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Sample records for cooling concept employing

  1. Cooling concepts for HTS components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binneberg, A.; Buschmann, H.; Neubert, J.

    1993-01-01

    HTS components require that low-cost, reliable cooling systems be used. There are no general solutions to such systems. Any cooling concept has to be tailored to the specific requirements of a system. The following has to he taken into consideration when designing cooling concepts: - cooling temperature - constancy and controllability of the cooling temperature - cooling load and refrigerating capacity - continuous or discontinuous mode - degree of automation - full serviceability or availability before evacuation -malfunctions caused by microphonic, thermal or electromagnetic effects -stationary or mobile application - investment and operating costs (orig.)

  2. Liquid metal cooled blanket concept for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Casal, V.; Arheidt, K.; Fischer, U.; Link, W.; Rust, K.

    1986-01-01

    A blanket concept for NET using liquid lithium-lead both as breeder material and as coolant is described. The need for inboard breeding is avoided by using beryllium as neutron multiplier in the outboard blanket. Novel flow channel inserts are employed in all poloidal ducts to reduce the MHD pressure drop. The concept offers a simple mechanical design and a higher tritium breeding ratio compared to water- and gas-cooled blankets. (author)

  3. Applications of the Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.; Embrechts, M.J.; Varsamis, G.; Wrisley, K.; Deutch, L.; Gierszewski, P.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper a novel water-cooled blanket concept is examined. This concept, designated the Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket (ASCB), employs water with small amounts of dissolved fertile compounds as both the coolant and the breeding medium. The ASCB concept is reviewed and its application in three different contexts is examined: (1) power reactors; (2) near-term devices such as NET; and (3) fusion-fission hybrids

  4. Concept of self-employment

    OpenAIRE

    Startienė, Gražina; Remeikienė, Rita; Dumčiuvienė, Daiva

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the theories that explain the growth of self-employment and help to determine the presumptions of the self-employment growth. Self-employment theories are classified to several groups, i.e. the economic and sociological-psychological as well as the “push” and “pull” theories. Economic theories of self-employment interpret financial motives of the person to pursue own business, while sociologicalpsychological theories of self-employment determine non-financial objectives...

  5. Self-cooled liquid-metal blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Arheidt, K.; Barleon, L.

    1988-01-01

    A blanket concept for the Next European Torus (NET) where 83Pb-17Li serves both as breeder material and as coolant is described. The concept is based on the use of novel flow channel inserts for a decisive reduction of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop and employs beryllium as neutron multiplier in order to avoid the need for breeding blankets at the inboard side of the torus. This study includes the design, neutronics, thermal hydraulics, stresses, MHDs, corrosion, tritium recovery, and safety of a self-cooled liquid-metal blanket. The results of the investigations indicate that the self-cooled blanket is an attractive alternative to other driver blanket concepts for NET and that it can be extrapolated to the conditions of a DEMO reactor

  6. Evaluating the income and employment impacts of gas cooling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Laitner, S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential employment and income benefits of the emerging market for gas cooling products. The emphasis here is on exports because that is the major opportunity for the U.S. heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry. But domestic markets are also important and considered here because without a significant domestic market, it is unlikely that the plant investments, jobs, and income associated with gas cooling exports would be retained within the United States. The prospects for significant gas cooling exports appear promising for a variety of reasons. There is an expanding need for cooling in the developing world, natural gas is widely available, electric infrastructures are over-stressed in many areas, and the cost of building new gas infrastructure is modest compared to the cost of new electric infrastructure. Global gas cooling competition is currently limited, with Japanese and U.S. companies, and their foreign business partners, the only product sources. U.S. manufacturers of HVAC products are well positioned to compete globally, and are already one of the faster growing goods-exporting sectors of the U.S. economy. Net HVAC exports grew by over 800 percent from 1987 to 1992 and currently exceed $2.6 billion annually (ARI 1994). Net gas cooling job and income creation are estimated using an economic input-output model to compare a reference case to a gas cooling scenario. The reference case reflects current policies, practices, and trends with respect to conventional electric cooling technologies. The gas cooling scenario examines the impact of accelerated use of natural gas cooling technologies here and abroad.

  7. Storage of HLW in engineered structures: air-cooled and water-cooled concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahner, S.; Dekais, J.J.; Puttke, B.; Staner, P.

    1981-01-01

    A comparative study on an air-cooled and a water-cooled intermediate storage of vitrified, highly radioactive waste (HLW) in overground installations has been performed by Nukem and Belgonucleaire respectively. In the air-cooled storage concept the decay heat from the storage area will be removed using natural convection. In the water-cooled storage concept the decay heat is carried off by a primary and secondary forced-cooling system with redundant and diverse devices. The safety study carried out by Nukem used a fault tree method. It shows that the reliability of the designed water-cooled system is very high and comparable to the inherent, safe, air-cooled system. The impact for both concepts on the environment is determined by the release route, but even during accident conditions the release is far below permissible limits. The economic analysis carried out by Belgonucleaire shows that the construction costs for both systems do not differ very much, but the operation and maintenance costs for the water-cooled facility are higher than for the air cooled facility. The result of the safety and economic analysis and the discussions with the members of the working group have shown some possible significant modifications for both systems, which are included in this report. The whole study has been carried out using certain national criteria which, in certain Member States at least, would lead to a higher standard of safety than can be justified on any social, political or economic grounds

  8. The transpiration cooled first wall and blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barleon, Leopold; Wong, Clement

    2002-01-01

    To achieve high thermal performance at high power density the EVOLVE concept was investigated under the APEX program. The EVOLVE W-alloy first wall and blanket concept proposes to use transpiration cooling of the first wall and boiling or vaporizing lithium (Li) in the blanket zone. Critical issues of this concept are: the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure losses of the Li circuit, the evaporation through a capillary structure and the needed superheating of the Li at the first wall and blanket zones. Application of the transpiration concept to the blanket region results in the integrated transpiration cooling concept (ITCC) with either toroidal or poloidal first wall channels. For both orientations the routing of the liquid Li and the Li vapor has been modeled and the corresponding pressure losses have been calculated by varying the width of the supplying slot and the capillary diameter. The concept works when the sum of the active and passive pumping head is higher than the total system pressure losses and when the temperature at the inner side of the first wall does not override the superheating limit of the coolant. This cooling concept has been extended to the divertor design, and the removal of a surface heat flux of up to 10 MW/m 2 appears to be possible, but this paper will focus on the transpiration cooled first wall and blanket concept assessment

  9. Feasibility study of fusion breeding blanket concept employing graphite reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Mu-Young; Lee, Cheol Woo; Kim, Eung Seon; Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Youngmin; Lee, Dong Won

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) breeding blanket concept adopts graphite as a reflector material by reducing the amount of beryllium multiplier. • Its feasibility was investigated in view point of the nuclear performance as well as material-related issues. • A nuclear analysis is performed under the fusion reactor condition to address the feasibility of graphite reflector in breeding blanket. • Also, the chemical stability of the graphite is investigated considering the chemical stability under accident conditions. • In conclusion, the adaptation of graphite reflector in breeding blanket is intrinsically safe and plausible under fusion reactor condition. - Abstract: To obtain high tritium breeding performance with limited blanket thickness, most of solid breeder blanket concepts employ a combination of lithium ceramic as a breeder and beryllium as a multiplier. In this case, considering that huge amount of beryllium are needed in fusion power plants, its handling difficulty and cost can be a major factor to be accounted for commercial use. Korea has proposed a Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) breeding blanket concept relevant to fusion power plants. Here, graphite is used as a reflector material by reducing the amount of beryllium multiplier. Its feasibility has been investigated in view point of the nuclear performance as well as material-related issues. In this paper, a nuclear analysis is performed under the fusion reactor condition to address the feasibility of graphite reflector in breeding blanket, considering tritium breeding capability and neutron shielding and activation aspects. Also, the chemical stability of the graphite is investigated considering the chemical stability under accident conditions, resulting in that the adaptation of graphite reflector in breeding blanket is intrinsically safe and plausible under fusion reactor condition.

  10. Feasibility study of fusion breeding blanket concept employing graphite reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seungyon, E-mail: sycho@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu-Young [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheol Woo; Kim, Eung Seon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Youngmin [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) breeding blanket concept adopts graphite as a reflector material by reducing the amount of beryllium multiplier. • Its feasibility was investigated in view point of the nuclear performance as well as material-related issues. • A nuclear analysis is performed under the fusion reactor condition to address the feasibility of graphite reflector in breeding blanket. • Also, the chemical stability of the graphite is investigated considering the chemical stability under accident conditions. • In conclusion, the adaptation of graphite reflector in breeding blanket is intrinsically safe and plausible under fusion reactor condition. - Abstract: To obtain high tritium breeding performance with limited blanket thickness, most of solid breeder blanket concepts employ a combination of lithium ceramic as a breeder and beryllium as a multiplier. In this case, considering that huge amount of beryllium are needed in fusion power plants, its handling difficulty and cost can be a major factor to be accounted for commercial use. Korea has proposed a Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) breeding blanket concept relevant to fusion power plants. Here, graphite is used as a reflector material by reducing the amount of beryllium multiplier. Its feasibility has been investigated in view point of the nuclear performance as well as material-related issues. In this paper, a nuclear analysis is performed under the fusion reactor condition to address the feasibility of graphite reflector in breeding blanket, considering tritium breeding capability and neutron shielding and activation aspects. Also, the chemical stability of the graphite is investigated considering the chemical stability under accident conditions, resulting in that the adaptation of graphite reflector in breeding blanket is intrinsically safe and plausible under fusion reactor condition.

  11. Aqueous self-cooled blanket concepts for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsamis, G.; Embrechts, M.J.; Steiner, D.; Deutsch, L.; Gierszewski, P.

    1987-01-01

    A novel aqueous self-cooled blanket (ASCB) concept has been proposed. The water coolant also serves as the tritium breeding medium by dissolving small amounts of lithium compound in the water. The tritium recovery requirements of the ASCB concept may be facilitated by the novel in-situ radiolytic tritium separation technique in development at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. In this separation process deuterium gas is bubbled through the blanket coolant. Due to radiation induced processes, the equilibrium constant favors tritium migration to the deuterium gas stream. It is expected that the inherent simplicity of this design will result in a highly reliable, safe and economically attractive breeding blanket for fusion reactors. The available base of relevant information accumulated through water-cooled fission reactor programs should greatly facilitate the R and D effort required to validate the proposed blanket concept. Tests for tritium separation and corrosion compatibility show encouraging results for the feasibility of this concept

  12. A New Concept of Full Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The target of full employment depends upon the goals regarding labour force participation rates, the length of the work week and frictional unemployment. Although nearly all social groups agree that stronger economic growth would contribute most to solving the unemployment problem, the prospects for

  13. RAMI analysis for DEMO HCPB blanket concept cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongiovanni, Danilo N., E-mail: danilo.dongiovanni@enea.it [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati (Italy); Pinna, Tonio [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati (Italy); Carloni, Dario [KIT, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) – KIT (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) preliminary assessment for HCPB blanket concept cooling system. • Reliability block diagram (RBD) modeling and analysis for HCPB primary heat transfer system (PHTS), coolant purification system (CPS), pressure control system (PCS), and secondary cooling system. • Sensitivity analysis on system availability performance. • Failure models and repair models estimated on the base of data from the ENEA fusion component failure rate database (FCFRDB). - Abstract: A preliminary RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) assessment for the HCPB (helium cooled pebble bed) blanket cooling system based on currently available design for DEMO fusion power plant is presented. The following sub-systems were considered in the analysis: blanket modules, primary cooling loop including pipework and steam generators lines, pressure control system (PCS), coolant purification system (CPS) and secondary cooling system. For PCS and CPS systems an extrapolation from ITER Test Blanket Module corresponding systems was used as reference design in the analysis. Helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) system reliability block diagrams (RBD) models were implemented taking into account: system reliability-wise configuration, operating schedule currently foreseen for DEMO, maintenance schedule and plant evolution schedule as well as failure and corrective maintenance models. A simulation of plant activity was then performed on implemented RBDs to estimate plant availability performance on a mission time of 30 calendar years. The resulting availability performance was finally compared to availability goals previously proposed for DEMO plant by a panel of experts. The study suggests that inherent availability goals proposed for DEMO PHTS system and Tokamak auxiliaries are potentially achievable for the primary loop of the HCPB concept cooling system, but not for the secondary loop. A

  14. Thermoelectric cooler concepts and the limit for maximum cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, W; Hinsche, N F; Pluschke, V

    2014-01-01

    The conventional analysis of a Peltier cooler approximates the material properties as independent of temperature using a constant properties model (CPM). Alternative concepts have been published by Bian and Shakouri (2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 212101), Bian (et al 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 245208) and Snyder et al (2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 045202). While Snyder's Thomson cooler concept results from a consideration of compatibility, the method of Bian et al focuses on the redistribution of heat. Thus, both approaches are based on different principles. In this paper we compare the new concepts to CPM and we reconsider the limit for maximum cooling. The results provide a new perspective on maximum cooling. (paper)

  15. Design Concepts for Cooled Ceramic Composite Turbine Vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Parikh, Ankur H.; Nagpal, VInod K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop design concepts for a cooled ceramic vane to be used in the first stage of the High Pressure Turbine(HPT). To insure that the design concepts were relevant to the gas turbine industry needs, Honeywell International Inc. was subcontracted to provide technical guidance for this work. The work performed under this contract can be divided into three broad categories. The first was an analysis of the cycle benefits arising from the higher temperature capability of Ceramic Matrix Composite(CMC) compared with conventional metallic vane materials. The second category was a series of structural analyses for variations in the internal configuration of first stage vane for the High Pressure Turbine(HPT) of a CF6 class commercial airline engine. The third category was analysis for a radial cooled turbine vanes for use in turboshaft engine applications. The size, shape and internal configuration of the turboshaft engine vanes were selected to investigate a cooling concept appropriate to small CMC vanes.

  16. Study on plant concept for gas cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moribe, Takeshi; Kubo, Shigenobu; Saigusa, Toshiie; Konomura, Mamoru

    2003-05-01

    In 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle System', technological options including various coolant (sodium, heavy metal, gas, water, etc.), fuel type (MOX, metal, nitride) and output power are considered and classified, and commercialized FBR that have economical cost equal to LWR are pursued. In conceptual study on gas cooled FBR in FY 2002, to identify the prospect of the technical materialization of the helium cooled FBR using coated particle fuel which is an attractive concept extracted in the year of FY2001, the preliminary conceptual design of the core and entire plant was performed. This report summarizes the results of the plant design study in FY2002. The results of study is as follows. 1) For the passive core shutdown equipment, the curie point magnet type self-actuated device was selected and the device concept was set up. 2) For the reactor block, the concept of the core supporting structure, insulators and liners was set up. For the material of the heat resistant structure, SiC was selected as a candidate. 3) For the seismic design of the plant, it was identified that a design concept with three-dimensional base isolation could be feasible taking the severe seismic condition into account. 4) For the core catcher, an estimation of possible event sequences under severe core damage condition was made. A core catcher concept which may suit the estimation was proposed. 5) The construction cost was roughly estimated based on the amount of materials and its dependency on the plant output power was evaluated. The value for a small sized plant exceeds the target construction cost about 20%. (author)

  17. Core melt retention and cooling concept of the ERP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisshaeupl, H [SIEMENS/KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Yvon, M [Nuclear Power International, Paris (France)

    1996-12-01

    For the French/German European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) mitigative measures to cope with the event of a severe accident with core melt down are considered already at the design stage. Following the course of a postulated severe accident with reactor pressure vessel melt through one of the most important features of a future design must be to stabilize and cool the melt within the containment by dedicated measures. This measures should - as far as possible - be passive. One very promising solution for core melt retention seems to be a large enough spreading of the melt on a high temperature resistant protection layer with water cooling from above. This is the favorite concept for the EPR. In dealing with the retention of a molten core outside of the RPV several ``steps`` from leaving the RPV to finally stabilize the melt have to gone through. These steps are: collection of the melt; transfer of the melt; distribution of the melt; confining; cooling and stabilization. The technical features for the EPR solution of a large spreading of the melt are: Dedicated spreading chamber outside the reactor pit (area about 150 m{sup 2}); high temperature resistant protection layers (e.g. Zirconia bricks) at the bottom and part of the lateral structures (thus avoiding melt concrete interaction); reactor pit and spreading compartment are connected via a discharge channel which has a slope to the spreading area and is closed by a steel plate, which will resist the core melt for a certain time in order to allow a collection of the melt; the spreading compartments is connected with the In-Containment Refuelling Water Storage Tank (IRWST) with pipes for water flooding after spreading. These pipes are closed and will only be opened by the hot melt itself. It is shown how the course of the different steps mentioned above is processed and how each of these steps is automatically and passively achieved. (Abstract Truncated)

  18. A cooling concept of spent fuels in lag storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong-Hwa; Yoo, Jae-Hyung; Park, Hyun-Soo

    1991-01-01

    A cooling concept of spent fuels by natural convection of hot cell air in storage pits was developed. Each storage pit was considered to be located below the hot cell floor and to accommodate only one spent fuel assembly. The aim of this study is to apply an appropriate cooling system to the design of a hot cell where considerable heat-generating fuels are handled. In such operations as disassembling, rod consolidation and packaging of spent fuels, a number of assemblies are on stand-by in the cell before and/or after the operations. A lag storage system can be used for temporary storage of spent fuels in nuclear facilities. Since the air in contact with bare fuel assemblies is potentially contaminated, it must be exhausted through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. If the storage pit is completely isolated from the hot cell space, then it will require another separate ventilation system by forced convection of air, which will result in additional cost for the construction. In this work, however, a cooling system was proposed where natural convection of hot cell air itself is achieved by thermo-syphon. The cold air from the hot cell is supplied to the inlet provided at the bottom of each pit through the gap between the concrete pit wall and the interior thermal shield. This thermal shield is needed to form flow channels for cold and heated air, and to prevent the concrete from over-heating. The heated air exhausts from the outlet located at the top of cell wall. No additional HEPA filters are needed in this system because the heated air is routed back to the hot cell due to buoyancy-induced flow. The technical feasibility of this concept was validated by thermal analyses. As the key design constraints are the surface temperature of fuel cladding and the concrete temperature of the storage pit, the thermal analyses were focused on these parameters whether they follow within allowable limits or not. (author)

  19. Employer branding in the background of relationship marketing conceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Maruszczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marketing is a dynamic discipline. Relation marketing is one of its conceptions and sets new standards for the cooperation between market players. It claims that a company’s market growth is influenced by longterm business relationships. Furthermore, it states that a company’s assets are defined by its relations within the business environment. Employer branding is defined as a series of actions, the goal of which is building a company’s brand on the market as “company of first choice for future employees”. The theoretical background for employer branding derives from relationship marketing.

  20. Theoretical analysis of the performance of different cooling strategies with the concept of cool exergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    The whole chains of exergy flows for different cooling systems were compared. The effects of cooling demand (internal vs. external solar shading), space cooling method (floor cooling vs. air cooling with ventilation system), and the availability of a nearby natural heat sink (intake air for the v......The whole chains of exergy flows for different cooling systems were compared. The effects of cooling demand (internal vs. external solar shading), space cooling method (floor cooling vs. air cooling with ventilation system), and the availability of a nearby natural heat sink (intake air...... for the ventilation system being outdoor air vs. air from the crawl-space, and air-to-water heat pump vs. ground heat exchanger as cooling source) on system exergy performance were investigated. It is crucial to minimize the cooling demand because it is possible to use a wide range of heat sinks (ground, lake, sea......-water, etc.) and indoor terminal units, only with a minimized demand. The water-based floor cooling system performed better than the air-based cooling system; when an air-to-water heat pump was used as the cooling source, the required exergy input was 28% smaller for the floor cooling system. The auxiliary...

  1. Performance Evaluation of a Mechanical Draft Cross Flow Cooling Towers Employed in a Subtropical Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Palanisamy; Naik, Bukke Kiran; Goswami, Amarendra

    2018-02-01

    Mechanical draft cross flow cooling towers are generally used in a large-scale water cooled condenser based air-conditioning plants for removing heat from warm water which comes out from the condensing unit. During this process considerable amount of water in the form of drift (droplets) and evaporation is carried away along with the circulated air. In this paper, the performance evaluation of a standard cross flow induced draft cooling tower in terms of water loss, range, approach and cooling tower efficiency are presented. Extensive experimental studies have been carried out in three cooling towers employed in a water cooled condenser based 1200 TR A/C plant over a period of time. Daily variation of average water loss and cooling tower performance parameters have been reported for some selected days. The reported average water loss from three cooling towers is 4080 l/h and the estimated average water loss per TR per h is about 3.1 l at an average relative humidity (RH) of 83%. The water loss during peak hours (2 pm) is about 3.4 l/h-TR corresponding to 88% of RH and the corresponding efficiency of cooling towers varied between 25% and 45%.

  2. Analysis of a sustainable gas cooled fast breeder reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Akansha; Chirayath, Sunil S.; Tsvetkov, Pavel V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A Thorium-GFBR breeder for actinide recycling ability, and thorium fuel feasibility. • A mixture of 232 Th and 233 U is used as fuel and LWR used fuel is used. • Detailed neutronics, fuel cycle, and thermal-hydraulics analysis has been presented. • Run this TGFBR for 20 years with breeding of 239 Pu and 233 U. • Neutronics analysis using MCNP and Brayton cycle for energy conversion are used. - Abstract: Analysis of a thorium fuelled gas cooled fast breeder reactor (TGFBR) concept has been done to demonstrate the self-sustainability, breeding capability, actinide recycling ability, and thorium fuel feasibility. Simultaneous use of 232 Th and used fuel from light water reactor in the core has been considered. Results obtained confirm the core neutron spectrum dominates in an intermediate energy range (peak at 100 keV) similar to that seen in a fast breeder reactor. The conceptual design achieves a breeding ratio of 1.034 and an average fuel burnup of 74.5 (GWd)/(MTHM) . TGFBR concept is to address the eventual shortage of 235 U and nuclear waste management issues. A mixture of thorium and uranium ( 232 Th + 233 U) is used as fuel and light water reactor used fuel is utilized as blanket, for the breeding of 239 Pu. Initial feed of 233 U has to be obtained from thorium based reactors; even though there are no thorium breeders to breed 233 U a theoretical evaluation has been used to derive the data for the source of 233 U. Reactor calculations have been performed with Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNP/MCNPX. It is determined that this reactor has to be fuelled once every 5 years assuming the design thermal power output as 445 MW. Detailed analysis of control rod worth has been performed and different reactivity coefficients have been evaluated as part of the safety analysis. The TGFBR concept demonstrates the sustainability of thorium, viability of 233 U as an alternate to 235 U and an alternate use for light water reactor used fuel as a

  3. Plasma Wind Tunnel Testing of Electron Transpiration Cooling Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Colorado State University ETC Electron Transpiration Cooling LHTS Local Heat Transfer Simulation LTE Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium RCC Reinforced...ceramic electric material testing in plasma environment (not performed), 4. measurements and analysis of the Electron Transpiration Cooling (Sec. 4.2). 2...VKI 1D boundary layer code for computation of enthalpy and boundary layer parameters: a) iterate on ’virtually measured ’ heat flux, b) once enthalpy

  4. Feasibility test of the concept of long-term passive cooling system of emergency cooldown tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myoung Jun; Moon, Joo Hyung; Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In; Lee, Hee Joon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The concept of long-term passive cooling system of emergency cooldown tank (ECT). • Existing natural circulation of steam from ECT and measurement of its condensing flow. • Evaluation of cooling capacity and heat transfer of air-cooled condensing heat exchanger. - Abstract: When a passive cooling system is activated in the accident of a nuclear reactor, the water in the emergency cooldown tank of that system will eventually be fully depleted by evaporation. If, however, the evaporating water could be returned to the tank through an air-cooled condensing heat exchanger mounted on top of the tank, the passive cooling system could provide cooling for an extended period. This feasibility of new concept of long-term passive cooling with an emergency cooldown tank was tested by performing an energy balance test with a scaled-down experimental setup. As a result, it was determined that a naturally circulating steam flow can be used to refill the tank. For an air-cooled heat exchanger, the cooling capacity and air-side natural convective heat transfer coefficient were obtained to be 37% of the heat load and between 9 and 10.2 W/m 2 /K depending on the heat load, respectively. Moreover, it was clearly verified that the water level in the emergency cooldown tank could be maintained over the long-term operation of the passive cooling system

  5. Design Concepts for Cooled Ceramic Matrix Composite Turbine Vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This project demonstrated that higher temperature capabilities of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) can be used to reduce emissions and improve fuel consumption in gas turbine engines. The work involved closely coupling aerothermal and structural analyses for the first-stage vane of a high-pressure turbine (HPT). These vanes are actively cooled, typically using film cooling. Ceramic materials have structural and thermal properties different from conventional metals used for the first-stage HPT vane. This project identified vane configurations that satisfy CMC structural strength and life constraints while maintaining vane aerodynamic efficiency and reducing vane cooling to improve engine performance and reduce emissions. The project examined modifications to vane internal configurations to achieve the desired objectives. Thermal and pressure stresses are equally important, and both were analyzed using an ANSYS® structural analysis. Three-dimensional fluid and heat transfer analyses were used to determine vane aerodynamic performance and heat load distributions.

  6. Current liquid metal cooled fast reactor concepts: use of the dry reprocess fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jee Won; Jeong, C. J.; Yang, M. S.

    2003-03-01

    Recent Liquid metal cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) concepts are reviewed for investigating the potential usability of the Dry Reprocess Fuel (DRF). The LFRs have been categorized into two different types: the sodium cooled and the lead cooled systems. In each category, overall design and engineering concepts are collected which includes those of S-PRISM, AFR300, STAR, ENHS and more. Specially, the nuclear fuel types which can be used in these LFRs, have been summarized and their thermal, physical and neutronic characteristics are tabulated. This study does not suggest the best-matching LFR for the DRF, but shows good possibility that the DRF fuel can be used in future LFRs

  7. Current liquid metal cooled fast reactor concepts: use of the dry reprocess fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jee Won; Jeong, C. J.; Yang, M. S

    2003-03-01

    Recent Liquid metal cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) concepts are reviewed for investigating the potential usability of the Dry Reprocess Fuel (DRF). The LFRs have been categorized into two different types: the sodium cooled and the lead cooled systems. In each category, overall design and engineering concepts are collected which includes those of S-PRISM, AFR300, STAR, ENHS and more. Specially, the nuclear fuel types which can be used in these LFRs, have been summarized and their thermal, physical and neutronic characteristics are tabulated. This study does not suggest the best-matching LFR for the DRF, but shows good possibility that the DRF fuel can be used in future LFRs.

  8. The concept and application of miniaturization boiling in cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaimi Illias; Muhammad Asri Idris

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study and examine the phenomena of miniaturization-boiling, which intensely scatters with a large number of minute liquid particles from a water droplet surface to the atmosphere, when the droplet collided with a heating surface. As the material of the heating surface, the following were used: stainless steel (SUS 303 A Cr=17%,Ni=8%), sapphire (Al 3 O 2 ), brass, copper and carbon plane. The material was heated in order to study the miniaturization-boiling and droplet bounding phenomena at a very high temperature (160 degree C- 420 degree C). The phenomenon was photographed by a high-speed camera (10,000 fps) from the horizontal direction. The nuclear fusion reactor needs a very severe cooling, heat removal cooling method by special boiling is lead to this research. (Author)

  9. Caloric effects in ferroic materials: new concepts for cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehler, Sebastian; Roessler, Ulrich K. [IFW Dresden (Germany); Kastner, Oliver; Eggeler, Gunther [Ruhr Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Eckert, Juergen [IFW Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden, Institut fuer Werkstoffwisssenschaft, Dresden (Germany); Emmerich, Heike [Universitaet Bayreuth (Germany); Entel, Peter [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany); Mueller, Stefan [Institut fuer Angewandte Mathematik, Bonn (Germany); Quandt, Eckhard [Institute for Materials Science, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet (CAU), Kiel (Germany); Albe, Karsten [TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Refrigeration is one of the main sinks of the German and European electricity consumption and accordingly contributes to worldwide CO{sub 2} emissions. High reduction potentials are envisaged if caloric effects in solid materials are used. The recent discovery of giant entropy changes associated with ferroelastic phase transformations promises higher efficiency. Ferroic transitions enhance the entropy change of magneto-, elasto-, baro-, and electro-caloric effects. Furthermore, because the refrigerant is in a solid state, this technology completely eliminates the need for halofluorocarbon refrigerants having a high global-warming potential. The smaller footprint for operation and the scalable mechanism open up further applications such as cooling of microsystems. While the principal feasibility of magnetocaloric refrigeration is already evident, it requires large magnetic fields (>2 T) which hampers wide industrial and commercial application. It is expected that this obstacle can be overcome by materials with lower hysteresis and by using stress- or electric fields. In order to accelerate research on ferroic cooling, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) decided to establish the priority program SPP 1599 in April 2011. In this article we will address the major challenges for introducing ferroic materials in practical cooling applications: energy efficiency, effect size, and fatigue behavior. Solid state cooling in this sense can be based on the following ''ferroic-caloric'' classes of materials: ferroelastic shape memory alloys, ferromagnetic shape memory alloys, and ferroelectric materials and their possible combinations in materials with ''multicaloric'' effects. The open questions require the interdisciplinary collaboration of material scientists, engineers, physicists, and mathematicians. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Fabrication of gas turbine water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware employing plasma spray process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilke, Peter W.; Muth, Myron C.; Schilling, William F.; Rairden, III, John R.

    1983-01-01

    In the method for fabrication of water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware for high temperature gas turbines, a high thermal conductivity copper alloy is applied, employing a high velocity/low pressure (HV/LP) plasma arc spraying process, to an assembly comprising a structural framework of copper alloy or a nickel-based super alloy, or combination of the two, and overlying cooling tubes. The copper alloy is plamsa sprayed to a coating thickness sufficient to completely cover the cooling tubes, and to allow for machining back of the copper alloy to create a smooth surface having a thickness of from 0.010 inch (0.254 mm) to 0.150 inch (3.18 mm) or more. The layer of copper applied by the plasma spraying has no continuous porosity, and advantageously may readily be employed to sustain a pressure differential during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding of the overall structure to enhance bonding by solid state diffusion between the component parts of the structure.

  11. Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) Decay Heat Removal Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. D. Weaver; L-Y. Cheng; H. Ludewig; J. Jo

    2005-01-01

    Current research and development on the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) has focused on the design of safety systems that will remove the decay heat during accident conditions, ion irradiations of candidate ceramic materials, joining studies of oxide dispersion strengthened alloys; and within the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) the fabrication of carbide fuels and ceramic fuel matrix materials, development of non-halide precursor low density and high density ceramic coatings, and neutron irradiation of candidate ceramic fuel matrix and metallic materials. The vast majority of this work has focused on the reference design for the GFR: a helium-cooled, direct power conversion system that will operate with an outlet temperature of 850 C at 7 MPa. In addition to the work being performed in the United States, seven international partners under the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) have identified their interest in participating in research related to the development of the GFR. These are Euratom (European Commission), France, Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Of these, Euratom (including the United Kingdom), France, and Japan have active research activities with respect to the GFR. The research includes GFR design and safety, and fuels/in-core materials/fuel cycle projects. This report is a compilation of work performed on decay heat removal systems for a 2400 MWt GFR during this fiscal year (FY05)

  12. Plant Control Concept for the Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eui Kwang; Kim, S. O.

    2010-12-01

    A power plant is designed for incorporation into a utility's grid system and follows the load demand through the steam generator, intermediate heat exchanger(IHX), from the nuclear core. During the load-following transients, various plant parameters must be controlled to protect the reactor core and other components in the plant. The purpose of this report is to review design considerations to establish SFR plant control and to design plant control concepts. The governing equations and solution procedure of the computer code to calculate plant temperature conditions during the part-load operation was reviewed and 4 types of plant operation concepts were designed, and the results of the calculations were compared

  13. Molten salt cooling/17Li-83Pb breeding blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.K.; Cheng, E.T.

    1985-02-01

    A description of a fusion breeding blanket concept using draw salt coolant and static 17 Li- 83 Pb is presented. 17 Li- 83 Pb has high breeding capability and low tritium solubility. Draw salt operates at low pressure and is inert to water. Corrosion, MHD, and tritium containment problems associated with the MARS design are alleviated because of the use of a static LiPb blanket. Blanket tritium recovery is by permeation toward the plasma. A direct contact steam generator is proposed to eliminate some generic problems associated with a tube shell steam generator

  14. Linac based photofission inspection system employing novel detection concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, John, E-mail: jstevenson@rapiscansystems.com [Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc., 520 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Gozani, Tsahi, E-mail: tgozani@rapiscansystems.com [Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc., 520 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Elsalim, Mashal; Condron, Cathie; Brown, Craig [Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc., 520 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Rapiscan Systems is developing a LINAC based cargo inspection system for detection of special nuclear material (SNM) in cargo containers. The system, called Photofission Based Alarm Resolution (PBAR) is being developed under a DHD/DNDO Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) program. The PBAR system is based on the Rapiscan Eagle P9000 X-ray system, which is a portal system with a commercial 9 MeV LINAC X-ray source. For the purposes of the DNDO ATD program, a conveyor system was installed in the portal to allow scanning and precise positioning of 20 ft ISO cargo containers. The system uses a two step inspection process. In the first step, the basic scan, the container is quickly and completely inspected using two independent radiography arrays: the conventional primary array with high spatial resolution and a lower resolution spectroscopic array employing the novel Z-Spec method. The primary array uses cadmium tungstate (CdWO{sub 4}) detectors with conventional current mode readouts using photodiodes. The Z-Spec array uses small plastic scintillators capable of performing very fast (up to 10{sup 8} cps) gamma-ray spectroscopy. The two radiography arrays are used to locate high-Z objects in the image such as lead, tungsten, uranium, which could be potential shielding materials as well as SNM itself. In the current system, the Z-Spec works by measuring the energy spectrum of transmitted X-rays. For high-Z materials the higher end of the energy spectrum is more attenuated than for low-Z materials and thus has a lower mean energy and a narrower width than low- and medium-Z materials. The second step in the inspection process is the direct scan or alarm clearing scan. In this step, areas of the container image, which were identified as high Z, are re-inspected. This is done by precisely repositioning the container to the location of the high-Z object and performing a stationary irradiation of the area with X-ray beam. Since there are a large number of photons in the 9

  15. Linac based photofission inspection system employing novel detection concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, John; Gozani, Tsahi; Elsalim, Mashal; Condron, Cathie; Brown, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Rapiscan Systems is developing a LINAC based cargo inspection system for detection of special nuclear material (SNM) in cargo containers. The system, called Photofission Based Alarm Resolution (PBAR) is being developed under a DHD/DNDO Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) program. The PBAR system is based on the Rapiscan Eagle P9000 X-ray system, which is a portal system with a commercial 9 MeV LINAC X-ray source. For the purposes of the DNDO ATD program, a conveyor system was installed in the portal to allow scanning and precise positioning of 20 ft ISO cargo containers. The system uses a two step inspection process. In the first step, the basic scan, the container is quickly and completely inspected using two independent radiography arrays: the conventional primary array with high spatial resolution and a lower resolution spectroscopic array employing the novel Z-Spec method. The primary array uses cadmium tungstate (CdWO 4 ) detectors with conventional current mode readouts using photodiodes. The Z-Spec array uses small plastic scintillators capable of performing very fast (up to 10 8 cps) gamma-ray spectroscopy. The two radiography arrays are used to locate high-Z objects in the image such as lead, tungsten, uranium, which could be potential shielding materials as well as SNM itself. In the current system, the Z-Spec works by measuring the energy spectrum of transmitted X-rays. For high-Z materials the higher end of the energy spectrum is more attenuated than for low-Z materials and thus has a lower mean energy and a narrower width than low- and medium-Z materials. The second step in the inspection process is the direct scan or alarm clearing scan. In this step, areas of the container image, which were identified as high Z, are re-inspected. This is done by precisely repositioning the container to the location of the high-Z object and performing a stationary irradiation of the area with X-ray beam. Since there are a large number of photons in the 9 MV

  16. The Case for Employing the Mobile Assault Company Concept Through the Spectrum of Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sokol, Blair J

    2008-01-01

    The Mobile Assault Company (MAC) concept--the technique of employing the Marine Infantry Battalion's Weapons Company as a fourth maneuver element--is currently being employed successfully during counterinsurgency and Stability...

  17. Concept of safe tank-type water cooled and moderated reactor with HTGR microparticle fuel compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'tsev, A.O.; Kukharkin, N.E.; Mosevitskij, I.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Popov, S.V.; Udyanskij, Yu.N.; Tsibul'skij, V.F.

    1993-01-01

    Concept of safe tank-type water-cooled and moderated reactor on the basis of HTGR fuel microparticles which enable to avoid environment contamination with radioactive products under severe accidents, is proposed. Results of neutron-physical and thermal-physical studies of water cooled and moderated reactor with HTGR microparticle compacts are presented. Characteristics of two reactors with thermal power of 500 and 1500 MW are indicated within the concept frames. The reactor behaviour under severe accident connected with complete loss of water coolant is considered. It is shown that under such an accident the fission products release from fuel microparticles does not occur

  18. Liquid metal cooling concepts in solar power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deegan, P.B.; Mangus, J.D.; Whitlow, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The thermodynamic and thermophysical properties and proven technology of a liquid sodium heat transport system provide numerous advantages and benefits for application in a central receiver solar thermal power plant concept. The major advantages of utilizing liquid sodium are: attainment of high thermodynamic cycle efficiencies, reduced relative costs, and achievement of these goals by the mid-1980's through the utilization of proven liquid metal technology developed in the power industry, without the need for extensive development programs. The utilization of liquid sodium reduces the complexity of the design of these systems, thus providing confidence in system reliability. The implementation of the proven technology in liquid metal systems also provides assurance of reliability. In addition, the ease of transition from liquid metal breeder reactor systems to solar application provides immediate availability of this technology

  19. Employment and Concepts of Work in the New Global Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Gives an historical overview of the role and value of work from economic, philosophical, and legal perspectives. Stresses the need to humanize current globalization and technological trends in order to achieve the fundamental principle of the right to work and the objective of full employment. (SK)

  20. Reference modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Plant: Concept description report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a summary description of the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) concept and interim results of assessments of costs, safety, constructibility, operability, maintainability, and availability. Conceptual design of this concept was initiated in October 1985 and is scheduled for completion in 1987. Participating industrial contractors are Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC), GA Technologies, Inc. (GA), General Electric Co. (GE), and Combustion Engineering, Inc. (C-E).

  1. Reference modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Plant: Concept description report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a summary description of the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) concept and interim results of assessments of costs, safety, constructibility, operability, maintainability, and availability. Conceptual design of this concept was initiated in October 1985 and is scheduled for completion in 1987. Participating industrial contractors are Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC), GA Technologies, Inc. (GA), General Electric Co. (GE), and Combustion Engineering, Inc

  2. Cool Girls, Inc. and Self-Concept: The Role of Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Jessica D.; Kuperminc, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Social capital was examined as a mediator of the association between youth development program participation and gains in self-concept in a sample of 86 primarily African American female adolescents in the Cool Girls, program, and 89 comparisons. Two dimensions of social capital (the diversity of girls' social networks and the number of life…

  3. Design and performance study of the helium-cooled T-tube divertor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihli, T.; Raffray, A.R.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Shin, S.

    2007-01-01

    The ARIES-CS study has been launched with the goal of developing through physics and engineering optimization an attractive power plant concept based on a compact stellarator configuration. The study included an effort to characterize the divertor location and corresponding heat load distribution, and to develop a He-cooled divertor concept that could accommodate a heat flux of at least 10 MW/m 2 , and that would integrate well with the other power core components. This paper describes the design study of this divertor concept, which, although developed for a compact stellarator, is well suited for a tokamak configuration also

  4. Radiolysis and corrosion aspects of the aqueous self-cooled blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, A.; Snykers, M.; Bogaerts, W.F.; Waeben, R.; Embrechts, M.J.; Steiner, D.

    1989-01-01

    Corrosion and radiolysis aspects of the Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket concept, proposed as a potential shielding breeding blanket for near term fusion devices and fusion reactors, have been investigated. On the basis of preliminary results for selected aqueous solutions of lithium compounds, no particular corrosion problems have been revealed for the low-temperature concept envisaged for NET and radiolysis effects might be controlled by appropriate countermeasures. For the reactor-relevant high-temperature concept particular attention has to be paid to intergranular stress-corrosion and to the synergistic radiolysis-corrosion effects. Further information is needed from tests performed in relevant operational conditions. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of molten fuel containment concepts for gas-cooled fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.S.; Torri, A.

    1979-10-01

    Four in-vessel molten fuel containment concepts for the GCFR were compared, namely, (1) a ceramic crucible, (2) a borax bath, (3) a heavy metal bath, and (4) a steel bath. The ceramic crucible is the simplest but depends on substantial upward heat removal. The borax bath and the heavy metal bath concepts offer better performance but would require design changes and an increased experimental effort. The steel bath concept is a good compromise and has potential for further improvement by combining it with the essential features of other concepts, i.e., the crucible or the heavy metal bath. It is concluded that several concepts could potentially exploit the normally provided cooled liner barrier in the PCRV cavity for post-accident fuel containment

  6. Building concept of cooling towers for WWER-1000 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucha, V.; David, M.

    1984-01-01

    A project is described of cooling towers with natural draught for the Temelin nuclear power plant. The concept proceeds from the classical design of the so-called Itterson type, i.e., the outer cladding of the draught stack is made of a monolithic reinforced concrete unit in the shape of a hyperboloid of revolution supported by a system of oblique supports mounted along the edge of the cooled water tank. The procedure is explained of the thermal calculation for the given operating conditions. The basic alternatives are considered of the choice of material and design of the cooling system. Questions are discussed relating to the design of the eliminator, the windwart wall and the shape of the shell of the draught stack and its loading by wind and seismic effects. (E.S.)

  7. Concept of CFD model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyhlík T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of CFD model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow. The physical phenomena taking place within a natural draft wet cooling tower are described by the system of conservation law equations along with additional equations. The heat and mass transfer in the counterflow wet-cooling tower fill are described by model [1] which is based on the system of ordinary differential equations. Utilization of model [1] of the fill allows us to apply commonly measured fill characteristics as shown by [2].The boundary value problem resulting from the fill model is solved separately. The system of conservation law equations is interlinked with the system of ordinary differential equations describing the phenomena occurring in the counterflow wet-cooling tower fill via heat and mass sources and via boundary conditions. The concept of numerical solution is presented for the quasi one dimensional model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow. The simulation results are shown.

  8. Solar cooling - implementation of intelligent concepts; Solare Kuehlung - intelligente Konzepte werden Realitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puettmer, M. [Goetz GmbH, Metall- und Anlagenbau, Fellbach (Germany); Kranz, H.R. [Siemens AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    In chapter 11 of the anthology about building control the subject solar cooling is described. The following aspects are discussed: changed preconditions for thermal building concepts, building facades and energy supply - one unit. Can cold be economically generated by solar energy? (BWI) [Deutsch] Kapitel 11 des Sammelbandes ueber Building Control ist dem Thema der solaren Kuehlung gewidmet. In diesem Zusammenhang werden folgende Themenkreise angesprochen: Geaenderte Voraussetzungen fuer thermische Gebaeudekonzepte; Gebaeudefassade und Energieversorgung: eine Einheit; Kann Kaelte mit der Sonne wirtschaftlich erzeugt werden? (BWI)

  9. Test module in NET for a self-cooled liquid metal blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Arheidt, K.; Fischer, U.

    1989-01-01

    The application of a self-cooled liquid metal blanket concept to the condition of a DEMO-reactor and its testing in NET is described. The neutronics analysis shows that tritium self-sufficiency can be achieved without beryllium multiplier if breeding blankets are arranged at both outboard and inboard side of the torus or, using beryllium as multiplier, with outboard breeding only. First estimates indicate that it should be possible to test all relevant features of the concept in one of the horizontal plug positions of NET. (author). 6 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Melt cooling by bottom flooding. The COMET core-catcher concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foit, Jerzy Jan; Alsmeyer, Hans; Tromm, Walter; Buerger, Manfred; Journeau, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    The COMET concept has been developed to cool an ex-vessel corium melt in case of a hypothetical severe accident leading to vessel melt-through. After erosion of a sacrificial concrete layer the melt is passively flooded by bottom injection of coolant water. The open porosities and large surface that are generated during melt solidification form a porous permeable structure that is permanently filled with the evaporating water and thus allows an efficient short-term as well as long-term removal of the decay heat. The advantages of this concept are the fast cool-down and complete solidification of the melt within less than one hour typically. This stops further release of fission products from the corium. A drawback may be the fast release of steam during the quenching process. Several experimental series have been performed by FZK (Germany) to test and optimise the functionality of the different variants of the COMET concept. Thermite generated melts of iron and aluminium oxide were used. The large scale COMET-H test series with sustained inductive heating includes nine experiments performed with an array of water injection channels embedded in a sacrificial concrete layer. Variation of the water inlet pressure and melt height showed that melts up to 50 cm height can be safely cooled with an overpressure of the coolant water of 0.2 bar. The CometPC concept is based on cooling by flooding the melt from the bottom through layers of porous, water filled concrete. The third variant of the COMET design, CometPCA, uses a layer of porous, water filled concrete CometPCA from which flow channels protrude into the layer of sacrificial concrete. This modified concept combines the advantages of the original COMET concept with flow channels and the high resistance of a water-filled porous concrete layer against downward melt attack. Four large scale CometPCA experiments (FZK, Germany) have demonstrated an efficient cooling of melts up to 50 cm height using the recommended water

  11. Transient analyses on the cooling channels of the DEMO HCPB blanket concept under accidental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuming; Ghidersa, Bradut-Eugen; Jin, Xue Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents transient CFD analyses on the cooling channels of the DEMO HCPB FW for accidental scenarios LOCA and LOFA. • In both LOCA & LOFA, the wall temperature increases quickly to an unacceptable level within seconds. • If the coolant flow rate is maintained at a half of nominal value in case of LOFA (partial LOFA), the wall temperature rises much slower, but will still leads to a damage of structure within minutes. • The simulated heat transfer coefficients were compared with empirical correlations. - Abstract: Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket concept is one of the DEMO (Demonstration Power Plant) blanket concepts running for the final DEMO design selection. In this paper, transient analyses on the cooling channels of the FW are carried out by means of CFD simulations for the selected accidental scenarios loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and loss-of-flow-accident (LOFA). ANSYS-CFX is used for the simulations. The simulation results help to understand how fast the temperature of the FW can increase and what is the time window that is available until the temperature of the structural material reaches the design limit in order to be able to define a suitable protection strategy for the system. In view of later developments of the models, the heat transfer coefficients calculated with CFD are compared with the values predicted by two widely used correlations for turbulent pipe flows.

  12. Transient analyses on the cooling channels of the DEMO HCPB blanket concept under accidental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuming, E-mail: Yuming.chen@kit.edu; Ghidersa, Bradut-Eugen; Jin, Xue Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents transient CFD analyses on the cooling channels of the DEMO HCPB FW for accidental scenarios LOCA and LOFA. • In both LOCA & LOFA, the wall temperature increases quickly to an unacceptable level within seconds. • If the coolant flow rate is maintained at a half of nominal value in case of LOFA (partial LOFA), the wall temperature rises much slower, but will still leads to a damage of structure within minutes. • The simulated heat transfer coefficients were compared with empirical correlations. - Abstract: Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket concept is one of the DEMO (Demonstration Power Plant) blanket concepts running for the final DEMO design selection. In this paper, transient analyses on the cooling channels of the FW are carried out by means of CFD simulations for the selected accidental scenarios loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and loss-of-flow-accident (LOFA). ANSYS-CFX is used for the simulations. The simulation results help to understand how fast the temperature of the FW can increase and what is the time window that is available until the temperature of the structural material reaches the design limit in order to be able to define a suitable protection strategy for the system. In view of later developments of the models, the heat transfer coefficients calculated with CFD are compared with the values predicted by two widely used correlations for turbulent pipe flows.

  13. Basic conceptions for development of new-type high-efficiency cooling towers with enhanced reliability, maneuverability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim En Be; Nedviga, Yu.S.

    1990-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of cooling tower design, construction and operation is analysed. From the analysis formulated are general requirements which can be imposed upon cooling towers serving as most important technological apparatuses in water supply systems of thermal and nuclear power plants. With these requirements taken into account, basic research and technical conceptions are developed to be used in designing new-type cooling towers characterized by enhanced reliability, maneuverability and maintainability

  14. The design of aircraft brake systems, employing cooling to increase brake life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringe, R. P.; Ho, T. L.; Peterson, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    A research program was initiated to determine the feasibility of using cooling to increase brake life. An air cooling scheme was proposed, constructed and tested with various designs. Straight and curved slotting of the friction material was tested. A water cooling technique, similar to the air cooling procedure, was evaluated on a curved slotted rotor. Also investigated was the possibility of using a phase-change material within the rotor to absorb heat during braking. Various phase-changing materials were tabulated and a 50%, (by weight) LiF - BeF2 mixing was chosen. It was shown that corrosion was not a problem with this mixture. A preliminary design was evaluated on an actual brake. Results showed that significant improvements in lowering the surface temperature of the brake occurred when air or water cooling was used in conjunction with curved slotted rotors.

  15. Employment of neural networks for analysis of chemical composition and cooling rate effect on CCT diagrams shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, L.A.; Trzaska, J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents possibility of employment of the original supercooled austenite transformation anisothermic diagrams forecasting method for analysis of the chemical composition effect on the CCT diagrams shape. The developed model makes it possible to substitute computer simulation for the costly and time consuming experiments. The information derived from calculations make it possible to plot diagrams illustrating the effects of the particular elements or pairs of elements, as well as cooling rate and/or austenitizing temperature, on any temperature or time describing transformations in steel during its continuous cooling. Evaluation is also possible of the effect of the aforementioned factors on hardness and fractions of the particular structural constituents. (author)

  16. Present state of the safety concept of natural-draught cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraetzig, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    Safety and reliability of a building depend on the mechanical model chosen, on the shape deviations of the structure, as well as on the distribution functions and fractile values of the main influences and strength properties of the materials. For the shell, the supports, and the foundation of a natural-draught cooling tower, the wind plays a special, safety-reducing role due to the fact that its upper limit remains unknown. This role is still enhanced by the dead weight of the concrete which partially exceeds the tensile load. This requires a dimensioning concept with partial safety coefficients which is established in the present paper. So far, it has been successfully used in the construction of more than 50 cooling towers. (orig.) [de

  17. Concept of an inherently-safe high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Masuro

    2012-01-01

    As the challenge to ensure no harmful release of radioactive materials at the accidents by deterministic approach instead to satisfy acceptance criteria or safety goal for risk by probabilistic approach, new concept of advanced reactor, an inherently-safe high temperature gas-cooled reactor, is proposed based on the experience of the operation of the actual High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in Japan, High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), and the design of the commercial plant (GTHTR300), utilizing the inherent safety features of the HTGR (i.e., safety features based on physical phenomena). The safety design philosophy of the inherently-safe HTGR for the safety analysis of the radiological consequences is determined as the confinement of radioactive materials is assured by only inherent safety features without engineered safety features, AC power or prompt actions by plant personnel if the design extension conditions occur. Inherent safety features to prevent the loss or degradation of the confinement function are identified. It is proposed not to apply the probabilistic approach for the evaluation of the radiological consequences of the accidents in the safety analysis because no inherent safety features fail for the mitigation of the consequences of the accidents. Consequently, there are no event sequences to harmful release of radioactive materials if the design extension conditions occur in the inherently-safe HTGR concept. The concept and future R and D items for the inherently-safe HTGR are described in this paper.

  18. Prospects of the aqueous self-cooled blanket concept for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snykers, M.; Bruggeman, A.; Bogaerts, W.F.; Embrechts, M.J.; Steiner, D.; Daenner, W.

    1989-01-01

    A low-technology Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket (ASCB) concept has been proposed for the Next European Torus (NET). This concept relies on structural material and cooling water, with small amounts of lithium compounds for tritium production. Following preliminary investigations, LiOH, LiNO 3 , LiNO 2 and Li 2 SO 4 are currently under consideration as tritium breeding materials in solution. The concept may benefit from the proven technologies from the PWRs and from the CANDU tritium extraction systems. It combines good shielding and breeding capabilities. It would serve as a reliable environment for experimenting with several DEMOnstration reactor-relevant blanket modules in NET. Since net tritium breeding is not a design requirement for NET, sufficient tritium breeding can be obtained without the application of external neutron multipliers if enrichment in 6 Li is utilized. For a DEMOnstration reactor ASCB-based blanket, neutron multipliers have to be incorporated and temperature and pressure have to be increased. Radiolysis and corrosion aspects are of particular concern and need further investigation. (orig.)

  19. Cooling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    After an introduction to the general concepts of cooling of charged particle beams, some specific cooling methods are discussed, namely stochastic, electron and laser cooling. The treatment concentrates on the physical ideas of the cooling methods and only very crude derivations of cooling times are given. At the end three other proposed cooling schemes are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  20. Liquid metal versus gas cooled reactor concepts for a turbo electric powered space vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Proust, E.; Schwartz, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Recent CNES/CEA prospective studies of an orbit transfer vehicule to be launched by ARIANE V, emphasize the advantage of the Brayton cycle over the thermionics and thermoelectricity, in minimizing the total mass of 100 to 300 kWsub(e) power systems under the constraint specific to ARIANE of a radiator area limited to 95 m 2 . The review of candidate reactor concepts for this application, finally recommends both liquid metal and gas cooled reactors, for their satisfactory adaptation to a reference Brayton cycle and for the available experience from the terrestrial operation of comparable systems

  1. Optimization of operating parameters of ground source heat pump system for space heating and cooling by Taguchi method and utility concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivasakthivel, T.; Murugesan, K.; Thomas, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technology is suitable for both heating and cooling. • Important parameters that affect the GSHP performance has been listed. • Parameters of GSHP system has been optimized for heating and cooling mode. • Taguchi technique and utility concept are developed for GSHP optimization. - Abstract: Use of ground source energy for space heating applications through Ground Source Heat pump (GSHP) has been established as an efficient thermodynamic process. The electricity input to the GSHP can be reduced by increasing the COP of the system. However, the COP of a GSHP system will be different for heating and cooling mode operations. Hence in order to reduce the electricity input to the GSHP, an optimum value of COP has to be determined when GSHP is operated in both heating and cooling modes. In the present research, a methodology is proposed to optimize the operating parameters of a GSHP system which will operate on both heating and cooling modes. Condenser inlet temperature, condenser outlet temperature, dryness fraction at evaporator inlet and evaporator outlet temperature are considered as the influencing parameters of the heat pump. Optimization of these parameters for only heating or only cooling mode operation is achieved by employing Taguchi method for three level variations of the above parameters using an L 9 (3 4 ) orthogonal array. Higher the better concept has been used to get a higher COP. A computer program in FORTAN has been developed to carry out the computations and the results have been analyzed for the optimum conditions using Signal-to-Noise (SN) ratio and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) method. Based on this analysis, the maximum COP for only heating and only cooling operation are obtained as 4.25 and 3.32 respectively. By making use of the utility concept both the higher values of COP obtained for heating and cooling modes are optimized to get a single optimum COP for heating and cooling modes. A single

  2. Radiolysis aspects of the aqueous self-cooled blanket concept and the problem of tritium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, A.; Snykers, M.; DeRegge, P.; Embrechts, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket (ASCB) concept, an aqueous 6 Li solution in a metallic structure is used as a fusion reactor shielding-breeding blanket. Radiolysis effects could be very important for the design and the use of an ASCB. Although many aspects of the radiation chemistry of water and dilute aqueous solutions are now reasonably well understood, it is not possible to predict the radiochemical behaviour of the concentrated candidate ASCB solutions quantitatively. However, by means of a worst case calculation for a possible ASCB for the Next European Torus (NET) it is shown that even with an important rate of water decomposition the ASCB concept is still workable. Gas bubbles and explosive mixtures can be avoided by increasing the pressure in the neutron irradiated zone and by extracting and/or recombining the radiolytically produced hydrogen and oxygen. This could require an additional inert gas loop, which could also be used as part of the tritium extraction installation

  3. Applications of the aqueous self-cooled blanket (ASCB) concept to the Next European Torus (NET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrechts, M.J.; Bogaerts, W.; Cardella, A.; Chazalon, M.; Danner, W.; Dinner, P.; Libin, B.

    1987-01-01

    The Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket Concept (ASCB) leads to a low-technology blanket design that relies on just structural material and coolant with small amounts of lithium compound dissolved in the coolant to provide for tritium production. The application of the ASCB concept in NET is being considered as a driver blanket that would operate at low temperature and low pressure and provide a reliable environment for machine operation during the technology phase. Shielding and tritium production are the primary objectives for such a low-technology blanket. Net tritium breeding is not a design requirement per se for a driver blanket for NET. A DEMO relevant ASCB based blanket test module with (local) tritium self-sufficiency and energy recovery as primary objectives might also be tested in NET if future developments confirm their viability

  4. Self-cooled blanket concepts using Pb-17Li as liquid breeder and coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Deckers, H.; Fischer, U.; John, H.; Meyder, R.; Norajitra, P.; Reimann, J.; Reiser, H.; Rust, K.

    1991-01-01

    A blanket design concept using Pb-17Li eutectic alloy as both breeder material and coolant is described. Such a self-cooled blanket for the boundary conditions of a DEMO-reactor is under development at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in the frame of the European blanket development program. Results of investigations in the areas of design, neutronics, magneto-hydrodynamics, thermo-mechanics, ancillary loop systems, and safety are reported. Based on recent progress, it can be concluded that the boundary conditions of a DEMO-reactor can be met, tritium self-sufficiency can be obtained without using beryllium as an additional neutron multiplier, and tritium inventory and permeation are acceptably low. However, to complete judge the feasibility of the proposed concept, further studies are necessary to obtain a better understanding of the magneto-hydrodynamic phenomena and their effects on the thermal-hydraulic performance of a fusion reactor blanket. (orig.)

  5. Cool roofs in China: Policy review, building simulations, and proof-of-concept experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yafeng; Xu, Jiangmin; Yang, Shichao; Tang, Xiaomin; Zhou, Quan; Ge, Jing; Xu, Tengfang; Levinson, Ronnen

    2014-01-01

    While the concept of reflective roofing is not new to China, most Chinese cool roof research has taken place within the past decade. Some national and local Chinese building energy efficiency standards credit or recommend, but do not require, cool roofs or walls. EnergyPlus simulations of standard-compliant Chinese office and residential building prototypes in seven Chinese cities (Harbin, Changchun, Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Wuhan, and Guangzhou) showed that substituting an aged white roof (albedo 0.6) for an aged gray roof (albedo 0.2) yields positive annual load, energy, energy cost, CO 2 , NO x , and SO 2 savings in all hot-summer cities (Chongqing, Shanghai, Wuhan, and Guangzhou). Measurements in an office building in Chongqing in August 2012 found that a white coating lowered roof surface temperature by about 20 °C, and reduced daily air conditioning energy use by about 9%. Measurements in a naturally ventilated factory in Guangdong Province in August 2011 showed that a white coating decreased roof surface temperature by about 17 °C, lowered room air temperature by 1–3 °C, and reduced daily roof heat flux by 66%. Simulation and experimental results suggest that cool roofs should be credited or prescribed in building energy efficiency standards for both hot summer/warm winter and hot summer/cold winter climates in China

  6. Concept of the Cooling System of the ITS for ALICE: Technical Proposals, Theoretical Estimates, Experimental Results

    CERN Document Server

    Godisov, O N; Yudkin, M I; Gerasimov, S F; Feofilov, G A

    1994-01-01

    Contradictory demands raised by the application of different types of sensitive detectors in 5 layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) for ALICE stipulate the simultaneous use of different schemes of heat drain: gaseous cooling of the 1st layer (uniform heat production over the sensitive surface) and evaporative cooling for the 2nd-5th layers (localised heat production). The last system is also a must for the thermostabilization of Si-drift detectors within 0.1 degree C. Theoretical estimates of gaseous, evaporative and liquid cooling systems are done for all ITS layers. The results of the experiments done for evaporative and liquid heat drain systems are presented and discussed. The major technical problems of the evaporative systems' design are being considered: i) control of liquid supply; ii) vapour pressure control. Two concepts of the evaporative systems are proposed: 1) One channel system for joint transfer of two phases (liquid + gas); 2) Two channels system with separate transfer of phases. Both sy...

  7. Tritium transport in the water cooled Pb-17Li blanket concept of DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, F.; Tominetti, S.; Perujo, A.

    1992-01-01

    The code TIRP has been used to calculate the time dependence of tritium inventory and tritium permeation into the coolant and into the first wall boxes in the water cooled Pb-17Li blanket concept of DEMO. The calculations have been performed for the martensitic steel MANET and the austenitic steel AISI 316L as blanket structure materials, for water or helium cooling and for convective or no motion of the liquid breeder in the blanket. Tritium inventories are rather low in blankets with MANET structure and higher in those with AISI 316L structure. Tritium permeation rates are too high in both blankets. Further calculations on tritium inventory and permeation are therefore presented for blankets with TiC permeation barriers of 1 μm thickness on various surfaces of the blanket structure and for blankets with any permeation barriers in function of their thickness, tritium diffusivities, tritium surface recombination rates and atomic densities. These last calculations have been performed for a blanket with coatings on the outer surfaces of the blanket and with a tritium residence time of 10 4 s and for a blanket with coatings on both sides of the cooling tubes and stagnant Pb-17Li in the blanket. The second case for a blanket with MANET structure presents a very interesting solution for tritium recovery by permeation into and pumping from the first wall boxes. (orig.)

  8. Experimental investigation of a directionally enhanced DHX concept for high temperature Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Joel T.; Blandford, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel directional heat exchanger design has been developed. • Hydrodynamic tests have been performed on the proposed design. • Heat transfer performance is inferred by hydrodynamic results. • Results are discussed and future work is suggested. - Abstract: The use of Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACSs) as a safety-related decay heat removal system for advanced reactors has developed historically through the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) community. Beginning with the EBR-II, DRACSs have been utilized in a large number of past and current SFR designs. More recently, the DRACS has been adopted for Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs) for similar decay heat removal functions. In this paper we introduce a novel directionally enhanced DRACS Heat Exchanger (DHX) concept. We present design options for optimizing such a heat exchanger so that shell-side heat transfer is enhanced in one primary coolant flow direction and degraded in the opposite coolant flow direction. A reduced-scale experiment investigating the hydrodynamics of a directionally enhanced DHX was built and the data collected is presented. The concept of thermal diodicity is expanded to heat exchanger technologies and used as performance criteria for evaluating design options. A heat exchanger that can perform as such would be advantageous for use in advanced reactor concepts where primary coolant flow reversal is expected during Loss-of-Forced-Circulation (LOFC) accidents where the ability to circulate coolant is compromised. The design could also find potential use in certain advanced Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) designs utilizing fluidic diode concepts.

  9. Experimental investigation of a directionally enhanced DHX concept for high temperature Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Joel T.; Blandford, Edward D., E-mail: edb@unm.edu

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A novel directional heat exchanger design has been developed. • Hydrodynamic tests have been performed on the proposed design. • Heat transfer performance is inferred by hydrodynamic results. • Results are discussed and future work is suggested. - Abstract: The use of Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACSs) as a safety-related decay heat removal system for advanced reactors has developed historically through the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) community. Beginning with the EBR-II, DRACSs have been utilized in a large number of past and current SFR designs. More recently, the DRACS has been adopted for Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs) for similar decay heat removal functions. In this paper we introduce a novel directionally enhanced DRACS Heat Exchanger (DHX) concept. We present design options for optimizing such a heat exchanger so that shell-side heat transfer is enhanced in one primary coolant flow direction and degraded in the opposite coolant flow direction. A reduced-scale experiment investigating the hydrodynamics of a directionally enhanced DHX was built and the data collected is presented. The concept of thermal diodicity is expanded to heat exchanger technologies and used as performance criteria for evaluating design options. A heat exchanger that can perform as such would be advantageous for use in advanced reactor concepts where primary coolant flow reversal is expected during Loss-of-Forced-Circulation (LOFC) accidents where the ability to circulate coolant is compromised. The design could also find potential use in certain advanced Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) designs utilizing fluidic diode concepts.

  10. Preliminary design concept of HYPER cooling system using Pb-Bi coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tak, Nam Il; Song, Tae Y.; Park, Won S.; Kim, Chang H

    2001-09-01

    The present study focuses on providing the basic concept of HYPER's cooling system based on simple and fundamental calculations. The system operating temperature was preliminarily determined as 340/510 .deg. C. The total system flow rate of HYPER is {approx} 40,000kg/sec and the flow velocity in the core is preliminarily designed to be {approx}1.5 m/sec. For hot conditions of HYPER core, the simple analytic calculation predicted that the maximum temperature of the cladding outer surface is 634 .deg. C, which is below the design limit, 650 .deg. C. However, the SLTHEN code modified for HYPER's subchannel analysis predicted that the maximum temperature of the cladding outer surface in the same conditions is higher than the design limit by 4.7 .deg. C. The comparison with the results of the analytic model and additional sensitivity calculations showed that the modified SLTHEN code can reasonably simulate the heat transfer between subchannels of the HYPER core and be used effectively for thermal hydraulic design of the HYPER core in conceptual design stage. A forced circulation is inevitable during a full power condition since natural circulation is not sufficient to cool the core with reasonable system pressure drop and reasonable system height. However, a natural circulation can be an excellent method for decay heat removal when the height difference between the core and the heat exchanger is above 10 m. In order to avoid high pressure loads on the vessel, loop configuration was chosen. The simplification of cooling system and high system efficiency were attained by removing independent target cooling system and intermediate heat transport system. A superheated rankle cycle was chosen since it is technically matured and its thermal efficiency is reasonably high.

  11. The concept of `work ability' from the view point of employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Inger; Björklund, Anita; Perseius, Kent-Inge; Gunnarsson, A Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    Since work ability is manifested in working life and ``bought'' by employers, employers perceptions of the concept are important to understand. Studies have shown that people with health problems want to take part in the labour market, but experience difficulties in gaining access. Additionally, studies have demonstrated the doubt felt by employers when they consider hiring a person with a disability. The aim was to identify and characterise employers' conceptions of work ability. The study design was qualitative with a phenomenographic approach. Six male and six female employers from various workplaces and geographical areas in Sweden were interviewed. Three domains were identified: employees' contributions to work ability, employers' contributions to work ability and circumstances with limited work ability. Work ability was regarded as a tool in production and its output, production, was the main issue. The employees' commitment and interest could bridge other shortcomings. The employers highlighted their own contributions in shaping work ability in order to fit with work circumstances. Health problems were not the only limiting issues; other circumstances, such as individual characteristics and contextual factors, could limit work ability too. Knowing the importance of commitment and interest is valuable in work rehabilitation.

  12. Deconstructing flexicurity and developing alternative approaches: towards new concepts and approaches for employment and social policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keune, M.; Serrano, A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of flexicurity has come to occupy a central place in political and academic debates regarding employment and social policy. It fosters a view in which the need for continuously increasing flexibility is the basic assumption, and the understanding of security increasingly

  13. Mechanical Design Concept of Fuel Assembly for Prototype GEN-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, K. H.; Lee, C. B.

    2014-01-01

    The prototype GEN-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) is an advanced fast reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test for design certification at minimum cost and risk. The design concepts of the fuel assembly (FA) were introduced for a PGSFR. Unlike that for the pressurized water reactor, there is a neutron shielding concept in the FA and recycling metal fuel. The PGSFR core is a heterogeneous, uranium-10% zirconium (U-10Zr) metal alloy fuel design with 112 assemblies: 52 inner core fuel assemblies, 60 outer core fuel assemblies, 6 primary control assemblies, 3 secondary control assemblies, 90 reflector assemblies and 102 B4C shield assemblies. This configuration is shown in Fig. 1. The core is designed to produce 150 MWe with an average temperature rise of 155 .deg. C. The inlet temperature is 390 .deg. C and the bulk outlet temperature is 545 .deg. C. The core height is 900 mm and the gas plenum length is 1,250 mm. A mechanical design of a fuel assembly for a PGSFR was established. The mechanical design concepts are well realized in the design. In addition to this, the analytical and experimental works will be carries out for verifying the design soundness

  14. Mechanical Design Concept of Fuel Assembly for Prototype GEN-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K. H.; Lee, C. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The prototype GEN-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) is an advanced fast reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test for design certification at minimum cost and risk. The design concepts of the fuel assembly (FA) were introduced for a PGSFR. Unlike that for the pressurized water reactor, there is a neutron shielding concept in the FA and recycling metal fuel. The PGSFR core is a heterogeneous, uranium-10% zirconium (U-10Zr) metal alloy fuel design with 112 assemblies: 52 inner core fuel assemblies, 60 outer core fuel assemblies, 6 primary control assemblies, 3 secondary control assemblies, 90 reflector assemblies and 102 B4C shield assemblies. This configuration is shown in Fig. 1. The core is designed to produce 150 MWe with an average temperature rise of 155 .deg. C. The inlet temperature is 390 .deg. C and the bulk outlet temperature is 545 .deg. C. The core height is 900 mm and the gas plenum length is 1,250 mm. A mechanical design of a fuel assembly for a PGSFR was established. The mechanical design concepts are well realized in the design. In addition to this, the analytical and experimental works will be carries out for verifying the design soundness.

  15. Once-through cycle, supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Y.; Koshizuka, S. [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab

    2001-07-01

    Concept of once-through cycle, supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors was developed. The research covered major aspects of conceptual design such as cores of thermal and fast reactors, plant system and heat balance, safety system and criteria, accident and transient analysis, LOCA, PSA, plant control and start-up. The advantages of the reactor lie in the compactness of the plant from high specific enthalpy of supercritical water, the simplicity of the once-through cycle and the experiences of major component technologies which are based on supercritical fossil-fired power plants and LWRs. The operating temperatures of the major components are within the experience in spite of high coolant outlet temperature. The once-through cycle is compatible with the tight fuel lattice fast reactor because of high head pumps and small coolant flow rate. (author)

  16. Once-through cycle, supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Y.; Koshizuka, S.

    2001-01-01

    Concept of once-through cycle, supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors was developed. The research covered major aspects of conceptual design such as cores of thermal and fast reactors, plant system and heat balance, safety system and criteria, accident and transient analysis, LOCA, PSA, plant control and start-up. The advantages of the reactor lie in the compactness of the plant from high specific enthalpy of supercritical water, the simplicity of the once-through cycle and the experiences of major component technologies which are based on supercritical fossil-fired power plants and LWRs. The operating temperatures of the major components are within the experience in spite of high coolant outlet temperature. The once-through cycle is compatible with the tight fuel lattice fast reactor because of high head pumps and small coolant flow rate. (author)

  17. Development concept concerning the utilization of district heating for cooling of buildings; Udviklingskoncept vedroerende anvendelse af fjernvarme til koeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, L.; Minds, G.; Hansen, K.E.; Hammer, F.

    1998-03-01

    The main purpose of the project was to develop a concept for cooling of buildings by means of district heating based on Danish conditions. Heat operated cooling plants placed at the individual consumers or in local cooling stations, from where cold water is distributed in small networks to a limited number of consumers, are the main elements of the concept. Basically it should be possible to use the technology in connection with the district heating systems spread all over the country, systems which are characterised by rather low temperatures - typically between 70 deg. and 90 deg. C in the supply pipes and about 40-50 deg. C in the return pipes. In transmission networks the level is often 10-20 deg. C higher. The cooling is mainly to be used for air-conditioning of shopping centres, office buildings, computer plants, hospitals, nursing homes etc. The project is based on the conditions in Hoeje Taastrup, which is a relatively new and open city area with a rather big concentration of buildings which already need cooling. At the moment this demand is covered by individual electrically operated compressors. Models of heat based cooling plants are set up and compared to the present compressor based systems with respect to technology, energy, economy and environmental conditions. The results are generalised, thus they will be relevant to other Danish towns supplied by district heating. However, the possibilities of cooling based on natural gas from small scale combined heat and power have not been discussed at all. (EG)

  18. Assessing energy and thermal comfort of different low-energy cooling concepts for non-residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvalai, Graziano; Pfafferott, Jens; Sesana, Marta Maria

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact of five cooling technologies are simulated in six European climate zones with Trnsys 17. • The ventilation strategies reduce the cooling energy need even in South Europe climate. • Constant ventilation controller can lead to a poor cooling performance. • Comparing radiant strategies with air conditioning scenario, the energy saving is predicted to within 5–35%. - Abstract: Energy consumption for cooling is growing dramatically. In the last years, electricity peak consumption grew significantly, switching from winter to summer in many EU countries. This is endangering the stability of electricity grids. This article outlines a comprehensive analysis of an office building performances in terms of energy consumption and thermal comfort (in accordance with static – ISO 7730:2005 – and adaptive thermal comfort criteria – EN 15251:2007 –) related to different cooling concepts in six different European climate zones. The work is based on a series of dynamic simulations carried out in the Trnsys 17 environment for a typical office building. The simulation study was accomplished for five cooling technologies: natural ventilation (NV), mechanical night ventilation (MV), fan-coils (FC), suspended ceiling panels (SCP), and concrete core conditioning (CCC) applied in Stockholm, Hamburg, Stuttgart, Milan, Rome, and Palermo. Under this premise, the authors propose a methodology for the evaluation of the cooling concepts taking into account both, thermal comfort and energy consumption

  19. Can the acceptance of nuclear reactors be raised by a simpler, more transparent safety concept employing improved containments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1993-01-01

    Sociological and psychological findings are presented which describe problems society faces with risky technologies. It turns out that for a small but influential group of the society not only the risk, but also the transparency of the technology and the engineered safeguards are important. For this group an improvement of the transparency should raise the acceptance of the technology. However, for the majority of the public, broad discussions about a different more transparent safety concept could generate a feeling of insecurity, especially concerning existing nuclear power plants. In order to improve the transparency in engineered safeguards of nuclear reactors, four basic principles are introduced. Nuclear containments, which remain intact after failure of all emergency cooling systems resulting in a core meltdown accident with steam and hydrogen explosions, are in line with these principles. Such containments are under investigation in Germany right now. It is pointed out that the public should be informed prudently about this work to improve the containments, and the required transparency of the engineered safeguards should be underlined as a major goal. Vague descriptions, providing only superficially information about safer reactors, could easily cause misunderstandings. If one goes along this line a simpler and more transparent safety concept employing improved containments will have the potential to raise the acceptance of nuclear reactors. (orig.)

  20. Basic concept of fuel safety design and assessment for sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakae, Nobuo; Baba, Toshikazu; Kamimura, Katsuichiro

    2013-03-01

    'Philosophy in Safety Evaluation of Fast Breeder Reactors' was published as a guideline for safety design and safety evaluation of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor in Japan. This guideline points out that cladding creep and swelling due to internal pressure should be taken into account since the fuel is used under high temperature and high burnup, and that fuel assembly deformation and the prevention from coolant channel blockage should be taken into account in viewpoints of nuclear and thermal hydraulic design. However, the requirements including their criteria and evaluation items are not described. Two other domestic guidelines related to core design are applied for fuel design of fast reactor, but the description is considered to not be enough to practically use. In addition, technical standard for nuclear fuel used in power reactors is also applied for fuel inspection. Therefore, the technical standard and guideline for fuel design and safety evaluation are considered to be very important issue for nuclear safety regulation. This document has been developed according to the following steps: The guidelines and the technical standards, which are prepared in foreign countries and international organization, were reviewed. The technical background concerning fuel design and safety evaluation for fast reactor was collected and summarized in the world wide scale. The basic concept of fuel safety design and assessment for sodium-cooled fast reactor was developed by considering a wide range of views of the specialists in Japan. In order to discuss the content with foreign specialists IAEA Consultancy Meetings have been held on January, 2011 and January, 2012. The participants of the meeting came from USA, UK, EC, India, China and South Korea. The specialists of IAEA and JNES were also joined. Although this document is prepared for application to 'Monju'(prototype LMFR), it may be applied to experimental, demonstration and commercial types of LMFR after revising it by taking

  1. Design Concept of Advanced Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor and Related R&D in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-il Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Korea imports about 97% of its energy resources due to a lack of available energy resources. In this status, the role of nuclear power in electricity generation is expected to become more important in future years. In particular, a fast reactor system is one of the most promising reactor types for electricity generation, because it can utilize efficiently uranium resources and reduce radioactive waste. Acknowledging the importance of a fast reactor in a future energy policy, the long-term advanced SFR development plan was authorized by KAEC in 2008 and updated in 2011 which will be carried out toward the construction of an advanced SFR prototype plant by 2028. Based upon the experiences gained during the development of the conceptual designs for KALIMER, KAERI recently developed advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR design concepts of TRU burner that can better meet the generation IV technology goals. The current status of nuclear power and SFR design technology development program in Korea will be discussed. The developments of design concepts including core, fuel, fluid system, mechanical structure, and safety evaluation have been performed. In addition, the advanced SFR technologies necessary for its commercialization and the basic key technologies have been developed including a large-scale sodium thermal-hydraulic test facility, super-critical Brayton cycle system, under-sodium viewing techniques, metal fuel development, and developments of codes, and validations are described as R&D activities.

  2. A Feasible DEMO Blanket Concept Based on Water Cooled Solid Breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Someya, Y.; Tobita, K.; Utoh, H.; Hoshino, K.; Asakura, N.; Nakamura, M.; Tanigawa, H.; Mikio, E.; Tanigawa, H.; Nakamichi, M.; Hoshino, T., E-mail: someya.yoji@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: JAEA has conducted the conceptual design study of blanket for a fusion DEMO reactor SlimCS. Considering DEMO specific requirements, we place emphasis on a blanket concept with durability to severe irradiation, ease of fabrication for mass production, operation temperature of blanket materials, and maintainability using remote handling equipment. This paper present a promising concept satisfying these requirements, which is characterized by minimized welding lines near the front, a simplified blanket interior consisting of cooling tubes and a mixed pebble bed of breeder and neutron multiplier, and approximately the same outlet temperature for all blanket modules. Neutronics calculation indicated that the blanket satisfies a self-sufficient production of tritium. An important finding is that little decrease is seen in tritium breeding ratio even when the gap between neighboring blanket modules is as wide as 0.03 m. This means that blanket modules can be arranged with such a significant clearance gap without sacrifice of tritium production, which will facilitate the access of remote handling equipment for replacement of the blanket modules and improve the access of diagnostics. (author)

  3. Supercritical-pressure, once-through cycle light water cooled reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop new reactor concepts for the innovation of light water reactors (LWR) and fast reactors. Concept of the once-through coolant cycle, supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactor was developed. Major aspects of reactor design and safety were analysed by the computer codes which were developed by ourselves. It includes core design of thermal and fast reactors, plant system, safety criteria, accident and transient analysis, LOCA, PSA, plant control, start up and stability. High enthalpy rise as supercritical boiler was achieved by evaluating the cladding temperature directly during transients. Fundamental safety principle of the reactor is monitoring coolant flow rate instead of water level of LWR. The reactor system is compact and simple because of high specific enthalpy of supercritical water and the once-through cycle. The major components are similar to those of LWR and supercritical thermal plant. Their temperature are within the experiences in spite of the high outlet coolant temperature. The reactor is compatible with tight fuel lattice fast reactor because of the high head pumps and low coolant flow rate. The power rating of the fast reactor is higher than the that of thermal reactor because of the high power density. (author)

  4. Performance of the Lead-Alloy-Cooled Reactor Concept Balanced for Actinide Burning and Electricity Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejzlar, Pavel; Davis, Cliff B.

    2004-01-01

    A lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor concept targeted for a balanced mission of actinide burning and low-cost electricity production is proposed and its performance analyzed. The design explores the potential benefits of thorium-based fuel in actinide-burning cores, in particular in terms of the reduction of the large reactivity swing and enhancement of the small Doppler coefficient typical of fertile-free actinide burners. Reduced electricity production cost is pursued through a longer cycle length than that used for fertile-free burners and thus a higher capacity factor. It is shown that the concept can achieve a high transuranics destruction rate, which is only 20% lower than that of an accelerator-driven system with fertile-free fuel. The small negative fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, small positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and negative core radial expansion coefficient provide self-regulating characteristics so that the reactor is capable of inherent shutdown during major transients without scram, as in the Integral Fast Reactor. This is confirmed by thermal-hydraulic analysis of several transients without scram, including primary coolant pump trip, station blackout, and reactivity step insertion, which showed that the reactor was able to meet all identified thermal limits. However, the benefits of high actinide consumption and small reactivity swing can be attained only if the uranium from the discharged fuel is separated and not recycled. This additional uranium separation step and thorium reprocessing significantly increase the fuel cycle costs. Because the higher fuel cycle cost has a larger impact on the overall cost of electricity than the savings from the higher capacity factor afforded through use of thorium, this concept appears less promising than the fertile-free actinide burners

  5. Performance of the Lead-Alloy Cooled Concept Balanced for Actinide Burning and Electricity Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel Hejzlar; Cliff Davis

    2004-01-01

    A lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor concept targeted for a balanced mission of actinide burning and low-cost electricity production is proposed and its performance analyzed. The design explores the potential benefits of thorium-based fuel in actinide-burning cores, in particular in terms of the reduction of the large reactivity swing and enhancement of the small Doppler coefficient typical of fertile-free actinide burners. Reduced electricity production cost is pursued through a longer cycle length than that used for fertile-free burners and thus a higher capacity factor. It is shown that the concept can achieve a high transuranics destruction rate, which is only 20% lower than that of an accelerator-driven system with fertile-free fuel. The small negative fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, small positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and negative core radial expansion coefficient provide self-regulating characteristics so that the reactor is capable of inherent shutdown during major transients without scram, as in the Integral Fast Reactor. This is confirmed by thermal-hydraulic analysis of several transients without scram, including primary coolant pump trip, station blackout, and reactivity step insertion, which showed that the reactor was able to meet all identified thermal limits. However, the benefits of high actinide consumption and small reactivity swing can be attained only if the uranium from the discharged fuel is separated and not recycled. This additional uranium separation step and thorium reprocessing significantly increase the fuel cycle costs. Because the higher fuel cycle cost has a larger impact on the overall cost of electricity than the savings from the higher capacity factor afforded through use of thorium, this concept appears less promising than the fertile-free actinide burners

  6. Concept of electric power output control system for atomic power generation plant utilizing cool energy of stored snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, Seiji; Toita, Takayuki

    2003-01-01

    A concept of the SEAGUL system (Snow Enhancing Atomic-power Generation UtiLity) is proposed in this paper. Lowering the temperature of sea water for cooling of atomic-power plant will make a efficiency of power generation better and bring several ten MW additional electric power for 1356 MW class plant. The system concept stands an idea to use huge amount of seasonal storage snow for cooling water temperature control. In a case study for the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, it is estimated to cool down the sea water of 29degC to 20degC by 80 kt snow for 3 hours in a day would brought 60 MWh electric power per a day. Annually 38.4 Mt of stored snow will bring 1800 MWh electric power. (author)

  7. Do New Production Concepts and a new Management of Employment Relations, yield higher Employee Performance and lower Job Strain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolus Kraan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article old versus new production concepts (NPCs and employment relation instruments, are studied, separately and in combination, to find out which yield high employee performance and low job strain. Therefore, in 2005, TNO conducted coupled surveys among 149 supervisors and employees. In the past decades, in reaction to dysfunctions of Tayloristic and professional bureaucratic production concepts and employment relations, several new forms of employment relations and NPCs, appeared. Examples are the Socio-technical NPC and customized employment relations. In this study both this NPC and customized employment relations - i.c. customized performance targets - demonstrate positive associations with employee performance. According to Socio-technical theory the design of employment relations is relatively unimportant, as human resources are mobilised primarily by the production concept. Our results for this NPC show the legitimacy of this assumption, because its high employee performance is irrespective of the employment relation instruments. On the contrary, in the other NPCs and in professional bureaucracies, the (employment relation instruments of respectively an increased period needed for learning the job, and customized performance targets can compensate for the lower employee performance in these production concepts. The results do not show increased job strain, due to new production concepts, or new employment relations. production concepts, employment relations, labour productivity, socio-technical theory

  8. Evaluation of a Design Concept for the Combined Air-water Passive Cooling PAFS+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sung Won; Kwon, Taesoon

    2014-01-01

    The APR+ system provides the Passive Auxiliary Feed-water System (PAFS) for the passive cooling capability. However, the current design requirement for working time for the PAFS is about 8 hours only. Thus, current working time of PAFS can not meet the required 72 hours cooling capability for the long term SBO situation. To meet the 72 hours cooling, the pool capacity should be almost 3∼4 times larger than that of current water cooling tank. In order to continue the PAFS operation for 72 hours, a new passive air-water combined cooling system is proposed. This paper provides the feasibility study on the combined passive air-water cooling system. Figure 1 and 2 show the conceptual difference of the PAFS and combined passive air-water cooling system, respectively. Simple performance evaluation of the passive air cooling heat exchanger has been conducted by the MARS calculation. For the postulated FLB scenario, 4800 heat exchanger tubes and 5 m/s air velocity are not sufficient to sustain the PCCT pool level for 72 hour cooling. Further works on the system design and performance enhancing plan are required to fulfill the 72 hours long term passive cooling

  9. A comparative analysis of reactor lower head debris cooling models employed in the existing severe accident analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, K.I.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, H.D.

    1998-08-01

    MELCOR and MAAP4 are the representative severe accident analysis codes which have been developed for the integral analysis of the phenomenological reactor lower head corium cooling behavior. Main objectives of the present study is to identify merits and disadvantages of each relevant model through the comparative analysis of the lower plenum corium cooling models employed in these two codes. The final results will be utilized for the development of LILAC phenomenological models and for the continuous improvement of the existing MELCOR reactor lower head models, which are currently being performed at the KAERI. For these purposes, first, nine reference models are selected featuring the lower head corium behavior based on the existing experimental evidences and related models. Then main features of the selected models have been critically analyzed, and finally merits and disadvantages of each corresponding model have been summarized in the view point of realistic corium behavior and reasonable modeling. Being on these evidences, summarized and presented the potential improvements for developing more advanced models. The present study has been focused on the qualitative comparison of each model and so more detailed quantitative analysis is strongly required to obtain the final conclusions for their merits and disadvantages. In addition, in order to compensate the limitations of the current model, required further studies relating closely the detailed mechanistic models with the molten material movement and heat transfer based on phase-change in the porous medium, to the existing simple models. (author). 36 refs

  10. Improving Safety, Economic, Substantiality, and Security of Nuclear Energy with Canadian Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactor Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Holly; Pencer, Jeremy; Yetisir, Metin; Leung, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactor is one of the six design concepts being developed under the Generation IV International Forum. It is the only concept evolving from the water-cooled reactors and taking advantages of the balance-of-plant design and operation experience of the fossil-power plants. Canada is developing the SCR concept from the well-established pressure-tube reactor technology. The Canadian SCWR maintains modular design approach using relative small fuel channels with the separation of coolant and moderator. It is equipped with an advanced fuel channel design that is capable to transfer decay heat from the fuel to the moderator under the long-term cooling stage. Coupled with the advanced passive-moderator cooling system, cooling of fuel and fuel channel is continuous even without external power or operator intervention. The Canadian SCWR is operating at a pressure of 25 MPa with a core outlet temperature of 625 deg. C. This has led to a drastic increase in thermal efficiency to 48% from 34% of the current fleet of reactors (a 40% rise in relative efficiency). With the high core outlet temperature, a direct thermal cycle has been adopted and has led to simplification in plant design attributing to the cost reduction compared to the current reactor designs. The Canadian SCWR adopts the advanced Thorium fuel cycle to enhance the substantiality, economic, and security. than uranium in the world (estimated to be three times more). This provides the long-term fuel supply. Thorium's price is stable compared to uranium and is consistently lower than uranium. This would maintain the predictability and economic of fuel supply. Thorium itself is a non-fissile material and once irradiated requires special handling. This improves proliferative resistance. The objective of this paper is to highlight these improvements in generating nuclear energy with the Canadian SCWR

  11. A new small modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor plant concept based on proven technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Goodjohn, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Based on the established and proven high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technologies from the Peach Bottom 1 and Fort St. Vrain utility-operated units, a new small modular HTGR reactor is currently being evaluated. The basic nuclear reactor heat source, with a prismatic core, is being designed so that the decay heat can be removed by passive means (i.e., natural circulation). Although this concept is still in the preconceptual design stage, emphasis is being placed on establishing an inherently safe or benign concept which, when engineered, will have acceptable capital cost and power generation economics. The proposed new HTGR concept has a variety of applications, including electrical power generation, cogeneration, and high-temperature process heat. This paper discusses the simplest application, i.e., a steam Rankine cycle electrical power generating version. The gas-cooled modular reactor concepts presented are based on a graphite moderated prismatic core of low-power density (i.e., 4.1 W/cm 3 ) with a thermal rating of 250 MW(t). With the potential for inherently safe characteristics, a new small reactor could be sited close to industrial and urban areas to provide electrical power and thermal heating needs (i.e., district and space heating). Incorporating a multiplicity of small modular units to provide a larger power output is also discussed. The potential for a small, inherently safe HTGR reactor concept is highlighted

  12. Subjective evaluation of different ventilation concepts combined with radiant heating and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta; Simone, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen subjects evaluated the indoor environment in four experiments with different combinations of ventilation and radiant heating/cooling systems. Two test setups simulated a room in a low energy building with a single occupant during winter. The room was equipped either by a ventilation system...... supplying warm air space heating or by a combination of radiant floor heating and mixing ventilation system. Next two test setups simulated an office room with two occupants during summer, ventilated and cooled by a single displacement ventilation system or by a radiant floor cooling combined...

  13. Exploring the Effects of Employing Google Docs in Collaborative Concept Mapping on Achievement, Concept Representation, and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Tzu; Chang, Chia-Hu; Hou, Huei-Tse; Wu, Ke-Chou

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of using Google Docs in collaborative concept mapping (CCM) by comparing it with a paper-and-pencil approach. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in a physics course. The control group drew concept maps using the paper-and-pencil method and face-to-face discussion, whereas the experimental group…

  14. Comparison of In-Vessel Shielding Design Concepts between Sodium-cooled Fast Burner Reactor and the Sodium-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Sunghwan; Kim, Sang Ji

    2015-01-01

    In this study, quantities of in-vessel shields were derived and compared each other based on the replaceable shield assembly concept for both of the breeder and burner SFRs. Korean Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR) like SFR was used as the reference reactor and calculation method reported in the reference was used for shielding analysis. In this paper, characteristics of in-vessel shielding design were studied for the burner SFR and breeder SFR based on the replaceable shield assembly concept. An in-vessel shield to prevent secondary sodium activation (SSA) in the intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) is one of the most important structures for the pool type Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). In our previous work, two in-vessel shielding design concepts were compared each other for the burner SFR. However, a number of SFRs have been designed and operated with the breeder concept, in which axial and radial blankets were loaded for fuel breeding, during the past several decades. Since axial and radial blanket plays a role of neutron shield, comparison of required in-vessel shield amount between the breeder and burner SFRs may be an interesting work for SFR designer. Due to the blanket, the breeder SFR showed better performance in axial neutron shielding. Hence, 10.1 m diameter reactor vessel satisfied the design limit of SSA at the IHXs. In case of the burner SFR, due to more significant axial fast neutron leakage, 10.6 m diameter reactor vessel was required to satisfy the design limit of SSA at the IHXs. Although more efficient axial shied such as a mixture of ZrH 2 and B 4 C can improve shielding performance of the burner SFR, additional fabrication difficulty may mitigate the advantage of improved shielding performance. Therefore, it can be concluded that the breeder SFR has better characteristic in invessel shielding design to prevent SSA at the IHXs than the burner SFR in the pool-type reactor

  15. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boernke, F.

    1975-01-01

    The need for the use of cooling systems in power plant engineering is dealt with from the point of view of a non-polluting form of energy production. The various cooling system concepts up to the modern natural-draught cooling towers are illustrated by examples. (TK/AK) [de

  16. Thermal energy storage - A review of concepts and systems for heating and cooling applications in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Georgi Krasimiroy; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    period required, economic viability, and operating conditions. One of the main issues impeding the utilization of the full potential of natural and renewable energy sources, e.g., solar and geothermal, for space heating and space cooling applications is the development of economically competitive......The use of thermal energy storage (TES) in buildings in combination with space heating and/or space cooling has recently received much attention. A variety of TES techniques have developed over the past decades. TES systems can provide short-term storage for peak-load shaving as well as long......-term (seasonal) storage for the introduction of natural and renewable energy sources. TES systems for heating or cooling are utilized in applications where there is a time mismatch between the demand and the most economically favorable supply of energy. The selection of a TES system mainly depends on the storage...

  17. Design study on evaluation for power conversion system concepts in high temperature gas cooled reactor with gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minatsuki, Isao; Mizokami, Yorikata

    2007-01-01

    The design studies on High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor with Gas Turbine (HTGR-GT) have been performed, which were mainly promoted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and supported by fabricators in Japan. HTGR-GT plant feature is almost determined by selection of power conversion system concepts. Therefore, plant design philosophy is observed characteristically in selection of them. This paper describes the evaluation and analysis of the essential concepts of the HTGR-GT power conversion system through the investigations based on our experiences and engineering knowledge as a fabricator. As a result, the following concepts were evaluated that have advantages against other competitive one, such as the horizontal turbo machine rotor, the turbo machine in an individual vessel, the turbo machine with single shaft, the generator inside the power conversion vessel, and the power conversion system cycle with an intercooler. The results of the study can contribute as reference data when the concepts will be selected. Furthermore, we addressed reasonableness about the concept selection of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor GTHTR300 power conversion system, which has been promoted by JAEA. As a conclusion, we recognized the GTHTR300 would be one of the most promising concepts for commercialization in near future. (author)

  18. Concept Mapping as a Learning Tool for the Employment Relations Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Canas, Ricardo; Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Concept mapping is a technique to represent relationships between concepts that can help students to improve their meaningful learning. Using the cognitive theories proposed by Ausubel (1968), concept maps can help instructors and students to enhance their logical thinking and study skills by revealing connections among concepts that can simplify…

  19. Helium circulator design concepts for the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Nichols, M.K.; Kaufman, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Two helium circulators are featured in the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) power plant - (1) the main circulator, which facilitates the transfer of reactor thermal energy to the steam generator, and (2) a small shutdown cooling circulator that enables rapid cooling of the reactor system to be realized. The 3170 kW(e) main circulator has an axial flow compressor, the impeller being very similar to the unit in the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) plant. The 164 kW(e) shutdown cooling circulator, the design of which is controlled by depressurized conditions, has a radial flow compressor. Both machines are vertically oriented, have submerged electric motor drives, and embody rotors that are supported on active magnetic bearings. As outlined in this paper, both machines have been conservatively designed based on established practice. The circulators have features and characteristics that have evolved from actual plant operating experience. With a major goal of high reliability, emphasis has been placed on design simplicity, and both machines are readily accessible for inspection, repair, and replacement, if necessary. In this paper, conceptual design aspects of both machines are discussed, together with the significant technology bases. As appropriate for a plant that will see service well into the 21st century, new and emerging technologies have been factored into the design. Examples of this are the inclusion of active magnetic bearings, and an automated circulator condition monitoring system. (author). 18 refs, 20 figs, 13 tabs

  20. Proposals of new basic concepts on safety and radioactive waste and of new High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor based on these basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masuro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The author proposed new basic concepts on safety and radioactive waste. • A principle of ‘continue confining’ to realize the basic concept on safety is also proposed. • It is indicated that only a HTGR can attain the conditions required from the principle. • Technologies to realize the basic concept on radioactive waste are also discussed. • A New HTGR system based on the new basic concepts is proposed. - Abstract: A new basic concept on safety of ‘Not causing any serious catastrophe by any means’ and a new basic concept on radioactive waste of ‘Not returning any waste that possibly affects the environment’ are proposed in the present study, aiming at nuclear power plants which everybody can accept, in consideration of the serious catastrophe that happened at Fukushima Japan in 2011. These new basic concepts can be found to be valid in comparison with basic concepts on safety and waste in other industries. The principle to realize the new basic concept on safety is, as known well as the inherent safety, to use physical phenomena such as Doppler Effect and so on which never fail to work even if all equipment and facilities for safety lose their functions. In the present study, physical phenomena are used to ‘continue confining’, rather than ‘confine’, because the consequence of emission of radioactive substances to the environment cannot be mitigated. To ‘continue confining’ is meant to apply natural correction to fulfill inherent safety function. Fission products must be detoxified to realize the new basic concept on radioactive waste, aiming at the final processing and disposal of radioactive wastes as same as that in the other wastes such as PCB, together with much efforts not to produce radioactive wastes and to reduce their volume nevertheless if they are emitted. Technology development on the detoxification is one of the most important subjects. A new High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor, namely the New HTGR

  1. Proposals of new basic concepts on safety and radioactive waste and of new High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor based on these basic concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Masuro, E-mail: ogawa.masuro@jaea.go.jp

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The author proposed new basic concepts on safety and radioactive waste. • A principle of ‘continue confining’ to realize the basic concept on safety is also proposed. • It is indicated that only a HTGR can attain the conditions required from the principle. • Technologies to realize the basic concept on radioactive waste are also discussed. • A New HTGR system based on the new basic concepts is proposed. - Abstract: A new basic concept on safety of ‘Not causing any serious catastrophe by any means’ and a new basic concept on radioactive waste of ‘Not returning any waste that possibly affects the environment’ are proposed in the present study, aiming at nuclear power plants which everybody can accept, in consideration of the serious catastrophe that happened at Fukushima Japan in 2011. These new basic concepts can be found to be valid in comparison with basic concepts on safety and waste in other industries. The principle to realize the new basic concept on safety is, as known well as the inherent safety, to use physical phenomena such as Doppler Effect and so on which never fail to work even if all equipment and facilities for safety lose their functions. In the present study, physical phenomena are used to ‘continue confining’, rather than ‘confine’, because the consequence of emission of radioactive substances to the environment cannot be mitigated. To ‘continue confining’ is meant to apply natural correction to fulfill inherent safety function. Fission products must be detoxified to realize the new basic concept on radioactive waste, aiming at the final processing and disposal of radioactive wastes as same as that in the other wastes such as PCB, together with much efforts not to produce radioactive wastes and to reduce their volume nevertheless if they are emitted. Technology development on the detoxification is one of the most important subjects. A new High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor, namely the New HTGR

  2. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 2, Book 2. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The appendices include: (A) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 100-MWe commercial plant design, for all-sodium storage concept; (B) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 100-MWe commercial plant design, for air-rock bed storage concept; (C) electric power generating water-steam system P and I drawing and equipment list, 100-MWe commercial plant design; (D) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 281-MWe commercial plant design; (E) steam generator system conceptual design; (F) heat losses from solar receiver surface; (G) heat transfer and pressure drop for rock bed thermal storage; (H) a comparison of alternative ways of recovering the hydraulic head from the advanced solar receiver tower; (I) central receiver tower study; (J) a comparison of mechanical and electromagnetic sodium pumps; (K) pipe routing study of sodium downcomer; and (L) sodium-cooled advanced central receiver system simulation model. (WHK)

  3. Employing Concept Mapping as a Pre-Writing Strategy to Help EFL Learners Better Generate Argumentative Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaer, Ibrahim M. R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of employing concept mapping at a pre-writing stage on English as a foreign language (EFL) students' ability to generate better argumentative essays. Thirty-eight participants were randomly assigned to two groups participating in Writing II course at Al-Quds Open University (QOU). Both groups…

  4. Do new production concepts and a new management of employment relations, yield higher employee performance and low job strain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, K.; Oeij, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article old versus new production concepts (NPCs) and employment relation instruments, are studied, separately and in combination, to find out which yield high employee performance and low job strain. Therefore, in 2005, TNO conducted coupled surveys among 149 supervisors and employees. In

  5. A cooling concept for improved field winding performance in large superconducting ac generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskaris, T.E.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical study of a flow circuit for large superconducting generator rotors is presented. The flow circuit provides regulation of the level of liquid in the rotor externally by adjusting the helium supply pressure. It also protects the vapour cooled structural members of the rotor from overcooling during transient periods of operation. Furthermore, it is capable of reducing the winding temperature below 4.2 K thereby enhancing the superconductor's performance. For example, a large generator rotor with NbTi superconducting field winding experiences approximately a 50% increase in its critical current density compared to that at 4.2 K. (author)

  6. Concept Design for a High Temperature Helium Brayton Cycle with Interstage Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vernon, Milton E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pickard, Paul S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The primary metric for the viability of these next generation nuclear power plants will be the cost of generated electricity. One important component in achieving these objectives is the development of power conversion technologies that maximize the electrical power output of these advanced reactors for a given thermal power. More efficient power conversion systems can directly reduce the cost of nuclear generated electricity and therefore advanced power conversion cycle research is an important area of investigation for the Generation IV Program. Brayton cycles using inert or other gas working fluids, have the potential to take advantage of the higher outlet temperature range of Generation IV systems and allow substantial increases in nuclear power conversion efficiency, and potentially reductions in power conversion system capital costs compared to the steam Rankine cycle used in current light water reactors. For the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), Helium Brayton cycles which can operate in the 900 to 950 C range have been the focus of power conversion research. Previous Generation IV studies examined several options for He Brayton cycles that could increase efficiency with acceptable capital cost implications. At these high outlet temperatures, Interstage Heating and Cooling (IHC) was shown to provide significant efficiency improvement (a few to 12%) but required increased system complexity and therefore had potential for increased costs. These scoping studies identified the potential for increased efficiency, but a more detailed analysis of the turbomachinery and heat exchanger sizes and costs was needed to determine whether this approach could be cost effective. The purpose of this study is to examine the turbomachinery and heat exchanger implications of interstage heating and cooling configurations. In general, this analysis illustrates that these engineering considerations introduce new constraints to the design of IHC systems that may require

  7. Thermohydraulics design and thermomechanics analysis of two European breeder blanket concepts for DEMO. Pt. 1 and Pt. 2. Pt. 1: BOT helium cooled solid breeding blanket. Pt. 2: Dual coolant self-cooled liquid metal blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, P.

    1995-06-01

    Two different breeding blanket concepts are being elaborated at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe within the framework of the DEMO breeding blanket development, the concept of a helium cooled solid breeding blanket and the concept of a self-cooled liquid metal blanket. The breeder material used in the first concept is Li 4 SiO 4 as a pebble bed arranged separate from the beryllium pebble bed, which serves as multiplier. The breeder material zone is cooled by several toroidally-radially configurated helium cooling plates which, at the same time, act as reinforcements of the blanket structures. In the liquid metal blanket concept lead-lithium is used both as the breeder material and the coolant. It flows at low velocity in poloidal direction downwards and back in the blanket front zone. In both concepts the First Wall is cooled by helium gas. This report deals with the thermohydraulics design and thermomechanics analysis of the two blanket concepts. The performance data derived from the Monte-Carlo computations serve as a basis for the design calculations. The coolant inlet and outlet temperatures are chosen with the design criteria and the economics aspects taken into account. Uniform temperature distribution in the blanket structures can be achieved by suitable branching and routing of the coolant flows which contributes to reducing decisively the thermal stress. The computations were made using the ABAQUS computer code. The results obtained of the stresses have been evaluated using the ASME code. It can be demonstrated that all maximum values of temperature and stress are below the admissible limit. (orig.) [de

  8. A new concept of hydrogen production system for sodium cooled FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagiri, Toshio; Aoto, Kazumi; Hoshiya, Taiji

    2004-01-01

    A new thermo-chemical and electrolytic hybrid hydrogen production process (thermo-chemical and electrolytic Hybrid Hydrogen process in Lower Temperature range: HHLT) is newly proposed by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) to realize the hydrogen production from water by using the heat generation of sodium cooled Fast Breeding Reactor (FBR). The HHLT process is based on the sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) synthesis and decomposition processes developed earlier (Westinghouse process), and sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ) decomposition process of HHLT is facilitated by electrolysis with ionic oxygen conductive solid electrolyte to reduce operating temperature 200degC-300degC lower than Westinghouse process. Decomposition processes of SO 3 were confirmed with the cell voltage lower than 0.5 V at 500degC-600degC using 8mol yttria stabilized zirconia (8molYSZ) solid electrolyte and platinum electrode. Therefore, total voltage required for HHLT is expected to be lower than 1.0 V, because the voltage required for sulfuric acid synthesis is about 0.5V. Thermal efficiency of HHLT based on chemical reactions was roughly estimated to be within the range of 35% to 55% under the influence of H 2 SO 4 concentration and heat recovery. These results show the possibility of development of a new hydrogen production process which needs low splitting voltage and has high efficiency at around 500degC, utilizing the heat generation of sodium cooled FBR. SO 3 splitting with the voltage lower than 0.5V was confirmed at about 500degC experimentally, and ideal thermal efficiency of the cycle based on chemical reactions was evaluated. Furthermore, test apparatus to substantiate whole process of HHLT was manufactured. (author)

  9. An integral metallic-fueled and lead-cooled reactor concept for the 4th generation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adimir dos; Nascimento, Jamil Alves do

    2002-01-01

    An Integral Lead Reactor (ILR) concept is proposed for the 4th generation reactor to be used in the future. The ILR is loaded with metallic fuel and cooled by lead. It was evaluated in the 300-1500 MWe power range with the Japanese Fast Set 2 cross sections library. This set was tested against several fast benchmarks and the criticality uncertainty was found to be 0.51 %Δk. The reactor is started with U-Zr and changes to the U-TRU-Zr-RE fuel in a stepwise way. In the equilibrium cycle, the burnup reactivity is less than β eff for a core of the order of 300 MWe, pin diameter of 10.4 mm and a pin-pinch to diameter ratio of 1.308. The lead void reactivity is negative for reactor power less than 750 MWe. There is a need to improve the nuclear data for the major actinides. (author)

  10. An integral metallic-fueled and lead-cooled reactor concept for the 4th generation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A. dos; Nascimento, J.A. do

    2002-01-01

    An Integral Lead Reactor (ILR) concept is proposed for the 4th generation reactor to be used in the future. The ILR is loaded with metallic fuel and cooled by lead. It was evaluated in the 300-1500 MWe power range with the Japanese Fast Set 2 cross sections library. This set was tested against several fast benchmarks and the criticality uncertainty was found to be 0.51 % Δk. The reactor is started with U-Zr and changes to the U-TRU-Zr-RE fuel in a stepwise way. In the equilibrium cycle, the burnup reactivity is less than β eff for a core of the order of 300 MWe, pin diameter of 10.4 mm and a pin-pitch to diameter ratio of 1.308. The lead void reactivity is negative for reactor power less than 750 MWe. There is a need to improve the nuclear data for the major actinides. (author)

  11. Concept of a staged FEL enabled by fast synchrotron radiation cooling of laser-plasma accelerated beam by solenoidal magnetic fields in plasma bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryi, Andrei; Lesz, Zsolt; Andreev, Alexander; Konoplev, Ivan

    2017-03-01

    A novel method for generating GigaGauss solenoidal fields in a laser-plasma bubble, using screw-shaped laser pulses, has been recently presented. Such magnetic fields enable fast synchrotron radiation cooling of the beam emittance of laser-plasma accelerated leptons. This recent finding opens a novel approach for design of laser-plasma FELs or colliders, where the acceleration stages are interleaved with laser-plasma emittance cooling stages. In this concept paper, we present an outline of what a staged plasma-acceleration FEL could look like, and discuss further studies needed to investigate the feasibility of the concept in detail.

  12. Cooling concept with energy storage for ICT; Koelconcept met energieopslag voor ICT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Wilt, P. [Compertius, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    Renewable energy concepts with energy storage in the soil are not only about technique. To ensure successful implementation of energy storage in the soil for various branches cooperation needs to be sought with parties who know specific branches very well. In addition to the technical aspects, it is at least as important that the needs and working methods of a market segment are thoroughly known to ensure optimal linkage of source systems to the systems and operational processes of the client. [Dutch] Bij ontwikkelde duurzame energieconcepten met inzet van energieopslag in de bodem gaat het niet alleen om techniek, Om energieopslag in de bodem voor verschillende branches met succes in te zetten, is samenwerking nodig met partijen die een specifieke branche goed kennen. Naast de techniek is het minstens zo belangrijk ook de behoeftes en werkwijzen van een marktsegment door en door te kennen, om bronsystemen zo optimaal te koppelen aan de systemen en bedrijfsprocessen van de klant.

  13. A mature industrial solution for ITER divertor plasma facing components: hypervapotron cooling concept adapted to Tore Supra flat tile technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escourbiac, F.; Missirlian, M.; Schlosser, J. [Association EURATOM-CEA Cadarache, Departement de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Bobin-Vastra, I. [AREVA Centre Technique de Framatome, 71 - Le Creusot (France); Kuznetsov, V. [Efremov Institute, Doroga na Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schedler, B. [Plansee AG, Reutte (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    The use of flat tile technology to handle heat fluxes in the range of 20 MW/m{sup 2} with components relevant for fusion experiment applications is technically possible with the hypervapotron cooling concept. This paper deals with recent high heat flux performances operated with success on 2 identical mock-ups, based on this concept, that were tested in 2 different electron gun facilities. Each mock-up consisted of a CuCrZr heat sink armored with 25 flat tiles of the 3D carbon fibre composite material SEPcarb NS31 assembled with pure copper by active metal casting (AMC). The AMC tiles were electron beam welded on the CuCrZr bar, fins and slots on the neutral beam JET design were machined into the bar, then the bar was closed with a thick CuCrZr rear plug including hydraulic connections then the bar was electron beam welded onto the sidewalls. The testing results show that full ITER design specifications were achieved with margins, the critical heat flux limit was even higher than 30 MW/m{sup 2}. These results highlight the high potential of this technology for ITER divertor application.

  14. A mature industrial solution for ITER divertor plasma facing components: hypervapotron cooling concept adapted to Tore Supra flat tile technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escourbiac, F.; Missirlian, M.; Schlosser, J.; Bobin-Vastra, I.; Kuznetsov, V.; Schedler, B.

    2004-01-01

    The use of flat tile technology to handle heat fluxes in the range of 20 MW/m 2 with components relevant for fusion experiment applications is technically possible with the hypervapotron cooling concept. This paper deals with recent high heat flux performances operated with success on 2 identical mock-ups, based on this concept, that were tested in 2 different electron gun facilities. Each mock-up consisted of a CuCrZr heat sink armored with 25 flat tiles of the 3D carbon fibre composite material SEPcarb NS31 assembled with pure copper by active metal casting (AMC). The AMC tiles were electron beam welded on the CuCrZr bar, fins and slots on the neutral beam JET design were machined into the bar, then the bar was closed with a thick CuCrZr rear plug including hydraulic connections then the bar was electron beam welded onto the sidewalls. The testing results show that full ITER design specifications were achieved with margins, the critical heat flux limit was even higher than 30 MW/m 2 . These results highlight the high potential of this technology for ITER divertor application

  15. Integral design concepts of advanced water cooled reactors. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    Under the sub-programme on non-electrical applications of advanced reactors, the International Atomic Energy Agency has been providing a worldwide forum for exchange of information on integral reactor concepts. Two Technical Committee meetings were held in 1994 and 1995 on the subject where state-of-the-art developments were presented. Efforts are continuing for the development of advanced nuclear reactors of both evolutionary and innovative design, for electricity, co-generation and heat applications. While single purpose reactors for electricity generation may require small and medium sizes under certain conditions, reactors for heat applications and co-generation would be necessary in the small and medium range and need to be located closer to the load centres. The integral design approach to the development of advanced light water reactors has received special attention over the past few years. Several designs are in the detailed design stage, some are under construction, one prototype is in operation. A need has been felt for guidance on a number of issues, ranging from design objectives to the assessment methodology needed to show how integral designs can meet these objectives, and also to identify their advantages and problem areas. The technical document addresses the current status of the design, safety and operational issues of integral reactors and recommends areas for future development

  16. Personnel planning and employment: Organizational concepts for safer power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    Well thought out plant-specific organisation, proper staff selection, careful training, far-sighted management and an optimum man-machine relationship; this together guarantees problem-free operation of nuclear power plants. Organizational concepts must not be considered as statistical values. The management must maintain the capacity of re-thinking and, if necessary, leaving the beaten track of organizational routines. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Modular Hybrid Energy Concept Employing a Novel Control Structure Based on a Simple Analog System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETREUS, D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel control topology which enables the setup of a low cost analog system leading to the implementation of a modular energy conversion system. The modular concept is based on hybrid renewable energy (solar and wind and uses high voltage inverters already available on the market. An important feature of the proposed topology is a permanently active current loop, which assures short circuit protection and simplifies the control loops compensation. The innovative analogue solution of the control structure is based on a dedicated integrated circuit (IC for power factor correction (PFC circuits, used in a new configuration, to assure an efficient inverter start-up. The energy conversion system (control structure and maximum power point tracking algorithm is simulated using a new macromodel-based concept, which reduces the usual computational burden of the simulator and achieves high processing speed. The proposed novel system is presented in this article from concept, through the design and implementation stages, is verified through simulation and is validated by experimental results.

  18. Volumetric MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound with Direct Skin Cooling for the Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids : Proof-of-Concept Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikink, Marlijne E; van Breugel, Johanna M M; Schubert, Gerald; Nijenhuis, Robbert J; Bartels, LW; Moonen, Chrit T W; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To prospectively assess the safety and technical feasibility of volumetric magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation with direct skin cooling (DISC) during treatment of uterine fibroids. Methods. In this proof-of-concept study, eight patients were

  19. Work Domain Analysis of a Predecessor Sodium-cooled Reactor as Baseline for AdvSMR Operational Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Farris; David Gertman; Jacques Hugo

    2014-03-01

    This report presents the results of the Work Domain Analysis for the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). This is part of the phase of the research designed to incorporate Cognitive Work Analysis in the development of a framework for the formalization of an Operational Concept (OpsCon) for Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs). For a new AdvSMR design, information obtained through Cognitive Work Analysis, combined with human performance criteria, can and should be used in during the operational phase of a plant to assess the crew performance aspects associated with identified AdvSMR operational concepts. The main objective of this phase was to develop an analytical and descriptive framework that will help systems and human factors engineers to understand the design and operational requirements of the emerging generation of small, advanced, multi-modular reactors. Using EBR-II as a predecessor to emerging sodium-cooled reactor designs required the application of a method suitable to the structured and systematic analysis of the plant to assist in identifying key features of the work associated with it and to clarify the operational and other constraints. The analysis included the identification and description of operating scenarios that were considered characteristic of this type of nuclear power plant. This is an invaluable aspect of Operational Concept development since it typically reveals aspects of future plant configurations that will have an impact on operations. These include, for example, the effect of core design, different coolants, reactor-to-power conversion unit ratios, modular plant layout, modular versus central control rooms, plant siting, and many more. Multi-modular plants in particular are expected to have a significant impact on overall OpsCon in general, and human performance in particular. To support unconventional modes of operation, the modern control room of a multi-module plant would typically require advanced HSIs that would

  20. A framework for employing femtosatellites in planetary science missions, including a proposed mission concept for Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Tracie Renea Conn

    Over the past 15 years, there has been a growing interest in femtosatellites, a class of tiny satellites having mass less than 100 grams. Research groups from Peru, Spain, England, Canada, and the United States have proposed femtosat designs and novel mission concepts for them. In fact, Peru made history in 2013 by releasing the first - and still only - femtosat tracked from LEO. However, femtosatellite applications in interplanetary missions have yet to be explored in detail. An interesting operations concept would be for a space probe to release numerous femtosatellites into orbit around a planetary object of interest, thereby augmenting the overall data collection capability of the mission. A planetary probe releasing hundreds of femtosats could complete an in-situ, simultaneous 3D mapping of a physical property of interest, achieving scientific investigations not possible for one probe operating alone. To study the technical challenges associated with such a mission, a conceptual mission design is proposed where femtosats are deployed from a host satellite orbiting Titan. The conceptual mission objective is presented: to study Titan's dynamic atmosphere. Then, the design challenges are addressed in turn. First, any science payload measurements that the femtosats provide are only useful if their corresponding locations can be determined. Specifically, what's required is a method of position determination for femtosatellites operating beyond Medium Earth Orbit and therefore beyond the help of GPS. A technique is presented which applies Kalman filter techniques to Doppler shift measurements, allowing for orbit determination of the femtosats. Several case studies are presented demonstrating the usefulness of this approach. Second, due to the inherit power and computational limitations in a femtosatellite design, establishing a radio link between each chipsat and the mothersat will be difficult. To provide a mathematical gain, a particular form of forward error

  1. Numerical Study on the Design Concept of an Air-Cooled Condensation Heat Exchanger in a Long-term Passive Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myoung Jun; Moon, Joo Hyung; Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In; Park, Hyun Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hee Joon [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    SMART is the only licensed SMR in the world since the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) issued officially the Standard Design Approval (SDA) on 4 July 2012. Recently, the pre-project engineering (PPE) was officially launched for the construction of SMART and developing human resources capability. Both KAERI and King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy (K.A. CARE) will conduct a three-year preliminary study to review the feasibility of building SMART and to prepare for its commercialization. SMART is equipped with passive cooling systems in order to enhance the safety of the reactor. The PRHRS (Passive Residual Heat Removal System) is the major passive safety system, which is actuated after an accident to remove the residual heat and the sensible heat from the RCS (Reactor Coolant System) through the steam generators (SGs) until the safe shutdown condition is reached. In this study, condensing heat transfer correlations in TSCON were validated using experimental data. It was shown that most of the condensation correlation gave satisfactory predictions of the cooling capacity of an-air cooled condensation heat exchanger.

  2. Numerical Study on the Design Concept of an Air-Cooled Condensation Heat Exchanger in a Long-term Passive Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myoung Jun; Moon, Joo Hyung; Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In; Park, Hyun Sik; Lee, Hee Joon

    2016-01-01

    SMART is the only licensed SMR in the world since the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) issued officially the Standard Design Approval (SDA) on 4 July 2012. Recently, the pre-project engineering (PPE) was officially launched for the construction of SMART and developing human resources capability. Both KAERI and King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy (K.A. CARE) will conduct a three-year preliminary study to review the feasibility of building SMART and to prepare for its commercialization. SMART is equipped with passive cooling systems in order to enhance the safety of the reactor. The PRHRS (Passive Residual Heat Removal System) is the major passive safety system, which is actuated after an accident to remove the residual heat and the sensible heat from the RCS (Reactor Coolant System) through the steam generators (SGs) until the safe shutdown condition is reached. In this study, condensing heat transfer correlations in TSCON were validated using experimental data. It was shown that most of the condensation correlation gave satisfactory predictions of the cooling capacity of an-air cooled condensation heat exchanger

  3. The concept of the sodium cooled small fast reactor 4S and the analyses of the loss of flow events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Yoshihisa; Ueda, Nobuyuki; Koga, Tomonari; Matsumiya, Hisato

    2007-01-01

    CRIEPI has been developing the 4S reactor (Super Safe, Small and Simple reactor) for application in dispersed energy supply and multipurpose use, in conjunction with Toshiba Corporation. The 4S is sodium cooled fast reactor and their electrical output has two options of 10MWe and 50MWe. In this paper, 10MWe 4S (4S-10M) was proposed. 4S-10M has some unique features. It employs a burn-up control system with annular reflector in place of the control rod that requires the frequent maintenance service. The core life time of the 4S-10M is 30 years and the fuel transport is not required during core life time. All temperature feedback coefficients are negative during core life time. In the latest design for 4S-10M, a pool and tall type reactor design was selected to reduce the construction cost. Two types of decay heat removal system (Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System; RVACS, Intermediate Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System; IRACS) using natural convection power were adopted. It is necessary to confirm that these two heat removal system can operate appropriately. The transition analyses were executed by the CERES code to evaluate the design feasibility and the thermal hydraulic characteristics of the 4S-10M. CERES is a multi-dimensional plant dynamics simulation code for liquid metal reactors developed by the CRIEPI. CERES can perform simulations ranging from forced circulation (full/partial power operation) to natural circulation. Components (pumps, IHXs, SGs, pipings, etc.) of the reactor are modeled as one-dimensional. Multi-dimensional plena are connected to such components. Two loss-of-flow accident sequences are considered. In the first case, it is assumed that the primary and the secondary pump were stopped by the total station black out. The reactor shut down system was assumed to be success. This sequence is referred to as the protected loss-of-flow accident (PLOF). In the second case, it is assumed that the reactor shut down systems fail to operate and the

  4. Six-dimensional muon beam cooling using a homogeneous absorber: Concepts, beam dynamics, cooling decrements, and equilibrium emittances in a helical dipole channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Derbenev

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The fast reduction of the six-dimensional phase space of muon beams is an essential requirement for muon colliders and also of great importance for neutrino factories based on accelerated muon beams. Ionization cooling, where all momentum components are degraded by an energy absorbing material and only the longitudinal momentum is restored by rf cavities, provides a means to quickly reduce transverse beam sizes. However, the beam energy spread cannot be reduced by this method unless the longitudinal emittance can be transformed or exchanged into the transverse emittance. Emittance exchange plans until now have been accomplished by using magnets to disperse the beam along the face of a wedge-shaped absorber such that higher momentum particles pass through thicker parts of the absorber and thus suffer larger ionization energy loss. In the scheme advocated in this paper, a special magnetic channel designed such that higher momentum corresponds to a longer path length, and therefore larger ionization energy loss, provides the desired emittance exchange in a homogeneous absorber without special edge shaping. Normal-conducting rf cavities imbedded in the magnetic field regenerate the energy lost in the absorber. One very attractive example of a cooling channel based on this principle uses a series of high-gradient rf cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas, where the cavities are in a magnetic channel composed of a solenoidal field with superimposed helical transverse dipole and quadrupole fields. In this scheme, the energy loss, the rf energy regeneration, the emittance exchange, and the transverse cooling happen simultaneously. The theory of this helical channel is described in some detail to support the analytical prediction of almost a factor of 10^{6} reduction in six-dimensional phase space volume in a channel about 56 m long. Equations describing the particle beam dynamics are derived and beam stability conditions are explored. Equations

  5. Three core concepts for producing uranium-233 in commercial pressurized light water reactors for possible use in water-cooled breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, G.H.; Cowell, G.K.; Detrick, C.A.; Kusenko, J.; Johnson, E.G.; Dunyak, J.; Flanery, B.K.; Shinko, M.S.; Giffen, R.H.; Rampolla, D.S.

    1979-12-01

    Selected prebreeder core concepts are described which could be backfit into a reference light water reactor similar to current commercial reactors, and produce uranium-233 for use in water-cooled breeder reactors. The prebreeder concepts were selected on the basis of minimizing fuel system development and reactor changes required to permit a backfit. The fuel assemblies for the prebreeder core concepts discussed would occupy the same space envelope as those in the reference core but contain a 19 by 19 array of fuel rods instead of the reference 17 by 17 array. An instrument well and 28 guide tubes for control rods have been allocated to each prebreeder fuel assembly in a pattern similar to that for the reference fuel assemblies. Backfit of these prebreeder concepts into the reference reactor would require changes only to the upper core support structure while providing flexibility for alternatives in the type of fuel used

  6. Space shuttle/food system. Volume 2, Appendix C: Food cooling techniques analysis. Appendix D: Package and stowage: Alternate concepts analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The relative penalties associated with various techniques for providing an onboard cold environment for storage of perishable food items, and for the development of packaging and vehicle stowage parameters were investigated in terms of the overall food system design analysis of space shuttle. The degrees of capability for maintaining both a 40 F to 45 F refrigerated temperature and a 0 F and 20 F frozen environment were assessed for the following cooling techniques: (1) phase change (heat sink) concept; (2) thermoelectric concept; (3) vapor cycle concept; and (4) expendable ammonia concept. The parameters considered in the analysis were weight, volume, and spacecraft power restrictions. Data were also produced for packaging and vehicle stowage parameters which are compatible with vehicle weight and volume specifications. Certain assumptions were made for food packaging sizes based on previously generated space shuttle menus. The results of the study are shown, along with the range of meal choices considered.

  7. The preliminary thermal-hydraulic design of one superheated steam water cooled blanket concept based on RELAP5 and MELCOR codes - 15147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Y.; Wang, G.; Cheng, Y.; Peng, C.

    2015-01-01

    Water Cooled Blanket (WCB) is very important in the concept design and energy transfer in future fusion power plant. One concept design of WCB is under computational testing. RELAP5 and MELCOR codes, which are mature and often used in nuclear engineering, are selected as simulation tools. The complex inner flow channels and heat sources are simplified according to its thermal-hydraulic characteristics. Then the nodal models for RELAP5 and MELCOR are built for approximating the concept design. The superheated steam scheme is analyzed by two codes separately under different power levels. After some adjustments of the inlet flow resistance coefficients of some flow channels, the reasonable stable conditions can be obtained. The stable fluid and wall temperature distributions and pressure drops are studied. The results of two codes are compared and some advices are given. (authors)

  8. Investigation of Advanced Counterrotation Blade Configuration Concepts for High Speed Turboprop Systems. Task 8: Cooling Flow/heat Transfer Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward J.; Topp, David A.; Heidegger, Nathan J.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this task was to validate the ADPAC code for heat transfer calculations. To accomplish this goal, the ADPAC code was modified to allow for a Cartesian coordinate system capability and to add boundary conditions to handle spanwise periodicity and transpiration boundaries. The primary validation case was the film cooled C3X vane. The cooling hole modeling included both a porous region and grid in each discrete hold. Predictions for these models as well as smooth wall compared well with the experimental data.

  9. The influence of the static wind load concept on the material requirements for reinforced-concrete natural-draught cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnach, R.

    1977-01-01

    The natural wind is the decisive risk factor in natural-draught cooling towers; therefore, the establishment of an assumed velocity is indispensable for the safety and reliability of the construction. In the framework of a statistical wind concept, static substitution loads for the assumed dynamic wind pressure have been determined, also including dynamic wind effects and the resonance response of the structure. On this basis, it has been studied how wind loads with different periodicity affect the material requirements of reinforced-concrete natural-draught cooling towers. It is found that the additional steel requirements, related to the total building cost, remain within acceptable limits even for extreme wind loads. (orig.) [de

  10. The cooling of particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1994-10-01

    A review is given of the various methods which can be employed for cooling particle beams. These methods include radiation damping, stimulated radiation damping, ionization cooling, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, laser cooling, and laser cooling with beam coupling. Laser Cooling has provided beams of the lowest temperatures, namely 1 mK, but only for ions and only for the longitudinal temperature. Recent theoretical work has suggested how laser cooling, with the coupling of beam motion, can be used to reduce the ion beam temperature in all three directions. The majority of this paper is devoted to describing laser cooling and laser cooling with beam coupling

  11. Investigation of the Ethical Concepts that Inform the Laws Limiting Genetic Screening in Employment Decisions: Privacy, Human Dignity, Equality, Autonomy, Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquerella, Lynn; Rothstein, Lawrence E.

    2003-01-16

    The broad question addressed in our research is : What is the influence of ethical concepts on legislative outcomes? The research focuses on the important ethical concerns that surround the use of genetic information in employment matters and in American state legislatures. By analyzing the contents of hearings, interviews and advocacy documents involved in the legislative process, the research seeks to answer the question: How might the dominance of a particular ethical concept informing the discussion of a bill influence the legislative outcome?

  12. Performance Evaluation of the Concept of Hybrid Heat Pipe as Passive In-core Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Bang, In Cheol

    2015-01-01

    As an arising issue for inherent safety of nuclear power plant, the concept of hybrid heat pipe as passive in-core cooling systems was introduced. Hybrid heat pipe has unique features that it is inserted in core directly to remove decay heat from nuclear fuel without any changes of structures of existing facilities of nuclear power plant, substituting conventional control rod. Hybrid heat pipe consists of metal cladding, working fluid, wick structure, and neutron absorber. Same with working principle of the heat pipe, heat is transported by phase change of working fluid inside metal cask. Figure 1 shows the systematic design of the hybrid heat pipe cooling system. In this study, the concept of a hybrid heat pipe was introduced as a Passive IN-core Cooling Systems (PINCs) and demonstrated for internal design features of heat pipe containing neutron absorber. Using a commercial CFD code, single hybrid heat pipe model was analyzed to evaluate thermal performance in designated operating condition. Also, 1-dimensional reactor transient analysis was done by calculating temperature change of the coolant inside reactor pressure vessel using MATLAB. As a passive decay heat removal device, hybrid heat pipe was suggested with a concept of combination of heat pipe and control rod. Hybrid heat pipe has distinct feature that it can be a unique solution to cool the reactor when depressurization process is impossible so that refueling water cannot be injected into RPV by conventional ECCS. It contains neutron absorber material inside heat pipe, so it can stop the reactor and at the same time, remove decay heat in core. For evaluating the concept of hybrid heat pipe, its thermal performance was analyzed using CFD and one-dimensional transient analysis. From single hybrid heat pipe simulation, the hybrid heat pipe can transport heat from the core inside to outside about 18.20 kW, and total thermal resistance of hybrid heat pipe is 0.015 .deg. C/W. Due to unique features of long heat

  13. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  14. Absorbers for combined heating and cooling permit new concepts; Absorber zum Kuehlen und Heizen gestatten neue Konzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadelmann, M. [Verband der Schweizerischen Gasindustrie, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1998-05-01

    Direct-fuelled absorption-type refrigerators are recently being used not only for cold generation but also for heat generation with a flow temperature of 80 C. They can cool, heat, or cool and heat simultaneously, eah with a 50% share. This opens up new fields of application, either as a stand-alone system or combined with a gas engine cogeneration unit and absorber for cold generation. Two examples are presented, i.e. a hotel and a shopping mall. (orig.) [Deutsch] Direktbefeuerte Absorptionskaeltemaschinen erzeugen neuerdings nicht nur Kaelte, sondern auch Heizungswaerme mit 80 C Vorlauftemperatur. Sie koennen kuehlen, heizen oder - bis je 50% der Leistung - beides gleichzeitig. Der Teillastwirkungsgrad beim Kuehlbetrieb ist hoeher als bekannt. Das eroeffnet neue Moeglichkeiten des Einsatzes solcher Geraete, sei es allein oder zusammen mit Gasmotor-BHKW und Absorber zur Kaelteerzeugung. Zwei Beispiele - ein Hotel und ein Einkaufszentrum - werden vorgestellt. (orig.)

  15. Water-cooled lithium-lead box-shaped blanket concept for Demo: thermo-mechanical optimization and manufacturing sequence proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraer, L.; Dinot, N.; Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.; Salavy, J.F.; Severi, Y.; Quintric-Bossy, J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the water-cooled lithium-lead box-shaped blanket concept for DEMO has now reached the stage of thermo-mechanical optimization. In the previous design phases the preliminary dimensioning of the cooling circuit has permitted to define the water proportions required in the breeder region and to demonstrate, after a minimization of steel proportion and thicknesses, that this concept could reach tritium breeding self-sufficiency. In the present analysis the location of the coolant pipes has been optimized for the whole equatorial plane cross-section of both inboard and outboard segments in order to maintain the maximum Pb-17Li/steel interface temperature below 480 deg C and to minimize the thermal gradients along the steel structures. The consequent thermo-mechanical analysis has shown that the thermal stresses always remain below the allowable limits. Segment fabricability and removal are the next design issues to be analyzed. Within this strategy, a first manufactury sequence for the outboard segment is proposed

  16. Concept Design of a Gravity Core Cooling Tank as a Passive Residual Heat Removal System for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwonyeong; Chi, Daeyoung; Kim, Seong Hoon; Seo, Kyoungwoo; Yoon, Juhyeon

    2014-01-01

    A core downward flow is considered to use a plate type fuel because it is benefit to install the fuel in the core. If a flow inversion from a downward to upward flow in the core by a natural circulation is introduced within a high heat flux region of residual heat, the fuel fails instantly due to zero flow. Therefore, the core downward flow should be sufficiently maintained until the residual heat is in a low heat flux region. In a small power research reactor, inertia generated by a flywheel of the PCP can maintain a downward flow shortly and resolve the problem of a flow inversion. However, a high power research reactor more than 10 MW should have an additional method to have a longer downward flow until a low heat flux. Usually, other research reactors have selected an active residual heat removal system as a safety class. But, an active safety system is difficult to design and expensive to construct. A Gravity Core Cooling Tank (GCCT) beside the reactor pool with a Residual Heat Removal Pipe connecting two pools was developed and designed preliminarily as a passive residual heat removal system for an open-pool type research reactor. It is very simple to design and cheap to construct. Additionally, a non-safety, but active residual heat removal system is applied with the GCCT. It is a Pool Water Cooling and Purification System. It can improve the usability of the research reactor by removing the thermal waves, and purify the reactor pool, the Primary Cooling System, and the GCCT. Moreover, it can reduce the pool top radiation level

  17. An Advanced Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Core Concept Using Uranium-Free Metallic Fuels for Maximizing TRU Burning Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuseong You

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we designed and analyzed advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor cores using uranium-free metallic fuels for maximizing burning rate of transuranics (TRU nuclides from PWR spent fuels. It is well known that the removal of fertile nuclides such as 238U from fuels in liquid metal cooled fast reactor leads to the degradation of important safety parameters such as the Doppler coefficient, coolant void worth, and delayed neutron fraction. To resolve the degradation of the Doppler coefficient, we considered adding resonant nuclides to the uranium-free metallic fuels. The analysis results showed that the cores using uranium-free fuels loaded with tungsten instead of uranium have a significantly lower burnup reactivity swing and more negative Doppler coefficients than the core using uranium-free fuels without resonant nuclides. In addition, we considered the use of axially central B4C absorber region and moderator rods to further improve safety parameters such as sodium void worth, burnup reactivity swing, and the Doppler coefficient. The results of the analysis showed that the final design core can consume ~353 kg per cycle and satisfies self-controllability under unprotected accidents. The fuel cycle analysis showed that the PWR–SFR coupling fuel cycle option drastically reduces the amount of waste going to repository and the SFR burner can consume the amount of TRUs discharged from 3.72 PWRs generating the same electricity.

  18. Proof-of-Concept Testing of the Passive Cooling System (T-CLIP™) for Solar Thermal Applications at an Elevated Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jun [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Quintana, Donald L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Vigil, Gabrielle M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Perraglio, Martin Juan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Farley, Cory Wayne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Tafoya, Jose I. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Martinez, Adam L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology

    2015-11-30

    The Applied Engineering and Technology-1 group (AET-1) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted the proof-of-concept tests of SolarSPOT LLC’s solar thermal Temperature- Clipper, or T-CLIP™ under controlled thermal conditions using a thermal conditioning unit (TCU) and a custom made environmental chamber. The passive T-CLIP™ is a plumbing apparatus that attaches to a solar thermal collector to limit working fluid temperature and to prevent overheating, since overheating may lead to various accident scenarios. The goal of the current research was to evaluate the ability of the T-CLIP™ to control the working fluid temperature by using its passive cooling mechanism (i.e. thermosiphon, or natural circulation) in a small-scale solar thermal system. The assembled environmental chamber that is thermally controlled with the TCU allows one to simulate the various possible weather conditions, which the solar system will encounter. The performance of the T-CLIP™ was tested at two different target temperatures: 1) room temperature (70 °F) and 2) an elevated temperature (130 °F). The current test campaign demonstrated that the T-CLIP™ was able to prevent overheating by thermosiphon induced cooling in a small-scale solar thermal system. This is an important safety feature in situations where the pump is turned off due to malfunction or power outages.

  19. Employer branding

    OpenAIRE

    Mičková, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    The demand for qualified employees is higher then the offering, both in Czech republic and internationally. Demand for specific skills, in addition to a greater demand for workforce generally, is making employee recruitment and retention much more difficult and expensive. Employer Branding claims to be an answer to this new challenge. This international concept focuses on developing an "employer brand" - mental image of a company as an employer. To achieve this, it is necessary to demonstrate...

  20. Numerical Study of High Heat Flux Performances of Flat-Tile Divertor Mock-ups with Hypervapotron Cooling Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Xiang; Lian, Youyun; Cai, Laizhong

    2015-09-01

    The hypervapotron (HV), as an enhanced heat transfer technique, will be used for ITER divertor components in the dome region as well as the enhanced heat flux first wall panels. W-Cu brazing technology has been developed at SWIP (Southwestern Institute of Physics), and one W/CuCrZr/316LN component of 450 mm×52 mm×166 mm with HV cooling channels will be fabricated for high heat flux (HHF) tests. Before that a relevant analysis was carried out to optimize the structure of divertor component elements. ANSYS-CFX was used in CFD analysis and ABAQUS was adopted for thermal-mechanical calculations. Commercial code FE-SAFE was adopted to compute the fatigue life of the component. The tile size, thickness of tungsten tiles and the slit width among tungsten tiles were optimized and its HHF performances under International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) loading conditions were simulated. One brand new tokamak HL-2M with advanced divertor configuration is under construction in SWIP, where ITER-like flat-tile divertor components are adopted. This optimized design is expected to supply valuable data for HL-2M tokamak. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2011GB110001 and 2011GB110004)

  1. The preliminary thermal–hydraulic analysis of a water cooled blanket concept design based on RELAP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guanghuai; Peng, Changhong; Guo, Yun, E-mail: guoyun79@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The superheated steam and PWR schemes are analyzed by RELAP5 code. • The influence of non-uniform heating sources is include. • A supposed slow flow decrease case is discussed and the PWR scheme is better. - Abstract: Water cooled blanket (WCB) is very important in the conceptual design and energy transfer in future fusion power plant. One conceptual design of WCB is under computational testing. RELAP5 code, which is mature and often used in transient analysis in Pressurizer water reactor (PWR), is selected as the simulation tool. The complex inner flow channels and heat sources are simplified according to its thermal–hydraulic characteristics. Then the nodal model for REALP5 is built for approximating the conceptual design. Two typical operating plans, superheated steam scheme and PWR scheme, are analyzed. After some adjustments of the inlet flow resistance coefficients of some flow channels, the reasonable stable conditions of both operation plans can be obtained. The stable fluid and wall temperature distributions and pressure drops are studied. At last, a supposed slow flow decreasing is discussed under two operating conditions separately. According to present results, the superheated steam scheme still needs to be further optimized. The PWR scheme shows a very good safety feature.

  2. Numerical Study of High Heat Flux Performances of Flat-Tile Divertor Mock-ups with Hypervapotron Cooling Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lei; Liu Xiang; Lian Youyun; Cai Laizhong

    2015-01-01

    The hypervapotron (HV), as an enhanced heat transfer technique, will be used for ITER divertor components in the dome region as well as the enhanced heat flux first wall panels. W-Cu brazing technology has been developed at SWIP (Southwestern Institute of Physics), and one W/CuCrZr/316LN component of 450 mm×52 mm×166 mm with HV cooling channels will be fabricated for high heat flux (HHF) tests. Before that a relevant analysis was carried out to optimize the structure of divertor component elements. ANSYS-CFX was used in CFD analysis and ABAQUS was adopted for thermal–mechanical calculations. Commercial code FE-SAFE was adopted to compute the fatigue life of the component. The tile size, thickness of tungsten tiles and the slit width among tungsten tiles were optimized and its HHF performances under International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) loading conditions were simulated. One brand new tokamak HL-2M with advanced divertor configuration is under construction in SWIP, where ITER-like flat-tile divertor components are adopted. This optimized design is expected to supply valuable data for HL-2M tokamak. (paper)

  3. The preliminary thermal–hydraulic analysis of a water cooled blanket concept design based on RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guanghuai; Peng, Changhong; Guo, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The superheated steam and PWR schemes are analyzed by RELAP5 code. • The influence of non-uniform heating sources is include. • A supposed slow flow decrease case is discussed and the PWR scheme is better. - Abstract: Water cooled blanket (WCB) is very important in the conceptual design and energy transfer in future fusion power plant. One conceptual design of WCB is under computational testing. RELAP5 code, which is mature and often used in transient analysis in Pressurizer water reactor (PWR), is selected as the simulation tool. The complex inner flow channels and heat sources are simplified according to its thermal–hydraulic characteristics. Then the nodal model for REALP5 is built for approximating the conceptual design. Two typical operating plans, superheated steam scheme and PWR scheme, are analyzed. After some adjustments of the inlet flow resistance coefficients of some flow channels, the reasonable stable conditions of both operation plans can be obtained. The stable fluid and wall temperature distributions and pressure drops are studied. At last, a supposed slow flow decreasing is discussed under two operating conditions separately. According to present results, the superheated steam scheme still needs to be further optimized. The PWR scheme shows a very good safety feature.

  4. Stochastic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisognano, J.; Leemann, C.

    1982-03-01

    Stochastic cooling is the damping of betatron oscillations and momentum spread of a particle beam by a feedback system. In its simplest form, a pickup electrode detects the transverse positions or momenta of particles in a storage ring, and the signal produced is amplified and applied downstream to a kicker. The time delay of the cable and electronics is designed to match the transit time of particles along the arc of the storage ring between the pickup and kicker so that an individual particle receives the amplified version of the signal it produced at the pick-up. If there were only a single particle in the ring, it is obvious that betatron oscillations and momentum offset could be damped. However, in addition to its own signal, a particle receives signals from other beam particles. In the limit of an infinite number of particles, no damping could be achieved; we have Liouville's theorem with constant density of the phase space fluid. For a finite, albeit large number of particles, there remains a residue of the single particle damping which is of practical use in accumulating low phase space density beams of particles such as antiprotons. It was the realization of this fact that led to the invention of stochastic cooling by S. van der Meer in 1968. Since its conception, stochastic cooling has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. The earliest experiments were performed at the ISR in 1974, with the subsequent ICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led to the design and construction of the Antiproton Accumulator at CERN and the beginnings of p anti p colliding beam physics at the SPS. Experiments in stochastic cooling have been performed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBL, and a design is currently under development for a anti p accumulator for the Tevatron

  5. Assessment of the integration of a He-cooled divertor system in the power conversion system for the dual-coolant blanket concept (TW2-TRP-PPCS12D8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, P.; Kruessmann, R.; Malang, S.; Reimann, G.

    2002-12-01

    Application of a helium-cooled divertor together with the dual-coolant blanket concept is considered favourable for achieving a high thermal efficiency of the power plant due to its relatively high coolant outlet temperature. A new FZK He-cooled modular divertor concept with integrated pin arrays (HEMP) is introduced. Its main features and function are described in detail. The result of the thermalhydraulic analysis shows that the HEMP divertor concept has the potential of resisting, a heat flow density of at least 10-15 MW/m 2 at a reachable heat transfer coefficient of approx. 60 kW/m 2 K and a reasonable pumping power. Integration of this divertor concept into the power conversion system using a closed Brayton gas turbine system with three-stage compression leads to a net efficiency of the blanket/divertor cycle of about 43%. (orig.)

  6. Rehabilitation of two natural draught cooling towers at Grohnde 1300 MW nuclear power station, taking into account a completely new concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwickert, M.; Meyer, V.

    1992-01-01

    The natural draught cooling towers for Grohnde Nuclear Power Station were completed in 1983. During the operating period from 1984 to 1990, partial areas of these cooling tower structures collapsed. A combination of high performance cooling installations with so-called spray screens were offered for the necessary rehabilitation. Since rehabilitation of both cooling towers had to be carried out during the operation of the power station, parts of the surfaces of the cooling towers were closed off in order to be able to carry out the difficult installation of the structures. Acceptance measurements have confirmed the thermodynamic calculations. (orig.) [de

  7. Volumetric MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound with Direct Skin Cooling for the Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids: Proof-of-Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlijne E. Ikink

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To prospectively assess the safety and technical feasibility of volumetric magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU ablation with direct skin cooling (DISC during treatment of uterine fibroids. Methods. In this proof-of-concept study, eight patients were consecutively selected for clinical MR-HIFU ablation of uterine fibroids with the use of an additional DISC device to maintain a constant temperature (T≈20°C at the interface between the HIFU table top and the skin. Technical feasibility was verified by successful completion of MR-HIFU ablation. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI was used to measure the treatment effect (nonperfused volume (NPV ratio. Safety was evaluated by recording of adverse events (AEs within 30 days’ follow-up. Results. All MR-HIFU treatments were successfully completed in an outpatient setting. The median NPV ratio was 0.56 (IQR [0.27–0.72]. Immediately after treatment, two patients experienced coldness related discomfort which resolved at the same day. No serious (device-related AEs were reported. Specifically, no skin burns, cold injuries, or subcutaneous edema were observed. Conclusion. This study showed that it is safe and technically feasible to complete a volumetric MR-HIFU ablation with DISC. This technique may reduce the risk of thermal injury to the abdominal wall during MR-HIFU ablation of uterine fibroids. This trial is registered with NTR4189.

  8. Verification of an optimized condition for low residual stress employed water-shower cooling during welding in austenitic stainless steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, N.; Enomoto, K.; Anzai, H.

    2004-01-01

    To reduce tensile residual stress in a welded region, we have developed a new cooling method that uses a water-shower behind the welding torch. When this method is applied to the welding of austenitic stainless steel, the welding and cooling conditions mainly determine how much the residual stress can be reduced. To optimize these conditions, we first used a robust design method to determine the effects of the preheating temperature, the heat input quantity, and the water-shower area on the residual stress, and found that, to decrease the tensile residual stress, the preheating temperature should be high, the heat input low, and the water-shower area large. To confirm the effectiveness of these optimized conditions, the residual stresses under optimized or non-optimized conditions were measured experimentally. It was found that the residual stresses were tensile under the non-optimized conditions, but compressive under the optimized ones. These measurements agree well with the 3D-FEM analyses. It can therefore be concluded that the optimized conditions are valid and appropriate for reducing residual stress in an austenitic stainless-steel weld. (orig.)

  9. Employing Inquiry-Based Computer Simulations and Embedded Scientist Videos To Teach Challenging Climate Change and Nature of Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, E.

    2013-12-01

    . The students in the video group had marked improvement compared to the non-video group on questions regarding modeling as a tool for representing objects and processes of science modeling aspects as evident by multiple data sources. The findings from the dissertation have potential impacts on improving Nature of Science (NOS) concepts around modeling by efficiently embedding short authentic scientific videos that can be easily used by many educators. Compared to published assessments by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), due to the curriculum interventions both groups scored higher than the average United States middle school student on many NOS and climate content constructs.

  10. An exergoeconomic investigation of waste heat recovery from the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) employing an ammonia–water power/cooling cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, V.; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.; Yari, M.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed exergoeconomic analysis is performed for a combined cycle in which the waste heat from the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is recovered by an ammonia–water power/cooling cogeneration system. Parametric investigations are conducted to evaluate the effects of decision variables on the performances of the GT-MHR and combined cycles. The performances of these cycles are then optimized from the viewpoints of first law, second law and exergoeconomics. It is found that, combining the GT-MHR with ammonia–water cycle not only enhances the first and second law efficiencies of the GT-MHR, but also it improves the cycle performance from the exergoeconomic perspective. The results show that, when the optimization is based on the exergoeconomics, the unit cost of products is reduced by 5.4% in combining the two mentioned cycles. This is achieved with a just about 1% increase in total investment cost rate since the helium mass flow in the combined cycle is lower than that in the GT-MHR alone. - Highlights: • Application of exergetic cost theory to the combined GT-MHR/ammonia–water cycle. • Enhanced exergoeconomic performance for the combined cycle compared to the GT-MHR. • Comparable investment costs for the combined cycle and the GT-MHR alone

  11. History of nuclear cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuerti, M.

    1998-01-01

    The historical development of producing extreme low temperatures by magnetic techniques is overviewed. With electron spin methods, temperatures down to 1 mK can be achieved. With nuclear spins theoretically 10 -9 K can be produced. The idea of cooling with nuclear demagnetization is not new, it is a logical extension of the concept of electron cooling. Using nuclear demagnetization experiment with 3 T water cooled solenoids 3 mK could be produced. The cold record is held by Olli Lounasmaa in Helsinki with temperatures below 10 -9 K. (R.P.)

  12. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriner, J.

    1986-08-01

    The topics discussed are the stochastic cooling systems in use at Fermilab and some of the techniques that have been employed to meet the particular requirements of the anti-proton source. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab became of paramount importance about 5 years ago when the anti-proton source group at Fermilab abandoned the electron cooling ring in favor of a high flux anti-proton source which relied solely on stochastic cooling to achieve the phase space densities necessary for colliding proton and anti-proton beams. The Fermilab systems have constituted a substantial advance in the techniques of cooling including: large pickup arrays operating at microwave frequencies, extensive use of cryogenic techniques to reduce thermal noise, super-conducting notch filters, and the development of tools for controlling and for accurately phasing the system

  13. Cooling towers: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, M.O.

    1981-02-01

    This bibliography cites 300 selected references containing information on various aspects of large cooling tower technology, including design, construction, operation, performance, economics, and environmental effects. The towers considered include natural-draft and mechanical-draft types employing wet, dry, or combination wet-dry cooling. A few references deal with alternative cooling methods, principally ponds or spray canals. The citations were compiled for the DOE Energy Information Data Base (EDB) covering the period January to December 1980. The references are to reports from the Department of Energy and its contractors, reports from other government or private organizations, and journal articles, books, conference papers, and monographs from US originators

  14. Muon ionization cooling experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    A neutrino factory based on a muon storage ring is the ultimate tool for studies of neutrino oscillations, including possibly leptonic CP violation. It is also the first step towards muon colliders. The performance of this new and promising line of accelerators relies heavily on the concept of ionisation cooling of minimum ionising muons, for which much R&D is required. The concept of a muon ionisation cooling experiment has been extensively studied and first steps are now being taken towards its realisation by a joint international team of accelerator and particle physicists. The aim of the workshop is to to explore at least two versions of an experiment based on existing cooling channel designs. If such an experiment is feasible, one shall then select, on the basis of effectiveness, simplicity, availability of components and overall cost, a design for the proposed experiment, and assemble the elements necessary to the presentation of a proposal. Please see workshop website.

  15. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Outer Ring Cooling Concept in a Hybrid and in an All-Steel Ball Bearing Used in Aero-Engines by the Introduction of a Helical Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Flouros

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rolling element bearings for aero engine applications have to withstand very challenging operating conditions because of the high thermal impact due to elevated rotational speeds and loads. The high rate of heat generation in the bearing has to be sustained by the materials, and in the absence of lubrication these will fail within seconds. For this reason, aero engine bearings have to be lubricated and cooled by a continuous oil stream. When the oil has reached the outer ring it has already been heated up, thus its capability to remove extra heat from the outer ring is considerably reduced. Increasing the mass flow of oil to the bearing is not a solution since excess oil quantity would cause high parasitic losses (churning in the bearing chamber and also increase the demands in the oil system for oil storage, scavenging, cooling, hardware weight, etc. A method has been developed for actively cooling the outer ring of the bearing. The idea behind the outer ring cooling concept was adopted from fins that are used for cooling electronic devices. A spiral groove engraved in the outer ring material of the bearing would function as a fin body with oil instead of air as the cooling medium. The method was first evaluated in an all steel ball bearing and the results were a 50% reduction in the lubricating oil flow with an additional reduction in heat generation by more than 25%. It was then applied on a Hybrid ball bearing of the same size and the former results were reconfirmed. Hybrid bearings are a combination of steel made parts, like the outer ring, the inner ring, and the cage and of ceramic rolling elements. This paper describes the work done to-date as a follow up of the work described in, and demonstrates the potential of the outer ring cooling for a bearing. Friction loss coefficient, Nusselt number, and efficiency correlations have been developed on the basis of the test results and have been compared to correlations from other authors

  16. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  17. Self-concept clarity and compulsive Internet use: The role of preference for virtual interactions and employment status in British and North-American samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones, Cristina; Kakabadse, Nada Korak

    2015-12-01

    Compulsive Internet Use (CIU) describes a maladaptive relationship with the Internet characterised by loss of control and conflict. Although also affecting adults, most studies use teenage samples, and theoretical development on risk factors is scarce. According to Davis (2001), the social connectivity function of the Internet is key in identifying traits associated with CIU. Since Self-Concept Clarity (SCC) is strongly related to social anxiety, and virtual interactions allow "self-edition", we hypothesized that individuals low in SCC could choose virtual interactions as safer alternative to satisfy their social needs. This could in turn increase the risk of CIU. Building on a previous study, we also expected CIU to be more harmful in the unemployed. We collected samples from the U.K. (N = 532) and U.S. (N = 502) with equal distribution of employed and unemployed individuals. We ran Measurement Invariance tests to confirm that the constructs were equivalent across countries. Subsequently, we conducted mediation and moderation analysis to test our hypothesis with Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Measurement Invariance was confirmed. The relationship between SCC and CIU was partially mediated by preference of virtual interactions in both countries. This preference was significantly related to lower social support. Short term unemployment seemed to accentuate the negative impact of CIU on life satisfaction in both countries, although only marginally significantly in the U.S. The unemployed reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. We demonstrated that SCC is a key vulnerability factor to CIU in adults, and confirmed the additional risks for the unemployed.

  18. European DEMO BOT Solid Breeder Blanket: the concept based on the use of cooling plates and beds of beryllium and Li4SiO4 pebbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Fischer, U.; Norajitra, P.; Reimann, G.; Reiser, H.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents an important modification of the European DEMO BOT Solid Breeder Blanket. The new design uses cooling plates rather than tubes. This allows a considerable simplification of the blanket and the separation of the beryllium from the Li 4 SiO 4 pebbles. The neutronic, thermohydraulic and tritium performance of the new design is quite good and equivalent to that of the previous one. (orig.)

  19. Theory of tapered laser cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Hiromi; Wei, J.

    1998-01-01

    A theory of tapered laser cooling for fast circulating ion beams in a storage ring is constructed. The authors describe the fundamentals of this new cooling scheme, emphasizing that it might be the most promising way to beam crystallization. The cooling rates are analytically evaluated to study the ideal operating condition. They discuss the physical implication of the tapering factor of cooling laser, and show how to determine its optimum value. Molecular dynamics method is employed to demonstrate the validity of the present theory

  20. Early developments in solar cooling equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    A brief description of a development program to design, fabricate and field test a series of solar operated or driven cooling devices, undertaken by the Marshall Space Flight Center in the context of the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974, is presented. Attention is given to two basic design concepts: the Rankine cycle principle and the use of a dessicant for cooling.

  1. Neutronics analysis for aqueous self-cooled fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsamis, G.; Embrechts, M.J.; Jaffa, R.; Steiner, D.; Deutsch, L.; Gierszewski, P.

    1986-06-01

    The tritium breeding performance of several Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket (ASCB) configurations for fusion reactors has been evaluated. The ASCB concept employs small amounts of lithium compound dissolved in light or heavy water to serve as both coolant and breeding medium. The inherent simplicity of this concept allows the development of blankets with minimal technological risk. The tritium breeding performance of the ASCB concept is a critical issue for this family of blankets. Contrary to conventional blanket designs there will be a significant contribution to the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) in the water coolant/breeder of duct shields, and the 3-D TBR will therefore be similar to the 1-D TBR. The tritium breeding performance of an ASCB for a MARS-like-tandem reactor and an ASCB based breeding-shield for the Next European Torus (NET) are assessed. Two design options for the MARS-like blanket are discussed. One design employs a vanadium first wall, and zircaloy for the structural material. The trade-offs between light water and heavy water cooling options for this zircaloy blanket are discussed. The second design option for MARS relies on the use of a vanadium alloy as the stuctural material, and heavy water as the coolant. It is demonstrated that both design options lead to low-activation blankets that allow class C burial. The breeder-shield for NET consists of a water-cooled stainless steel shield

  2. Ventilative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Kolokotroni, Maria

    This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state-of-the-art of ventil......This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state......-of-the-art of ventilative cooling potentials and limitations, its consideration in current energy performance regulations, available building components and control strategies and analysis methods and tools. In addition, the report provides twenty six examples of operational buildings using ventilative cooling ranging from...

  3. Enriched-uranium feed costs for the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled reactor: trends and comparison with other reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.E.

    1976-04-01

    This report discusses each of the components that affect the unit cost for enriched uranium; that is, ore costs, U 3 O 8 to UF 6 conversion cost, costs for enriching services, and changes in transaction tails assay. Historical trends and announced changes are included. Unit costs for highly enriched uranium (93.15 percent 235 U) and for low-enrichment uranium (3.0, 3.2, and 3.5 percent 235 U) are displayed as a function of changes in the above components and compared. It is demonstrated that the trends in these cost components will probably result in significantly less cost increase for highly enriched uranium than for low-enrichment uranium--hence favoring the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

  4. Evaporative cooling in polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimotori, S; Sonai, A [Toshiba Corp. Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-05

    The concept of the evaporative cooling for the internally humidified PEFC was confirmed by the experiment. The evaporative cooling rates at the anode and the cathode were mastered under the various temperatures and air utilizations. At a high temperature the proportion of the evaporative cooling rate to the heat generation rate got higher, the possibility of the evaporative cooling was demonstrated. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Experimental Progress in Fast Cooling in the ESR

    CERN Document Server

    Steck, Markus; Beller, Peter; Franzke, Bernhard; Nolden, Fritz

    2005-01-01

    The ESR storage ring at GSI is operated with highly charged heavy ions. Due to the high electric charge the ions interact much stronger with electromagnetic fields. Therefore both cooling methods which are applied to stored ions in the ESR, stochastic cooling and electron cooling, are more powerful than for singly charged particles. The experimental results exhibit cooling times for stochastic cooling of a few seconds. For cold ion beams, electron cooling provides cooling times which are one to two orders of magnitude smaller. The beams are cooled to beam parameters which are limited by intrabeam scattering. At small ion numbers, however, intrabeam scattering is suppressed by electron cooling, clear evidence was found that the ion beam forms a one-dimensional ordered structure, a linear chain of ions. The strengths of stochastic cooling and electron cooling are complementary and can be combined favorably. Stochastic cooling is employed for pre-cooling of hot secondary beams followed by electron cooling to pro...

  6. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korik, L.; Burger, R.

    1992-01-01

    What is the effect of 0.6C (1F) temperature rise across turbines, compressors, or evaporators? Enthalpy charts indicate for every 0.6C (1F) hotter water off the cooling tower will require an additional 2 1/2% more energy cost. Therefore, running 2.2C (4F) warmer due to substandard cooling towers could result in a 10% penalty for overcoming high heads and temperatures. If it costs $1,250,000.00 a year to operate the system, $125,000.00 is the energy penalty for hotter water. This paper investigates extra fuel costs involved in maintaining design electric production with cooling water 0.6C (1F) to 3C (5.5F) hotter than design. If design KWH cannot be maintained, paper will calculate dollar loss of saleable electricity. The presentation will conclude with examining the main causes of deficient cold water production. State-of-the-art upgrading and methodology available to retrofit existing cooling towers to optimize lower cooling water temperatures will be discussed

  7. Cooling tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbaeck, P; Heneby, H

    1976-01-22

    Cooling towers to be transported on road vehicles as a unit are not allowed to exceed certain dimensions. In order to improve the efficiency of such a cooling tower (of cross-flow design and box-type body) with given dimensions, it is proposed to arrange at least one of the scrubbing bodies displaceable within a module or box. Then it can be moved out of the casing into working position, thereby increasing the front surface available for the inlet of air (and with it the efficiency) by nearly a factor of two.

  8. Technological Change, Employment, Qualifications and Training. A Development of Concepts from a Conference Held in Berlin, November 24-26, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Arndt

    A conference examined the socioeconomic challenges of technological and educational change throughout the European community. One hundred fifty representatives from a cross section of countries and agencies involved in education, training, and employment gathered to discuss the following themes: the transition from initial training to employment…

  9. An autonomous energy concept for the new Munich airport: Heating and cooling by use of waste heat. Autarkes Energiekonzept fuer neuen Muenchner Flughafen: Heizen und Kuehlen mit Abwaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W.

    1991-11-01

    The energy concept for the new Munich airport relies on seven cogeneration modules which total outputs of 11 MW (electric) and 12 MW (thermal). Six of the modules will be operated continuously to cover the basic demand. For economy reasons the plant primarly serves to generate electric power. The secondary heat production cycle includes a buffer storage for temporary heat storage in accordance with the different demand characteristics. Without interrupting the heat transfer the system may thus be disconnected during low-load hours to tap power from the public destribution network. In addition to the central airport management system a central-supplies management system is provided which, e.g. selects the most efficient energy sources and, thus, helps to optimize the power generation systems. (BWI).

  10. Modelization of cooling system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copete, Monica; Ortega, Silvia; Vaquero, Jose Carlos; Cervantes, Eva [Westinghouse Electric (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    results in relatively low water withdrawal. Typical heat sink options for closed-cycle systems are wet cooling system (mechanical or natural draft cooling towers, and cooling ponds). When water availability is low, a dry cooling system may be utilized. Dry cooling can be either direct or indirect and in each case uses convective heat transfer to provide cooling, eliminating evaporation losses. An innovative indirect dry cooling system is the Heller{sup R} System. The Heller{sup R} System air moving equipment can be either a natural draft or a mechanical draft. The Heller{sup R} System design concepts and equipment provides the maximum possible availability and minimum maintenance. Also, it is totally environmental-friend as saves water equivalent to the consumption of a town of 50,000 inhabitants for each 100 MWe facilitating the licensing of power projects. (authors)

  11. GOTHIC code evaluation of alternative passive containment cooling features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilas, M.; Todreas, E.N.; Driscoll, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Reliance on passive cooling has become an important objective in containment design. Several reactor concepts have been set forth, which are equipped with entirely passively cooled containments. However, the problems that have to be overcome in rejecting the entire heat generated by a severe accident in a high-rating reactor (i.e. one with a rating greater than 1200 MW e ) have been found to be substantial and without obvious solutions. The GOTHIC code was verified and modified for containment cooling applications; optimal mesh sizes, computational time steps and applicable heat transfer correlations were examined. The effect of the break location on circulation patterns that develop inside the containment was also evaluated. The GOTHIC code was then employed to assess the effectiveness of several original heat rejection features that make it possible to cool high-rating containments. Two containment concepts were evaluated: one for a 1200 MW e new pressure tube light-water reactor, and one for a 1300 MW e pressurized-water reactor. The effectiveness of various containment configurations that include specific pressure-limiting features has been predicted. The best-performance configurations-worst-case-accident scenarios that were examined yielded peak pressures of less than 0.30 MPa for the 1200 MW e pressure tube light-water reactor, and less than 0.45 MPa for the 1300 MW e pressurized-water reactor. (orig.)

  12. Conceptual design and simulation investigation of an electronic cooling device powered by hot electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Guozhen; Zhang, Yanchao; Cai, Ling; Su, Shanhe; Chen, Jincan

    2015-01-01

    Most electronic cooling devices are powered by an external bias applied between the cold and the hot reservoirs. Here we propose a new concept of electronic cooling, in which cooling is achieved by using a reservoir of hot electrons as the power source. The cooling device incorporates two energy filters with the Lorentzian transmission function to respectively select low- and high-energy electrons for transport. Based on the proposed model, we analyze the performances of the device varying with the resonant levels and half widths of two energy filters and establish the optimal configuration of the cooling device. It is believed that such a novel device may be practically used in some nano-energy fields. - Highlights: • A new electronic cooling device powered by hot electrons is proposed. • Two energy filters are employed to select the electrons for transport. • The effects of the resonant levels and half widths of two filters are discussed. • The maximum cooling power and coefficient of performance are calculated. • The optimal configuration of the cooling device is determined.

  13. Implementation and Development of the ”Employer Branding Management” Concept on the Romanian Labor Market in the Current Economic and Social Context

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Florin Alexandru; Ioan Corina AnaMaria; Sasu Constantin

    2013-01-01

    The Brand represents the most valuable assets of a company, so brand management is an important new activity in companies. Although normally concentrate their branding efforts towards developing new product and corporate trademarks, branding can be also used in Human Resources, more precisely in Resource Management. Having a value-centered culture of the "employer of choice" kind means having under control a few key features: internal and external good reputation, identity, image, corporate s...

  14. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 1. Conceptual design, Sections 1 through 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume presents in detail the market analysis, parametric analysis, and the selection process for the preferred system. (WHK)

  15. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 2. Conceptual design, Sections 5 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains the detailed conceptual design and cost/performance estimates and an assessment of the commercial scale solar central receiver hybrid power system. (WHK)

  16. A very cool cooling system

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 Gigatracker is a jewel of technology: its sensor, which delivers the time of the crossing particles with a precision of less than 200 picoseconds (better than similar LHC detectors), has a cooling system that might become the precursor to a completely new detector technique.   The 115 metre long vacuum tank of the NA62 experiment. The NA62 Gigatracker (GTK) is composed of a set of three innovative silicon pixel detectors, whose job is to measure the arrival time and the position of the incoming beam particles. Installed in the heart of the NA62 detector, the silicon sensors are cooled down (to about -20 degrees Celsius) by a microfluidic silicon device. “The cooling system is needed to remove the heat produced by the readout chips the silicon sensor is bonded to,” explains Alessandro Mapelli, microsystems engineer working in the Physics department. “For the NA62 Gigatracker we have designed a cooling plate on top of which both the silicon sensor and the...

  17. Investigations on passive containment cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Cheng, X.; Neitzel, H.J.; Erbacher, F.J.; Hofmann, F.

    1997-01-01

    The composite containment design for advanced LWRs that has been examined under the PASCO project is a promising design concept for purely passive decay heat removal after a severe accident. The passive cooling processes applied are natural convection and radiative heat transfer. Heat transfer through the latter process removes at an emission coefficient of 0.9 about 50% of the total heat removed via the steel containment, and thus is an essential factor. The heat transferring surfaces must have a high emission coefficient. The sump cooling concept examined under the SUCO project achieves a steady, natural convection-driven flow from the heat source to the heat sink. (orig./CB) [de

  18. Cooling pancakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.R.; Wilson, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    In theories of galaxy formation with a damping cut-off in the density fluctuation spectrum, the first non-linear structures to form are Zeldovich pancakes in which dissipation separates gas from any collisionless dark matter then present. One-dimensional numerical simulations of the collapse, shock heating, and subsequent thermal evolution of pancakes are described. Neutrinos (or any other cool collisionless particles) are followed by direct N-body methods and the gas by Eulerian hydrodynamics with conduction as well as cooling included. It is found that the pressure is relatively uniform within the shocked region and approximately equals the instantaneous ram pressure acting at the shock front. An analytic theory based upon this result accurately describes the numerical calculations. (author)

  19. Cool Sportswear

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    New athletic wear design based on the circulating liquid cooling system used in the astronaut's space suits, allows athletes to perform more strenuous activity without becoming overheated. Techni-Clothes gear incorporates packets containing a heat-absorbing gel that slips into an insulated pocket of the athletic garment and is positioned near parts of the body where heat transfer is most efficient. A gel packet is good for about one hour. Easily replaced from a supply of spares in an insulated container worn on the belt. The products, targeted primarily for runners and joggers and any other athlete whose performance may be affected by hot weather, include cooling headbands, wrist bands and running shorts with gel-pack pockets.

  20. Cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    Progress on the thermal effects project is reported with regard to physiology and distribution of Corbicula; power plant effects studies on burrowing mayfly populations; comparative thermal responses of largemouth bass from northern and southern populations; temperature selection by striped bass in Cherokee Reservoir; fish population studies; and predictive thermoregulation by fishes. Progress is also reported on the following; cause and ecological ramifications of threadfin shad impingement; entrainment project; aquaculture project; pathogenic amoeba project; and cooling tower drift project

  1. Piers cooling towers. From first idess to realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozetto, P.; Tzincoca, A.

    1988-01-01

    After a first part consecrated at the historical aspect of vertical piers cooling towers the second part indicates the experience pulled of the Chooz and Golfech cooling towers conception and realization [fr

  2. Self pumping magnetic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, V; Wang, Z; Ray, A; Ramanujan, R V; Sridhar, I

    2017-01-01

    Efficient thermal management and heat recovery devices are of high technological significance for innovative energy conservation solutions. We describe a study of a self-pumping magnetic cooling device, which does not require external energy input, employing Mn–Zn ferrite nanoparticles suspended in water. The device performance depends strongly on magnetic field strength, nanoparticle content in the fluid and heat load temperature. Cooling (Δ T ) by ∼20 °C and ∼28 °C was achieved by the application of 0.3 T magnetic field when the initial temperature of the heat load was 64 °C and 87 °C, respectively. These experiments results were in good agreement with simulations performed with COMSOL Multiphysics. Our system is a self-regulating device; as the heat load increases, the magnetization of the ferrofluid decreases; leading to an increase in the fluid velocity and consequently, faster heat transfer from the heat source to the heat sink. (letter)

  3. Reduction of Langelier index of cooling water by electrolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LSI) of the cooling water from a cooling tower of a textile industry was investigated. Sacrificial anodes were employed which prevent obnoxious chlorine generation. A series of batch experiments using stainless steel electrodes were conducted ...

  4. The materials programme for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor in the Federal Republic of Germany: Status of the development of high-temperature materials, integrity concept, and design codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.; Bodmann, E.; Seehafer, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    During the last 15 years, the research and development of materials for high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) applications in the Federal Republic of Germany have been concentrated on the qualification of high-temperature structural alloys. Such materials are required for heat exchanger components of advanced HTGRs supplying nuclear process heat in the temperature range between 750 deg. and 950 deg. C. The suitability of the candidate alloys for service in the HTGR has been established, and continuing research is aimed at verification of the integrity of components over the envisaged service lifetimes. The special features of the HTGR which provide a high degree of safety are the use of ceramics for the core construction and the low power density of the core. The reactor integrity concept which has been developed is based on these two characteristics. Previously, technical guidelines and design codes for nuclear plants were tailored exclusively to light water reactor systems. An extensive research project was therefore initiated which led to the formulation of the basic principles on which a high temperature design code can be based. (author)

  5. The Social Basis of Vaccine Questioning and Refusal: A Qualitative Study Employing Bourdieu’s Concepts of ‘Capitals’ and ‘Habitus’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Attwell

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is an in-depth analysis of the social nature of vaccine decision-making. It employs the sociological theory of Bourdieu and Ingram to consider how parents experience non-vaccination as a valued form of capital in specific communities, and how this can affect their decision-making. Drawing on research conducted in two Australian cities, our qualitative analysis of new interview data shows that parents experience disjuncture and tugs towards ‘appropriate’ forms of vaccination behavior in their social networks, as these link to broader behaviors around food, school choices and birth practices. We show how differences emerge between the two cities based on study designs, such that we are able to see some parents at the center of groups valorizing their decisions, whilst others feel marginalized within their communities for their decisions to vaccinate. We draw on the work of philosopher Mark Navin to consider how all parents join epistemic communities that reward compliance and conformity with the status quo and consider what this means for interventions that seek to influence the flow of pro-vaccine information through vaccine-critical social groups.

  6. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Tackney, Charles T.

    2014-01-01

    This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review of the concept in Western culture, philosophy, and management studies, Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) and Roman Catholic social teachings are investigated for positively correlative data to help develop ...

  7. Stochastic cooling in muon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.A.; Sessler, A.M.

    1993-09-01

    Analysis of muon production techniques for high energy colliders indicates the need for rapid and effective beam cooling in order that one achieve luminosities > 10 30 cm -2 s -1 as required for high energy physics experiments. This paper considers stochastic cooling to increase the phase space density of the muons in the collider. Even at muon energies greater than 100 GeV, the number of muons per bunch must be limited to ∼10 3 for the cooling rate to be less than the muon lifetime. With such a small number of muons per bunch, the final beam emittance implied by the luminosity requirement is well below the thermodynamic limit for beam electronics at practical temperatures. Rapid bunch stacking after the cooling process can raise the number of muons per bunch to a level consistent with both the luminosity goals and with practical temperatures for the stochastic cooling electronics. A major advantage of our stochastic cooling/stacking scheme over scenarios that employ only ionization cooling is that the power on the production target can be reduced below 1 MW

  8. Cooled Ceramic Matrix Composite Propulsion Structures Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Dickens, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program has successfully demonstrated cooled ceramic matrix composite (CMC) technology in a scramjet engine test. This demonstration represented the world s largest cooled nonmetallic matrix composite panel fabricated for a scramjet engine and the first cooled nonmetallic composite to be tested in a scramjet facility. Lightweight, high-temperature, actively cooled structures have been identified as a key technology for enabling reliable and low-cost space access. Tradeoff studies have shown this to be the case for a variety of launch platforms, including rockets and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Actively cooled carbon and CMC structures may meet high-performance goals at significantly lower weight, while improving safety by operating with a higher margin between the design temperature and material upper-use temperature. Studies have shown that using actively cooled CMCs can reduce the weight of the cooled flow-path component from 4.5 to 1.6 lb/sq ft and the weight of the propulsion system s cooled surface area by more than 50 percent. This weight savings enables advanced concepts, increased payload, and increased range. The ability of the cooled CMC flow-path components to operate over 1000 F hotter than the state-of-the-art metallic concept adds system design flexibility to space-access vehicle concepts. Other potential system-level benefits include smaller fuel pumps, lower part count, lower cost, and increased operating margin.

  9. Modular He-cooled divertor for power plant application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegele, Eberhard; Kruessmann, R.; Malang, S.; Norajitra, P.; Rizzi, G.

    2003-01-01

    Gas cooled divertor concepts are regarded as a suitable option for fusion power plants because of an increased thermal efficiency for power conversion systems and the use of a coolant compatible with all blanket systems. A modular helium cooled divertor concept is proposed with an improved heat transfer. The concept employs small tiles made of tungsten and brazed to a finger-like structure made of Mo-alloy (TZM). Design goal was a heat flux of at least 15 MW/m 2 and a minimum temperature of the structure of 600 deg.C. The divertor has to survive a number of cycles (100-1000) between operating temperature and room temperature even for the steady state operation assumed. Thermo-hydraulic design requirements for the concepts include to keep the pumping power below 10% of the thermal power to the divertor plates, and simultaneously achieving a heat transfer coefficient in excess of 60 kW/m 2 K. Inelastic stress analysis indicates that design allowable stress limits on primary and secondary (thermal) stresses as required by the ITER structural design criteria are met even under conservative assumptions. Finally, critical issues for future development are addressed

  10. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  11. Cool snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Brock, Steen; Brunsø, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Young people snack and their snacking habits are not always healthy. We address the questions whether it is possible to develop a new snack product that adolescents will find attractive, even though it is based on ingredients as healthy as fruits and vegetables, and we argue that developing...... such a product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...... people's snacking behaviour and then to develop and test new, healthier snacking solutions. These new snacking solutions were tested and found to be favourably accepted by young people. The paper therefore provides a proof of principle that the development of snacks that are both healthy and attractive...

  12. Cool visitors

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Pictured, from left to right: Tim Izo (saxophone, flute, guitar), Bobby Grant (tour manager), George Pajon (guitar). What do the LHC and a world-famous hip-hop group have in common? They are cool! On Saturday, 1st July, before their appearance at the Montreux Jazz Festival, three members of the 'Black Eyed Peas' came on a surprise visit to CERN, inspired by Dan Brown's Angels and Demons. At short notice, Connie Potter (Head of the ATLAS secretariat) organized a guided tour of ATLAS and the AD 'antimatter factory'. Still curious, lead vocalist Will.I.Am met CERN physicist Rolf Landua after the concert to ask many more questions on particles, CERN, and the origin of the Universe.

  13. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path

  14. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.

  15. Integrated cooling concepts for printed circuit boards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems

    2008-01-01

    Thermal management plays an increasingly dominant role in the design process of electronic products. Component sizes decrease while performance and functional demands increase, resulting in more power dissipation on smaller surfaces. In an effort to cope with these growing thermal challenges,

  16. Employer Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Stroblová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the Master Thesis is to describe how to build Employer Brand a company. It is based on the description of Employer Branding project of a particular company and the evaluation its process. The thesis is a case study and consists of theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part focuses on trends and changes in leadership approach, definition of Employer Branding and HR Marketing. The practical part deals with the brand building process itself, describes the outputs of the proj...

  17. Employer Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuli, Kelli J.; Hong, Esther

    This document consists of two guides intended for either employers or service providers involved in school to work partnerships for students with disabilities. "Tools for Service Providers" is intended to be used for training local-level providers who are developing school to work linkages with employers. Following an introduction, this…

  18. Divertor cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Tadakazu; Hayashi, Katsumi; Handa, Hiroyuki

    1993-01-01

    Cooling water for a divertor cooling system cools the divertor, thereafter, passes through pipelines connecting the exit pipelines of the divertor cooling system and the inlet pipelines of a blanket cooling system and is introduced to the blanket cooling system in a vacuum vessel. It undergoes emission of neutrons, and cooling water in the divertor cooling system containing a great amount of N-16 which is generated by radioactivation of O-16 is introduced to the blanket cooling system in the vacuum vessel by way of pipelines, and after cooling, passes through exit pipelines of the blanket cooling system and is introduced to the outside of the vacuum vessel. Radiation of N-16 in the cooling water is decayed sufficiently with passage of time during cooling of the blanket, thereby enabling to decrease the amount of shielding materials such as facilities and pipelines, and ensure spaces. (N.H.)

  19. WORKSHOP: Beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Cooling - the control of unruly particles to provide well-behaved beams - has become a major new tool in accelerator physics. The main approaches of electron cooling pioneered by Gersh Budker at Novosibirsk and stochastic cooling by Simon van der Meer at CERN, are now complemented by additional ideas, such as laser cooling of ions and ionization cooling of muons

  20. Development Status on Innovative Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Sato, Kazujiro

    2006-01-01

    The first step in Japan's nuclear fuel cycle policy is to introduce MOX recycle in light water reactors (LWRs) and the final step is to establish multiple TRU recycle in fast reactors (FRs), with the goal of realizing a stable supply, effective use of nuclear fuel resources, and the environmentally friendly production of energy. Therefore, a feasibility study on commercialized FR cycle systems has been launched since July 1999 by a Japanese joint project team of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC: the representative of the electric utilities) in cooperation with Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and vendors. In the period from July 1999 to March 2001, the feasibility study phase-I was conducted to screen out representative FR cycle concepts. In the feasibility study phase-II (April 2001 - March 2006), investigations in to the representative FR concepts were carried out to clarify the most promising concept for commercial deployment. This paper describes an innovative sodium-cooled FR, which is named as the JAEA Sodium-cooled FR (JSFR), as the most promising FR concept that meets the Generation-IV performance target. The JSFR employs several advanced technologies, such as an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) cladding for higher burn-up, a short-piping configuration with less elbows by adopting high chromium steel, a large scale integrated intermediate heat exchanger with a primary circulation pump, etc. Based on the design, construction and operation experiences of JOYO and MONJU, there are extensive technology bases for sodium-cooled FRs. Nevertheless, several innovative technologies implemented into the JSFR have to be developed in order to realize higher economic competitiveness by reducing construction costs and improving plant availability

  1. VIA Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Mariendal

    2017-01-01

    ’s realized at the entrance to the labor market and in the future career. The purpose is to find opportunities to improve employability-developing activities and to adapt it to specific needs from the students. Based on a number of qualitative interviews and personality tests of the graduates, an increased......The fact that students develop employability during their education is a key point for educational institutions and the focus on this issue has never been greater. This project looks into personal experience from VIA-graduates of "developing their employability" during the education and how it...

  2. Renewable Heating And Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  3. Employment protection

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Scarpetta

    2014-01-01

    Laws on hiring and firing are intended to protect workers from unfair behavior by employers, to counter imperfections in financial markets that limit workers’ ability to insure themselves against job loss, and to preserve firm-specific human capital. But by imposing costs on firms’ adaptation to changes in demand and technology, employment protection legislation may reduce not only job destruction but also job creation, hindering the efficient allocation of labor and productivity growth....

  4. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study.

  5. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  6. Emergency cooling apparatus for reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, S.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described which has the core surrounded by coolant and an inert cover gas all sealed within a container, an emergency cooling apparatus employing a detector that will detect cover gas or coolant, particularly liquid sodium, leaking from the container of the reactor, to release a heat exchange material that is inert to the coolant, which heat exchange material is cooled during operation of the reactor. The heat exchange material may be liquid niitrogen or a combination of spheres and liquid nitrogen, for example, and is introduced so as to contact the coolant that has leaked from the container quickly so as to rapidly cool the coolant to prevent or extinguish combustion. (Official Gazette)

  7. Structure evolution during the cooling and coalesced cooling processes of Cu-Co bimetallic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guojian; Wang Qiang; Li Donggang; Lue Xiao; He Jicheng

    2008-01-01

    Constant-temperature molecular dynamics with general EAM was employed to study the structure evolutions during the cooling and coalesced cooling processes of Cu-Co bimetallic clusters. It shows that the desired particle morphologies and structures can be obtained by controlling the composition and distribution of hetero atoms during synthesis process

  8. Student employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Marita; Gerth, Maria; Weiss, Felix

    2018-01-01

    , according to social origins, in student employment from first-year students through graduating students. We show that inequality in job quality exists and is partly attributable to the need for students from lower social origins to work to finance their studies. We hypothesise that initial inequalities......In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality...

  9. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    . To prevent wet discomfort, the T-shirt was made of a polyester material having a water-repellent silicon coating on the inner surface. The chest, front upper arms, and nape of the neck were adopted as the cooling areas of the human body. We conducted human subject experiments in an office with air......We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  10. Cooled Water Production System,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invention refers to the field of air conditioning and regards an apparatus for obtaining cooled water . The purpose of the invention is to develop...such a system for obtaining cooled water which would permit the maximum use of the cooling effect of the water -cooling tower.

  11. Process fluid cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system of heat exchangers is disclosed for cooling process fluids. The system is particularly applicable to cooling steam generator blowdown fluid in a nuclear plant prior to chemical purification of the fluid in which it minimizes the potential of boiling of the plant cooling water which cools the blowdown fluid

  12. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  13. Emergency Cooling of Nuclear Power Plant Reactors With Heat Removal By a Forced-Draft Cooling Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murav’ev, V. P., E-mail: murval1@mail.ru

    2016-07-15

    The feasibility of heat removal during emergency cooling of a reactor by a forced-draft cooling tower with accumulation of the peak heat release in a volume of precooled water is evaluated. The advantages of a cooling tower over a spray cooling pond are demonstrated: it requires less space, consumes less material, employs shorter lines in the heat removal system, and provides considerably better protection of the environment from wetting by entrained moisture.

  14. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  15. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles Thomas

    This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review of the con......This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review...... of the concept in Western culture, philosophy, and management studies, Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) and Roman Catholic social teachings are investigated for positively correlative data to help develop the criterion variable. From the literature review of concept and historical data in both traditions...... analysis should complement and support corporate social responsibility, management spirituality, authentic leadership / authentic follower, and other secular research by offering a research methods bridge between empirically grounded theology and secular studies, with the common goal of improving workplace...

  16. Final muon cooling for a muon collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Castillo, John Gabriel

    To explore the new energy frontier, a new generation of particle accelerators is needed. Muon colliders are a promising alternative if muon cooling can be made to work. Muons are 200 times heavier than electrons, so they produce less synchrotron radiation, and they behave like point particles. However, they have a short lifetime of 2.2 mus and the beam is more difficult to cool than an electron beam. The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) was created to develop concepts and technologies required by a muon collider. An important effort has been made in the program to design and optimize a muon beam cooling system. The goal is to achieve the small beam emittance required by a muon collider. This work explores a final ionization cooling system using magnetic quadrupole lattices with a low enough beta* region to cool the beam to the required limit with available low Z absorbers.

  17. Final Cooling for a Muon Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Castillo, John Gabriel [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States)

    2017-05-01

    To explore the new energy frontier, a new generation of particle accelerators is needed. Muon colliders are a promising alternative, if muon cooling can be made to work. Muons are 200 times heavier than electrons, so they produce less synchrotron radiation, and they behave like point particles. However, they have a short lifetime of 2.2 $\\mathrm{\\mu s}$ and the beam is more difficult to cool than an electron beam. The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) was created to develop concepts and technologies required by a muon collider. An important effort has been made in the program to design and optimize a muon beam cooling system. The goal is to achieve the small beam emittance required by a muon collider. This work explores a final ionization cooling system using magnetic quadrupole lattices with a low enough $\\beta^{\\star} $ region to cool the beam to the required limit with available low Z absorbers.

  18. Restaurant Food Cooling Practices†

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROWN, LAURA GREEN; RIPLEY, DANNY; BLADE, HENRY; REIMANN, DAVE; EVERSTINE, KAREN; NICHOLAS, DAVE; EGAN, JESSICA; KOKTAVY, NICOLE; QUILLIAM, DANIELA N.

    2017-01-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study. PMID:23212014

  19. Water cooling coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S; Ito, Y; Kazawa, Y

    1975-02-05

    Object: To provide a water cooling coil in a toroidal nuclear fusion device, in which coil is formed into a small-size in section so as not to increase dimensions, weight or the like of machineries including the coil. Structure: A conductor arranged as an outermost layer of a multiple-wind water cooling coil comprises a hollow conductor, which is directly cooled by fluid, and as a consequence, a solid conductor disposed interiorly thereof is cooled indirectly.

  20. The Cool Colors Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, second from left, a sample from the Cool Colors Project, a roof product ) (Jeff Chiu - AP) more Cool Colors make the front page of The Sacramento Bee (3rd highest circulation newspaper in California) on 14 August 2006! Read the article online or as a PDF. The Cool Colors Project

  1. Man-portable personal cooling garment based on vacuum desiccant cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yifan; Stapleton, Jill; Diagne, Barbara Thiané; Kenny, Glen P.; Lan, Christopher Q.

    2012-01-01

    A man-portable personal cooling garment based on the concept of vacuum desiccant cooling (VDC) was developed. It was demonstrated with cooling pads that a cooling capacity of 373.1 W/m 2 could be achieved in an ambient environment of 37 °C. Tests with human subjects wearing prototype cooling garments consisting of 12 VDC pads with an overall weight of 3.4 kg covering 0.4 m 2 body surface indicate that the garment could maintain a core temperature substantially lower than the control when the workload was walking on a treadmill of 2% inclination at 3 mph. The exercise was carried out in an environment of 40 °C and 50% relative humidity (RH) for 60 min. Tests also showed that the VDC garment could effectively reduce the metabolic heat accumulation in body with subject wearing heavily insulated nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) suit working in the heat and allow the participant to work safely for 60 min, almost doubling the safe working time of the same participant when he wore NBC suit only. - Highlights: ► Heat stress mitigation is important for workers health, safety, and performance. ► Vacuum desiccant cooling (VDC) a novel concept for personal cooling. ► VDC garment man-portable and more efficient than commercial ice/pad vest. ► VDC garment suitable for personal cooling with NBC suit.

  2. Conceptual design study on simplified and safer cooling systems for sodium cooled FBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayafune, Hiroki; Shimakawa, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Kubota, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Jun; Kasai, Shigeo

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study is to create the FBR plant concepts increasing economy and safety for the Phase-I 'Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor System'. In this study, various concepts of simplified 2ry cooling system for sodium cooled FBRs are considered and evaluated from the view points of technological feasibility, economy, and safety. The concepts in the study are considered on the basis of the following points of view. 1. To simplify 2ry cooling system by moderating and localizing the sodium-water reaction in the steam generator of the FBRs. 2. To simplify 2ry cooling system by eliminating the sodium-water reaction using integrated IHX-SG unit. 3. To simplify 2ry cooling system by eliminating the sodium-water reaction using a power generating system other than the steam generator. As the result of the study, 12 concepts and 3 innovative concepts are proposed. The evaluation study for those concepts shows the following technical prospects. 1. 2 concepts of integrated IHX-SG unit can eliminate the sodium-water reaction. Separated IHX and SG tubes unit using Lead-Bismuth as the heat transfer medium. Integrated IHX-SG unit using copper as the heat transfer medium. 2. Cost reduction effect by simplified 2ry cooling system using integrated IHX-SG unit is estimated 0 to 5%. 3. All of the integrated IHX-SG unit concepts have more weight and larger size than conventional steam generator unit. The weight of the unit during transporting and lifting would limit capacity of heat transfer system. These evaluation results will be compared with the results in JFY 2000 and used for the Phase-II study. (author)

  3. The development of air cooled condensation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodas, J.

    1990-01-01

    EGI - Contracting/Engineering has had experience with the development of air cooled condensing systems since the 1950's. There are two accepted types of dry cooling systems,the direct and the indirect ones. Due to the fact that the indirect system has several advantages over the direct one, EGI's purpose was to develop an economic, reliable and efficient type of indirect cooling system, both for industrial and power station applications. Apart from system development, the main components of dry cooling plant have been developed as well. These are: the water-to-air heat exchangers; the direct contact (DC, or jet) condenser; the cooling water circulating pumps and recovery turbines; and the peak cooling/preheating units. As a result of this broad development work which was connected with intensive market activity, EGI has supplied about 50% of the dry cooling plants employed for large power stations all over the world. This means that today the cumulated capacity of power units using Heller type dry cooling systems supplied and contracted by EGI is over 6000 MW

  4. Helium cooling of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Baxi, C.; Bourque, R.; Dahms, C.; Inamati, S.; Ryder, R.; Sager, G.; Schleicher, R.

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of worldwide design experience and in coordination with the evolution of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, the application of helium as a coolant for fusion appears to be at the verge of a transition from conceptual design to engineering development. This paper presents a review of the use of helium as the coolant for fusion reactor blanket and divertor designs. The concept of a high-pressure helium cooling radial plate design was studied for both ITER and PULSAR. These designs can resolve many engineering issues, and can help with reaching the goals of low activation and high performance designs. The combination of helium cooling, advanced low-activation materials, and gas turbine technology may permit high thermal efficiency and reduced costs, resulting in the environmental advantages and competitive economics required to make fusion a 21st century power source. ((orig.))

  5. Modeling of hydronic radiant cooling of a thermally homeostatic building using a parametric cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Peizheng; Wang, Lin-Shu; Guo, Nianhua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigated cooling of thermally homeostatic buildings in 7 U.S. cities by modeling. • Natural energy is harnessed by cooling tower to extract heat for building cooling. • Systematically studied possibility and conditions of using cooling tower in buildings. • Diurnal ambient temperature amplitude is taken into account in cooling tower cooling. • Homeostatic building cooling is possible in locations with large ambient T amplitude. - Abstract: A case is made that while it is important to mitigate dissipative losses associated with heat dissipation and mechanical/electrical resistance for engineering efficiency gain, the “architect” of energy efficiency is the conception of best heat extraction frameworks—which determine the realm of possible efficiency. This precept is applied to building energy efficiency here. Following a proposed process assumption-based design method, which was used for determining the required thermal qualities of building thermal autonomy, this paper continues this line of investigation and applies heat extraction approach investigating the extent of building partial homeostasis and the possibility of full homeostasis by using cooling tower in one summer in seven selected U.S. cities. Cooling tower heat extraction is applied parametrically to hydronically activated radiant-surfaces model-buildings. Instead of sizing equipment as a function of design peak hourly temperature as it is done in heat balance design-approach of selecting HVAC equipment, it is shown that the conditions of using cooling tower depend on both “design-peak” daily-mean temperature and the distribution of diurnal range in hourly temperature (i.e., diurnal temperature amplitude). Our study indicates that homeostatic building with natural cooling (by cooling tower alone) is possible only in locations of special meso-scale climatic condition such as Sacramento, CA. In other locations the use of cooling tower alone can only achieve homeostasis

  6. Neutron streaming analysis of an aqueous self-cooled blanket applied to MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsamis, G.L.; Embrechts, M.J.; Steiner, D.

    1987-01-01

    A novel fusion reactor blanket concept, the Aqueous Self Cooled Blanket concept (ASCB), has recently been proposed. One of the first applications of this concept was to a MARS-like tandem mirror reactor. The design employs spiraling tubes of zircaloy-4 housed in a structural casing made of a vanadium alloy (V-15Cr-5Tl). One potential problem area for this design is the possibility for neutron streaming between the zircaloy tubes. This work examines this potential streaming path using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The results of the total and the uncollided flux indicate a noticeable streaming effect on the uncollided flux only. An analysis of the energy deposition behind the blanket indicates that this effect is small, and therefore design modifications due to this streaming effect are not anticipated

  7. Cooling water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  8. The Integral Fast Reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, its technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and its future development path

  9. Cooling tower calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonkova, J.

    1988-01-01

    The problems are summed up of the dynamic calculation of cooling towers with forced and natural air draft. The quantities and relations are given characterizing the simultaneous exchange of momentum, heat and mass in evaporative water cooling by atmospheric air in the packings of cooling towers. The method of solution is clarified in the calculation of evaporation criteria and thermal characteristics of countercurrent and cross current cooling systems. The procedure is demonstrated of the calculation of cooling towers, and correction curves and the effect assessed of the operating mode at constant air number or constant outlet air volume flow on their course in ventilator cooling towers. In cooling towers with the natural air draft the flow unevenness is assessed of water and air relative to its effect on the resulting cooling efficiency of the towers. The calculation is demonstrated of thermal and resistance response curves and cooling curves of hydraulically unevenly loaded towers owing to the water flow rate parameter graded radially by 20% along the cross-section of the packing. Flow rate unevenness of air due to wind impact on the outlet air flow from the tower significantly affects the temperatures of cooled water in natural air draft cooling towers of a design with lower demands on aerodynamics, as early as at wind velocity of 2 m.s -1 as was demonstrated on a concrete example. (author). 11 figs., 10 refs

  10. Laser cooling of atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morigi, G.

    1999-02-01

    This thesis covers my work in the field of theoretical quantum optics, focusing on laser cooling of trapped atoms and ions. Laser cooling has been extensively investigated in the last twenty years, opening the possibility in experiments to move well into the quantum regime, where quantum statistical or quantum motional effects become pronounced. The successful preparation of cold atoms by means of laser cooling has recently raised the interest in the preparation of several or even many particles in a pure quantum state of the whole system. This goal imposes certain experimental circumstances, in particular the interaction between the atoms may play a significant role and affect the conditions for laser cooling considerably. Hence, there is great interest in developing cooling schemes which are compatible with such experimental conditions and in studying theoretically laser cooling of interacting particles. The work contained in this thesis contributes to this rapidly developing field, and it can be divided in two parts. In the first part, it presents an investigation of new schemes of laser cooling of single atoms or ions in traps where the amplitude of the particle's motion is comparable with the laser wavelength. This regime is typical of experiments with ultracold, weakly interacting atomic gases, and equally relevant to quantum information processing with trapped ions. In the second part, laser cooling of strongly interacting ions in a trap is investigated, with particular attention to the effect of the Coulomb interaction on the cooling process. This system is a paradigm for the experimental implementation of a quantum computer and is currently intensively studied. The thesis is divided into five chapters, of which the first one constitutes an introduction to laser cooling and to a series of concepts which are recurrent throughout this work. The other four chapters present my personal contributions to the field. Each of them contains first a general

  11. The integral fast reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yoon I.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. The IFR concept consists of four technical features: (1) liquid sodium cooling, (2) pool-type reactor configuration, (3) metallic fuel, and (4) an integral fuel cycle, based on pyrometallurgical processing and injection-cast fuel fabrication, with the fuel cycle facility collocated with the reactor, if so desired. This paper gives a review of the IFR concept

  12. Heating and cooling processes in disks*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woitke Peter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter summarises current theoretical concepts and methods to determine the gas temperature structure in protoplanetary disks by balancing all relevant heating and cooling rates. The processes considered are non-LTE line heating/cooling based on the escape probability method, photo-ionisation heating and recombination cooling, free-free heating/cooling, dust thermal accommodation and high-energy heating processes such as X-ray and cosmic ray heating, dust photoelectric and PAH heating, a number of particular follow-up heating processes starting with the UV excitation of H2, and the release of binding energy in exothermal reactions. The resulting thermal structure of protoplanetary disks is described and discussed.

  13. Laser cooling of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushkin, S V

    2009-01-01

    Laser cooling is an important emerging technology in such areas as the cooling of semiconductors. The book examines and suggests solutions for a range of problems in the development of miniature solid-state laser refrigerators, self-cooling solid-state lasers and optical echo-processors. It begins by looking at the basic theory of laser cooling before considering such topics as self-cooling of active elements of solid-state lasers, laser cooling of solid-state information media of optical echo-processors, and problems of cooling solid-state quantum processors. Laser Cooling of Solids is an important contribution to the development of compact laser-powered cryogenic refrigerators, both for the academic community and those in the microelectronics and other industries. Provides a timely review of this promising field of research and discusses the fundamentals and theory of laser cooling Particular attention is given to the physics of cooling processes and the mathematical description of these processes Reviews p...

  14. Emergency reactor cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Ken.

    1993-01-01

    An emergency nuclear reactor cooling device comprises a water reservoir, emergency core cooling water pipelines having one end connected to a water feeding sparger, fire extinguishing facility pipelines, cooling water pressurizing pumps, a diesel driving machine for driving the pumps and a battery. In a water reservoir, cooling water is stored by an amount required for cooling the reactor upon emergency and for fire extinguishing, and fire extinguishing facility pipelines connecting the water reservoir and the fire extinguishing facility are in communication with the emergency core cooling water pipelines connected to the water feeding sparger by system connection pipelines. Pumps are operated by a diesel power generator to introduce cooling water from the reservoir to the emergency core cooling water pipelines. Then, even in a case where AC electric power source is entirely lost and the emergency core cooling system can not be used, the diesel driving machine is operated using an exclusive battery, thereby enabling to inject cooling water from the water reservoir to a reactor pressure vessel and a reactor container by the diesel drive pump. (N.H.)

  15. Slab cooling system design using computer simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lain, M.; Zmrhal, V.; Drkal, F.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    For a new technical library building in Prague computer simulations were carried out to help design of slab cooling system and optimize capacity of chillers. In the paper is presented concept of new technical library HVAC system, the model of the building, results of the energy simulations for

  16. Measuring the coolness of interactive products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Anders; Raptis, Dimitrios; Kjeldskov, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Coolness has recently started to be explored as a design goal for interactive products from practitioners as well as researchers within human–computer interaction (HCI), but there is still a need to further operationalise the concept and explore how we can measure it. Our contribution in this paper...

  17. The Marketing Concept

    OpenAIRE

    G. Nazan Gunay

    2001-01-01

    Since the term "Market Orientation" is recognised as the critical factor in business success there has been an overwhelming increase in research issues linking market orientation with company performance. The term market orientation has been employed by scholars to indicate the implementation of the marketing concept. In order to understand market orientation, one believes that there is a need to recall what the marketing concept is. Therefore, this study reviews the "marketing concept" as a ...

  18. The Nature of Employability Skills: Empirical Evidence from Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Johnny; Ng, Michael Chi Man; Loke, Fiona; Ramos, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns the changing nature of employability skills, moving from the original life skills or basic skills concepts to the increasingly work-oriented interpretation. The early concept of employability skills linked employability skills to job readiness and holding down employment. However, the work-oriented focus is increasingly linking…

  19. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...... cooling system that includes such considerations as thermal comfort of the occupants, which design parameters will influence the cooling capacity and how the system should be controlled. Examples of applications are presented....

  20. Development of High Performance Cooling Modules in Notebook PC's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Kosei

    The CPU power consumption in Notebook PCs is increasing every year. Video chips and HDDs are also continually using larger power for higher performance. In addition, since miniaturization is desired, the mounting of components is becoming more and more dense. Accordingly, the cooling mechanisms are increasingly important. The cooling modules have to dissipate larger amounts of heat in the same environmental conditions. Therefore, high capacity cooling capabilities is needed, while low costs and high reliability must be retained. Available cooling methods include air or water cooling systems and the heat conduction method. The air cooling system is to transmit heat by a cooling fan often using a heat pipe. The water cooling one employs the water to carry heat to the back of the display, which offers a comparatively large cooling area. The heat conduction method is to transfer the heat by thermal conduction to the case. This article describes the development of new and comparatively efficient cooling devices offering low cost and high reliability for air cooling system. As one of the development techniques, the heat resistance and performance are measured for various parts and layouts. Each cooling system is evaluated in the same measurement environment. With regards to the fans, an optimal shape of the fan blades to maximize air flow is found by using CFD simulation, and prototypes were built and tested.

  1. Turbine airfoil cooling system with cooling systems using high and low pressure cooling fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Messmann, Stephen John; Scribner, Carmen Andrew

    2017-10-25

    A turbine airfoil cooling system including a low pressure cooling system and a high pressure cooling system for a turbine airfoil of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, the low pressure cooling system may be an ambient air cooling system, and the high pressure cooling system may be a compressor bleed air cooling system. In at least one embodiment, the compressor bleed air cooling system in communication with a high pressure subsystem that may be a snubber cooling system positioned within a snubber. A delivery system including a movable air supply tube may be used to separate the low and high pressure cooling subsystems. The delivery system may enable high pressure cooling air to be passed to the snubber cooling system separate from low pressure cooling fluid supplied by the low pressure cooling system to other portions of the turbine airfoil cooling system.

  2. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Philip Albert; Lindberg, Frank A.; Garcen, Walter

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  3. Semioptimal practicable algorithmic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

    2011-01-01

    Algorithmic cooling (AC) of spins applies entropy manipulation algorithms in open spin systems in order to cool spins far beyond Shannon's entropy bound. Algorithmic cooling of nuclear spins was demonstrated experimentally and may contribute to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Several cooling algorithms were suggested in recent years, including practicable algorithmic cooling (PAC) and exhaustive AC. Practicable algorithms have simple implementations, yet their level of cooling is far from optimal; exhaustive algorithms, on the other hand, cool much better, and some even reach (asymptotically) an optimal level of cooling, but they are not practicable. We introduce here semioptimal practicable AC (SOPAC), wherein a few cycles (typically two to six) are performed at each recursive level. Two classes of SOPAC algorithms are proposed and analyzed. Both attain cooling levels significantly better than PAC and are much more efficient than the exhaustive algorithms. These algorithms are shown to bridge the gap between PAC and exhaustive AC. In addition, we calculated the number of spins required by SOPAC in order to purify qubits for quantum computation. As few as 12 and 7 spins are required (in an ideal scenario) to yield a mildly pure spin (60% polarized) from initial polarizations of 1% and 10%, respectively. In the latter case, about five more spins are sufficient to produce a highly pure spin (99.99% polarized), which could be relevant for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

  4. Innovative divertor concepts for LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Komori, A.; Akaishi, K.

    1994-07-01

    We are developing various innovative divertor concepts which improve the LHD plasma performance. These are two divertor magnetic geometries (helical and local island divertors), three operational scenarios (radiative cooling in the high density, cold boundary, confinement improvement by generating high temperature divertor plasma and simultaneous achievement of radiative cooling and H-mode like confinement improvement) and technological development of new efficient hydrogen pumping schemes. (author)

  5. Dual coolant blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Schleisiek, K.

    1994-11-01

    A self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket with helium-cooled first wall ('Dual Coolant Blanket Concept') for a fusion DEMO reactor is described. This is one of the four blanket concepts under development in the frame of the European fusion technology program with the aim to select in 1995 the two most promising ones for further development. Described are the design of the blankets including the ancillary loop system and the results of the theoretical and experimental work in the fields of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, thermohydraulics, mechanical stresses, compatibility and purification of lead-lithium, tritium control, safety, reliability, and electrically insulating coatings. The remaining open questions and the required R and D programme are identified. (orig.) [de

  6. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  7. Solar absorption cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    As the world concerns more and more on global climate changes and depleting energy resources, solar cooling technology receives increasing interests from the public as an environment-friendly and sustainable alternative. However, making a competitive solar cooling machine for the market still

  8. Gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakilian, M.

    1977-05-01

    The present study is the second part of a general survey of Gas Cooled Reactors (GCRs). In this part, the course of development, overall performance and present development status of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTCRs) and advances of HTGR systems are reviewed. (author)

  9. Coherent electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  10. The final cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    Thursday 29th May, the cool-down of the final sector (sector 4-5) of LHC has begun, one week after the start of the cool-down of sector 1-2. It will take five weeks for the sectors to be cooled from room temperature to 5 K and a further two weeks to complete the cool down to 1.9 K and the commissioning of cryogenic instrumentation, as well as to fine tune the cryogenic plants and the cooling loops of cryostats.Nearly a year and half has passed since sector 7-8 was cooled for the first time in January 2007. For Laurent Tavian, AT/CRG Group Leader, reaching the final phase of the cool down is an important milestone, confirming the basic design of the cryogenic system and the ability to operate complete sectors. “All the sectors have to operate at the same time otherwise we cannot inject the beam into the machine. The stability and reliability of the cryogenic system and its utilities are now very important. That will be the new challenge for the coming months,” he explains. The status of the cool down of ...

  11. Reactor concepts for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Maniscalco, J.A.

    1977-07-01

    Scoping studies were initiated to identify attractive reactor concepts for producing electric power with laser fusion. Several exploratory reactor concepts were developed and are being subjected to our criteria for comparing long-range sources of electrical energy: abundance, social costs, technical feasibility, and economic competitiveness. The exploratory concepts include: a liquid-lithium-cooled stainless steel manifold, a gas-cooled graphite manifold, and fluidized wall concepts, such as a liquid lithium ''waterfall'', and a ceramic-lithium pellet ''waterfall''. Two of the major reactor vessel problems affecting the technical feasibility of a laser fusion power plant are: the effects of high-energy neutrons and cyclical stresses on the blanket structure and the effects of x-rays and debris from the fusion microexplosion on the first-wall. The liquid lithium ''waterfall'' concept is presented here in more detail as an approach which effectively deals with these damaging effects

  12. Reactor core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masahiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To safely and effectively cool down the reactor core after it has been shut down but is still hot due to after-heat. Constitution: Since the coolant extraction nozzle is situated at a location higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the coolant sprayed from the nozzle, is free from sucking immediately from the extraction nozzle and is therefore used effectively to cool the reactor core. As all the portions from the top to the bottom of the reactor are cooled simultaneously, the efficiency of the reactor cooling process is increased. Since the coolant extraction nozzle can be installed at a point considerably higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the distance from the coolant surface to the point of the coolant extraction nozzle can be made large, preventing cavitation near the coolant extraction nozzle. Therefore, without increasing the capacity of the heat exchanger, the reactor can be cooled down after a shutdown safely and efficiently. (Kawakami, Y.)

  13. Cooled-Spool Piston Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed cooled-spool piston compressor driven by hydraulic power and features internal cooling of piston by flowing hydraulic fluid to limit temperature of compressed gas. Provides sufficient cooling for higher compression ratios or reactive gases. Unlike conventional piston compressors, all parts of compressed gas lie at all times within relatively short distance of cooled surface so that gas cooled more effectively.

  14. Development of gas cooled reactors and experimental setup of high temperature helium loop for in-pile operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miletić, Marija, E-mail: marija_miletic@live.com [Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Fukač, Rostislav, E-mail: fuk@cvrez.cz [Research Centre Rez Ltd., Rez (Czech Republic); Pioro, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Pioro@uoit.ca [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa (Canada); Dragunov, Alexey, E-mail: Alexey.Dragunov@uoit.ca [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    coolants. The purpose of the high temperature helium loop (HTHL) is to simulate technical and chemical conditions of VHTR's coolant. The loop is intended to serve an as experimental device for fatigue and creep tests of construction metallic materials for gas-cooled reactors and it should be also employed for research in field of gaseous coolant chemistry. The loop will serve also for tests of nuclear graphite, dosing and helium purification systems. Because the VHTR is a new reactor concept, major technical uncertainties remain relative to helium-cooled advanced reactor systems. This paper summarizes also the concept of the HTHL in the Research Centre Rez Ltd., its design, utilization and future plans for experimental setup.

  15. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  16. The Employability of Young People in Spain: The Mismatch between Education and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Minguez, Almudena

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects the ambiguous concept of employability and its use as an instrument to fight against youth unemployment. Generally, this concept refers to educational capital which workers acquire to enhance their possibilities of being employed and productive, without taking into account factors, such as sex, nationality, the social class…

  17. Performance characteristic of hybrid cooling system based on cooling pad and evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J. I.; Son, C. H.; Choi, K. H.; Kim, Y. B.; Sung, Y. H.; Roh, S. J.; Kim, Y. M.; Seol, S. H.

    2018-01-01

    In South Korea, most of domestic animals such as pigs and chickens might die due to thermal diseases if they are exposed to the high temperature consistently. In order to save them from the heat wave, numerous efforts have been carried out: installing a shade net, adjusting time of feeding, spraying mist and setting up a circulation fan. However, these methods have not shown significant improvements. Thus, this study proposes a hybrid cooling system combining evaporative cooler and air-conditioner in order to resolve the conventional problems caused by the high temperature in the livestock industry. The problem of cooling systems using evaporative cooling pads is that they are not effective for eliminating huge heat load due to their limited capacity. And, temperature of the supplied air cannot be low enough compared to conventional air-conditioning systems. On the other hand, conventional air-conditioning systems require relatively expensive installation cost, and high operating cost compared to evaporative cooling system. The hybrid cooling system makes up for the lack of cooling capacity of the evaporative cooler by employing the conventional air-conditioner. Additionally, temperature of supplied air can be lowered enough. In the hybrid cooling system, induced air by a fan is cooled by the evaporation of water in the cooling pad, and it is cooled again by an evaporator in the air-conditioner. Therefore, the more economical operation is possible due to additionally obtained cooling capacity from the cooling pads. Major results of experimental analysis of hybrid cooling system are as follows. The compressor power consumption of the hybrid cooling system is about 23% lower, and its COP is 17% higher than that of the conventional air-conditioners. Regarding the condition of changing ambient temperature, the total power consumption decreased by about 5% as the ambient temperature changed from 28.7°C to 31.7°C. Cooling capacity and COP also presented about 3% and 1

  18. A comparative design study of PB-BI cooled reactor cores with forced and natural convection cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Tanji, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    A comparative core design study is performed on Pb-Bi cooled reactors with forced and natural convection (FC and NC) cooling. Major interests of the study are core performance and core safety features. The designed core concepts with nitride fuel achieve reasonable breeding capability. The results of unprotected event analyses such as UTOP and ULOF show that both of concepts have possible features to withstand unprotected events due to negative reactivity feedback by Doppler effect, control rod drive line expansion, etc. These results lead to a conclusion that both of concepts have possible capability as one of future promising core concepts. A FC cooling core concept has more advantage if fuel recycle viewpoint is emphasized. (author)

  19. Experimental and analytical study on thermoelectric self cooling of devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Astrain, D.; Rodriguez, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and studies the novel concept of thermoelectric self cooling, which can be introduced as the cooling and temperature control of a device using thermoelectric technology without electricity consumption. For this study, it is designed a device endowed with an internal heat source. Subsequently, a commonly used cooling system is attached to the device and the thermal performance is statistically assessed. Afterwards, it is developed and studied a thermoelectric self cooling system appropriate for the device. Experimental and analytical results show that the thermal resistance between the heat source and the environment reduced by 25-30% when the thermoelectric self cooling system is installed, and indicates the promising applicability of this technology to devices that generate large amounts of heat, such as electrical power converters, transformers and control systems. Likewise, it was statistically proved that the thermoelectric self cooling system leads to significant reductions in the temperature difference between the heat source and the environment, and, what is more, this reduction increases as the heat flow generated by the heat source increases, which makes evident the fact that thermoelectric self cooling systems work as temperature controllers. -- Highlights: → Novel concept of thermoelectric self cooling is presented and studied. → No extra electricity is needed. → Thermal resistance between the heat source and the environment reduces by 25-30%. → Increasing reduction in temperature difference between heat source and environment. → Great applicability to any device that generates heat and must be cooled.

  20. Solar heating and cooling of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, R. D.; Davis, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Solar energy has been used for space heating and water heating for many years. A less common application, although technically feasible, is solar cooling. This paper describes the techniques employed in the heating and cooling of buildings, and in water heating. The potential for solar energy to displace conventional energy sources is discussed. Water heating for new apartments appears to have some features which could make it a place to begin the resurgence of solar energy applications in the United States. A project to investigate apartment solar water heating, currently in the pilot plant construction phase, is described.

  1. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  2. Dry well cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki.

    1997-01-01

    A plurality of blowing ports with introduction units are disposed to a plurality of ducts in a dry well, and a cooling unit comprising a cooler, a blower and an isolating valve is disposed outside of the dry well. Cooling air and the atmosphere in the dry well are mixed to form a cooling gas and blown into the dry well to control the temperature. Since the cooling unit is disposed outside of the dry well, the maintenance of the cooling unit can be performed even during the plant operation. In addition, since dampers opened/closed depending on the temperature of the atmosphere are disposed to the introduction units for controlling the temperature of the cooling gas, the temperature of the atmosphere in the dry well can be set to a predetermined level rapidly. Since an axial flow blower is used as the blower of the cooling unit, it can be contained in a ventilation cylinder. Then, the atmosphere in the dry well flowing in the ventilation cylinder can be prevented from leaking to the outside. (N.H.)

  3. Cyclotron resonance cooling by strong laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagcuhi, Toshihiro; Mima, Kunioka

    1995-01-01

    Reduction of energy spread of electron beam is very important to increase a total output radiation power in free electron lasers. Although several cooling systems of particle beams such as a stochastic cooling are successfully operated in the accelerator physics, these cooling mechanisms are very slow and they are only applicable to high energy charged particle beams of ring accelerators. We propose here a new concept of laser cooling system by means of cyclotron resonance. Electrons being in cyclotron motion under a strong magnetic field can resonate with circular polarized electromagnetic field, and the resonance take place selectively depending on the velocity of the electrons. If cyclotron frequency of electrons is equal to the frequency of the electromagnetic field, they absorb the electromagnetic field energy strongly, but the other electrons remain unchanged. The absorbed energy will be converted to transverse kinetic energy, and the energy will be dumped into the radiation energy through bremastrahlung. To build a cooling system, we must use two laser beams, where one of them is counter-propagating and the other is co-propagating with electron beam. When the frequency of the counter-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of fast electrons and the co-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of slow electrons, the energy of two groups will approach and the cooling will be achieved. We solve relativistic motions of electrons with relativistic radiation dumping force, and estimate the cooling rate of this mechanism. We will report optimum parameters for the electron beam cooling system for free electron lasers

  4. Design Of Cooling Configuration For Military Aeroengine V-Gutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batchu Suresh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Military aircraft engines employ afterburner system for increasing the thrust required during combat and take-off flight conditions. V-gutter is employed for stabilisation of the flame during reheat. For fifth generation aero engine the gas temperature at the start of the afterburner is be-yond the allowable material limits of the V-gutter so it is required to cool the V-gutter to obtain acceptable creep life. The design of cooling configuration for the given source pressure is worked out for different rib configurations to obtain the allowable metal temperature with minimum coolant mass flow.1D network analysis is used to estimate the cooling mass flow and metal temperature for design flight condition. CFD analysis is carried out for four cooling configurations with different rib orientations. Out of four configurations one configuration is selected for the best cooling configuration.

  5. ''Novel'' types of cooling towers for the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikyska, L.

    1991-01-01

    New types of cooling towers are beginning to be used abroad for the cooling circuits of nuclear power plants employing power generation units rated at 1,300 to 1,400 MW. These so-called water recovery cooling towers make use of natural draught without a droplet section. They are actually upgraded designs which were built in Europe as far back as 70 years ago. Because of the unsuitable materials then employed, these cooling towers fell into oblivion. Today, however, they are undergoing a renaissance. An upgraded design of these towers is described and compared with existing cooling towers with a droplet section. The feasibility of using these towers in Czechoslovak conditions is considered. (author)

  6. Microbial analysis of meatballs cooled with vacuum and conventional cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Hande Mutlu; Ozturk, Harun Kemal; Koçar, Gunnur

    2017-08-01

    Vacuum cooling is a rapid evaporative cooling technique and can be used for pre-cooling of leafy vegetables, mushroom, bakery, fishery, sauces, cooked food, meat and particulate foods. The aim of this study was to apply the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling techniques for the cooling of the meatball and to show the vacuum pressure effect on the cooling time, the temperature decrease and microbial growth rate. The results of the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling (cooling in the refrigerator) were compared with each other for different temperatures. The study shows that the conventional cooling was much slower than the vacuum cooling. Moreover, the microbial growth rate of the vacuum cooling was extremely low compared with the conventional cooling. Thus, the lowest microbial growth occurred at 0.7 kPa and the highest microbial growth was observed at 1.5 kPa for the vacuum cooling. The mass loss ratio for the conventional cooling and vacuum cooling was about 5 and 9% respectively.

  7. He-cooled divertor development for DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, P.; Giniyatulin, R.; Ihli, T.; Janeschitz, G.; Krauss, W.; Kruessmann, R.; Kuznetsov, V.; Mazul, I.; Widak, V.; Ovchinnikov, I.; Ruprecht, R.; Zeep, B.

    2007-01-01

    Goal of the He-cooled divertor development for future fusion power plants is to resist a high heat flux of at least 10 MW/m 2 . The development includes the fields of design, analyses, and experiments. A helium-cooled modular jet concept (HEMJ) has been defined as reference solution, which is based on jet impingement cooling. In cooperation with the Efremov Institute, work was aimed at construction and high heat flux tests of prototypical tungsten mockups to demonstrate their manufacturability and their performances. A helium loop was built for this purpose to simulate the realistic thermo-hydraulics conditions close to those of DEMO (10 MPa He, 600 deg. C). The first high heat flux test results confirm the feasibility and the performance of the divertor design

  8. The MuCool/MICE LH2 Absorber Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, Mary Anne

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen absorber R and D for the MuCool Collaboration is actively pushing ahead on two parallel and complementary fronts. The continuing LH2 engineering and technical developments by the MuCool group, conducted by ICAR institutions (NIU, IIT and UIUC), the University of Mississippi and Oxford University in cooperation with Fermilab, are summarized here, including plans for the first tests of an absorber prototype from Osaka University and KEK cooled by internal convection at the newly constructed FNAL MuCool Test Area (MTA). Designs for the high-power test of another absorber prototype (employing external heat exchange) are complete and the system will be installed by summer 2004. A convection-cooled absorber design is being developed for the approved MICE cooling demonstration at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

  9. Gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Masayuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable direct cooling of reactor cores thereby improving the cooling efficiency upon accidents. Constitution: A plurality sets of heat exchange pipe groups are disposed around the reactor core, which are connected by way of communication pipes with a feedwater recycling device comprising gas/liquid separation device, recycling pump, feedwater pump and emergency water tank. Upon occurrence of loss of primary coolants accidents, the heat exchange pipe groups directly absorb the heat from the reactor core through radiation and convection. Although the water in the heat exchange pipe groups are boiled to evaporate if the forcive circulation is interrupted by the loss of electric power source, water in the emergency tank is supplied due to the head to the heat exchange pipe groups to continue the cooling. Furthermore, since the heat exchange pipe groups surround the entire circumference of the reactor core, cooling is carried out uniformly without resulting deformation or stresses due to the thermal imbalance. (Sekiya, K.)

  10. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  11. Employer Branding: An Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norasyikin binti Shaikh Ibrahim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses employer branding from an Islamic perspective. Islam is away of life and so do the employer and employee relationship, which strengthensemployer branding in an organization. The definition, importance and processrelated to employer branding are discussed in the context of human resource management, such as job satisfaction and work environment. In addition to that, related human resource management practices such as recruitment andselection were discussed in an Islamic context. Related concepts such as employeevalue proposition (EVP, ethics and Islamic values were discussed with referencefrom Al-Quran and Hadith. The paper concludes with a few suggestions andrecommendations on instilling Islamic values for effective employer branding.

  12. Caseworker Behavior and Clients' Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; Markwardt, Kristoffer

    experience, economic environment, and rules and restrictions with respect to active labor market policies. A few studies show that organizational structures and managerial organization within the unemployment offices also influence the employability of unemployed clients. But until now, no studies have...... empirically looked at the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ employability. A very rich survey dataset on caseworker behavior combined with informative panel data on the caseworker’s client—the unemployed—makes it possible to study the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ job possibilities....... Results show that there is a relationship between caseworker behavior and employment among the unemployed. Especially the employability among the insured unemployed is related to the concepts of coping, and professional distance....

  13. Stacking with stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspers, Fritz E-mail: Fritz.Caspers@cern.ch; Moehl, Dieter

    2004-10-11

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 10{sup 5} the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some

  14. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  15. Cooling with Superfluid Helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, P; Tavian, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    The technical properties of helium II (‘superfluid’ helium) are presented in view of its applications to the cooling of superconducting devices, particularly in particle accelerators. Cooling schemes are discussed in terms of heat transfer performance and limitations. Large-capacity refrigeration techniques below 2 K are reviewed, with regard to thermodynamic cycles as well as process machinery. Examples drawn from existing or planned projects illustrate the presentation. Keywords: superfluid helium, cryogenics.

  16. Employment specialist competencies for supported employment programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbière, M.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Lanctôt, N.; van Weeghel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Supported employment (SE) programs are evidence-based programs offered to people with severe mental illness to facilitate obtaining and keeping competitive work. However, significant variations in individuals’ vocational success may be partly explained by differences in their employment

  17. How Full is Full Employment? : How Tools and Not Theory Explained Full Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, P.

    2016-01-01

    The post-war debate on full employment policy was blurred and unclear since the concept of full employment itself was theoretically unclear and un-operational. Unable to theoretically determine the unemployment level of full employment, economists tried to find more empirically based ways to

  18. Comparing Social Stories™ to Cool versus Not Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Mitchell, Erin; Townley-Cochran, Donna; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Leaf, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compared the cool versus not cool procedure to Social Stories™ for teaching various social behaviors to one individual diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The researchers randomly assigned three social skills to the cool versus not cool procedure and three social skills to the Social Stories™ procedure. Naturalistic probes…

  19. Chemical Soups Around Cool Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This artist's conception shows a young, hypothetical planet around a cool star. A soupy mix of potentially life-forming chemicals can be seen pooling around the base of the jagged rocks. Observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope hint that planets around cool stars the so-called M-dwarfs and brown dwarfs that are widespread throughout our galaxy might possess a different mix of life-forming, or prebiotic, chemicals than our young Earth. Life on our planet is thought to have arisen out of a pond-scum-like mix of chemicals. Some of these chemicals are thought to have come from a planet-forming disk of gas and dust that swirled around our young sun. Meteorites carrying the chemicals might have crash-landed on Earth. Astronomers don't know if these same life-generating processes are taking place around stars that are cooler than our sun, but the Spitzer observations show their disk chemistry is different. Spitzer detected a prebiotic molecule, called hydrogen cyanide, in the disks around yellow stars like our sun, but found none around cooler, less massive, reddish stars. Hydrogen cyanide is a carbon-containing, or organic compound. Five hydrogen cyanide molecules can join up to make adenine a chemical element of the DNA molecule found in all living organisms on Earth.

  20. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  1. Effects of surface deposition and droplet injection on film cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jin; Cui, Pei; Vujanović, Milan; Baleta, Jakov; Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cooling effectiveness is significantly affected by the deposition size. • Coverage area for model without mist is reduced by increasing the deposition height. • Wall temperature is decreased by 15% with 2% mist injection. • Cooling coverage is increased by more than three times with 2% mist injection. • Cooling effectiveness for mist models is improved by increasing deposition height. - Abstract: In the present research, the influence of the particle dispersion onto the continuous phase in film cooling application was analysed by means of numerical simulations. The interaction between the water droplets and the main stream plays an important role in the results. The prediction of two-phase flow is investigated by employing the discrete phase model (DPM). The results present heat transfer characteristics in the near-wall region under the influence of mist cooling. The local wall temperature distribution and film cooling effectiveness are obtained, and results show that the film cooling characteristics on the downstream wall are affected by different height of surface deposits. It is also found that smaller deposits without mist injection provide a lower wall temperature and a better cooling performance. With 2% mist injection, evaporation of water droplets improves film cooling effectiveness, and higher deposits cause lateral and downstream spread of water droplets. The results indicate that mist injection can significantly enhance film cooling performance.

  2. Film cooling adiabatic effectiveness measurements of pressure side trailing edge cooling configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Becchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays total inlet temperature of gas turbine is far above the permissible metal temperature; as a consequence, advanced cooling techniques must be applied to protect from thermal stresses, oxidation and corrosion the components located in the high pressure stages, such as the blade trailing edge. A suitable design of the cooling system for the trailing edge has to cope with geometric constraints and aerodynamic demands; state-of-the-art of cooling concepts often use film cooling on blade pressure side: the air taken from last compressor stages is ejected through discrete holes or slots to provide a cold layer between hot mainstream and the blade surface. With the goal of ensuring a satisfactory lifetime of blades, the design of efficient trailing edge film cooling schemes and, moreover, the possibility to check carefully their behavior, are hence necessary to guarantee an appropriate metal temperature distribution. For this purpose an experimental survey was carried out to investigate the film covering performance of different pressure side trailing edge cooling systems for turbine blades. The experimental test section consists of a scaled-up trailing edge model installed in an open loop suction type test rig. Measurements of adiabatic effectiveness distributions were carried out on three trailing edge cooling system configurations. The baseline geometry is composed by inclined slots separated by elongated pedestals; the second geometry shares the same cutback configuration, with an additional row of circular film cooling holes located upstream; the third model is equipped with three rows of in-line film cooling holes. Experiments have been performed at nearly ambient conditions imposing several blowing ratio values and using carbon dioxide as coolant in order to reproduce a density ratio close to the engine conditions (DR=1.52. To extend the validity of the survey a comparison between adiabatic effectiveness measurements and a prediction by

  3. Magnets for Muon 6D Cooling Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc.; Flanagan, Gene [Muons, Inc.

    2014-09-10

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), an innovative technique for six-dimensional (6D) cooling of muon beams using a continuous absorber inside superconducting magnets, has shown considerable promise based on analytic and simulation studies. The implementation of this revolutionary method of muon cooling requires high field superconducting magnets that provide superimposed solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole fields. Novel magnet design concepts are required to provide HCC magnet systems with the desired fields for 6D muon beam cooling. New designs feature simple coil configurations that produce these complex fields with the required characteristics, where new high field conductor materials are particularly advantageous. The object of the program was to develop designs and construction methods for HCC magnets and design a magnet system for a 6D muon beam cooling channel. If successful the program would develop the magnet technologies needed to create bright muon beams for many applications ranging from scientific accelerators and storage rings to beams to study material properties and new sources of energy. Examples of these applications include energy frontier muon colliders, Higgs and neutrino factories, stopping muon beams for studies of rare fundamental interactions and muon catalyzed fusion, and muon sources for cargo screening for homeland security.

  4. The hue of concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Canal, Luisa; Malfatti, Michela; Micciolo, Rocco

    2013-01-01

    The study shows a systematic naturally biased association between percepts and concepts. Specifically, it shows that a series of terms pertaining to an abstract semantic field (related to the frame of ethics in social behaviour) has a nonrandom, highly significant, association with colours (hues). This is the first time that consistent associations between abstract terms and colours have been reported in the general population. The main hypothesis, ie that there appear to be 'hues of concepts', was borne out by the results: the abstract terms considered were coloured with blue/green (ie cool) colours as well as their synonyms, while their antonyms were coloured with red/yellow (ie warm) colours. The association provides information about the nature of abstract concepts and their relationship with perception. It also sheds light on the interrelations among words in semantic domains that, to date, have been studied from only a computational viewpoint.

  5. Laser cooling of neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A qualitative description of laser cooling of neutral atoms is given. Two of the most important mechanisms utilized in laser cooling, the so-called Doppler Cooling and Sisyphus Cooling, are reviewed. The minimum temperature reached by the atoms is derived using simple arguments. (Author) 7 refs

  6. Technology of power plant cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulbetsch, J.S.; Zeren, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: the thermodynamics of power generation and the need for cooling water; the technical, economic, and legislative constraints within which the cooling problem must be solved; alternate cooling methods currently available or under development; the water treatment requirements of cooling systems; and some alternatives for modifying the physical impact on aquatic systems

  7. Meltdown reactor core cooling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Tsuyoshi.

    1992-01-01

    The meltdown reactor core cooling facility comprises a meltdown reactor core cooling tank, a cooling water storage tank situates at a position higher than the meltdown reactor core cooling tank, an upper pipeline connecting the upper portions of the both of the tanks and a lower pipeline connecting the lower portions of them. Upon occurrence of reactor core meltdown, a high temperature meltdown reactor core is dropped on the cooling tank to partially melt the tank and form a hole, from which cooling water is flown out. Since the water source of the cooling water is the cooling water storage tank, a great amount of cooling water is further dropped and supplied and the reactor core is submerged and cooled by natural convection for a long period of time. Further, when the lump of the meltdown reactor core is small and the perforated hole of the meltdown reactor cooling tank is small, cooling water is boiled by the high temperature lump intruding into the meltdown reactor core cooling tank and blown out from the upper pipeline to the cooling water storage tank to supply cooling water from the lower pipeline to the meltdown reactor core cooling tank. Since it is constituted only with simple static facilities, the facility can be simplified to attain improvement of reliability. (N.H.)

  8. Boiling induced mixed convection in cooling loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Mueller, U.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the SUCO program performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The SUCO program is a three-step series of scaled model experiments investigating the possibility of a sump cooling concept for future light water reactors. In case of a core melt accident, the sump cooling concept realises a decay heat removal system that is based on passive safety features within the containment. The article gives, first, results of the experiments in the 1:20 linearly scaled SUCOS-2D test facility. The experimental results are scaled-up to the conditions in the prototype, allowing a statement with regard to the feasibility of the sump cooling concept. Second, the real height SUCOT test facility with a volume and power scale of 1:356 that is aimed at investigating the mixed single-phase and two-phase natural circulation flow in the reactor sump, together with first measurement results, are discussed. Finally, a numerical approach to model the subcooled nucleate boiling phenomena in the test facility SUCOT is presented. Physical models describing interfacial mass, momentum and-heat transfer are developed and implemented in the commercial software package CFX4.1. The models are validated for an isothermal air-water bubbly flow experiment and a subcooled boiling experiment in vertical annular water flow. (author)

  9. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannotti, Maurizio [Physical Sciences, Barry University, 11300 NE 2nd Avenue, Miami Shores, FL 33161 (United States); Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza, España (Spain); Ringwald, Andreas, E-mail: mgiannotti@barry.edu, E-mail: igor.irastorza@cern.ch, E-mail: jredondo@unizar.es, E-mail: andreas.ringwald@desy.de [Theory group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  10. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  11. Gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.; Trauger, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    Experience to date with operation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors has been quite favorable. Despite problems in completion of construction and startup, three high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) units have operated well. The Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR) in the United Kingdom has had an excellent operating history, and initial operation of commercial AGRs shows them to be satisfactory. The latter reactors provide direct experience in scale-up from the Windscale experiment to fullscale commercial units. The Colorado Fort St. Vrain 330-MWe prototype helium-cooled HTGR is now in the approach-to-power phase while the 300-MWe Pebble Bed THTR prototype in the Federal Republic of Germany is scheduled for completion of construction by late 1978. THTR will be the first nuclear power plant which uses a dry cooling tower. Fuel reprocessing and refabrication have been developed in the laboratory and are now entering a pilot-plant scale development. Several commercial HTGR power station orders were placed in the U.S. prior to 1975 with similar plans for stations in the FRG. However, the combined effects of inflation, reduced electric power demand, regulatory uncertainties, and pricing problems led to cancellation of the 12 reactors which were in various stages of planning, design, and licensing

  12. Gas cooled leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutt, R.P.; Rehak, M.L.; Hornik, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to cover as completely as possible and in sufficient detail the topics relevant to lead design. The first part identifies the problems associated with lead design, states the mathematical formulation, and shows the results of numerical and analytical solutions. The second part presents the results of a parametric study whose object is to determine the best choice for cooling method, material, and geometry. These findings axe applied in a third part to the design of high-current leads whose end temperatures are determined from the surrounding equipment. It is found that cooling method or improved heat transfer are not critical once good heat exchange is established. The range 5 5 but extends over a large of values. Mass flow needed to prevent thermal runaway varies linearly with current above a given threshold. Below that value, the mass flow is constant with current. Transient analysis shows no evidence of hysteresis. If cooling is interrupted, the mass flow needed to restore the lead to its initially cooled state grows exponentially with the time that the lead was left without cooling

  13. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji; Oikawa, Hirohide.

    1990-01-01

    The device according to this invention can ensure cooling water required for emerency core cooling upon emergence such as abnormally, for example, loss of coolant accident, without using dynamic equipments such as a centrifugal pump or large-scaled tank. The device comprises a pressure accumulation tank containing a high pressure nitrogen gas and cooling water inside, a condensate storage tank, a pressure suppression pool and a jet stream pump. In this device there are disposed a pipeline for guiding cooling water in the pressure accumulation tank as a jetting water to a jetting stream pump, a pipeline for guiding cooling water stored in the condensate storage tank and the pressure suppression pool as pumped water to the jetting pump and, further, a pipeline for guiding the discharged water from the jet stream pump which is a mixed stream of pumped water and jetting water into the reactor pressure vessel. In this constitution, a sufficient amount of water ranging from relatively high pressure to low pressure can be supplied into the reactor pressure vessel, without increasing the size of the pressure accumulation tank. (I.S.)

  14. Emergency reactor cooling circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Hidefumi; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-01-01

    Cooling water in a gravitationally dropping water reservoir is injected into a reactor pressure vessel passing through a pipeline upon occurrence of emergency. The pipeline is inclined downwardly having one end thereof being in communication with the pressure vessel. During normal operation, the cooling water in the upper portion of the inclined pipeline is heated by convection heat transfer from the communication portion with the pressure vessel. On the other hand, cooling water present at a position lower than the communication portion forms cooling water lumps. Accordingly, temperature stratification layers are formed in the inclined pipeline. Therefore, temperature rise of water in a vertical pipeline connected to the inclined pipeline is small. With such a constitution, the amount of heat lost from the pressure vessel by way of the water injection pipeline is reduced. Further, there is no worry that cooling water to be injected upon occurrence of emergency is boiled under reduced pressure in the injection pipeline to delay the depressurization of the pressure vessel. (I.N.)

  15. Women's Decisions about Breastfeeding and Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein

    1996-01-01

    Extends the concept of role incompatibility to examine potential incompatibilities between breastfeeding and maternal employment. Hypothesizes women may face both structural and attitudinal conflicts between these behaviors. Found significantly more women employed part-time are likely to breastfeed and for longer durations than women employed…

  16. Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-06-07

    Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been

  17. Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-01-01

    Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been

  18. Core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeppner, G.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor cooling system transports the heat liberated in the reactor core to the component - heat exchanger, steam generator or turbine - where the energy is removed. This basic task can be performed with a variety of coolants circulating in appropriately designed cooling systems. The choice of any one system is governed by principles of economics and natural policies, the design is determined by the laws of nuclear physics, thermal-hydraulics and by the requirement of reliability and public safety. PWR- and BWR- reactors today generate the bulk of nuclear energy. Their primary cooling systems are discussed under the following aspects: 1. General design, nuclear physics constraints, energy transfer, hydraulics, thermodynamics. 2. Design and performance under conditions of steady state and mild transients; control systems. 3. Design and performance under conditions of severe transients and loss of coolant accidents; safety systems. (orig./RW)

  19. Reactor cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Etsuji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate cleaning steps in the pipelines upon reactor shut-down by connecting a filtrating and desalting device to the cooling system to thereby always clean up the water in the pipelines. Constitution: A filtrating and desalting device is connected to the pipelines in the cooling system by way of drain valves and a check valve. Desalted water is taken out from the exit of the filtrating and desalting device and injected to one end of the cooling system pipelines by way of the drain valve and the check valve and then returned by way of another drain valve to the desalting device. Water in the pipelines is thus always desalted and the cleaning step in the pipelines is no more required in the shut-down. (Kawakami, Y.)

  20. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEN-ZVI, I.; AHRENS, L.; BRENNAN, M.; HARRISON, M.; KEWISCH, J.; MACKAY, W.; PEGGS, S.; ROSER, T.; SATOGATA, T.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; YAKIMENKO, V.

    2001-01-01

    We introduce plans for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This project has a number of new features as electron coolers go: It will cool 100 GeV/nucleon ions with 50 MeV electrons; it will be the first attempt to cool a collider at storage-energy; and it will be the first cooler to use a bunched beam and a linear accelerator as the electron source. The linac will be superconducting with energy recovery. The electron source will be based on a photocathode gun. The project is carried out by the Collider-Accelerator Department at BNL in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics

  1. Emergency core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzaki, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Akihiro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve core cooling effect by making the operation region for a plurality of water injection pumps more broader. Constitution: An emergency reactor core cooling device actuated upon failure of recycling pipe ways is adapted to be fed with cooling water through a thermal sleeve by way of a plurality of water injection pump from pool water in a condensate storage tank and a pressure suppression chamber as water feed source. Exhaust pipes and suction pipes of each of the pumps are connected by way of switching valves and the valves are switched so that the pumps are set to a series operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is high and the pumps are set to a parallel operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is low. (Furukawa, Y.)

  2. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Don E [ORNL; Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL; Becklehimer, Jeff [Cray, Inc.; Donovan, Matthew J [ORNL; Layton, Christopher C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  3. Cooling nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, W.H.L.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to water or water/steam cooled reactors of the fuel cluster type. In such reactors it is usual to mount the clusters in parallel spaced relationship so that coolant can pass freely between them, the coolant being passed axially from one end of the cluster in an upward direction through the cluster and being effective for cooling under normal circumstances. It has been suggested, however, that in addition to the main coolant flow an auxiliary coolant flow be provided so as to pass laterally into the cluster or be sprayed over the top of the cluster. This auxiliary supply may be continuously in use, or may be held in reserve for use in emergencies. Arrangements for providing this auxiliary cooling are described in detail. (U.K.)

  4. Environmental sustainability by adoption of alternate cooling media for condenser cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Jaymin; Patel, Nilesh

    2015-01-01

    Water having ability to dissolve most substances and to support biological life, every cooling water system in power plant is subjected to potential operational problems which are mainly corrosion, scaling and biological fouling. Control of cooling water chemistry is very critical in preventing above said problems. In view of scarcity of water and looking into the future trends in the environment protection, water media can be replaced with air. Having such concept in thermal and combined cycle power plants, use of Air-cooled condenser (ACC) for Nuclear power plant may be explored. During last decade number of installations with ACC also increased, largely in response to the growing attention being paid to environmental concerns as well of water scarcity. The rising importance of 'Save Water and Environment', calls for a broader understanding of the design and application principles involved for ACC. This paper identifies the basic configurations of air cooled condensers used in the power industry together with their merits and demerits when compared to those exhibited by traditional steam surface condensers including environmental and corrosion issues. Several factors that affect the performance of air-cooled condensers are described in detail, especially the consequences that result from the fouling of the finned-tubes. To rectify the degradations in performance that result from external tube fouling, a number of cleaning procedures are described. Due to relatively high cost of sweet water and large requirement of sea water, Air cooled condenser may become viable option in future. (author)

  5. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  6. The design and performance of a water cooling system for a prototype coupled cavity linear particle accelerator for the spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, John D.; Ammerman, Curtt N.; Hopkins, Steve M.

    2002-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a facility being designed for scientific and industrial research and development. The SNS will generate and employ neutrons as a research tool in a variety of disciplines including biology, material science, superconductivity, chemistry, etc. The neutrons will be produced by bombarding a heavy metal target with a high-energy beam of protons, generated and accelerated with a linear particle accelerator, or linac. The low energy end of the linac consists of, in part, a multi-cell copper structure termed a coupled cavity linac (CCL). The CCL is responsible for accelerating the protons from an energy of 87 MeV, to 185 MeV. Acceleration of the charged protons is achieved by the use of large electrical field gradients established within specially designed contoured cavities of the CCL. While a large amount of the electrical energy is used to accelerate the protons, approximately 60-80% of this electrical energy is dissipated in the CCL's copper structure. To maintain an acceptable operating temperature, as well as minimize thermal stresses and maintain desired contours of the accelerator cavities, the electrical waste heat must be removed from the CCL structure. This is done using specially designed water cooling passages within the linac's copper structure. Cooling water is supplied to these cooling passages by a complex water cooling and temperature control system. This paper discusses the design, analysis, and testing of a water cooling system for a prototype CCL. First, the design concept and method of water temperature control is discussed. Second, the layout of the prototype water cooling system, including the selection of plumbing components, instrumentation, as well as controller hardware and software is presented. Next, the development of a numerical network model used to size the pump, heat exchanger, and plumbing equipment, is discussed. Finally, empirical pressure, flow rate, and temperature data from the prototype CCL

  7. Integrated systems for power plant cooling and wastewater management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haith, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of integrated management of energy and water resources, demonstrated in hydropower development, may be applicable to steam-generated power, also. For steam plants water is a means of disposing of a waste product, which is unutilized energy in the form of heat. One framework for the evolution of integrated systems is the consideration of possible technical linkages between power plant cooling and municipal wastewater management. Such linkages include the use of waste heat as a mechanism for enhancing wastewater treatment, the use of treated wastewater as make-up for evaporative cooling structures, and the use of a pond or reservoir for both cooling and waste stabilization. This chapter reports the results of a systematic evaluation of possible integrated systems for power plant cooling and waste water management. Alternatives were analyzed for each of three components of the system--power plant cooling (condenser heat rejection), thermally enhanced waste water treatment, and waste water disposal. Four cooling options considered were evaporative tower, open cycle, spray pond, and cooling pond. Three treatment alternatives considered were barometric condenser-activated sludge, sectionalized condenser-activated sludge, and cooling/stabilization pond. Three disposal alternatives considered were ocean discharge, land application (spray irrigation), and make-up (for evaporative cooling). To facilitate system comparisons, an 1100-MW nuclear power plant was selected. 31 references

  8. Passive ventilation systems with heat recovery and night cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    with little energy consumption and with satisfying indoor climate. The concept is based on using passive measures like stack and wind driven ventilation, effective night cooling and low pressure loss heat recovery using two fluid coupled water-to-air heat exchangers developed at the Technical University......In building design the requirements for energy consumption for ventilation, heating and cooling and the requirements for increasingly better indoor climate are two opposing factors. This paper presents the schematic layout and simulation results of an innovative multifunc-tional ventilation concept...... of Denmark. Through building integration in high performance offices the system is optimized to incorporate multiple functions like heating, cooling and ventilation, thus saving the expenses of separate cooling and heating systems. The simulation results are derived using the state-of-the-art building...

  9. Stochastic cooling for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehl, D.

    1984-01-01

    These two lectures have been prepared to give a simple introduction to the principles. In Part I we try to explain stochastic cooling using the time-domain picture which starts from the pulse response of the system. In Part II the discussion is repeated, looking more closely at the frequency-domain response. An attempt is made to familiarize the beginners with some of the elementary cooling equations, from the 'single particle case' up to equations which describe the evolution of the particle distribution. (orig.)

  10. Sodium cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokkyo, N; Inoue, K; Maeda, H

    1968-11-21

    In a sodium cooled fast neutron reactor, an ultrasonic generator is installed at a fuel assembly hold-down mechanism positioned above a blanket or fission gas reservoir located above the core. During operation of the reactor an ultrsonic wave of frequency 10/sup 3/ - 10/sup 4/ Hz is constantly transmitted to the core to resonantly inject the primary bubble with ultrasonic energy to thereby facilitate its growth. Hence, small bubbles grow gradually to prevent the sudden boiling of sodium if an accident occurs in the cooling system during operation of the reactor.

  11. Cooling pond fog studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, B.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Fog Excess Water Index (FEWI) method of fog prediction has been verified by the use of data obtained at the Dresden cooling pond during 1976 and 1977 and by a reanalysis of observations made in conjunction with a study of cooling pond simulators during 1974. For applications in which the method is applied to measurements or estimates of bulk water temperature, a critical value of about 0.7 mb appears to be most appropriate. The present analyses confirm the earlier finding that wind speed plays little part in determining the susceptibility for fog generation

  12. The Coolness of Capitalism Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim McGuigan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the reconciliation of cultural analysis with political economy in Marxist-inspired research on communications. It traces how these two traditions became separated with the development of a one-dimensional and consumerist cultural studies, on the one-hand, and a more classically Marxist political economy of communications, on the other hand, that was accused of holding a simplistic and erroneous concept of ideology. The paper defends a conception of ideology as distorted communication motivated by unequal power relations and sketches a multidimensional mode of cultural analysis that takes account of the moments of production, consumption and textual meaning in the circulation of communications and culture. In accordance with this framework of analysis, the cool-capitalism thesis is outlined and illustrated with reference to Apple, the ‘cool’ corporation. And, the all-purpose mobile communication device is selected as a key and urgent focus of attention for research on commodity fetishism and labour exploitation on a global scale today.

  13. Computer simulation of multiple stability regions in an internally cooled superconducting conductor and of helium replenishment in a bath-cooled conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.; Shindler, J.

    1984-09-01

    For upcoming fusion experiments and future fusion reactors, superconducting magnetic have been chosen or considered which employ cooling by pool-boiling HeI, by HeII, and by internally flowing HeI. The choice of conductor and cooling method should be determined in part by the response of the magnet to sudden localized heat pulses of various magnitudes. The paper describes the successful computer simulation of multiple stability in internally cooled conductors, as observed experimentally, using the computer code SSICC. It also describes the modeling of helium replenishment in the cooling channels of a bath-cooled conductor, using the computer code TASS

  14. Multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling of a person employs an evaporative cooling liquid that changes phase from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The evaporative cooling liquid is absorbed into a superabsorbent material enclosed within the multilayer composite material. The multilayer composite material has a high percentage of the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix. The cooling effect can be sustained for an extended period of time because of the high percentage of phase change liquid that can be absorbed into the superabsorbent. Such a composite can be used for cooling febrile patients by evaporative cooling as the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix changes from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The composite can be made with a perforated barrier material around the outside to regulate the evaporation rate of the phase change liquid. Alternatively, the composite can be made with an imperveous barrier material or semipermeable membrane on one side to prevent the liquid from contacting the person's skin. The evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix can be recharged by soaking the material in the liquid. The multilayer composite material can be fashioned into blankets, garments and other articles.

  15. Two-phase cooling fluids; Les fluides frigoporteurs diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of the diminution of heat transfer fluid consumption, the concept of indirect refrigerating circuits, using cooling intermediate fluids, is reviewed and the fluids that are currently used in these systems are described. Two-phase cooling fluids advantages over single-phase fluids are presented with their thermophysical characteristics: solid fraction, two-phase mixture enthalpy, thermal and rheological properties, determination of heat and mass transfer characteristics, and cold storage through ice slurry

  16. Transient Performance of Air-cooled Condensing Heat Exchanger in Long-term Passive Cooling System during Decay Heat Load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myoung Jun; Lee, Hee Joon [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Joo Hyung; Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young-In [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In the event of a 'loss of coolant accident'(LOCA) and a non-LOCA, the secondary passive cooling system would be activated to cool the steam in a condensing heat exchanger that is immersed in an emergency cooldown tank (ECT). Currently, the capacities of these ECTs are designed to be sufficient to remove the sensible and residual heat from the reactor coolant system for 72 hours after the occurrence of an accident. After the operation of a conventional passive cooling system for an extended period, however, the water level falls as a result of the evaporation from the ECT, as steam is emitted from the open top of the tank. Therefore, the tank should be refilled regularly from an auxiliary water supply system when the system is used for more than 72 hours. Otherwise, the system would fail to dissipate heat from the condensing heat exchanger due to the loss of the cooling water. Ultimately, the functionality of the passive cooling system would be seriously compromised. As a passive means of overcoming the water depletion in the tank, Kim et al. applied for a Korean patent covering the concept of a long-term passive cooling system for an ECT even after 72 hours. This study presents transient performance of ECT with installing air-cooled condensing heat exchanger under decay heat load. The cooling capacity of an air-cooled condensing heat exchanger was evaluated to determine its practicality.

  17. Employer's Manual on Affirmative Action in Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky State Commission on Human Rights, Frankfort.

    The express purpose of this manual is for its use by business and industry in Kentucky as an aid to eliminate discrimination. Affirmative action is defined here as a comprehensive effort by an employer designed to: employ women and minority persons where they are under-utilized; include minority persons and women in all facets of the company's…

  18. Employing Discourse: Universities and Graduate "Employability"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Rebecca; Nedeva, Maria

    2010-01-01

    What constitutes graduate employability is discursively framed. In this paper we argue that whilst universities in the UK have long had an involvement in producing useful and productive citizens, the ongoing neoliberalisation of higher education has engendered a discursive shift in definitions of employability. Traditionally, universities regarded…

  19. Elementary stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G

    1983-12-01

    Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)

  20. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling

  1. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    2001-05-13

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling.

  2. Cooling tower and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.; Ederhof, A.; Gosdowski, J.; Harms, A.; Ide, G.; Klotz, B.; Kowalczyk, R.; Necker, P.; Tesche, W.

    The influence of a cooling tower on the environment, or rather the influence of the environment on the cooling tower stands presently -along with the cooling water supply - in the middle of much discussion. The literature on these questions can hardly be overlooked by the experts concerned, especially not by the power station designers and operators. The document 'Cooling Tower and Environment' is intented to give a general idea of the important publications in this field, and to inform of the present state of technology. In this, the explanations on every section make it easier to get to know the specific subject area. In addition to older standard literature, this publication contains the best-known literature of recent years up to spring 1975, including some articles written in English. Further English literature has been collected by the ZAED (KFK) and is available at the VGB-Geschaefsstelle. Furthermore, The Bundesumweltamt compiles the literature on the subject of 'Environmental protection'. On top of that, further documentation centres are listed at the end of this text. (orig.) [de

  3. Warm and Cool Cityscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubelirer, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

  4. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  5. Passive cooling containment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J.J.; Iotti, R.C.; Wright, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Pressure and temperature transients of nuclear reactor containment following postulated loss of coolant accident with a coincident station blackout due to total loss of all alternating current power are studied analytically and experimentally for the full scale NPR (New Production Reactor). All the reactor and containment cooling under this condition would rely on the passive cooling system which removes reactor decay heat and provides emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive cooling for this study takes place in the annulus between containment steel shell and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and thermal radiation. Various heat transfer coefficients inside annular air space were investigated by running the modified CONTEMPT code CONTEMPT-NPR. In order to verify proper heat transfer coefficient, temperature, heat flux, and velocity profiles were measured inside annular air space of the test facility which is a 24 foot (7.3m) high, steam heated inner cylinder of three foot (.91m) diameter and five and half foot (1.7m) diameter outer cylinder. Comparison of CONTEMPT-NPR and WGOTHIC was done for reduced scale NPR

  6. High energy beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Herr, H.; Linnecar, T.; Millich, A.; Milss, F.; Rubbia, C.; Taylor, C.S.; Meer, S. van der; Zotter, B.

    1980-01-01

    The group concerned itself with the analysis of cooling systems whose purpose is to maintain the quality of the high energy beams in the SPS in spite of gas scattering, RF noise, magnet ripple and beam-beam interactions. Three types of systems were discussed. The status of these activities is discussed below. (orig.)

  7. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masaki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To actuate an automatic pressure down system (ADS) and a low pressure emergency core cooling system (ECCS) upon water level reduction of a nuclear reactor other than loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Constitution: ADS in a BWR type reactor is disposed for reducing the pressure in a reactor container thereby enabling coolant injection from a low pressure ECCS upon LOCA. That is, ADS has been actuated by AND signal for a reactor water level low signal and a dry well pressure high signal. In the present invention, ADS can be actuated further also by AND signal of the reactor water level low signal, the high pressure ECCS and not-operation signal of reactor isolation cooling system. In such an emergency core cooling system thus constituted, ADS operates in the same manner as usual upon LOCA and, further, ADS is operated also upon loss of feedwater accident in the reactor pressure vessel in the case where there is a necessity for actuating the low pressure ECCS, although other high pressure ECCS and reactor isolation cooling system are not operated. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the reliability upon reactor core accident and mitigate the operator burden. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Ken.

    1989-01-01

    In PWR type reactors, a cooling water spray portion of emergency core cooling pipelines incorporated into pipelines on high temperature side is protruded to the inside of an upper plenum. Upon rupture of primary pipelines, pressure in a pressure vessel is abruptly reduced to generate a great amount of steams in the reactor core, which are discharged at a high flow rate into the primary pipelines on high temperature side. However, since the inside of the upper plenum has a larger area and the steam flow is slow, as compared with that of the pipelines on the high temperature side, ECCS water can surely be supplied into the reactor core to promote the re-flooding of the reactor core and effectively cool the reactor. Since the nuclear reactor can effectively be cooled to enable the promotion of pressure reduction and effective supply of coolants during the period of pressure reduction upon LOCA, the capacity of the pressure accumulation vessel can be decreased. Further, the re-flooding time for the reactor is shortened to provide an effect contributing to the improvement of the safety and the reduction of the cost. (N.H.)

  9. Preliminary Design of KAIST Micro Modular Reactor with Dry Air Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Seung Joon; Bae, Seong Jun; Kim, Seong Gu; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    KAIST research team recently proposed a Micro Modular Reactor (MMR) concept which integrates power conversion unit (PCU) with the reactor core in a single module. Using supercritical CO{sub 2} as a working fluid of cycle can achieve physically compact size due to small turbomachinery and heat exchangers. The objective of this project is to develop a concept that can operate at isolated area. The design focuses especially on the operation in the inland area where cooling water is insufficient. Thus, in this paper the potential for dry air cooling of the proposed reactor will be examined by sizing the cooling system with preliminary approach. The KAIST MMR is a recently proposed concept of futuristic SMR. The MMR size is being determined to be transportable with land transportation. Special attention is given to the MMR design on the dry cooling, which the cooling system does not depend on water. With appropriately designed air cooling heat exchanger, the MMR can operate autonomously. Two types of air cooling methods are suggested. One is using fan and the other is utilizing cooling tower for the air flow. With fan type air cooling method it consumes about 0.6% of generated electricity from the nuclear reactor. Cooling tower occupies an area of 227 m{sup 2} and 59.6 m in height. This design is just a preliminary estimation of the dry cooling method, and therefore more detailed and optimal design will be followed in the next phase.

  10. Directional radiative cooling thermal compensation for gravitational wave interferometer mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justin Kamp, Carl [Department of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: carl.kamp@chalmers.se; Kawamura, Hinata [Yokoyama Junior High School, Sanda, Hachioji, Tokyo 193-0832 (Japan); Passaquieti, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Enrico Fermi' and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Universita' di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); DeSalvo, Riccardo [LIGO Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2009-08-21

    The concept of utilizing directional radiative cooling to correct the problem of thermal lensing in the mirrors of the LIGO/VIRGO gravitational wave detectors has been shown and has prospects for future use. Two different designs utilizing this concept, referred to as the baffled and parabolic mirror solutions, have been proposed with different means of controlling the cooling power. The technique takes advantage of the power naturally radiated by the mirror surfaces at room temperature to prevent their heating by the powerful stored laser beams. The baffled solution has been simulated via COMSOL Multiphysics as a design tool. Finally, the parabolic mirror concept was experimentally validated with the results falling in close agreement with theoretical cooling calculations. The technique of directional radiative thermal correction can be reversed to image heat rings on the mirrors periphery to remotely and dynamically correct their radius of curvature without subjecting the mirror to relevant perturbations.

  11. Advanced divertor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Komori, A.; Sagara, A.; Suzuki, H.; Morisaki, T.; Masuzaki, S.; Watanabe, T.; Noda, N.; Motojima, O.

    1996-01-01

    LHD divertor development program has generated various innovative divertor concepts and technologies which will help to improve the plasma performance in both helical and tokamak devices. They are two divertor operational scenarios (confinement improvement by generating high temperature divertor plasma and simultaneous achievement of radiative cooling and H-mode-like confinement improvement). Local island divertor geometry has also been proposed. This new divertor has been successfully tested in the CHS device and is planned to be installed in the LHD device. In addition, technological development of new efficient hydrogen pumping schemes (carbon sheet pump and membrane pump) are being pursued for enhancement of the divertor control capability. 17 refs., 8 figs

  12. Heat-exchanger concepts for neutral-beam calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.C.; Polk, D.H.; McFarlin, D.J.; Stone, R.

    1981-01-01

    Advanced cooling concepts that permit the design of water cooled heat exchangers for use as calorimeters and beam dumps for advanced neutral beam injection systems were evaluated. Water cooling techniques ranging from pool boiling to high pressure, high velocity swirl flow were considered. Preliminary performance tests were carried out with copper, inconel and molybdenum tubes ranging in size from 0.19 to 0.50 in. diameter. Coolant flow configurations included (1) smooth tube/straight flow, (2) smooth tube with swirl flow created by tangential injection of the coolant, and (3) axial flow in internally finned tubes. Additionally, the effect of tube L/D was evaluated. A CO 2 laser was employed to irradiate a sector of the tube exterior wall; the laser power was incrementally increased until burnout (as evidenced by a coolant leak) occurred. Absorbed heat fluxes were calculated by dividing the measured coolant heat load by the area of the burn spot on the tube surface. Two six element thermopiles were used to accurately determine the coolant temperature rise. A maximum burnout heat flux near 14 kW/cm 2 was obtained for the molybdenum tube swirl flow configuration

  13. Cooling Tower Losses in Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Barhm Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Cooling towers are a very important part of many chemical plants. The primary task of a cooling tower is to reject heat into the atmosphere. They represent a relatively inexpensive and dependable means of removing low-grade heat from cooling water. The make-up water source is used to replenish water lost to evaporation. Hot water from heat exchangers is sent to the cooling tower. The water exits the cooling tower and is sent back to the exchangers or to other units for further cooling.

  14. Cooling out of the blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, W.

    2006-01-01

    This article takes a look at solar cooling and air-conditioning, the use of which is becoming more and more popular. The article discusses how further research and development is necessary. The main challenge for professional experts is the optimal adaptation of building, building technology and solar-driven cooling systems to meet these new requirements. Various solar cooling technologies are looked at, including the use of surplus heat for the generation of cold for cooling systems. Small-scale solar cooling systems now being tested in trials are described. Various developments in Europe are discussed, as are the future chances for solar cooling in the market

  15. Development of a Very Dense Liquid Cooled Compute Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Phillip N.; Lipp, Robert J.

    2013-12-10

    The objective of this project was to design and develop a prototype very energy efficient high density compute platform with 100% pumped refrigerant liquid cooling using commodity components and high volume manufacturing techniques. Testing at SLAC has indicated that we achieved a DCIE of 0.93 against our original goal of 0.85. This number includes both cooling and power supply and was achieved employing some of the highest wattage processors available.

  16. Cooling water in the study of nuclear power plants sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The location of an electric power plant has its limitations as regards the availability of apt sites. The radiosanitary risk, seismic risk and the overload capacity of the ground can be generically enumerated, being the cooling water availability for an electric power plant a basic requirement. Diverse cooling systems may be employed but the aim must always be that thermal contamination in the immediate environment be the least possible. (Author) [es

  17. Becoming Self-Employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grant; Cochran, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Explored how persons become self-employed. In critical incident interviews with five self-employed persons the critical events that assisted or hindered progress toward self-employment were listed in chronological order. In general, becoming self-employed involved establishing conditions of action that enhanced a sense of agency, thus enabling…

  18. Magnetocaloric Effect and Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00173-14-1-G016 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 82-2020-17 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Magnetocaloric Effect and Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology NRL Grant N00173-14-l-G016 CODE 8200: Spacecraft Engineering Department...82-11-0 1: Space and Space Systems Technology General Engineering & Research, L.L.C. Technical & Administrative point of contact: Dr. Robin

  19. Optimizing the multicycle subrotational internal cooling of diatomic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroch, A.; Kallush, S.; Kosloff, R.

    2018-05-01

    Subrotational cooling of the AlH+ ion to the miliKelvin regime, using optimally shaped pulses, is computed. The coherent electromagnetic fields induce purity-conserved transformations and do not change the sample temperature. A decrease in a sample temperature, manifested by an increase of purity, is achieved by the complementary uncontrolled spontaneous emission which changes the entropy of the system. We employ optimal control theory to find a pulse that stirs the system into a population configuration that will result in cooling, upon multicycle excitation-emission steps. The obtained optimal transformation was shown capable to cool molecular ions to the subkelvins regime.

  20. GOTHIC code evaluation of alternative passive containment cooling features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilas, M.; Hejzlar, P.; Todreas, N.E.; Driscoll, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The GOTHIC code was employed to assess the effectiveness of several original heat rejection features that make it possible to cool large rating containments. The code was first verified and modified for specific containment cooling applications; optimal mesh sizes, computational time steps, and applicable heat transfer correlations were examined. The effect of the break location on circulation patterns that develop inside the containment was also evaluated. GOTHIC was then used to obtain performance predictions for two containment concepts: a 1200 MW e new pressure tube light water reactor, and a 1300 MW e pressurized water reactor. The effectiveness of various containment configurations that include specific pressure-limiting features have been predicted. For the 1200 MW e pressure tube light water reactor, the evaluated pressure-limiting features are: a large water pool connected to the calandria, large containment free volume and an air-convection annulus. For the 1300 MW e pressurized water reactor, an external moat, an internal water pool, and an air-convection annulus were evaluated. The performance of the proposed containment configurations is dependent on the extent of thermal stratification inside the containment. The best-performance configurations/worst-case-accident scenarios that were examined yielded peak pressures of less than 0.30 MPa for the 1200 MW e pressure tube light water reactor, and less than 0.45 MPa for the 1300 MW e pressurized water reactor. The low peak pressure predicted for the 1200 MW e pressure tube light water reactor can be in part attributed to its relatively large free volume, while the relatively high peak pressure predicted for the 1300 MW e pressurized water reactor can be attributed to its relatively small free volume (i.e., the size used was that of a pressurized water reactor containment designed with active heat removal features). (author)

  1. Sensitivity of energy and exergy performances of heating and cooling systems to auxiliary components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2017-01-01

    . Different forms of energy (electricity and heat) are used in heating and cooling systems, and therefore, a holistic approach to system design and analysis is needed. In particular, distribution systems use electricity as a direct input to pumps and fans, and to other components. Therefore, exergy concept......Heating and cooling systems in buildings consist of three main subsystems: heating/cooling plant, distribution system, and indoor terminal unit. The choice of indoor terminal unit determines the characteristics of the distribution system and the heating and cooling plants that can be used...... should be used in design and analysis of the whole heating and cooling systems, in addition to the energy analysis. In this study, water-based (floor heating and cooling, and radiator heating) and air-based (air heating and cooling) heating and cooling systems were compared in terms of their energy use...

  2. Full employment maintenance in the private sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Operationally, full employment can be accomplished by applying modern computer capabilities, game and decision concepts, and communication feedback possibilities, rather than accepted economic tools, to the problem of assuring invariant full employment. The government must provide positive direction to individual firms concerning the net number of employees that each firm must hire or refrain from hiring to assure national full employment. To preserve free enterprise and the decision making power of the individual manager, this direction must be based on each private firm's own numerical employment projections.

  3. European supercritical water cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulenberg, T.; Starflinger, J.; Marsault, P.; Bittermann, D.; Maraczy, C.; Laurien, E.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, J.A.; Anglart, H.; Andreani, M.; Ruzickova, M.; Toivonen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The HPLWR reactor design is an example of a supercritical water cooled reactor. → Cladding material tests have started but materials are not yet satisfactory. → Numerical heat transfer predictions are promising but need further validation. → The research project is most suited for nuclear education and training. - Abstract: The High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR), how the European Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor is called, is a pressure vessel type reactor operated with supercritical water at 25 MPa feedwater pressure and 500 o C average core outlet temperature. It is designed and analyzed by a European consortium of 10 partners and 3 active supporters from 8 Euratom member states in the second phase of the HPLWR project. Most emphasis has been laid on a core with a thermal neutron spectrum, consisting of small fuel assemblies in boxes with 40 fuel pins each and a central water box to improve the neutron moderation despite the low coolant density. Peak cladding temperatures of the fuel rods have been minimized by heating up the coolant in three steps with intermediate coolant mixing. The containment design with its safety and residual heat removal systems is based on the latest boiling water reactor concept, but with different passive high pressure coolant injection systems to cause a forced convection through the core. The design concept of the steam cycle is indicating the envisaged efficiency increase to around 44%. Moreover, it provides the constraints to design the components of the balance of the plant. The project is accompanied by numerical studies of heat transfer of supercritical water in fuel assemblies and by material tests of candidate cladding alloys, performed by the consortium and supported by additional tests of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. Besides the scientific and technical progress, the HPLWR project turned out to be most successful in training the young generation of nuclear engineers

  4. Magnetic entropy and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Some manifestations of magnetism are well-known and utilized on an everyday basis, e.g. using a refrigerator magnet for hanging that important note on the refrigerator door. Others are, so far, more exotic, such as cooling by making use of the magnetocaloric eect. This eect can cause a change...... in the temperature of a magnetic material when a magnetic eld is applied or removed. For many years, experimentalists have made use of dilute paramagnetic materials to achieve milliKelvin temperatures by use of the magnetocaloric eect. Also, research is done on materials, which might be used for hydrogen, helium...... or nitrogen liquefaction or for room-temperature cooling. The magnetocaloric eect can further be used to determine phase transition boundaries, if a change in the magnetic state occurs at the boundary.In this talk, I will introduce the magnetocaloric eect (MCE) and the two equations, which characterize...

  5. Laser cooling at resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudkin, Yaakov; Khaykovich, Lev

    2018-05-01

    We show experimentally that three-dimensional laser cooling of lithium atoms on the D2 line is possible when the laser light is tuned exactly to resonance with the dominant atomic transition. Qualitatively, it can be understood by applying simple Doppler cooling arguments to the specific hyperfine structure of the excited state of lithium atoms, which is both dense and inverted. However, to build a quantitative theory, we must resolve to a full model which takes into account both the entire atomic structure of all 24 Zeeman sublevels and the laser light polarization. Moreover, by means of Monte Carlo simulations, we show that coherent processes play an important role in showing consistency between the theory and the experimental results.

  6. ITER cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.; Hollies, R.E.; Sochaski, R.O.; Stubley, P.H.

    1992-06-01

    The ITER reference system uses low-temperature water for heat removal and high-temperature helium for bake-out. As these systems share common equipment, bake-out cannot be performed until the cooling system is drained and dried, and the reactor cannot be started until the helium has been purged from the cooling system. This study examines the feasibility of using a single high-temperature fluid to perform both heat removal and bake-out. The high temperature required for bake-out would also be in the range for power production. The study examines cost, operational benefits, and impact on reactor safety of two options: a high-pressure water system, and a low-pressure organic system. It was concluded that the cost savings and operational benefits are significant; there are no significant adverse safety impacts from operating either the water system or the organic system; and the capital costs of both systems are comparable

  7. Cooling your home naturally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This fact sheet describes some alternatives to air conditioning which are common sense suggestions and low-cost retrofit options to cool a house. It first describes how to reflect heat away from roofs, walls, and windows. Blocking heat by using insulation or shading are described. The publication then discusses removing built-up heat, reducing heat-generating sources, and saving energy by selecting energy efficient retrofit appliances. A resource list is provided for further information.

  8. Cooling and dehumidifying coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.V.K.

    1988-01-01

    The operating features of cooling and dehumidifying coils and their constructional details are discussed. The heat transfer relations as applicable to the boiling refrigerant and a single phase fluid are presented. Methods of accounting for the effect of moisture condensation on the air side heat transfer coefficient and the fin effectiveness are explained. The logic flow necessary to analyze direct expansion coils and chilled water coils is discussed

  9. Solar heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffie, J A

    1976-01-01

    Solar energy is discussed as an energy resource that can be converted into useful energy forms to meet a variety of energy needs. The review briefly explains the nature of this energy resource, the kinds of applications that can be made useful, and the status of several systems to which it has been applied. More specifically, information on solar collectors, solar water heating, solar heating of buildings, solar cooling plus other applications, are included.

  10. Cooling device for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji.

    1996-01-01

    Upon assembling a static container cooling system to an emergency reactor core cooling system using dynamic pumps in a power plant, the present invention provides a cooling device of lowered center of gravity and having a good cooling effect by lowering the position of a cooling water pool of the static container cooling system. Namely, the emergency reactor core cooling system injects water to the inside of a pressure vessel using emergency cooling water stored in a suppression pool as at least one water source upon loss of reactor coolant accident. In addition, a cooling water pool incorporating a heat exchanger is disposed at the circumference of the suppression pool at the outside of the container. A dry well and the heat exchanger are connected by way of steam supply pipes, and the heat exchanger is connected with the suppression pool by way of a gas exhaustion pipe and a condensate returning pipeline. With such a constitution, the position of the heat exchanger is made higher than an ordinary water level of the suppression pool. As a result, the emergency cooling water of the suppression pool water is injected to the pressure vessel by the operation of the reactor cooling pumps upon loss of coolant accident to cool the reactor core. (I.S.)

  11. Conduction cooling: multicrate fastbus hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiecki, D.; Sims, W.; Larsen, R.

    1980-11-01

    Described is a new and novel approach for cooling nuclear instrumentation modules via heat conduction. The simplicity of liquid cooled crates and ease of thermal management with conduction cooled modules are described. While this system was developed primarily for the higher power levels expected with Fastbus electronics, it has many general applications

  12. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Barton, Donald; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruhwiler, David L; Burger, Al; Burov, Alexey; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Eidelman, Yury I; Favale, Anthony; Fedotov, Alexei V; Fischer, Wolfram; Funk, L W; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Harrison, Michael; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Koop, Ivan; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Mahler, George; Malitsky, Nikolay; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Merminga, Lia; Meshkov, Igor; Mirabella, Kerry; Montag, Christoph; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Parzen, George; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Shatunov, Yuri; Sidorin, Anatoly O; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Trbojevic, Dejan; Troubnikov, Grigory; Wang, Gang; Wei, Jie; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang; ain, Animesh K

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.ags...

  13. Lamination cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Kobayashi, Daryl M.

    2005-10-11

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a lamination cooling system including a stack of laminations, each defining a plurality of apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define a plurality of cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack, and gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed to prevent a liquid cooling fluid in the passageways from escaping between the laminations. The gaps are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. The apertures of each lamination can be coincident with the same-sized apertures of adjacent laminations to form straight passageways, or they can vary in size, shape and/or position to form non-axial passageways, angled passageways, bidirectional passageways, and manifold sections of passageways that connect a plurality of different passageway sections. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  14. ITER cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-11-01

    The present specification of the ITER cooling system does not permit its operation with water above 150 C. However, the first wall needs to be heated to higher temperatures during conditioning at 250 C and bake-out at 350 C. In order to use the cooling water for these operations the cooling system would have to operate during conditioning at 37 Bar and during bake-out at 164 Bar. This is undesirable from the safety analysis point of view, and alternative heating methods are to be found. This review suggests that superheated steam or gas heating can be used for both baking and conditioning. The blanket design must consider the use of dual heat transfer media, allowing for change from one to another in both directions. Transfer from water to gas or steam is the most intricate and risky part of the entire heating process. Superheated steam conditioning appears unfavorable. The use of inert gas is recommended, although alternative heating fluids such as organic coolant should be investigated

  15. Reactor container cooling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1995-11-10

    The device of the present invention efficiently lowers pressure and temperature in a reactor container upon occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR-type reactor and can cool the inside of the container for a long period of time. That is, (1) pipelines on the side of an exhaustion tower of a filter portion in a filter bent device of the reactor container are in communication with pipelines on the side of a steam inlet of a static container cooling device by way of horizontal pipelines, (2) a back flow check valve is disposed to horizontal pipelines, (3) a steam discharge valve for a pressure vessel is disposed closer to the reactor container than the joint portion between the pipelines on the side of the steam inlet and the horizontal pipelines. Upon occurrence of a severe accident, when the pressure vessel should be ruptured and steams containing aerosol in the reactor core should be filled in the reactor container, the inlet valve of the static container cooling device is closed. Steams are flown into the filter bent device of the reactor container, where the aerosols can be removed. (I.S.).

  16. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Nobuaki.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor comprises a static emergency reactor core cooling system having an automatic depressurization system and a gravitationally dropping type water injection system and a container cooling system by an isolation condenser. A depressurization pipeline of the automatic depressurization system connected to a reactor pressure vessel branches in the midway. The branched depressurizing pipelines are extended into an upper dry well and a lower dry well, in which depressurization valves are disposed at the top end portions of the pipelines respectively. If loss-of-coolant accidents should occur, the depressurization valve of the automatic depressurization system is actuated by lowering of water level in the pressure vessel. This causes nitrogen gases in the upper and the lower dry wells to transfer together with discharged steams effectively to a suppression pool passing through a bent tube. Accordingly, the gravitationally dropping type water injection system can be actuated faster. Further, subsequent cooling for the reactor vessel can be ensured sufficiently by the isolation condenser. (I.N.)

  17. Proceedings: Cooling tower and advanced cooling systems conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This Cooling Tower and Advanced Cooling Systems Conference was held August 30 through September 1, 1994, in St. Petersburg, Florida. The conference was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and hosted by Florida Power Corporation to bring together utility representatives, manufacturers, researchers, and consultants. Nineteen technical papers were presented in four sessions. These sessions were devoted to the following topics: cooling tower upgrades and retrofits, cooling tower performance, cooling tower fouling, and dry and hybrid systems. On the final day, panel discussions addressed current issues in cooling tower operation and maintenance as well as research and technology needs for power plant cooling. More than 100 people attended the conference. This report contains the technical papers presented at the conference. Of the 19 papers, five concern cooling tower upgrades and retrofits, five to cooling tower performance, four discuss cooling tower fouling, and five describe dry and hybrid cooling systems. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  18. Fuel Development For Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. K. Meyer

    2006-06-01

    The Generation IV Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) concept is proposed to combine the advantages of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (such as efficient direct conversion with a gas turbine and the potential for application of high-temperature process heat), with the sustainability advantages that are possible with a fast-spectrum reactor. The latter include the ability to fission all transuranics and the potential for breeding. The GFR is part of a consistent set of gas-cooled reactors that includes a medium-term Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)-like concept, or concepts based on the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), and specialized concepts such as the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), as well as actinide burning concepts [ ]. To achieve the necessary high power density and the ability to retain fission gas at high temperature, the primary fuel concept proposed for testing in the United States is a dispersion coated fuel particles in a ceramic matrix. Alternative fuel concepts considered in the U.S. and internationally include coated particle beds, ceramic clad fuel pins, and novel ceramic ‘honeycomb’ structures. Both mixed carbide and mixed nitride-based solid solutions are considered as fuel phases.

  19. Pre-Conceptual Design of a Fluoride-Salt-Cooled Small Modular Advanced High Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Sherrell R [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL; Ilas, Dan [ORNL; Cisneros, Anselmo T [ORNL; Varma, Venugopal Koikal [ORNL; Corwin, William R [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Bradley, Eric Craig [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Hunn, John D [ORNL; Pappano, Peter J [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    This document presents the results of a study conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory during 2010 to explore the feasibility of small modular fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactors (FHRs). A preliminary reactor system concept, SmATHR (for Small modular Advanced High Temperature Reactor) is described, along with an integrated high-temperature thermal energy storage or salt vault system. The SmAHTR is a 125 MWt, integral primary, liquid salt cooled, coated particle-graphite fueled, low-pressure system operating at 700 C. The system employs passive decay heat removal and two-out-of-three , 50% capacity, subsystem redundancy for critical functions. The reactor vessel is sufficiently small to be transportable on standard commercial tractor-trailer transport vehicles. Initial transient analyses indicated the transition from normal reactor operations to passive decay heat removal is accomplished in a manner that preserves robust safety margins at all times during the transient. Numerous trade studies and trade-space considerations are discussed, along with the resultant initial system concept. The current concept is not optimized. Work remains to more completely define the overall system with particular emphasis on refining the final fuel/core configuration, salt vault configuration, and integrated system dynamics and safety behavior.

  20. The Employer Perspective on Sustainable Employability in the Construction Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnon, Susanne C; van der Veen, Rozan; Westerman, Marjan J; Robroek, Suzan J W; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Proper, Karin I.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the measures employers in the construction industry take to promote sustainable employability, the barriers and facilitators that influence implementation and employer needs. METHODS: Questionnaire among 499 employers and interviews with 17 employers. RESULTS: Employers

  1. A powerful way of cooling computer chip using liquid metal with low melting point as the cooling fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Teng; Lv Yong-Gang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Cryogenic Lab.; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Graduate School; Liu Jing; Zhou Yi-Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Cryogenic Lab.

    2006-12-15

    With the improvement of computational speed, thermal management becomes a serious concern in computer system. CPU chips are squeezing into tighter and tighter spaces with no more room for heat to escape. Total power-dissipation levels now reside about 110 W, and peak power densities are reaching 400-500 W/mm{sup 2} and are still steadily climbing. As a result, higher performance and greater reliability are extremely tough to attain. But since the standard conduction and forced-air convection techniques no longer be able to provide adequate cooling for sophisticated electronic systems, new solutions are being looked into liquid cooling, thermoelectric cooling, heat pipes, and vapor chambers. In this paper, we investigated a novel method to significantly lower the chip temperature using liquid metal with low melting point as the cooling fluid. The liquid gallium was particularly adopted to test the feasibility of this cooling approach, due to its low melting point at 29.7 C, high thermal conductivity and heat capacity. A series of experiments with different flow rates and heat dissipation rates were performed. The cooling capacity and reliability of the liquid metal were compared with that of the water-cooling and very attractive results were obtained. Finally, a general criterion was introduced to evaluate the cooling performance difference between the liquid metal cooling and the water-cooling. The results indicate that the temperature of the computer chip can be significantly reduced with the increasing flow rate of liquid gallium, which suggests that an even higher power dissipation density can be achieved with a large flow of liquid gallium and large area of heat dissipation. The concept discussed in this paper is expected to provide a powerful cooling strategy for the notebook PC, desktop PC and large computer. It can also be extended to more wide area involved with thermal management on high heat generation rate. (orig.)

  2. Cooling lubricants; Kuehlschmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Breuer, D. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Blome, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Deininger, C. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Hahn, J.U. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Kleine, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Nies, E. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Pflaumbaum, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Stockmann, R. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Willert, G. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Sonnenschein, G. [Maschinenbau- und Metall-Berufsgenossenschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    As a rule, the base substances used are certain liquid hydrocarbons from mineral oils as well as from native and synthetic oils. Through the addition of further substances the cooling lubricant takes on the particular qualities required for the use in question. Employees working with cooling lubricants are exposed to various hazards. The assessment of the concentrations at the work station is carried out on the basis of existing technical rules for contact with hazardous substances. However, the application/implementation of compulsory investigation and supervision in accordance with these rules is made difficult by the fact that cooling lubricants are, as a rule, made up of complicated compound mixtures. In addition to protecting employees from exposure to mists and vapours from the cooling lubricants, protection for the skin is also of particular importance. Cooling lubricants should not, if at all possible, be brought into contact with the skin. Cleansing the skin and skin care is just as important as changing working clothes regularly, and hygiene and cleanliness at the workplace. Unavoidable emissions are to be immediately collected at the point where they arise or are released and safely disposed of. This means taking into account all sources of emissions. The programme presented in this report therefore gives a very detailed account of the individual protective measures and provides recommendations for the design of technical protection facilities. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Als Basisstoffe dienen in der Regel bestimmte fluessige Kohlenwasserstoffverbindungen aus Mineraloelen sowie aus nativen oder synthetischen Oelen. Durch die Zugabe von weiteren Stoffen erlangt der Kuehlschmierstoff seine fuer den jeweiligen Anwendungsabfall geforderten Eigenschaften. Beschaeftigte, die mit Kuehlschmierstoffen umgehen, sind unterschiedliche Gefahren ausgesetzt. Die Beurteilung der Kuehlschmierstoffkonzentrationen in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz erfolgt auf der Grundlage bestehender

  3. Experimental and numerical simulation of passive decay heat removal by sump cooling after cool melt down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Kuhn, D.; Mueller, U.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents the basic physical phenomena and scaling criteria of passive decay heat removal from a large coolant pool by single-phase and two-phase natural circulation. The physical significance of the dimensionless similarity groups derived is evaluated. The above results are applied to the SUCO program that is performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The SUCO program is a three-step series of scaled model experiments investigating the possibility of a sump cooling concept for future light water reactors. The sump cooling concept is based on passive safety features within the containment. The work is supported by the German utilities and the Siemens AG. The article gives results of temperature and velocity measurements in the 1:20 linearly scaled SUCOS-2D test facility. The experiments are backed up by numerical calculations using the commercial software package Fluent. Finally, using the similarity analysis from above, the experimental results of the model geometry are scaled-up to the conditions in the prototype, allowing a first statement with regard to the feasibility of the sump cooling concept. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Commitment and the New Employment Relationship : Exploring a Forgotten Perspective: Employers Commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torka, Nicole; Looise, Jan Kees; van Riemsdijk, Maarten

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we have endeavoured to integrate the concept 'employers’ commitment' into the understanding of the new employment relationship. HRM scholars and practitioners assume that changes in (international) market and employee characteristics lead to a transformation of the employer-employee

  5. Cooling of molecular ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.; Krohn, S.; Kreckel, H.; Lammich, L.; Lange, M.; Strasser, D.; Grieser, M.; Schwalm, D.; Zajfman, D.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the use of stored ion beams and phase space cooling (electron cooling) is given for the field of molecular physics. Emphasis is given to interactions between molecular ions and electrons studied in the electron cooler: dissociative recombination and, for internally excited molecular ions, electron-induced ro-vibrational cooling. Diagnostic methods for the transverse ion beam properties and for the internal excitation of the molecular ions are discussed, and results for phase space cooling and internal (vibrational) cooling are presented for hydrogen molecular ions

  6. Improve crossflow cooling tower operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports how various crossflow cooling tower elements can be upgraded. A typical retrofit example is presented. In the past decade, cooling tower technology has progressed. If a cooling tower is over ten years old, chances are the heat transfer media and mechanical equipment were designed over 30 to 40 years ago. When a chemical plant expansion is projected or a facility desires to upgrade its equipment for greater output and energy efficiency, the cooling tower is usually neglected until someone discovers that the limiting factor of production is the quality of cold water returning from the cooling tower

  7. Perspectives of employability skills

    OpenAIRE

    ANNE LOUISE NEWTON

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the different perspectives held by young people, employers and policy makers around Employability Skills and it examined how young people learnt these skills. This study draws young peoples’ perspectives into the research around Employability Skills and highlights the way in which social and cultural capital mediate their development. The research points to a model to re-vision employability skills which recognises the many ways in which they are learnt, over time a...

  8. Augmented cooling vest system subassembly: Design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Angelo, Maurissa; D’Angelo, Joseph; Almajali, Mohammad; Lafdi, Khalid; Delort, Antoine; Elmansori, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermoelectric cooler (TEC) was employed to provide cooling air to cooling vest. • Aluminum cooling fins were used to exchange heat for hot and cold sides of TEC. • Performance of the system was determined and the experimental technique was described. • Heat sink is capable to remove additional heat and heat exchanger provides cooling air. • Future work is proposed to optimize the efficiency of the system. - Abstract: A prototype cooling engine consisting of thermoelectric coolers (TECs) was developed and designed. In this prototype, aluminum cooling fins were employed as the heat exchange method for both the hot and cold sides of the TEC. Aluminum fins were used to cool the ambient air through a heat exchanger and dissipate heat build up from the heat sink. This system was modeled and performance capabilities were determined. The experimental technique used to monitor parameters affecting the efficiency of the designed system was described. These parameters include the temperatures of the inlets and outlets of both heat exchanger and heat sink and the flow rate of the cooled air. The experiment was run under three input DC powers; 15 V, 18 V, and 21 V. As the power increased, both the flow rate and the temperature difference between the hot and cold side of thermoelectric cooler increased, demonstrating the heat sink capability to remove the additional heat. However, the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger decreases as the power increase. The findings demonstrated the effectiveness of this cooling system and future work is proposed to optimize the heat

  9. Cool's Clams Casino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobey, Paul; Williams, David E.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical game that reinforces basic multiplication facts, strengthens concepts of factors and multiples, and also provides arithmetic drill is described. Four variations of the game are also provided. (JT)

  10. Youth employment in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Eekelen, Willem van; De Luca, Loretta; Ismail, Magwa

    2001-01-01

    Examines economic and social factors affecting youth employment in Egypt and describes three national programmes for the promotion of youth employment based on human resources development, direct job creation and support in self-employment and enterprise creation. Describes one public-private project in each case.

  11. Employment in Agribusiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenberg, Gene; Huston, Jane

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist persons teaching a course in employment in agribusiness. Addressed in the individual units of instruction are the following topics: employment information (training plans/agreements and wages, taxes, and fringe benefits); human relations (employer/employee/customer relations and communication skills);…

  12. Social innovation in employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Torre, W. van der; Santoclides, M.E

    2017-01-01

    This policy brief on Social Innovation of Employment informs on an inventory of challenges and policy recommendations based on the Case Study Report of Employment and on the Second Policy Foresight Workshop of Employment. A ‘paradigm shift’ is needed in the mind-set of policymakers. ‘Traditional’

  13. Cooling device in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Tsutomu.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent loss of cooling effect over the entire torus structure directly after accidental toubles in a cooling device of a thermonuclear device. Constitution: Coolant recycling means of a cooling device comprises two systems, which are alternately connected with in-flow pipeways and exit pipeways of adjacent modules. The modules are cooled by way of the in-flow pipeways and the exist pipeways connected to the respective modules by means of the coolant recycling means corresponding to the respective modules. So long as one of the coolant recycling means is kept operative, since every one other modules of the torus structure is still kept cooled, the heat generated from the module put therebetween, for which the coolant recycling is interrupted, is removed by means of heat conduction or radiation from the module for which the cooling is kept continued. No back-up emergency cooling system is required and it can provide high economic reliability. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Two-phase-flow cooling concept for fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.; Hoffman, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The new two-phase heat transfer medium proposed is a mixture of potassium droplets and helium which permits blanket operation at hih temperature and low pressure, while maintaining acceptable pumping power requirements, coolant ducting size, and blanket structure fractions. A two-phase flow model is described. The helium pumping power and the primary heat transfer loop are discussed

  15. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  16. COMET concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsmeyer, H.; Tromm, W.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of the COMET core catcher concept developed for a future PWR have been continued. The concept is based on the spreading of a core melt on a sacrificial layer and its erosion, until a subsequent addition of water from below causes a fragmentation of the melt. A porous solidification of the melt would then admit a complete flooding within a short period. (orig.)

  17. Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  18. Management concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Rhonda

    2006-01-01

    Management concepts evolve through time. Health care managers can learn new concepts by evaluating classical management strategies, as well as modern-day strategies. Focusing on quality improvement and team building can help managers align the goals of their departments with the goals of the organization, consequently improving patient care.

  19. Generation-IV nuclear reactors, SFR concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with development of sodium-cooled fast reactors and lead-cooled fast reactors. He concluded that: - SFR is a proved concept that has never achieved industrial deployment; - The GEN IV objectives need to reconsider the design of both the core and the reactor design : innovations are being analysed; Future design will benefit from considerable feedback of design, licensing, construction and operation of PX, SPX, etc.

  20. Passive ventilation systems with heat recovery and night cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    with little energy consumption and with satisfying indoor climate. The concept is based on using passive measures like stack and wind driven ventilation, effective night cooling and low pressure loss heat recovery using two fluid coupled water-to-air heat exchangers developed at the Technical University...... simulation program ESP-r to model the heat and air flows and the results show the feasibility of the proposed ventilation concept in terms of low energy consumption and good indoor climate....

  1. Relevance of NET first wall concept for DEMO DN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiltie, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Design studies for the Next European Torus (NET) have produced a design concept for the first wall. This concept features poloidal water cooling, double contained in a welded steel structure which is protected by radiatively cooled tiles. In this appendix the relevance of this concept to a DEMO is examined with particular emphasis given to the ability of the cooling tube arrangement to remove the heat. A suggested modification to the arrangement of coolant tubes is suggested so that the design can operate at the higher loadings of a DEMO. (author)

  2. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  3. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...

  4. Innovation and employability: Moving beyond the buzzwords

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Alexis; Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup

    2015-01-01

    at least three challenges. We then trace back the genealogies of the concepts of innovation and employability, and identify a way to understand these two concepts in a way that rids them off the current economic connotations and which renders their usage meaningful at the level of pedagogy. We then sketch...... what we perceive to be the fundamental traits of a pedagogical focus on fostering students’ innovation competence and employability. Finally we argue that this focus, in principle, can be a way to ameliorate the three challenges that faces chemistry education....

  5. Employers Roundtable: Employer Supported Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Valley Child Care Council, Philadelphia, PA.

    This booklet outlines a number of options available to employers to enable them to better cope with child care issues that they and their employees face. Major options include: (1) flexible work policies, such as flexible scheduling, alternate work places, shorter work weeks, and the consolidating of sick leave, holidays, and vacation time into…

  6. Superconducting magnet cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Arend, Peter C.; Fowler, William B.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for cooling a conductor to the superconducting state. The conductor is positioned within an inner conduit through which is flowing a supercooled liquid coolant in physical contact with the conductor. The inner conduit is positioned within an outer conduit so that an annular open space is formed therebetween. Through the annular space is flowing coolant in the boiling liquid state. Heat generated by the conductor is transferred by convection within the supercooled liquid coolant to the inner wall of the inner conduit and then is removed by the boiling liquid coolant, making the heat removal from the conductor relatively independent of conductor length.

  7. Illumination and radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Shanhui; Raman, Aaswath Pattabhi; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden

    2018-03-20

    Aspects of the present disclosure are directed to providing and/or controlling electromagnetic radiation. As may be implemented in accordance with one or more embodiments, an apparatus includes a first structure that contains an object, and a second structure that is transparent at solar wavelengths and emissive in the atmospheric electromagnetic radiation transparency window. The second structure operates with the first structure to pass light into the first structure for illuminating the object, and to radiatively cool the object while preserving the object's color.

  8. Rotary engine cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

  9. Gas cooled HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweiger, F.

    1985-01-01

    In the He-cooled, graphite-moderated HTR with spherical fuel elements, the steam generator is fixed outside the pressure vessel. The heat exchangers are above the reactor level. The hot gases stream from the reactor bottom over the heat exchanger, through an annular space around the heat exchanger and through feed lines in the side reflector of the reactor back to its top part. This way, in case of shutdown there is a supplementary natural draught that helps the inner natural circulation (chimney draught effect). (orig./PW)

  10. Measurements at cooling tower plumes. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, F.; Haschke, D.; Solfrian, W.

    1976-04-01

    Referring to the present status of knowledge model conceptions, assumptions and approaches are summarized, which can lead to mathematical models for the simulation of dry or wet cooling tower plumes. By developing a one-dimensional plume model (FOG) the most important problems are considered in detail. It is shown that for the calibration of the necessary parameters as well as for the development of models full scale measurements are of decisive importance. After a discussion of different possibilities of measurement the organisation of a campaign of measurement is described. (orig.) [de

  11. Supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest reactor concepts, single pass core and experimental findings in thermal hydraulics, materials, corrosion, and water chemistry. It highlights research on supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors (SCWRs), one of the Generation IV reactors that are studied around the world. This book includes cladding material development and experimental findings on heat transfer, corrosion and water chemistry. The work presented here will help readers to understand the fundamental elements of reactor design and analysis methods, thermal hydraulics, materials and water

  12. Gas-cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    1982-07-01

    Almost all the R D works of gas-cooled fast breeder reactor in the world were terminated at the end of the year 1980. In order to show that the R D termination was not due to technical difficulties of the reactor itself, the present paper describes the reactor plant concept, reactor performances, safety, economics and fuel cycle characteristics of the reactor, and also describes the reactor technologies developed so far, technological problems remained to be solved and planned development schedules of the reactor. (author)

  13. Taxa de concepção de cabras inseminadas com sêmen caprino resfriado a 5ºC, por 12 ou 24 horas, em meio diluidor à base de gema de ovo Conception rate of goats inseminated with semen cooled in egg yolk diluent at 5ºC, for 12 or 24 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Siqueira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a capacidade fecundante do sêmen caprino resfriado a 5ºC, por 12 (TI ou 24 horas (TII, em container especial. Para tanto, utilizaram-se 62 fêmeas e dois reprodutores (B1 e B2 da raça Toggenburg, distribuídos em um esquema fatorial 2x2 (dois reprodutores e dois períodos de estocagem do sêmen. Após a coleta, o sêmen foi diluído em Tris-frutose-gema de ovo a 2,5%, envasado em palhetas de 0,25mL, com 150x10(6 espermatozoides móveis e resfriado a 5ºC. As fêmeas receberam duas doses de 22,5µg de PGF2α, em intervalos de 10 dias para a sincronização do estro. A partir da primeira aplicação de PGF2α, as fêmeas foram monitoradas para ocorrência de estro, três vezes ao dia. Realizou-se uma única inseminação, pela técnica de fixação da cérvice, 12 horas após o início do estro. A motilidade e o vigor, após 12 ou 24 horas de resfriamento, foram de 66,14±0,11% e 62,50±0,05%, e 3,46±0,61 e 3,27±0,50, respectivamente. Não houve influência (P>0,05 do reprodutor, nem do período de armazenamento do sêmen sobre a taxa de concepção das cabras, que foi de 49,1%.The fertilizing capacity of goat semen cooled in egg yolk diluent at 5ºC, for 12 or 24 hours was evaluated. Sixty-two Toggenburg does and two sexually mature Toggenburg bucks were used in a fatorial treatment combination (two bucks and two storage periods. The semen was diluted in 2.5% Tris-frutose-egg yolk; envased in 0.25mL plastic straws, with 150x10(6 mobile spermatozoa; and cooled at 5ºC for 12 or 24 hours. The females received two doses of 22.5µg of prostaglandine F2α, at each 10-day intervals in order to synchronize the estrous. From the first PGF2α injection, estrous occurrence was monitored three times per day. Only one insemination was used, using the cervix fixation method, 12 hours after the estrous onset. The means of motility and strength, 12 (TI and 24 hours (TII after semen cooling at 5ºC, were 66.14±0.11% and 62.50±0.05%, and 3.46±0

  14. Onderzoeksrapportage duurzaam koelen : EOS Renewable Cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeze, J.; Sluis, van der S.; Wissink, E.

    2010-01-01

    For reducing energy use for cooling, alternative methods (that do not rely on electricity) are needed. Renewable cooling is based on naturally available resources such as evaporative cooling, free cooling, phase change materials, ground subcooling, solar cooling, wind cooling, night radiation &

  15. Cooling power technology at a turning point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hese, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    From freshwater cooling and efflux condenser cooling to wet recirculation cooling, hybrid and dry cooling towers, cooling tower technology has seen a development characterized by higher cooling tower costs and reduced power plant efficiency. Therefore, all research work done at the moment concentrates on making up for the economic losses connected with improved environmental protection. (orig.) [de

  16. Subjective employment insecurity around the world

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Green

    2009-01-01

    I consider the concept of employment insecurity and provide new evidence for 1997 and 2005 for many countries with widely differing institutional contexts and at varying stages of development. There are no grounds for accepting that workplaces were going through a sea-change in employment insecurity. Workers in transitional economies and developing economies worried the most about insecurity. Perceived insecurity tended to be greater for women, for less-educated and for older workers. However...

  17. A Detector Scenario for a Muon Cooling Demonstration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kirk T.; Lu, Changguo; Prebys, Eric J.

    1998-04-01

    As a verification of the concept of ionization cooling of a muon beam, the Muon Collider Collaboration is planning an experiment to cool the 6-dimensional normalized emittance by a factor of two. We have designed a princeton.edu/mumu/mumu-97-8.ps>detector system to measure the 6-dimensional emittance before and after the cooling apparatus. To avoid the cost associated with preparation of a muon beam bunched at 800 MHz, the nominal frequency of the RF in the muon cooler, we propose to use an unbunched muon beam. Muons will be measured in the detector individually, and a subset chosen corresponding to an ideal input bunch. The muons are remeasured after the cooling apparatus and the output bunch emittance calculated to show the expected reduction in phase-space volume. The technique of tracing individual muons will reproduce all effects encountered by a bunch except for space-charge.

  18. Containment atmosphere cooling system for experimental fast reactor 'JOYO'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Mikio; Hoshi, Akio; Sato, Morihiko; Takeuchi, Kaoru

    1979-01-01

    The experimental fast reactor ''JOYO'', the first sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan, achieved the initially licensed full power operation (50 MW) in July 1978 and is now under steady operation. Toshiba has participated in the construction of this reactor as a leading manufacturer and supplied various systems. This article outlines the design philosophy, system concepts and the operating experience of the containment atmosphere cooling system which has many design interfaces throughout the whole plant and requires especially high reliability. The successful performance of this system during the reactor full-power operation owes to the spot cooling design philosophy and to the preoperational adjustment of heat load during the preheating period of reactor cooling system peculiar to FBR. (author)

  19. Muscle cooling delays activation of the muscle metaboreflex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C A; Hume, K M; Gracey, K H; Mahoney, E T

    1997-11-01

    Elevation of muscle temperature has been shown to increase muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during isometric exercise in humans. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of muscle cooling on MSNA responses during exercise. Eight subjects performed ischemic isometric handgrip at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction to fatigue followed by 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI), with and without local cooling of the forearm. Local cooling of the forearm decreased forearm muscle temperature from 31.8 +/- 0.4 to 23.1 +/- 0.8 degrees C (P = 0.001). Time to fatigue was not different during the control and cold trials (156 +/- 11 and 154 +/- 5 s, respectively). Arterial pressures and heart rate were not significantly affected by muscle cooling during exercise, although heart rate tended to be higher during the second minute of exercise (P = 0.053) during muscle cooling. Exercise-induced increases in MSNA were delayed during handgrip with local cooling compared with control. However, MSNA responses at fatigue and PEMI were not different between the two conditions. These findings suggest that muscle cooling delayed the activation of the muscle metaboreflex during ischemic isometric exercise but did not prevent its full expression during fatiguing contraction. These results support the concept that muscle temperature can play a role in the regulation of MSNA during exercise.

  20. Passive Two-Phase Cooling of Automotive Power Electronics: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

    2014-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated, and tests were conducted using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator design that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce size was conceived. Simulation results indicate its thermal resistance can be 37% to 48% lower than automotive dual side cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers--plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

  1. Antarctica: Cooling or Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunde, Armin; Ludescher, Josef; Franzke, Christian

    2013-04-01

    We consider the 14 longest instrumental monthly mean temperature records from the Antarctica and analyse their correlation properties by wavelet and detrended fluctuation analysis. We show that the stations in the western and the eastern part of the Antarctica show significant long-term memory governed by Hurst exponents close to 0.8 and 0.65, respectively. In contrast, the temperature records at the inner part of the continent (South Pole and Vostok), resemble white noise. We use linear regression to estimate the respective temperature differences in the records per decade (i) for the annual data, (ii) for the summer and (iii) for the winter season. Using a recent approach by Lennartz and Bunde [1] we estimate the respective probabilities that these temperature differences can be exceeded naturally without inferring an external (anthropogenic) trend. We find that the warming in the western part of the continent and the cooling at the South Pole is due to a gradually changes in the cold extremes. For the winter months, both cooling and warming are well outside the 95 percent confidence interval, pointing to an anthropogenic origin. In the eastern Antarctica, the temperature increases and decreases are modest and well within the 95 percent confidence interval. [1] S. Lennartz and A. Bunde, Phys. Rev. E 84, 021129 (2011)

  2. Cooled spool piston compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A hydraulically powered gas compressor receives low pressure gas and outputs a high pressure gas. The housing of the compressor defines a cylinder with a center chamber having a cross-sectional area less than the cross-sectional area of a left end chamber and a right end chamber, and a spool-type piston assembly is movable within the cylinder and includes a left end closure, a right end closure, and a center body that are in sealing engagement with the respective cylinder walls as the piston reciprocates. First and second annual compression chambers are provided between the piston enclosures and center housing portion of the compressor, thereby minimizing the spacing between the core gas and a cooled surface of the compressor. Restricted flow passageways are provided in the piston closure members and a path is provided in the central body of the piston assembly, such that hydraulic fluid flows through the piston assembly to cool the piston assembly during its operation. The compressor of the present invention may be easily adapted for a particular application, and is capable of generating high gas pressures while maintaining both the compressed gas and the compressor components within acceptable temperature limits.

  3. A compact, inherently safe liquid metal reactor plant concept for terrestrial defense power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.M.; Dubberley, A.E.; Lutz, D.E.; Palmer, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    A compact, inherently safe, liquid metal reactor concept based on the GE PRISM innovative LMR design has been developed for terrestrial defense power applications in the 2-50 MWe range. The concept uses a small, sodium-cooled, U-5%Zr metal fueled reactor contained within two redundant steel vessels. The core is designed to operate at a low power density and temperature (925 F) and can operate 30 years without refueling. One two primary coolant loops, depending upon the plant size, transport heat from the core to sodium-to-air, double-wall heat exchangers. Power is produced by a gas turbine operated in a closed ''bottoming'' cycle that employs intercoolers between the compressor stages and a recuperator. Inherent safety is provided by passive means only; operator action is not required to ensure plant safety even for events normally considered Beyond Design Basis Accidents. In addition to normal shutdown heat removal via the sodium-to-air heat exchangers, the design utilizes an inherently passive radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system similar to that designed for PRISM. The use of an air cycle gas turbine eliminates the cost and complexity of the sodium-water reactor pressure relief system required for a steam cycle sodium-cooled reactor

  4. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept

  5. Current leads cooling for the series-connected hybrid magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hongyu; Marshall, William S.; Bird, Mark D.; Gavrilin, Andrew V.; Weijers, Hubertus W.

    2014-01-01

    Two Series-Connected Hybrid (SCH) magnets are being developed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. Both SCH magnets combine a set of resistive Florida-Bitter coils with a superconducting outsert coil constructed of the cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC). The outsert coils of the two magnets employ 20 kA BSCCO HTS current leads for the power supply although they have different designs and cooling methods. The copper heat exchangers of the HTS current leads for the HZB SCH are cooled with forced flow helium at a supply temperature of 44 K, while the copper heat exchangers of HTS current leads for NHMFL SCH are cooled with liquid nitrogen at a temperature of 78 K in a self-demand boil-off mode. This paper presents the two cooling methods and their impacts on cryogenic systems. Their efficiencies and costs are compared and presented.

  6. Survey and assessment of radioactive waste management facilities in the United States. Section 2.5. Air-cooled vault storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    There are two basic types of air-cooled vaults for the storage of spent nuclear fuel or vitrified HLRW. The two types, differentiated by the method of air cooling used, are the open-vault concept and the closed-vault concept. The following aspects of these air-cooled vault storage facility concepts are discussed: description and operation of facilities; strucutral design considerations and analysis; nuclear design considerations and analyses; vault environmental design considerations; unique design features; and accident analysis

  7. The early history of high-temperature helium gas-cooled nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnad, M.T.; California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA

    1991-01-01

    The original concepts in the proposals for high-temperature helium gas-cooled power reactors by Farrington Daniels, during the decade 1944-1955, are summarized. The early research on the development of the helium gas-cooled power reactors is reviewed, and the operational experiences with the first generation of HTGRs are discussed. (author)

  8. Solar Cooling for Buildings. Workshop Proceedings (Los Angeles, California, February 6-8, 1974).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Francis, Ed.

    A consensus has developed among U.S. solar researchers that the solar-powered cooling of buildings is an important topic. Most solar heating systems are technically simpler, and more highly developed, than solar cooling devices are. The determination of the best design concept for any particular application is not a simple process. Significant…

  9. Designing concepts and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2012-01-01

    , that new developments often employ very modest research on the subject and often very little has been done in order to challenge traditional concepts and to invent new sustainable concepts for redevelopment. In order to avoid mistakes in urban redevelopment we need to learn from research and evaluation...... of the best planning practice. But what might be just as important is to learn from concept development practice, which can give us a comprehensive understanding of our complex cities and make us develop a way of experiencing the unique qualities of the architectural typologies at the site. Finally...... and strategies are briefly described in the article, and the adaption by city planners and developers has been critical reviewed....

  10. Ozone Activated Cool Diffusion Flames of Butane Isomers in a Counterflow Facility

    KAUST Repository

    Al Omier, Abdullah Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    ignition engines (HCCI) have been developed. These new engines rely on the low temperature chemistry (LTC) combustion concept. A detailed investigation of the properties of cool flames, governed by LTC, is essential for the design of these new engines

  11. Review of cavity optomechanical cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong-Chun; Hu Yu-Wen; Xiao Yun-Feng; Wong Chee Wei

    2013-01-01

    Quantum manipulation of macroscopic mechanical systems is of great interest in both fundamental physics and applications ranging from high-precision metrology to quantum information processing. For these purposes, a crucial step is to cool the mechanical system to its quantum ground state. In this review, we focus on the cavity optomechanical cooling, which exploits the cavity enhanced interaction between optical field and mechanical motion to reduce the thermal noise. Recent remarkable theoretical and experimental efforts in this field have taken a major step forward in preparing the motional quantum ground state of mesoscopic mechanical systems. This review first describes the quantum theory of cavity optomechanical cooling, including quantum noise approach and covariance approach; then, the up-to-date experimental progresses are introduced. Finally, new cooling approaches are discussed along the directions of cooling in the strong coupling regime and cooling beyond the resolved sideband limit. (topical review - quantum information)

  12. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebarjadi, M., E-mail: m.zebarjadi@rutgers.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Institute of Advanced Materials, Devices, and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  13. Understanding and Managing Employability in Changing Career Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of employability as it has evolved over time and to propose a new definition which reflects the critical variables that contribute to employability at an individual level. It also offers suggestions for how to manage employability and careers at both an individual and an organisational…

  14. Information Literacy and Employability

    OpenAIRE

    O'Keeffe, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Information Literacy (IL) and its relationship to third level graduates’ employability has gained more attention in recent years. This article examines how IL has evolved from skills initially associated with academic libraries into a key workplace skill set of the knowledge economy. It outlines the challenges interviewees encounter when selling IL to employers, how IL can be utilised when preparing for upcoming interviews and suggests a distinction between workplace IL and employability IL. ...

  15. Heavy liquid metal cooled FBR. Results 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayahune, Hiroki; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Soman, Yoshindo; Konomura, Mamoru; Mizuno, Tomoyasu

    2004-08-01

    Concepts of the reactor, SG and main coolant pump have been studied considering maintainability and aseismic capability, which is a medium size pool type lead-bismuth cooled reactor. The results are following. (1) Reconsideration of reactor design concepts concerning maintainability: In pursuit of good reactor maintainability, the structural concepts of SG, UIS and core support structures have been changed to be drawn up above the upper area of the reactor system. After a few decade of interval, lead-bismuth inventory in the reactor vessel shall be fully drained for easy ISI operation of in-vessel main components such as core support structures. From the viewpoint of the reactor aseismic capability, the axial length of reactor vessel was reduced and the reactor vessel support location was changed from the top handing to the circumference of the vessel. (2) SG concept selection in conjunction with a compact reactor vessel: The concept of SG consisting of a once through type with helical coil tube is selected. 6 units of a small scale SG are arranged on a reactor roof deck along the peripheral direction, in addition to 3 units of a centrifugal mechanical pump. (3) Aseismic structural integrity of the reactor components: Aseismic structural integrity of the reactor vessel, core support structures, UIS, FHM, SG and the main pumps has been vigorously examined respectively. These components besides FHM could keep the aseismic structural integrity for strong S2 earthquake under the design condition. FHM could also keep the integrity for S1 earthquake. (4) Safety evaluation: Thermal transients following loss of flow type accident due to plant total blackout and typical manual reactor trip incident, have been evaluated to assure the pant safety design, by analyzing thermal hydraulic behavior of transients concerning core flow rate and temperatures of the plant cooling system. Loss of flow accident due to plant total blackout: The reactor coolant pumps shall be tripped and

  16. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  17. Biomedical Use of Aerospace Personal Cooling Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webbon, Bruce W.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Callaway, Robert K.

    1994-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems are required during extravehicular activity (EVA) to remove the metabolic heat generated by the suited astronaut. The Extravehicular and Protective Systems (STE) Branch of NASA Ames Research Center has developed advanced concepts or liquid cooling garments for both industrial and biomedical applications for the past 25 years. Examples of this work include: (1) liquid cooled helmets for helicopter pilots and race car drivers; (2) vests for fire and mine rescue personnel; (3) bras to increase the definition of tumors during thermography; (4) lower body garments for young women with erythomelaigia; and (5) whole body garments used by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The benefits of the biomedical application of artificial thermoregulation received national attention through two recent events: (1) the liquid-cooled garment technology was inducted into the United States Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame (1993); and (2) NASA has signed a joint Memorandum of Understanding with the Multiple Sclerosis Association (1994) to share this technology for use with MS patient treatment. The STE Branch is currently pursuing a program to refine thermoregulatory design in light of recent technology developments that might be applicable for use by several medical patient populations. Projects have been initiated to apply thermoregulatory technology for the treatment and/or rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, migraine headaches, and to help prevent the loss of hair during chemotherapy.

  18. COOLING STAGES OF CRYOGENIC SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Троценко, А. В.

    2011-01-01

    The formalized definition for cooling stage of low temperature system is done. Based on existing information about the known cryogenic unit cycles the possible types of cooling stages are single out. From analyses of these stages their classification by various characteristics is suggested. The results of thermodynamic optimization of final throttle stage of cooling, which are used as working fluids helium, hydrogen and nitrogen, are shown.

  19. Stochastic cooling technology at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquinelli, R.J. E-mail: pasquin@fnal.gov

    2004-10-11

    The first antiproton cooling systems were installed and commissioned at Fermilab in 1984-1985. In the interim period, there have been several major upgrades, system improvements, and complete reincarnation of cooling systems. This paper will present some of the technology that was pioneered at Fermilab to implement stochastic cooling systems in both the Antiproton Source and Recycler accelerators. Current performance data will also be presented.

  20. Stochastic cooling technology at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquinelli, Ralph J.

    2004-10-01

    The first antiproton cooling systems were installed and commissioned at Fermilab in 1984-1985. In the interim period, there have been several major upgrades, system improvements, and complete reincarnation of cooling systems. This paper will present some of the technology that was pioneered at Fermilab to implement stochastic cooling systems in both the Antiproton Source and Recycler accelerators. Current performance data will also be presented.

  1. Stochastic cooling technology at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquinelli, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    The first antiproton cooling systems were installed and commissioned at Fermilab in 1984-1985. In the interim period, there have been several major upgrades, system improvements, and complete reincarnation of cooling systems. This paper will present some of the technology that was pioneered at Fermilab to implement stochastic cooling systems in both the Antiproton Source and Recycler accelerators. Current performance data will also be presented

  2. General Outside Employment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains all outside employment requests held by employees of Montgomery County (excluding uniformed police officer) approved by the Ethics Commission...

  3. Secretary Marshall's Employment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Gloria

    1977-01-01

    A review of proposed employment strategies and priorities of Ray Marshall, Secretary of Labor, with regard to training programs, governmental subsidy programs, apprenticeships, private sector jobs, etc. (WL)

  4. Institutionalized Employer Collective Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Navrbjerg, Steen Erik

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that employer associations continue to exist in new ways despite internationalisation of the economy, liberalisation of markets and the decline of trade unions. This paradox raises two questions regarding EOs in today’s labour markets: Which employers join employer associations...... and what kind of services do EOs offer employers? This article explores these questions using two comprehensive surveys on EOs in Denmark – a prominent case of coordinated market economies. The main finding of the analyses is that collective activities vis-à-vis trade unions and government are still...

  5. modelling room cooling capacity with fuzzy logic procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this study is to develop a model for estimation of the cooling requirement of residential rooms. Fuzzy logic was employed to model four input variables (window area (m2), roof area (m2), external wall area (m2) and internal load (Watt). The algorithm of the inference engine applied sets of 81 linguistic ...

  6. A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Martial

    2010-01-01

    An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

  7. Nuclear γ-ray spectroscopy of cool free atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivlin, Lev A

    1999-01-01

    Consideration is given to the capabilities of gamma-ray spectroscopy of the nuclei of free neutral atoms cooled employing modern laser light-pressure techniques. This spectroscopy is comparable with the Mossbauer spectroscopy in respect of the expected resolving power. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  8. Complex cooling water systems optimization with pressure drop consideration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pressure drop consideration has shown to be an essential requirement for the synthesis of a cooling water network where reuse/recycle philosophy is employed. This is due to an increased network pressure drop associated with additional reuse...

  9. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  10. Cryo-cooled high-power window for high-frequency plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, P.; Bojarsky, E.; Reiser, H.; Haefner, H.E.

    1991-09-01

    Within the framework of gyrotron window development, IMF pursues the concept of a single-disk window with edge cooling. Compared to a double-disk window with surface cooling, this concept offers a number of advantages in terms of safety, reliability, and ease of design and fabrication. The coolants which can be used for this purpose are liquid nitrogen and helium at very low temperature. (orig.) [de

  11. Enterprise’s employment potential: concept, components and evaluation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbut K.Ye.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the main interpretations and views of scientists on the economic category «labor potential». The conditions and factors affecting the labor potential are given. The author makes the classification and provides the general characteristic to the factors, which characterize the mechanism of formation of the labor potential. The detailed description of the main components and the components of the labor potential at the enterprise has been determined, analyzed and provided. The levels of the labor potential manifestation are summarized, and examined, and the explanation is given to each of them. The general characteristic of the constituent elements of workers’ labor potential is provided. The principal data of the labor potential at the micro level are provided. The main types of the labor potential at the enterprise are singled out and characterized in detail by the level of aggregated estimates, by the range of coverage of opportunities, by the nature of participation in the production and economic process and by the place in the socio-economic system of the enterprise. Considerable attention is paid to the views of scientists on the main methods of assessing the labor potential of the enterprise.

  12. Water cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a cooling water intake collector for a nuclear reactor. It includes multiple sub-collectors extending out in a generally parallel manner to each other, each one having a first end and a second one separated along their length, and multiple water outlets for connecting each one to a corresponding pressure tube of the reactor. A first end tube and a second one connect the sub-collector tubes together to their first and second ends respectively. It also includes multiple collector tubes extending transversely by crossing over the sub-collector tubes and separated from each other in the direction of these tubes. Each collector tubes has a water intake for connecting to a water pump and multiple connecting tubes separated over its length and connecting each one to the corresponding sub-collector [fr

  13. Emergency core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubokoya, Takashi; Okataku, Yasukuni.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain the fuel soundness upon loss of primary coolant accidents in a pressure tube type nuclear reactor by injecting cooling heavy water at an early stage, to suppress the temperature of fuel cans at a lower level. Constitution: When a thermometer detects the temperature rise and a pressure gauge detects that the pressure for the primary coolants is reduced slightly from that in the normal operation upon loss of coolant accidents in the vicinity of the primary coolant circuit, heavy water is caused to flow in the heavy water feed pipeway by a controller. This enables to inject the heavy water into the reactor core in a short time upon loss of the primary coolant accidents to suppress the temperature rise in the fuel can thereby maintain the fuel soundness. (Moriyama, K.)

  14. Cooling of rectangular bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frainer, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    A solution of the time-transient Heat Transfer Differential Equation in rectangular coordinates is presented, leading to a model which describes the temperature drop with time in rectangular bars. It is similar to an other model for cilindrical bars which has been previously developed in the Laboratory of Mechanical Metallurgy of UFRGS. Following these models, a generalization has been made, which permits cooling time evaluation for all profiles. These results are compared with experimental laboratory data in the 1200 to 800 0 C range. Some other existing models were also studied which have the purpose of studing the same phenomenon. Their mathematical forms and their evaluated values are analyzed and compared with experimental ones. (Author) [pt

  15. ATLAS' major cooling project

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, a considerable effort has been put into commissioning the various units of ATLAS' complex cryogenic system. This is in preparation for the imminent cooling of some of the largest components of the detector in their final underground configuration. The liquid helium and nitrogen ATLAS refrigerators in USA 15. Cryogenics plays a vital role in operating massive detectors such as ATLAS. In many ways the liquefied argon, nitrogen and helium are the life-blood of the detector. ATLAS could not function without cryogens that will be constantly pumped via proximity systems to the superconducting magnets and subdetectors. In recent weeks compressors at the surface and underground refrigerators, dewars, pumps, linkages and all manner of other components related to the cryogenic system have been tested and commissioned. Fifty metres underground The helium and nitrogen refrigerators, installed inside the service cavern, are an important part of the ATLAS cryogenic system. Two independent helium refrigerators ...

  16. Spot size predictions of a focused ion beam based on laser cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaf, ten G.; Wouters, S.H.W.; Geer, van der S.B.; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Luiten, O.J.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.

    2014-01-01

    The Atomic Beam Laser Cooled Ion Source (ABLIS) is a new source for focused ion beam instruments, which are used in the semiconductor industry, to image and modify structures on the nanometer length scale. The ABLIS employs laser cooling and compression of an atomic beam of rubidium to increase its

  17. Core catcher cooling for a gas-cooled fast breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Dorner, S.; Schretzmann, K.

    1976-01-01

    Water, molten salts, and liquid metals are under discussion as coolants for the core catcher of a gas-cooled fast breeder. The authors state that there is still no technically mature method of cooling a core melt. However, the investigations carried out so far suggest that there is a solution to this problem. (RW/AK) [de

  18. Film cooling for a closed loop cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2003-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. At least one film cooling hole is defined through a wall of at least one of the cavities for flow communication between an interior of the cavity and an exterior of the vane. The film cooling hole(s) are defined adjacent a potential low LCF life region, so that cooling medium that bleeds out through the film cooling hole(s) reduces a thermal gradient in a vicinity thereof, thereby the increase the LCF life of that region.

  19. Performance behavior of the passive containment cooling system of a natural circulation BWR during postulated accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Nayak, A.K.; Jain, Vikas; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Passive systems are playing prominent role in the development of innovative nuclear reactor systems due to their simplicity, enhanced safety, reliability and economy. These systems are being considered for normal operation as well as accidental conditions of reactor following a postulated accident scenario to preclude the scenarios arising out of failure of active systems as well as to minimize the operator intervention. Indian innovative reactor AHWR being designed for thorium utilization employs various passive safety concepts. As containment is the ultimate barrier to the release of radioactivity, passive concepts are being employed in BWRs for minimize peak containment pressure in the containment during a postulated accident condition like LOCA. The concept of passive containment cooling system (PCCS) in the AHWR comprises of inclined tube heat exchangers located underneath an elevated pool that removes the heat from the steam-air atmosphere of containment following a LOCA by natural circulation of water inside the tubes. The steam condenses on the external surface of tubes of PCCS in addition to the wall of the containment which in turn depressurizes the containment. This paper deals with the performance assessment of PCCS of AHWR during a postulated design basis LOCA by using the best estimate code RELAP5/Mod3.2. (author)

  20. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  1. Maternal Employment: 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lois Wladis

    1979-01-01

    Maternal employment is a part of modern family life, a response to changes such as smaller families and more efficient household management. Not only does maternal employment meet parents' needs, but it is a pattern better suited for socializing the child for the adult role s/he will occupy. (Author/GC)

  2. Dimensions of Adolescent Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mael, Fred A.; Morath, Ray A.; McLellan, Jeffrey A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines positive and negative correlates of adolescent work as a function of work dimensions. Results indicate that concurrent costs and benefits of adolescent employment may depend on dimensions of work as well as adolescent characteristics. Adolescent employment was generally related to subsequent work motivation and nonacademic performance.…

  3. Does Supported Employment Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan McInnes, Melayne; Ozturk, Orgul Demet; McDermott, Suzanne; Mann, Joshua R.

    2010-01-01

    Providing employment-related services, including supported employment through job coaches, has been a priority in federal policy since the enactment of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act in 1984. We take advantage of a unique panel data set of all clients served by the South Carolina Department of Disabilities and…

  4. Cooling Tower Overhaul of Secondary Cooling System in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Chul; Lee, Young Sub; Jung, Hoan Sung; Lim, In Chul [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    HANARO, an open-tank-in-pool type research reactor of 30 MWth power in Korea, has been operating normally since its initial criticality in February, 1995. For the last about ten years, A cooling tower of a secondary cooling system has been operated normally in HANARO. Last year, the cooling tower has been overhauled for preservative maintenance including fills, eliminators, wood support, water distribution system, motors, driving shafts, gear reducers, basements, blades and etc. This paper describes the results of the overhaul. As results, it is confirmed that the cooling tower maintains a good operability through a filed test. And a cooling capability will be tested when a wet bulb temperature is maintained about 28 .deg. C in summer and the reactor is operated with the full power.

  5. Applicable Employment Law after Rome I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone L.

    2008-01-01

    The article analyses the extent to which implementation of the present proposal for a Rome I Regulation will change the existing principles for international choice of law with respect to employment relationships. The special concept of "temporary" posted employees will undergo significant changes...

  6. Graduate Student Project: Employer Operations Management Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    Part-time graduate students at an Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited college complete a unique project by applying operations management concepts to their current employer. More than 92% of 368 graduates indicated that this experiential project was a positive learning experience, and results show a positive impact on…

  7. Onderzoeksrapportage duurzaam koelen : EOS Renewable Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Broeze, J.; Sluis, van der, S.; Wissink, E.

    2010-01-01

    For reducing energy use for cooling, alternative methods (that do not rely on electricity) are needed. Renewable cooling is based on naturally available resources such as evaporative cooling, free cooling, phase change materials, ground subcooling, solar cooling, wind cooling, night radiation & storage. The project was aimed to create innovative combinations of these renewable cooling technologies and sophisticated control systems, to design renewable climate systems for various applicati...

  8. Neutronic of heterogenous gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maturana, Roberto Hernan

    2008-01-01

    At present, one of the main technical features of the advanced gas cooled reactor under development is its fuel element concept, which implies a neutronic homogeneous design, thus requiring higher enrichment compared with present commercial nuclear power plants.In this work a neutronic heterogeneous gas cooled reactor design is analyzed by studying the neutronic design of the Advanced Gas cooled Reactor (AGR), a low enrichment, gas cooled and graphite moderated nuclear power plant.A search of merit figures (some neutronic parameter, characteristic dimension, or a mixture of both) which are important and have been optimized during the reactor design stage is been done, to aim to comprise how a gas heterogeneous reactor is been design, given that semi-infinity arrangement criteria of rods in LWRs and clusters in HWRs can t be applied for a solid moderator and a gas refrigerator.The WIMS code for neutronic cell calculations is been utilized to model the AGR fuel cell and to calculate neutronic parameters such as the multiplication factor and the pick factor, as function of the fuel burnup.Also calculation is been done for various nucleus characteristic dimensions values (fuel pin radius, fuel channel pitch) and neutronic parameters (such as fuel enrichment), around the design established parameters values.A fuel cycle cost analysis is carried out according to the reactor in study, and the enrichment effect over it is been studied.Finally, a thermal stability analysis is been done, in subcritical condition and at power level, to study this reactor characteristic reactivity coefficients.Present results shows (considering the approximation used) a first set of neutronic design figures of merit consistent with the AGR design. [es

  9. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept

  10. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  11. Preliminary Analysis on Decay Heat Removal Capability of Helium Cooled Solid Breeder Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Mu Young; Cho, Seung Yon; Kim, Duck Hoi; Lee, Eun Seok; Kim, Hyung Seok; Suh, Jae Seung; Yun, Sung Hwan; Cho, Nam Zin

    2007-01-01

    One of the main ITER goals is to test and validate design concepts of tritium breeding blankets relevant to DEMO or fusion power plants. Korea Helium-Cooled Solid Breeder (HCSB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) has been developed with overall objectives of achieving this goal. The TBM employs high pressure helium to cool down the First Wall (FW), Side Wall (SW) and Breeding Zone (BZ). Therefore, safety consideration is a part of the design process. Each ITER Party performing the TBM program is requested to reach a similar level of confidence in the TBM safety analysis. To meet ITER's request, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) studies have been performed on the TBM to identify the Postulated Initial Event (PIE). Although FMEA on the KO TBM has not been completed, in-vessel, in-box and ex-vessel Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) are considered as enveloping cases of PIE in general. In this paper, accidental analyses for the three selected LOCA were performed to investigate the decay heat removal capability of the TBM. To simulate transient thermo-hydraulic behavior of the TBM for the selected scenarios, RELAP5/MOD3.2 code was used

  12. Experimental investigation of a building integrated photovoltaic/thermal roof collector combined with a liquid desiccant enhanced indirect evaporative cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buker, Mahmut Sami; Mempouo, Blaise; Riffat, Saffa B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel solar thermal collector for liquid desiccant air conditioning was introduced. • Low cost poly heat exchanger loop underneath the photovoltaic modules was proposed. • The ability of the combined system was experimentally investigated. • Water temperature in the loop could reach up to 35.5 °C during the tests. • This tri-gen system can supply 3 kW heating, 5.2 kW cooling and 10.3 MW h/year power. - Abstract: Large consumption of limited conventional fossil fuel resources, economic and environmental problems associated with the global warming and climate change have emphasized the immediate need to transition to renewable energy resources. Solar thermal applications along with renewable energy based cooling practices have attracted considerable interest towards sustainable solutions promising various technical, economic and environmental benefits. This study introduces a new concept on solar thermal energy driven liquid desiccant based dew point cooling system that integrates several green technologies; including photovoltaic modules, polyethylene heat exchanger loop and a combined liquid desiccant dehumidification-indirect evaporative air conditioning unit. A pilot scale experimental set-up was developed and tested to investigate the performance of the proposed system and influence of the various parameters such as weather condition, air flow and regeneration temperature. A cost effective, easy-to-make polyethylene heat exchanger loop was employed underneath PV panels for heat generation. In addition, a liquid desiccant enhanced dew point cooling unit was utilized to provide air conditioning through dehumidification of humid air and indirect evaporative cooling. The experimental results show that the proposed tri-generation system is capable of providing about 3 kW of heating, 5.2 kW of cooling power and 10.3 MW h/year power generation, respectively. The findings confirm the potential of the examined technology, and elucidate the

  13. Authentication: Hot and cool

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, E; Cohen, SA

    2012-01-01

    Seeking to shift the discussion of the concept of authenticity in tourism scholarship from the dominant concern with tourist experiences to the more sociological problem of the processes of authentication of tourist attractions, we conceptualize two analytically distinct, but practically often intersecting, modes of authentication of attractions, “cool” and “hot”. Through a range of examples, we demonstrate the implications of the two modes for the dynamics of the constitution of tourist attr...

  14. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  15. Be Cool, Man! / Jevgeni Levik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levik, Jevgeni

    2005-01-01

    Järg 1995. aasta kriminaalkomöödiale "Tooge jupats" ("Get Shorty") : mängufilm "Be Cool, Chili Palmer on tagasi!" ("Be Cool") : režissöör F. Gary Gray, peaosades J. Travolta ja U. Thurman : USA 2005. Lisatud J. Travolta ja U. Thurmani lühiintervjuud

  16. Core cooling system for reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Ryoichi; Amada, Tatsuo.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the function of residual heat dissipation from the reactor core in case of emergency by providing a secondary cooling system flow channel, through which fluid having been subjected to heat exchange with the fluid flowing in a primary cooling system flow channel flows, with a core residual heat removal system in parallel with a main cooling system provided with a steam generator. Constitution: Heat generated in the core during normal reactor operation is transferred from a primary cooling system flow channel to a secondary cooling system flow channel through a main heat exchanger and then transferred through a steam generator to a water-steam system flow channel. In the event if removal of heat from the core by the main cooling system becomes impossible due to such cause as breakage of the duct line of the primary cooling system flow channel or a trouble in a primary cooling system pump, a flow control valve is opened, and steam generator inlet and outlet valves are closed, thus increasing the flow rate in the core residual heat removal system. Thereafter, a blower is started to cause dissipation of the core residual heat from the flow channel of a system for heat dissipation to atmosphere. (Seki, T.)

  17. Theory of semiconductor laser cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupper, Greg

    Recently laser cooling of semiconductors has received renewed attention, with the hope that a semiconductor cooler might be able to achieve cryogenic temperatures. In order to study semiconductor laser cooling at cryogenic temperatures, it is crucial that the theory include both the effects of excitons and the electron-hole plasma. In this dissertation, I present a theoretical analysis of laser cooling of bulk GaAs based on a microscopic many-particle theory of absorption and luminescence of a partially ionized electron-hole plasma. This theory has been analyzed from a temperature 10K to 500K. It is shown that at high temperatures (above 300K), cooling can be modeled using older models with a few parameter changes. Below 200K, band filling effects dominate over Auger recombination. Below 30K excitonic effects are essential for laser cooling. In all cases, excitonic effects make cooling easier then predicted by a free carrier model. The initial cooling model is based on the assumption of a homogeneous undoped semiconductor. This model has been systematically modified to include effects that are present in real laser cooling experiments. The following modifications have been performed. (1) Propagation and polariton effects have been included. (2) The effect of p-doping has been included. (n-doping can be modeled in a similar fashion.) (3) In experiments, a passivation layer is required to minimize non-radiative recombination. The passivation results in a npn heterostructure. The effect of the npn heterostructure on cooling has been analyzed. (4) The effect of a Gaussian pump beam was analyzed and (5) Some of the parameters in the cooling model have a large uncertainty. The effect of modifying these parameters has been analyzed. Most of the extensions to the original theory have only had a modest effect on the overall results. However we find that the current passivation technique may not be sufficient to allow cooling. The passivation technique currently used appears

  18. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  19. Development of design technology for dual-cooled fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Lee, Young Ho

    2010-03-01

    Primary purpose of the project is to complete a basic design of the power uprating dual-cooled fuel's structural components for an actual use in the existing nuclear power plants. It also includes a basic design of the components of a dual-cooled fuel rod. To this end, during the three years of the first stage (2007.03.∼2010.02.), concepts and technical issues of the structural components such as a supporting structure, guide thimbles and instrumentation tube and the top and bottom end pieces were derived in order to comply with the functional requirements and design criteria of them. Basic design was carried out to resolve the issues by using analytical methods as well as experiments, and observed finally is that a structural compatibility of the designed dual-cooled fuel to the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (OPR-1000). As for the dual-cooled fuel rod's components such as a plenum spring, a spacer and end plugs, a concept of them was established by using the basic dimension and array produced by other sub-projects. In turn, the basic design was completed by using the finite element analysis and conventional mechanical design formulae. Additionally, a welding method and equipment for a dual-cooled fuel rod specimen was also successfully developed to prepare for the irradiation tests at the HANARO. It was shown that a dual-cooed fuel for the OPR-1000 can be designed after manufacturing the partial assembly with the designed components and their drawings. The first stage was completed with passing the Gate checks proposed at the beginning. During the second stage(2010.03.∼2012.02.), researches on the mechanical behavior and structural integrity of the designed dual-cooled fuel will be conducted for preparing a license of it, which should be done when the dual-cooled fuel is commercialized

  20. Individual employment contract - the fundamental condition of legal labour relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ROMANDAŞ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the description and analysis of the most important institution of labour law – the individual employment contract. At the same time, we analyze the nature of the individual employment contract, the instruments that should be concluded by employers according to the labour law. Also, the article describes the main doctrinal opinions that ware used to elucidate the concept of the individual employment contract.

  1. Cooling off with physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Chris [Unilever R and D (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    You might think of ice cream as a delicious treat to be enjoyed on a sunny summer's day. However, to the ice-cream scientists who recently gathered in Thessaloniki in Greece for the 2nd International Ice Cream Symposium, it is a complex composite material. Ice cream consists of three dispersed phases: ice crystals, which have a mean size of 50 microns, air bubbles with a diameter of about 70 microns, and fat droplets with a size of 1 micron. These phases are held together by what is called the matrix - not a sci-fi film, but a viscous solution of sugars, milk proteins and polysaccharides. The microstructure, and hence the texture that you experience when you eat ice cream, is created in a freezing process that has remained fundamentally unchanged since the first ice-cream maker was patented in the 1840s. The ingredients - water, milk protein, fat, sugar, emulsifiers, stabilizers, flavours and a lot of air - are mixed together before being pasteurized and homogenized. They are then pumped into a cylinder that is cooled from the outside with a refrigerant. As the mixture touches the cylinder wall it freezes and forms ice crystals, which are quickly scraped off by a rotating blade. The blade is attached to a beater that disperses the ice crystals into the mixture. At the same time, air is injected and broken down into small bubbles by the shear that the beater generates. As the mixture passes along the cylinder, the number of ice crystals increases and its temperature drops. As a result, the viscosity of the mixture increases, so that more energy input is needed to rotate the beater. This energy is dissipated as heat, and when the ice cream reaches about -6 deg. C the energy input through the beater equals the energy removed as heat by the refrigerant. The process therefore becomes self-limiting and it is not possible to cool the ice cream any further. However, at -6 deg. C the microstructure is unstable. The ice cream therefore has to be removed from the freezer

  2. Film cooling air pocket in a closed loop cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael; Osgood, Sarah Jane; Bagepalli, Radhakrishna; Webbon, Waylon Willard; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending between them. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. To provide for air film cooing of select portions of the airfoil outer surface, at least one air pocket is defined on a wall of at least one of the cavities. Each air pocket is substantially closed with respect to the cooling medium in the cavity and cooling air pumped to the air pocket flows through outlet apertures in the wall of the airfoil to cool the same.

  3. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section 153.432 Shipping COAST... Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling systems. (a) Each cargo cooling system must have an equivalent standby... cooling system. (b) Each tankship that has a cargo tank with a required cooling system must have a manual...

  4. Real-Time Closed Loop Modulated Turbine Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Culley, Dennis E.; Eldridge, Jeffrey; Jones, Scott; Woike, Mark; Cuy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It has been noted by industry that in addition to dramatic variations of temperature over a given blade surface, blade-to-blade variations also exist despite identical design. These variations result from manufacturing variations, uneven wear and deposition over the life of the part as well as limitations in the uniformity of coolant distribution in the baseline cooling design. It is proposed to combine recent advances in optical sensing, actuation, and film cooling concepts to develop a workable active, closed-loop modulated turbine cooling system to improve by 10 to 20 the turbine thermal state over the flight mission, to improve engine life and to dramatically reduce turbine cooling air usage and aircraft fuel burn. A reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) can also be achieved by using the excess coolant to improve mixing in the combustor especially for rotorcraft engines. Recent patents filed by industry and universities relate to modulating endwall cooling using valves. These schemes are complex, add weight and are limited to the endwalls. The novelty of the proposed approach is twofold 1) Fluidic diverters that have no moving parts are used to modulate cooling and can operate under a wide range of conditions and environments. 2) Real-time optical sensing to map the thermal state of the turbine has never been attempted in realistic engine conditions.

  5. Gas-cooled reactors for advanced terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, K.; Lance, J.R.; Jones, A.R.; Spurrier, F.R.; Peoples, J.A.; Porter, C.A.; Bresnahan, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptual design of a power plant on an inert gas cooled nuclear coupled to an open, air Brayton power conversion cycle is presented. The power system, called the Westinghouse GCR/ATA (Gas-Cooled Reactors for Advanced Terrestrial Applications), is designed to meet modern military needs, and offers the advantages of secure, reliable and safe electrical power. The GCR/ATA concept is adaptable over a range of 1 to 10 MWe power output. Design descriptions of a compact, air-transportable forward base unit for 1 to 3 MWe output and a fixed-base, permanent installation for 3 to 10 MWe output are presented

  6. COMMIX analysis of AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.F.C.; Chien, T.H.; Ding, J.; Sun, J.G.; Sha, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    COMMIX modeling and basic concepts that relate components, i.e., containment, water film cooling, and natural draft air flow systems. of the AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System are discussed. The critical safety issues during a postulated accident have been identified as (1) maintaining the liquid film outside the steel containment vessel, (2) ensuring the natural convection in the air annulus. and (3) quantifying both heat and mass transfer accurately for the system. The lack of appropriate heat and mass transfer models in the present analysis is addressed. and additional assessment and validation of the proposed models is proposed

  7. Passive cooling of a fixed bed nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, V.J.; Bortoli, A.L. de; Sefidwash, F.

    2005-01-01

    Small nuclear reactors without the need for on-site refuelling have greater simplicity, better compliance with passive safety systems, and are more adequate for countries with small electric grids and limited investment capabilities. Here the passive cooling characteristic of the fixed bed nuclear reactor (FBNR), that is being developed under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project, is studied. A mathematical model is developed to calculate the temperature distribution in the fuel chamber of the reactor. The results demonstrate the passive cooling of this nuclear reactor concept. (authors)

  8. UNEMPLOYMENT AND SELF-CONCEPT

    OpenAIRE

    Redek, Tjaša; Sušjan, Andrej; Kostevc, Črt

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the position of the unemployed in the labour market, primarily relationship between self-concept and self-esteem of workers and their motivation to seek work. The current crisis dramatically worsened labour market situation, making employment almost impossible for many, primarily the vulnerable groups (older, women). Survey data used in cluster analysis reveal that the unemployment is related to self-concept, but besides unemployment also other ...

  9. Basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, B.

    1999-01-01

    The basic concepts of neutron scattering as a tool for studying the structure and the dynamics of condensed matter. Theoretical aspects are outlined, the two different cases of coherent and incoherent scattering are presented. The issue of resolution, coherence volume and the role of monochromators are also discussed. (K.A.)

  10. Simple Concepts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Materna, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2013), s. 295-319 ISSN 0353-5150 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/0792 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : concept * constructions * set-theoretical paradigm Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  11. Huge opportunity for solar cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In Europe more than 400 solar cooling systems have been installed. By contrast, only a small number of solar cooling installations exist in Australia - primarily adsorption and absorption systems for commercial and hospitals - although these systems are growing. As with other renewable energy technologies, cost is a challenge. However solar cooling is currently competitive with other technologies, with some suggesting that system costs have been decreasing by about 20% per annum in recent times. Australia is also leading efforts in the development of residential solar desiccant technology, currently commercialising Australian-developed technology. Commercial and industrial enterprises are increasingly aware of the impact of demand charges, the potential to install technology as a hedge against future energy price rises and opportunities associated with increased on-site generation and reduced reliance on the grid, often necessitating on-site demand reduction and management. They are also driven by environmental and corporate social responsibility objectives as well as the opportunity for energy independence and uninterruptible operation. Interestingly, many of these interests are mirrdred at residential level, inspiring CSIRO's commercialisation of a domestic scale solar air conditioner with Australian manufacturer Brevis Climate Systems. Australia and other countries are increasingly aware of solar cooling as technology which can reduce or replace grid-powered cooling, particularly in applications where large building thermal energy requirements exist. In these applications, heating, cooling and hot water are generated and used in large amounts and the relative amounts of each can be varied dynamically, depending on building requirements. Recent demonstrations of solar cooling technology in Australia include Hunter TAFE's Solar Desiccant Cooling System - which provides heating, cooling and hot water to commercial training kitchens and classrooms - GPT

  12. Entrepreneurship and Employment Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2017-01-01

    This paper challenges the conventional belief that entrepreneurship is an unstable career path. Using longitudinal matched employer–employee data from Denmark, the analysis reveals that a transition to entrepreneurship decreases individual's employment turnover tendency. Three explanations...

  13. Veteran Services - Welcome Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assistance Crosswalk websites Transition GPS National Career Readiness Certificate Post Traumatic Stress Credits (PDF) Fidelity Bonding Program National Career Readiness (PDF) Veteran Recruitment State/Federal veteran recruitment process Military Veteran Employment Guide Veterans Hiring Toolkit Other Information

  14. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Akira; Kobayashi, Masahide.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To enable a stable operation of an emergency core cooling system by preventing the system from the automatic stopping at an abnormally high level of the reactor water during its operation. Constitution: A pump flow rate signal and a reactor water level signal are used and, when the reactor water level is increased to a predetermined level, the pump flow rate is controlled by the reactor water level signal instead of the flow rate signal. Specifically, when the reactor water level is gradually increased by the water injection from the pump and exceeds a setting signal for the water level, the water level deviation signal acts as a demand signal for the decrease in the flow rate of the pump and the output signal from the water level controller is also decreased depending on the control constant. At a certain point, the output signal from the water level controller becomes smaller than the output signal from the flow rate controller. Thus, the output signal from the water level controller is outputted as the output signal for the lower level preference device. In this way, the reactor water level and the pump flow rate can be controlled within a range not exceeding the predetermined pump flow rate. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Cooling water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, ECCS system is constituted as a so-called stand-by system which is not used during usual operation and there is a significant discontinuity in relation with the usual system. It is extremely important that ECCS operates upon occurrence of accidents just as specified. In view of the above in the present invention, the stand-by system is disposed along the same line with the usual system. That is, a driving water supply pump for supplying driving water to a jet pump is driven by a driving mechanism. The driving mechanism drives continuously the driving water supply pump in a case if an expected accident such as loss of the function of the water supply pump, as well as during normal operation. That is, all of the water supply pump, jet pump, driving water supply pump and driving mechanism therefor are caused to operate also during normal operation. The operation of them are not initiated upon accident. Thus, the cooling water injection system can perform at high reliability to remarkably improve the plant safety. (K.M.)

  16. Magnet cooling economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmer, J.F.; Liggett, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The recommendation to use superfluid helium II in superconducting magnet design has become more prevalent in recent years. Advanced fusion reactor studies such as the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study recently completed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLML) have based superconducting magnet design on the use of He II because of reduced magnet volume, improved stability characteristics, or increased superconductor critical current at fields above 9 Tesla. This paper reports the results of a study to determine the capital costs ($/watt) and the operating costs (watts/watt) of refrigeration systems in the 1.8K to 300K temperature range. The cost data is applied to a 1.8K magnet that is subject to neutronic heating wherein the magnet case is insulated from the winding so that the case can be cooled at a higher temperature (less costly) than the winding. The life cycle cost (capital plus operating) is reported as a function of coil temperature and insulation thickness. In some cases there is an optimum, least-cost thickness. In addition, the basic data can be used to evaluate the impact of neutron shielding effectiveness trades on the combined shield, magnet, cryorefrigerator, and operating life cycle cost

  17. Fourth Generation Reactor Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtek, A.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns over energy resources availability, climate changes and energy supply security suggest an important role for nuclear energy in future energy supplies. So far nuclear energy evolved through three generations and is still evolving into new generation that is now being extensively studied. Nuclear Power Plants are producing 16% of the world's electricity. Today the world is moving towards hydrogen economy. Nuclear technologies can provide energy to dissociate water into oxygen and hydrogen and to production of synthetic fuel from coal gasification. The introduction of breeder reactors would turn nuclear energy from depletable energy supply into an unlimited supply. From the early beginnings of nuclear energy in the 1940s to the present, three generations of nuclear power reactors have been developed: First generation reactors: introduced during the period 1950-1970. Second generation: includes commercial power reactors built during 1970-1990 (PWR, BWR, Candu, Russian RBMK and VVER). Third generation: started being deployed in the 1990s and is composed of Advanced LWR (ALWR), Advanced BWR (ABWR) and Passive AP600 to be deployed in 2010-2030. Future advances of the nuclear technology designs can broaden opportunities for use of nuclear energy. The fourth generation reactors are expected to be deployed by 2030 in time to replace ageing reactors built in the 1970s and 1980s. The new reactors are to be designed with a view of the following objectives: economic competitiveness, enhanced safety, minimal radioactive waste production, proliferation resistance. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) was established in January 2000 to investigate innovative nuclear energy system concepts. GIF members include Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Euratom, France Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States with the IAEA and OECD's NEA as permanent observers. China and Russia are expected to join the GIF initiative. The following six systems

  18. Employers meet employees

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuer, Christian

    2009-01-01

    "Leaping into the future of labor economics: the research potential of linking employer and employee data" is the title of a paper by Daniel S Hammermesh published in Labour Economics in 1999. I quote it here, since it captures much of my motivation for the work included in this thesis. Considering applied micro econometrics and labor economics my main elds of interest, the development of linked employer-employee data that took place in Denmark around the time of the new mille...

  19. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  20. Employment of security personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    If a company or institution hires personnel of a security service company to protect its premises, this kind of employment does not mean the company carries on temporary employment business. Within the purview of section 99, sub-section 1 of the BetrVG (Works Constitution Act), the security service personnel is not 'employed' in the proper sense even if the security tasks fulfilled by them are done at other times by regular employees of the company or institution. The court decision also decided that the Works Council need not give consent to employment of foreign security personnel. The court decision was taken for settlement of court proceedings commenced by Institute of Plasma Physics in Garching. In his comments, W. Hunold accedes to the court's decision and discusses the underlying reasons of this decision and of a previous ruling in the same matter by putting emphasis on the difference between a contract for services and a contract for work, and a contract for temporary employment. The author also discusses the basic features of an employment contract. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Reducing Employment Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lebert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of job insecurity is known to be a stressful condition for employees. Less is known about employment insecurity and the ways employees and their families deal with it. This study investigates whether participation in further training is a strategy that employees adopt to reduce perceived employment insecurity. As participation in further training is often costly and time-consuming, we assume that the family context is of importance for the decision to take part in further training. To take account of possible self-selection, we apply a propensity score matching procedure on longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (2004-2013. Three main findings can be emphasized: first, participation in further training is not a strategy adopted particularly by employees who perceive high employment insecurity as they are less likely to train than their secure counterparts. Second, even though further training is not a strategy that is actively adopted, employees who train subsequently report lower levels of perceived employment insecurity. Third, the family context indeed influences the likelihood to train: partnered employees are more likely to train and preschool-aged children act as a constraint on women’s but enhance men’s participation in further training. Yet, in the context of high perceived employment insecurity, children generally reduce their parents’ likelihood to train as the parents may turn to other strategies that reduce perceived employment insecurity.

  2. Reverse Brayton Cycle with Bladeless Turbo Compressor for Automotive Environmental Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Rizo, Juan (Inventor); Ganapathi, Gani B. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An automotive cabin cooling system uses a bladeless turbocompressor driven by automobile engine exhaust to compress incoming ambient air. The compressed air is directed to an intercooler where it is cooled and then to another bladeless turbine used as an expander where the air cools as it expands and is directed to the cabin interior. Excess energy may be captured by an alternator couple to the expander turbine. The system employs no chemical refrigerant and may be further modified to include another intercooler on the output of the expander turbine to isolate the cooled cabin environment.

  3. Passive cooling of condensate chambers as retrofitting measure in boiling water reactors; Passive Kuehlung der Kondensationskammern in Siedewasserreaktoren als Nachruestmassnahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freis, Daniel; Nachtrodt, Frederik; Sporn, Michael; Tietsch, Wolfgang; Sassen, Felix [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH has developed a concept for passive cooling of condensate chambers of BWR-type reactors. Due to its compactness the system is feasible as retrofitting measure. The passive condensate chamber cooling system is based on a cooling module with ascending and down pipe that are connected with the evaporation condenser to form a cooling circuit. Based on the consequent use of high-effective heat transport mechanisms, as boiling, condensation without non-condensable gases and mass transport a high cooling performance and compact construction is possible. The system is completely passive and completely diverse to existing active cooling systems. In the frame of a true-scale experiment the significant cooling performance was demonstrated. RELAP5 calculations confirmed the functionality of the cooling module.

  4. Fail-safe system for activity cooled supersonic and hypersonic aircraft. [using liquid hydrogen fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. A.; Braswell, D. O.; Richie, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    A fail-safe-system concept was studied as an alternative to a redundant active cooling system for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft which use the heat sink of liquid-hydrogen fuel for cooling the aircraft structure. This concept consists of an abort maneuver by the aircraft and a passive thermal protection system (TPS) for the aircraft skin. The abort manuever provides a low-heat-load descent from normal cruise speed to a lower speed at which cooling is unnecessary, and the passive TPS allows the aircraft skin to absorb the abort heat load without exceeding critical skin temperature. On the basis of results obtained, it appears that this fail-safe-system concept warrants further consideration, inasmuch as a fail-safe system could possibly replace a redundant active cooling system with no increase in weight and would offer other potential advantages.

  5. He-cooled divertor for DEMO. Fabrication technology for tungsten cooling fingers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, J.; Norajitra, P.; Widak, V.; Krauss, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    A modular helium-cooled divertor design based on the multi-jet impingement concept (HEMJ) has been developed for the ''post-ITER'' demonstration reactor (DEMO) at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe [1, 2]. The main function of the divertor is to keep the plasma free from impurities by catching particles, such as fusion ash and eroded particles from the first wall. From the divertor surface, a maximum heat load of 10 MW/m{sup 2} at least has to be removed. The whole divertor is split up into a number of cassettes (48 according to the latest design studies [3]). Each cassette is cooled separately. The target plates are provided with several cooling fingers to keep the thermal stresses low. Each cooling finger consists of a tungsten tile which is brazed to a thimble-like cap made of a tungsten alloy W-1%La2O3 (WL10) underneath. The thimble has to be connected to the ODS EUROFER steel structure, which is accomplished by brazing again. The tungsten/tungsten brazing is exposed to 1200 C operation temperature while the tungsten/steel brazing joint must withstand 700 C operating temperature. Cooling of the finger is achieved by multi-jet impingement with helium. The inlet temperature of helium is 600 C and rises up to 700 C at the outlet. With this kind of cooling, a mean heat transfer coefficient of 35.000 W/(m{sup 2*}K) can be reached. This compact report will focus on the manufacturing of such a cooling finger unit at FZK. It will cover the machining of the tungsten tile as well as of the thimble and, the brazing of the parts. The major aim of this activity is, on the one hand, to obtain functioning mock-ups with high quality and high reliability, in particular in terms of minimising the surface roughness, cracks, and micro-cracks. On the other hand, effort should also be laid on realising the mass production from economic point of view. (orig.)

  6. Hybrid cooling tower Neckarwestheim 2 cooling function, emission, plume dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeuning, G.; Ernst, G.; Maeule, R.; Necker, P.

    1990-01-01

    The fan-assisted hybrid cooling tower of the 1300 MW power plant Gemeinschafts-Kernkraftwerk Neckarwestheim 2 was designed and constructed based on results from theoretical and experimental studies and experiences from a smaller prototype. The wet part acts in counterflow. The dry part is arranged above the wet part. Each part contains 44 fans. Special attention was payed to the ducts which mix the dry into the wet plume. The cooling function and state, mass flow and contents of the emission were measured. The dispersion of the plume in the atmosphere was observed. The central results are presented in this paper. The cooling function corresponds to the predictions. The content of drifted cooling water in the plume is extremely low. The high velocity of the plume in the exit causes an undisturbed flow into the atmosphere. The hybrid operation reduces visible plumes strongly, especially in warmer and drier ambient air

  7. Emergency cooling system for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.K.; Burylo, P.S.

    1975-01-01

    The site of the gas-cooled reactor with direct-circuit gas turbine is preferably the sea coast. An emergency cooling system with safety valve and emergency feed-water addition is designed which affects at least a part of the reactor core coolant after leaving the core. The emergency cooling system includes a water emergency cooling circuit with heat exchanger for the core coolant. The safety valve releases water or steam from the emergency coolant circuit when a certain temperature is exceeded; this is, however, replaced by the emergency feed-water. If the gas turbine exhibits a high and low pressure turbine stage, which are flowed through by coolant one behind another, a part of the coolant can be removed in front of each part turbine by two valves and be added to the haet exchanger. (RW/LH) [de

  8. The Cool 100 book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselip, J.; Pointing, D.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of The Cool 100 book is to document 100 inspiring, educational and practical examples of sustainable and accessible energy supply solutions created by, or suitable for, isolated communities in the cooler regions of the world. The book features the following projects, explored in detail: 1. Promoting Unst Renewable Energy (PURE) project, a pioneering project that demonstrates how wind power and hydrogen technologies can be combined to meet the energy needs of a remote industrial estate on the island of Unst in the British Isles. 2. The EDISON project, or Electric vehicles in a Distributed and Integrated market using Sustainable energy and Open Networks that explored increased renewable energy use and electric vehicle operation in Denmark, with a case study on the island of Bornholm. 3. The Sarfannguit Wireless Electricity Reading project, which has significantly improved utility metering and enabled improved energy management, reduced electricity demand, and the introduction of renewable energy technologies in the isolated villages of Greenland. 4. The Renewable Energy Croft and Hydrogen facility, which uses innovative technologies to support a gardening facility in the Outer Hebrides (Scotland), and is also a working laboratory for students of the local university to develop a hydrogen energy economy. 5. The Samsoe Renewable Energy Island in Denmark, an iconic example of how an island community can consume only green electricity by using a range of innovative technologies and behavioural changes to reduce demand and to harness green energy resources. 6. The Hydrogen Office Project which demonstrates how a commercial office in the coastal town of Methil in Scotland can be supported by a novel renewable, hydrogen and fuel cell energy system, and how the local community is engaged with the project. 7. The Northern Sustainable House in Nunavut, Canada, which explores the process and results of a project to design and implement housing for local families that

  9. CO$_2$ cooling experience (LHCb)

    CERN Document Server

    Van Lysebetten, Ann; Verlaat, Bart

    2007-01-01

    The thermal control system of the LHCb VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a two-phase C0$_2$ cooling system based on the 2-Phase Accumulator Controlled Loop (2PACL) method. Liquid carbon dioxide is mechanically pumped in a closed loop, chilled by a water-cooled freon chiller and evaporated in the VELO detector. The main goal of the system is the permanent cooling of the VELO silicon sensors and of the heat producing front-end electronics inside a vacuum environment. This paper describes the design and the performance of the system. First results obtained during commissioning are also presented.

  10. Cooling towers principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G B; Osborn, Peter D

    1990-01-01

    Cooling Towers: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the theory and practice, so that installations are correctly designed and operated. As with all branches of engineering, new technology calls for a level of technical knowledge which becomes progressively higher; this new edition seeks to ensure that the principles and practice of cooling towers are set against a background of up-to-date technology. The book is organized into three sections. Section A on cooling tower practice covers topics such as the design and operation of c

  11. Design study on sodium-cooled large-scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakawa, Yoshio; Nibe, Nobuaki; Hori, Toru

    2002-05-01

    In Phase 1 of the 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (F/S)', an advanced loop type reactor has been selected as a promising concept of sodium-cooled large-scale reactor, which has a possibility to fulfill the design requirements of the F/S. In Phase 2 of the F/S, it is planed to precede a preliminary conceptual design of a sodium-cooled large-scale reactor based on the design of the advanced loop type reactor. Through the design study, it is intended to construct such a plant concept that can show its attraction and competitiveness as a commercialized reactor. This report summarizes the results of the design study on the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor performed in JFY2001, which is the first year of Phase 2. In the JFY2001 design study, a plant concept has been constructed based on the design of the advanced loop type reactor, and fundamental specifications of main systems and components have been set. Furthermore, critical subjects related to safety, structural integrity, thermal hydraulics, operability, maintainability and economy have been examined and evaluated. As a result of this study, the plant concept of the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor has been constructed, which has a prospect to satisfy the economic goal (construction cost: less than 200,000yens/kWe, etc.) and has a prospect to solve the critical subjects. From now on, reflecting the results of elemental experiments, the preliminary conceptual design of this plant will be preceded toward the selection for narrowing down candidate concepts at the end of Phase 2. (author)

  12. Astrophysical Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Harwit, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This classic text, aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy, presents a wide range of astrophysical concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasizing physical concepts, the book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail: it provides a series of astrophysical sketches. For this fourth edition, nearly every part of the text has been reconsidered and rewritten, new sections have been added to cover recent developments, and others have been extensively revised and brought up to date. The book begins with an outline of the scope of modern astrophysics and enumerates some of the outstanding problems faced in the field today. The basic physics needed to tackle these questions are developed in the next few chapters using specific astronomical processes as examples. The second half of the book enlarges on these topics and shows how we can obtain quantitative insight into the structure and evolution of...

  13. Design study on sodium cooled large-scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tsutomu; Hishida, Masahiko; Kisohara, Naoyuki

    2004-07-01

    In Phase 1 of the 'Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (F/S)', an advanced loop type reactor has been selected as a promising concept of sodium-cooled large-scale reactor, which has a possibility to fulfill the design requirements of the F/S. In Phase 2, design improvement for further cost reduction of establishment of the plant concept has been performed. This report summarizes the results of the design study on the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor performed in JFY2003, which is the third year of Phase 2. In the JFY2003 design study, critical subjects related to safety, structural integrity and thermal hydraulics which found in the last fiscal year has been examined and the plant concept has been modified. Furthermore, fundamental specifications of main systems and components have been set and economy has been evaluated. In addition, as the interim evaluation of the candidate concept of the FBR fuel cycle is to be conducted, cost effectiveness and achievability for the development goal were evaluated and the data of the three large-scale reactor candidate concepts were prepared. As a results of this study, the plant concept of the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor has been constructed, which has a prospect to satisfy the economic goal (construction cost: less than 200,000 yens/kWe, etc.) and has a prospect to solve the critical subjects. From now on, reflecting the results of elemental experiments, the preliminary conceptual design of this plant will be preceded toward the selection for narrowing down candidate concepts at the end of Phase 2. (author)

  14. Passive low energy cooling of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Baruch

    1994-01-01

    A practical sourcebook for building designers, providing comprehensive discussion of the impact of basic architectural choices on cooling efficiency, including the layout and orientation of the structure, window size and shading, exterior color, and even the use of plantings around the site. All major varieties of passive cooling systems are presented, with extensive analysis of performance in different types of buildings and in different climates: ventilation; radiant cooling; evaporative cooling; soil cooling; and cooling of outdoor spaces.

  15. Introductory concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    Physical theories are commonly classified as being either ''classical'' or ''modern''. The reasons for this distinction are both historical and substantive. Limited in the sophistication of their measuring instruments, early scientists proposed theories appropriate for the description of the simplest and most accessible physical phenomena, e.g., the trajectories of the planets. Because of the class of phenomena observed, certain beliefs came to underlie all classical theories with regard to the nature of time, space, matter, etc. For example, the idea was undisputed that an object has at all times both a definite position and velocity. Not until the interior of the atom and the nature of electromagnetic radiation were explored was it discovered that the concepts of classical physics are inadequate to deal with many phenomena. A reassessment of fundamental postulates led to the formulation of modern physics which, it is believed, successfully treats the behavior of all physical systems. To gain an understanding of the rudiments of modern physics, one proceeds as the early scientists did by first mastering the classical concepts that emerge from their intuitive picture of the world. Modifications of these concepts are subsequently introduced which allow a more accurate treatment of physical phenomena, particularly atomic and nuclear systems

  16. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger....... But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes...

  17. Dry storage systems with free convection air cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kioes, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    Several design principles to remove heat from the spent fuel by free air convection are illustrated and described. The key safety considerations were felt to be: loss of coolant is impossible as the passive system uses air as a coolant; overheating is precluded because as the temperatures of the containers rises the coolant flow rate increases; mass of the storage building provides a large heat sink and therefore a rapid temperature rise is impossible; and lack of any active external support requirements makes the cooling process less likely to equipment or operator failures. An example of this type of storage already exists. The German HTGR is operated with spherical graphite fuel elements which are stored in canister and in storage cells. The concept is a double cooling system with free convection inside the cells and heat exchange via two side walls of the cell to the ambient air in the cooling ducts. Technical description of the TN 1300 cask is also presented

  18. Potential weather modification caused by waste heat release from large dry cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.

    1979-01-01

    A numerical model of a cooling tower plume is employed to study the possible atmospheric effects of thermal plumes from natural draft dry cooling towers. Calculations are performed for both single and multiple towers, each of which can dissipate the waste heat from a nominal 1000 MWe power generating unit, and the results are compared with those for wet cooling towers associated with plants of the same generating capacity. Dry cooling tower plumes are found to have a higher potential for inducing convective clouds than wet cooling tower plumes, under most summertime meteorological conditions. This is due to the fact that both the sensible heat and momentum fluxes from a dry tower in summer are approximately one order of magnitude larger than those from a wet cooling tower

  19. Modeling of Cooling Channels of Injection Mould using Functionally Graded Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ki Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The cycle time in injection moulding greatly depends on the cooling time of the plastic part that is controlled by cooling channels. Cooling channels are required to facilitate the heat transfer rate from the die to the coolant without reducing the strength of the die. Employing layered manufacturing techniques (LMT), a die embedding conformal cooling channels can be fabricated directly while conventional cooling channels are usually made of straight drilled hole. Meanwhile, H13 tool steel is widely used as the die material because of its high thermal resistance and dimensional stability. However, H13 with a low thermal conductivity is not efficient for certain part geometries. In this context, the use of functionally graded materials (FGMs) between H13 and copper may circumvent a tradeoff between the strength and the heat transfer rate. This paper presents a method for modeling of conformal cooling channels made of FGMs

  20. Energy Savers: Cool Summer Tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.

    2001-01-01

    A tri-fold brochure addressing energy-saving tips for homeowners ranging from low- or no-cost suggestions to higher cost suggestions for longer-term savings. Cooling, windows, weatherizing, and landscaping are addressed