Further, steams released from the pressure vessel and steams in the pressure vessel are condensed in a high pressure/low pressure emergency condensation device and the inside of the reactor container is depressurized and cooled. When the reactor is isolated, since the steams in the pressure vessel are condensed in the state that the steam supply valve and the return valve of a steam supply pipelines are opened and a vent valve is closed, the reactor can be maintained safely. (I.S.)

  3. Cortical inactivation by cooling in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben eCoomber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Reversible inactivation of the cortex by surface cooling is a powerful method for studying the function of a particular area. Implanted cooling cryoloops have been used to study the role of individual cortical areas in auditory processing of awake-behaving cats. Cryoloops have also been used in rodents for reversible inactivation of the cortex, but recently there has been a concern that the cryoloop may also cool non-cortical structures either directly or via the perfusion of blood, cooled as it passed close to the cooling loop. In this study we have confirmed that the loop can inactivate most of the auditory cortex without causing a significant reduction in temperature of the auditory thalamus or other sub-cortical structures. We placed a cryoloop on the surface of the guinea pig cortex, cooled it to 2°C and measured thermal gradients across the neocortical surface. We found that the temperature dropped to 20-24°C among cells within a radius of about 2.5mm away from the loop. This temperature drop was sufficient to reduce activity of most cortical cells and led to the inactivation of almost the entire auditory region. When the temperature of thalamus, midbrain, and middle ear were measured directly during cortical cooling, there was a small drop in temperature (about 4°C but this was not sufficient to directly reduce neural activity. In an effort to visualise the extent of neural inactivation we measured the uptake of thallium ions following an intravenous injection. This confirmed that there was a large reduction of activity across much of the ipsilateral cortex and only a small reduction in subcortical structures.

  4. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  5. Dry well cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki.

    1997-01-01

    A plurality of blowing ports with introduction units are disposed to a plurality of ducts in a dry well, and a cooling unit comprising a cooler, a blower and an isolating valve is disposed outside of the dry well. Cooling air and the atmosphere in the dry well are mixed to form a cooling gas and blown into the dry well to control the temperature. Since the cooling unit is disposed outside of the dry well, the maintenance of the cooling unit can be performed even during the plant operation. In addition, since dampers opened/closed depending on the temperature of the atmosphere are disposed to the introduction units for controlling the temperature of the cooling gas, the temperature of the atmosphere in the dry well can be set to a predetermined level rapidly. Since an axial flow blower is used as the blower of the cooling unit, it can be contained in a ventilation cylinder. Then, the atmosphere in the dry well flowing in the ventilation cylinder can be prevented from leaking to the outside. (N.H.)

  6. Nietzsche como destino da filosofia e da humanidade? interpretação contextual do § 1 do capítulo "por que sou um destino", de ecce homo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Stegmaier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following translation is a reduced and revised version of the paper Schicksal Nietzsche? Zu Nietzsches Selbsteinschätzung als Schicksal der Philosophie und der Menschheit (Ecce Homo, Warum ich ein Schicksal bin §1" - originally published in Nietzsche-Studien 37 (2008 - which was specially prepared to be presented in lecture organized by the Grupo de Pesquisa Spinoza & Nietzsche (Spinoza & Nietzsche research group - SpiN, in the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro's Federal University, on September 14, 2009. In the text, the autor employs his own philological-hermeneutical methodology, which is called contextual interpretation, in the purpose to clarify the concepts of the first aphorism from "Why I am a destiny", from Ecce Homo, in its own context, in the context of Ecce Homo and in the context of the entire work from Nietzsche.

  7. New experimental results on electron cooling at COSY-Juelich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, J.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; Stein, H.J.; Kobets, A.; Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent results of electron cooling of proton beams at COSY-Juelich are reported. Cooling at an electron energy of 70 keV has been studied for the first time. At the injection energy level of COSY, corresponding to 24.5 keV electron energy, the features of the cooled proton beam at extremely low intensities have been investigated in order to find out whether an ordering of the proton beam can be achieved. Such investigations are motivated by the results of a numerical simulation of the ordering process by the BETACOOL code. (author)

  8. System for cooling the containment vessel of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, Didier.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a post-accidental cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. This system includes in series a turbine fed by the moist air contained in the vessel, a condenser in which the air is dried and cooled, a compressor actuated by the turbine and a cooling exchanger. The cold water flowing through the condenser and in the exchanger is taken from a tank outside the vessel and injected by a pump actuated by the turbine. The application is for nuclear reactors under pressure [fr

  9. Cooling towers: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, M.O.

    1981-02-01

    This bibliography cites 300 selected references containing information on various aspects of large cooling tower technology, including design, construction, operation, performance, economics, and environmental effects. The towers considered include natural-draft and mechanical-draft types employing wet, dry, or combination wet-dry cooling. A few references deal with alternative cooling methods, principally ponds or spray canals. The citations were compiled for the DOE Energy Information Data Base (EDB) covering the period January to December 1980. The references are to reports from the Department of Energy and its contractors, reports from other government or private organizations, and journal articles, books, conference papers, and monographs from US originators

  10. History of nuclear cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuerti, M.

    1998-01-01

    The historical development of producing extreme low temperatures by magnetic techniques is overviewed. With electron spin methods, temperatures down to 1 mK can be achieved. With nuclear spins theoretically 10 -9 K can be produced. The idea of cooling with nuclear demagnetization is not new, it is a logical extension of the concept of electron cooling. Using nuclear demagnetization experiment with 3 T water cooled solenoids 3 mK could be produced. The cold record is held by Olli Lounasmaa in Helsinki with temperatures below 10 -9 K. (R.P.)

  11. Fundamental research on the cooling characteristic of passive containment cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, M.; Kikura, H.; Aritomi, M.; Inaba, N.; Yamauchi, T.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to clarify the heat transfer characteristics of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) with vertical heat transfer tubes for investigating the influence of non-condensable gas on condensation. Furthermore, hence we obtained new experimental correlation formula to calculate the transients in system temperature and pressure using the simulation program of the PCCS. The research was carried out using a forced circulation experimental loop, which simulates atmosphere inside PCCS with vertical heat transfer tubes if a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) occurs. The experimental facility consists of cooling water supply systems, an orifice flowmeter, and a tank equipped with the heat transfer pipe inside. Cooling water at a constant temperature is injected to the test part of heat transfer pipe vertically installed in the tank by forced circulation. At that time, the temperature of the cooling water between inlet and outlet of the pipe was measured to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient between the cooling water and atmosphere in the tank. Thus, the heat transfer coefficient between heat transfer surface and the atmosphere in the tank considering the influence of the non-condensable gas was clarified. An important finding of this study is that the amount of condensation in the steamy atmosphere including non-condensable gas depends on the cooling water Reynolds number, especially the concentration of non-condensable gas that has great influence on the amount of condensation. (authors)

  12. Investigation of the cooling film distribution in liquid rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antonio Silva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of the investigation of a cooling method widely used in the combustion chambers, which is called cooling film, and it is applied to a liquid rocket engine that uses as propellants liquid oxygen and kerosene. Starting from an engine cooling, whose film is formed through the fuel spray guns positioned on the periphery of the injection system, the film was experimentally examined, it is formed by liquid that seeped through the inner wall of the combustion chamber. The parameter used for validation and refinement of the theoretical penetration of the film was cooling, as this parameter is of paramount importance to obtain an efficient thermal protection inside the combustion chamber. Cold tests confirmed a penetrating cold enough cooling of the film for the length of the combustion chamber of the studied engine.

  13. Microbial analysis of meatballs cooled with vacuum and conventional cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Hande Mutlu; Ozturk, Harun Kemal; Koçar, Gunnur

    2017-08-01

    Vacuum cooling is a rapid evaporative cooling technique and can be used for pre-cooling of leafy vegetables, mushroom, bakery, fishery, sauces, cooked food, meat and particulate foods. The aim of this study was to apply the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling techniques for the cooling of the meatball and to show the vacuum pressure effect on the cooling time, the temperature decrease and microbial growth rate. The results of the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling (cooling in the refrigerator) were compared with each other for different temperatures. The study shows that the conventional cooling was much slower than the vacuum cooling. Moreover, the microbial growth rate of the vacuum cooling was extremely low compared with the conventional cooling. Thus, the lowest microbial growth occurred at 0.7 kPa and the highest microbial growth was observed at 1.5 kPa for the vacuum cooling. The mass loss ratio for the conventional cooling and vacuum cooling was about 5 and 9% respectively.

  14. RBMK-1500 accident management for loss of long-term core cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uspuras, E.; Kaliatka, A.

    2001-01-01

    Results of the Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment of the Ignalina NPP has shown that in topography of the risk, transients dominate above the accidents with LOCAs and failure of the core long-term cooling are the main factors to frequency of the core damage. Previous analyses have shown, that after initial event, as a rule, the reactivity control, as well as short-term and intermediate cooling are provided. However, the acceptance criteria of the long-term cooling are not always carried out. It means that from this point of view the most dangerous accident scenarios are the scenarios related to loss of the core long-term cooling. On the other hand, the transition to the core condition due to loss of the long-term cooling specifies potential opportunities for the management of the accident consequences. Hence, accident management for the mitigation of the accident consequences should be considered and developed. The most likely initiating event, which probably leads to the loss of long term cooling accident, is station blackout. The station blackout is the loss of normal electrical power supply for local needs with an additional failure on start-up of all diesel generators. In the case of loss of electrical power supply MCPs, the circulating pumps of the service water system and MFWPs are switched-off. At the same time, TCV of both turbines are closed. Failure of diesel generators leads to the non-operability of the ECCS long-term cooling subsystem. It means the impossibility to feed MCC by water. The analysis of the station blackout for Ignalina NPP was performed using RELAP5 code. (author)

  15. Gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Masayuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable direct cooling of reactor cores thereby improving the cooling efficiency upon accidents. Constitution: A plurality sets of heat exchange pipe groups are disposed around the reactor core, which are connected by way of communication pipes with a feedwater recycling device comprising gas/liquid separation device, recycling pump, feedwater pump and emergency water tank. Upon occurrence of loss of primary coolants accidents, the heat exchange pipe groups directly absorb the heat from the reactor core through radiation and convection. Although the water in the heat exchange pipe groups are boiled to evaporate if the forcive circulation is interrupted by the loss of electric power source, water in the emergency tank is supplied due to the head to the heat exchange pipe groups to continue the cooling. Furthermore, since the heat exchange pipe groups surround the entire circumference of the reactor core, cooling is carried out uniformly without resulting deformation or stresses due to the thermal imbalance. (Sekiya, K.)

  16. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  17. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  18. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  19. Cooling with Superfluid Helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, P; Tavian, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    The technical properties of helium II (‘superfluid’ helium) are presented in view of its applications to the cooling of superconducting devices, particularly in particle accelerators. Cooling schemes are discussed in terms of heat transfer performance and limitations. Large-capacity refrigeration techniques below 2 K are reviewed, with regard to thermodynamic cycles as well as process machinery. Examples drawn from existing or planned projects illustrate the presentation. Keywords: superfluid helium, cryogenics.

  20. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... Background: Of the estimated 384,000 needle-stick injuries occurring in hospitals each year, 23% occur in surgical settings. This study was conducted to assess safe injection procedures, injection practices, and circumstances contributing to needlestick and sharps injures (NSSIs) in operating rooms.

  1. Emergency cooling system with hot-water jet pumps for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A.O.W.

    1977-01-01

    The ECCS for a PWR or BWR uses hot-water jet pumps to remove the thermal energy generated in the reactor vessel and stored in the water. The hot water expands in the nozzle part (Laval nozzle) of the jet pump and sucks in coolant (borated water) coming from a storage tank containing subcooled water. This water is mixing with the hot water/steam mixture from the Laval nozzle. The steam is condensed. The kinetic energy of the water is converted into a pressure increase which is sufficient to feed the water into the reactor vessel. The emergency cooling may further be helped by a jet condenser also operating according to the principle of a jet pump and condensing the steam generated in the reactor vessel. (DG) [de

  2. Effect of the Ethanol Injection Moment During Compression Stroke on the Combustion of Ethanol - Diesel Dual Direct Injection Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Zhou, Liying; Huang, Haomin; Xu, Mingfei; Guo, Mei; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    A set of GDI system is installed on a F188 single-cylinder, air-cooled and direct injection diesel engine, which is used for ethanol injection, with the injection time controlled by the crank angle signal collected by AVL angle encoder. The injection of ethanol amounts to half of the thermal equivalent of an original diesel fuel. A 3D combustion model is established for the ethanol - diesel dual direct injection engine. Diesel was injected from the original fuel injection system, with a fuel supply advance angle of 20°CA. The ethanol was injected into the cylinder during compression process. Diesel injection began after the completion of ethanol injection. Ethanol injection starting point of 240°CA, 260°CA, 280°CA, 300°CA and 319.4°CA were simulated and analyzed. Due to the different timing of ethanol injection, the ignition of the ethanol mixture when diesel fires, results in non-uniform ignition distribution and flame propagation rate, since the distribution and concentration gradients of the ethanol mixture in the cylinder are different, thus affecting the combustion process. The results show that, when ethanol is injected at 319.4°CA, the combustion heat release rate and the pressure rise rate during the initial stage are the highest. Also, the maximum combustion pressure, with a relatively advance phase, is the highest. In case of later initial ethanol injection, the average temperature in the cylinder during the initial combustion period will have a faster rise. In case of initial injection at 319.4°CA, the average temperature in the cylinder is the highest, followed by 240°CA ethanol injection. In the post-combustion stage, the earlier ethanol injection will result in higher average temperature in the cylinder and more complete fuel combustion. The injection of ethanol at 319.4°CA produces earlier and highest NOX emissions.

  3. Comparing Social Stories™ to Cool versus Not Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Mitchell, Erin; Townley-Cochran, Donna; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Leaf, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compared the cool versus not cool procedure to Social Stories™ for teaching various social behaviors to one individual diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The researchers randomly assigned three social skills to the cool versus not cool procedure and three social skills to the Social Stories™ procedure. Naturalistic probes…

  4. Experimental investigation of temperature rise in bone drilling with cooling: A comparison between modes of without cooling, internal gas cooling, and external liquid cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakouri, Ehsan; Haghighi Hassanalideh, Hossein; Gholampour, Seifollah

    2018-01-01

    Bone fracture occurs due to accident, aging, and disease. For the treatment of bone fractures, it is essential that the bones are kept fixed in the right place. In complex fractures, internal fixation or external methods are used to fix the fracture position. In order to immobilize the fracture position and connect the holder equipment to it, bone drilling is required. During the drilling of the bone, the required forces to chip formation could cause an increase in the temperature. If the resulting temperature increases to 47 °C, it causes thermal necrosis of the bone. Thermal necrosis decreases bone strength in the hole and, subsequently, due to incomplete immobilization of bone, fracture repair is not performed correctly. In this study, attempts have been made to compare local temperature increases in different processes of bone drilling. This comparison has been done between drilling without cooling, drilling with gas cooling, and liquid cooling on bovine femur. Drilling tests with gas coolant using direct injection of CO 2 and N 2 gases were carried out by internal coolant drill bit. The results showed that with the use of gas coolant, the elevation of temperature has limited to 6 °C and the thermal necrosis is prevented. Maximum temperature rise reached in drilling without cooling was 56 °C, using gas and liquid coolant, a maximum temperature elevation of 43 °C and 42 °C have been obtained, respectively. This resulted in decreased possibility of thermal necrosis of bone in drilling with gas and liquid cooling. However, the results showed that the values obtained with the drilling method with direct gas cooling are independent of the rotational speed of drill.

  5. Laser cooling of neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A qualitative description of laser cooling of neutral atoms is given. Two of the most important mechanisms utilized in laser cooling, the so-called Doppler Cooling and Sisyphus Cooling, are reviewed. The minimum temperature reached by the atoms is derived using simple arguments. (Author) 7 refs

  6. Technology of power plant cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulbetsch, J.S.; Zeren, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: the thermodynamics of power generation and the need for cooling water; the technical, economic, and legislative constraints within which the cooling problem must be solved; alternate cooling methods currently available or under development; the water treatment requirements of cooling systems; and some alternatives for modifying the physical impact on aquatic systems

  7. Meltdown reactor core cooling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Tsuyoshi.

    1992-01-01

    The meltdown reactor core cooling facility comprises a meltdown reactor core cooling tank, a cooling water storage tank situates at a position higher than the meltdown reactor core cooling tank, an upper pipeline connecting the upper portions of the both of the tanks and a lower pipeline connecting the lower portions of them. Upon occurrence of reactor core meltdown, a high temperature meltdown reactor core is dropped on the cooling tank to partially melt the tank and form a hole, from which cooling water is flown out. Since the water source of the cooling water is the cooling water storage tank, a great amount of cooling water is further dropped and supplied and the reactor core is submerged and cooled by natural convection for a long period of time. Further, when the lump of the meltdown reactor core is small and the perforated hole of the meltdown reactor cooling tank is small, cooling water is boiled by the high temperature lump intruding into the meltdown reactor core cooling tank and blown out from the upper pipeline to the cooling water storage tank to supply cooling water from the lower pipeline to the meltdown reactor core cooling tank. Since it is constituted only with simple static facilities, the facility can be simplified to attain improvement of reliability. (N.H.)

  8. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  9. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  10. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  11. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  12. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  13. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1978-01-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  14. Antigen injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  15. Development of integrated control system for smart factory in the injection molding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M. J.; Kim, C. Y.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we proposed integrated control system for automation of injection molding process required for construction of smart factory. The injection molding process consists of heating, tool close, injection, cooling, tool open, and take-out. Take-out robot controller, image processing module, and process data acquisition interface module are developed and assembled to integrated control system. By adoption of integrated control system, the injection molding process can be simplified and the cost for construction of smart factory can be inexpensive.

  16. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannotti, Maurizio [Physical Sciences, Barry University, 11300 NE 2nd Avenue, Miami Shores, FL 33161 (United States); Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza, España (Spain); Ringwald, Andreas, E-mail: mgiannotti@barry.edu, E-mail: igor.irastorza@cern.ch, E-mail: jredondo@unizar.es, E-mail: andreas.ringwald@desy.de [Theory group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  17. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  18. Gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.; Trauger, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    Experience to date with operation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors has been quite favorable. Despite problems in completion of construction and startup, three high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) units have operated well. The Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR) in the United Kingdom has had an excellent operating history, and initial operation of commercial AGRs shows them to be satisfactory. The latter reactors provide direct experience in scale-up from the Windscale experiment to fullscale commercial units. The Colorado Fort St. Vrain 330-MWe prototype helium-cooled HTGR is now in the approach-to-power phase while the 300-MWe Pebble Bed THTR prototype in the Federal Republic of Germany is scheduled for completion of construction by late 1978. THTR will be the first nuclear power plant which uses a dry cooling tower. Fuel reprocessing and refabrication have been developed in the laboratory and are now entering a pilot-plant scale development. Several commercial HTGR power station orders were placed in the U.S. prior to 1975 with similar plans for stations in the FRG. However, the combined effects of inflation, reduced electric power demand, regulatory uncertainties, and pricing problems led to cancellation of the 12 reactors which were in various stages of planning, design, and licensing

  19. Gas cooled leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutt, R.P.; Rehak, M.L.; Hornik, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to cover as completely as possible and in sufficient detail the topics relevant to lead design. The first part identifies the problems associated with lead design, states the mathematical formulation, and shows the results of numerical and analytical solutions. The second part presents the results of a parametric study whose object is to determine the best choice for cooling method, material, and geometry. These findings axe applied in a third part to the design of high-current leads whose end temperatures are determined from the surrounding equipment. It is found that cooling method or improved heat transfer are not critical once good heat exchange is established. The range 5 5 but extends over a large of values. Mass flow needed to prevent thermal runaway varies linearly with current above a given threshold. Below that value, the mass flow is constant with current. Transient analysis shows no evidence of hysteresis. If cooling is interrupted, the mass flow needed to restore the lead to its initially cooled state grows exponentially with the time that the lead was left without cooling

  20. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji; Oikawa, Hirohide.

    1990-01-01

    The device according to this invention can ensure cooling water required for emerency core cooling upon emergence such as abnormally, for example, loss of coolant accident, without using dynamic equipments such as a centrifugal pump or large-scaled tank. The device comprises a pressure accumulation tank containing a high pressure nitrogen gas and cooling water inside, a condensate storage tank, a pressure suppression pool and a jet stream pump. In this device there are disposed a pipeline for guiding cooling water in the pressure accumulation tank as a jetting water to a jetting stream pump, a pipeline for guiding cooling water stored in the condensate storage tank and the pressure suppression pool as pumped water to the jetting pump and, further, a pipeline for guiding the discharged water from the jet stream pump which is a mixed stream of pumped water and jetting water into the reactor pressure vessel. In this constitution, a sufficient amount of water ranging from relatively high pressure to low pressure can be supplied into the reactor pressure vessel, without increasing the size of the pressure accumulation tank. (I.S.)

  1. Optimization analysis of the motor cooling method in semi-closed single screw refrigeration compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. L.; Shen, Y. F.; Wang, Z. B.; Wang, J.

    2017-08-01

    Semi-closed single screw refrigeration compressors (SSRC) are widely used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems owing to the advantages of simple structure, balanced forces on the rotor, high volumetric efficiency and so on. In semi-closed SSRCs, motor is often cooled by suction gas or injected refrigerant liquid. Motor cooling method will changes the suction gas temperature, this to a certain extent, is an important factor influencing the thermal dynamic performance of a compressor. Thus the effects of motor cooling method on the performance of the compressor must be studied. In this paper mathematical models of motor cooling process by using these two methods were established. Influences of motor cooling parameters such as suction gas temperature, suction gas quantity, temperature of the injected refrigerant liquid and quantity of the injected refrigerant liquid on the thermal dynamic performance of the compressor were analyzed. The performances of the compressor using these two kinds of motor cooling methods were compared. The motor cooling capacity of the injected refrigerant liquid is proved to be better than the suction gas. All analysis results obtained can be useful for optimum design of the motor cooling process to improve the efficiency and the energy efficiency of the compressor.

  2. Systematic evaluation program review of NRC Safety Topic VI-7.3 associated with the electrical, instrumentation and control portions of the ECCS actuation system for the Dresden II Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Leger-Barter, G.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation and review of NRC Safety Topic VI-7.A.3, associated with the electrical, instrumentation, and control portions of the classification of the ECCS actuation system for the Dresden II nuclear power plant, using current licensing criteria

  3. Core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeppner, G.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor cooling system transports the heat liberated in the reactor core to the component - heat exchanger, steam generator or turbine - where the energy is removed. This basic task can be performed with a variety of coolants circulating in appropriately designed cooling systems. The choice of any one system is governed by principles of economics and natural policies, the design is determined by the laws of nuclear physics, thermal-hydraulics and by the requirement of reliability and public safety. PWR- and BWR- reactors today generate the bulk of nuclear energy. Their primary cooling systems are discussed under the following aspects: 1. General design, nuclear physics constraints, energy transfer, hydraulics, thermodynamics. 2. Design and performance under conditions of steady state and mild transients; control systems. 3. Design and performance under conditions of severe transients and loss of coolant accidents; safety systems. (orig./RW)

  4. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEN-ZVI, I.; AHRENS, L.; BRENNAN, M.; HARRISON, M.; KEWISCH, J.; MACKAY, W.; PEGGS, S.; ROSER, T.; SATOGATA, T.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; YAKIMENKO, V.

    2001-01-01

    We introduce plans for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This project has a number of new features as electron coolers go: It will cool 100 GeV/nucleon ions with 50 MeV electrons; it will be the first attempt to cool a collider at storage-energy; and it will be the first cooler to use a bunched beam and a linear accelerator as the electron source. The linac will be superconducting with energy recovery. The electron source will be based on a photocathode gun. The project is carried out by the Collider-Accelerator Department at BNL in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics

  5. Muon ionization cooling experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    A neutrino factory based on a muon storage ring is the ultimate tool for studies of neutrino oscillations, including possibly leptonic CP violation. It is also the first step towards muon colliders. The performance of this new and promising line of accelerators relies heavily on the concept of ionisation cooling of minimum ionising muons, for which much R&D is required. The concept of a muon ionisation cooling experiment has been extensively studied and first steps are now being taken towards its realisation by a joint international team of accelerator and particle physicists. The aim of the workshop is to to explore at least two versions of an experiment based on existing cooling channel designs. If such an experiment is feasible, one shall then select, on the basis of effectiveness, simplicity, availability of components and overall cost, a design for the proposed experiment, and assemble the elements necessary to the presentation of a proposal. Please see workshop website.

  6. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Don E [ORNL; Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL; Becklehimer, Jeff [Cray, Inc.; Donovan, Matthew J [ORNL; Layton, Christopher C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  7. Cooling nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, W.H.L.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to water or water/steam cooled reactors of the fuel cluster type. In such reactors it is usual to mount the clusters in parallel spaced relationship so that coolant can pass freely between them, the coolant being passed axially from one end of the cluster in an upward direction through the cluster and being effective for cooling under normal circumstances. It has been suggested, however, that in addition to the main coolant flow an auxiliary coolant flow be provided so as to pass laterally into the cluster or be sprayed over the top of the cluster. This auxiliary supply may be continuously in use, or may be held in reserve for use in emergencies. Arrangements for providing this auxiliary cooling are described in detail. (U.K.)

  8. Improvement of Cooling Technology through Atmosphere Gas Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renard, Michel; Dosogne, Edgaar; Crutzen, Jean Pierre; Raick, Jean Mare [DREVER INTERNATIONAL S.A., Liege (Belgium); Ji, Ma Jia; Jun, Lv; Zhi, Ma Bing [SHOUGANG Cold Rolling Mill Headquarter, Beijin (China)

    2009-12-15

    The production of advanced high strength steels requires the improvement of cooling technology. The use of high cooling rates allows relatively low levels of expensive alloying additions to ensure sufficient hardenability. In classical annealing and hot-dip galvanizing lines a mixing station is used to provide atmosphere gas containing 3-5% hydrogen and 97-95% nitrogen in the various sections of the furnace, including the rapid cooling section. Heat exchange enhancement in this cooling section can be insured by the increased hydrogen concentration. Driver international developed a patented improvement of cooling technology based on the following features: pure hydrogen gas is injected only in the rapid cooling section whereas the different sections of the furnace are supplied with pure nitrogen gas: the control of flows through atmosphere gas management allows to get high hydrogen concentration in cooling section and low hydrogen content in the other furnace zones. This cooling technology development insures higher cooling rates without additional expensive hydrogen gas consumption and without the use of complex sealing equipment between zones. In addition reduction in electrical energy consumption is obtained. This atmosphere control development can be combined with geometrical design improvements in order to get optimised cooling technology providing high cooling rates as well as reduced strip vibration amplitudes. Extensive validation of theoretical research has been conducted on industrial lines. New lines as well as existing lines, with limited modifications, can be equipped with this new development. Up to now this technology has successfully been implemented on 6 existing and 7 new lines in Europe and Asia.

  9. Stochastic cooling for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehl, D.

    1984-01-01

    These two lectures have been prepared to give a simple introduction to the principles. In Part I we try to explain stochastic cooling using the time-domain picture which starts from the pulse response of the system. In Part II the discussion is repeated, looking more closely at the frequency-domain response. An attempt is made to familiarize the beginners with some of the elementary cooling equations, from the 'single particle case' up to equations which describe the evolution of the particle distribution. (orig.)

  10. Cooling pond fog studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, B.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Fog Excess Water Index (FEWI) method of fog prediction has been verified by the use of data obtained at the Dresden cooling pond during 1976 and 1977 and by a reanalysis of observations made in conjunction with a study of cooling pond simulators during 1974. For applications in which the method is applied to measurements or estimates of bulk water temperature, a critical value of about 0.7 mb appears to be most appropriate. The present analyses confirm the earlier finding that wind speed plays little part in determining the susceptibility for fog generation

  11. Detectors for low energy electron cooling in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlier, F. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Low-energy operation of RHIC is of particular interest to study the location of a possible critical point in the QCD phase diagram. The performance of RHIC at energies equal to or lower than 10 GV/nucleon is limited by nonlinearities, Intra-BeamScattering (IBS) processes and space-charge effects. To successfully address the luminosity and ion store lifetime limitations imposed by IBS, the method of electron cooling has been envisaged. During electron cooling processes electrons are injected along with the ion beam at the nominal ion bunch velocities. The velocity spread of the ion beam is reduced in all planes through Coulomb interactions between the cold electron beam and the ion beam. The electron cooling system proposed for RHIC will be the first of its kind to use bunched beams for the delivery of the electron bunches, and will therefore be accompanied by the necessary challenges. The designed electron cooler will be located in IP2. The electron bunches will be accelerated by a linac before being injected along side the ion beams. Thirty consecutive electron bunches will be injected to overlap with a single ion bunch. They will first cool the yellow beam before being extracted, turned by 180-degrees, and reinjected into the blue beam for cooling. As such, both the yellow and blue beams will be cooled by the same ion bunches. This will pose considerable challenges to ensure proper electron beam quality to cool the second ion beam. Furthermore, no ondulator will be used in the electron cooler so radiative recombination between the ions and the electrons will occur.

  12. A reavaluation of the reliability analysis of the low pressure injection system for Angra-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.S. de; Fleming, P.V.; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F.F.; Tayt-Sohn, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    The emergency core cooling system of Angra 1 is analysed aiming at the low pressure injection systems, using the fault tree technique. All the failure mode of the components are considered for this analyse. (author) [pt

  13. Elementary stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G

    1983-12-01

    Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)

  14. Cooling tower and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.; Ederhof, A.; Gosdowski, J.; Harms, A.; Ide, G.; Klotz, B.; Kowalczyk, R.; Necker, P.; Tesche, W.

    The influence of a cooling tower on the environment, or rather the influence of the environment on the cooling tower stands presently -along with the cooling water supply - in the middle of much discussion. The literature on these questions can hardly be overlooked by the experts concerned, especially not by the power station designers and operators. The document 'Cooling Tower and Environment' is intented to give a general idea of the important publications in this field, and to inform of the present state of technology. In this, the explanations on every section make it easier to get to know the specific subject area. In addition to older standard literature, this publication contains the best-known literature of recent years up to spring 1975, including some articles written in English. Further English literature has been collected by the ZAED (KFK) and is available at the VGB-Geschaefsstelle. Furthermore, The Bundesumweltamt compiles the literature on the subject of 'Environmental protection'. On top of that, further documentation centres are listed at the end of this text. (orig.) [de

  15. Warm and Cool Cityscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubelirer, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

  16. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  17. Passive cooling containment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J.J.; Iotti, R.C.; Wright, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Pressure and temperature transients of nuclear reactor containment following postulated loss of coolant accident with a coincident station blackout due to total loss of all alternating current power are studied analytically and experimentally for the full scale NPR (New Production Reactor). All the reactor and containment cooling under this condition would rely on the passive cooling system which removes reactor decay heat and provides emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive cooling for this study takes place in the annulus between containment steel shell and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and thermal radiation. Various heat transfer coefficients inside annular air space were investigated by running the modified CONTEMPT code CONTEMPT-NPR. In order to verify proper heat transfer coefficient, temperature, heat flux, and velocity profiles were measured inside annular air space of the test facility which is a 24 foot (7.3m) high, steam heated inner cylinder of three foot (.91m) diameter and five and half foot (1.7m) diameter outer cylinder. Comparison of CONTEMPT-NPR and WGOTHIC was done for reduced scale NPR

  18. High energy beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Herr, H.; Linnecar, T.; Millich, A.; Milss, F.; Rubbia, C.; Taylor, C.S.; Meer, S. van der; Zotter, B.

    1980-01-01

    The group concerned itself with the analysis of cooling systems whose purpose is to maintain the quality of the high energy beams in the SPS in spite of gas scattering, RF noise, magnet ripple and beam-beam interactions. Three types of systems were discussed. The status of these activities is discussed below. (orig.)

  19. Cooling Tower Losses in Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Barhm Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Cooling towers are a very important part of many chemical plants. The primary task of a cooling tower is to reject heat into the atmosphere. They represent a relatively inexpensive and dependable means of removing low-grade heat from cooling water. The make-up water source is used to replenish water lost to evaporation. Hot water from heat exchangers is sent to the cooling tower. The water exits the cooling tower and is sent back to the exchangers or to other units for further cooling.

  20. Cooling concepts for HTS components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binneberg, A.; Buschmann, H.; Neubert, J.

    1993-01-01

    HTS components require that low-cost, reliable cooling systems be used. There are no general solutions to such systems. Any cooling concept has to be tailored to the specific requirements of a system. The following has to he taken into consideration when designing cooling concepts: - cooling temperature - constancy and controllability of the cooling temperature - cooling load and refrigerating capacity - continuous or discontinuous mode - degree of automation - full serviceability or availability before evacuation -malfunctions caused by microphonic, thermal or electromagnetic effects -stationary or mobile application - investment and operating costs (orig.)

  1. Cooling out of the blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, W.

    2006-01-01

    This article takes a look at solar cooling and air-conditioning, the use of which is becoming more and more popular. The article discusses how further research and development is necessary. The main challenge for professional experts is the optimal adaptation of building, building technology and solar-driven cooling systems to meet these new requirements. Various solar cooling technologies are looked at, including the use of surplus heat for the generation of cold for cooling systems. Small-scale solar cooling systems now being tested in trials are described. Various developments in Europe are discussed, as are the future chances for solar cooling in the market

  2. Experimental assessment of film cooling performance of short cylindrical holes on a flat surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuldeep; Premachandran, B.; Ravi, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    The present study is an experimental investigation of film-cooling over a flat surface from the short cylindrical holes. The film cooling holes used in the combustion chamber and the afterburner liner of an aero engine has length-to-diameter (L/D) typically in the range 1-2, while the cooling holes used in turbine blades has L/D > 3. Based on the classification given in the literature, cooling holes with L/D ≤ 3 are named as short holes and cooling holes with L/D > 3 are named as long holes. Short film cooling holes cause jetting of the secondary fluid whereas the secondary fluid emerging from long holes has characteristics similar to fully developed turbulent flow in pipe. In order to understand the difference in the film cooling performance of long and short cooling holes, experimental study is carried out for five values of L/D in the range 1-5, five injection angles, α = 15°-90° and five mainstream Reynolds number 1.25 × 105-6.25 × 105 and two blowing ratios, M = 0.5-1.0. The surface temperature of the test plate is monitored using infrared thermography. The results obtained from the present study showed that the film-cooling effectiveness is higher for the longest holes (L/D = 5) investigated in the present work in comparison to that for the shorter holes. Short holes are found to give better effectiveness at the lowest investigated injection angle i.e. α = 15° in the near cooling hole region, whereas film cooling effectiveness obtained at injection angle, α = 45° is found to be better than other injection angles for longest investigated holes, i.e. L/D = 5.

  3. Magnetocaloric Effect and Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00173-14-1-G016 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 82-2020-17 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Magnetocaloric Effect and Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology NRL Grant N00173-14-l-G016 CODE 8200: Spacecraft Engineering Department...82-11-0 1: Space and Space Systems Technology General Engineering & Research, L.L.C. Technical & Administrative point of contact: Dr. Robin

  4. Operation method and operation control device for emergency core cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Tadashi [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mizutani, Akira

    1996-05-07

    The present invention provides a method of reducing continuous load capacity of an emergency cooling system of a BWR type reactor and a device reducing a rated capacity of an emergency power source facility. Namely, the emergency core cooling system comprises a first cooling system having a plurality of power source systems based on a plurality of emergency power sources and a second cooling system having a remaining heat removing function. In this case, when the first cooling system is operated the manual starting under a predetermined condition that an external power source loss event should occur, a power source division different from the first cooling system shares the operation to operate the secondary cooling system simultaneously. Further, the first cooling system is constituted as a high pressure reactor core water injection system and the second cooling system is constituted as a remaining heat removing system. With such a constitution, a high pressure reactor core water injection system for manual starting and a remaining heat removing system of different power source division can be operated simultaneously before automatic operation of the emergency core cooling system upon loss of external power source of a nuclear power plant. (I.S.)

  5. Cooling methods of station blackout scenario for LWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this study is to analyze the cooling method of station blackout scenario for both the BWR and PWR plants by RELAP5 code and to check the validity of the cooling method proposed by the utilities. In the BWR plant cooling scenario, the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling System (RCIC), which is operated with high pressure steam from the reactor, injects cooling water into the reactor to keep the core water level. The steam generated in the core is released into the suppression pool at containment vessel to condense. To restrict the containment vessel pressure rising, the ventilation from the wet-well is operated. The scenario is analyzed by RELAP5 code. In the PWR plant scenario, the primary pressure is decreased by the turbine-driven auxiliary feed water system operated with secondary side steam of the steam generators (SGs). And the core cooling is kept by the natural circulation flow at the primary loop. From the RELAP5 code analysis, it was shown that the primary system cooling was practicable by using the turbine-driven auxiliary feed water system. (author)

  6. SQL injection detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargonas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    SQL injection detection system Programmers do not always ensure security of developed systems. That is why it is important to look for solutions outside being reliant on developers. In this work SQL injection detection system is proposed. The system analyzes HTTP request parameters and detects intrusions. It is based on unsupervised machine learning. Trained by regular request data system detects outlier user parameters. Since training is not reliant on previous knowledge of SQL injections, t...

  7. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  8. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... and disorders: physiology of micturition, voiding dysfunction, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, and painful bladder syndrome. In: Lobo ...

  9. Evaluation on Long-term Cooling of CANDU after Sump Blockage using MARS-KS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Seon Oh; Cho, Yong Jin [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    There was a real incident that part of the fibrous insulation debris stripped by steam jet was transported to the pool and clogged the intake strainers of the drywell spray system, which revealed a weakness in the defense-in-depth concept which under other circumstances could have led to the ECCS failing to provide coolant to the core. Since the above Barseback-2 incident in 1992, lots of the international activities have been carried out to identify essential parameters and physical phenomena and to promote consensus on the technical issues, important for safety and possible paths for their resolution. In nuclear power plant under operation, if an unplanned reactor trip or a power reduction occurs, operators are required to maintain the reactor in a stable state according to emergency operating procedure (EOP) and to take diagnosis and appropriate mitigation actions if necessary. Subject to the EOP of Wolsong unit 1 (the first Korean PHWR NPP) under LOCA, intact or broken loops are diagnosed using the available plant information such as pressure and temperature of outlet headers. For the intact loop, effective long-term cooling is envisioned through the operation of shutdown cooling system as implemented in the EOP. In this work, the adequacy of long-term cooling during the recirculation phase of LOCA was evaluated under the postulated condition of the reduced flow path of the recirculation sump due to the inflow of substantial amount of debris released by the break flow with high energy. For the intact loop, although the incipience of boiling in the fuel channel was evaluated to occur, the effective long-term cooling can be achieved through the shutdown cooling system as guided in the EOP.

  10. Magnetic entropy and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Some manifestations of magnetism are well-known and utilized on an everyday basis, e.g. using a refrigerator magnet for hanging that important note on the refrigerator door. Others are, so far, more exotic, such as cooling by making use of the magnetocaloric eect. This eect can cause a change...... in the temperature of a magnetic material when a magnetic eld is applied or removed. For many years, experimentalists have made use of dilute paramagnetic materials to achieve milliKelvin temperatures by use of the magnetocaloric eect. Also, research is done on materials, which might be used for hydrogen, helium...... or nitrogen liquefaction or for room-temperature cooling. The magnetocaloric eect can further be used to determine phase transition boundaries, if a change in the magnetic state occurs at the boundary.In this talk, I will introduce the magnetocaloric eect (MCE) and the two equations, which characterize...

  11. Self pumping magnetic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, V; Wang, Z; Ray, A; Ramanujan, R V; Sridhar, I

    2017-01-01

    Efficient thermal management and heat recovery devices are of high technological significance for innovative energy conservation solutions. We describe a study of a self-pumping magnetic cooling device, which does not require external energy input, employing Mn–Zn ferrite nanoparticles suspended in water. The device performance depends strongly on magnetic field strength, nanoparticle content in the fluid and heat load temperature. Cooling (Δ T ) by ∼20 °C and ∼28 °C was achieved by the application of 0.3 T magnetic field when the initial temperature of the heat load was 64 °C and 87 °C, respectively. These experiments results were in good agreement with simulations performed with COMSOL Multiphysics. Our system is a self-regulating device; as the heat load increases, the magnetization of the ferrofluid decreases; leading to an increase in the fluid velocity and consequently, faster heat transfer from the heat source to the heat sink. (letter)

  12. Laser cooling at resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudkin, Yaakov; Khaykovich, Lev

    2018-05-01

    We show experimentally that three-dimensional laser cooling of lithium atoms on the D2 line is possible when the laser light is tuned exactly to resonance with the dominant atomic transition. Qualitatively, it can be understood by applying simple Doppler cooling arguments to the specific hyperfine structure of the excited state of lithium atoms, which is both dense and inverted. However, to build a quantitative theory, we must resolve to a full model which takes into account both the entire atomic structure of all 24 Zeeman sublevels and the laser light polarization. Moreover, by means of Monte Carlo simulations, we show that coherent processes play an important role in showing consistency between the theory and the experimental results.

  13. ITER cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.; Hollies, R.E.; Sochaski, R.O.; Stubley, P.H.

    1992-06-01

    The ITER reference system uses low-temperature water for heat removal and high-temperature helium for bake-out. As these systems share common equipment, bake-out cannot be performed until the cooling system is drained and dried, and the reactor cannot be started until the helium has been purged from the cooling system. This study examines the feasibility of using a single high-temperature fluid to perform both heat removal and bake-out. The high temperature required for bake-out would also be in the range for power production. The study examines cost, operational benefits, and impact on reactor safety of two options: a high-pressure water system, and a low-pressure organic system. It was concluded that the cost savings and operational benefits are significant; there are no significant adverse safety impacts from operating either the water system or the organic system; and the capital costs of both systems are comparable

  14. Cooling your home naturally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This fact sheet describes some alternatives to air conditioning which are common sense suggestions and low-cost retrofit options to cool a house. It first describes how to reflect heat away from roofs, walls, and windows. Blocking heat by using insulation or shading are described. The publication then discusses removing built-up heat, reducing heat-generating sources, and saving energy by selecting energy efficient retrofit appliances. A resource list is provided for further information.

  15. Cooling and dehumidifying coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.V.K.

    1988-01-01

    The operating features of cooling and dehumidifying coils and their constructional details are discussed. The heat transfer relations as applicable to the boiling refrigerant and a single phase fluid are presented. Methods of accounting for the effect of moisture condensation on the air side heat transfer coefficient and the fin effectiveness are explained. The logic flow necessary to analyze direct expansion coils and chilled water coils is discussed

  16. Solar heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffie, J A

    1976-01-01

    Solar energy is discussed as an energy resource that can be converted into useful energy forms to meet a variety of energy needs. The review briefly explains the nature of this energy resource, the kinds of applications that can be made useful, and the status of several systems to which it has been applied. More specifically, information on solar collectors, solar water heating, solar heating of buildings, solar cooling plus other applications, are included.

  17. Conduction cooling: multicrate fastbus hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiecki, D.; Sims, W.; Larsen, R.

    1980-11-01

    Described is a new and novel approach for cooling nuclear instrumentation modules via heat conduction. The simplicity of liquid cooled crates and ease of thermal management with conduction cooled modules are described. While this system was developed primarily for the higher power levels expected with Fastbus electronics, it has many general applications

  18. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Barton, Donald; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruhwiler, David L; Burger, Al; Burov, Alexey; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Eidelman, Yury I; Favale, Anthony; Fedotov, Alexei V; Fischer, Wolfram; Funk, L W; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Harrison, Michael; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Koop, Ivan; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Mahler, George; Malitsky, Nikolay; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Merminga, Lia; Meshkov, Igor; Mirabella, Kerry; Montag, Christoph; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Parzen, George; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Shatunov, Yuri; Sidorin, Anatoly O; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Trbojevic, Dejan; Troubnikov, Grigory; Wang, Gang; Wei, Jie; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang; ain, Animesh K

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.ags...

  19. ITER cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-11-01

    The present specification of the ITER cooling system does not permit its operation with water above 150 C. However, the first wall needs to be heated to higher temperatures during conditioning at 250 C and bake-out at 350 C. In order to use the cooling water for these operations the cooling system would have to operate during conditioning at 37 Bar and during bake-out at 164 Bar. This is undesirable from the safety analysis point of view, and alternative heating methods are to be found. This review suggests that superheated steam or gas heating can be used for both baking and conditioning. The blanket design must consider the use of dual heat transfer media, allowing for change from one to another in both directions. Transfer from water to gas or steam is the most intricate and risky part of the entire heating process. Superheated steam conditioning appears unfavorable. The use of inert gas is recommended, although alternative heating fluids such as organic coolant should be investigated

  20. Reactor container cooling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1995-11-10

    The device of the present invention efficiently lowers pressure and temperature in a reactor container upon occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR-type reactor and can cool the inside of the container for a long period of time. That is, (1) pipelines on the side of an exhaustion tower of a filter portion in a filter bent device of the reactor container are in communication with pipelines on the side of a steam inlet of a static container cooling device by way of horizontal pipelines, (2) a back flow check valve is disposed to horizontal pipelines, (3) a steam discharge valve for a pressure vessel is disposed closer to the reactor container than the joint portion between the pipelines on the side of the steam inlet and the horizontal pipelines. Upon occurrence of a severe accident, when the pressure vessel should be ruptured and steams containing aerosol in the reactor core should be filled in the reactor container, the inlet valve of the static container cooling device is closed. Steams are flown into the filter bent device of the reactor container, where the aerosols can be removed. (I.S.).

  1. Proceedings: Cooling tower and advanced cooling systems conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This Cooling Tower and Advanced Cooling Systems Conference was held August 30 through September 1, 1994, in St. Petersburg, Florida. The conference was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and hosted by Florida Power Corporation to bring together utility representatives, manufacturers, researchers, and consultants. Nineteen technical papers were presented in four sessions. These sessions were devoted to the following topics: cooling tower upgrades and retrofits, cooling tower performance, cooling tower fouling, and dry and hybrid systems. On the final day, panel discussions addressed current issues in cooling tower operation and maintenance as well as research and technology needs for power plant cooling. More than 100 people attended the conference. This report contains the technical papers presented at the conference. Of the 19 papers, five concern cooling tower upgrades and retrofits, five to cooling tower performance, four discuss cooling tower fouling, and five describe dry and hybrid cooling systems. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  2. European supercritical water cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulenberg, T.; Starflinger, J.; Marsault, P.; Bittermann, D.; Maraczy, C.; Laurien, E.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, J.A.; Anglart, H.; Andreani, M.; Ruzickova, M.; Toivonen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The HPLWR reactor design is an example of a supercritical water cooled reactor. → Cladding material tests have started but materials are not yet satisfactory. → Numerical heat transfer predictions are promising but need further validation. → The research project is most suited for nuclear education and training. - Abstract: The High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR), how the European Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor is called, is a pressure vessel type reactor operated with supercritical water at 25 MPa feedwater pressure and 500 o C average core outlet temperature. It is designed and analyzed by a European consortium of 10 partners and 3 active supporters from 8 Euratom member states in the second phase of the HPLWR project. Most emphasis has been laid on a core with a thermal neutron spectrum, consisting of small fuel assemblies in boxes with 40 fuel pins each and a central water box to improve the neutron moderation despite the low coolant density. Peak cladding temperatures of the fuel rods have been minimized by heating up the coolant in three steps with intermediate coolant mixing. The containment design with its safety and residual heat removal systems is based on the latest boiling water reactor concept, but with different passive high pressure coolant injection systems to cause a forced convection through the core. The design concept of the steam cycle is indicating the envisaged efficiency increase to around 44%. Moreover, it provides the constraints to design the components of the balance of the plant. The project is accompanied by numerical studies of heat transfer of supercritical water in fuel assemblies and by material tests of candidate cladding alloys, performed by the consortium and supported by additional tests of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. Besides the scientific and technical progress, the HPLWR project turned out to be most successful in training the young generation of nuclear engineers

  3. Cooling lubricants; Kuehlschmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Breuer, D. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Blome, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Deininger, C. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Hahn, J.U. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Kleine, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Nies, E. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Pflaumbaum, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Stockmann, R. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Willert, G. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Sonnenschein, G. [Maschinenbau- und Metall-Berufsgenossenschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    As a rule, the base substances used are certain liquid hydrocarbons from mineral oils as well as from native and synthetic oils. Through the addition of further substances the cooling lubricant takes on the particular qualities required for the use in question. Employees working with cooling lubricants are exposed to various hazards. The assessment of the concentrations at the work station is carried out on the basis of existing technical rules for contact with hazardous substances. However, the application/implementation of compulsory investigation and supervision in accordance with these rules is made difficult by the fact that cooling lubricants are, as a rule, made up of complicated compound mixtures. In addition to protecting employees from exposure to mists and vapours from the cooling lubricants, protection for the skin is also of particular importance. Cooling lubricants should not, if at all possible, be brought into contact with the skin. Cleansing the skin and skin care is just as important as changing working clothes regularly, and hygiene and cleanliness at the workplace. Unavoidable emissions are to be immediately collected at the point where they arise or are released and safely disposed of. This means taking into account all sources of emissions. The programme presented in this report therefore gives a very detailed account of the individual protective measures and provides recommendations for the design of technical protection facilities. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Als Basisstoffe dienen in der Regel bestimmte fluessige Kohlenwasserstoffverbindungen aus Mineraloelen sowie aus nativen oder synthetischen Oelen. Durch die Zugabe von weiteren Stoffen erlangt der Kuehlschmierstoff seine fuer den jeweiligen Anwendungsabfall geforderten Eigenschaften. Beschaeftigte, die mit Kuehlschmierstoffen umgehen, sind unterschiedliche Gefahren ausgesetzt. Die Beurteilung der Kuehlschmierstoffkonzentrationen in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz erfolgt auf der Grundlage bestehender

  4. Active stabilization of a diode laser injection lock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxberg, Brendan; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Gupta, Subhadeep [Department of Physics, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351560, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    We report on a device to electronically stabilize the optical injection lock of a semiconductor diode laser. Our technique uses as discriminator the peak height of the laser’s transmission signal on a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity and feeds back to the diode current, thereby maintaining maximum optical power in the injected mode. A two-component feedback algorithm provides constant optimization of the injection lock, keeping it robust to slow thermal drifts and allowing fast recovery from sudden failures such as temporary occlusion of the injection beam. We demonstrate the successful performance of our stabilization method in a diode laser setup at 399 nm used for laser cooling of Yb atoms. The device eases the requirements on passive stabilization and can benefit any diode laser injection lock application, particularly those where several such locks are employed.

  5. Active stabilization of a diode laser injection lock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxberg, Brendan; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-06-01

    We report on a device to electronically stabilize the optical injection lock of a semiconductor diode laser. Our technique uses as discriminator the peak height of the laser's transmission signal on a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity and feeds back to the diode current, thereby maintaining maximum optical power in the injected mode. A two-component feedback algorithm provides constant optimization of the injection lock, keeping it robust to slow thermal drifts and allowing fast recovery from sudden failures such as temporary occlusion of the injection beam. We demonstrate the successful performance of our stabilization method in a diode laser setup at 399 nm used for laser cooling of Yb atoms. The device eases the requirements on passive stabilization and can benefit any diode laser injection lock application, particularly those where several such locks are employed.

  6. Active stabilization of a diode laser injection lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxberg, Brendan; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-01-01

    We report on a device to electronically stabilize the optical injection lock of a semiconductor diode laser. Our technique uses as discriminator the peak height of the laser’s transmission signal on a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity and feeds back to the diode current, thereby maintaining maximum optical power in the injected mode. A two-component feedback algorithm provides constant optimization of the injection lock, keeping it robust to slow thermal drifts and allowing fast recovery from sudden failures such as temporary occlusion of the injection beam. We demonstrate the successful performance of our stabilization method in a diode laser setup at 399 nm used for laser cooling of Yb atoms. The device eases the requirements on passive stabilization and can benefit any diode laser injection lock application, particularly those where several such locks are employed.

  7. Experiments on Li pellet injection into Heliotron E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, V.Yu.; Khlopenkov, K.V.; Kuteev, B.V.; Sudo, S.; Kondo, K.; Zushi, H.; Besshou, S.; Sano, F.; Okada, H.; Mizuuchi, T.; Nagasaki, K.; Obiki, T.; Kurimoto, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Li pellets of large size were injected into electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heated plasmas and neutral beam injection (NBI) heated plasmas of Heliotron E. The discharge behaviour, pellet ablation and wall conditioning were studied. The electron pressure is doubled after injection into the NBI plasma and remains unchanged in the case of ECR heating. This may be due to the energy exchange between the electrons and thermal ions with the fast ions from the neutral beam. The observed discrepancy between the experimental and modelled ablation rates may be caused by both the plasma cooling due to pellet ablatant and the ablation stimulated by the fast ions in the NBI-heated regime and by the fast electrons in the ECR-heated regime. In preliminary experiments on wall conditioning by Li pellet injection, no improvement of plasma performance after Li pellet injection was observed in the divertor or limiter configuration, with the limiter radii r L =24-25cm. (author)

  8. Electron injection in microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axinescu, S.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the methods of injecting electrons in the microtron is presented. A special attention is paid to efficient injection systems developed by Wernholm and Kapitza. A comparison of advantages and disadvantages of both systems is made in relation to the purpose of the microtron. (author)

  9. Glenohumeral Joint Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

  10. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael; Abata, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump inje...

  11. Platelet-cooled plasma arc torch. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    In this 12-month program sponsored by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Aerojet designed, fabricated, and tested six platelet cooled electrodes for a Retech 75T (90 MW) plasma arc torch capable of processing mixed radioactive waste. Two of the electrodes with gas injection through the electrode wall demonstrated between eight and forty times the life of conventional water cooled electrodes. If a similar life increase can be produced in a 1 Mw size electrode, then electrodes possessing thousands, rather than hundreds, of hours of life will be available to DOE for potential application to mixed radioactive waste processing

  12. Cooling of molecular ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.; Krohn, S.; Kreckel, H.; Lammich, L.; Lange, M.; Strasser, D.; Grieser, M.; Schwalm, D.; Zajfman, D.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the use of stored ion beams and phase space cooling (electron cooling) is given for the field of molecular physics. Emphasis is given to interactions between molecular ions and electrons studied in the electron cooler: dissociative recombination and, for internally excited molecular ions, electron-induced ro-vibrational cooling. Diagnostic methods for the transverse ion beam properties and for the internal excitation of the molecular ions are discussed, and results for phase space cooling and internal (vibrational) cooling are presented for hydrogen molecular ions

  13. Improve crossflow cooling tower operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports how various crossflow cooling tower elements can be upgraded. A typical retrofit example is presented. In the past decade, cooling tower technology has progressed. If a cooling tower is over ten years old, chances are the heat transfer media and mechanical equipment were designed over 30 to 40 years ago. When a chemical plant expansion is projected or a facility desires to upgrade its equipment for greater output and energy efficiency, the cooling tower is usually neglected until someone discovers that the limiting factor of production is the quality of cold water returning from the cooling tower

  14. Passive residual energy utilization system in thermal cycles on water-cooled power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placco, Guilherme M.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Santos, Rubens S. dos

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a concept of a residual energy utilization in nuclear plants thermal cycles. After taking notice of the causes of the Fukushima nuclear plant accident, an idea arose to adapt a passive thermal circuit as part of the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System). One of the research topics of IEAv (Institute for Advanced Studies), as part of the heat conversion of a space nuclear power system is a passive multi fluid turbine. One of the main characteristics of this device is its passive capability of staying inert and be brought to power at moments notice. During the first experiments and testing of this passive device, it became clear that any small amount of gas flow would generate power. Given that in the first stages of the Fukushima accident and even during the whole event there was plenty availability of steam flow that would be the proper condition to make the proposed system to work. This system starts in case of failure of the ECCS, including loss of site power, loss of diesel generators and loss of the battery power. This system does not requires electricity to run and will work with bleed steam. It will generate enough power to supply the plant safety system avoiding overheating of the reactor core produced by the decay heat. This passive system uses a modified Tesla type turbine. With the tests conducted until now, it is possible to ensure that the operation of this new turbine in a thermal cycle is very satisfactory and it performs as expected. (author)

  15. Cooling device in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Tsutomu.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent loss of cooling effect over the entire torus structure directly after accidental toubles in a cooling device of a thermonuclear device. Constitution: Coolant recycling means of a cooling device comprises two systems, which are alternately connected with in-flow pipeways and exit pipeways of adjacent modules. The modules are cooled by way of the in-flow pipeways and the exist pipeways connected to the respective modules by means of the coolant recycling means corresponding to the respective modules. So long as one of the coolant recycling means is kept operative, since every one other modules of the torus structure is still kept cooled, the heat generated from the module put therebetween, for which the coolant recycling is interrupted, is removed by means of heat conduction or radiation from the module for which the cooling is kept continued. No back-up emergency cooling system is required and it can provide high economic reliability. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  17. Validation of Supersonic Film Cooling Modeling for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher I.; Ruf, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    Topics include: upper stage engine key requirements and design drivers; Calspan "stage 1" results, He slot injection into hypersonic flow (air); test articles for shock generator diagram, slot injector details, and instrumentation positions; test conditions; modeling approach; 2-d grid used for film cooling simulations of test article; heat flux profiles from 2-d flat plate simulations (run #4); heat flux profiles from 2-d backward facing step simulations (run #43); isometric sketch of single coolant nozzle, and x-z grid of half-nozzle domain; comparison of 2-d and 3-d simulations of coolant nozzles (run #45); flowfield properties along coolant nozzle centerline (run #45); comparison of 3-d CFD nozzle flow calculations with experimental data; nozzle exit plane reduced to linear profile for use in 2-d film-cooling simulations (run #45); synthetic Schlieren image of coolant injection region (run #45); axial velocity profiles from 2-d film-cooling simulation (run #45); coolant mass fraction profiles from 2-d film-cooling simulation (run #45); heat flux profiles from 2-d film cooling simulations (run #45); heat flux profiles from 2-d film cooling simulations (runs #47, #45, and #47); 3-d grid used for film cooling simulations of test article; heat flux contours from 3-d film-cooling simulation (run #45); and heat flux profiles from 3-d and 2-d film cooling simulations (runs #44, #46, and #47).

  18. Correlated electron capture in the impact parameter and final projectile charge-state dependence of ECC cusp production in 0.53 MeV u-1 F8+ + Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skutlartz, A.; Hagmann, S.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.

    1988-01-01

    The impact parameter dependence of ECC cusp electron production in collisions of fast, highly charged ions with atoms is investigated by measuring the scattered projectiles in coincidence with cusp electrons emitted at 0 0 with respect to the beam axis. The absolute probabilities for ECC cusp production show a maximum at b ≅ 0.10 au, decrease strongly for smaller impact parameters and more gently toward larger impact parameters. In addition the final charge state of the scattered projectile is also determined simultaneously for each collision event. The probabilities, as a function of the projectile final charge state, are large for the case where at least one or more electrons are simultaneously captured into bound states of the projectile, but are surprisingly small for collisions in which a projectile did not capture an electron into a bound state. (author)

  19. Superconducting magnet cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Arend, Peter C.; Fowler, William B.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for cooling a conductor to the superconducting state. The conductor is positioned within an inner conduit through which is flowing a supercooled liquid coolant in physical contact with the conductor. The inner conduit is positioned within an outer conduit so that an annular open space is formed therebetween. Through the annular space is flowing coolant in the boiling liquid state. Heat generated by the conductor is transferred by convection within the supercooled liquid coolant to the inner wall of the inner conduit and then is removed by the boiling liquid coolant, making the heat removal from the conductor relatively independent of conductor length.

  20. Illumination and radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Shanhui; Raman, Aaswath Pattabhi; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden

    2018-03-20

    Aspects of the present disclosure are directed to providing and/or controlling electromagnetic radiation. As may be implemented in accordance with one or more embodiments, an apparatus includes a first structure that contains an object, and a second structure that is transparent at solar wavelengths and emissive in the atmospheric electromagnetic radiation transparency window. The second structure operates with the first structure to pass light into the first structure for illuminating the object, and to radiatively cool the object while preserving the object's color.

  1. Rotary engine cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

  2. Gas cooled HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweiger, F.

    1985-01-01

    In the He-cooled, graphite-moderated HTR with spherical fuel elements, the steam generator is fixed outside the pressure vessel. The heat exchangers are above the reactor level. The hot gases stream from the reactor bottom over the heat exchanger, through an annular space around the heat exchanger and through feed lines in the side reflector of the reactor back to its top part. This way, in case of shutdown there is a supplementary natural draught that helps the inner natural circulation (chimney draught effect). (orig./PW)

  3. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  4. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  5. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  6. Onderzoeksrapportage duurzaam koelen : EOS Renewable Cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeze, J.; Sluis, van der S.; Wissink, E.

    2010-01-01

    For reducing energy use for cooling, alternative methods (that do not rely on electricity) are needed. Renewable cooling is based on naturally available resources such as evaporative cooling, free cooling, phase change materials, ground subcooling, solar cooling, wind cooling, night radiation &

  7. Cooling power technology at a turning point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hese, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    From freshwater cooling and efflux condenser cooling to wet recirculation cooling, hybrid and dry cooling towers, cooling tower technology has seen a development characterized by higher cooling tower costs and reduced power plant efficiency. Therefore, all research work done at the moment concentrates on making up for the economic losses connected with improved environmental protection. (orig.) [de

  8. Cooling methods of station blackout scenario for LWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the cooling method of station blackout scenario for both the BWR and PWR plants by RELAP5 code and to check the validity of the cooling method proposed by the utilities. In the BWR plant cooling scenario, the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling System (RCIC), which is operated with high pressure steam from the reactor, injects cooling water into the reactor to keep the core water level. The steam generated in the core is released into the suppression pool at containment vessel to condense. To restrict the containment vessel pressure rising, the ventilation from the wet-well is operated. The scenario is analyzed by RELAP5 and CONTEMPT-LT code. In the PWR plant scenario, the primary pressure is decreased by the turbine-driven auxiliary feed water system operated with secondary side steam of the steam generators (SGs). And the core cooling is kept by the natural circulation flow at the primary loop. The analytical method of un-uniform flow behavior among the SG U-tubes, which affects the natural circulation flow rate, is developed. (author)

  9. Water injection device for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaki, Isao.

    1996-01-01

    A pressure vessel incorporating a reactor core is placed and secured on a pedestal in a dry well of a reactor container. A pedestal water injection line is disposed opened at one end in a pedestal cavity passing through the side wall of the pedestal and led at the other end to the outside of the reactor container. A substitution dry well spray line is connected to a spray header disposed at the upper portion of the dry well. When the pressure vessel should be damaged by a molten reactor core and the molten reactor core should drop to the dry well upon occurrence of an accident, the molten reactor core on the floor of the pedestal is cooled by water injection from the pedestal water injection line. At the same time, the elevation of the pressure and the temperature in the reactor container is suppressed by the water injection of the substitution dry well spray line. This can avoid large scaled release of radioactive materials to the environmental circumference. (I.N.)

  10. COD correction for laser cooling at S-LSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souda, Hikaru; Fujimoto, Shinji; Tongu, Hiromu; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Tanabe, Mikio; Ishikawa, Takehiro; Nakao, Masao; Ikegami, Masahiro; Wakita, Akihisa; Iwata, Soma; Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Noda, Koji; Noda, Akira

    2008-01-01

    A closed orbit is corrected for single-turn injection to perform laser cooling experiments of 40 keV 24 Mg + beam at the small laser-equipped storage ring (S-LSR). Closed orbit distortion (COD) corrections have been carried out using a downhill simplex method, and CODs of less than ±0.5mm have been achieved throughout the whole circumference. The injection orbit and the CODs are optimized to pass through the two aperture holes in the alignment targets located in the laser cooling section with an algorithm to maximize beam lifetime. The CODs at the aperture holes are reduced to be less than ±0.2mm, assuring an overlap between the laser and the 24 Mg + ion beam.

  11. Antarctica: Cooling or Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunde, Armin; Ludescher, Josef; Franzke, Christian

    2013-04-01

    We consider the 14 longest instrumental monthly mean temperature records from the Antarctica and analyse their correlation properties by wavelet and detrended fluctuation analysis. We show that the stations in the western and the eastern part of the Antarctica show significant long-term memory governed by Hurst exponents close to 0.8 and 0.65, respectively. In contrast, the temperature records at the inner part of the continent (South Pole and Vostok), resemble white noise. We use linear regression to estimate the respective temperature differences in the records per decade (i) for the annual data, (ii) for the summer and (iii) for the winter season. Using a recent approach by Lennartz and Bunde [1] we estimate the respective probabilities that these temperature differences can be exceeded naturally without inferring an external (anthropogenic) trend. We find that the warming in the western part of the continent and the cooling at the South Pole is due to a gradually changes in the cold extremes. For the winter months, both cooling and warming are well outside the 95 percent confidence interval, pointing to an anthropogenic origin. In the eastern Antarctica, the temperature increases and decreases are modest and well within the 95 percent confidence interval. [1] S. Lennartz and A. Bunde, Phys. Rev. E 84, 021129 (2011)

  12. Cooled spool piston compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A hydraulically powered gas compressor receives low pressure gas and outputs a high pressure gas. The housing of the compressor defines a cylinder with a center chamber having a cross-sectional area less than the cross-sectional area of a left end chamber and a right end chamber, and a spool-type piston assembly is movable within the cylinder and includes a left end closure, a right end closure, and a center body that are in sealing engagement with the respective cylinder walls as the piston reciprocates. First and second annual compression chambers are provided between the piston enclosures and center housing portion of the compressor, thereby minimizing the spacing between the core gas and a cooled surface of the compressor. Restricted flow passageways are provided in the piston closure members and a path is provided in the central body of the piston assembly, such that hydraulic fluid flows through the piston assembly to cool the piston assembly during its operation. The compressor of the present invention may be easily adapted for a particular application, and is capable of generating high gas pressures while maintaining both the compressed gas and the compressor components within acceptable temperature limits.

  13. Hip joint injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine into the joint. The provider uses a real-time x-ray (fluoroscopy) to see where to place ... Wakefield RJ. Arthrocentesis and injection of joints and soft tissue. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, ...

  14. Premixed direct injection disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  15. Imipenem and Cilastatin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imipenem and cilastatin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria, including ... area), gynecological, blood, skin, bone, and joint infections. Imipenem is in a class of medications called carbapenem ...

  16. Quinupristin and Dalfopristin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are in a class of medications called streptogramin antibiotics. They work by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as quinupristin and dalfopristin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  17. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox - larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography - guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy - guided botulinum toxin treatment; ...

  18. The PEP injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Avery, R.T.; Peterson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A system to transport 10-to-15-GeV electron and positron beams from the Stanford Linear Accelerator and to inject them into the PEP storage ring under a wide variety of lattice configurations has been designed. Optically, the transport line consists of three 360/degree/ phase-shift sections of FODO lattice, with bending magnets interspersed in such a way as to provide achromaticity, convenience in energy and emittance definition, and independent tuning of the various optical parameters for matching into the ring. The last 360/degree/ of phase shift has 88 milliradians of bend in a vertical plane and deposits the beam at the injection septum via a Lambertson magnet. Injection is accomplished by launching the beam with several centimeters of radial betatron amplitude in a fast bump provided by a triad of pulsed kicker magnets. Radiation damping reduces the collective amplitude quickly enough to allow injection at a high repetition rate

  19. Modelization of cooling system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copete, Monica; Ortega, Silvia; Vaquero, Jose Carlos; Cervantes, Eva [Westinghouse Electric (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    In the site evaluation study for licensing a new nuclear power facility, the criteria involved could be grouped in health and safety, environment, socio-economics, engineering and cost-related. These encompass different aspects such as geology, seismology, cooling system requirements, weather conditions, flooding, population, and so on. The selection of the cooling system is function of different parameters as the gross electrical output, energy consumption, available area for cooling system components, environmental conditions, water consumption, and others. Moreover, in recent years, extreme environmental conditions have been experienced and stringent water availability limits have affected water use permits. Therefore, modifications or alternatives of current cooling system designs and operation are required as well as analyses of the different possibilities of cooling systems to optimize energy production taking into account water consumption among other important variables. There are two basic cooling system configurations: - Once-through or Open-cycle; - Recirculating or Closed-cycle. In a once-through cooling system (or open-cycle), water from an external water sources passes through the steam cycle condenser and is then returned to the source at a higher temperature with some level of contaminants. To minimize the thermal impact to the water source, a cooling tower may be added in a once-through system to allow air cooling of the water (with associated losses on site due to evaporation) prior to returning the water to its source. This system has a high thermal efficiency, and its operating and capital costs are very low. So, from an economical point of view, the open-cycle is preferred to closed-cycle system, especially if there are no water limitations or environmental restrictions. In a recirculating system (or closed-cycle), cooling water exits the condenser, goes through a fixed heat sink, and is then returned to the condenser. This configuration

  20. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.