WorldWideScience

Sample records for coolant activity behaviour

  1. 14C Behaviour in PWR coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, Howard; Dickinson Shirley; Garbett, Keith

    2012-09-01

    Although 14 C is produced in relatively small amounts in PWR coolant, it is important to know its fate, for example whether it is released by gaseous discharge, removed by absorption on ion exchange (IX) resins or deposited on the fuel pin surfaces. 14 C can exist in a range of possible chemical forms: inorganic carbon compounds (probably mainly CO 2 ), elemental carbon, and organic compounds such as hydrocarbons. This paper presents results from a preliminary survey of the possible reactions of 14 C in PWR coolant. The main conclusions of the study are: - A combination of thermal and radiolytic reactions controls the chemistry of 14 C in reactor coolant. A simple chemical kinetic model predicts that CH 3 OH would be the initial product from radiolytic reactions of 14 C following its formation from 17 O. CH 3 OH is predicted to arise as a result of reactions of OH . with CH 4 and CH 3 , and it persists because there is no known radiation chemical reduction mechanism. - Thermodynamic considerations show that CH 3 OH can be thermally reduced to CH 4 in PWR conditions, although formation of CO 2 from small organics is the most thermodynamically favourable outcome. Such reactions could be catalysed on active nickel surfaces in the primary circuit. - Limited plant data would suggest that CH 4 is the dominant form in PWR and CO 2 in BWR. This implies that radiation chemistry may be important in determining the speciation. - Addition of acetate does not affect the amount of 14 C formed, but the addition of large amounts of stable carbon would lead to a large range of additional products, some of which would be expected to deposit on fuel pin surfaces as high molecular weight hydrocarbons. However, the subsequent thermal decomposition reactions of these products are not known. - Acetate addition may represent a small input of 12 C compared with organic material released from CVCS resins, although the importance of this may depend on whether that is predominantly soluble

  2. Transient behaviour of main coolant pump in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delja, A.

    1986-01-01

    A basic concept of PWR reactor coolant pump thermo-hydraulic modelling in transient and accident operational condition is presented. The reactor coolant pump is a component of the nuclear steam supply system which forces the coolant through the reactor and steam generator, maintaining design heat transfer condition. The pump operating conditions have strong influence on the flow and thermal behaviour of NSSS, both in the stationary and nonstationary conditions. A mathematical model of the reactor coolant pump is formed by using dimensionless homologous relations in the four-quadrant regimes: normal pump, turbine, dissipation and reversed flow. Since in some operational regimes flow of mixture, liquid and steam may occur, the model has additional correction members for two-phase homologous relations. Modular concept has been used in developing computer program. The verification is performed on the simulation loss of offsite power transient and obtained results are presented. (author)

  3. Behaviour of fission products in PWR primary coolant and defected fuel rods evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, P.; Stora, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The activity surveillance of the PWR primary coolant by γ spectometry gives some informations on fuel failures. The activity of different nuclides e.g. Xenons, Kryptons, Iodines, can be correlated with the number of the defected fuel rods. Therefore the precharacterization with eventually a prelocalization of the related fuel assemblies direct the sipping-test and allows a saving of time during refueling. A model is proposed to calculate the number of the defected rods from the activity measurements of the primary coolant. A semi-empirical model of the release of the fission products has been built from the activity measurements of the primary coolant in a 900 MWe PWR. This model allows to calculate the number of the defected rods and also a typical parameter of the mean damage. Fission product release is described by three stages: release from uranium dioxide, transport across the gas gap and behaviour in the primary coolant. The model of release from the oxide considers a diffusion process in the grains with trapping. The release then occurs either directly to free surfaces or with a delay due to a transit into closed porosity of the oxide. The amount released is the same for iodine and rare gas. With the gas gap transit is associated a transport time and a probability of trapping for the iodines. In the primary coolant the purification and the radioactive decay are considered. (orig.)

  4. Low-activation lead coolant for advanced small modular NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorasanov, G.L.; Ivanov, A.P.; Blokhin, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is in studying perspectives of a new heavy liquid metal coolant for a small fast reactor (FR) concept. To reduce the post irradiation activity of the coolant the using of lead isotope, Pb-206, instead of natural lead, Pb-nat, is offered. In this case the accumulation of such hazardous radionuclides, as Po-210, Bi-208, Bi-207, essentially decreases. The interval of the lead-206 coolant cost which does not exceed 20% of the overall FR cost is estimated. The possibility of lead-206 obtaining for FR needs with the centrifugal separation technique is pointed out. (author)

  5. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate buffer concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. The remediation steps include changes in the coolant chemistry specification, development of a suite of new antimicrobial additives, and development of devices for the removal of nickel and phosphate ions from the coolant. This paper presents an overview of the anomalies, their known and suspected system effects, their causes, and the actions being taken to remediate the coolant.

  6. Probabilistic analysis of fuel pin behaviour during an eventual loss of coolant in PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Brief description of the development of the coolant loss incident in a pressurized water reactor and analysis of its significance for the behaviour of the fuel rods. Description of a probalistic method for estimating the effects of the accident on the fuel rods and results obtained [fr

  7. Behaviour of a pressurized-water reactor nuclear power plant during loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, E.; Carl, H.; Kubis, K.

    1979-01-01

    Starting from the foundation of the design basis accident in a PWR-type nuclear power plant - Loss of Coolant Accident -the actual status of the processes to be expected in the reactor are described. Operating behaviour of the heat removal system and efficiency of the safety systems are evaluated. Final considerations are concerned with the overall behaviour of the plant under such conditions. Probable failures, shut down times and possibilities of repair are estimated. (author)

  8. Actively controlling coolant-cooled cold plate configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-07-28

    A method is provided to facilitate active control of thermal and fluid dynamic performance of a coolant-cooled cold plate. The method includes: monitoring a variable associated with at least one of the coolant-cooled cold plate or one or more electronic components being cooled by the cold plate; and dynamically varying, based on the monitored variable, a physical configuration of the cold plate. By dynamically varying the physical configuration, the thermal and fluid dynamic performance of the cold plate are adjusted to, for example, optimally cool the one or more electronic components, and at the same time, reduce cooling power consumption used in cooling the electronic component(s). The physical configuration can be adjusted by providing one or more adjustable plates within the coolant-cooled cold plate, the positioning of which may be adjusted based on the monitored variable.

  9. Rupture behaviour of nuclear fuel cladding during loss-of-coolant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suman, Siddharth [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Patna 801 103 (India); Khan, Mohd Kaleem, E-mail: mkkhan@iitp.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Patna 801 103 (India); Pathak, Manabendra [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Patna 801 103 (India); Singh, R.N.; Chakravartty, J.K. [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Modelling of nuclear fuel cladding during loss-of-coolant accident transient. • Phase transformation, corrosion, and creep combined to evaluate burst criterion. • Effect of oxygen concentration on burst stress and burst strain. • Effect of heating rate, internal pressure fluctuation, shear modulus incorporated. - Abstract: A burst criterion model accounting the simultaneous phenomena of corrosion, solute-strengthening effect of oxygen, oxygen concentration based non-isothermal phase transformation, and thermal creep has been developed to predict the rupture behaviour of zircaloy-4 nuclear fuel cladding during the loss-of-coolant accident transients. The present burst criterion model has been validated using experimental data obtained from single-rod transient burst tests performed in steam environment. The predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results. A detailed computational analysis has been performed to assess the role of different parameters in the rupture of zircaloy cladding during loss-of-coolant accidents. This model reveals that at low temperatures, lower heating rates produce higher burst strains as oxidation effect is nominal. For high temperatures, the lower heating rates produce less burst strains, whereas higher heating rates yield greater burst strains.

  10. Source term and behavioural parameters for a postulated HIFAR loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, F.G.

    1987-01-01

    The fraction of the fission product inventory which might be released into the atmosphere of the HIFAR reactor containment building (RCB) during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has been evaluated as a function of time, for each classification of airborne radioactivity. This appraisal will be used as the source term for a computer program, which uses realistic attenuation of the fission product aerosol in a single compartment model with a defined leakrate to predict possible radioactive releases into the environment in a hypothetical bounding case reactor accident which is rather more severe in all major aspects than any single LOCA. Also given are the parameters governing the attenuation of the aerosol and vapours in the atmosphere of the RCB so that their behaviour may be accurately modelled. The source terms for several other types of accident involving the meltdown of fuel elements have also been considered but in less detail than the LOCA case. In some of the cases, the fission products are released directly to atmosphere, so there is no attenuation of the release by deposition within the RCB

  11. Review of experimental data for modelling LWR fuel cladding behaviour under loss of coolant accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massih, Ali R. [Quantum Technologies AB, Uppsala Science Park (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    Extensive range of experiments has been conducted in the past to quantitatively identify and understand the behaviour of fuel rod under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions in light water reactors (LWRs). The obtained experimental data provide the basis for the current emergency core cooling system acceptance criteria under LOCA conditions for LWRs. The results of recent experiments indicate that the cladding alloy composition and high burnup effects influence LOCA acceptance criteria margins. In this report, we review some past important and recent experimental results. We first discuss the background to acceptance criteria for LOCA, namely, clad embrittlement phenomenology, clad embrittlement criteria (limitations on maximum clad oxidation and peak clad temperature) and the experimental bases for the criteria. Two broad kinds of test have been carried out under LOCA conditions: (i) Separate effect tests to study clad oxidation, clad deformation and rupture, and zirconium alloy allotropic phase transition during LOCA. (ii) Integral LOCA tests, in which the entire LOCA sequence is simulated on a single rod or a multi-rod array in a fuel bundle, in laboratory or in a tests and results are discussed and empirical correlations deduced from these tests and quantitative models are conferred. In particular, the impact of niobium in zirconium base clad and hydrogen content of the clad on allotropic phase transformation during LOCA and also the burst stress are discussed. We review some recent LOCA integral test results with emphasis on thermal shock tests. Finally, suggestions for modelling and further evaluation of certain experimental results are made.

  12. Nuclear Fuel Behaviour in Loss-of-coolant Accident (LOCA) Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Kjell; Chung, Haijung; ); Billone, Michael; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Nagase, Fumihisa; Grandjean, Claude; Hache, George; Papin, Joelle; Heins, Lothar; Hozer, Zoltan; In de Betou, Jan; Kelppe, Seppo; Mayer, Ralph; Scott, Harold; Voglewede, John; Sonnenburg, Heinz; Sunder, Sham; Valach, Mojmir; Vrtilkova, Vera; Waeckel, Nicolas; Wiesenack, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The NEA Working Group on Fuel Safety (WGFS) is tasked with advancing the current understanding of fuel safety issues by assessing the technical basis for current safety criteria and their applicability to high burn-up and to new fuel designs and materials. The group aims at facilitating international convergence in this area, including as regards experimental approaches and interpretation and the use of experimental data relevant for safety. In 1986, a working group of the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) issued a state-of-the-art report on water reactor fuel behaviour in design-basis accident (DBA) conditions. The 1986 report was limited to the oxidation, embrittlement and deformation of pressurised water reactor (PWR) fuel in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Since then, considerable experimental and analytical work has been performed, which has led to a broader and deeper understanding of LOCA-related phenomena. Further, new cladding alloys have been produced, which might behave differently than the previously used Zircaloy-4, both under normal operating conditions and during transients. Compared with 20 years ago, fuel burn-up has been significantly increased, which requires extending the LOCA database in order to cover the high burnup range. There was also a clear need to address LOCA performance for reactor types other than PWRs. The present report has been prepared by the WGFS and covers the following technical aspects: - Description of different LOCA scenarios for major types of reactors: BWRs, PWRs, VVERs and to a lesser extent CANDUs. - LOCA phenomena: ballooning, burst, oxidation, fuel relocation and possible fracture at quench. - Details of high-temperature oxidation behaviour of various cladding materials. - Metallurgical phase change, effect of hydrogen and oxygen on residual cladding ductility. - Methods for LOCA testing, for example two-sided oxidation and ring compression for ductility, and integral quench test for

  13. SSYST-1. A computer code system to analyse the fuel rod behaviour during a loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulden, W.

    1977-08-01

    The modules of the SSYST program system allow the detailed analysis of an LWR fuel rod in the course of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. They provide a tool for considering the interaction between the heat conduction in the fuel rod, heat transfer in the gap, fuel and cladding tube deformation, pressure in the coolant, as well as thermal and fluid dynamics in the cooling channel and for calculating the time and location of ballooning and rod failure, respectively. They can be used both to precalculate the behaviour of fuel rods during LWR accidents and in support of the design of experiments. Depending on the problem to be solved, the individual modules can be easily combined. (orig.) [de

  14. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project -2006 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. This paper presents a status of the coolant stability over the past year as well as results from destructive analyses of hardware removed from the on-orbit system and the current approach to coolant remediation.

  15. Molten fuel-coolant interaction behaviours of various fast reactor fuels (Paper No. HMT-45-87)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    A parametric computational model of molten fuel-coolant interaction (MFCI) including a particle size distribution is developed and employed to analyse behaviours of various possible reactor fuels, such as oxide, carbide and metal in MFCI scenario. It is observed that while higher thermal conductivity and lower specific heat of carbide compared to oxide is responsible for higher peak pressure and work done per unit mass, the trend is not observed in the metal fuel. The reason for this is the lower operation temperature and latent heat of metallic fuel. (author). 9 refs., 1 fig

  16. Estimation of aluminum and argon activation sources in the HANARO coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Byung Jin; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Myong Seop

    2010-01-01

    The activation products of aluminum and argon are key radionuclides for operational and environmental radiological safety during the normal operation of open-tank-in-pool type research reactors using aluminum-clad fuels. Their activities measured in the primary coolant and pool surface water of HANARO have been consistent. We estimated their sources from the measured activities and then compared these values with their production rates obtained by a core calculation. For each aluminum activation product, an equivalent aluminum thickness (EAT) in which its production rate is identical to its release rate into the coolant is determined. For the argon activation calculation, the saturated argon concentration in the water at the temperature of the pool surface is assumed. The EATs are 5680, 266 and 1.2 nm, respectively, for Na-24, Mg-27 and Al-28, which are much larger than the flight lengths of the respective recoil nuclides. These values coincide with the water solubility levels and with the half-lives. The EAT for Na-24 is similar to the average oxide layer thickness (OLT) of fuel cladding as well; hence, the majority of them in the oxide layer may be released to the coolant. However, while the average OLT clearly increases with the fuel burn-up during an operation cycle, its effect on the pool-top radiation is not distinguishable. The source of Ar-41 is in good agreement with the calculated reaction rate of Ar-40 dissolved in the coolant

  17. Analysis of fuel behaviour after loss-of-coolant accident with the TESPA-code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keusenhoff, J.

    1981-01-01

    After a loss-of-coolant accident fuel rods go through a phase of high temperature and differential pressure before quenching and initiation of long term cooling. For licensing purpose the highest cladding temperature and the coolability of the core is of interest. The highest temperature is evaluated by a hot channel calculation with conservative assumptions. It gives little information about the status of the entire core. Therefore more detailed information is necessary. TESPA is a fast running code, which uses best-estimate assumptions, considers statistical uncertainties in the input parameters and calculates clad ballooning and rupture. The code is a usefull tool for calculation of channel blockage and cladding rupture

  18. Pressure behaviour in a nuclear reactor containment following a loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHattab, M.S.; Ibrahim, N.A.; Bedrose, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    The scenarios of pressure variation following a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) inside the containment of pressurized water reactor (PWR) have been investigated. Critical mass flow rushing out from high pressure leg through pipe break, is used to calculate the rate of coolant. The energy added to the containment atmosphere is determined to specify the rate of growth of pressure and temperature. The scenarios of small, medium and large LOCA at 2%, 15% and 25% flow released are investigated. Safety water spray system is initiated as the pressure reaches the containment design safety limit at about 3 bar to depressurise and to cooldown the system and thereby to reduce the concentration of radioactivity release in the containment atmosphere. The pressure response before and after operation of safety spray system is predicted in each size of LOCA using a typical design of westinghouse PWR system. The results of large LOCA showed good agreement with westinghouse calculations of the same design. The heat removal from the containment environment is rejected into the sump by drop-wise condensation mechanism. The effect of initial droplets diameters injected from the nozzles of the spray system is investigated. The results show that the droplet diameter of 3 mm gives best performance. 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. The application of release models to the interpretation of rare gas coolant activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, C.

    1985-01-01

    Much research is carried out into the release of fission products from UO 2 fuel and from failed pins. A significant application of this data is to define models of release which can be used to interpret measured coolant activities of rare gas isotopes. Such interpretation is necessary to extract operationally relevant parameters, such as the number and size of failures in the core and the 131 I that might be released during depressurization faults. The latter figure forms part of the safety case for all operating CAGRs. This paper describes and justifies the models which are used in the ANAGRAM program to interpret CAGR coolant activities, highlighting any remaining uncertainties. The various methods by which the program can extract relevant information from the measurements are outlined, and examples are given of the analysis of coolant data. These analyses point to a generally well understood picture of fission gas release from low temperature failures. Areas of higher temperature release are identified where further research would be beneficial to coolant activity analysis. (author)

  20. Correlations between the electrochemical behaviour and surface film composition of TZM alloy exposed to divertor water coolant environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maday, M.-F.; Giorgi, R.; Dikonimos-Makris, T.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been carried out on TZM alloy surfaces after short and long immersion tests in high temperature (250 C) aqueous environments simulating possible fusion reactor coolant conditions during operation. Phase identification by XPS was used in connection with the open circuit potential trends to suggest plausible hypotheses about TZM corrosion behaviour in the various chemical environments considered in this study. It was proposed that exposure of TZM to oxidizing water conditions produced poorly protective layers, which consist essentially of low (IV) and intermediate (V) valency Mo oxides/hydroxides. Conversely the results obtained in deaerated and reducing water conditions suggested that barrier films could develop in these environments: the phases exhibit a bilayered structure and consisted of an inner tetravalent Mo oxide/hydroxide and an outer hexavalent Mo oxide. The protective properties of such layers were attributed to the hexavalent Mo species. (orig.)

  1. Behaviour of glass and thermal protective coatings on stainless steels in the nitrogen tetroxide based coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalin, Yu.I.; Dobrunova, V.M.; Doroshkevich, V.N.; Nesterenko, V.B.; Trubnikov, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    The technology of application of glass and enamel protective coatings on stainless steel has been examined, their testing in the medium of nitrogen tetroxide based coolant with different content of nitric acid has been carried out, the basic characteristics of the coatings after testing have been defined. Chromium-nickel austenitic 12kh18n10t steel, widely used in the nuclear power, have been chosen as a basic object of examination. The coatings have been tested in nitrogen oxide at P=12.0 MPa, temperature 310 deg C and 0.1% HNO 3 , and also in the medium of vat residue of the rectifying tower with nitric acid content up to 25 mass %. Tests of the coatings have demonstrated their sufficiently high stability, especially of those based on enamels A-20 and BK-5. These coatings are characterised by satisfactory performance and can be used for corrosion protection of the materials used in nuclear power

  2. Stainless steel corrosion in conditions simulating WWER-1000 primary coolant. Corrosion behaviour in mixed core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnorutskij, V.S.; Petel'guzov, I.A.; Gritsina, V.M.; Zuek, V.A.; Tret'yakov, M.V.; Rud', R.A.; Svichkar', N.V.; Slabospitskaya, E.A.; Ishchenko, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    Research into corrosion kinetics of austenitic stainless steels (06Cr18Ni10Ti, 08Cr18Ni10Ti, 12Cr18Ni10Ti) in medium which corresponds to composition and parameters of WWER-1000 primary coolant with different pH values in autoclave out-pile conditions during 14000 hours is given. Surface of oxide films on stainless steels is investigated. Visual inspection of Westinghouse and TVEL fuel was carried out after 4 cycles in WWER-1000 primary water chemistry conditions at South Ukraine NPP. Westinghouse and TVEL fuel cladding materials possess high corrosion resistance. Blushing of weldments was observed. No visual corrosion defects or deposits were observed on fuel rods.

  3. Correlating activity incorporation with properties of oxide films formed on material samples exposed to BWR and PWR coolants in Finnish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojinov, M.; Kinnunen, P.; Laitinen, T.; Maekelae, K.; Saario, T.; Sirkiae, P. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland); Buddas, T.; Halin, M.; Kvarnstroem, R.; Tompuri, K. [Fortum Power and Heat Oy, Loviisa Power Plant, Loviisa (Finland); Helin, M.; Muttilainen, E.; Reinvall, A. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    2002-07-01

    The extent of activity incorporation on primary circuit surfaces in nuclear power plants is connected to the chemical composition of the coolant, to the corrosion behaviour of the material surfaces and to the structure and properties of oxide films formed on circuit surfaces due to corrosion. Possible changes in operational conditions may induce changes in the structure of the oxide films and thus in the rate of activity incorporation. To predict these changes, experimental correlations between water chemistry, oxide films and activity incorporation, as well as mechanistic understanding of the related phenomena need to be established. In order to do this, flow-through cells with material samples and facilities for high-temperature water chemistry monitoring have been installed at Olkiluoto unit 1 (BWR) and Loviisa unit 1 (PWR) in spring 2000. The cells are being used for two major purposes: To observe the changes in the structure and activity levels of oxide films formed on material samples exposed to the primary coolant. Correlating these observations with the abundant chemical and radiochemical data on coolant composition, dose rates etc. collected routinely by the plant, as well as with high-temperature water chemistry monitoring data such as the corrosion potentials of relevant material samples, the redox potential and the high-temperature conductivity of the primary coolant. We describe in this paper the scope of the work, give examples of the observations made and summarize the results on oxide films that have been obtained during one full fuel cycle at both plants. (authors)

  4. ACFA - a versatile activation code for coolant and structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockmann, H.; Ohlig, U.

    1983-09-01

    The ACFA code calculates the neutron-induced activation, afterheat, transmutation, gas production, biological hazard potential, and activation gamma ray spectra in the components of a nuclear system. The quantities of interest may be computed by spatial interval and zone or only by zone of the system considered. To calculate the transmutation coefficients for the neutron-induced reactions the code uses multigroup activation cross sections and space-dependent multigroup neutron fluxes in one- or two-dimensional geometry. The neutron reaction types incorporated in the code are: (n,n'), (n,2n), (n,γ), (n,p), (n,α), (n,n'p), (n,n'α)sub(,) (n,t), (n,3n), (n,He-3), (n,d), and (n,n'd) considering both reactions to the ground state and to isomeric states. The code uses a variable dimensioning technique to adapt the core data storage requirements to the particular problem considered and uses the FIDO input system to read the input data. The numerical methods for establishing and solving the decay chain equations are taken from the ORIGEN code. To test the ACFA code and the nuclear data libraries used, the activation, composition change, and gas production in the first wall of the UWMAK-I fusion reactor are calculated. The results of the activation calculation are compared with earlier results of the University of Wisconsin Fusion Study Group. (orig.)

  5. The behaviour of zirconium alloys in Santowax OM organic coolant at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawatzky, A.

    1964-10-01

    Zirconium alloys have been exposed to Santowax OM at temperatures of 320 to 400 o C for times as long as 5000 hours. Short-term experiments (less than 2 weeks) were done in stainless-steel bombs and small out-of-pile loops. The X-7 organic loop in the NRX reactor was used to study long-term oxidation and hydriding both in-flux and out-of-flux. The results obtained lead to several tentative conclusions: Aluminum cladding serves as an effective hydrogen barrier; Considerable protection against hydriding is given by zirconium oxide, provided impurities in the organic are carefully controlled; Hydriding is greatly enhanced by the presence of chlorine in the coolant; and, Hydriding is somewhat enhanced by neutron irradiation. Of considerable significance is the fact that a Zircaloy-4 in-reactor test section of the X-7 loop was exposed to Santowax OM at 320 to 400 o C for more than 5000 hours without excessive hydriding. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Specific Activity in the Primary Coolant of PWRs by using SAEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ha Yong; Song, Jae Seung; Kim, Keung Ku; Kim, Kyo Youn

    2008-07-01

    SAEP(Specific Activity Evaluation Program) to evaluate specific activities in the primary coolant of reactors due to fission products has been developed, which can be applied to the new concept nuclear reactor such as SMART as well as commercial PWRs in existence. Specific activities in the primary coolant were evaluated by using SAEP against reactor plants which are being operated currently in South Korea, respectively. We study the possibility of being applied to the developing commercial PWRs and the new concept reactors through the comparison the results by using SAEP with the results mentioned in the FSARs. We also verify SAEP itself through this evaluation. From the evaluation results, we know that the general trend is agreed with each other from the viewpoint of order of magnitude and that SAEP correctly executes the evaluation of specific activities in the primary coolant of reactor due to fission products for several reactor types, regardless of a reactor type. Therefore, SAEP can widely be applied to the new concept nuclear reactor development phase as well as already developed PWRs

  7. Experimental and theoretical investigations on the behaviour of cracks in primary coolant piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbuch, R.; Bartholome, G.; Felski, N.; Kastner, W.

    1981-01-01

    During the investigations of the government-sponsored R+D programs (RS 104 and RS 320) experimental and theoretical work has been performed to describe the leak before break behaviour and the extent of instable crack growth. The test pipes are 300 mm ID pipes made of 20MnMoNi55. Three of them had been welded to a pressure reservoir to simulate the situation of a real system of piping and components as related to hydrodynamics. The instrumentation of the specimen was designed to describe - temperature and pressure during failure - effect of reservoir on depressurisation - motion of the pipe - leakage area as function of time - crack arrest length. At two experiments the pressure dropped to saturation but in others for a short period the pressure was remarkably lower. (orig./GL)

  8. Analysis of fuel rod behaviour within a rod bundle of a pressurized water reactor under the conditions of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) using probabilistic methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengpiel, W.

    1980-12-01

    The assessment of fuel rod behaviour under PWR LOCA conditions aims at the evaluation of the peak cladding temperatures and the (final) maximum circumferential cladding strains. Moreover, the estimation of the amount of possible coolant channel blockages within a rod bundle is of special interest, as large coplanar clad strains of adjacent rods may result in strong local reductions of coolant channel areas. Coolant channel blockages of large radial extent may impair the long-term coolability of the corresponding rods. A model has been developed to describe these accident consequences using probabilistic methodology. This model is applied to study the behaviour of fuel rods under accident conditions following the double-ended pipe rupture between collant pump and pressure vessel in the primary system of a 1300 MW(el)-PWR. Specifically a rod bundle is considered consisting of 236 fuel rods, that is subjected to severe thermal and mechanical loading. The results obtained indicate that plastic clad deformations with circumferential clad strains of more than 30% cannot be excluded for hot rods of the reference bundle. However, coplanar coolant channel blockages of significant extent seem to be probable within that bundle only under certain boundary conditions which are assumed to be pessimistic. (orig./RW) [de

  9. Theoretical and experimental studies on bellows type expansion joints behaviour of Chinon 3 primary coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrillon, B.; Jeanpierre, F.; Copin, A.; Gregoire, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The vibration study of the bellows was performed in two stages. A series of vibration tests was performed on a real bellow joint. By comparing the experimental results with calculations using the finite elements method for revolution shells it was possible to qualify the representation of the waves and reinforcement rings. The resonant frequencies and modes were calculated for the various joints under reactor conditions. According to the excitation sources considered, the amplitude of the displacements and stresses can be determined from these characteristic modes. The corrugations are protected internally from the aerodynamic effects of the gas flow by an inner sleeve welded to the primary piping upstream and free downstream. The annular space between this sleeve and the corrugations forms a resonant volume liable to be excited by flow-induced pressure fluctuations. It was possible to calculate the characteristic resonance frequencies and modes of this gas column (air at normal temperature and pressure). A full-scale mock-up test under conditions corresponding to the calculation hypotheses gave experimental proof of the calculation results. Owing to the good correlation between the results of these two studies an attempt was made to calculate the acoustical behaviour of these cavities for nominal running conditions (temperature and pressure) as a function of the known excitation sources. The results obtained from all these tests show that the use of bellows type expansion joints on a primary reactor circuit offers the same guarantees of reliability and resistance as any other circuit component under pressure, as long as the strains they undergo remain within the limits specified by the regulations and nuclear codifications

  10. A summary of the assessment of fuel behaviour, fission product release and pressure tube integrity following a postulated large loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langman, V.J.; Weaver, K.R.

    1984-05-01

    The Ontario Hydro analyses of fuel and pressure tube temperatures, fuel behaviour, fission product release and pressure tube integrity for large break loss-of-coolant accidents in Bruce A or Pickering A have been critically reviewed. The determinations of maximum fuel temperatures and fission product release are very uncertain, and pressure tube integrity cannot be assured where low steam flows are predicted to persist for times on the order of minutes

  11. Spectral analysis of coolant activity from a commercial nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swann, J.D.; Lewis, B.J.; Ip, M.

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of a real-time on-line fuel failure monitoring system for the CANDU reactor, actual gamma spectroscopy data files from the gaseous fission product (GFP) monitoring system were acquired from almost four years of operation at a commercial Nuclear Generating Station (NGS). Several spectral analysis techniques were used to process the data files. Radioisotopic activity from the plant information (PI) system was compared to an in-house C++ code that was used to determine the photopeak area and to a separate analysis with commercial software from Canberra-Aptec. These various techniques provided for a calculation of the coolant activity concentration of the noble gas and iodine species in the primary heat transport system. These data were then used to benchmark the Visual DETECT code, a user friendly software tool which can be used to characterize the defective fuel state based on a coolant activity analysis. Acceptable agreement was found with the spectral techniques when compared to the known defective bundle history at the commercial reactor. A more generalized method of assessing the fission product release data was also considered with the development of a pre-processor to evaluate the radioisotopic release rate from mass balance considerations. The release rate provided a more efficient means to characterize the occurrence of a defect and was consistent with the actual defect situation at the power plant as determined from in-bay examination of discharged fuel bundles. (author)

  12. Major activated corrosion products cobalt, silver and antimony in the primary coolant of PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mingxia

    2012-01-01

    The production of the major activated corrosion products such as cobalt, silver and antimony in the primary coolant of PWR power plants and the impacts on the increase of the dose rates caused by these corrosion products during the shutdown are described in the paper. Investigating the corrosion product behavior during the operation and shutdown periods aims at detecting the appearance of these radiological pollutants in the early time and searching relevant solutions that may enable eventually to decrease the dose rate. The solutions may include: Replacing critical material in the primary system's equipment and components, which contact with primary coolant circuit to possibly limit the source term, Elaborating strictly the specific chemical and shutdown procedure to optimize the purification capacity and to minimize the over-contaminations; Improving purification techniques according to the real operation circumstance, and limiting the impacts of these pollutants. It is obvious in the real practices that implementing appropriate solution will be benefit to decrease or limit the pollutants species like cobalt, silver and antimony. (author)

  13. Behaviour of radiation fields in the Spanish PWR by the changes in coolant chemistry and primary system materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llovet, R.; Fernandez Lillo, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Spanish PWR Owners Group established a program to evaluate the behavior of ex-core radiation fields and discriminate the effects of changes in coolant chemistry and primary system materials. Data from Vandellos, Asco, Almaraz and Trillo NPPs were analyzed Vandellos 2 was chosen as the lead plant and its data were thoroughly studied. The dose-rates evolution could be explained at each plant as a consequence of this sucessful program.Actions derived from the developed knowledge on this field have produced the stabilization or even reduction of radiation fields at these plants

  14. Analysis of the behaviour of pressure and temperature of the containment of a PWR reactor, submitted to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.E. da; Arrieta, L.A.J.; Costa, J.R.; Camargo, C.; Santos, C.M. dos; Rochedo, E.R.R.

    1979-12-01

    The main purpose of this work is to analyse the pressure and temperature behaviour of the metalic containment of a PWR building, submitted to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) caused by a double-ended rupture in the main line of the primary circuit. The scope of the study was directed to verify the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) results for the integrity of the metalic containment of the Angra I power plant. The highest containment pressure peak for this unit is expected for a break in the suction line of one of the main pumps of the primary coolant. Using the same input data, our results are very similar to those presented in the FSAR which shows a reasonable equivalence between the two analytical models. Using as input data the results of a previous LOCA study at CNEN, which yields to more conservative boundary conditions than those presented by the FSAR, the pressure and temperature peak values determined by our model are quite larger than those presented by the cited Safety Report. (author) [pt

  15. The analysis of mechanical behaviour of reactor coolant system layout scheme with 60 degree angle for the second phase project of Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Ruhong

    1993-01-01

    For the reactor coolant system of the second phase project of Qinshan NPP, the layout scheme with two loops and an angle of 60 degree is adopted. In this scheme, two loops are connected to reactor pressure vessel (RPV), and the angle included between the inlet and outlet nozzles of the RPV is 60 degree in a same loop. The issues involved in the analysis of mechanical behaviour of piping system to demonstrate the validity of such a scheme are described briefly in the paper, including the modelling technique adopted in establishing mathematical model, the methods used for structural analysis of piping system, stress and fatigue analysis in piping fittings. A brief description of the calculation results are given and the feasibility and rationality are discussed

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of behaviour of boiling water reactor coolant on the basis of solubility in Fe3O4-H2O-O2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarembo, V.I.; Slobodov, A.A.; Kritskij, V.G.; Puchkov, L.V.; Sedov, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    The thermodynamic analysis of the behaviour of boiling water reactor coolant on the basis of solubility in Fe 3 O 4 -H 2 O-O 2 system is performed for the purpose of establishing the iron existence forms in non-sedimentated suspended corrosion product particles as well as iron concentration of corrosion origin in power plants. It is shown that the iron solubility in the considered system with temperature variation occurs through the maximum at 423 K. Below this temperature the crystal Fe(OH) 3 is responsible for its value, at higher temperatures - magnetite. The growth of equilibrium oxygen concentration from 0.1 to 1000 μg/kg H 2 O only slightly increases the magnetite solubility

  17. The behaviour of CAGR moderator and sleeve graphites radiolytically oxidised to high weight loss in inhibited coolant gas compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, P.; Fitzgerald, B.; Ketchen, J.

    1987-01-01

    Gilsocarbon graphites were irradiated to high weight losses in three different CO 2 based coolants. The experimental data is tested against a model which interprets the gas phase chemistry and pore geometry and allows weight loss and gas flow properties to be calculated. The observed changes of oxidation rate with dose were successfully predicted from the model. An empirical relationship was also derived which was shown to fit data for moderator, sleeve and special pore structure graphites. Changes in graphite permeability and diffusivity were predicted by the model, and also by other simplified, more approximate methods. The model based upon the measured transport pore spectrum was shown to be the best with other methods proving adequate to moderate doses. (author)

  18. Thermohydraulic behaviour of the hot channel in a PWR type reactor under loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J.R.

    1978-12-01

    An analysis is done of the core behavior for a 1861 MW(th) pressurized water reactor with two coolant loops, during the blowdown phase of a double-ended cold leg rupture, between the main feedwater pump, and the pressure vessel. The analysis is done through a detailed thermohydraulic study of the hot pin channel with RELAP4/MOD 5 code, including the Evaluatin Model options. The problem is solved separately for two values of discharge coefficient (C sub(D)= 1,0 and 0,4). The results show that the maximum clad temperature is lower than the limit value for licensing purposes. Concerning clad material oxidation, the maximum value obtained is also under the limit of acceptance. (author) [pt

  19. Fundamentals for the development of a low-activation lead coolant with isotopic enrichment for advanced nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorasanov, G.L.; Blokhin, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the prospects of new coolants for fast reactors and accelerator driven systems. The main focus is on their improvement using the isotopic tailoring technique to reduce post-irradiation activity. Calculations using the FISPACT-3 code show that irradiating natural lead (Pb-nat) for 30 years leads to the accumulation of long-lived toxic radionuclides, 207 Bi, 208 Bi and 210 Pb, which extends the cooling down period to the clearance level. This time can be shortened by using the lead isotope 206 Pb instead of Pb-nat. This substantially decreases the concentration of the most toxic polonium isotope, 210 Po. Calculations for lead activation in the hard proton-neutron ADS spectrum were performed using the CASCADE/SNT code. The time-dependent activity of the 207 Bi produced in Pb-nat and 206 Pb after irradiation for one year with a proton beam having an energy of 0.8 GeV and a current of 30 mA is given. The activity of 207 Bi is decreased by four orders of magnitude when 206 Pb is used instead of natural lead as a coolant for ADS targets. The production of such radiotoxic nuclides as 210 Po is also substantially diminished. (author)

  20. Estimation of activity in primary coolant heat exchanger of Apsara reactor after 50 years of reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.K.; Anilkumar, S.; Vajpayee, L.K.; Belhe, M.S.; Yadav, R.K.B.; Deolekar, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    The primary coolant heat exchanger of Apsara Reactor was in operation for 53 years and as a part of partial decommissioning of Apsara Primary Coolant Heat Exchanger (PHEx) was decommissioned and disposed off as active waste. The long lived component deposited in the SS tubes inside the heat exchanger was assessed by taking the scrape samples and in situ gamma spectrometry technique employing NaI(Tl) detector. The data obtained by experimental measurements were validated by Monte Carlo simulation method. From the present studies, it was shown that 137 Cs and 144 Ce as the major isotopes deposited on the SS tube of heat exchanger. In this paper the authors describes the details of the methodology adopted for the assessment of radioactivity content and the results obtained. This give a reliable method to estimate the activity disposed for waste management accounting purpose in a long and heavy reactor component. The upper bound of total activity in PHEx 39.0μCi. (author)

  1. International Space Station Active Thermal Control Sub-System On-Orbit Pump Performance and Reliability Using Liquid Ammonia as a Coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Richard D.; Jurick, Matthew; Roman, Ruben; Adamson, Gary; Bui, Chinh T.; Laliberte, Yvon J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) contains two Active Thermal Control Sub-systems (ATCS) that function by using a liquid ammonia cooling system collecting waste heat and rejecting it using radiators. These subsystems consist of a number of heat exchangers, cold plates, radiators, the Pump and Flow Control Subassembly (PFCS), and the Pump Module (PM), all of which are Orbital Replaceable Units (ORU's). The PFCS provides the motive force to circulate the ammonia coolant in the Photovoltaic Thermal Control Subsystem (PVTCS) and has been in operation since December, 2000. The Pump Module (PM) circulates liquid ammonia coolant within the External Active Thermal Control Subsystem (EATCS) cooling the ISS internal coolant (water) loops collecting waste heat and rejecting it through the ISS radiators. These PM loops have been in operation since December, 2006. This paper will discuss the original reliability analysis approach of the PFCS and Pump Module, comparing them against the current operational performance data for the ISS External Thermal Control Loops.

  2. Behavioural Examination of Activism: Nigerian Women and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we examine the attitudes and behaviour of some women and gender activists to the social change that may result from gender equality when, and if it is achieved. Since it started in the 19th century, gender activism has always focused on the issue of equality between the genders, to the extent that the society ...

  3. Moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godin Gaston

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intention is a key determinant of action. However, there is a gap between intention and behavioural performance that remains to be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control (PBC- behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. Method This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, participated in the study. At baseline, the participants completed a self-administrated psychosocial questionnaire assessing Ajzen's theory variables (i.e., intention and perceived behavioural control. The behavioural measure was obtained by mail three months later. Results Multiple hierarchical regression analyses indicated that age and annual income moderated the intention-behaviour and PBC-behaviour relationships. However, in the final model predicting behaviour (R2 = .46, only the interaction term of PBC by annual income (β = .24, p = 0.0003 significantly contributed to the prediction of behaviour along with intention (β = .49, p = 0.0009 and past behaviour (β = .44, p Conclusion Physical activity promotion programs would benefit not only from focusing on increasing the intention of low intenders, but also from targeting factors that moderate the perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships.

  4. Radiation hazards due to activated corrosion and neutron sputtering products in fusion reactor coolant and tritium breeding fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.C.; Vogelsang, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation of radioactive corrosion and neutron sputtering products on the surfaces of components in fusion reactor coolant and tritium breeding systems can cause significant personnel access problems. Remote maintenance techniques or special treatment may be required to limit the amount of radiation exposure to plant operational and maintenance personnel. A computer code, RAPTOR, has been developed to estimate the transport of this activated material throughout a fusion heat transfer and/or tritium breeding material loop. A method is devised which treats the components of the loop individually and determines the source rates, deposition and erosion rates, decay rates, and purification rates of these radioactive materials. RAPTOR has been applied to the MARS and Starfire conceptual reactor designs to determine the degree of the possible radiation hazard due to these products. Due to the very high corrosion release rate by HT-9 when exposed to LiPb in the MARS reactor design, the radiation fields surrounding the primary system will preclude direct contact maintenance even after shutdown. Even the removal of the radioactive LiPb from the system will not decrease the radiation fields to reasonable levels. The Starfire primary system will exhibit radiation fields similar to those found in present pressurized water reactors. (orig.)

  5. The radionuclides of primary coolant in HANARO and the recent activities performed to reduce the radioactivity or reactor pool water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjin [HANARO Research Reactor Centre, Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    In HANARO reactor, there have been activities to identify the principal radionuclides and to quantify them under the normal operation. The purposes of such activities were to establish the measure by which we can reduce the radioactivity of the reactor pool water and detect, in early stage, the abnormal symptoms due to the leakage of radioactive materials from the irradiation sample or the damage of the nuclear fuel, etc. The typical radionuclides produced by the activation of reactor coolant are N{sup 16} and Ar{sup 41}. The radionuclides produced by the activation of the core structural material consist of Na{sup 24}, Mn{sup 56}, and W{sup 187}. Of the various radionuclides, governing the radiation level at the pool surface are Na{sup 24}, Ar{sup 41}, Mn{sup 58}, and W{sup 187}. By establishing the hot water layer system on the pool surface, we expected that the radionuclides such as Ar{sup 41} and Mn{sup 56} whose half-life are relatively short could be removed to a certain extent. Since the content of radioactivity of Na{sup 24} occupies about 60% of the total radioactivity, we assumed that the total radiation level would be greatly reduced if we could decrease the radiation level of Na{sup 24}. However the actual radiation level has not been reduced as much as we expected. Therefore, some experiments have been carried out to find the actual causes afterwards. What we learned through the experiments are that any disturbance in reactor pool water layer causes increase of the pool surface radiation level and even if we maintain the hot water layer well, reactor shutdown will be very much likely to happen once the hot water layer is disturbed. (author)

  6. Coolant leakage detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takao.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To surely detect the coolant leakage at a time when the leakage amount is still low in the intra-reactor inlet pipeway of FBR type reactor. Constitution: Outside of the intra-reactor inlet piping for introducing coolants at low temperature into a reactor core, an outer closure pipe is furnished. The upper end of the outer closure pipe opens above the liquid level of the coolants in the reactor, and a thermocouple is inserted to the opening of the upper end. In such a structure, if the coolants in the in-reactor piping should leak to the outer closure pipe, coolants over-flows from the opening thereof, at which the thermocouple detects the temperature of the coolants at a low temperature, thereby enabling to detect the leakage of the coolants at a time when it is still low. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Experimental study on cryogenic adsorption of methane by activated carbon for helium coolant purification of High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hua; Wu, Zong-Xin; Jia, Hai-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The cryogenic CH 4 adsorption on activated carbon was studied for design of HTGR. • The breakthrough curves at different conditions were analyzed by the MTZ model. • The CH 4 adsorption isotherm was fitted well by the Toth model and the D-R model. • The work provides valuable reference data for helium coolant purification of HTGR. - Abstract: The cryogenic adsorption behavior of methane on activated carbon was investigated for helium coolant purification of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor by using dynamic column breakthrough method. With helium as carrier gas, experiments were performed at −196 °C and low methane partial pressure range of 0–120 Pa. The breakthrough curves at different superficial velocities and different feed concentrations were measured and analyzed by the mass-transfer zone model. The methane single-component adsorption isotherm was obtained and fitted well by the Toth model and the Dubinin-Radushkevich model. The adsorption heat of methane on activated carbon was estimated. The cryogenic adsorption process of methane on activated carbon has been verified to be effective for helium coolant purification of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor.

  8. HANARO secondary coolant management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Duk.

    1998-02-01

    In this report, the basic theory for management of water quality, environmental factors influencing to the coolant, chemicals and its usage for quality control of coolant are mentioned, and water balance including the loss rate by evaporation (34.3 m 3 /hr), discharge rate (12.665 m 3 /hr), concentration ratio and feed rate (54.1 m 3 /hr) are calculated at 20 MW operation. Also, the analysis data of HANSU Limited for HANARO secondary coolant (feed water and circulating coolant) - turbidity, pH, conductivity, M-alkalinity, Ca-hardness, chloride ion, total iron ion, phosphoric ion and conversion rate are reviewed. It is confirmed that the feed water has good quality and the circulating coolant has been maintained within the control specification in general, but some items exceeded the control specification occasionally. Therefore it is judged that more regular discharge of coolant is needed. (author). 6 refs., 17 tabs., 18 figs

  9. Nuclear reactor coolant channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    Reference is made to coolant channels for pressurised water and boiling water reactors and the arrangement described aims to improve heat transfer between the fuel rods and the coolant. Baffle means extending axially within the channel are provided and disposed relative to the fuel rods so as to restrict flow oscillations occurring within the coolant from being propagated transversely to the axis of the channel. (UK)

  10. Coolant channel module CCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeld, Alois

    2007-01-01

    A complete and detailed description of the theoretical background of an '(1D) thermal-hydraulic drift-flux based mixture-fluid' coolant channel model and its resulting module CCM will be presented. The objective of this module is to simulate as universally as possible the steady state and transient behaviour of the key characteristic parameters of a single- or two-phase fluid flowing within any type of heated or non-heated coolant channel. Due to the possibility that different flow regimes can appear along any channel, such a 'basic (BC)' 1D channel is assumed to be subdivided into a number of corresponding sub-channels (SC-s). Each SC can belong to only two types of flow regime, an SC with just a single-phase fluid, containing exclusively either sub-cooled water or superheated steam, or an SC with a two-phase mixture flow. After an appropriate nodalisation of such a BC (and therefore also its SC-s) a 'modified finite volume method' has been applied for the spatial discretisation of the partial differential equations (PDE-s) which represent the basic conservation equations of thermal-hydraulics. Special attention had to be given to the possibility of variable SC entrance or outlet positions (which describe boiling boundaries or mixture levels) and thus the fact that an SC can even disappear or be created anew. The procedure yields for each SC type (and thus the entire BC), a set of non-linear ordinary 1st order differential equations (ODE-s). To link the resulting mean nodal with the nodal boundary function values, both of which are present in the discretised differential equations, a special quadratic polygon approximation procedure (PAX) had to be constructed. Together with the very thoroughly tested packages for drift-flux, heat transfer and single- and two-phase friction factors this procedure represents the central part of the here presented 'Separate-Region' approach, a theoretical model which provides the basis to the very effective working code package CCM

  11. Travel behaviour and the total activity pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, A.I.J.M.

    1979-01-01

    the past years the behavioural basis of travel demand models has been considerably extended. In many cases individual behaviour is taken as the starting point of the analysis. Conventional aggregate models have been complemented by disaggregate models. However, even in most disaggregate models there

  12. Potential for low fracture toughness and lamellar tearing on PWR steam generator and reactor coolant pump supports. Resolution of generic technical activity A-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snaider, R.P.; Hodge, J.M.; Levin, H.A.; Zudans, J.J.

    1979-10-01

    This report summarizes work performed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff and its contractor, Sandia Laboratories, in the resolution of Generic Technical Activity A-12, ''Potential for Low Fracture Toughness and Lamellar Tearing in PWR Steam Generator and Reactor Coolant Pump Supports.'' The report describes the technical issues, the technical studies performed by Sandia describes the technical issues, the technical studies performed by Sandia Laboratories, the NRC staff's technical positions based on these studies, and the staff's plan for implementing its technical positions. It also provides recommendations for further work. The complete technical input from Sandia Laboratories is appended to the report

  13. Calculation of activity concentration and dose rates from online radioactivity measurement in primary coolant channel of TAPS-III and IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhury, Sanhita; Agarwal, Chhavi; Goswami, A.; Mhatre, Amol; Chaturvedi, T.P.; Tawde, N.; Gathibandhe, Manohar; Dash, S.C.

    2011-05-01

    Radioactivity measurement using CdZnTe detector and dose measurement using teletector were done at several locations of primary heat transport (PHT) system of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station-III and IV reactor during shut down as well as operating condition of the reactors. The detector efficiency for the required counting geometry was simulated using MCNP code. Using this simulated efficiency and the experimental count rate (cps), the activity concentrations (Bq/mL) of different radionuclides in coolant water were calculated. The dose rates for the counted locations were also simulated using Monte Carlo code and it matched well with the experimentally obtained dose rate. (author)

  14. Evaluation of CNA I coolant channel behaviour during an accidental transient using ICARE2 V2 mod2.3 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Edgardo J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Using the input data language of ICARE2 V2 Mod.3 code, the fuel element and coolant channel assembly of CNA I type was described. This input data was utilized to analyze the system behavior and determine the degradation produced during a hypothetical accidental transient at CNA I. The boundary conditions were determined through a previous calculation with RELAP5/MOD 3.2 code. The results had shown characteristic degradation phenomena's. The temperature of bundle components increases fast after 6.11 h in the first case and 5.28 h in the second case, due to the energy release by cladding oxidation. It was correlated with instantaneous hydrogen production and energy contribution. The cumulated hydrogen production was estimated as 0.15 Kg in the first case and ∼ 5 times greater in the second case. Fission product release from the gap due to cladding rupture took place from 6.25 h in the first case and 5.65 h in the second. Relocation started after 6.81 h in the first case and 5.68 in the second, because the cladding dislocation condition is reached. UO 2 dissolution by molten Zircaloy was observed at different levels in the calculation domain. (author)

  15. Heat and fluid flow in accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3. Behaviour of high pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) based on thermodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Shigenao

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the process of Accident of Fukushima Nuclear Plants, an accident scenario of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3 is analyzed from the data open to the public. Phase equilibrium process model was introduced in which the vapor and water are at saturation point in the vessels. The present accident scenario assumes that the high pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) did not worked properly, but the steam in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) leaked through the turbine of HPCI to the suppression chamber since 12/3/2011 12:35. It is assumed that the Tsunami flooded the torus room where the suppression chamber was placed. Proposed accident scenario agrees with the data of the plant parameters obtained just after the accident. It is estimated that the water injection by HPIC was stopped since around at 13/3 19:00 and the water level in RPV decreased since then. It is estimated that the RPV broke at 14/3 8:55 and water could injected from fire engines due to the depression due to the rupture of RPV. There was little water left in RPV at the time of the rupture. If the present scenario is correct, the behavior that operators in the plant stopped HPCI at 13/3 2:42 did not affect seriously on the RPV rupture. If HPCI was working properly until the operators stopped it, the plant parameters obtained in the accident cannot be explained. (author)

  16. Coolant cleanup method in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Masayoshi; Nishimura, Shigeoki; Takahashi, Sankichi; Izumi, Kenkichi; Motojima, Kenji.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose : To effectively adsorb to remove low molecular weight organic substances from iron exchange resins for use in the removal of various radioactive nucleides contained in reactor coolants. Method : Reactor coolants are recycled by a main recyling pump in a nuclear reactor and a portion of the coolants is cooled and, thereafter, purified in a coolant desalter. While on the other hand, high pressure steams generated from the reactor are passed through a turbine, cooled in a condensator, eliminated with claddings or the likes by the passage through a filtration desalter using powderous ion exchange resins and then further passed through a desalter (filled with granular ion exchange resins). For instance, an adsorption and removing device for organic substances (resulted through the decomposition of ion exchange resins) precoated with activated carbon powder or filled with granular activated carbon is disposed at the downstream for each of the desalters. In this way, the organic substances in the coolants are eliminated to prevent the reduction in the desalting performance of the ion exchange resins caused by the formation of complexes between organic substances and cobalt in the coolants, etc. In this way, the coolant cleanup performance is increased and the amount of wasted ion exchange resins can be decreased. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Classifying Transition Behaviour in Postural Activity Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James BRUSEY

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A few accelerometers positioned on different parts of the body can be used to accurately classify steady state behaviour, such as walking, running, or sitting. Such systems are usually built using supervised learning approaches. Transitions between postures are, however, difficult to deal with using posture classification systems proposed to date, since there is no label set for intermediary postures and also the exact point at which the transition occurs can sometimes be hard to pinpoint. The usual bypass when using supervised learning to train such systems is to discard a section of the dataset around each transition. This leads to poorer classification performance when the systems are deployed out of the laboratory and used on-line, particularly if the regimes monitored involve fast paced activity changes. Time-based filtering that takes advantage of sequential patterns is a potential mechanism to improve posture classification accuracy in such real-life applications. Also, such filtering should reduce the number of event messages needed to be sent across a wireless network to track posture remotely, hence extending the system’s life. To support time-based filtering, understanding transitions, which are the major event generators in a classification system, is a key. This work examines three approaches to post-process the output of a posture classifier using time-based filtering: a naïve voting scheme, an exponentially weighted voting scheme, and a Bayes filter. Best performance is obtained from the exponentially weighted voting scheme although it is suspected that a more sophisticated treatment of the Bayes filter might yield better results.

  18. Periodic activations of behaviours and emotional adaptation in behaviour-based robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burattini, Ernesto; Rossi, Silvia

    2010-09-01

    The possible modulatory influence of motivations and emotions is of great interest in designing robotic adaptive systems. In this paper, an attempt is made to connect the concept of periodic behaviour activations to emotional modulation, in order to link the variability of behaviours to the circumstances in which they are activated. The impact of emotion is studied, described as timed controlled structures, on simple but conflicting reactive behaviours. Through this approach it is shown that the introduction of such asynchronies in the robot control system may lead to an adaptation in the emergent behaviour without having an explicit action selection mechanism. The emergent behaviours of a simple robot designed with both a parallel and a hierarchical architecture are evaluated and compared.

  19. The sodium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    2004-01-01

    The sodium is the best appropriate coolant for the fast neutrons reactors technology. Thus the fast neutrons reactors development is intimately bound to the sodium technology. This document presents the sodium as a coolant point of view: atomic structure and characteristics, sodium impacts on the fast neutron reactors technology, chemical properties of the sodium and the consequences, quality control in a nuclear reactor, sodium treatment. (A.L.B.)

  20. Nuclear reactor coolant channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear reactor coolant channel is described that is suitable for sub-cooled reactors as in pressurised water reactors as well as for bulk boiling, as in boiling water reactors and steam generating nuclear reactors. The arrangement aims to improve heat transfer between the fuel elements and the coolant. Full constructional details are given. See also other similar patents by the author. (U.K.)

  1. Extended Life Coolant Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 06-06-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Interim Report 3. DATES COVERED ... Corrosion Testing of Traditional and Extended Life Coolants 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Hansen, Gregory A. T...providing vehicle specific coolants. Several laboratory corrosion tests were performed according to ASTM D1384 and D2570, but with a 2.5x extended time

  2. Can the theory of planned behaviour predict the physical activity behaviour of individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Nicola; Dixon, Diane; Johnston, Marie; Howie, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can identify cognitions that predict differences in behaviour between individuals. However, it is not clear whether the TPB can predict the behaviour of an individual person. This study employs a series of n-of-1 studies and time series analyses to examine the ability of the TPB to predict physical activity (PA) behaviours of six individuals. Six n-of-1 studies were conducted, in which TPB cognitions and up to three PA behaviours (walking, gym workout and a personally defined PA) were measured twice daily for six weeks. Walking was measured by pedometer step count, gym attendance by self-report with objective validation of gym entry and the personally defined PA behaviour by self-report. Intra-individual variability in TPB cognitions and PA behaviour was observed in all participants. The TPB showed variable predictive utility within individuals and across behaviours. The TPB predicted at least one PA behaviour for five participants but had no predictive utility for one participant. Thus, n-of-1 designs and time series analyses can be used to test theory in an individual.

  3. Research on coolant radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon, Jei Won; Kim, W. H.; Park, Y. J.; Im, J. K.; Jung, Y. J.; Jee, K. Y.; Choi, K. C.

    2004-04-01

    The final objective of this study is to develop the technology on the reduction of radioactive material formed in reactor coolant circuit. The contents of this study are composed of the simulation of primary cooling system, chemistry measurement technology in the high-temperature high-pressure environments, and coolant chemistry control technology. The main results are as follows; High-temperature and high-pressure loop system was designed and fabricated, which is to inducing CRUD growth condition on the surface of cladding. The high-temperature pH measurement system was established with YSZ sensing electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The performance of pH electrode was confirmed in the temperature range 200∼280 .deg. C. Coolant chemistry control technologies such as the neutron irradiation technique of boric acid solution, the evaluation on high-temperature electrochemical behavior of coolant, and the measurement of physicochemical properties of micro-particles were developed. The results of this study can be useful for the understanding of chemical phenomena occurred in reactor coolant and for the study on the reduction of radioactive material in primary coolant, which will be carried out in the next research stage

  4. Dilatational behaviour of ZrNb1 fuel cans of a WWER-type reactor during a loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, E.; Stephan, M.; Wetzel, L.

    1987-01-01

    Based on an assessment of various factors of influence on the performance of fuel cans during normal operation and imaginable accidents, the necessity of studying creep and burst behaviour of WWER-type fuel cans of ZrNb1 under simulated LOCA conditions has been proved and an experimental facility designed for this purpose is described. Control of fuel can temperature is accomplished through a minicomputer during the creep and bursts experiments. With this, various temperature loading profiles of the fuel cans can be realized. Experimental results on dilatational behaviour of ZrNb1 fuel cans from isothermal creep and burst experiments in air are presented and compared with values for Zircaloy. (author)

  5. Coolant leakage detecting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Katsunori; Ishihara, Yoshinao.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention judges an amount of leakage of primary coolants of a PWR power plant at high speed. Namely, a mass of coolants contained in a pressurizer, a volume controlling tank and loop regions is obtained based on a preset relational formula and signals of each of process amount, summed up to determine the total mass of coolants for every period of time. The amount of leakage for every period of time is calculated by a formula of Karman's filter based on the total mass of the primary coolants for every predetermined period of time, and displays it on CRT. The Karman's filter is formed on every formula for several kinds of states formed based on the preset amount of the leakage, to calculate forecasting values for every mass of coolants. An adaptable probability for every preset leakage amount is determined based on the difference between the forecast value and the observed value and the scattering thereof. The adaptable probability is compared with a predetermined threshold value, which is displayed on the CRT. This device enables earlier detection of leakage and identification of minute leakage amount as compared with the prior device. (I.S.)

  6. Reactor coolant cleanup device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Noboru.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to introduce reactor water at high temperature and high pressure as it is, as well as effectively adsorb to eliminate cobalt in reactor water. Constitution: The coolant cleanup device comprises a vessel main body inserted to coolant pipeway circuits in a water cooled reactor power plant and filters contained within the vessel main body. The filters are prepared by coating and baking powder of metal oxides such as manganese ferrite having a function capable of adsorbing cobalt in the coolants onto the surface of supports made of metals or ceramics resistant to strong acids and alkalies in the form of three-dimensional network structure, for example, zircaloy-2, SUS 303 and the zirconia (baking) to form a basic filter elements. The basic filter elements are charged in plurality to the vessel main body. (Kawaiami, Y.)

  7. Patterns of adolescent physical activity and dietary behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Atkin, Andrew J; Biddle, Stuart JH; Gorely, Trish; Edwardson, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Background The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys). Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption. The prevalence of adolescents meeting the physical activity (≥ 60 minutes moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day), fruit and vegetable (≥ 5 portions of FV per day) and breakfast recommendations (eating breakfast on ≥ 5 days per week), and clustering patterns of these health behaviours are described. Results Boys were more active than girls (p < 0.001) and younger adolescents were more active than older adolescents (p < 0.01). Boys ate breakfast on more days per week than girls (p < 0.01) and older adolescents ate more fruit and vegetables than younger adolescents (p < 0.01). Almost 54% of adolescents had multiple risk behaviours and only 6% achieved all three of the recommendations. Girls had significantly more risk factors than boys (p < 0.01). For adolescents with two risk behaviours, the most prevalent cluster was formed by not meeting the physical activity and fruit and vegetable recommendations. Conclusion Many adolescents fail to meet multiple diet and physical activity recommendations, highlighting that physical activity and dietary behaviours do not occur in isolation. Future research should investigate how best to achieve multiple health behaviour change in adolescent boys and girls. PMID:19624822

  8. Coolant system decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anstine, L.D.; James, D.B.; Melaika, E.A.; Peterson, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution is described. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution. (author)

  9. Patterns of adolescent physical activity and dietary behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorely Trish

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys. Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption. The prevalence of adolescents meeting the physical activity (≥ 60 minutes moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day, fruit and vegetable (≥ 5 portions of FV per day and breakfast recommendations (eating breakfast on ≥ 5 days per week, and clustering patterns of these health behaviours are described. Results Boys were more active than girls (p Conclusion Many adolescents fail to meet multiple diet and physical activity recommendations, highlighting that physical activity and dietary behaviours do not occur in isolation. Future research should investigate how best to achieve multiple health behaviour change in adolescent boys and girls.

  10. Research on Coolant Radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Yeong Keong; Kim, W. H.; Yeon, J. W.; Jung, Y. J.; Choi, K. C.; Choi, K. S.; Park, Y. J.; Cho, Y. H.

    2007-06-01

    The final objective of this study is to develop a method for reducing radioactive materials formed in the reactor coolant circuit. This second stage research was categorized into the following three subgroups: the development of the estimation technique of microscopic chemical variation at high temperatures and pressures, the fundamental study on the thermodynamics at high temperatures and pressures, and the study on the deposition of metal oxides and the determination of the main factors responsible for the growth of CRUD. First, in the development of the estimation technique of microscopic chemical change at high temperatures and pressures, the technique for measuring coolant chemistry such as pH, conductivity and Eh was developed to be appropriate for the high temperature and pressure condition. The coolant chemistry measuring system including the self-devised high temperature pH sensor can be applied to the field of nuclear reactor and contribute on a large scale in the automation of the coolant chemistry control and the establishment of the real-time on-line measuring technique. Secondly, the dissociation constant of water and the solubility of metal oxides were measured in the fundamental study on the thermodynamics at high temperatures and pressures. Finally, in the study on the deposition of metal oxides and the determination of the main factors responsible for the growth of CRUD, the careful investigation of the deposition phenomena of micro particles on the cladding surface showed that subcooled boiling and the dissolved hydrogen are the main factors responsible for the growth of CRUD. In addition, the basis was provided for the construction of a new particle behavior model in the reactor coolant circuit

  11. Active Inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl

    2015-11-01

    We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a synthesis these classical processes and cast them as successive hierarchical contextualisations of sensorimotor constructs, using the generative models that underpin Active Inference. This dissolves any apparent mechanistic distinction between the optimization processes that mediate classical control or learning. Furthermore, we generalize the scope of Active Inference by emphasizing interoceptive inference and homeostatic regulation. The ensuing homeostatic (or allostatic) perspective provides an intuitive explanation for how priors act as drives or goals to enslave action, and emphasises the embodied nature of inference. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramics containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramic materials produced with two different processes is studied. Hot pressing process and conventional casting and controlled crystallization process were used to produce bio-active ceramics. Fracture toughness of studied material was calculated by fracture ...

  13. Behavioural effects of chemogenetic dopamine neuron activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoudt, L

    2016-01-01

    Various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depressive disorder, have been associated with altered dopamine signalling in the brain. However, it remains unclear which specific changes in dopamine activity are related to specific

  14. Compartmentalized safety coolant injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    A safety coolant injection system for nuclear reactors wherein a core reflood tank is provided to afford more reliable reflooding of the reactor core in the event of a break in one of the reactor coolant supply loops. Each reactor coolant supply loop is arranged in a separate compartment in the containment structure to contain and control the flow of spilled coolant so as to permit its use during emergency core cooling procedures. A spillway allows spilled coolant in the compartment to pass into the emergency water storage tank from where it can be pumped back to the reactor vessel. (author)

  15. Measuring physical activity and sedentary behaviour at work: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Retamal, Marcelo; Hinckson, Erica A

    2011-01-01

    To identify methods used to assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour at the workplace and review the validity and reliability of these measures. Databases were searched for relevant published articles including MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, ProQuest and Google Scholar. Keywords used were physical-activity, workplace, sedentary-behaviour, measurement and questionnaire. Studies included were original, written in English, published between 1990 and 2009, and focused on validated physical activity and sedentary behaviour measures at work. Eleven papers were identified in which three used criterion standards, three objective measures, and five subjective measures. The most common method of data collection was through self-report, surveys or questionnaires. Physical activity measured with motion sensors, ranged from 4,422 to 10,334 steps/day (pedometers) and sedentary time ranged from 1.8 to 6 hours/day (h/d) (accelerometers). Self-report measures provided information relevant to the perception of physical activity at work (∼ 0.5 h/d), sitting time (> 3 h/d) and calculated energy expenditure (< 800 kcal/d). Physical activity levels at work were low while sedentary behaviour was high. This was largely a function of occupation (white-collar vs. blue-collar). None of the studies assessed validity or reliability of measures used however, instruments as assessed by others showed moderate to strong validity and reliability values.

  16. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  17. Ageing behaviour of [(n-1)/n] active redundancy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Ageing of systems becomes a real concern if intelligent maintenance is required. Determining the ageing behaviour of a system necessitate having a powerful calculating tool and knowing the ageing behaviour of the basic components of the systems. Consequently, time dependent failure rates are required for basic components and need to be determined for systems. As, this is the general problem in reliability analysis, only (n-1)/n active redundancy system will be examined in the paper. Systems with (n-1)/n active redundancy are commonly used in a wide range of engineering fields. This should permit a priori improving the system reliability. Still, a deeper analysis of the ageing behaviour of such systems may reveal some particular aspects. (authors). 2 refs., 5 figs

  18. Normalizing the maximum permissible seal failure of the fuel cladding of VVER and the activity of the fission products in the coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzanova, L.M.; Miglo, V.N.; Slavyagin, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    In most countries developing a nuclear power industry based on pressurized water reactors, one of the conditions for issuing a license under normal operating conditions for issuing a license stipulates that the fuel elements may not lose their hermetic seal either under normal operating conditions or during presumable disturbances of the conditions of normal use. At a conference on radiation safety the ALARA principle was taken to be fundamental, it being attempted to keep the activity of the coolant of the primary circuit, including the fission products emerging from unsealed fuel elements, to a level as low as reasonably possible. As many years of experience in the nuclear power industry have shown, nuclear power stations are in many cases operated with nonhermetic fuel elements in the core. Therefore, from the point of view of safety and economy, the best way to operate a power plant is to try to ensure maximum burnup of the fuel of the unsealed elements as they operate within the limits of safe activity of the fission products in the fuel circuits

  19. Simulation of a loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    An essential component of nuclear safety activities is the analysis of postulated accidents which are taken as a design basis for a facility. This analysis is usually carried out by using complex computer codes to simulate the behaviour of the plant and to calculate vital plant parameters, which are then compared with the design limits. Since these simulations cannot be verified at the plant itself, computer codes must be validated by comparing the results of calculations with experimental data obtained in test facilities. With this objective in mind, the Central Research Institute for Physics (CRIP) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences designed and constructed the PMK-NVH (Paks Model Circuit) test facility, a scaled down model of the WWER-440 Paks nuclear power plant. Hungary with the aim of strengthening the international co-operation on nuclear safety, made the PMK-NVH facility available to the IAEA to conduct a standard problem exercise. In this exercise, experimental data from the simulation of a 7.4% break loss of coolant accident were compared with analytical predictions of the behaviour of the facility calculated with computer codes. This document presents a complete overview of the Standard Problem Exercise, including description of the facility, the experiment, the codes and models used by the participants and a detailed intercomparison of calculated and experimental results. It is recognized that code assessment is a long process which involves many inter-related steps, therefore, no general conclusion on optimum code or best model was reached. However, the exercise was recognized as an important contributor to code validation

  20. The sorption behaviour of 99Tc on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Deying; Zeng Jishu

    2004-01-01

    The sorption behaviour of 99 Tc on apricot-pit activated carbon with batch experiment is studied. The influence of such factors as sorbent particle size, temperature, pH value on sorption ratio, and the Freundlich sorption isotherms are reported in this paper. (author)

  1. Activity budgets on social and reproductive behaviour of olive baboons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the activity budgets on social interactions and reproductive behaviour of olive baboon (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti ... Results of polyspecific association shows that the baboons spent 14.29% of the time in association with red flanked duikers, 14.29% with black-and-white ...

  2. Some activities at CEA related to behaviour of core internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrequin, P.

    1998-01-01

    Eighteen transparencies where presented, elaborating some activities at CEA related to behaviour of core internals. After some introduction, ten of the transparencies are essentially a copy of the table of contents of the AMES report no. 11 (report no: EUR 17694 EN). The remaining 6 foils concerned themselves with irradiation experiments in test reactors, namely the IDAHO, CASIMIR and ALEXANDRA experiments

  3. Leak detection device for reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Koichiro.

    1990-01-01

    In a light water cooled reactor, if reactor coolants are leaked from pipelines in a pipeline chamber, activated products (N-16) are diffused together to an atmosphere in the pipeline chamber. N-16 is sucked from an extracting tube which is always sucking the atmosphere in the pipeline chamber to a sucking blower. Then, β-rays released from N-16 are monitored by a radiation monitor in a measuring chamber which is radiation-shielded from the pipeline chamber. Accordingly, since the radiation monitor can detect even slight leakage, the slight leakage of reactor coolants in the pipelines can be detected at an early stage. (I.N.)

  4. Recreational Activities to Reduce Behavioural Symptoms in Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolanowski, Ann; Fick, Donna M.; Buettner, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Few clinicians have an educational grounding in the use of nonpharmacological therapies for people with dementia. In this article, we explore the utility of recreational activities as one nonpharmacological intervention that has demonstrated effectiveness for reducing the behavioural symptoms of dementia. The implementation of effective recreational activities involves three components: understanding the evidence for this approach; acknowledging the need to reduce medications that have the potential to interfere with activity effectiveness; and individualizing activities so that the maximum benefit from the intervention is obtained. PMID:20046903

  5. Fission product release into the primary coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apperson, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    The analytic evaluation of steady state primary coolant activity is discussed. The reported calculations account for temperature dependent fuel failure in two particle types and arbitrary radioactive decay chains. A matrix operator technique implemented in the SUVIUS code is used to solve the simultaneous equations. Results are compared with General Atomic Company's published results

  6. Improving Coolant Effectiveness through Drill Design Optimization in Gundrilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, K. S.; Tnay, G. L.; Rahman, M.

    2018-05-01

    Effective coolant application is essential to prevent thermo-mechanical failures of gun drills. This paper presents a novel study that enhances coolant effectiveness in evacuating chips from the cutting zone using a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method. Drag coefficients and transport behaviour over a wide range of Reynold numbers were first established through a series of vertical drop tests. With these, a CFD model was then developed and calibrated with a set of horizontal drilling tests. Using this CFD model, critical drill geometries that lead to poor chip evacuation including the nose grind contour, coolant hole configuration and shoulder dub-off angle in commercial gun drills are identified. From this study, a new design that consists a 20° inner edge, 15° outer edge, 0° shoulder dub-off and kidney-shaped coolant channel is proposed and experimentally proven to be more superior than all other commercial designs.

  7. The associations between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Carol; Lewis, Lucy; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Dumuid, Dot; Cassidy, Leah; Olds, Tim

    2016-12-01

    To examine the relationships between children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behaviours, and academic performance. This study investigated cross-sectional relationships between children's accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns, and academic performance using a standardised, nationally-administered academic assessment. A total of 285 Australian children aged 9-11 years from randomly selected schools undertook 7-day 24h accelerometry to objectively determine their MVPA and sedentary behaviour. In the same year, they completed nationally-administered standardised academic testing (National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy; NAPLAN). BMI was measured, and socio-demographic variables were collected in a parent-reported survey. Relationships between MVPA, sedentary behaviour and academic performance across five domains were examined using Generalised Linear Mixed Models, adjusted for a wide variety of socio-demographic variables. Higher academic performance was strongly and consistently related to higher sedentary time, with significant relationships seen across all five academic domains (range F=4.13, p=0.04 through to F=18.65, p=academic performance was only related to higher MVPA in two academic domains (writing F=5.28, p=0.02, and numeracy F=6.28, p=0.01) and was not related to language, reading and spelling performance. Findings highlight that sedentary behaviour can have positive relationships with non-physical outcomes. Positive relationships between MVPA and literacy and numeracy, as well as the well documented benefits for MVPA on physical and social health, suggest that it holds an important place in children's lives, both in and outside of school. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dual coolant blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Schleisiek, K.

    1994-11-01

    A self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket with helium-cooled first wall ('Dual Coolant Blanket Concept') for a fusion DEMO reactor is described. This is one of the four blanket concepts under development in the frame of the European fusion technology program with the aim to select in 1995 the two most promising ones for further development. Described are the design of the blankets including the ancillary loop system and the results of the theoretical and experimental work in the fields of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, thermohydraulics, mechanical stresses, compatibility and purification of lead-lithium, tritium control, safety, reliability, and electrically insulating coatings. The remaining open questions and the required R and D programme are identified. (orig.) [de

  9. Design of automotive engine coolant hoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrishikesh D BACHCHHAV

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are present the performance of engine coolant hoses (radiator hoses used in passenger cars by checking various physical behaviours such as hose leakage, hose burst, hose collapse or any mechanical damage as studied-thru design guidelines, CFD analysis and product validation testing and also check pressure drop of the hoses when engine will be running. The design term is more likely used for technical part modelling using CAD tool. Later on, we will focus on the transformation of the part design to process design. The process design term is more likely used for "tooling design" for manufacturing of the product using CAD Tool. Then inlet hose carries coolant from engine to radiator inlet tank, then coolant circulated in radiator and passed through radiator outlet tank to water pump of engine with the help of outlet hose. After that …nding any leakage, Burst, damage or collapse of hose and pressure drop of the hose with the help of design checklist, CFD Analysis and product validation testing.

  10. Heterosexual sexual behaviour in a sample of homosexually active men.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, R; Hart, G; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Dawson, J

    1989-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty six homosexually active men were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. Thirty two per cent had homosexual passive anal sex in the previous month and 60% in the year before interview. Anal sex and unprotected anal sex were more common with regular than non-regular partners. Heterosexual sex was reported by 4% of men in the last month and 10% for the last year. Sixteen per cent of heterosexually active men reported anal sex with a female partner...

  11. The development of a model to study the thermal behaviour of the coolant in the blind elements of a fast sodium-cooled breeder in the case of a severe hypothetical accident during the initial phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genter, G.

    1981-03-01

    The enthalpy level of the coolant is studied in the interior of gaps and special elements of a fast sodium coded breeder reactor during the initial and the final stages of a hypothetical accident. For this purpose numerical models are presented to calculate the heat transport in the special element on the basis of heat conduction and axial convection. (orig./RW) [de

  12. Reactor water chemistry relevant to coolant-cladding interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The report is a summary of the work performed in a frame of a Coordinated Research Program organized by the IAEA and carried out from 1981 till 1986. It consists of a survey on our knowledge on coolant-cladding interaction: the basic phenomena, the relevant parameters, their control and the modelling techniques implemented for their assessment. Based upon the results of this Coordinated Research Program, the following topics are reviewed on the report: role of water chemistry in reliable operation of nuclear power plants; water chemistry specifications and their control; behaviour of fuel cladding materials; corrosion product behaviour and crud build-up in reactor circuits; modelling of corrosion product behaviour. This report should be of interest to water chemistry supervisors at the power plants, to experts in utility engineering departments, to fuel designers, to R and D institutes active in the field and to the consultants of these organizations. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 3 papers included in the Annex of this document. Refs, figs, tabs

  13. Agent-based Simulation of Reactive, Pro-active, and Social Animal Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Mira, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active and social behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DESIRE and

  14. Clustering and phase behaviour of attractive active particles with hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Ricard Matas; Fielding, Suzanne M

    2015-10-14

    We simulate clustering, phase separation and hexatic ordering in a monolayered suspension of active squirming disks subject to an attractive Lennard-Jones-like pairwise interaction potential, taking hydrodynamic interactions between the particles fully into account. By comparing the hydrodynamic case with counterpart simulations for passive and active Brownian particles, we elucidate the relative roles of self-propulsion, interparticle attraction, and hydrodynamic interactions in determining clustering and phase behaviour. Even in the presence of an attractive potential, we find that hydrodynamic interactions strongly suppress the motility induced phase separation that might a priori have been expected in a highly active suspension. Instead, we find only a weak tendency for the particles to form stringlike clusters in this regime. At lower activities we demonstrate phase behaviour that is broadly equivalent to that of the counterpart passive system at low temperatures, characterized by regimes of gas-liquid, gas-solid and liquid-solid phase coexistence. In this way, we suggest that a dimensionless quantity representing the level of activity relative to the strength of attraction plays the role of something like an effective non-equilibrium temperature, counterpart to the (dimensionless) true thermodynamic temperature in the passive system. However there are also some important differences from the equilibrium case, most notably with regards the degree of hexatic ordering, which we discuss carefully.

  15. Pro-active Behaviour in Context of Team Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Pilař

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Employees are considered to be the main source of creativity, innovation, change and development of the enterprise, which can be considered as key success factors. However, if the company climate does not encourage employee activity, development may slow or stagnate. This article focuses on the possibility of prediction of personal initiative and employee silence based on quantification of the team climate. Relationships between constructs (1 “Team climate” and (2 “Pro-active Behaviour” are evaluated on the basis of Exploratory and Confirmatory factor analysis. All factors of the construct “Team climate”: (T1 Future olrientation, (T2 Peer support of change, (T3 Team Vision and (T4 Regular Contact, have a significant impact on the factors of the construct “Pro-active Behaviour”: (P1 Initiative and a negative impact on (P2 Defence silence. No statistically significant effect in relation to the factors (P3 Loyalty and (P4 Stagnation was identified. The effects, in relation to the initiative of the employees were identified in the interval r = |0.305| − |0.488|. The factor of Defence silence of employees effects “Team climate” factors in the interval r = |0.329| − |0.550|. In both cases this concerns medium dependence. The research results can be used to quantify the quality of team climate in order to enhance the individuals’ long-term initiative and organisational effectiveness. This knowledge serves managers as the basis for leadership and development of pro-active behaviour of team members.

  16. Liquid argon as active shielding and coolant for bare germanium detectors. A novel background suppression method for the GERDA 0νββ experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiffer, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Two of the most important open questions in particle physics are whether neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles) as required by most extensions of the StandardModel and the absolute values of the neutrino masses. The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay, which can be investigated using 76 Ge (a double beta isotope), is the most sensitive probe for these properties. There is a claim for an evidence for the 0νββ decay in the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM) 76 Ge experiment by a part of the HdM collaboration. The new 76 Ge experiment Gerda aims to check this claim within one year with 15 kg.y of statistics in Phase I at a background level of ≤10 -2 events/(kg.keV.y) and to go to higher sensitivity with 100 kg.y of statistics in Phase II at a background level of ≤10 -3 events/(kg.keV.y). In Gerda bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in 76 Ge) will be operated in liquid argon (LAr). LAr serves as cryogenic coolant and as high purity shielding against external background. To reach the background level for Phase II, new methods are required to suppress the cosmogenic background of the diodes. The background from cosmogenically produced 60 Co is expected to be ∝2.5.10 -3 events/(kg.keV.y). LAr scintillates in UV (λ=128 nm) and a novel concept is to use this scintillation light as anti-coincidence signal for background suppression. In this work the efficiency of such a LAr scintillation veto was investigated for the first time. In a setup with 19 kg active LAr mass a suppression of a factor 3 has been achieved for 60 Co and a factor 17 for 232 Th around Q ββ = 2039 keV. This suppression will further increase for a one ton active volume (factor O(100) for 232 Th and 60 Co). LAr scintillation can also be used as a powerful tool for background diagnostics. For this purpose a new, very stable and robust wavelength shifter/reflector combination for the light detection has been developed, leading to a photo electron (pe) yield of as much as

  17. Liquid argon as active shielding and coolant for bare germanium detectors. A novel background suppression method for the GERDA 0{nu}{beta}{beta} experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiffer, J.P.

    2007-07-25

    Two of the most important open questions in particle physics are whether neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles) as required by most extensions of the StandardModel and the absolute values of the neutrino masses. The neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay, which can be investigated using {sup 76}Ge (a double beta isotope), is the most sensitive probe for these properties. There is a claim for an evidence for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay in the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM) {sup 76}Ge experiment by a part of the HdM collaboration. The new {sup 76}Ge experiment Gerda aims to check this claim within one year with 15 kg.y of statistics in Phase I at a background level of {<=}10{sup -2} events/(kg.keV.y) and to go to higher sensitivity with 100 kg.y of statistics in Phase II at a background level of {<=}10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). In Gerda bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in {sup 76}Ge) will be operated in liquid argon (LAr). LAr serves as cryogenic coolant and as high purity shielding against external background. To reach the background level for Phase II, new methods are required to suppress the cosmogenic background of the diodes. The background from cosmogenically produced {sup 60}Co is expected to be {proportional_to}2.5.10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). LAr scintillates in UV ({lambda}=128 nm) and a novel concept is to use this scintillation light as anti-coincidence signal for background suppression. In this work the efficiency of such a LAr scintillation veto was investigated for the first time. In a setup with 19 kg active LAr mass a suppression of a factor 3 has been achieved for {sup 60}Co and a factor 17 for {sup 232}Th around Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} = 2039 keV. This suppression will further increase for a one ton active volume (factor O(100) for {sup 232}Th and {sup 60}Co). LAr scintillation can also be used as a powerful tool for background diagnostics. For this purpose a new, very stable and robust wavelength

  18. Secondary coolant purification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiteler, F.Z.; Donohue, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention combines the attributes of volatile chemical addition, continuous blowdown, and full flow condensate demineralization. During normal plant operation (defined as no primary to secondary leakage) condensate from the condenser is pumped through a full flow condensate demineralizer system by the condensate pumps. Volatile chemical additions are made. Dissolved and suspended solids are removed in the condensate polishers by ion exchange and/or filtration. At the same time a continuous blowdown of approximately 1 percent of the main steaming rate of the steam generators is maintained. Radiation detectors monitor the secondary coolant. If these monitors indicate no primary to secondary leakage, the blowdown is cooled and returned directly to the condensate pump discharge. If one of the radiation monitors should indicate a primary to secondary leak, when the temperature of the effluent exiting from the blowdown heat exchanger is compatible with the resin specifications of the ion exchangers, the bypass valve causes the blowdown flow to pass through the blowdown ion exchangers

  19. Activity Behaviours in Lean and Morbidly Obese Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzi, Caterina; Mohd-Shukri, Nor; Denison, Fiona C; Saunders, David H; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2018-05-17

    Interventions to increase physical activity in pregnancy are challenging for morbidly obese women. Targeting sedentary behaviours may be a suitable alternative to increase energy expenditure. We aimed to determine total energy expenditure, and energy expended in sedentary activities in morbidly obese and lean pregnant women. We administered the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire PPAQ (non-objective) and the Actical accelerometer (objective) to morbidly obese (BMI≥40kg/m²) and lean (BMI≤25Kg/M²) pregnant women recruited in early (lean pregnant women. No differences were observed in the proportion of energy expended sedentary between lean and morbidly obese pregnant women. The greater total energy expenditure in morbidly obese pregnant women was corroborated by Actical accelerometer in early (n=14 per group, obese 1167.7 (313.6) Kcal; lean 781.1 (210.1) Kcal, plean 893.7 (175.9) Kcal, plean pregnant. Further studies are needed to determine whether sedentary behaviours are a suitable target for intervention in morbidly obese pregnancy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba Ma; Mouratidou, Theodora; Verbestel, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behaviours in European children, and to evaluate the relationship between media availability in personal space and physical activity in relation to total screen time. Design: Data from the baseline IDEFICS (Identification...... and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) cross-sectional survey. Information on hours of television/digital video disk/video viewing and computer/games-console use (weekday and weekend days), media device availability in personal space, sports club membership......, hours of active organized play and commuting (to and from school) were assessed via a self-reported parental questionnaire. Total screen time was defined as the sum of daily media use and subsequently dichotomized into meeting or not meeting the guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Setting...

  1. Behaviour of waterborne radon in activated carbon filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberer, K.; Akkermann-Kubillus, A.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the behaviour of radon in adsorption/desorption processes in filter systems with different activated carbon types, measurements were focused on adsorption capacity, adsorption velocity, retain capability, interaction with ions (poisoning of active centers) and adsorption of radon daughters. Various activated carbon types derived from hard coal, brown coal, peat and wood, were used in adsorption tests runs with activated carbons which are frequently applied in water treatment facilities. In laboratory tests, water facility filter conditions were simulated using pilot plant columns filled with different carbon types. Finally, a small scale laboratory column was installed at a natural water source with elevated activity. Long-time filter runs were conducted under varying flow rates and with different amounts of the in waterworks wide-spread used activated carbon F-300. The main results observed were: 1. The amount of radioactivity adsorbed depends upon the type of carbon, its granular size and the contact time between the activated carbon and water. The decontamination capacity was between 19% and 94. 2. The DOC-levels of water influences the adsorbable radioactivity due to the poisoning of the active centres of the carbon. The adsorption velocity decreased down to 15%. 3. The maximum decontamination rate of the water under waterworks conditions was 60%. (orig.) [de

  2. Alkali activated slag cements using waste glass as alternative activators. Rheological behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Torres-Carrasco

    2015-03-01

    The findings show that AAS paste behaviour of rheology when the activator was a commercial waterglass solution or NaOH/Na2CO3 with waste glass was similar, fit the Herschel-Bulkley model. The formation of primary C-S-H gel in both cases were confirmed. However, the rheological behaviour in standard cements fit the Bingham model. The use of the waste glass may be feasible from a rheological point of view in pastes can be used.

  3. Decontamination of main coolant pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roofthooft, R.

    1988-01-01

    Last year a number of main coolant pumps in Belgian nuclear power plants were decontaminated. A new method has been developed to reduce the time taken for decontamination and the volume of waste to be treated. The method comprises two phases: Oxidation with permanganate in nitric acid and dissolution in oxalic acid. The decontamination of main coolant pumps can now be achieved in less than one day. The decontamination factors attained range between 15 and 150. (orig.) [de

  4. Behaviour of natural radionuclides on activated carbon filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberer, K.; Akkermann-Kubillus, A.; Dahlheimer, A.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the behaviour of radon in adsorption/desorption processes at filter systems based on different activated carbon types, measurements were focused on adsorption capacity, adsorption velocity, retain capability, interaction with ions (poisoning of active centers) and adsorption of radon daughters. Various activated carbon types derived from hard coal, brown coal, peat and wood, were used in adsorption tests runs with activated carbons which are applied in water treatment facilities. In laboratory tests, water facility filter conditions were simulated using pilot plant columns filled with different carbon types. A small scale laboratory column was installed at a natural water source with elevated activity. Tests runs were conducted under varying flow rates and with different amounts of carbon. A full-scale waterworks filter system operated for 6 months was investigated for radon decay products adsorbed on the carbon. The main results observed were: 1. The amount of radioactivity adsorbed depends upon the type of carbon, its granular size and the contact time between the activated carbon and water. The decontamination capacity was between 19% and 94%. 2. The DOC-levels of water influences the adsorbable radioactivity due to the poisoning of the active centers of the carbon. The adsorption velocity decreased down to 15%. 3. The maximum decontamination rate of the water under waterworks conditions was 60%. (orig.) [de

  5. Understanding the Importance, Dimensions and Settings for Developing Children’s Physical Activity Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hyndman, Brendon

    2015-01-01

    Promotion of regular physical activity during childhood within schools, home and community settings is important as childhood forms the foundation for physical activity habits that can track into adulthood. Despite childhood being a crucial period for developing physical activity behaviour, there is a limited understanding of the physical activity behaviours of school-aged children. The aim of this research report is to facilitate understanding of children’s physical activity behaviours by ou...

  6. A comparative neutronic analysis of KALIMER breeder core using Na or Pb-Bi coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, J. W.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, Y. I.

    2000-01-01

    A comparative neutronic study has been conducted on KALIMER breeder core according to the replacement of sodium coolant by Pb-Bi coolant. Since the atomic weight of Pb and Bi is about 9 times heavier than that of Na, the energy loss by neutron colliding with Pb-Bi nucleus will be very small. Therefore, the reactor with Pb-Bi coolant will have a harder neutron spectrum than that with Na coolant. Consequently, the breeding ratio and burnup reactivity swing is expected to be enhanced. In addition, when Pb-Bi coolant is voided, a negative coolant void coefficient can be obtained by the net effects of smaller spectrum hardening and large neutron leakage. As a result, the breeding ratio was increased from 1.18 to 1.23 and burnup reactivity swing was reduced from 631 pcm to 150 pcm. When the coolant in the whole region of active core is voided, the coolant void coefficient was found to be -539 and -264 pcm at BOEC and EOEC, respectively. In the local voided case, the smaller coolant void coefficient was obtained than that of Na coolant. Accordingly, the use of Pb-Bi coolant in KALIMER gives an advantage of higher breeding ratio, smaller burnup reactivity swing and negative coolant void coefficient without any significant degradation of nuclear performance

  7. Behaviour and diary activity of Sciurus ingrami (Thomas) in captivity (Rodentia, Sciuridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bordignon, Marcelo; Monteiro Filho, Emygdio L.A

    1997-01-01

    From October 1994 to November 1995 the behaviour, postures and diurnal activity of tive captive squirrels Sciurus ingrami were observed and registered. Four basics postures, five grooming behaviours, displacements and face wiping behaviour were identified. Based on behavioural observations, the diurnal activity was divided into four categories: resting, displacement, teeding and maintenance. The time spent in each category varied seasonally and the squirrels spent more time resting during win...

  8. Liquid metal coolant disposal from UKAEA reactors at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, E.R.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the United Kingdom's Fast Reactor Development programme two reactors were built and operated at Dounreay in the North of Scotland. DFR (Dounreay Fast Reactor) was operated from 1959-1977 and PFR (Prototype Fast Reactor) was operated from 1974-1994. Both reactors are currently undergoing Stage 1 Decommissioning and are installing plant to dispose of the bulk coolant (DFR ∼ 60 tonne; PFR ∼ 1500 tonne). The coolant (NaK) remaining at DFR is mainly in the primary circuit which contains in excess of 500 TBq of Cs137. Disposal of 40 tonnes of secondary coolant has already been carried out. The paper will describe the processes used to dispose of this secondary circuit coolant and how it is intended the remaining primary circuit coolant will be handled. The programme to process the primary coolant will also be described which involves the conversion of the liquid metal to caustic and its decontamination. No PFR coolant Na has been disposed off to date. The paper will describe the current decommissioning programme activities relating to liquid metal disposal and treatment describing the materials to be disposed of and the issue of decontamination of the effluents. (author)

  9. CAREM-25: considerations about primary coolant chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, Mauricio; Iglesias, Alberto M.; Raffo Calderon, Maria C.; Villegas, Marina

    2000-01-01

    World operating experience, in conjunction with basic studies has been modifying chemistry specifications for the primary coolant of water cooled nuclear reactors along with the reactor type and structural materials involved in the design. For the reactor CAREM-25, the following sources of information have been used: 1) Experience gained by the Chemistry Department of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA, Argentina); 2) Participation of the Chemistry Department (CNEA) in international cooperation projects; 3) Guidelines given by EPRI, Siemens-KWU, AECL, etc. Given the main objectives: materials integrity, low radiation levels and personnel safety, which are in turn a balance between the lowest corrosion and activity transport achievable and considering that the CAREM-25 is a pressurized vessel integrated reactor, a group of guidelines for the chemistry and additives for the primary coolant have been given in the present work. (author)

  10. Mechanical Behaviour of Soil Improved by Alkali Activated Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Vitale

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of alkali activated binders to improve engineering properties of clayey soils is a novel solution, and an alternative to the widely diffused improvement based on the use of traditional binders such as lime and cement. In the paper the alkaline activation of two fly ashes, by-products of coal combustion thermoelectric power plants, has been presented. These alkali activated binders have been mixed with a clayey soil for evaluating the improvement of its mechanical behaviour. One-dimensional compression tests on raw and treated samples have been performed with reference to the effects induced by type of binder, binder contents and curing time. The experimental evidences at volume scale of the treated samples have been directly linked to the chemo-physical evolution of the binders, investigated over curing time by means of X Ray Diffraction. Test results showed a high reactivity of the alkali activated binders promoting the formation of new mineralogical phases responsible for the mechanical improvement of treated soil. The efficiency of alkali activated binders soil treatment has been highlighted by comparison with mechanical performance induced by Portland cement.

  11. Using behavioural activation in the treatment of depression: a control theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, P; Law, A; Bates, R; Hylton, K; Mansell, W

    2013-12-01

    Behavioural activation is an intervention that can be used to counteract the typical patterns of withdrawal, avoidance and inactivity that characterize depression. This paper examines the processes of change that may occur during behavioural activation from the perspective of control theory. Some of the key concepts that are associated with control theory are introduced and the process of change that may occur during behavioural activation is illustrated using two case studies. The case studies provide anecdotal evidence which supports the hypothesis that the effective implementation of behavioural activation may depend upon clients being able to retain or regain the sense of control that they value. The differences between a control-theory-based approach and more orthodox behavioural and cognitive approaches are highlighted and the implications of these differences are discussed. Flexible approaches that are informed by control theory, may offer a useful alternative to the more established behavioural and cognitive approaches towards behavioural activation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of housing system on behavioural activity of lactating buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Grasso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the effect of a pool on behaviour and milk yield, eighty-eight lactating buffalo cows equally allocated to two treatments were used. Group WP was provided with a concrete pool of 208 m2, 36 m2/ head + 10 m2 of outdoor and indoor space allowance, respectively, whereas group NP only received 10 m2. Less animals from group WP were observed idling (P<0.05 compared to buffaloes from group NP, whereas subjects provided with a pool were more often involved in investigative activities (locomotion and exploration than cows without access to it (P< 0.01. A higher number of social interactions (sniffing and nuzzling and allogrooming were observed in group WP than in group NP (P< 0.01 and P< 0.05, respectively. The WP buffalo cows exhibited a higher yield of milk than NP subject (P< 0.05, whereas no differences between the two groups were observed for protein and fat contents. The provision of a pool can have beneficial effects on behaviour and milk production of buffaloes.

  13. Behaviour change interventions to promote physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Louise; Gallagher, Stephen; Cramp, Fiona; Brand, Charles; Fraser, Alexander; Kennedy, Norelee

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that people who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not usually participate in enough physical activity to obtain the benefits of optimal physical activity levels, including quality of life, aerobic fitness and disease-related characteristics. Behaviour change theory underpins the promotion of physical activity. The aim of this systematic review was to explore behaviour change interventions which targeted physical activity behaviour in people who have RA, focusing on the theory underpinning the interventions and the behaviour change techniques utilised using specific behaviour change taxonomy. An electronic database search was conducted via EBSCOhost, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases in August 2014, using Medical Subject Headings and keywords. A manual search of reference lists was also conducted. Randomised control trials which used behaviour change techniques and targeted physical activity behaviour in adults who have RA were included. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Five studies with 784 participants were included in the review. Methodological quality of the studies was mixed. The studies consisted of behaviour change interventions or combined practical physical activity and behaviour change interventions and utilised a large variety of behaviour change techniques. Four studies reported increased physical activity behaviour. All studies used subjective methods of assessing physical activity with only one study utilising an objective measure. There has been varied success of behaviour change interventions in promoting physical activity behaviour in people who have RA. Further studies are required to develop and implement the optimal behaviour change intervention in this population.

  14. Behaviour change techniques in physical activity interventions for men with prostate cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallward, Laura; Patel, Nisha; Duncan, Lindsay R

    2018-02-01

    Physical activity interventions can improve prostate cancer survivors' health. Determining the behaviour change techniques used in physical activity interventions can help elucidate the mechanisms by which an intervention successfully changes behaviour. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate behaviour change techniques in physical activity interventions for prostate cancer survivors. A total of 7 databases were searched and 15 studies were retained. The studies included a mean 6.87 behaviour change techniques (range = 3-10), and similar behaviour change techniques were implemented in all studies. Consideration of how behaviour change techniques are implemented may help identify how behaviour change techniques enhance physical activity interventions for prostate cancer survivors.

  15. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, S D; Tregaskes, C A; Coffey, J; Stevenson, A E; Alexander, L G; Arnold, K E

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally 'active' individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes.

  16. Reactor coolant pumps for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harand, E.; Richter, G.; Tschoepel, G.

    1975-01-01

    A brake for the pump rotor of a main coolant pump or a shutoff member on the pump are provided in order to prevent excess speeds of the pump rotor. Such excess speeds may occur in PWR type reactors with water at a pressure below, e.g., 150 bars if there is leakage from a coolant line associated with the main coolant pump. As a brake, a centrifugal brake depending upon the pump speed or a brake ring arranged on the pump housing and acting on the pump rotor, which ring would be activated by pressure differentials in the pump, may be used. If the pressure differences between suction and pressure sockets are very small, a controlled hydraulic increase of the pressure force on the brake may also be provided. Furthermore, a turbine brake may be provided. A slide which is automatically movable in closing position along the pump rotor axis is used as a shutoff element. It is of cylindrical configuration and is arranged concentrically with the rotor axis. (DG) [de

  17. Reactor coolant pump seal leakage monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.M.; Spencer, J.W.; Morris, D.J.; James, W.; Shugars, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Problems with reactor coolant pump seals have historically accounted for a large percentage of unscheduled outages. Studies performed for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have shown that the replacement of coolant pump seals has been one of the leading causes of nuclear plant unavailability over the last ten years. Failures of coolant pump seals can lead to primary coolant leakage rates of 200-500 gallons per minute into the reactor building. Airborne activity and high surface contamination levels following these failures require a major cleanup effort and increases the time and personnel exposure required to refurbish the pump seals. One of the problems in assessing seal integrity is the inability to accurately measure seal leakage. Because seal leakage flow is normally very small, it cannot be sensed directly with normal flow instrumentation, but must be inferred from several other temperature and flow measurements. In operating plants the leakage rate has been quantified with a tipping-bucket gauge, a device which indicates when one quart of water has been accumulated. The tipping-bucket gauge has been used for most rainfall-intensity monitoring. The need for a more accurate and less expensive gauge has been addressed. They have developed a drop-counter precipitation sensor has been developed and optimized. The applicability of the drop-counter device to the problem of measuring seal leakage is being investigated. If a review of system specification and known drop-counter performance indicates that this method is feasible for measuring seal leak rates, a drop-counter gauge will be fabricated and tested in the laboratory. If laboratory tests are successful the gauge will be demonstrated in a pump test loop at Ontario Hydro and evaluated under simulated plant conditions. 3 references, 2 figures

  18. Loss-of-coolant and loss-of-flow accident in the ITER-EDA first wall/blanket cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Koning, H.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the analysis of the transient thermal-hydraulic system behaviour inside the first wall/blanket cooling system and the resulting temperature response inside the first wall and blanket of the ITER-EDA (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - Engineering Design Activities) reactor design during a: - Loss-of-coolant accident caused by a reputure of the pump suction pipe; - loss-of-flow accident caused by a trip of the recirculation pump. (orig.).

  19. Loss-of-coolant and loss-of-flow accident in the ITER-EDA first wall/blanket cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Koning, H.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the analysis of the transient thermal-hydraulic system behaviour inside the first wall/blanket cooling system and the resulting temperature response inside the first wall and blanket of the ITER-EDA (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - Engineering Design Activities) reactor design during a: - Loss-of-coolant accident caused by a reputure of the pump suction pipe; - loss-of-flow accident caused by a trip of the recirculation pump. (orig.)

  20. The relationship between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and mental health in Ghanaian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Asare, Mavis; Danquah, Samuel A

    2015-01-01

    Background Research development is needed in physical activity and sedentary behaviour and their associations with mental health in young people. In Western countries the weather is a key contributing factor of sedentary behaviour in youth. The likely contributing factor of sedentary behaviour among African youth has not been explored. This study examined the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health in African young people. Methods Participants were 296 adolescents (150 males...

  1. Reactor coolant pump transportation incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noce, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on an incident, which occurred on August 27, 1991, in which a Reactor Coolant Pump motor en route from Surry Power Station to Westinghouse repair facilities struck the overpass at the junction of Interstate 64 and Jefferson Avenue in Newport News, Virginia. The transport container that housed the reactor coolant pump motor failed to clear the overpass. The force of the impact dislodged the container and motor from the truck bed, and it landed on the acceleration land and road shoulder. Upon impact, the container broke open and exposed the reactor coolant pump motor. Incidental radioactively contaminated water that remained in the motor coolers drained onto the road, contaminating the aggregate as well as the underlying gravel

  2. Development of Coolant Radioactivity Interpretation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kiyoung; Jung, Youngsuk; Kim, Kyounghyun; Kim, Jangwook

    2013-01-01

    In Korea, the coolant radioactivity analysis has been performed by using the computer codes of foreign companies such as CADE (Westinghouse), IODYNE and CESIUM (ABB-CE). However, these computer codes are too conservative and have involved considerable errors. Furthermore, since these codes are DOS-based program, their easy operability is not satisfactory. Therefore it is required development of an enhanced analysis algorithm applying an analytical method reflecting the change of operational environments of domestic nuclear power plants and a fuel failure evaluation software considering user' conveniences. We have developed a nuclear fuel failure evaluation code able to estimate the number of failed fuel rods and the burn-up of failed fuels during nuclear power plant operation cycle. A Coolant Radio-activity Interpretation Code (CRIC) for LWR has been developed as the output of the project 'Development of Fuel Reliability Enhanced Technique' organized by Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP). The CRIC is Windows based-software able to evaluate the number of failed fuel rods and the burn-up of failed fuel region by analyzing coolant radioactivity of LWR in operation. The CRIC is based on the model of fission products release commonly known as 'three region model' (pellet region, gap region, and coolant region), and we are verifying the CRIC results based on the cases of domestic fuel failures. CRIC users are able to estimate the number of failed fuel rods, burn-up and regions of failed fuel considered enrichment and power distribution of fuel region by using operational cycle data, coolant activity data, fuel loading pattern, Cs-134/Cs-137 ratio according to burn-up and U-235 enrichment provided in the code. Due to development of the CRIC, it is secured own unique fuel failure evaluation code. And, it is expected to have the following significant meaning. This is that the code reflecting a proprietary technique for quantitatively

  3. Promoting physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a narrative review of behaviour change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Louise; Kennedy, Norelee; Gallagher, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Despite physical activity having significant health benefits for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), current levels of physical activity in this population are suboptimal. Changing behaviour is challenging and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in this context have had varying levels of success. This review provides an overview of common behaviour change theories used in interventions to promote physical activity and their application for promoting physical activity in people with RA. A scoping, narrative review was conducted of English language literature, using the search terms "physical activity/exercise" and keywords, which are associated with behaviour change interventions. The theoretical basis of such interventions in people with RA was assessed using the "theory coding scheme". Six theories which have been used in physical activity research are discussed. Further, four studies which aimed to increase physical activity levels in people with RA are explored in detail. To date, behaviour change interventions conducted in RA populations to increase physical activity levels have not had a strong theoretical underpinning. It is proposed that an intervention utilising the theory of planned behaviour is developed with the aim of increasing physical activity in people with RA. Implications for Rehabilitation Interventions to promote physical activity in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population have failed to change participants' behaviour. A small number of studies have used behaviour change theories in the development and delivery of interventions. The theory of planned behaviour is recommended as the theoretical basis for an intervention to promote physical activity in the RA population.

  4. Sodium as a reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, S.B.G.

    1989-01-01

    This work is related to the use of sodium as a reactor coolant, to the advantages and problems related to its use, its mechanical, thermophysics, eletronical, magnetic and nuclear properties. It is mainly a bibliographic review, with the aim of gathering the necessary information to persons initiating in the study of sodium and also as reference source. (author) [pt

  5. Vertical reactor coolant pump instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigation conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant to determine and correct increasing vibrations in the vertical reactor coolant pumps is described. Diagnostic procedures to determine the vibration causes and evaluate the corractive measures taken are also described

  6. Process and device for monitoring active and highly active liquids for specific nuclides, particularly in the primary coolant of boiling water and pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paffrath; Haag; Hanstein, W.

    1986-01-01

    The invention provides for a direct continuous measurement of amounts of activity or concentration and the automatic execution of analysis cycles for specific nuclides, which occur depending on the continuously determined total gamma value. The continuously determined total gamma values in a first measuring circuit are used to decide the frequency of sampling, the volume of samples, the measuring times, the doses of separating chemicals and the sample remnants. These parameters are provided for the control of the execution of an analysis cycle for specific nuclides occurring in a second measuring circuit. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Behaviour change techniques to change the postnatal eating and physical activity behaviours of women who are obese: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D M; Taylor, W; Lavender, T

    2016-01-01

    To explore the experiences of postnatal women who are obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) ] in relation to making behaviour changes and use of behaviour change techniques (BCTs). Qualitative interview study. Greater Manchester, UK. Women who were 1 year postnatal aged ≥18 years, who had an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy, and an antenatal booking BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) . Eighteen semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews were conducted by a research midwife with women who volunteered to be interviewed 1 year after taking part in a pilot randomised controlled trial. The six stages of thematic analysis were followed to understand the qualitative data. The Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy (version 1) was used to label the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) reported by women. Themes derived from 1-year postnatal interview transcripts. Two themes were evident: 1. A focused approach to postnatal weight management: women reported making specific changes to their eating and physical activity behaviours, and 2. Need for support: six BCTs were reported as helping women make changes to their eating and physical activity behaviours; three were reported more frequently than others: Self-monitoring of behaviour (2.3), Prompts/cues (7.1) and Social support (unspecified; 3.1). All of the BCTs required support from others for their delivery; food diaries were the most popular delivery method. Behaviour change techniques are useful to postnatal women who are obese, and have the potential to improve their physical and mental wellbeing. Midwives and obstetricians should be aware of such techniques, to encourage positive changes. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Structural integrity analysis of reactor coolant pump flywheel(I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin

    1986-01-01

    A reactor coolant pump flywheel is an important machine element to provide the necessary rotational inertia in the event of loss of power to the pumps. This paper attempts to assess the influence of keyways on flywheel stresses and fracture behaviour in detail. The finite element method was used to determine stresses near keyways, including residual stresses, and to establish stress intensity factors for keyway cracks for use in fracture mechanics assessments. (Author)

  9. Nuclear reactor coolant and cover gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.A.; Redding, A.H.; Tower, S.N.

    1976-01-01

    A core cooling system is disclosed for a nuclear reactor of the type utilizing a liquid coolant with a cover gas above free surfaces of the coolant. The disclosed system provides for a large inventory of reactor coolant and a balanced low pressure cover gas arrangement. A flow restricting device disposed within a reactor vessel achieves a pressure of the cover gas in the reactor vessel lower than the pressure of the reactor coolant in the vessel. The low gas pressure is maintained over all free surfaces of the coolant in the cooling system including a coolant reservoir tank. Reactor coolant stored in the reservoir tank allows for the large reactor coolant inventory provided by the invention

  10. Research priorities for child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillis, Lauren; Tomkinson, Grant; Olds, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The quantity and quality of studies in child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour have rapidly increased, but research directions are often pursued in a reactive and uncoordinated manner.......The quantity and quality of studies in child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour have rapidly increased, but research directions are often pursued in a reactive and uncoordinated manner....

  11. Brief Report: The Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Physical Activity in Young People Who Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Emma S.; Daley, Amanda J.; Ussher, Michael

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical…

  12. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ) for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C; Cooper, Ashley R; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, ptravel behaviours and may be suitable for wider use. Its physical activity summary measures have comparable reliability and validity to those of similar existing questionnaires.

  13. Coolant monitoring systems for PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzhnov, A.M.; Morozov, V.V.; Tsypin, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    The ways of improving information capacity of existing monitoring systems and the necessity of designing new ones for coolant monitoring are reviewed. A wide research program on development of coolant monitoring systems in PWR reactors is analyzed. The possible applications of in-core and out-of-core detectors for coolant monitoring are demonstrated

  14. Specificities of reactor coolant pumps units with lead and lead-bismuth coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznosov, A.V.; Anotonenkov, M.A.; Bokov, P.A.; Baranova, V.S.; Kustov, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis results of impact of lead and lead-bismuth coolants specific properties on the coolants flow features in flow channels of the main and auxiliary circulating pumps are presented. Impossibility of cavitation initiation in flow channels of vane pumps pumping lead and lead-bismuth coolants was demonstrated. The experimental research results of discontinuity of heavy liquid metal coolant column were presented and conditions of gas cavitation initiation in coolant flow were discussed. Invalidity of traditional calculation methods of water and sodium coolants circulation pumps calculations for lead and lead-bismuth coolants circulation pumps was substantiated [ru

  15. Simulation of steam explosion in stratified melt-coolant configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, Matjaž; Centrih, Vasilij; Uršič, Mitja

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Strong steam explosions may develop spontaneously in stratified configurations. • Considerable melt-coolant premixed layer formed in subcooled water with hot melts. • Analysis with MC3D code provided insight into stratified steam explosion phenomenon. • Up to 25% of poured melt was mixed with water and available for steam explosion. • Better instrumented experiments needed to determine dominant mixing process. - Abstract: A steam explosion is an energetic fuel coolant interaction process, which may occur during a severe reactor accident when the molten core comes into contact with the coolant water. In nuclear reactor safety analyses steam explosions are primarily considered in melt jet-coolant pool configurations where sufficiently deep coolant pool conditions provide complete jet breakup and efficient premixture formation. Stratified melt-coolant configurations, i.e. a molten melt layer below a coolant layer, were up to now believed as being unable to generate strong explosive interactions. Based on the hypothesis that there are no interfacial instabilities in a stratified configuration it was assumed that the amount of melt in the premixture is insufficient to produce strong explosions. However, the recently performed experiments in the PULiMS and SES (KTH, Sweden) facilities with oxidic corium simulants revealed that strong steam explosions may develop spontaneously also in stratified melt-coolant configurations, where with high temperature melts and subcooled water conditions a considerable melt-coolant premixed layer is formed. In the article, the performed study of steam explosions in a stratified melt-coolant configuration in PULiMS like conditions is presented. The goal of this analytical work is to supplement the experimental activities within the PULiMS research program by addressing the key questions, especially regarding the explosivity of the formed premixed layer and the mechanisms responsible for the melt-water mixing. To

  16. Trace organics in AGR coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Green, L.O.; Johnson, P.A.V.

    1980-01-01

    Several analytical techniques have been employed in previous studies of the stable organic compounds arising from the radiolysis of methane/carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide coolants. The majority of this early information was collected from the Windscale AGR prototype. Analyses were also carried out on the liquors obtained from the WAGR humidryers. Three classes of compound were found in the liquors; aliphatic acids in the aqueous phase and methyl ketones and aromatic hydrocarbons in the oily phase. Acetic acid was found to be the predominant carboxylic acid. This paper outlines the major findings from a recent analytical survey of coolants taken over a wide range of dose rate, pressure, temperature and composition, from materials testing reactor facilities, WAGR and CAGR. (author)

  17. Environmental correlates of physical activity and dietary behaviours among young people: a systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vet, E; de Ridder, D T D; de Wit, J B F

    2011-05-01

    An extensive body of research exists on environmental influences on weight-related behaviours in young people. Existing reviews aimed to synthesize this body of work, but generally focused on specific samples, behaviours or environmental influences and integration of findings is lacking. Hereto, we reviewed 18 reviews representing 671 unique studies, aiming to identify what environmental factors do and do not affect physical activity and dietary behaviours in children and adolescents. Eleven reviews focused exclusively on physical activity, six on diet, and one review focused on both physical activity and dietary behaviours with only small overlap in included studies. Physical activity was more consistently related to school and neighbourhood characteristics than to interpersonal and societal environments. In contrast, interpersonal factors played a pronounced role in dietary behaviours; no school, neighbourhood or societal factors were consistently related to dietary behaviours. This review of reviews adds to the literature by providing a comprehensive synthesis of factors related to physical activity and dietary behaviours that could be targeted in interventions. Moreover, by identifying factors that are unrelated to physical activity and dietary behaviours, this review may help to narrow the scope of future studies and environmental interventions. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  18. The interpretation of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours by persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Learmonth, Yvonne; Hubbard, Elizabeth; Pilutti, Lara; Roberts, Sarah; Fanning, Jason; Wójcicki, Thomas; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert

    2017-11-07

    This study adopted a qualitative research design with directed content analysis and examined the interpretations of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviour by persons with multiple sclerosis. Fifty three persons with multiple sclerosis who were enrolled in an exercise trial took part in semi-structured interviews regarding personal interpretations of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours. Forty three percent of participants indicated a consistent understanding of physical activity, 42% of participants indicated a consistent understanding of exercise, and 83% of participants indicated a consistent understanding of sedentary behaviour with the standard definitions. There was evidence of definitional ambiguity (i.e., 57, 58, and 11% of the sample for physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviour, respectively); 6% of the sample inconsistently defined sedentary behaviour with standard definitions. Some participants described physical activity in a manner that more closely aligned with exercise and confused sedentary behaviour with exercise or sleeping/napping. Results highlight the need to provide and utilise consistent definitions for accurate understanding, proper evaluation and communication of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours among persons with multiple sclerosis. The application of consistent definitions may minimise ambiguity, alleviate the equivocality of findings in the literature, and translate into improved communication about these behaviours in multiple sclerosis. Implications for Rehabilitation The symptoms of multiple sclerosis can be managed through participation in physical activity and exercise. Persons with multiple sclerosis are not engaging in sufficient levels of physical activity and exercise for health benefits. Rehabilitation professionals should use established definitions of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours when communicating about these behaviours among persons with

  19. Physical activity prescription among Mexican physicians: a structural equation analysis of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz, K I; Jauregui-Ulloa, E; Fabrigar, L R; Latimer-Cheung, A; Lopez y Taylor, J; Lévesque, L

    2015-03-01

    To describe the physical activity (PA) prescribing behaviour of Mexican primary care physicians and determine if the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) explains this behaviour. 633 physicians (56% male, mean age 38 years) from 305 primary care clinics in Jalisco, Mexico self-reported PA prescription behaviour, PA involvement, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control (PBC) and intention related to PA prescription behaviour. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed. 48% of physicians reported they always ask patients about their PA, 33% provide verbal prescriptions, 6% provide written prescriptions, 8% refer patients to PA resources and 4% assess patient fitness. SEM analysis showed that the fit of the TPB model was satisfactory (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.98, SRMR = 0.05). The model explained 79% of the variance on intention (r(2) = 0.79, p behaviour (r(2) = 0.14, p behavioural intention, while PBC (β = 0.38, p behaviour. The TPB provided useful insight into physician prescription behaviour, although not all the theory tenets were supported. More research testing the TPB and other theories is needed to better understand psychosocial predictors of this behaviour. Strategies aimed at improving physicians' perceived ability to prescribe PA and their own PA involvement seem worthwhile. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Full reactor coolant system chemical decontamination qualification programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Corrosion and wear products are found throughout the reactor coolant system (RCS), or primary loop, of a PWR power plant. These products circulate with the primary coolant through the reactor where they may become activated. An oxide layer including these activated products forms on the surfaces of the RCS (including the fuel elements). The amount of radioactivity deposited on the different surface varies and depends primarily on the corrosion rate of the materials concerned, the amount of cobalt in the coolant and the chemistry of the coolant. The oxide layer, commonly called crud, on the surfaces of nuclear plant systems leads to personnel radiation exposure. The level of the radiation fields from the crud increases with time from initial plant startup and typically levels off after 4 to 6 cycles of plant operation. Thereafter, significant personnel radiation exposure may be incurred whenever major maintenance is performed. Personnel exposure is highest during refueling outages when routine maintenance on major plant components, such as steam generators and reactor coolant pumps, is performed. Administrative controls are established at nuclear plants to minimize the exposure incurred by an individual and the plant workers as a whole.

  1. Escape behaviour of birds in urban parks and cemeteries across Europe: Evidence of behavioural adaptation to human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Federico; Mikula, Peter; Benedetti, Yanina; Bussière, Raphaël; Jerzak, Leszek; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2018-08-01

    Urban environments are very heterogeneous, and birds living in the proximity of humans have to adapt to local conditions, e.g. by changing their behavioural response to potential predators. In this study, we tested whether the escape distance of birds (measured as flight initiation distance; FID) differed between parks and cemeteries, areas characterized by different microhabitat conditions and human conduct, that are determinants of animal behaviour at large spatial scales. While escape behaviour of park populations of birds was often examined, cemetery populations have not been studied to the same extent and a large-scale comparison is still missing. Overall, we collected 2139 FID estimates for 44 bird species recorded in 79 parks and 90 cemeteries in four European countries: Czech Republic, France, Italy and Poland. Mixed model procedure was applied to study escape behaviour in relation to type of area (park or cemetery), environmental characteristics (area size, coverage by trees, shrubs, grass, chapels, tombstones, flowerbeds, number of street lamps) and human activity (human density, pedestrians speed and ratio of men/women). Birds allowed people closer in cemeteries than in parks in all countries. This pattern was persistent even when focusing on intraspecific differences in FID between populations of the most common bird species. Escape distance of birds was negatively correlated with the size of parks/cemeteries, while positively associated with tombstone coverage and human density in both types of habitat. Our findings highlight the ability of birds to adapt their behaviour to different types of urban areas, based on local environmental conditions, including the character of human-bird interactions. Our results also suggest that this behavioural pattern may be widespread across urban landscapes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Coolant clean-up and recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takao.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the service life of mechanical seals in a shaft sealing device, eliminate leakages and improve the safety by providing a recycle pump for feeding coolants to a coolant clean-up device upon reactor shut-down and adapting the pump treat only low temperature and low pressure coolants. Constitution: The system is adapted to partially take out coolants from the pipeways of a recycling pump upon normal operation and feed them to a clean-up device. Upon reactor shut-down, the recycle pump is stopped and coolants are extracted by the recycle pump for shut-down into the clean-up device. Since the coolants are not fed to the clean-up device by the recycle pump during normal operation as conducted so far, high temperature and high pressure coolants are not directly fed to the recycle pump, thereby enabling to avoid mechanical problems in the pump. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Methodologies and technologies for life assessment and management of coolant channels of Indian pressurised heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupani, B.B.; Sinha, S.K.; Sinha, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Zirconium alloy coolant channels are central to the design of Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) and form the individual pressure boundaries. These coolant channels consist of horizontal pressure tubes made of zirconium alloys, which are separated from cold calandria tubes using garter spring spacers. High temperature heavy water coolant flows through the pressure tube which supports the fuel bundles. A typical coolant channel in a PHWR is shown. These pressure tubes are subjected to several life limiting degradation mechanisms like creep and growth, hydrogen pick-up, reduction in fracture toughness and delayed hydride cracking phenomena because of their operation under high temperature, high stress and high fast neutron flux environment. Considering the early onset of these degradation mechanisms in Zircaloy-2 pressure tubes used in the early generation of Indian PHWRs, the life management of these coolant channels becomes a challenging task, involving multidisciplinary R and D efforts in areas like analytical modelling of degradation mechanisms, evolution of methodologies for assessment of fitness for service and, tools and techniques for remote on line monitoring of integrity, maintenance and replacement. The degradation mechanisms have been modelled and incorporated into specially developed computer codes, such as SCAPCA for irradiation induced creep and growth deformation modelling, HYCON for hydrogen pick-up modelling, BLIST for hydrogen diffusion, blister nucleation and growth modelling and CEAL for assessment of leak before break behaviour. These codes have been validated with respect to the results of in-service inspection and post irradiation examination. Development of analytical models actually paved the way for the evolution of more refined methodologies for assessing the safe residual life of coolant channel. Information gathered from various experiments simulating the degradation mechanisms, results of post-irradiation examination of the

  4. Radioactivity analysis of KAMINI reactor coolant from regulatory perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, T.K.; Sulthan, Bajeer; Sarangapani, R.; Jose, M.T.; Venkatraman, B.; Thilagam, L.

    2016-01-01

    KAMINI (a 30kWt) research reactor is operated for neutron radiography of fuel subassemblies and pyro devices and activation analysis of various samples. The reactor is fueled by 233 U and DM water is used as the coolant. During reactor operation, fission product noble gasses (FPNGs) such as 85m Kr, 87 Kr, 88 Kr, 135 Xe, 135m Xe and 138 Xe are detected in the coolant water. In order to detect clad failure, the water is sampled during reactor operation at regular intervals as per the technical specifications. In the present work, analysis of measured activities in coolant samples collected during reactor operation at 25 kWt are presented and compared with computed values obtained using ORIGEN (Isotope Generation) code

  5. Evaluation of the fuel rod integrity in PWR reactors from the spectrometric analysis of the primary coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Iara Arraes

    1999-02-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the transport of fission products, from the fuel rod to the coolant of a PWR reactor. To achieve this purpose, several steps were followed. Firstly, it was presented a description of the fuel elements and the main mechanisms of fuel rod failure, indicating the most important nuclides and their transport mechanisms. Secondly, taking both the kinetic and diffusion models for the transport of fission products as a basis, a simple analytical and semi-empirical model was developed. This model was also based on theoretical considerations and measurements of coolant's activity, according to internationally adopted methodologies. Several factors are considered in the modelling procedures: intrinsic factors to the reactor itself, factors which depend on the reactor's operational mode, isotope characteristic factors, and factors which depend on the type of rod failure. The model was applied for different reactor's operational parameters in the presence of failed rods. The main conclusions drawn from the analysis of the model's output are relative to the variation on the coolant's water activity with the fuel burnup, the linear operation power and the primary purification rate and to the different behaviour of iodine and noble gases. The model was saturated from a certain failure size and showed to be unable to distinguish between a single big fail and many small ones. (author)

  6. The relationship between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and mental health in Ghanaian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Mavis; Danquah, Samuel A

    2015-01-01

    Research development is needed in physical activity and sedentary behaviour and their associations with mental health in young people. In Western countries the weather is a key contributing factor of sedentary behaviour in youth. The likely contributing factor of sedentary behaviour among African youth has not been explored. This study examined the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health in African young people. Participants were 296 adolescents (150 males, 146 females) aged 13 to 18 years (mean = 14.85 years) living in Ghana. Participants' physical activity levels were assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Adolescents (PAQ-A) and sedentary behaviour, using the Adolescents Sedentary Activity Questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Children Depression Inventory and aspects of self-esteem were measured with the Physical Self-worth test and Body Image Silhouette test. There was a significant negative correlation between physical activity and mental health independent of sedentary behaviour [depression (r =-0.78, p < 0.001); physical self-worth (r = 0.71, p < 0.001); body dissatisfaction (r =-0.76, p < 0.001)]. Moreover, sedentary behaviour was significantly associated with higher depression (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). Affluence was a significant contributing factor of sedentary behaviour in African young people [t (294) =-7.30, p < 0.001]. The present study has found that sedentary behaviour is highly prevalent among African adolescents especially among adolescents from affluent homes. Low levels of physical activity as well as sedentary behaviour is significantly associated with mental health problems among African youth, which is consistent with reports from studies among Western young people. The present research, therefore, contributes new information to the existing literature. Increased physical activities can improve the mental health of adolescents.

  7. Sedentary behaviour, physical activity and weight problems in adolescents in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, F J; Roberts, C; Moore, L; Tudor-Smith, C

    2005-06-01

    We studied the prevalence and stability of overweight and obesity in a cohort of adolescents, and the effects of sedentary behaviour and physical activity on changes in body mass. The study also examined the extent to which physical activity mediated the relationship between sedentary behaviour and body mass. Four-year cohort study. The study was part of the Health Behaviour of School-aged Children Study that took place in Wales between 1994 and 1998. Body height and weight measurements and self-report data on sedentary behaviour, physical activity and psychosocial adjustment were collected from 355 adolescents on two occasions 4 years apart. The mean age of the sample at baseline was 12.30 (SD=6.30) years. Weight conditions (underweight, overweight and obesity) and body mass were moderately stable over the interval. Regression analyses showed that sedentary behaviour at Time 1 predicted body mass at Time 2, while physical activity predicted a change in body mass over time. The influence of sedentary behaviour on body mass was not found to be mediated by physical activity. However, weight problems in Year 7 coincided with getting bullied, bullying others, and feeling left out of things. Obesity was also related to snacking and skipping breakfast. Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in early adolescence both influenced body mass in late adolescence. Results indicated that promoting healthy diets and physical activities may have long-term health benefits for young people.

  8. The use of choice heuristic in daily activity travel behaviour: an expert system

    OpenAIRE

    HANNES, Els; JANSSENS, Davy; WETS, Geert

    2007-01-01

    This research project aims at identifying the critical spatial factors in an individual’s mental map which influence daily activity travel behaviour in order to improve the agentbased modelling of activity travel behaviour by means of a computational process model. A qualitative travel survey and in depth interviews are used to identify the spatial factors that appear in the destination and travel mode choice heuristics of experts when discussing their daily activity space. Recorded interview...

  9. Accelerometer-measured sedentary behaviour and physical activity of inpatients with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruisdijk, F.; Deenik, J.; Yenback, D.; Tak, E.C.; Harten, P. van; Hopman-Rock, M.; Hendriksen, I.

    2017-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour and lack of physical activity threatens health. Research concerning these behaviours of inpatients with severe mental illness is limited but urgently needed to reveal prevalence and magnitude. In total, 184 inpatients (men n =108, women n =76, mean age 57,4, 20% first generation

  10. Simulation of a loss of coolant accident with hydroaccumulator injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    An essential component of nuclear safety activities is the analysis of postulated accidents which are taken as a design basis for a facility. This analysis is usually carried out by using complex computer codes to simulate the behaviour of the plant and to calculate vital plant parameters, which are then compared with the design limits. Since these simulations cannot be verified at the plant itself, computer codes must be validated by comparing the results of calculations with experimental data obtained in test facilities. The IAEA, having identified the need for experimental data due to the difficulties of building integral test facilities and the high costs of these experiments, has accepted the offer of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and organized two standard problem exercises. In these exercises, experimental data from the simulation of a 7.4% break loss of coolant accident was compared with analytical prediction of the behaviour of the facility calculated with computer codes. The second standard problem exercise involved a similar test, with the exception that in this case hydroaccumulator of the safety injection system were allowed to inject water in the system as anticipated in the design of the plant. This document presents a complete overview of the Second Standard Problem Exercise, including description of the facility, the experiment, the codes and models used by the participants and a detailed intercomparison of calculated and experimental results. It is recognized that code assessment is a long process which involves many inter-related steps, therefore, no general conclusion on optimum code or best model was reached. However, the exercise was recognized as an important contributor to code validation. 22 refs, figs and tabs

  11. Traversing myths and mountains: addressing socioeconomic inequities in the promotion of nutrition and physical activity behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kylie

    2015-11-14

    In developed countries, individuals experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage - whether a low education level, low income, low-status occupation, or living in a socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhood - are less likely than those more advantaged to engage in eating and physical activity behaviours conducive to optimal health. These socioeconomic inequities in nutrition and physical activity (and some sedentary) behaviours are graded, persistent, and evident across multiple populations and studies. They are concerning in that they mirror socioeconomic inequities in obesity and in health outcomes. Yet there remains a dearth of evidence of the most effective means of addressing these inequities. People experiencing disadvantage face multiple challenges to healthy behaviours that can appear insurmountable. With increasing recognition of the role of underlying structural and societal factors as determinants of nutrition and physical activity behaviours and inequities in these behaviours, and the limited success of behaviour change approaches in addressing these inequities, we might wonder whether there remains a role for behavioural scientists to tackle these challenges. This debate piece argues that behavioural scientists can play an important role in addressing socioeconomic inequities in nutrition, physical activity and sedentary behaviours, and that this will involve challenging myths and taking on new perspectives. There are successful models for doing so from which we can learn. Addressing socioeconomic inequities in eating, physical activity and sedentary behaviours is challenging. However, successful examples demonstrate that overcoming such challenges is possible, and provide guidance for doing so. Given the disproportionate burden of ill health carried by people experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage, all our nutrition and physical activity interventions, programs and policies should be designed to reach and positively impact these individuals at greatest

  12. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ.The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA.In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59, cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61, walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48, cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35, moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47, vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63, and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56. The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60. In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001, fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09 and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean

  13. Reliability and Validity of the Transport and Physical Activity Questionnaire (TPAQ) for Assessing Physical Activity Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J.; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C.; Cooper, Ashley R.; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    Background No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). Methods The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, pphysical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09) and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean overestimation of MVPA of 87.6 min/week (p

  14. Dielectric and polarization behaviour of cellulose electro-active paper (EAPap)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Gyu-Young; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Kim, Jaehwan

    2009-01-01

    Dielectric and polarization behaviour of electro-active paper (EAPap) were studied to understand the detailed material behaviour of EAPap as a novel smart material. It was revealed that the dielectric constant of EAPap was temperature and frequency dependent. The largest change in the dielectric constant was observed near 0 0 C while the highest dielectric constant was obtained at around 100 0 C, which might be related to the dipolar behaviour of the hydroxyl structure of cellulose and adsorbed or existing internal water molecules in cellulose EAPap. By thermal stimulated current measurement for polarization behaviour of cellulose EAPap, it was shown that the maximum current was observed in the temperature range 105-110 0 C. Compared with the polarization behaviour in the low temperature range, abnormal polarization was observed under an applied field mainly due to the trapped space charge in EAPap, which indicates that cellulose EAPap has a similar material behaviour to that of electret polymers. (fast track communication)

  15. An evaluation of the behaviour-change techniques used on Canadian cancer centre Web sites to support physical activity behaviour for breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, B D; Zammit, K; Fong, A J; Sabiston, C M

    2017-12-01

    Cancer centre Web sites can be a useful tool for distributing information about the benefits of physical activity for breast cancer (bca) survivors, and they hold potential for supporting health behaviour change. However, the extent to which cancer centre Web sites use evidence-based behaviour change techniques to foster physical activity behaviour among bca survivors is currently unknown. The aim of our study was to evaluate the presentation of behaviour-change techniques on Canadian cancer centre Web sites to promote physical activity behaviour for bca survivors. All Canadian cancer centre Web sites ( n = 39) were evaluated by two raters using the Coventry, Aberdeen, and London-Refined (calo-re) taxonomy of behaviour change techniques and the eEurope 2002 Quality Criteria for Health Related Websites. Descriptive statistics were calculated. The most common behaviour change techniques used on Web sites were providing information about consequences in general (80%), suggesting goal-setting behaviour (56%), and planning social support or social change (46%). Overall, Canadian cancer centre Web sites presented an average of M = 6.31 behaviour change techniques (of 40 that were coded) to help bca survivors increase their physical activity behaviour. Evidence of quality factors ranged from 90% (sites that provided evidence of readability) to 0% (sites that provided an editorial policy). Our results provide preliminary evidence that, of 40 behaviour-change techniques that were coded, fewer than 20% were used to promote physical activity behaviour to bca survivors on cancer centre Web sites, and that the most effective techniques were inconsistently used. On cancer centre Web sites, health promotion specialists could focus on emphasizing knowledge mobilization efforts using available research into behaviour-change techniques to help bca survivors increase their physical activity.

  16. Efficiency of water coolant for DEMO divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetzer, Renate; Igitkhanov, Yuri; Bazylev, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, water-cooled divertor concepts have been developed for limited incident fluxes without taking into account transient power loadings. In this paper we analyzed the efficiency of water as a coolant for the particular PFC tungsten monoblock shield with a cooling tube made from Cu alloy (Cu OFHC) as a laminate adjacent to W and a low activation martensitic steel (Eurofer) as inner tube contacting the coolant. Thermal analysis is carried out by using the code MEMOS, which simulates W armour damage under the repetitive ELM heat loads. We consider cooling conditions which allow one to keep relatively high material temperatures (in the range 300–600 °C) thus minimizing Eurofer embrittlement under neutron irradiation. Expected DEMO I and DEMO II heat loads including type I ELMs are found to cause melting of the W surface during unmitigated ELMs. By mitigation of the ELMs melting of W is avoided. DEMO I operation under these conditions is save for cooling at water pressure 15.5 MPa and temperature 325 °C, while for DEMO II with mitigated ELMs the critical heat flux is exceeded and safe operation is not provided.

  17. Efficiency of water coolant for DEMO divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetzer, Renate, E-mail: renate.fetzer@kit.edu; Igitkhanov, Yuri; Bazylev, Boris

    2015-10-15

    Up to now, water-cooled divertor concepts have been developed for limited incident fluxes without taking into account transient power loadings. In this paper we analyzed the efficiency of water as a coolant for the particular PFC tungsten monoblock shield with a cooling tube made from Cu alloy (Cu OFHC) as a laminate adjacent to W and a low activation martensitic steel (Eurofer) as inner tube contacting the coolant. Thermal analysis is carried out by using the code MEMOS, which simulates W armour damage under the repetitive ELM heat loads. We consider cooling conditions which allow one to keep relatively high material temperatures (in the range 300–600 °C) thus minimizing Eurofer embrittlement under neutron irradiation. Expected DEMO I and DEMO II heat loads including type I ELMs are found to cause melting of the W surface during unmitigated ELMs. By mitigation of the ELMs melting of W is avoided. DEMO I operation under these conditions is save for cooling at water pressure 15.5 MPa and temperature 325 °C, while for DEMO II with mitigated ELMs the critical heat flux is exceeded and safe operation is not provided.

  18. Coolant circuit water chemistry of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilky, Peter; Doma, Arpad

    1985-01-01

    The numerous advantages of the proper selection of water chemistry parameters including low corrosion rate of the structural materials, hence the low-level activity build-up, depositions, radiation doses were emphasized. Major characteristics of water chemistry applied to the primary coolant of pressurized water reactors including neutral, slightly basic and strong basic ones are discussed. Boric acid is widely used to control reactivity. Primary coolant water chemistry of WWER type reactors which is based on the addition of ammonia and potassium hydroxide to boric acid is compared with that of other reactors. The demineralization of the total condensate of the steam turbines became a general trend in the water chemistry of the secondary coolant circuits. (V.N.)

  19. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep in COPD guidelines: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effing, Tanja W; Olds, Timothy; Williams, Marie T

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Physical activity, sedentary and sleep behaviours have strong associations with health. This systematic review aimed to identify how clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) report specific recommendations and strategies for these movement behaviours. Methods: A systematic search of databases (Medline, Scopus, CiNAHL, EMbase, Clinical Guideline), reference lists and websites identified current versions of CPGs published since 2005. Specific recommendations and strategies concerning physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep were extracted verbatim. The proportions of CPGs providing specific recommendations and strategies were reported. Results: From 2370 citations identified, 35 CPGs were eligible for inclusion. Of these, 21 (60%) provided specific recommendations for physical activity, while none provided specific recommendations for sedentary behaviour or sleep. The most commonly suggested strategies to improve movement behaviours were encouragement from a healthcare provider (physical activity n = 20; sedentary behaviour n = 2) and referral for a diagnostic sleep study (sleep n = 4). Conclusion: Since optimal physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep durations and patterns are likely to be associated with mitigating the effects of COPD, as well as with general health and well-being, there is a need for further COPD-specific research, consensus and incorporation of recommendations and strategies into CPGs. PMID:28774202

  20. Effects of total solar eclipse on the behavioural and metabolic activities of tropical intertidal animals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Ansari, Z.A.; Verlecar, X.N.; Harkantra, S.N.

    To study the effects of total solar eclipse of 16th Feb. 1980, on the behaviour and metabolic activities of intertidal invertebrates - nematodes, gastropods and bivalves - having different habitat preference a set of relevant observations, covering...

  1. The types and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of Senior Phase learners in Potchefstroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C.W. De Vos

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Strategies need to be implemented to raise the physical activity levels of Senior Phase learners, especially during weekdays, and to decrease sedentary behaviour. With this view in mind, recommendations are made for Physical Education teachers.

  2. Relating the bipolar spectrum to dysregulation of behavioural activation: a perspective from dynamical modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Steinacher

    Full Text Available Bipolar Disorders affect a substantial minority of the population and result in significant personal, social and economic costs. Understanding of the causes of, and consequently the most effective interventions for, this condition is an area requiring development. Drawing upon theories of Bipolar Disorder that propose the condition to be underpinned by dysregulation of systems governing behavioural activation or approach motivation, we present a mathematical model of the regulation of behavioural activation. The model is informed by non-linear, dynamical principles and as such proposes that the transition from "non-bipolar" to "bipolar" diagnostic status corresponds to a switch from mono- to multistability of behavioural activation level, rather than an increase in oscillation of mood. Consistent with descriptions of the behavioural activation or approach system in the literature, auto-activation and auto-inhibitory feedback is inherent within our model. Comparison between our model and empirical, observational data reveals that by increasing the non-linearity dimension in our model, important features of Bipolar Spectrum disorders are reproduced. Analysis from stochastic simulation of the system reveals the role of noise in behavioural activation regulation and indicates that an increase of nonlinearity promotes noise to jump scales from small fluctuations of activation levels to longer lasting, but less variable episodes. We conclude that further research is required to relate parameters of our model to key behavioural and biological variables observed in Bipolar Disorder.

  3. Relating the bipolar spectrum to dysregulation of behavioural activation: a perspective from dynamical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacher, Arno; Wright, Kim A

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar Disorders affect a substantial minority of the population and result in significant personal, social and economic costs. Understanding of the causes of, and consequently the most effective interventions for, this condition is an area requiring development. Drawing upon theories of Bipolar Disorder that propose the condition to be underpinned by dysregulation of systems governing behavioural activation or approach motivation, we present a mathematical model of the regulation of behavioural activation. The model is informed by non-linear, dynamical principles and as such proposes that the transition from "non-bipolar" to "bipolar" diagnostic status corresponds to a switch from mono- to multistability of behavioural activation level, rather than an increase in oscillation of mood. Consistent with descriptions of the behavioural activation or approach system in the literature, auto-activation and auto-inhibitory feedback is inherent within our model. Comparison between our model and empirical, observational data reveals that by increasing the non-linearity dimension in our model, important features of Bipolar Spectrum disorders are reproduced. Analysis from stochastic simulation of the system reveals the role of noise in behavioural activation regulation and indicates that an increase of nonlinearity promotes noise to jump scales from small fluctuations of activation levels to longer lasting, but less variable episodes. We conclude that further research is required to relate parameters of our model to key behavioural and biological variables observed in Bipolar Disorder.

  4. Coolant inlet device for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Hiroshi; Abe, Yasuhiro; Iwabuchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Kenji.

    1969-01-01

    Herein disclosed is a coolant inlet device for liquid-metal cooled reactors which employs a coolant distributor serving also as a supporting means for the reactor core. The distributor is mounted within the reactor vessel so as to slide horizontally on supporting lugs, and is further slidably connected via a junction pipe to a coolant inlet conduit protruding through the floor of the vessel. The distributor is adapted to uniformly disperse the highly pressured coolant over the reactor core so as to reduce the stresses sustained by the reactor vessel as well as the supporting lugs. Moreover, the slidable nature of the distributor allows thermal shock and excessive coolant pressures to be prevented or alleviated, factors which posed major difficulties in conventional coolant inlet devices. (Owens, K. J.)

  5. Behaviour of particles in a commercial advanced gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.; Wells, A.C.; Hedgecock, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Certain hypothetical fault conditions cause fission products to escape from a fraction of the fuel to an intact coolant circuit. A significant fraction of the activity, including iodine isotopes, is expected to attach to small particles suspended in the gas coolant, and the fate of the particles may influence the fraction of the activity available to escape to the environment with the small amount of gas that leaks continuously from the coolant circuit. A series of experiments has provided an understanding of the behaviour of such particles. Tracer particles of 0.6, 2, 5 and 17 μm diameter, labelled with 59 Fe, were dispersed as aerosols in the reactor coolant, and the subsequent variation of concentration was observed by measurement of a sequence of filter samples of the coolant gas. The changes in concentration were influenced by mixing processes, but showed clearly that loss processes reduced the burden in the coolant by two or three orders of magnitude within 3 h. The concentration did not follow a simple exponential decrease. Small particles deposited more rapidly than the largest size studied. These observations imply that particles both impact onto, and also bounce and resuspend from, the internal surfaces of the coolant circuit. Although the physical mechanisms of the particle-surface interaction cannot be described in detail, the results clearly demonstrate a large benefit due to deposition reducing the amount of circulating activity. The quantity of particle-borne activity available for escape with leaking coolant during 24 h following a release from fuel is reduced by a factor ranging from several hundred to a few thousand. (author)

  6. Objective measurements of daily physical activity patterns and sedentary behaviour in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Koster, Annemarie; Van Domelen, Dane R

    2013-01-01

    objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer.......objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer....

  7. Organic coolant for ARIES-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.K.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Sawan, M.; Gierszewski, P.; Hollies, R.; Sharafat, S.; Herring, S.

    1991-04-01

    ARIES-III is a D-He 3 reactor design study. It is found that the organic coolant is well suited for the D-He 3 reactor. This paper discusses the unique features of the D-He 3 reactor, and the reason that the organic coolant is compatible with those features. The problems associated with the organic coolant are also discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  8. A translational research intervention to reduce screen behaviours and promote physical activity among children: Switch-2-Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, J.; Jorna, M.; Hume, C.; Arundell, L.; Chahine, N.; Tienstra, M.L.; Crawford, D.

    2011-01-01

    Translational or implementation research that assesses the effectiveness of strategies to promote health behaviours among children that have been previously tested under 'ideal' conditions is rarely reported. Switch-2-Activity aimed to examine the effectiveness of an abbreviated programme delivered

  9. Physical properties of organic coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debbage, A.G.; Garton, D.A.; Kinneir, J.H.

    1963-03-01

    Density, viscosity, specific heat, vapour pressure and calorific value were measured within the temperature range 100 - 400 deg C for mixtures of Santowax R with pyrolytic high boiler and Santowax R with O.M.R.E. radiolytic high boiler; in addition measurements were made on Santowax OM, X-7 standard, X-7 loop coolant and O.M.R.E. coolant supplied by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. The accuracy of the measurements made were density (± 1/4%), viscosity (± 2%), specific heat (± 2%), vapour pressure (± 2%) and calorific value (± 1/2%). Thermal conductivity was calculated from an improved form of the Smiths equation with an accuracy within ± 6%. Equations fitted to the vapour pressure results were used to provide data outside the experimental range for burnout correlation purposes. The general effect of high boiler content on the specific heat and calorific values was small. The differences in physical property values for corresponding values of either pyrolytic or radiolytic high boiler were small for density (0.3%) and specific heat (2%), but quite large for viscosity (70%) with the pyrolytic high boiler mixture giving the higher value. The chemical analysis of all materials was based on gas chromatography and the relationship between this and an earlier distillation method established. (author)

  10. To total amount of activity ..... and beyond: Perspectives on measuring physical behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes B.J. Bussmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss some perspectives on definitions, constructs and outcome parameters of physical behaviour. The paper focuses on the following constructs: Physical activity & active lifestyle vs. sedentary behaviour & sedentary lifestyle; Amount of physical activity vs. amount of walking; Detailed body posture & movement data vs. overall physical activity data; Behavioural context of activities; Quantity vs. quality; Physical behaviour vs. physiological response.Subsequently, the following outcome parameters provided by data reduction procedures are discussed: Distribution of length of bouts; Variability in bout length; Time window; Intensity and intensity threshold.The overview indicates that physical behaviour is a multi-dimensional construct, and it stresses the importance and relevance of constructs and parameters other than total amount of physical activity.It is concluded that the challenge for the future will be to determine which parameters are most relevant, valid and responsive. This is a matter for physical behaviour researchers to consider, that is critical to multi-disciplinary collaboration.

  11. Cleaning of aluminum after machining with coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, B.

    1992-01-01

    An x-ray photoemission spectroscopic study was undertaken to compare the cleaning of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) aluminum extrusion storage ring vacuum chambers after machining with and without water soluble coolants. While there was significant contamination left by the coolants, the cleaning process was capable of removing the residue. The variation of the surface and near surface composition of samples machined either dry or with coolants was negligible after cleaning. The use of such coolants in the machining process is therefore recommended

  12. Coolant clean-up system in the primary coolant circuit for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Michio.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain the quality of coolants at a prescribed level by distillating coolants in the primary coolant circuit for a BWR type reactor to remove impurities therefrom, taking out the condensates from the top of the distillation column and extracting impurities in a concentrated state from the bottom. Constitution: Coolant water for cooling the core is recycled by a recycling pump by way of a recycling pipeway in a reactor. The coolants extracted from an extraction pipeway connected to the recycling pipeway are fed into a distillation column, where distillation is taken place. Impurities in the coolants, that is, in-core corrosion products, fission products generated in the reactor core, etc. are separated by the distillation, concentrated and solidified in the bottom of the distillation column. While on the other hand, condensates removed with the impurities, that is, coolants cleaned-up are recycled to the coolant water for cooling the reactor core. (Moriyama, K.)

  13. Measurement of carbon activity in sodium and steel and the behaviour of carbon-bearing species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran Pillai, S.; Ranganathan, R.; Mathews, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    Carburization or decarburization of structural materials in a sodium system depends on the local differences in carbon activity. The behaviour of carbon-bearing species in sodium influences its carbon activity. In order to understand the behaviour of carbon in these systems, an electrochemical carbon meter was fabricated in our laboratory. The original version of this meter was capable of operating in the temperature range of 850-980 K. Studies are carried out to extend this lower limit of temperature. Employing the carbon meter, experiments were carried out to understand the behaviour of carbon-bearing species. Gas equilibration experiments were also carried out with the same view. A new method for measuring the carbon activity in steels are described which employs the carbon meter. A review on these investigations and the conclusions reached on the behaviour of carbon in fast reactor loops are described

  14. Movement Activity Based Classification of Animal Behaviour with an Application to Data from Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewälder, Steffen; Broekhuis, Femke; Macdonald, David Whyte; Wilson, Alan Martin; McNutt, John Weldon; Shawe-Taylor, John; Hailes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method, based on machine learning techniques, for the analysis of a combination of continuous data from dataloggers and a sampling of contemporaneous behaviour observations. This data combination provides an opportunity for biologists to study behaviour at a previously unknown level of detail and accuracy; however, continuously recorded data are of little use unless the resulting large volumes of raw data can be reliably translated into actual behaviour. We address this problem by applying a Support Vector Machine and a Hidden-Markov Model that allows us to classify an animal's behaviour using a small set of field observations to calibrate continuously recorded activity data. Such classified data can be applied quantitatively to the behaviour of animals over extended periods and at times during which observation is difficult or impossible. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to data from six cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Cumulative activity data scores were recorded every five minutes by accelerometers embedded in GPS radio-collars for around one year on average. Direct behaviour sampling of each of the six cheetah were collected in the field for comparatively short periods. Using this approach we are able to classify each five minute activity score into a set of three key behaviour (feeding, mobile and stationary), creating a continuous behavioural sequence for the entire period for which the collars were deployed. Evaluation of our classifier with cross-validation shows the accuracy to be , but that the accuracy for individual classes is reduced with decreasing sample size of direct observations. We demonstrate how these processed data can be used to study behaviour identifying seasonal and gender differences in daily activity and feeding times. Results given here are unlike any that could be obtained using traditional approaches in both accuracy and detail. PMID:23185301

  15. Movement activity based classification of animal behaviour with an application to data from cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewälder, Steffen; Broekhuis, Femke; Macdonald, David Whyte; Wilson, Alan Martin; McNutt, John Weldon; Shawe-Taylor, John; Hailes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method, based on machine learning techniques, for the analysis of a combination of continuous data from dataloggers and a sampling of contemporaneous behaviour observations. This data combination provides an opportunity for biologists to study behaviour at a previously unknown level of detail and accuracy; however, continuously recorded data are of little use unless the resulting large volumes of raw data can be reliably translated into actual behaviour. We address this problem by applying a Support Vector Machine and a Hidden-Markov Model that allows us to classify an animal's behaviour using a small set of field observations to calibrate continuously recorded activity data. Such classified data can be applied quantitatively to the behaviour of animals over extended periods and at times during which observation is difficult or impossible. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to data from six cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Cumulative activity data scores were recorded every five minutes by accelerometers embedded in GPS radio-collars for around one year on average. Direct behaviour sampling of each of the six cheetah were collected in the field for comparatively short periods. Using this approach we are able to classify each five minute activity score into a set of three key behaviour (feeding, mobile and stationary), creating a continuous behavioural sequence for the entire period for which the collars were deployed. Evaluation of our classifier with cross-validation shows the accuracy to be 83%-94%, but that the accuracy for individual classes is reduced with decreasing sample size of direct observations. We demonstrate how these processed data can be used to study behaviour identifying seasonal and gender differences in daily activity and feeding times. Results given here are unlike any that could be obtained using traditional approaches in both accuracy and detail.

  16. Movement activity based classification of animal behaviour with an application to data from cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Grünewälder

    Full Text Available We propose a new method, based on machine learning techniques, for the analysis of a combination of continuous data from dataloggers and a sampling of contemporaneous behaviour observations. This data combination provides an opportunity for biologists to study behaviour at a previously unknown level of detail and accuracy; however, continuously recorded data are of little use unless the resulting large volumes of raw data can be reliably translated into actual behaviour. We address this problem by applying a Support Vector Machine and a Hidden-Markov Model that allows us to classify an animal's behaviour using a small set of field observations to calibrate continuously recorded activity data. Such classified data can be applied quantitatively to the behaviour of animals over extended periods and at times during which observation is difficult or impossible. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to data from six cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Cumulative activity data scores were recorded every five minutes by accelerometers embedded in GPS radio-collars for around one year on average. Direct behaviour sampling of each of the six cheetah were collected in the field for comparatively short periods. Using this approach we are able to classify each five minute activity score into a set of three key behaviour (feeding, mobile and stationary, creating a continuous behavioural sequence for the entire period for which the collars were deployed. Evaluation of our classifier with cross-validation shows the accuracy to be 83%-94%, but that the accuracy for individual classes is reduced with decreasing sample size of direct observations. We demonstrate how these processed data can be used to study behaviour identifying seasonal and gender differences in daily activity and feeding times. Results given here are unlike any that could be obtained using traditional approaches in both accuracy and detail.

  17. 1-D Compression Behaviour of Acid Sulphate Soils Treated with Alkali-Activated Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidul Islam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Improvements of soft soils by mechanically mixing cementitious additives have been widely practised for construction of infrastructure. Mixing of additives improves strength and compressibility properties of soils through the development of soil structure. This study investigates the 1-D compression behaviour of alkali-activated slag treated acid sulphate soils (ASS cured up to 365 days. The void ratio-logarithm of pressure (e-logσ′ behaviour of treated ASS, including the destructuration behaviour, with additive contents and curing time have been analysed. X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses have been undertaken to explain the observed variations of the 1-D compression behaviour. This paper presents the results of these analyses in view of obtaining an insight into the 1-D compression behaviour of treated ASS with the help of mineralogical analysis.

  18. 1-D Compression Behaviour of Acid Sulphate Soils Treated with Alkali-Activated Slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shahidul; Haque, Asadul; Bui, Ha Hong

    2016-04-15

    Improvements of soft soils by mechanically mixing cementitious additives have been widely practised for construction of infrastructure. Mixing of additives improves strength and compressibility properties of soils through the development of soil structure. This study investigates the 1-D compression behaviour of alkali-activated slag treated acid sulphate soils (ASS) cured up to 365 days. The void ratio-logarithm of pressure (e-logσ') behaviour of treated ASS, including the destructuration behaviour, with additive contents and curing time have been analysed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses have been undertaken to explain the observed variations of the 1-D compression behaviour. This paper presents the results of these analyses in view of obtaining an insight into the 1-D compression behaviour of treated ASS with the help of mineralogical analysis.

  19. Research on organic liquids as reactor coolants. Status report from Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.

    1967-01-01

    The organic-moderated and cooled nuclear reactor concept has stimulated extensive activities in numerous different areas of research. Investigations started in Hungary in 1958 do not cover all topics of interest in organic reactors and so far no projects have been started to build such a reactor. Since OMRE and other organic reactor experiments have already shown the potential use of organic materials as reactor coolants and moderators, efforts have been focused rather on the investigation and solution of certain specific particular problems and also on economic aspects. One of the most important objectives seems to be a better knowledge of the radiolytic heat transfer and neutron physics behaviour of organic liquids. In Hungary the following topics were selected for investigation: Radiation stability of organic compounds and their mixtures; Heat-transfer studies; Investigations on the moderating parameters of organic liquids; Economic analysis of the possible use of organic reactors for process heat application

  20. Research on organic liquids as reactor coolants. Status report from Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, I [Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest (Hungary)

    1967-01-01

    The organic-moderated and cooled nuclear reactor concept has stimulated extensive activities in numerous different areas of research. Investigations started in Hungary in 1958 do not cover all topics of interest in organic reactors and so far no projects have been started to build such a reactor. Since OMRE and other organic reactor experiments have already shown the potential use of organic materials as reactor coolants and moderators, efforts have been focused rather on the investigation and solution of certain specific particular problems and also on economic aspects. One of the most important objectives seems to be a better knowledge of the radiolytic heat transfer and neutron physics behaviour of organic liquids. In Hungary the following topics were selected for investigation: Radiation stability of organic compounds and their mixtures; Heat-transfer studies; Investigations on the moderating parameters of organic liquids; Economic analysis of the possible use of organic reactors for process heat application.

  1. Design and fabrication of magnetic coolant filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, B. N.

    2017-07-01

    Now a day's use of coolants in industry has become dominant because of high production demands. Coolants not only help in speeding up the production but also provide many advantages in the metal working operation. As the consumption of coolants is very high a system is badly in need, so as to recirculate the used coolant. Also the amount of hazardous waste generated by industrial plants has become an increasingly costly problem for the manufactures and an additional stress on the environment. Since the purchase and disposal of the spent cutting fluids is becoming increasingly expensive, fluid recycling is a viable option for minimizing the cost. Separation of metallic chips from the coolants by using magnetic coolant separation has proven a good management and maintenance of the cutting fluid. By removing the metallic chips, the coolant life is greatly extended, increases the machining quality and reduces downtime. Above being the case, a magnetic coolant filter is developed which utilizes high energy permanent magnets to develop a dense magnetic field along a narrow flow path into which the contaminated coolant is directed. The ferromagnetic particles captured and aligned by the dense magnetic field, from the efficient filter medium. This enables the unit to remove ferromagnetic particles from the coolant. Magnetic coolant filters use the principle of magnetic separation to purify the used coolant. The developed magnetic coolant separation has the capability of purifying 40 litres per minute of coolant with the size of the contaminants ranging from 1 µm to 30 µm. The filter will be helpful in saving the production cost as the cost associated with the proposed design is well justified by the cost savings in production. The magnetic field produced by permanent magnets will be throughout the area underneath the reservoir. This produces magnetic field 30mm above the coolant reservoir. Very fine particles are arrested without slip. The magnetic material used will not

  2. Zero waste machine coolant management strategy at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, B.; Algarra, F.; Wilburn, D.

    1998-01-01

    Machine coolants are used in machining equipment including lathes, grinders, saws and drills. The purpose of coolants is to wash away machinery debris in the form of metal fines, lubricate, and disperse heat between the part and the machine tool. An effective coolant prolongs tool life and protects against part rejection, commonly due to scoring or scorching. Traditionally, coolants have a very short effective life in the machine, often times being disposed of as frequently as once per week. The cause of coolant degradation is primarily due to the effects of bacteria, which thrive in the organic rich coolant environment. Bacteria in this environment reproduce at a logarithmic rate, destroying the coolant desirable aspects and causing potential worker health risks associated with the use of biocides to control the bacteria. The strategy described in this paper has effectively controlled bacterial activity without the use of biocides, avoided disposal of a hazardous waste, and has extended coolant life indefinitely. The Machine Coolant Management Strategy employed a combination of filtration, heavy lubricating oil removal, and aeration, which maintained the coolant peak performance without the use of biocides. In FY96, the Laboratory generated and disposed of 19,880 kg of coolants from 9 separate sites at a cost of $145K. The single largest generator was the main machine shop producing an average 14,000 kg annually. However, in FY97, the waste generation for the main machine shop dropped to 4,000 kg after the implementation of the zero waste strategy. It is expected that this value will be further reduced in FY98

  3. Family circumstance, sedentary behaviour and physical activity in adolescents living in England: Project STIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorely, Trish; Atkin, Andrew J; Biddle, Stuart JH; Marshall, Simon J

    2009-01-01

    Background Identification of non-modifiable correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth contributes to the development of effective targeted intervention strategies. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between family circumstances (e.g. socio-economic status, single vs. dual parent household, presence/absence of siblings) and leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviours in adolescents. Methods A total of 1171 adolescents (40% male; mean age 14.8 years) completed ecological momentary assessment diaries every 15 minutes for 3 weekdays outside of school hours and 1 weekend day. Analysed behaviours were sports/exercise, active travel, TV viewing, computer use, sedentary socialising (hanging-out, using the telephone, sitting and talking) and total sedentary behaviour. Linear regression was employed to estimate levels of association between individual family circumstance variables and each behaviour. Results Compared to girls from higher socioeconomic status (SES) groups, girls from low SES groups reported higher weekend TV viewing and higher weekday total sedentary behaviour. For boys, single parent status was associated with greater total sedentary behaviour compared to those from dual parent households. Boys and girls from low socio-economic neighbourhoods reported lower participation in sports/exercise compared to those living in higher socio-economic neighbourhoods. Conclusion Associations were not consistent across behaviours or between genders. Overall, findings indicate that boys from single parent households and girls from low socio-economic families may be at increased risk of high sedentary behaviour. Those living in low socioeconomic neighbourhoods may be at increased risk of reduced participation in sports and exercise. PMID:19519913

  4. Family circumstance, sedentary behaviour and physical activity in adolescents living in England: Project STIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorely Trish

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of non-modifiable correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth contributes to the development of effective targeted intervention strategies. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between family circumstances (e.g. socio-economic status, single vs. dual parent household, presence/absence of siblings and leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviours in adolescents. Methods A total of 1171 adolescents (40% male; mean age 14.8 years completed ecological momentary assessment diaries every 15 minutes for 3 weekdays outside of school hours and 1 weekend day. Analysed behaviours were sports/exercise, active travel, TV viewing, computer use, sedentary socialising (hanging-out, using the telephone, sitting and talking and total sedentary behaviour. Linear regression was employed to estimate levels of association between individual family circumstance variables and each behaviour. Results Compared to girls from higher socioeconomic status (SES groups, girls from low SES groups reported higher weekend TV viewing and higher weekday total sedentary behaviour. For boys, single parent status was associated with greater total sedentary behaviour compared to those from dual parent households. Boys and girls from low socio-economic neighbourhoods reported lower participation in sports/exercise compared to those living in higher socio-economic neighbourhoods. Conclusion Associations were not consistent across behaviours or between genders. Overall, findings indicate that boys from single parent households and girls from low socio-economic families may be at increased risk of high sedentary behaviour. Those living in low socioeconomic neighbourhoods may be at increased risk of reduced participation in sports and exercise.

  5. Reducing the decline in physical activity during pregnancy: a systematic review of behaviour change interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead Currie

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Physical activity (PA typically declines throughout pregnancy. Low levels of PA are associated with excessive weight gain and subsequently increase risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension disorders, delivery by caesarean section and stillbirth. Systematic reviews on PA during pregnancy have not explored the efficacy of behaviour change techniques or related theory in altering PA behaviour. This systematic review evaluated the content of PA interventions to reduce the decline of PA in pregnant women with a specific emphasis on the behaviour change techniques employed to elicit this change. SEARCH AND REVIEW METHODOLOGY: Literature searches were conducted in eight databases. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were employed. Two reviewers independently evaluated each intervention using the behaviour change techniques (BCT taxonomy to identify the specific behaviour change techniques employed. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias using the guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration. Overall quality was determined using the GRADE approach. FINDINGS: A total of 1140 potentially eligible papers were identified from which 14 studies were selected for inclusion. Interventions included counselling (n = 6, structured exercise (n = 6 and education (n = 2. Common behaviour change techniques employed in these studies were goal setting and planning, feedback, repetition and substitution, shaping knowledge and comparison of behaviours. Regular face-to-face meetings were also commonly employed. PA change over time in intervention groups ranged from increases of 28% to decreases of 25%. In 8 out of 10 studies, which provided adequate data, participants in the intervention group were more physically active post intervention than controls. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Physical activity interventions incorporating behaviour change techniques help reduce the decline in PA throughout pregnancy

  6. Reactor having coolant recycling pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tadashi; Karatsuka, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Hajime.

    1991-01-01

    In a coolant recycling pump for an LMFBR type reactor, vertical grooves are formed to a static portion which surrounds a pump shaft as far as the lower end thereof. Sodium mists present in an annular gap of the pump shaft form a rotational flow, lose its centrifugal force at the grooved portion and are collected positively to the grooved portion. Further, since the rotational flow in the grooved channel is in a state of a cavity flow, the pressure is released in the grooved portion and a secondary eddy current is formed thereby providing a depressurized state. Accordingly, by a synergestic effect of the centrifugal force and the cavity flow, sodium mists can be recovered completely. (T.M.)

  7. The school environment and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour: a mixed-studies systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, K L; Atkin, A J; Corder, K; Suhrcke, M; van Sluijs, E M F

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing academic and policy interest in interventions aiming to promote young people's health by ensuring that the school environment supports healthy behaviours. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current evidence on school-based policy, physical and social-environmental influences on adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Electronic databases were searched to identify studies that (1) involved healthy adolescents (11-18 years old), (2) investigated school-environmental influences and (3) reported a physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour outcome or theme. Findings were synthesized using a non-quantitative synthesis and thematic analysis. Ninety-three papers of mixed methodological quality were included. A range of school-based policy (e.g. break time length), physical (e.g. facilities) and social-environmental (e.g. teacher behaviours) factors were associated with adolescent physical activity, with limited research on sedentary behaviour. The mixed-studies synthesis revealed the importance of specific activity settings (type and location) and intramural sport opportunities for all students. Important physical education-related factors were a mastery-oriented motivational climate and autonomy supportive teaching behaviours. Qualitative evidence highlighted the influence of the wider school climate and shed light on complexities of the associations observed in the quantitative literature. This review identifies future research needs and discusses potential intervention approaches to be considered. © 2015 World Obesity.

  8. The school environment and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour: a mixed‐studies systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, A. J.; Corder, K.; Suhrcke, M.; van Sluijs, E. M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is increasing academic and policy interest in interventions aiming to promote young people's health by ensuring that the school environment supports healthy behaviours. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current evidence on school‐based policy, physical and social‐environmental influences on adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Electronic databases were searched to identify studies that (1) involved healthy adolescents (11–18 years old), (2) investigated school‐environmental influences and (3) reported a physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour outcome or theme. Findings were synthesized using a non‐quantitative synthesis and thematic analysis. Ninety‐three papers of mixed methodological quality were included. A range of school‐based policy (e.g. break time length), physical (e.g. facilities) and social‐environmental (e.g. teacher behaviours) factors were associated with adolescent physical activity, with limited research on sedentary behaviour. The mixed‐studies synthesis revealed the importance of specific activity settings (type and location) and intramural sport opportunities for all students. Important physical education‐related factors were a mastery‐oriented motivational climate and autonomy supportive teaching behaviours. Qualitative evidence highlighted the influence of the wider school climate and shed light on complexities of the associations observed in the quantitative literature. This review identifies future research needs and discusses potential intervention approaches to be considered. PMID:26680609

  9. Mathematical model of the reactor coolant pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozuh, M.

    1989-01-01

    The mathematical model of reactor coolant pump is described in this paper. It is based on correlations for centrifugal reactor coolant pumps. This code is one of the elements needed for the simulation of the whole NPP primary system. In subroutine developed according to this model we tried in every possible detail to incorporate plant specific data for Krsko NPP. (author)

  10. Perceived social support and parental education as determinants of adolescents' physical activity and eating behaviour: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J

    2015-08-01

    To examine the role of perceived social support and parental education on physical activity and eating behaviour of Ghanaian adolescents. Seven hundred and seventy Senior High School students (504 boys and 266 girls) between the ages of 14-21 years participated by completing questionnaires on perceived social support, physical activity and eating behaviour. The highest education attained by either parent or guardian was also obtained. Multivariate analysis of covariance was the main statistical test used to analyse the data. The results showed significant gender differences in physical activity and eating behaviour combined, with boys more likely to engage in physical activity than girls, and girls also more likely to engage in healthy eating behaviour than boys, albeit the effect was not statistically significant. While perceived social support had a significant positive effect on eating behaviour and physical activity, parental education had a significant effect only on eating behaviour but not physical activity. Perceived social support from family coupled with parental education provides more opportunities for adolescents to engage in healthy eating behaviour. Also, parents' educational attainment alone does not necessarily guarantee that adolescents will engage in physical activity; providing the needed social support and conducive home environment is more likely to induce physical activity behaviours. Finally, physical activity and eating behaviour should not be construed as alternative health behaviours as suggested by gender differentials in these health behaviours.

  11. Time-dependent coolant velocity measurements in an operating BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luebbesmeyer, D.; Crowe, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    A method to measure time-dependent fluid velocities in BWR-bundle elements by noise analysis of the incore-neutron-detector signals is shown. Two application examples of the new method are given. The time behaviour of the fluid velocity in the bundle element during a scheduled power excursion of the plant. The change of power was performed by changing the coolant flow through the core The apparent change of the fluid velocity due to thermal elongation of the helix-drive of the TIP-system. A simplified mathematical model was derived for this elongation to use as a reference to check the validity of the new method. (author)

  12. Cost and Outcome of BehaviouRal Activation (COBRA): a randomised controlled trial of behavioural activation versus cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David A; Rhodes, Shelley; Ekers, David; McMillan, Dean; Taylor, Rod S; Byford, Sarah; Barrett, Barbara; Finning, Katie; Ganguli, Poushali; Warren, Fiona; Farrand, Paul; Gilbody, Simon; Kuyken, Willem; O'Mahen, Heather; Watkins, Ed; Wright, Kim; Reed, Nigel; Fletcher, Emily; Hollon, Steven D; Moore, Lucy; Backhouse, Amy; Farrow, Claire; Garry, Julie; Kemp, Deborah; Plummer, Faye; Warner, Faith; Woodhouse, Rebecca

    2017-08-01

    Depression is a common, debilitating and costly disorder. The best-evidenced psychological therapy - cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) - is complex and costly. A simpler therapy, behavioural activation (BA), may be an effective alternative. To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of BA compared with CBT for depressed adults at 12 and 18 months' follow-up, and to investigate the processes of treatments. Randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial stratified by depression severity, antidepressant use and recruitment site, with embedded process evaluation; and randomisation by remote computer-generated allocation. Three community mental health services in England. Adults aged ≥ 18 years with major depressive disorder (MDD) recruited from primary care and psychological therapy services. BA delivered by NHS junior mental health workers (MHWs); CBT by NHS psychological therapists. Primary: depression severity (as measured via the Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PHQ-9) at 12 months. Secondary: MDD status; number of depression-free days; anxiety (as measured via the Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7); health-related quality of life (as measured via the Short Form questionnaire-36 items) at 6, 12 and 18 months; and PHQ-9 at 6 and 18 months, all collected by assessors blinded to treatment allocation. Non-inferiority margin was 1.9 PHQ-9 points. We undertook intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. We explored cost-effectiveness by collecting direct treatment and other health- and social-care costs and calculating quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) using the EuroQol-5 Dimensions, three-level version, at 18 months. We recruited 440 participants (BA, n  = 221; CBT, n  = 219); 175 (79%) BA and 189 (86%) CBT participants provided ITT data and 135 (61%) BA and 151 (69%) CBT participants provided PP data. At 12 months we found that BA was non-inferior to CBT {ITT: CBT 8.4 PHQ-9 points [standard deviation (SD) 7.5 PHQ-9 points], BA

  13. Organic coolant in Winnipeg riverbed sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, J.E.; Acres, O.E.

    1979-03-01

    Between January and May 1977 a prolonged leak of organic coolant occurred from the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment's nuclear reactor, and a minimum of 1450 kg of coolant entered the Winnipeg River and was deposited on the riverbed. The level of radioactivity associated with this coolant was low, contributing less than 0.2 μGy (0.02 mrad) a year to the natural background gamma radiation field from the riverbed. The concentration of coolant in the water samples never exceeded 0.02 mg/L, the lower limit of detection. The mortality of crayfish, held in cages where the riverbed was covered with the largest deposits of coolant, was not significantly different from that in the control cages upstream of the outfall. No evidence of fish kill was found. (author)

  14. Primary coolant circuits in FBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutani, Masushiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate the requirement of a pump for the forcive circulation of primary coolants and avoid the manufacturing difficulty of equipments. Constitution: In primary coolant circuits of an LMFBR type reactor having a recycling path forming a closed loop between a reactor core and a heat exchanger, coolants recycled through the recycling path are made of a magnetic fluid comprising liquid sodium incorporated with fine magnetic powder, and an electromagnet is disposed to the downstream of the heat exchanger. In the above-mentioned structure, since the magnetic fluid as the primary coolants losses its magnetic property when heated in the reactor core but recovers the property at a lower temperature after the completion of the heat exchange, the magnetic fluid can forcively be flown through the recycling path under the effect of the electromagnet disposed to the down stream of the heat exchanger to thereby forcively recycle the primary coolants. (Kawakami, Y.)

  15. The Impact of Activity Based Working (ABW on Workplace Activity, Eating Behaviours, Productivity, and Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Arundell

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The redesign of the physical workplace according to activity-based working (ABW principles has potential to influence employee health and workplace outcomes. This natural experiment examined changes in accelerometer-derived workplace activity, self-reported eating behaviours, productivity, workplace satisfaction before (March to November 2014 and six to nine months after moving to an ABW workplace compared to a comparison workplace (n = 146 at baseline (56% ABW, aged 40.1 ± 8.5 years, 72% female. Interviews were also conducted with 21 ABW participants. Between- and within-group differences were examined and mixed model analysis examined intervention effects over time. Effect sizes were calculated on change scores (Cohen’s d. Although not statistically significant, ABW participants had meaningful improvements in workday sedentary time, light-, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, job satisfaction and relationship with co-workers (d = 0.379–0.577, and small declines in productivity (d = 0.278. There were significant, meaningful, and beneficial intervention effects on perceived organisational support for being active in the workplace, frequency of eating lunch with colleagues, and satisfaction with the physical environment in ABW compared to comparison participants (d = 0.501–0.839. Qualitative data suggested that ABW employees associated ABW with greater opportunities for movement and collaboration, but had mixed views on the impact on productivity. Future research with larger samples and over longer follow-up periods is warranted.

  16. The Impact of Activity Based Working (ABW) on Workplace Activity, Eating Behaviours, Productivity, and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arundell, Lauren; Sudholz, Bronwyn; Teychenne, Megan; Salmon, Jo; Hayward, Brooke; Healy, Genevieve N; Timperio, Anna

    2018-05-17

    The redesign of the physical workplace according to activity-based working (ABW) principles has potential to influence employee health and workplace outcomes. This natural experiment examined changes in accelerometer-derived workplace activity, self-reported eating behaviours, productivity, workplace satisfaction before (March to November 2014) and six to nine months after moving to an ABW workplace compared to a comparison workplace ( n = 146 at baseline (56% ABW, aged 40.1 ± 8.5 years, 72% female). Interviews were also conducted with 21 ABW participants. Between- and within-group differences were examined and mixed model analysis examined intervention effects over time. Effect sizes were calculated on change scores (Cohen's d ). Although not statistically significant, ABW participants had meaningful improvements in workday sedentary time, light-, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, job satisfaction and relationship with co-workers ( d = 0.379⁻0.577), and small declines in productivity ( d = 0.278). There were significant, meaningful, and beneficial intervention effects on perceived organisational support for being active in the workplace, frequency of eating lunch with colleagues, and satisfaction with the physical environment in ABW compared to comparison participants ( d = 0.501⁻0.839). Qualitative data suggested that ABW employees associated ABW with greater opportunities for movement and collaboration, but had mixed views on the impact on productivity. Future research with larger samples and over longer follow-up periods is warranted.

  17. Radioactive corrosion products in circuit of fast reactor loop with dissociating coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, V.M.; Katanaev, A.O.

    1982-01-01

    The results of experimental investigation into depositions of radionuclides of corrosion origin on the surfaces of a reactor-in-pile loop facility with a dissociating coolant are presented. It is stated that the ratio of radionuclides in fixed depositions linearly decreases with decrease of the coolant temperature at the core-condenser section. The element composition of non-fixed compositions quantitatively and qualitatively differs from the composition of structural material, and it is more vividly displayed for the core-condenser section. The main mechanism of circuit contamination with radioactive corrosion products is substantiated: material corrosion in the zones of coolant phase transfer, their remove by the coolant in the core, deposition, activation and wash-out by the coolant from the core surfaces

  18. Associations of children's independent mobility and active travel with physical activity, sedentary behaviour and weight status: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeppe, Stephanie; Duncan, Mitch J; Badland, Hannah; Oliver, Melody; Curtis, Carey

    2013-07-01

    Health benefits from children's independent mobility and active travel beyond school travel are largely unexplored. This review synthesized the evidence for associations of independent mobility and active travel to various destinations with physical activity, sedentary behaviour and weight status. Systematic review. A systematic search in six databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, SportDiscus, PsychInfo, TRIS) for papers published between January 1990 and March 2012 was undertaken, focussing on children aged 3-18 years. Study inclusion and methodological quality were independently assessed by two reviewers. 52 studies were included. Most studies focussed solely on active travel to and/or from school, and showed significant positive associations with physical activity. The same relationship was detected for active travel to leisure-related places and independent mobility with physical activity. An inverse relationship between active travel to school and weight status was evident but findings were inconsistent. Few studies examined correlations between active travel to school and self-reported screen-time or objectively measured sedentary behaviour, and findings were unclear. Studies on independent mobility suggested that children who have the freedom to play outdoors and travel actively without adult supervision accumulate more physical activity than those who do not. Further investigation of children's active travel to leisure-related destinations, measurement of diverse sedentary behaviour beyond simply screen-based activities, and consistent thresholds for objectively measured sedentary behaviour in children will clarify the inconsistent evidence base on associations of active travel with sedentary behaviour and weight status. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Accelerometer-measured sedentary behaviour and physical activity of inpatients with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruisdijk, Frank; Deenik, Jeroen; Tenback, Diederik; Tak, Erwin; Beekman, Aart-Jan; van Harten, Peter; Hopman-Rock, Marijke; Hendriksen, Ingrid

    2017-08-01

    Sedentary behaviour and lack of physical activity threatens health. Research concerning these behaviours of inpatients with severe mental illness is limited but urgently needed to reveal prevalence and magnitude. In total, 184 inpatients (men n =108, women n =76, mean age 57,4, 20% first generation antipsychotics, 40% second generation antipsychotics, 43% antidepressants, mean years hospitalisation 13 years), with severe mental illness of a Dutch psychiatric hospital wore an accelerometer for five days to objectively measure total activity counts per hour and percentages in sedentary behaviour, light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Accelerometer data were compared with data of 54 healthy ward employees. Patients showed significantly less activity counts per hour compared to employees (p=0.02), although the differences were small (d=0.32). Patients were sedentary during 84% of the wear time (50min/h), spend 10% in light intensity physical activity and 6% in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Age was the only significant predictor, predicting less total activity counts/h in higher ages. Decreasing sedentary behaviour and improving physical activity in this population should be a high priority in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nanofluid as coolant for grinding process: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananathan, J.; Samykano, M.; Sudhakar, K.; Subramaniam, S. R.; Selavamani, S. K.; Manoj Kumar, Nallapaneni; Keng, Ngui Wai; Kadirgama, K.; Hamzah, W. A. W.; Harun, W. S. W.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reviews the recent progress and applications of nanoparticles in lubricants as a coolant (cutting fluid) for grinding process. The role of grinding machining in manufacturing and the importance of lubrication fluids during material removal are discussed. In grinding process, coolants are used to improve the surface finish, wheel wear, flush the chips and to reduce the work-piece thermal deformation. The conventional cooling technique, i.e., flood cooling delivers a large amount of fluid and mist which hazardous to the environment and humans. Industries are actively looking for possible ways to reduce the volume of coolants used in metal removing operations due to the economical and ecological impacts. Thus as an alternative, an advanced cooling technique known as Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) has been introduced to the enhance the surface finish, minimize the cost, to reduce the environmental impacts and to reduce the metal cutting fluid consumptions. Nanofluid is a new-fangled class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometre-size solid particles into base fluids such as water, lubrication oils to further improve the properties of the lubricant or coolant. In addition to advanced cooling technique review, this paper also reviews the application of various nanoparticles and their performance in grinding operations. The performance of nanoparticles related to the cutting forces, surface finish, tool wear, and temperature at the cutting zone are briefly reviewed. The study reveals that the excellent properties of the nanofluid can be beneficial in cooling and lubricating application in the manufacturing process.

  1. The types and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The adapted Children's Leisure Activities Study Survey (CLASS) questionnaire was used for determining the types and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of 230 Grade 7 learners, from three schools in Potchefstroom. Data were analysed by means of the SAS statistics programme, and descriptive ...

  2. Leadership Behaviour of College Students in Relation to Their Leisure Time Activities in College Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Priyanka

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the Leadership behaviour of college students in relation to their Leisure time activities in college life. In this study, the researcher wants to see the contribution of leisure time activities in developing the qualities of leadership of college students. The main objective of the study was to find out the relationship…

  3. Behaviour of the activity of cellulase irradiated under various conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumakura, M; Kaetsu, I

    1988-04-18

    The activity of cellulase irradiated at various conditions has been studied. The activity of cellulase irradiated at low temperature (-78 /sup 0/C) increased by heating at 40 /sup 0/C, but that of cellulase irradiated at high temperature above 0 /sup 0/C decreased. The activity of cellulase irradiated in the dry state at room temperature increased with irradiation dose. The effect of adding biological substances such as amino acids, enzymes, and agar on the irradiation of cellulase was studied. It was shown that EDTA and p-benzoquinone have a protective ability against radiation-induced inactivation of the enzyme.

  4. Behaviour of the activity of cellulase irradiated under various conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1988-01-01

    The activity of cellulase irradiated at various conditions has been studied. The activity of cellulase irradiated at low temperature (-78 0 C) increased by heating at 40 0 C, but that of cellulase irradiated at high temperature above 0 0 C decreased. The activity of cellulase irradiated in the dry state at room temperature increased with irradiation dose. The effect of adding biological substances such as amino acids, enzymes, and agar on the irradiation of cellulase was studied. It was shown that EDTA and p-benzoquinone have a protective ability against radiation-induced inactivation of the enzyme. (author)

  5. Behavioural sampling techniques and activity pattern of Indian Pangolin Manis crassicaudata (Mammalia: Manidae in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Mohapatra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on six Indian Pangolins Manis crassicaudata observed in captivity at the Pangolin Conservation Breeding Centre, Nandankanan, Odisha, India over 1377 hours of video recordings for each pangolin between 1500hr and 0800hr on 81 consecutive observational days. Video recordings were made through digital systems assisted by infrared enabled CCTV cameras. The data highlights patterns relate to 12 different behaviour and enclosure utilization. Different interval periods for sampling of instantaneous behaviour from video recordings have been evaluated to develop optimal study methods for the future. The activity budgets of pangolins displayed natural patterns of nocturnal activity with a peak between 20:00-21:00 hr. When out of their burrow, they spent about 59% of the time walking in the enclosure, and 14% of the time feeding. The repeatability of the behaviours has a significant negative correlation with the mean time spent in that behaviour. Focal behavioural samples significantly correlated with instantaneous samples up to 15 minutes interval. The correlation values gradually decreased with the increase in sampling interval. The results indicate that results obtained from focal sampling and instantaneous sampling with relatively shorter intervals (=5 minutes are about equally reliable. The study suggests use of focal sampling, instead of instantaneous sampling to record behaviour relating to social interactions.

  6. Abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramics containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Technical Education Faculty, Mersin University, 33480 Tarsus, Turkey. MS received 18 October 2005; revised 22 March 2006. Abstract. In this study, abrasive ... process were used to produce bio-active ceramics. Fracture toughness of studied ...

  7. Development of Virtual Traveller: A behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity during primary school lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Norris

    2015-09-01

    Three sources of data were used to inform the intervention development process: the existing research literature on school-based physical activity interventions, teacher interviews (N=12 and pupil focus groups (N=18 and an experimental feasibility study (N=85; Norris, Shelton, Dunsmuir, Duke-Williams, & Stamatakis, 2015b. The Behaviour Change Wheel was used as a framework to guide synthesis of evidence into the resulting intervention. Potential appropriate Behaviour Change Techniques were reviewed and embedded within the intervention. Conclusions The resulting 6-week Virtual Traveller programme with a 3-month follow-up period is currently in its final stages of evaluation in ten Greater London primary schools. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel and Behaviour Change Techniques allows development of replicable health interventions in applied settings such as schools.

  8. Socio-economic factors and adolescent sexual activity and behaviour in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Donald B; Hughes, Jean; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Rigby, Janet A

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about associations of adolescents' socio-economic status (SES) and their sexual activity and risk behaviours. This study examined these associations in Nova Scotia adolescents aged 15-19. Students at four high schools in northern Nova Scotia completed surveys examining relationships of family SES factors and: 1) sexual activity (having had vaginal or anal intercourse, intercourse before age 15 (early intercourse)); and 2) risk behaviours (use of contraception/condoms, number of partners and unplanned intercourse after substance use). Of students present when the survey was administered, 2,135 (91%) responded. Almost half (49%) had had vaginal intercourse, and 7% anal intercourse. In univariate analysis for young women, non-intact family structure and lower parental education were associated with having vaginal, anal and early intercourse. Female risk behaviours showed no significant univariate associations with SES. Young men had univariate associations of family structure, lower maternal education and paternal unemployment with early intercourse, and lower paternal education with anal intercourse. Condom use was higher for young men with employed fathers; those living with both parents less often had >1 sexual partner. In multivariate analysis, most SES associations with females' sexual activities held, while most for males did not, and few associations of SES and risk behaviours were seen for females. Indicators of lower SES are associated with sexual activity in young women. Sexual risk behaviours are not often associated with SES in females, though they are more so in males. These findings have implications for sexual health promotion and health services.

  9. Flow boiling test of GDP replacement coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    The tests were part of the CFC replacement program to identify and test alternate coolants to replace CFC-114 being used in the uranium enrichment plants at Paducah and Portsmouth. The coolants tested, C 4 F 10 and C 4 F 8 , were selected based on their compatibility with the uranium hexafluoride process gas and how well the boiling temperature and vapor pressure matched that of CFC-114. However, the heat of vaporization of both coolants is lower than that of CFC-114 requiring larger coolant mass flow than CFC-114 to remove the same amount of heat. The vapor pressure of these coolants is higher than CFC-114 within the cascade operational range, and each coolant can be used as a replacement coolant with some limitation at 3,300 hp operation. The results of the CFC-114/C 4 F 10 mixture tests show boiling heat transfer coefficient degraded to a minimum value with about 25% C 4 F 10 weight mixture in CFC-114 and the degree of degradation is about 20% from that of CFC-114 boiling heat transfer coefficient. This report consists of the final reports from Cudo Technologies, Ltd

  10. Clustering of children's activity behaviour: the use of self-report versus direct measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay Mark S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While we concur with the objectives of the recent International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity paper published by Jago and colleagues titled "Physical activity and sedentary behaviour typologies of 10-11 year olds", we feel that the results as currently presented do not support their conclusions. Though the authors created groups of children with dramatically different patterns of self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour, an inspection of the objectively measured accelerometry data shows little difference between the groups. Further, in at least one instance the difference between groups was of the opposite direction when using objective measures, as opposed to the self-report measures used in the published analysis. Thus, we caution the authors from making conclusions based on their self-report data, and propose that they re-analyze their data using their objectively measured data instead.

  11. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours among rural adults in Suixi, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F; Hovell, Melbourne F; Du, Jianzhong; Zheng, Miao; He, Haiying; Owen, Neville

    2011-04-26

    Modernisation and urbanisation have led to lifestyle changes and increasing risks for chronic diseases in China. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours among rural populations need to be better understood, as the rural areas are undergoing rapid transitions. This study assessed levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviours of farming and non-farming adults in rural Suixi, described activity differences between farming and non-farming seasons, and examined correlates of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and TV viewing. A random sample of rural adults (n=287) in Suixi County, Guangdong, China were surveyed in 2009 by trained interviewers. Questionnaires assessed multiple physical activities and sedentary behaviours, and their correlates. Analysis of covariance compared activity patterns across occupations, and multiple logistic regressions assessed correlates of LTPA and TV viewing. Quantitative data analyses were followed by community consultation for validation and interpretation of findings. Activity patterns differed by occupation. Farmers were more active through their work than other occupations, but were less active and more sedentary during the non-farming season than the farming season. Rural adults in Suixi generally had a low level of LTPA and a high level of TV viewing. Marital status, household size, social modelling for LTPA and owning sports equipment were significantly associated with LTPA but not with TV time. Most findings were validated through community consultation. For chronic disease prevention, attention should be paid to the currently decreasing occupational physical activity and increasing sedentary behaviours in rural China. Community and socially-based initiatives provide opportunities to promote LTPA and prevent further increase in sedentary behaviours. © 2011 Ding et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  12. Leisure-time Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Older People: The Influence of Sport Involvement on Behaviour Patterns in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayman, Amy M; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; Spinney, Jamie E L; Stone, Rachael C; Baker, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Given the dramatic demographic change underway in most industrialized nations, the health of older adults is a major concern, particularly given the prevalence of sedentary behaviours and physical inactivity among ageing populations. Researchers have suggested sport participation in later life promotes other health-related behaviours, however, these relationships are poorly understood. It is possible for individuals to be classified as sufficiently active and still spend most of their day involved in sedentary pursuits. Moreover, there is little information on older sport participants' use of time compared to leisurely active or inactive peers and whether type of physical activity involvement is associated with differences in older adults' behaviour patterns. With this in mind, data from 1,723 respondents (65 years and older) who completed the sport module of the 2010 Canadian General Social Survey-Time Use were used to investigate the influence of physical activity involvement (competitive sport vs. non-competitive sport vs. physically active leisure vs. inactivity) on time spent in leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Results indicated that competitive sport participants spent less time engaging in sedentary behaviours compared to the physically active leisure or inactive respondents; however, sport participants (both competitive and non-competitive) also spent less time engaging in leisure-time physical activities than the physically active leisure group. Implications of these findings to assumptions related to the activity levels of older sport participants, suggestions for future research, and considerations for sport-related interventions aimed at enhancing health in older adulthood are discussed.

  13. Mechanical behaviour of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-activated metakaolin blended pastes. Statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higuera, I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study and development of alternative, more ecoefficient binders than portland cement are attracting a good deal of scientific and technological interest. Binders obtained from the chemical interaction between calcium silico-aluminous materials and highly alkaline solutions are one of several types of such possible cements. The present paper discusses the mechanical behaviour and mineralogical composition of blended pastes made from NaOH-activated vitreous blast furnace slag and metakaolin. The aim of the study was to determine how parameters such as the slag/metakaolin ratio, activating solution concentration and curing temperature affect strength development in these binders. A statistical study was conducted to establish the impact of each variable and model strength behaviour in these alkaline cements. The conclusion drawn is that activator concentration and the slag/metakaolin ratio are both determinant parameters.

    El estudio y desarrollo de cementos alternativos y más eco-eficientes que el cemento Portland es un tema de gran impacto a nivel científico y tecnológico. Entre esos posibles cementos se encuentran los cementos alcalinos que son materiales conglomerantes obtenidos por la interacción química de materiales silico-aluminosos cálcicos y disoluciones fuertemente alcalinas. En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento mecánico y la composición mineralógica de mezclas de escoria vítrea de horno alto y metacaolín activadas alcalinamente con disoluciones de NaOH. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer cómo afectan parámetros tales como la relación escoria/metacaolín, la concentración de la disolución activadora y la temperatura de curado, al desarrollo resistente de las mezclas. A través del estudio estadístico realizado se ha podido establecer la influencia de cada variable y modelizar el comportamiento resistente de estos cementos alcalinos. Se concluye que la concentración del activador y la relaci

  14. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  15. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Vas

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period. The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  16. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e. distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g. resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation. PMID:26657240

  17. Coolant void effect investigation - case of a na-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glinatsis, G.; Gugiu, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of the last EURATOM-FP7 Program, a large sized Sodium-cooled FR (SFR) has been studied. Mixed carbides fuel (U, Pu)C has been adopted for the backup core solution and important work has been also performed in order to obtain an ''optimised'' backup configuration ''close'' to the reference one, which is fueled by mixed oxides fuel (U, Pu)Ox. The peculiarity of both core designs (the reference configuration and the optimised backup configuration) is the adoption of a 60 cm Plenum zone in the upper part of each fuel assembly (FA), that is filled by coolant, in order to mitigate (when emptied) the core positive coolant void effect. This paper presents some results of a detailed study of the coolant void effect for the above SFR with mixed carbides core. Many aspects, like geometric heterogeneity, the burnup state, the operating conditions, etc., have been taken into consideration in order to obtain information about the ''propagation'' and the behaviour of the coolant void effect itself. The performed study investigates also the coolant void effect consequences on some reactivity coefficients, which are important for a safe behaviour of the reactor. The investigation consisted in the steady state simulations of the reactor on different operating conditions in Monte Carlo approach. (authors)

  18. Continuous surveillance of reactor coolant circuit integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Continuous surveillance is important to assuring the integrity of a reactor coolant circuit. It can give pre-warning of structural degradation and indicate where off-line inspection should be focussed. These proceedings describe the state of development of several techniques which may be used. These involve measuring structural vibration, core neutron noise, acoustic emission from cracks, coolant leakage, or operating parameters such as coolant temperature and pressure. Twenty three papers have been abstracted and indexed separately for inclusion in the data base

  19. Coolant controls of a PEM fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jong-Woo; Choe, Song-Yul

    When operating the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, temperatures in the stack continuously change as the load current varies. The temperature directly affects the rate of chemical reactions and transport of water and reactants. Elevated temperature increases the mobility of water vapor, which reduces the ohmic over-potential in the membrane and eases removal of water produced. Adversely, the high temperature might impose thermal stress on the membrane and cathode catalyst and cause degradation. Conversely, excessive supply of coolants lowers the temperature in the stack and reduces the rate of the chemical reactions and water activity. Corresponding parasitic power dissipated at the electrical coolant pump increases and overall efficiency of the power system drops. Therefore, proper design of a control for the coolant flow plays an important role in ensuring highly reliable and efficient operations of the fuel cell system. Herein, we propose a new temperature control strategy based on a thermal circuit. The proposed thermal circuit consists of a bypass valve, a radiator with a fan, a reservoir and a coolant pump, while a blower and inlet and outlet manifolds are components of the air supply system. Classic proportional and integral (PI) controllers and a state feedback control for the thermal circuit were used in the design. In addition, the heat source term, which is dependent upon the load current, was feed-forwarded to the closed loop and the temperature effects on the air flow rate were minimized. The dynamics and performance of the designed controllers were evaluated and analyzed by computer simulations using developed dynamic fuel cell system models, where a multi-step current and an experimental current profile measured at the federal urban driving schedule (FUDS) were applied. The results show that the proposed control strategy cannot only suppress a temperature rise in the catalyst layer and prevent oxygen starvation, but also reduce the

  20. Organic coolants and their applications to fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.; Hollies, B.

    1986-08-01

    Organic coolants offer a unique set of characteristics for fusion applications. Their advantages include high-temperature (670 K or 400 degrees C) but low-pressure (2 MPa) operation, limited reactivity with lithium and lithium-lead, reduced corrosion and activation, good heat-transfer capabilities, no magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects, and an operating temperature range that extends to room temperature. The major disadvantages are decomposition and flammability. However, organic coolants have been extensively studied in Canada, including nineteen years with an operating 60-MW organic-cooled reactor. Proper attention to design and coolant chemistry controlled these potential problems to acceptable levels. This experience provides an extensive data base for design under fusion conditions. The organic fluid characteristics are described in sufficient detail to allow fusion system designers to evaluate organic coolants for specific applications. To illustrate and assess the potential applications, analyses are presented for organic-cooled blankets, first walls, high heat flux components and thermal power cycles. Designs are identified that take advantage of organic coolant features, yet have fluid decomposition related costs that are a small fraction of the overall cost of electricity. For example, organic-cooled first walls make lithium/ferritic steel blankets possible in high-field, high-surface-heat-flux tokamaks, and organic-cooled limiters (up to about 8 MW/m 2 surface heating) are a safer alternative to water cooling for liquid metal blanket concept. Organics can also be used in intermediate heat exchanger loops to provide efficient heat transfer with low reactivity and a large tritium barrier. 55 refs

  1. Counselling increases physical activity behaviour nine weeks after rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, H P; Streppel, K R M; van der Beek, A J; van der Woude, L H V; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M M R; van Harten, W H; van Mechelen, W

    BACKGROUND: For people with disabilities, a physically active lifestyle can reduce the risk of secondary health problems and improve overall functioning. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of the sport stimulation programme "rehabilitation and sports" (R&S) and R&S combined with the daily physical

  2. Systematic review of behaviour change techniques to promote participation in physical activity among people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R; Adamczewska, Natalia; Howlett, Neil

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence for the potential promise of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to increase physical activity among people with dementia (PWD). PsychINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched 01/01/2000-01/12/2016. Randomized controlled/quasi-randomized trials were included if they recruited people diagnosed/suspected to have dementia, used at least one BCT in the intervention arm, and had at least one follow-up measure of physical activity/adherence. Studies were appraised using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool, and BCTs were coded using Michie et al., 2013, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81. taxonomy. Intervention findings were narratively synthesized as either 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising', and BCTs were judged as having potential promise if they featured in at least twice as many very/quite promising than non-promising interventions (as per Gardner et al., 2016, Health Psychology Review, 10, 89). Nineteen articles from nine trials reported physical activity findings on behavioural outcomes (two very promising, one quite promising, and two non-promising) or intervention adherence (one quite promising and four non-promising). Thirteen BCTs were used across the interventions. While no BCT had potential promise to increase intervention adherence, three BCTs had potential promise for improving physical activity behaviour outcomes: goal setting (behaviour), social support (unspecified), and using a credible source. Three BCTs have potential promise for use in future interventions to increase physical activity among PWD. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? While physical activity is a key lifestyle factor to enhance and maintain health and wellbeing amongst the general population, adults rarely participate in sufficient levels to obtain these benefits. Systematic reviews suggest that

  3. Diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and perceptions of the environment in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, A A; Townshend, T; Alvanides, S; Stamp, E; Adamson, A J

    2009-10-01

    Few studies have explored both food behaviour and physical activity in an environmental context. Most research in this area has focused on adults; the aim of the present study was to describe perceptions of the environment, diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns in 16-20 year olds in full-time education (Newcastle, UK). Participants (n = 73) recruited from a college and sixth-form college completed a UK version of the Youth Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Survey, which included measures of sedentary behaviour. A validated food frequency questionnaire was completed and a factor applied to produce an estimated mean daily frequency of intake of each item, which was converted to nutrient intakes. A rank for Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) was assigned to their home postcode. Analysis explored associations between sedentary behaviours and nutrient intake. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, most participants reported being physically active for at least 1 h day(-1) on 3-4 (n = 28) or 5-7 days (n = 31). There were no significant differences in nutrient intake according to sample quartile IMD position. Sedentary behaviours were significantly associated with less healthy eating patterns. Higher total energy (P = 0.02), higher fat (P = 0.005), percentage energy from fat (P = 0.035) and lower carbohydrate intakes (P = 0.004) were significantly associated with more time spent watching DVDs at the weekend. This combination of sedentary behaviour and less healthy eating patterns has important implications for long-term health (e.g. the tracking of being overweight and obesity from adolescence into adulthood). Understanding behaviour relationships is an important step in developing interventions in this age group.

  4. Clad-coolant chemical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, F.C.; Lewis, B.J.; Desgranges, C.; Toffolon, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the kinetics for zircaloy clad oxidation behaviour in steam and air during reactor accident conditions. The generation of chemical heat from metal/water reaction is considered. Low-temperature oxidation of zircaloy due to water-side corrosion is further described. (authors)

  5. Antibiotics and activity spaces: protocol of an exploratory study of behaviour, marginalisation and knowledge diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenboon, Nutcha; Zanello, Giacomo; Mayxay, Mayfong; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Jones, Caroline O H; Kosaikanont, Romyen; Praphattong, Pollavat; Manohan, Pathompong; Lubell, Yoel; Newton, Paul N; Keomany, Sommay; Wertheim, Heiman F L; Lienert, Jeffrey; Xayavong, Thipphaphone; Warapikuptanun, Penporn; Khine Zaw, Yuzana; U-Thong, Patchapoom; Benjaroon, Patipat; Sangkham, Narinnira; Wibunjak, Kanokporn; Chai-In, Poowadon; Chailert, Sirirat; Thavethanutthanawin, Patthanan; Promsutt, Krittanon; Thepkhamkong, Amphayvone; Sithongdeng, Nicksan; Keovilayvanh, Maipheth; Khamsoukthavong, Nid; Phanthasomchit, Phaengnitta; Phanthavong, Chanthasone; Boualaiseng, Somsanith; Vongsavang, Souksakhone; Greer, Rachel C; Althaus, Thomas; Nedsuwan, Supalert; Intralawan, Daranee; Wangrangsimakul, Tri; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Ariana, Proochista

    2018-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health priority. Leading UK and global strategy papers to fight AMR recognise its social and behavioural dimensions, but current policy responses to improve the popular use of antimicrobials (eg, antibiotics) are limited to education and awareness-raising campaigns. In response to conceptual, methodological and empirical weaknesses of this approach, we study people’s antibiotic-related health behaviour through three research questions. RQ1: What are the manifestations and determinants of problematic antibiotic use in patients’ healthcare-seeking pathways? RQ2: Will people’s exposure to antibiotic awareness activities entail changed behaviours that diffuse or dissipate within a network of competing healthcare practices? RQ3: Which proxy indicators facilitate the detection of problematic antibiotic behaviours across and within communities? Methods We apply an interdisciplinary analytical framework that draws on the public health, medical anthropology, sociology and development economics literature. Our research involves social surveys of treatment-seeking behaviour among rural dwellers in northern Thailand (Chiang Rai) and southern Lao PDR (Salavan). We sample approximately 4800 adults to produce district-level representative and social network data. Additional 60 cognitive interviews facilitate survey instrument development and data interpretation. Our survey data analysis techniques include event sequence analysis (RQ1), multilevel regression (RQ1–3), social network analysis (RQ2) and latent class analysis (RQ3). Discussion Social research in AMR is nascent, but our unprecedentedly detailed data on microlevel treatment-seeking behaviour can contribute an understanding of behaviour beyond awareness and free choice, highlighting, for example, decision-making constraints, problems of marginalisation and lacking access to healthcare and competing ideas about desirable behaviour. Trial registration number NCT

  6. A re-examination of information seeking behaviour in the context of activity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson T.D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Activity theory, developed in the USSR as a Marxist alternative to Western psychology, has been applied widely in educational studies and increasingly in human-computer interaction research. Argument. The key elements of activity theory, Motivation, Goal, Activity, Tools, Object, Outcome, Rules, Community and Division of labour are all directly applicable to the conduct of information behaviour research. An activity-theoretical approach to information behaviour research would provide a sound basis for the elaboration of contextual issues, for the discovering of organizational and other contradictions that affect information behaviour. It may be used to aid the design and analysis of investigations. Elaboration. The basic ideas of activity theory are outlined and an attempt is made to harmonize different perspectives. A contrast is made between an activity system perspective and an activity process perspective and a diagrammatic representation of the process perspective is offered. Conclusion. Activity theory is not a predictive theory but a conceptual framework within which different theoretical perspectives may be employed. Typically, it is suggested that several methods of data collection should be employed and that the time frame for investigation should be long enough for the full range of contextual issues to emerge. Activity theory offers not only a useful conceptual framework, but also a coherent terminology to be shared by researchers, and a rapidly developing body of literature in associated disciplines.

  7. Condition monitoring of main coolant pumps, Dhruva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, V.; Satheesh, C.; Acharya, V.N.; Tikku, A.C.; Mishra, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Dhruva is a 100 MW research reactor with natural uranium fuel, heavy water as moderator and primary coolant. Three Centrifugal pumps circulate the primary coolant across the core and the heat exchangers. Each pump is coupled to a flywheel (FW) assembly in order to meet operational safety requirements. All the 3 main coolant pump (MCP) sets are required to operate during operation of the reactor. The pump-sets are in operation since the year 1984 and have logged more than 1,00,000 hrs. Frequent breakdowns of its FW bearings were experienced during initial years of operation. Condition monitoring of these pumps, largely on vibration based parameters, was initiated on regular basis. Break-downs of main coolant pumps reduced considerably due to the fair accurate predictions of incipient break-downs and timely maintenance efforts. An effort is made in this paper to share the experience

  8. Coolant processing device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizawa, Hideo; Funakoshi, Toshio; Izumoji, Yoshiaki

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce an entire facility cost by concentrating and isolating tritium accumulated in coolants, removing the tritium out of the system, and returning hydrogen gas generated at a reactor accident to a recombiner in a closed loop by the switching of a valve. Constitution: Coolant from a reactor cooling system processed by a chemical volume control system facility (CVCS) and coolant drain from various devices processed by a liquid waste disposing system facility (LWDS) are fed to a tritium isolating facility, in which they are isolated into concentrated tritium water and dilute tritium water. The concentrated tritium water is removed out of the system and stored. The dilute tritium water is reused as supply water for coolant. If an accident occurs to cause hydrogen to be generated, a closed loop is formed between the containment vessel and the recombiner, the hydrogen is recombined with oxygen in the air of the closed loop to be thus returned to water. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Fatigue management considering LWR coolant environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heung Bae; Jin, Tae eun

    2000-01-01

    Design fatigue curve for structural material in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code do not explicitly address the effects of reactor coolant environments on fatigue life. Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of low-alloy steels in light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments has been a concern ever since the early 1970's. And, recent fatigue test data indicate a significant decrease in fatigue lives of carbon steels, low-alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels in LWR coolant environments. For these reasons, fatigue of major components has been identified as a technical issue remaining to be resolved for life management and license renewal of nuclear power plants. In the present paper, results of recent investigations by many organizations are reviewed to provide technical justification to support the development of utility approach regarding the management of fatigue considering LWR coolant environments for the purpose of life management and license renewal of nuclear power plants. (author)

  10. Selection of nuclear reactor coolant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lisheng; Wang Bairong

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear material is nuclear material or materials used in nuclear industry, the general term, it is the material basis for the construction of nuclear power, but also a leader in nuclear energy development, the two interdependent and mutually reinforcing. At the same time, nuclear materials research, development and application of the depth and breadth of science and technology reflects a nation and the level of the nuclear power industry. Coolant also known as heat-carrier agent, is an important part of the heart nuclear reactor, its role is to secure as much as possible to the economic output in the form fission energy to heat the reactor to be used: the same time cooling the core, is controlled by the various structural components allowable temperature. This paper described the definition of nuclear reactor coolant and characteristics, and then addressed the requirements of the coolant material, and finally were introduced several useful properties of the coolant and chemical control. (authors)

  11. Standardized sampling system for reactor coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divine, J.R.; Munson, L.F.; Nelson, J.L.; McDowell, R.L.; Jankowski, M.W.

    1982-09-01

    A three-pronged approach was developed to reach the objectives of acceptable coolant sampling, assessment of occupational exposure from corrosion products, and model development for the transport and buildup of corrosion products. Emphasis is on sampler design

  12. Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in South Asian women: time to review current recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waidyatilaka, Indu; Lanerolle, Pulani; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Atukorala, Sunethra; Somasundaram, Noel; de Silva, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Our aims were to describe activity and sedentary behaviours in urban Asian women, with dysglycaemia (diagnosed at recruitment), and without dysglycaemia and examine the relative contribution of these parameters to their glycaemic status. 2800 urban women (30-45 years) were selected by random cluster sampling and screened for dysglycaemia for a final sample of 272 newly diagnosed, drug naive dysglycaemic and 345 normoglycaemic women. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Demographic data, diet and anthropometry were recorded. Logistic regression analysis assessed contribution of all parameters to dysglycaemia and exposure attributable fractions were calculated. The mean energy expenditure on walking (2648.5±1023.7 MET-min/week) and on moderate and vigorous physical activity (4342.3±1768.1 MET-min/week) for normoglycemic women and dysglycaemic women (walking;1046.4±728.4 MET-min/week, moderate and vigorous physical activity; 1086.7±1184.4 MET-min/week) was above the recommended amount of physical activity per week. 94.3% of women spent >1000 MET-minutes/week on activity. Mean sitting and TV time for normoglycaemic and dysglycaemic women were 154.3±62.8, 38.4±31.9, 312.6±116.7 and 140.2±56.5 minutes per day respectively. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour contributed to dysglycaemia after adjustment for family history, diet, systolic blood pressure and Body Mass Index. Exposure attributable fractions for dysglycaemia were; lower physical activity: 78%, higher waist circumference: 94%, and TV viewing time: 85%. Urban South Asian women are at risk of dysglycaemia at lower levels of sedentary behaviour and greater physical activity than western populations, indicating the need for re-visiting current physical activity guidelines for South Asians.

  13. Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in South Asian women: time to review current recommendations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Waidyatilaka

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to describe activity and sedentary behaviours in urban Asian women, with dysglycaemia (diagnosed at recruitment, and without dysglycaemia and examine the relative contribution of these parameters to their glycaemic status. METHODS: 2800 urban women (30-45 years were selected by random cluster sampling and screened for dysglycaemia for a final sample of 272 newly diagnosed, drug naive dysglycaemic and 345 normoglycaemic women. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Demographic data, diet and anthropometry were recorded. Logistic regression analysis assessed contribution of all parameters to dysglycaemia and exposure attributable fractions were calculated. RESULTS: The mean energy expenditure on walking (2648.5±1023.7 MET-min/week and on moderate and vigorous physical activity (4342.3±1768.1 MET-min/week for normoglycemic women and dysglycaemic women (walking;1046.4±728.4 MET-min/week, moderate and vigorous physical activity; 1086.7±1184.4 MET-min/week was above the recommended amount of physical activity per week. 94.3% of women spent >1000 MET-minutes/week on activity. Mean sitting and TV time for normoglycaemic and dysglycaemic women were 154.3±62.8, 38.4±31.9, 312.6±116.7 and 140.2±56.5 minutes per day respectively. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour contributed to dysglycaemia after adjustment for family history, diet, systolic blood pressure and Body Mass Index. Exposure attributable fractions for dysglycaemia were; lower physical activity: 78%, higher waist circumference: 94%, and TV viewing time: 85%. CONCLUSIONS: Urban South Asian women are at risk of dysglycaemia at lower levels of sedentary behaviour and greater physical activity than western populations, indicating the need for re-visiting current physical activity guidelines for South Asians.

  14. Reactor coolant pump seals: improving their performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothier, N.E.; Metcalfe, R.

    1986-06-01

    Large CANDU plants are benefitting from transient-resistant four-year reliable reactor coolant pump seal lifetimes, a direct result of AECL's 20-year comprehensive seal improvement program involving R and D staff, manufacturers, and plant designers and operators. An overview of this program is presented, which covers seal modification design, testing, post-service examination, specialized maintenance and quality control. The relevancy of this technology to Light Water Reactor Coolant Pump Seals is also discussed

  15. A behavioural intervention increases physical activity in people with subacute spinal cord injury: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla FJ Nooijen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions: For people with subacute spinal cord injury, does rehabilitation that is reinforced with the addition of a behavioural intervention to promote physical activity lead to a more active lifestyle than rehabilitation alone? Design: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis, and blinded assessors. Participants: Forty-five adults with subacute spinal cord injury who were undergoing inpatient rehabilitation and were dependent on a manual wheelchair. The spinal cord injuries were characterised as: tetraplegia 33%; motor complete 62%; mean time since injury 150 days (SD 74. Intervention: All participants received regular rehabilitation, including handcycle training. Only the experimental group received a behavioural intervention promoting an active lifestyle after discharge. This intervention involved 13 individual sessions delivered by a coach who was trained in motivational interviewing; it began 2 months before and ended 6 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was physical activity, which was objectively measured with an accelerometer-based activity monitor 2 months before discharge, at discharge, and 6 and 12 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. The accelerometry data were analysed as total wheeled physical activity, sedentary time and motility. Self-reported physical activity was a secondary outcome. Results: The behavioural intervention significantly increased wheeled physical activity (overall between-group difference from generalised estimating equation 21 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 35. This difference was evident 6 months after discharge (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 48 and maintained at 12 months after discharge (25 minutes per day, 95% CI 1 to 50. No significant intervention effect was found for sedentary time or motility. Self-reported physical activity also significantly improved. Conclusion: The behavioural

  16. Using participatory approaches with children to better understand their physical activity behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayball, Felicity Z.L.; Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau

    2018-01-01

    Aims and objectives: The importance of childhood physical activity is widely recognised. Helping children to articulate their opinions is a crucial factor in improving their health and well-being, yet the field is predominantly focused on adult-led quantitative methods and lacks deeper understand......Aims and objectives: The importance of childhood physical activity is widely recognised. Helping children to articulate their opinions is a crucial factor in improving their health and well-being, yet the field is predominantly focused on adult-led quantitative methods and lacks deeper...... physical activity in these places (n = 25). Results: The benefits and challenges associated with using participatory methods to understand how children perceive the environment in relation to their physical activity behaviour are described. Conclusion: Findings contribute to the literature by suggesting...... that participatory approaches are valuable in capturing children’s perceptions of physical activity behaviour in outdoor environments....

  17. Coolant clean up system in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Fumio; Iwami, Hiroshi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the amount of main steams and improve the plant heat efficiency by the use of condensated water as coolants for not-regenerative heat exchangers in a coolant clean up system of a nuclear reactor. Constitution: In a coolant clean up system of a nuclear reactor, a portion of condensates is transferred to the shell of a non-regenerative heat exchanger by way of a condensate pump for non-regenerative heat exchanger through a branched pipeway provided to the outlet of a condensate desalter for using the condensates as the coolants for the shell of the heat exchanger and the condensates are then returned to the inlet of a feedwater heater after the heat exchange. The branched flow rate of the condensates is controlled by the flow rate control valve mounted in the pipeway. Condensates passed through the heat exchanger and the condensates not passed through the heat exchanger are mixed and heated in a heater and then fed to the nuclear reactor. In a case where no feedwater is necessary to the nuclear reactor such as upon shutdown of the reactor, the condensates are returned by way of feedwater bypass pipeway to the condensator. By the use of the condensates as the coolants for the heat exchanger, the main steam loss can be decreased and the thermal load for the auxiliary coolant facility can be reduced. (Kawakami, Y.)

  18. How many days of accelerometer monitoring predict weekly physical activity behaviour in obese youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Fardy, Paul S; Duhamel, Alain; Béghin, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the type and the number of accelerometer monitoring days needed to predict weekly sedentary behaviour and physical activity in obese youth. Fifty-three obese youth wore a triaxial accelerometer for 7 days to measure physical activity in free-living conditions. Analyses of variance for repeated measures, Intraclass coefficient (ICC) and regression linear analyses were used. Obese youth spent significantly less time in physical activity on weekends or free days compared with school days. ICC analyses indicated a minimum of 2 days is needed to estimate physical activity behaviour. ICC were 0·80 between weekly physical activity and weekdays and 0·92 between physical activity and weekend days. The model has to include a weekday and a weekend day. Using any combination of one weekday and one weekend day, the percentage of variance explained is >90%. Results indicate that 2 days of monitoring are needed to estimate the weekly physical activity behaviour in obese youth with an accelerometer. Our results also showed the importance of taking into consideration school day versus free day and weekday versus weekend day in assessing physical activity in obese youth. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mothers’ Self-Efficacy Regarding Dietary Behaviour and Physical Activity of Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Kokolaki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity constitutes a crucial health issue during preschool period and has an impact on children regardless their ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of the study was to examine the self-efficacy perceptions of mothers and potential differences and correlations with dietary behaviour and physical activity of their preschool children in Finland. Materials and Methods: The sample for this study consisted of 154 mothers from nine private nurseries who lived in greater Helsinki and have Finnish or other nationality. There were 7 categories of geographical regions from which mothers came from, according to the nationality they declared. For the data collection the "Parental Self-Efficacy Questionnaire" was used, which evaluates the self-efficacy of parents regarding the dietary behaviour and physical activity of their children.   Results: The age range of the children was between 3 up to 6 years of age (Mean=5.08 + 0.96, while the age range of mothers was between 25 up to 54 years of age (Mean=37.7+ 4.85. Positive correlations were found between maternal self-efficacy and children’s physical activity as well as between maternal self-efficacy and dietary behaviour. As it occurs from the analysis of the results from Pearson correlations: dietary behaviour had a positive correlation with physical activity r=0.583, p Conclusion: Despite the non-statistically significant differences on these two factors, the results also showed high mean score values on maternal self-efficacy so in physical activity, as in dietary behaviour. Mothers who living in the same country which offers well structured guidelines about integrating nutrition and physical activity to help prevent lifestyle related diseases, possibly explains the fact that there are no differences related to ethnicity.

  20. Economic instruments for population diet and physical activity behaviour change: a systematic scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Shemilt

    Full Text Available Unhealthy diet and low levels of physical activity are common behavioural factors in the aetiology of many non-communicable diseases. Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of policy and research interest in the use of taxes and other economic instruments to improve population health.To assemble, configure and analyse empirical research studies available to inform the public health case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change.We conducted a systematic scoping review of evidence for the effects of specific interventions to change, or general exposure to variations in, prices or income on dietary and physical activity behaviours and corollary outcomes. Systematic electronic searches and parallel snowball searches retrieved >1 million study records. Text mining technologies were used to prioritise title-abstract records for screening. Eligible studies were selected, classified and analysed in terms of key characteristics and principal findings, using a narrative, configuring synthesis focused on implications for policy and further research.We identified 880 eligible studies, including 192 intervention studies and 768 studies that incorporated evidence for prices or income as correlates or determinants of target outcomes. Current evidence for the effects of economic instruments and exposures on diet and physical activity is limited in quality and equivocal in terms of its policy implications. Direct evidence for the effects of economic instruments is heavily skewed towards impacts on diet, with a relative lack of evidence for impacts on physical activity.The evidence-based case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change may be less compelling than some proponents have claimed. Future research should include measurement of people's actual behavioural responses using study designs capable of generating reliable causal inferences regarding intervention

  1. Self-Identity as a Component of the Theory of Planned Behaviour in Predicting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Francis; Hein, Vello; Pihu, Maret; Armenta, Jose Manuel Sevillano

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of self-identity, defined as salient and enduring aspects of one's self-perception (Sparks, 2000), in relation to adolescent physical activity (PA) intentions within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). School students aged 12 to 18 from two cultural groups (Estonia and Spain) completed measures of…

  2. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Asian and Anglo-Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugnell, Claudia; M N Renzaho, Andre; Ridley, Kate; Burns, Cate

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) participation varies among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) adolescents. The present study examined differences in PA and SB among a CALD sample of Chinese Australian, South-east Asian and Anglo-Australian adolescents. Data from 286 adolescents aged 12-16 years involved in the Chinese and Australian Adolescent Health Survey in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, were analysed. Accelerometry outcomes included median activity counts per minute (counts x min(-1)) and minutes per day (min x day(-1)) spent in light-intensity PA (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST). Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and sequential multiple hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine CALD differences in PA and ST. Multivariate analyses of accelerometry data found Chinese Australian and South-east Asian adolescents engaged in significantly less daily MVPA (5-8 min x day(-1)) and LPA (50-58 min x day(-1); P Asian adolescents compared with Anglo-Australian adolescents. These findings have important public health implications in furthering our understanding of CALD differences in PA and SB. SO WHAT? An understanding of the CALD differences in physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Australian adolescents has important implications for intervention planning and delivery as well as the wider health implications of these behaviours. This article furthers the current understanding of CALD adolescents' participation in physical activity and sedentary behaviour, of which limited information is available.

  3. Inventory of surveillance systems assessing dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Europe: a DEDIPAC study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Huybrechts, Inge; Thumann, Barbara F; Hebestreit, Antje; Abuja, Peter M; de Henauw, Stefaan; Dubuisson, Carine; Heuer, Thorsten; Murrin, Celine M; Lazzeri, Giacomo; van Rossum, Caroline; Andersen, Lene F; Szeklicki, Robert; Vioque, Jesús; Berry, Rachel; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Slimani, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for harmonized public health surveillance systems to monitor regional variations and temporal trends of health behaviours and health outcomes and to align policies, action plans and recommendations in terms of healthy diet and physical (in)activity within Europe. We provide an

  4. Behavioural strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in active shock avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, R.F.; Bohus, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Oortmerssen, G.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis, partly based on findings in social interactions, that aggressive mice generally adopt an active behavioural strategy (cf. fight-flight) in threatening situations, while non-aggressive ones generally assume a passive strategy (cf. conservation-withdrawal) was tested using a two-way

  5. Sexual-risk behaviour among sexually active first-year students at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, new HIV infections are concentrated among persons aged 15–24 years. The university population falls within this age group and are prone to higher-risk behaviours that place them at risk of acquiring HIV. In a study to assess this risk among sexually active students, we classified higher-risk sexual ...

  6. An Ecological Momentary Assessment of the Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Patterns of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Peter C.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We used ecological momentary assessment to understand the physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns of university students. Study design: Cross sectional, opportunistic sample from a university in the English midlands. Methods: Ecological momentary assessment diaries were completed every 15 minutes across two days. The sample…

  7. Working mechanisms of a behavioural intervention promoting physical activity in persons with subacute spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooijen, Carla F. J.; Stam, Henk J.; Schoenmakers, Imte; Sluis, Tebbe; Post, Marcel; Twisk, Jos; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J. G.

    OBJECTIVE: In order to unravel the working mechanisms that underlie the effectiveness of a behavioural intervention promoting physical activity in persons with subacute spinal cord injury, the aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of physical and psychosocial factors on the

  8. Meta-analyses of workplace physical activity and dietary behaviour interventions on weight outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Coffeng, J.; Mechelen, W. van; Proper, K.I.

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analytic review critically examines the effectiveness of workplace interventions targeting physical activity, dietary behaviour or both on weight outcomes. Data could be extracted from 22 studies published between 1980 and November 2009 for meta-analyses. The GRADE approach was used to

  9. Patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cauwenberghe Eveline

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about patterns of sedentary behavior (SB and physical activity among preschoolers. Therefore, in this observational study patterns of SB and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA were examined in detail throughout the week in preschool-aged boys and girls. Methods A sample of 703 Melbourne preschool children (387 boys; 4.6 ± 0.7 y were included in data analysis. SB and MVPA data were collected using accelerometry over an eight-day period. Percentage of time per hour in SB and in MVPA between 08:00 h and 20:00 h was calculated. Multi-level logistic regression models were created to examine the hour-by-hour variability in SB and MVPA for boys and girls across weekdays and weekend days. Odds ratios (OR were calculated to interpret differences in hour-by-hour SB and MVPA levels between boys and girls, and between weekdays and weekend days. Results The highest SB levels co-occurred with the lowest MVPA levels from the morning till the early afternoon on weekdays, and during the morning and around midday on weekends. Besides, participation in SB was the lowest and participation in MVPA was the highest from the mid afternoon till the evening on weekdays and weekend days. The variability across the hours in SB and, especially, in MVPA was rather small throughout weekdays and weekends. These patterns were found in both boys and girls. During some hours, girls were found to be more likely than boys to demonstrate higher SB levels (OR from 1.08 to 1.16; all p  Conclusion Entire weekdays, especially from the morning till the early afternoon, and entire weekend days are opportunities to reduce SB and to promote MVPA in preschool-aged boys and girls. Particularly weekdays hold the greatest promise for improving SB and MVPA. No particular time of the week was found where one sex should be targeted.

  10. On-line real time gamma analysis of primary coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalechstein, W.; Kupca, S.; Lipsett, J.J.

    1985-10-01

    The evolution of failed fuel monitoring at CANDU power stations is briefly summarized and the design of the latest system for failed fuel detection at a multi-unit power station is described. At each reactor, the system employs a germanium spectrometer combined with a novel spectrum analyzer that simultaneously accumulates the gamma-ray spectrum of the coolant and provides the control room with the concentration of radioisotope activity in the coolant for the gaseous fission products Xe-133, Xe-135, Kr-88 and I-131 in real time and with statistical precision independent of count rate. A gross gamma monitor is included to provide independent information on the level of radioactivity in the coolant and extend the measurement range at very high count rates. A central computer system archives spectra received from all four spectrum analyzers and provides both the activity concentrations and the release rates of specified isotopes. Compared with previous systems the current design offers improvements in that the activity concentrations are updated much more frequently, improved tools are provided for long term surveillance of the heat transport system and the monitor is more reliable and less costly

  11. The effects of goal variation on adult physical activity behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Dal-Hyun; Yun, Joonkoo; McNamee, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of varying levels of goals on increasing daily steps and the frequency of goal achievement among middle-aged adults. Ninety-six adults participated in a randomised control study. Participants were randomly assigned to five different step goal groups: (1) Easy (n = 19), (2) Medium (n = 19), (3) Difficult (n = 19), (4) Do-your-best (n = 19), and (5) No goal (n = 20) based on previous research. The participants wore a pedometer and were asked to reach a pre-established goal during the experimental period. In order to examine the effectiveness of the goal difficulty, (a) an average number of steps taken by different goal conditions and (b) the number of days meeting the assigned goal were tested. A one-way ANCOVA revealed significant step count differences among goal groups. Post hoc analyses indicated that the change in step count in both the Medium and Difficult goal groups was significantly greater than the remaining groups. However, there was no significant difference between the medium and difficult goal conditions. In addition, a one-way ANOVA indicated that there were no significant differences in the frequency of goal achievement among the Easy, Medium, and Difficult goal groups. Results suggest that when promoting physical activity through increasing step counts, researchers and clinicians should design goals that are specific and challenging.

  12. Do physical activity and dietary smartphone applications incorporate evidence-based behaviour change techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Artur; Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; Shields, Emma; Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-06-25

    There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklist can be used to identify BCTs in smartphone apps. The top-20 paid and top-20 free physical activity and/or dietary behaviour apps from the New Zealand Apple App Store Health & Fitness category were downloaded to an iPhone. Four independent raters user-tested and coded each app for the presence/absence of BCTs using the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (26 BCTs in total). The number of BCTs included in the 40 apps was calculated. Krippendorff's alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability for each of the 26 BCTs. Apps included an average of 8.1 (range 2-18) techniques, the number being slightly higher for paid (M = 9.7, range 2-18) than free apps (M = 6.6, range 3-14). The most frequently included BCTs were "provide instruction" (83% of the apps), "set graded tasks" (70%), and "prompt self-monitoring" (60%). Techniques such as "teach to use prompts/cues", "agree on behavioural contract", "relapse prevention" and "time management" were not present in the apps reviewed. Interrater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 (Mean 0.6, SD = 0.2). Presence of BCTs varied by app type and price; however, BCTs associated with increased intervention effectiveness were in general more common in paid apps. The taxonomy checklist can be used by independent raters to reliably identify BCTs in physical activity and dietary behaviour smartphone apps.

  13. Activation behaviour of ZrCrNi mechanically milled with nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, C. B.; Ho Kim, J.; Sub Lee, K.

    1998-01-01

    AB 2 type Laves phase alloys have some promising properties as a negative electrode in rechargeable Ni/MH batteries because of high electrochemical capacity and good cyclic life. However, they have the disadvantage of requiring many charge-discharge cycles for activation. In this study, the mechanical milling with nickel has been introduced to modify the electrochemical behaviour of the ZrCrNi alloy. A composite-like structure (ZrCrNi+nickel) and nanocrystalline ZrCrNi were obtained through the mechanical milling and the hydrogenation behaviour of the electrode was greatly improved. (orig.)

  14. Hypoxia increases the behavioural activity of schooling herring: a response to physiological stress or respiratory distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Neill A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2006-01-01

    a deviation in physiological homeostasis is associated with any change in behavioural activity, we exposed C. harengus in a school to a progressive stepwise decline in water oxygen pressure  and measured fish swimming speed and valid indicators of primary and secondary stress (i.e. blood cortisol, lactate......Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, increase their swimming speed during low O2 (hypoxia) and it has been hypothesised that the behavioural response is modulated by the degree of "respiratory distress" (i.e. a rise in anaerobic metabolism and severe physiological stress). To test directly whether...

  15. Comparative effects of exposure to high-energy electrons and gamma radiation on active avoidance behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of two types of ionizing radiation was examined on active avoidance behaviour. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to avoid footshock by jumping onto a retractable ledge. When irradiated with high-energy electrons or gamma photons, their performance was degraded in a dose-dependent manner. However, electrons were 1.6 times as effective as gamma photons with ED50s of 62 and 102 Gy, respectively. All animals recovered within 24 min for all doses used. The data suggest that different types of ionizing radiation may not be equivalent when assessing their effect on behaviour. (author)

  16. The burning behaviour of sodium and consequences to be drawn for fire protection measures, by the example of the Kalkar nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, E.

    1977-01-01

    The burning behaviour of sodium leakages is described. The specific protective measures to be derived from the burning behaviour is discussed using the example of the Kalkar nuclear power station, where sodium is used as a coolant. A basic boundary condition to be considered in the system of protective measures against Na fires is the activity confinement in case of a release of radioactive sodium. (orig.) [de

  17. Improved confidence in performing nutrition and physical activity behaviours mediates behavioural change in young adults: Mediation results of a randomised controlled mHealth intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Stephanie R; McGeechan, Kevin; Bauman, Adrian; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    The burden of weight gain disproportionally affects young adults. Understanding the underlying behavioural mechanisms of change in mHealth nutrition and physical activity interventions designed for young adults is important for enhancing and translating effective interventions. First, we hypothesised that knowledge, self-efficacy and stage-of-change for nutrition and physical activity behaviours would improve, and second, that self-efficacy changes in nutrition and physical activity behaviours mediate the behaviour changes observed in an mHealth RCT for prevention of weight gain. Young adults, aged 18-35 years at risk of weight gain (n = 250) were randomly assigned to an mHealth-program, TXT2BFiT, consisting of a three-month intensive phase and six-month maintenance phase or to a control group. Self-reported online surveys at baseline, three- and nine-months assessed nutrition and physical activity behaviours, knowledge, self-efficacy and stage-of-change. The mediating effect of self-efficacy was assessed in multiple PROCESS macro-models for three- and nine-month nutrition and physical activity behaviour change. Young adults randomised to the intervention increased and maintained knowledge of fruit requirements (P = 0.029) compared to controls. Intervention participants' fruit and takeaway behaviours improved to meet recommendations at nine months, with a greater proportion progressing to action or maintenance stage-of-change (P behaviours did not meet recommendations, thereby halting progress to action or maintenance stage-of-change. Indirect effects of improved nutrition and physical activity behaviours at three- and nine-months in the intervention group were explained by changes in self-efficacy, accounting for 8%-37% of the total effect. This provides insights into how the mHealth intervention achieved part of its effects and the importance of improving self-efficacy to facilitate improved eating and physical activity behaviours in young adults

  18. Corrosion products behaviour under VVER primary coolant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grygar, T.; Zmitko, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to collect data on thermodynamic stability of Cr, Fe, and Ni oxides, mechanisms of hydrothermal corrosion of stainless steels and to compare the real observation with the theory. We found that the electrochemical potential and pH in PWR and VVER are close to the thermodynamic boundary between two fields of stable spinel type oxides. The ways of degradation of the passivating layers due to changes in water chemistry were considered and PWR and VVER systems were found to be potentially endangered by reductive attack. In certain VVER systems the characteristics of the passivating layer on steels and also concentration of soluble corrosion products seem to be in contradiction with the theoretical expectations. (author)

  19. Linking brain-wide multivoxel activation patterns to behaviour: Examples from language and math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizada, Rajeev D.S.; Tsao, Feng-Ming; Liu, Huei-Mei; Holloway, Ian D.; Ansari, Daniel; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2010-01-01

    A key goal of cognitive neuroscience is to find simple and direct connections between brain and behaviour. However, fMRI analysis typically involves choices between many possible options, with each choice potentially biasing any brain–behaviour correlations that emerge. Standard methods of fMRI analysis assess each voxel individually, but then face the problem of selection bias when combining those voxels into a region-of-interest, or ROI. Multivariate pattern-based fMRI analysis methods use classifiers to analyse multiple voxels together, but can also introduce selection bias via data-reduction steps as feature selection of voxels, pre-selecting activated regions, or principal components analysis. We show here that strong brain–behaviour links can be revealed without any voxel selection or data reduction, using just plain linear regression as a classifier applied to the whole brain at once, i.e. treating each entire brain volume as a single multi-voxel pattern. The brain–behaviour correlations emerged despite the fact that the classifier was not provided with any information at all about subjects' behaviour, but instead was given only the neural data and its condition-labels. Surprisingly, more powerful classifiers such as a linear SVM and regularised logistic regression produce very similar results. We discuss some possible reasons why the very simple brain-wide linear regression model is able to find correlations with behaviour that are as strong as those obtained on the one hand from a specific ROI and on the other hand from more complex classifiers. In a manner which is unencumbered by arbitrary choices, our approach offers a method for investigating connections between brain and behaviour which is simple, rigorous and direct. PMID:20132896

  20. Estimation of leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among school adolescents in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Susan; Subedi, Narayan; Bhandari, Ramjee; Bastola, Ramesh; Niroula, Rakshya; Poudyal, Amod Kumar

    2014-06-22

    Leisure-time physical activity is essential for healthy and physically active life; however, this domain of physical activity is less common in developing countries. Information on leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Nepalese population is not available. The study was carried out to assess leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among high school adolescents and identify the associated factors in Nepal. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in Banke district, Nepal in 2013 among higher secondary school students using self-administered questionnaire based on International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A sample of 405 students, 178 females and 227 males, of the age-group 15 to 20 years from seven schools were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with participation in leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Engagement of female in leisure time physical activity was lower but mean time spent on sitting per day was higher. Students who walked to school and have playground/parks near home, younger females (OR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.18-8.08), females living in nuclear families (OR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.01-4.62) and males who cycled to school (OR: 8.09, 95% CI: 2.35-27.80) and have provision of extra-curricular activities (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.04-5.97) were more likely to be engaged in leisure time physical activity. On the other hand, students who did not have playground in school and lived in rural areas were more likely to sit for more than 6 hours a day. Likewise, male students of private school (OR: 6.41, 95% CI: 2.89-14.21), who used vehicle to reach school (OR: 5.90, 95% CI: 1.26-27.75) and have no provision of extra-curricular activities (OR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.09-8.07) had longer sitting time. Difference in leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour was found among male and female school adolescents. Interventions

  1. Investigating elementary school children's daily physical activity and sedentary behaviours during weekdays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Chen, Senlin; Huang, Charles C; Stodden, David F; Xiang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to quantify the contributions of physical education, exergaming (active video games that also are a type of exercise), recess, lunch break and after-school time segments to children's daily physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Participants were 138 second and third graders (71 girls) who attended 20-min recess and 75-min lunch time daily, 25-min regular physical education or exergaming-based classes being alternated daily. The after-school period was defined as 3:20-10:00pm. Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry and the dependent variables were children's time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Children's percentages of time spent in MVPA (P < .001; except for the difference between exergaming and lunch break: P = .63), light physical activity (P < .001) and sedentary behaviour (P < .001) differed significantly across the time segments (i.e., physical education/exergaming, recess, lunch break and after-school). Additionally, children accumulated significantly more MVPA (t = 10.22, P < .001) but less light physical activity (t = -3.17, P = .002) and sedentary behaviour (t = -3.91, P < .001) in physical education than in exergaming. Overall, physical education was more effective in generating MVPA than other segments over the school day. The after-school segment holds potential as an avenue for promoting children's MVPA, as this long period could be better utilised to organise structured physical activity.

  2. Topographic conditions and physical activity behaviour of young adults in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, Barbara; Gollner, Erwin; Schnabel, Florian

    2014-01-01

    In Austria there is an east-west divide concerning the amount of physical activity that has been detected. This is associated with poorer health in the eastern region of Austria compared to the western. Experts think that differences in topographic conditions might be a reason for these differences. However this hypothesis until now has not been scientifically proven. This study incorporates a multi-staged approach. First, outdoor physical activity behaviour (levels of exercise, favourite act...

  3. Dispersal patterns, active behaviour, and flow environment during early life history of coastal cold water fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Stanley

    Full Text Available During the pelagic larval phase, fish dispersal may be influenced passively by surface currents or actively determined by swimming behaviour. In situ observations of larval swimming are few given the constraints of field sampling. Active behaviour is therefore often inferred from spatial patterns in the field, laboratory studies, or hydrodynamic theory, but rarely are these approaches considered in concert. Ichthyoplankton survey data collected during 2004 and 2006 from coastal Newfoundland show that changes in spatial heterogeneity for multiple species do not conform to predictions based on passive transport. We evaluated the interaction of individual larvae with their environment by calculating Reynolds number as a function of ontogeny. Typically, larvae hatch into a viscous environment in which swimming is inefficient, and later grow into more efficient intermediate and inertial swimming environments. Swimming is therefore closely related to length, not only because of swimming capacity but also in how larvae experience viscosity. Six of eight species sampled demonstrated consistent changes in spatial patchiness and concomitant increases in spatial heterogeneity as they transitioned into more favourable hydrodynamic swimming environments, suggesting an active behavioural element to dispersal. We propose the tandem assessment of spatial heterogeneity and hydrodynamic environment as a potential approach to understand and predict the onset of ecologically significant swimming behaviour of larval fishes in the field.

  4. Dispersal patterns, active behaviour, and flow environment during early life history of coastal cold water fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ryan; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Deyoung, Brad; Gregory, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    During the pelagic larval phase, fish dispersal may be influenced passively by surface currents or actively determined by swimming behaviour. In situ observations of larval swimming are few given the constraints of field sampling. Active behaviour is therefore often inferred from spatial patterns in the field, laboratory studies, or hydrodynamic theory, but rarely are these approaches considered in concert. Ichthyoplankton survey data collected during 2004 and 2006 from coastal Newfoundland show that changes in spatial heterogeneity for multiple species do not conform to predictions based on passive transport. We evaluated the interaction of individual larvae with their environment by calculating Reynolds number as a function of ontogeny. Typically, larvae hatch into a viscous environment in which swimming is inefficient, and later grow into more efficient intermediate and inertial swimming environments. Swimming is therefore closely related to length, not only because of swimming capacity but also in how larvae experience viscosity. Six of eight species sampled demonstrated consistent changes in spatial patchiness and concomitant increases in spatial heterogeneity as they transitioned into more favourable hydrodynamic swimming environments, suggesting an active behavioural element to dispersal. We propose the tandem assessment of spatial heterogeneity and hydrodynamic environment as a potential approach to understand and predict the onset of ecologically significant swimming behaviour of larval fishes in the field.

  5. Valence of physical stimuli, not housing conditions, affects behaviour and frontal cortical brain activity in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögeli, Sabine; Lutz, Janika; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2014-07-01

    Modulation of short-term emotions by long-term mood is little understood but relevant to understand the affective system and of importance in respect to animal welfare: a negative mood might taint experiences, whilst a positive mood might alleviate single negative events. To induce different mood states in sheep housing conditions were varied. Fourteen ewes were group-housed in an unpredictable, stimulus-poor and 15 ewes in a predictable, stimulus-rich environment. Sheep were tested individually for mood in a behavioural cognitive bias paradigm. Also, their reactions to three physical stimuli thought to differ in their perceived valence were observed (negative: pricking, intermediate: slight pressure, positive: kneading). General behaviour, activity, ear movements and positions, and haemodynamic changes in the cortical brain were recorded during stimulations. Generalised mixed-effects models and model probabilities based on the BIC (Bayesian information criterion) were used. Only weak evidence for mood difference was found. Sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing condition had a somewhat more negative cognitive bias, showed slightly more aversive behaviour, were slightly more active and moved their ears somewhat more. Sheep most clearly differentiated the negative from the intermediate and positive stimulus in that they exhibited more aversive behaviour, less nibbling, were more active, showed more ear movements, more forward ear postures, fewer backward ear postures, and a stronger decrease in deoxyhaemoglobin when subjected to the negative stimulus. In conclusion, sheep reacted towards stimuli according to their presumed valence but their mood was not strongly influenced by housing conditions. Therefore, behavioural reactions and cortical brain activity towards the stimuli were hardly modulated by housing conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Factor analysis shows association between family activity environment and children's health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Coveney, John; Cox, David N

    2011-12-01

    To characterise the family activity environment in a questionnaire format, assess the questionnaire's reliability and describe its predictive ability by examining the relationships between the family activity environment and children's health behaviours - physical activity, screen time and fruit and vegetable intake. This paper describes the creation of a tool, based on previously validated scales, adapted from the food domain. Data are from 106 children and their parents (Adelaide, South Australia). Factor analysis was used to characterise factors within the family activity environment. Pearson-Product Moment correlations between the family environment and child outcomes, controlling for demographic variation, were examined. Three factors described the family activity environment - parental activity involvement, opportunity for role modelling and parental support for physical activity - and explained 37.6% of the variance. Controlling for demographic factors, the scale was significantly correlated with children's health behaviour - physical activity (r=0.27), screen time (r=-0.24) and fruit and vegetable intake (r=0.34). The family activity environment questionnaire shows high internal consistency and moderate predictive ability. This study has built on previous research by taking a more comprehensive approach to measuring the family activity environment. This research suggests the family activity environment should be considered in family-based health promotion interventions. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. Some aspects of influence of coolant water chemistry on reliability of WWER and RBMK type fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solyany, V.I.; Bibilashvili, Yu.K.; Sukhanov, G.I.; Pimenov, Yu.V.; Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow)

    1983-01-01

    In WWER and RBMK reactors now in operation a good quality of primary coolant is achieved and the required corrosion resistance of structural materials and normal irradiation conditions are ensured. Data on commercial fuel operation and clad material (Zr 1% Nb alloy) condition are briefly generalized. Some results of reactor investigations of corrosion behaviour of commercial Zr 1% Nb alloy under the condition of WWER and RBMK coolant are discussed and compared. It is established that the chemical effect of coolant on fuel cladding does not in itself limit its serviceability at design burn-ups but due to the possible processes of crud formation, corrosion (total and local), fretting-corrosion and hydriding it can influence the fuel reliability. This influence is qualitatively assessed through a rise in the clad temperature, a reduction of material plasticity and clad thickness. (author)

  8. Dynamic response of INTOR/NET blankets after coolant tube rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klippel, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic response of different water-cooled liquid Li 17 Pb 83 breeder blanket modules has been calculated to study the potential of these modules in case of coolant tube rupture. Numerical calculations with the code PISCES have been carried out taking into account the fluid-structure interaction and the elasto-plastic behaviour of the structural material. The results show that for inert coolant characteristics the proposed conceptual designs for NET and INTOR have sufficient resistance against coolant tube rupture but when taking into account energy release due to chemical reaction of water with LiPb-alloy up to doubling of the wall thickness has to be envisaged to guarantee structural reliability. (orig.)

  9. Some aspects of influence of coolant water chemistry on reliability of WWER and RBMK type fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solyany, V I; Bibilashvili, Yu K; Sukhanov, G I; Pimenov, Yu V [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Neorganicheskikh Materialov, Moscow (USSR); Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow)

    1983-12-01

    In WWER and RBMK reactors now in operation a good quality of primary coolant is achieved and the required corrosion resistance of structural materials and normal irradiation conditions are ensured. Data on commercial fuel operation and clad material (Zr 1% Nb alloy) condition are briefly generalized. Some results of reactor investigations of corrosion behaviour of commercial Zr 1% Nb alloy under the condition of WWER and RBMK coolant are discussed and compared. It is established that the chemical effect of coolant on fuel cladding does not in itself limit its serviceability at design burn-ups but due to the possible processes of crud formation, corrosion (total and local), fretting-corrosion and hydriding it can influence the fuel reliability. This influence is qualitatively assessed through a rise in the clad temperature, a reduction of material plasticity and clad thickness.

  10. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun R. Katapally

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon’s built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools. Neighbourhood socioeconomic variables were derived from 2006 Statistics Canada Census and 2010 G5 Census projections. A questionnaire was administered to 10–14 year old children to collect individual and household data, followed by accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to understand the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the context of diverse environmental exposures. A complex set of factors including denser built environment, positive peer relationships and consistent parental support influenced the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. In developing interventions to facilitate active living, it is not only imperative to delineate pathways through which diverse environmental exposures influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but also to account for the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

  11. How big is the physical activity intention-behaviour gap? A meta-analysis using the action control framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhodes, R.E.; de Bruijn, G.-J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The physical activity (PA) intention-behaviour gap is a topic of considerable contemporary research, given that most of our models used to understand physical activity suggest that intention is the proximal antecedent of behavioural enactment. The purpose of this study was to quantify the

  12. The Predictive Effects of Protection Motivation Theory on Intention and Behaviour of Physical Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: Considering the ability of protection motivation theory structures to explain the physical activity behaviour, interventional designs are suggested based on the structures of this theory, especially to improve self -efficacy as the most powerful factor in predicting physical activity intention and behaviour.

  13. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapally, Tarun R; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2015-09-07

    Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon's built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools. Neighbourhood socioeconomic variables were derived from 2006 Statistics Canada Census and 2010 G5 Census projections. A questionnaire was administered to 10-14 year old children to collect individual and household data, followed by accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to understand the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the context of diverse environmental exposures. A complex set of factors including denser built environment, positive peer relationships and consistent parental support influenced the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. In developing interventions to facilitate active living, it is not only imperative to delineate pathways through which diverse environmental exposures influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but also to account for the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

  14. Radiation effects on the parotid gland of mammals. Pt. 3. Behaviour of enzyme activity after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomassi, I; Balzi, M; Cremonini, D; Becciolini, A; Giannardi, G [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia; Pelu, G [I.N.R.C.A., Florence (Italy). Inst. of Radiology

    1979-08-01

    Modifications of some enzyme activities in parotid tissue homogenates have been studied in animals which were also examined for morphological changes and for plasma and parotid amylase activity. Results from irradiated animals show a certain increase in maltase activity. Alkaline phosphatase and LAP show no significant variations; a similar behaviour is shown by lysosomal enzymes and protein content. A different pattern was seen by comparing the curves of these enzymes with those of the same activity in the small intestine. This result appears to be due to the different radiosensitivity of these tissues.

  15. Influences of personality traits and continuation intentions on physical activity participation within the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Hagger, Martin S

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the theory of planned behaviour is insufficient in capturing all the antecedents of physical activity participation and that continuation intentions or personality traits may improve the predictive validity of the model. The present study examined the combined effects of continuation intentions and personality traits on health behaviour within the theory of planned behaviour. To examine these effects, 180 university students (N = 180, Male = 87, Female = 93, Age = 19.14 years, SD = 0.94) completed self-report measures of the theory of planned behaviour, personality traits and continuation intentions. After 5 weeks, perceived achievement of behavioural outcomes and actual participation in physical activities were assessed. Results supported discriminant validity between continuation intentions, conscientiousness and extroversion and indicated that perceived achievement of behavioural outcomes and continuation intentions of failure predicted physical activity participation after controlling for personality effects, past behaviour and other variables in the theory of planned behaviour. In addition, results indicated that conscientiousness moderated the effects of continuation intentions of failure on physical activity such that continuation intentions of failure predicted physical activity participation among conscientious and not among less conscientious individuals. These findings suggest that the effects of continuation intentions on health behaviour are contingent on personality characteristics.

  16. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour: the role of self-efficacy and past behaviour in predicting the physical activity of Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to use an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB), which incorporated additional self-efficacy and past behaviour, to predict the intention to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the MVPA level of Chinese adolescents. Questionnaires that focused on MVPA, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control (PBC), self-efficacy and past behaviour related to the MVPA engagement were administered to a sample of 488 young people. Multiple regression analyses provided moderate support for TPB. Three TPB constructs predicted 28.7% of the variance in intentions to engage in MVPA, and that PBC, but not intention, explained 3.4% of the variance in MVPA. Self-efficacy significantly affected intention and behaviour over and above the influence of TPB. Past behaviour had a small but significant improvement in the prediction of intention, but no improvement in the prediction of MVPA. Based on the results, interventions should target adolescent self-efficacy and PBC in physical activity participation.

  17. Evolutionarily conserved mechanisms for the selection and maintenance of behavioural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Vincenzo G; Dolan, Raymond J; Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hirth, Frank

    2015-12-19

    Survival and reproduction entail the selection of adaptive behavioural repertoires. This selection manifests as phylogenetically acquired activities that depend on evolved nervous system circuitries. Lorenz and Tinbergen already postulated that heritable behaviours and their reliable performance are specified by genetically determined programs. Here we compare the functional anatomy of the insect central complex and vertebrate basal ganglia to illustrate their role in mediating selection and maintenance of adaptive behaviours. Comparative analyses reveal that central complex and basal ganglia circuitries share comparable lineage relationships within clusters of functionally integrated neurons. These clusters are specified by genetic mechanisms that link birth time and order to their neuronal identities and functions. Their subsequent connections and associated functions are characterized by similar mechanisms that implement dimensionality reduction and transition through attractor states, whereby spatially organized parallel-projecting loops integrate and convey sensorimotor representations that select and maintain behavioural activity. In both taxa, these neural systems are modulated by dopamine signalling that also mediates memory-like processes. The multiplicity of similarities between central complex and basal ganglia suggests evolutionarily conserved computational mechanisms for action selection. We speculate that these may have originated from ancestral ground pattern circuitries present in the brain of the last common ancestor of insects and vertebrates. © 2015 The Authors.

  18. LWR primary coolant pipe rupture test rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitoshi, Shyoji

    1978-01-01

    The rupture test rig for primary coolant pipes is constructed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to verify the reliability of the primary coolant pipes for both PWRs and BWRs. The planned test items consisted of reaction force test, restraint test, whip test, jet test and continuous release test. A pressure vessel of about 4 m 3 volume, a circulating pump, a pressurizer, a heater, an air cooler and the related instrumentation and control system are included in this test rig. The coolant test condition is 160 kg/cm 2 g, 325 deg C for PWR test, and 70 kg/cm 2 g, saturated water and steam for BWR test, 100 ton of test load for the ruptured pipe bore of 8B Schedule 160, and 20 lit/min. discharge during 20 h for continuous release of coolant. The maximum pit internal pressure was estimated for various pipe diameters and time under the PWR and BWR conditions. The spark rupturing device was adopted for the rupture mechanics in this test rig. The computer PANAFACOM U-300 is used for the data processing. This test rig is expected to operate in 1978 effectively for the improvement of reliability of LWR primary coolant pipes. (Nakai, Y.)

  19. Leisure-time Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Older People: The Influence of Sport Involvement on Behaviour Patterns in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Gayman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the dramatic demographic change underway in most industrialized nations, the health of older adults is a major concern, particularly given the prevalence of sedentary behaviours and physical inactivity among ageing populations. Researchers have suggested sport participation in later life promotes other health-related behaviours, however, these relationships are poorly understood. It is possible for individuals to be classified as sufficiently active and still spend most of their day involved in sedentary pursuits. Moreover, there is little information on older sport participants’ use of time compared to leisurely active or inactive peers and whether type of physical activity involvement is associated with differences in older adults’ behaviour patterns. With this in mind, data from 1,723 respondents (65 years and older who completed the sport module of the 2010 Canadian General Social Survey–Time Use were used to investigate the influence of physical activity involvement (competitive sport vs. non-competitive sport vs. physically active leisure vs. inactivity on time spent in leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Results indicated that competitive sport participants spent less time engaging in sedentary behaviours compared to the physically active leisure or inactive respondents; however, sport participants (both competitive and non-competitive also spent less time engaging in leisure-time physical activities than the physically active leisure group. Implications of these findings to assumptions related to the activity levels of older sport participants, suggestions for future research, and considerations for sport-related interventions aimed at enhancing health in older adulthood are discussed.

  20. The effects of persuasive communication and planning on intentions to be more physically active and on physical activity behaviour among low-active adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Damien; Sarrazin, Philippe; Nicaise, Virginie; Dupont, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine, using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) combined with a self-regulatory behaviour change approach, whether persuasive communication based on adolescents' salient beliefs (SBCondition) and planning (PCondition) could promote the intention and physical activity (PA) behaviour of low-active adolescents participating in less than 1 h/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The protocol tested the effectiveness of two strategies used separately (i.e. SBC or PC) or in combination (i.e. CC = NSBC-SBC-PC) compared to a group receiving a message based on non-salient beliefs (NSBCondition). The 116 low-active students from ten 10th and 11th grade classes were assigned, using a cluster randomisation, into one of the four conditions (i.e. NSBC, SBC, PC and CC). Baseline data were collected two weeks before the intervention. The post-test data collection occurred directly after the intervention, and the follow-up took place two weeks later. Results showed that (1) the NSBC was the least effective strategy, (2) the SBC had no significant effect on PA behaviour and the TPB variables, (3) the PC had no significant effect on PA behaviour but increased the intention and perceived behavioural control and (4) the effects of the PC and the CC were not significantly different.

  1. Patterns of health behaviour associated with active travel: a compositional data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Louise; Dumuid, Dorothea; Atkin, Andrew J; Olds, Timothy; Ogilvie, David

    2018-03-21

    Active travel (walking or cycling for transport) is associated with favourable health outcomes in adults. However, little is known about the concurrent patterns of health behaviour associated with active travel. We used compositional data analysis to explore differences in how people doing some active travel used their time compared to those doing no active travel, incorporating physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep. We analysed cross-sectional data from the 2014/15 United Kingdom Harmonised European Time Use Survey. Participants recorded two diary days of activity, and we randomly selected one day from participants aged 16 years or over. Activities were categorised into six mutually exclusive sets, accounting for the entire 24 h: (1) sleep; (2) leisure moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); (3) leisure sedentary screen time; (4) non-discretionary time (work, study, chores and caring duties); (5) travel and (6) other. This mixture of activities was defined as a time-use composition. A binary variable was created indicating whether participants reported any active travel on their selected diary day. We used compositional multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to test whether mean time-use composition differed between individuals reporting some active travel and those reporting no active travel, adjusted for covariates. We then used adjusted linear regression models and bootstrap confidence intervals to identify which of the six activity sets differed between groups. 6143 participants (mean age 48 years; 53% female) provided a valid diary day. There was a statistically significant difference in time-use composition between those reporting some active travel and those reporting no active travel. Those undertaking active travel reported a relatively greater amount of time in leisure MVPA and travel, and a relatively lower amount of time in leisure sedentary screen time and sleep. Compared to those not undertaking active travel, those who did

  2. In-core failure of the instrumented BWR rod by locally induced high coolant temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki

    1985-12-01

    In the BWR type light water loop instrumented in HBWR, a current BWR type fuel rod pre-irradiated up to 5.6 MWd/kgU was power ramped to 50 kW/m. During the ramp, the diameter of the rod was expanded significantly at the bottom end. The behaviour was different from which caused by pellet-cladding interaction (PCI). In the post-irradiation examination, the rod was found to be failed. In this paper, the cause of the failure was studied and obtained the followings. (1) The significant expansion of the rod diameter was attributed to marked oxidation of cladding outer diameter, appeared in the direction of 0 0 -180 0 degree with a shape of nodular. (2) The cladding in the place was softened by high coolant temperature. Coolant pressure, 7MPa intruded the cladding into inside chamfer void at pellet interface. (3) At the place of the significant oxidation, an instrumented transformer was existed and the coolant flow area was very little. The reduction of the coolant flow was enhanced by the bending of the cladding which was caused in pre-irradiation stage. They are considered to be a principal cause of local closure of coolant flow and resultant high temperature in the place. (author)

  3. Sodium coolant of fast reactors: Experience and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Volchkov, L.G.; Drobyshev, A.V.; Nikulin, M.P.; Kochetkov, L.A.; Alexeev, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    In present report the following subjects are considered: state of the coolant and sodium systems under normal operating condition as well as under decommissioning, disclosing of sodium circuits and liquidation of its consequences, cleaning from sodium and decontamination under repairing works of equipment and circuits. Cleaning of coolant and sodium systems under normal operating conditions and under accident contamination. Cleaning of the equipment under repairing works and during decommissioning from sodium and products of its interaction with water and air. Treatment of sodium waste, taking into account a possibility of sodium fires. It is shown that the state of coolant, cover gas, surfaces of constructive materials which are in contact with them, cleaning systems, formed during installation operation require development of specific technologies. Developed technologies ensured safety operation of sodium cooled installations as in normal operating conditions so in abnormal situations. R and D activities in this field and experience gained provided a solid base for coping with problems arising during decommissioning. Prospective research problems are emphasized where the future efforts should be concentrated in order to improve characteristics of sodium cooled reactors and to make their decommissioning optimal and safe. (author)

  4. Associations between Aspects of Friendship Networks, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviour among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Blackstaffe, Anita; Perry, Rosemary; Hawe, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Background. Adolescent friendships have been linked to physical activity levels; however, network characteristics have not been broadly examined. Method. In a cross-sectional analysis of 1061 adolescents (11–15 years), achieving 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and participating in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour were determined based on friendship network characteristics (density; proportion of active/sedentary friends; betweenness centrality; popularity; clique membership) and perceived social support. Results. Adolescents with no friendship nominations participated in less MVPA. For boys and girls, a ten percent point increase in active friends was positively associated with achievement of 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02–1.21, OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02–1.27, resp.). For boys, higher social support from friends was negatively associated with achieving 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42–0.96). Compared with low density networks, boys in higher density networks were more likely to participate in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour (OR 2.93; 95% CI 1.32–6.49). Social support from friends also modified associations between network characteristics and MVPA and sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Different network characteristics appeared to have different consequences. The proportion of active close friends was associated with MVPA, while network density was associated with sedentary behaviour. This poses challenges for intervention design. PMID:25328690

  5. Associations between Aspects of Friendship Networks, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviour among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Jo Sawka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescent friendships have been linked to physical activity levels; however, network characteristics have not been broadly examined. Method. In a cross-sectional analysis of 1061 adolescents (11–15 years, achieving 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and participating in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour were determined based on friendship network characteristics (density; proportion of active/sedentary friends; betweenness centrality; popularity; clique membership and perceived social support. Results. Adolescents with no friendship nominations participated in less MVPA. For boys and girls, a ten percent point increase in active friends was positively associated with achievement of 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02–1.21, OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02–1.27, resp.. For boys, higher social support from friends was negatively associated with achieving 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42–0.96. Compared with low density networks, boys in higher density networks were more likely to participate in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour (OR 2.93; 95% CI 1.32–6.49. Social support from friends also modified associations between network characteristics and MVPA and sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Different network characteristics appeared to have different consequences. The proportion of active close friends was associated with MVPA, while network density was associated with sedentary behaviour. This poses challenges for intervention design.

  6. Adolescent Weight Status and Related Behavioural Factors: Web Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E. Storey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify whether non-overweight students were different from their overweight or obese peers with respect to diet, suboptimal meal behaviours, and physical activity using a self-administered web-based survey. Methods. 4097 adolescents living in Alberta, Canada completed Web-SPAN (Web Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition. Students were classified as overweight or obese, and differences were described in terms of nutrient intakes, physical activity, and meal behaviours. Results. Non-overweight students consumed significantly more carbohydrate and fibre, and significantly less fat and high calorie beverages, and had a higher frequency of consuming breakfast and snacks compared to overweight or obese students. Both non-overweight and overweight students were significantly more active than obese students. Conclusions. This research supports the need to target suboptimal behaviours such as high calorie beverage consumption, fat intake, breakfast skipping, and physical inactivity. School nutrition policies and mandatory physical education for all students may help to improve weight status in adolescents.

  7. Nuclear reactor of pressurized liquid coolant type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    1976-01-01

    The reactor comprises a vertical concrete pressure vessel, a bell-housing having an open lower end and disposed coaxially with the interior of the pressure vessel so as to delimit therewith a space filled with gas under pressure for the thermal insulation of the internal vessel wall, a pressurizing device for putting the coolant under pressure within the bell-housing and comprising a volume of control gas in contact with a large free surface of coolant in order that an appreciable variation in volume of liquid displaced within the coolant circuit inside the bell-housing should correspond to a small variation in pressure of the control gas. 9 claims, 3 drawing figures

  8. ENVIRONMENTALLY REDUCING OF COOLANTS IN METAL CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veijo KAUPPINEN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Strained environment is a global problem. In metal industries the use of coolant has become more problematic in terms of both employee health and environmental pollution. It is said that the use of coolant forms approximately 8 - 16 % of the total production costs.The traditional methods that use coolants are now obviously becoming obsolete. Hence, it is clear that using a dry cutting system has great implications for resource preservation and waste reduction. For this purpose, a new cooling system is designed for dry cutting. This paper presents the new eco-friendly cooling innovation and the benefits gained by using this method. The new cooling system relies on a unit for ionising ejected air. In order to compare the performance of using this system, cutting experiments were carried out. A series of tests were performed on a horizontal turning machine and on a horizontal machining centre.

  9. Iron crud supply device to reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Takao.

    1993-01-01

    In a device for supplying iron cruds into reactor coolants in a BWR type power plant, a system in which feed water containing iron cruds is supplied to the reactor coolants after once passing through an ion exchange resin is disposed. As a result, iron cruds having characteristics similar with those of naturally occurring iron cruds in the plant are obtained and they react with ionic radioactivity, to form composite oxides. Then, iron cruds having high performance of being secured to the surface of a fuel cladding tube can be supplied to the reactor coolants, thereby enabling to greatly reduce the density of reactor water ionic radioactivity. In its turn, dose rate on the surface of pipelines can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce operators' radiation exposure dose in the plant. Further, contamination of a condensate desalting device due to iron cruds can be prevented, and further, the density of the iron cruds supplied can easily be controlled. (N.H.)

  10. Limits to fuel/coolant mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.; Moses, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The vapor explosion process involves the mixing of fuel with coolant prior to the explosion. A number of analysts have identified limits to the amount of fuel/coolant mixing that could occur within the reactor vessel following a core melt accident. Past models are reviewed and a sim plified approach is suggested to estimate the upper limit on the amount of fuel/coolant mixing pos sible. The approach uses concepts first advanced by Fauske in a different way. The results indicat that water depth is an important parameter as well as the mixing length scale D /SUB mix/ , and for large values of D /SUB mix/ the fuel mass mixed is limited to <7% of the core mass

  11. Behaviour of molluscs in cantabrian biota with respect to the activity present in the marine medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesinos, M.; Santos, A.M. de los

    1981-01-01

    The behaviour of molluscs with regard to the activity present in the marine medium is studied. For this purpose three large groups are considered, with special reference to their ecology and their particular mode of incorporating activity. Determinations are made of the total alpha and beta activity, as well as that due to elements such as 90 Sr, 137 Cs and natural U, in the organisms in question and in their eco-environment. A comparison is likewise established between the biocoenoses inhabiting Cantabrian and Mediterranean biota. (author)

  12. Main coolant pump testing at Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartlen, R.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes Ontario Hydro Research Division's experience with a computerized data acquisition and analysis system for monitoring mechanical vibration in reactor coolant pumps. The topics covered include bench-marking of the computer system and the coolant pumps, signatures of normal and malfunctioning pumps, analysis of data collected by the monitoring system, simulation of faults, and concerns that have been expressed about data interpretation, sensor types and locations, alarm/shutdown limits and confirmation of nondestructive examination testing. This presentation consists of overheads only

  13. Comparative design study of FR plants with various coolants. 1. Studies on Na coolant FR, Pb-Bi coolant FR, gas coolant FR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konomura, Mamoru; Shimakawa, Yoshio; Hori, Toru; Kawasaki, Nobuchika; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Kida, Masanori; Kasai, Shigeo; Ichimiya, Masakazu

    2001-01-01

    In Phase I of the Feasibility Studies on the Commercialized Fast Reactor (FR) Cycle System, plant designs on FR were performed with various coolants. This report describes the plant designs on FR with sodium, lead-bismuth, CO 2 gas and He gas coolants. A construction cost of 0.2 million yen/kWe was set up as a design goal. The result is as follows: The sodium reactor has a capability to obtain the goal, and lead-bismuth and gas reactors may satisfy the goal with further improvements. (author)

  14. On-Line Coolant Chemistry Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LM Bachman

    2006-01-01

    Impurities in the gas coolant of the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) can provide valuable indications of problems in the reactor and an overall view of system health. By monitoring the types and amounts of these impurities, much can be implied regarding the status of the reactor plant. However, a preliminary understanding of the expected impurities is important before evaluating prospective detection and monitoring systems. Currently, a spectroscopy system is judged to hold the greatest promise for monitoring the impurities of interest in the coolant because it minimizes the number of entry and exit points to the plant and provides the ability to detect impurities down to the 1 ppm level

  15. Reactor coolant pump for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, W.; Richter, G.

    1976-01-01

    An improvement is proposed concerning the easier disengagement of the coupling at the reactor coolant pump for a nuclear reactor transporting a pressurized coolant. According to the invention the disengaging coupling consists of two parts separated by screws. At least one of the screws contains a propellent charge ananged within a bore and provided with a speed-dependent ignition device in such a way that by separation of the screws at overspeeds the coupling is disengaged. The sub-claims are concerned with the kind of ignition ot the propellent charge. (UWI) [de

  16. A feasibility study of behavioural activation for depressive symptoms in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, A; Melville, C A; Pert, C; Cooper, S-A; Lynn, H; Williams, C; Davidson, C

    2015-11-01

    Important work has been carried out adapting cognitive behavioural therapy for people with intellectual disabilities. However, there is a lack of alternative psychological therapies available for people with intellectual disabilities and emotional difficulties. Behavioural activation for depression is less reliant on verbal communication and focuses on increasing purposeful activity and reducing avoidance. This feasibility study involved the development and piloting of an adapted manual of behavioural activation for people with intellectual disabilities. The intervention consisted of 10-12 sessions and a key adaptation was that the therapist worked with the clients alongside a significant other in their life, either a paid carer or family member. Baseline, post-intervention (3 months after entering the study) and 6-month quantitative follow-up data were obtained. Primary outcome data were gathered, concerning depressive symptoms, participants' levels of activity and general well-being. Twenty-three adults with intellectual disabilities with symptoms of depression were recruited from specialist health services. In terms of acceptability, the behavioural activation intervention was well received and only two individuals dropped out, with a further two lost to follow-up. The main measures of depression appeared to be sensitive to change. Pre- to post-intervention data showed a significant reduction in self-report of depressive symptoms with a strong effect size (r = 0.78), that was maintained at follow-up (r = 0.86). Positive change was also obtained for informant reports of depressive symptoms from pre- to post-intervention, with a strong effect size (r = 0.7). Once again, this positive change was maintained at follow-up (r = 0.72). The study suggested that behavioural activation may be a feasible and worthwhile approach to tackling depression in people with intellectual disabilities. However, a randomised controlled trial would be required to establish its

  17. Brief Report: Understanding Intention to Be Physically Active and Physical Activity Behaviour in Adolescents from a Low Socio-Economic Status Background: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J.; Rivis, Amanda; Jordan, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this brief report is to report on the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) for predicting the physical activity intentions and behaviour of British adolescents from lower-than-average socio-economic backgrounds. A prospective questionnaire design was employed with 197, 13-14 year olds (76 males, 121 females). At time 1…

  18. Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: using social theory to explore everyday commuting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guell, C; Panter, J; Jones, N R; Ogilvie, D

    2012-07-01

    Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work ('active commuting') as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study aimed to depart from narrow behavioural approaches to travel and investigate the social context of commuting with qualitative social research methods. Within a social practice theory framework, we explored how people describe their commuting experiences and make commuting decisions, and how travel behaviour is embedded in and shaped by commuters' complex social worlds. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews and eighteen photo-elicitation interviews with accompanying field notes were conducted with a subset of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort, based in the UK. The findings are discussed in terms of three particularly pertinent facets of the commuting experience. Firstly, choice and decisions are shaped by the constantly changing and fluid nature of commuters' social worlds. Secondly, participants express ambiguities in relation to their reasoning, ambitions and identities as commuters. Finally, commuting needs to be understood as an embodied and emotional practice. With this in mind, we suggest that everyday decision-making in commuting requires the tactical negotiation of these complexities. This study can help to explain the limitations of more quantitative and static models and frameworks in predicting travel behaviour and identify future research directions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Seasonal variation in physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep in a sample of UK adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Sophie E; Griffiths, Paula L; Clemes, Stacy A

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), sleep and diet have all been associated with increased risk for chronic disease. Seasonality is often overlooked as a determinant of these behaviours in adults. Currently, no study has simultaneously monitored these behaviours in UK adults to assess seasonal variation. The present study investigated whether PA, SB, sleep and diet differed over season in UK adults. Forty-six adults (72% female; age = 41.7 ± 14.4 years, BMI = 24.9 ± 4.4 kg/m(2)) completed four 7-day monitoring periods; one during each season of the year. The ActiGraph GT1M was used to monitor PA and SB. Daily sleep diaries monitored time spent in bed (TIB) and total sleep time (TST). The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) assessed diet. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to identify seasonal differences in behaviours. Light-intensity PA was significantly higher in summer and spring (p diet (p > 0.05). Findings support the concept that health promotion campaigns need to encourage year-round participation in light intensity PA, whilst limiting SB, particularly during the winter months.

  20. DETERMINATION OF THE 129I IN PRIMARY COOLANT OF PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KE CHON CHOI

    2013-02-01

    In this report, the effect of the boron content in a pressurized-water reactor primary coolant on the separation process of 129I was examined, as was the effect of 3H on the measurement of the activity of iodine. As a result, no influence of the boron content and of the simultaneous 3H presence was found with activity concentrations of 3H lower than 50 Bq/mL, and with a boron concentration of less than 2,000 μg/mL.

  1. Unsupervised Machine Learning for Developing Personalised Behaviour Models Using Activity Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Laura; Cavallo, Filippo; Dario, Paolo; Eavis, Alexandra; Caleb-Solly, Praminda

    2017-05-04

    The goal of this study is to address two major issues that undermine the large scale deployment of smart home sensing solutions in people's homes. These include the costs associated with having to install and maintain a large number of sensors, and the pragmatics of annotating numerous sensor data streams for activity classification. Our aim was therefore to propose a method to describe individual users' behavioural patterns starting from unannotated data analysis of a minimal number of sensors and a "blind" approach for activity recognition. The methodology included processing and analysing sensor data from 17 older adults living in community-based housing to extract activity information at different times of the day. The findings illustrate that 55 days of sensor data from a sensor configuration comprising three sensors, and extracting appropriate features including a "busyness" measure, are adequate to build robust models which can be used for clustering individuals based on their behaviour patterns with a high degree of accuracy (>85%). The obtained clusters can be used to describe individual behaviour over different times of the day. This approach suggests a scalable solution to support optimising the personalisation of care by utilising low-cost sensing and analysis. This approach could be used to track a person's needs over time and fine-tune their care plan on an ongoing basis in a cost-effective manner.

  2. Unsupervised Machine Learning for Developing Personalised Behaviour Models Using Activity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fiorini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to address two major issues that undermine the large scale deployment of smart home sensing solutions in people’s homes. These include the costs associated with having to install and maintain a large number of sensors, and the pragmatics of annotating numerous sensor data streams for activity classification. Our aim was therefore to propose a method to describe individual users’ behavioural patterns starting from unannotated data analysis of a minimal number of sensors and a ”blind” approach for activity recognition. The methodology included processing and analysing sensor data from 17 older adults living in community-based housing to extract activity information at different times of the day. The findings illustrate that 55 days of sensor data from a sensor configuration comprising three sensors, and extracting appropriate features including a “busyness” measure, are adequate to build robust models which can be used for clustering individuals based on their behaviour patterns with a high degree of accuracy (>85%. The obtained clusters can be used to describe individual behaviour over different times of the day. This approach suggests a scalable solution to support optimising the personalisation of care by utilising low-cost sensing and analysis. This approach could be used to track a person’s needs over time and fine-tune their care plan on an ongoing basis in a cost-effective manner.

  3. Beyond emotional benefits: physical activity and sedentary behaviour affect psychosocial resources through emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Candice L; Catalino, Lahnna I; Mata, Jutta; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is known to improve emotional experiences, and positive emotions have been shown to lead to important life outcomes, including the development of psychosocial resources. In contrast, time spent sedentary may negatively impact emotional experiences and, consequently, erode psychosocial resources. Two studies tested whether activity independently influenced emotions and psychosocial resources, and whether activity indirectly influenced psychosocial resources through emotional experiences. Using cross-sectional (Study 1a) and longitudinal (Study 1b) methods, we found that time spent physically active independently predicted emotions and psychosocial resources. Mediation analyses suggested that emotions may account for the relation between activity and psychosocial resources. The improved emotional experiences associated with physical activity may help individuals build psychosocial resources known to improve mental health. Study 1a provided first indicators to suggest that, in contrast, sedentary behaviour may reduce positive emotions, which could in turn lead to decrements in psychosocial resources.

  4. Is the association between screen-based behaviour and health complaints among adolescents moderated by physical activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brindova, Daniela; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Klein, Daniel; Hamrik, Zdenek; Sigmundova, Dagmar; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association between screen-based (SB) behaviour and selected health complaints in adolescents and whether physical activity (PA) moderates this association. METHODS: Data from the cross-sectional Health Behaviour of School-aged Children study

  5. Behaviour and locomotor activity of a migratory catostomid during fishway passage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana T Silva

    Full Text Available Fishways have been developed to restore longitudinal connectivity in rivers. Despite their potential for aiding fish passage, fishways may represent a source of significant energetic expenditure for fish as they are highly turbulent environments. Nonetheless, our understanding of the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage of fish is still limited. We examined swimming behaviour and activity of silver redhorse (Moxostoma anisurum during its upriver spawning migration in a vertical slot fishway. We used an accelerometer-derived instantaneous activity metric (overall dynamic body acceleration to estimate location-specific swimming activity. Silver redhorse demonstrated progressive increases in activity during upstream fishway passage. Moreover, location-specific passage duration decreased with an increasing number of passage attempts. Turning basins and the most upstream basin were found to delay fish passage. No relationship was found between basin-specific passage duration and activity and the respective values from previous basins. The results demonstrate that successful fishway passage requires periods of high activity. The resultant energetic expenditure may affect fitness, foraging behaviour and increase susceptibility to predation, compromising population sustainability. This study highlights the need to understand the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage to improve future designs and interpretation of biological evaluations.

  6. Coolant cleanup system for BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Araki, Hidefumi.

    1993-01-01

    The cleanup system of the present invention removes impurity ions and floating materials accumulated in a reactor during evaporation of coolants in the nuclear reactor. That is, coolants pass pipelines from a pressure vessel using pressure difference between a high pressure in the pressure vessel and a low pressure at the upstream of a condensate filtration/desalting device of a condensate/feed water system as a driving source, during which cations and floating materials are removed in a high temperature filtration/desalting device and coolants flow into the condensate/feedwater system. Impurities containing anions are removed here by the condensates filtration/desalting device. Then, they return to the pressure vessel while pressurized and heated by a condensate pump, a feed water pump and a feed water heater. At least pumps, a heat exchanger for heating, a filtration/desalting device for removing anions and pipelines connecting them used exclusively for the coolant cleanup system are no more necessary. (I.S.)

  7. Full sized tests on a french coolant pump under two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huchard, J.C.; Bore, C.; Dueymes, E.

    1997-01-01

    The French Safety Authorities required EDF to demonstrate the ability of the new N4 main coolant pump to withstand two-phase flow conditions without damage. Therefore three full sized tests, simulating a bleeding flow on the primary system, were performed on a laboratory test loop under real operating conditions (temperature = 290 deg. C, pressure = 155 b, flowrate = 7 m 3 /s; electrical power = 7 MW). The maximum value of the mean void fraction reached 75 %. The outcome of the tests is very positive: the mechanical behaviour of the main coolant pump is good, even at high void fraction. The maximum vibration levels were below the limits fixed by the manufacturer. Correlations between the mechanical behaviour of the pump and the pressure pulsation in the test loop have been found. (authors)

  8. Using activity-related behavioural features towards more effective automatic stress detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Giakoumis

    Full Text Available This paper introduces activity-related behavioural features that can be automatically extracted from a computer system, with the aim to increase the effectiveness of automatic stress detection. The proposed features are based on processing of appropriate video and accelerometer recordings taken from the monitored subjects. For the purposes of the present study, an experiment was conducted that utilized a stress-induction protocol based on the stroop colour word test. Video, accelerometer and biosignal (Electrocardiogram and Galvanic Skin Response recordings were collected from nineteen participants. Then, an explorative study was conducted by following a methodology mainly based on spatiotemporal descriptors (Motion History Images that are extracted from video sequences. A large set of activity-related behavioural features, potentially useful for automatic stress detection, were proposed and examined. Experimental evaluation showed that several of these behavioural features significantly correlate to self-reported stress. Moreover, it was found that the use of the proposed features can significantly enhance the performance of typical automatic stress detection systems, commonly based on biosignal processing.

  9. Evaluation of CRUDTRAN code to predict transport of corrosion products and radioactivity in the PWR primary coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.B.

    2002-01-01

    CRUDTRAN code is to predict transport of the corrosion products and their radio-activated nuclides such as cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 in the PWR primary coolant system. In CRUDTRAN code the PWR primary circuit is divided into three principal sections such as the core, the coolant and the steam generator. The main driving force for corrosion product transport in the PWR primary coolant comes from coolant temperature change throughout the system and a subsequent change in corrosion product solubility. As the coolant temperature changes around the PWR primary circuit, saturation status of the corrosion products in the coolant also changes such that under-saturation in steam generator and super-saturation in the core. CRUDTRAN code was evaluated by comparison with the results of the in-reactor loop tests simulating the PWR primary coolant system and PWR plant data. It showed that CRUDTRAN could predict variations of cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 radioactivity with time, plant cycle and coolant chemistry in the PWR plant. (author)

  10. Meta-analyses of workplace physical activity and dietary behaviour interventions on weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, L M; Coffeng, J; van Mechelen, W; Proper, K I

    2011-06-01

    This meta-analytic review critically examines the effectiveness of workplace interventions targeting physical activity, dietary behaviour or both on weight outcomes. Data could be extracted from 22 studies published between 1980 and November 2009 for meta-analyses. The GRADE approach was used to determine the level of evidence for each pooled outcome measure. Results show moderate quality of evidence that workplace physical activity and dietary behaviour interventions significantly reduce body weight (nine studies; mean difference [MD]-1.19 kg [95% CI -1.64 to -0.74]), body mass index (BMI) (11 studies; MD -0.34 kg m⁻² [95% CI -0.46 to -0.22]) and body fat percentage calculated from sum of skin-folds (three studies; MD -1.12% [95% CI -1.86 to -0.38]). There is low quality of evidence that workplace physical activity interventions significantly reduce body weight and BMI. Effects on percentage body fat calculated from bioelectrical impedance or hydrostatic weighing, waist circumference, sum of skin-folds and waist-hip ratio could not be investigated properly because of a lack of studies. Subgroup analyses showed a greater reduction in body weight of physical activity and diet interventions containing an environmental component. As the clinical relevance of the pooled effects may be substantial on a population level, we recommend workplace physical activity and dietary behaviour interventions, including an environment component, in order to prevent weight gain. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  11. Physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits among Kuwaiti adolescents: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allafi, Ahmad; Al-Haifi, Ahmad R; Al-Fayez, Mohammad A; Al-Athari, Buthaina I; Al-Ajmi, Fahhad A; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Ahmed, Faruk

    2014-09-01

    The present study was designed to assess physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits among adolescents in Kuwait and to compare the differences between genders. A cross-sectional study was conducted among secondary-school children who participated in the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS), a multi-centre collaborative project. Secondary schools in Kuwait. Adolescents (463 boys and 443 girls), aged 14-19 years. Nearly half (44·6 %) of the boys and three-quarters (76·0 %) of the girls did not meet the recommended daily physical activity levels (≥2520 MET-min/week, moderate to vigorous intensity). Nearly all (96·3 % of boys and 96·7 % of girls) adolescents reported spending >2 h/d on screen time, with girls found to spend more time per day watching television (P = 0·02) and using a computer (P physical activity, spend more time on sedentary activities and have unhealthy dietary practices. The findings emphasize an urgent need for implementing an appropriate intervention for promoting physical activity, healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviours among these children.

  12. MABEL-2: a code to analyse cladding deformation in a loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowring, R.W.; Cooper, C.A.; Haste, T.J.

    1982-04-01

    MABEL can be used to determine the cladding deformation in a PWR during a LOCA. It takes the results of calculations from other codes to define the initial fuel condition and the transient whole core thermal-hydraulic behaviour. The use of MABEL with input data appropriate to different regions of a reactor core allows an overall picture of coolant channel blockage within the core to be obtained. (U.K.)

  13. A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children’s physical activity and sedentary behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The home environment is an important influence on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children, who have limited independent mobility and spend much of their time at home. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the influence of the home physical environment on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children aged 8–14 years. A literature search of peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2011 resulted in 38 observational studies (21 with activity outcomes, 23 with sedentary outcomes) and 11 experimental studies included in the review. The most commonly investigated behavioural outcomes were television watching and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Media equipment in the home and to a lesser extent the bedroom were positively associated with children’s sedentary behaviour. Physical activity equipment and the house and yard were not associated with physical activity, although environmental measures were exclusively self-reported. On the other hand, physical activity equipment was inversely associated with sedentary behaviours in half of studies. Observational studies that investigated the influence of the physical and social environment within the home space, found that the social environment, particularly the role of parents, was important. Experimental studies that changed the home physical environment by introducing a television limiting device successfully decreased television viewing, whereas the influence of introducing an active video game on activity outcomes was inconsistent. Results highlight that the home environment is an important influence on children’s sedentary behaviour and physical activity, about which much is still unknown. While changing or controlling the home physical environment shows promise for reducing screen based sedentary behaviour, further interventions are needed to understand the broader impact of these changes. Future studies should prioritise investigating the influence of the

  14. A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Clover; Stratton, Gareth; Foster, Sarah; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2013-08-17

    The home environment is an important influence on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children, who have limited independent mobility and spend much of their time at home. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the influence of the home physical environment on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children aged 8-14 years. A literature search of peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2011 resulted in 38 observational studies (21 with activity outcomes, 23 with sedentary outcomes) and 11 experimental studies included in the review. The most commonly investigated behavioural outcomes were television watching and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Media equipment in the home and to a lesser extent the bedroom were positively associated with children's sedentary behaviour. Physical activity equipment and the house and yard were not associated with physical activity, although environmental measures were exclusively self-reported. On the other hand, physical activity equipment was inversely associated with sedentary behaviours in half of studies. Observational studies that investigated the influence of the physical and social environment within the home space, found that the social environment, particularly the role of parents, was important. Experimental studies that changed the home physical environment by introducing a television limiting device successfully decreased television viewing, whereas the influence of introducing an active video game on activity outcomes was inconsistent. Results highlight that the home environment is an important influence on children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity, about which much is still unknown. While changing or controlling the home physical environment shows promise for reducing screen based sedentary behaviour, further interventions are needed to understand the broader impact of these changes. Future studies should prioritise investigating the influence of the home

  15. Analysis of Coolant Options for Advanced Metal Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Can, Levent

    2006-01-01

    .... The overall focus of this study is the build up of induced radioactivity in the coolant of metal cooled reactors as well as the evaluation of other physical and chemical properties of such coolants...

  16. A qualitative synthesis of trials promoting physical activity behaviour change among post-treatment breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Camille E; James, Erica L; Stacey, Fiona; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2013-12-01

    Health outcome trials have provided strong evidence that participating in regular physical activity can improve the quality of life and health of post-treatment breast cancer survivors. Focus is now needed on how to promote changes in physical activity behaviour among this group. This systematic review examines the efficacy of behavioural interventions for promoting physical activity among post-treatment breast cancer survivors. Behavioural intervention studies published up until July 2012 were identified through a systematic search of two databases: MEDLINE and CINAHL, and by searching reference lists of relevant publications and scanning citation libraries of project staff. Eight out of the ten identified studies reported positive intervention effects on aerobic physical activity behaviour, ranging from during the intervention period to 6 months post-intervention. Only two studies reported intervention effect sizes. The identification of factors related to efficacy was not possible because of the limited number and heterogeneity of studies included, as well as the lack of effect sizes reported. Nonetheless, an examination of the eight studies that did yield significant intervention effects suggests that 12-week interventions employing behaviour change techniques (e.g., self-monitoring and goal setting) derived from a variety of theories and delivered in a variety of settings (i.e., one-on-one, group or home) can be effective at changing the aerobic physical activity behaviour of breast cancer survivors in the mid- to long terms. Behavioural interventions do hold promise for effectively changing physical activity behaviour among breast cancer survivors. However, future research is needed to address the lack of studies exploring long-term intervention effects, mediators of intervention effects and interventions promoting resistance-training activity, and to address issues impacting on validity, such as the limited use of objective physical activity measures and

  17. Do unfavourable alcohol, smoking, nutrition and physical activity predict sustained leisure time sedentary behaviour? A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, Carla F J; Möller, Jette; Forsell, Yvonne; Ekblom, Maria; Galanti, Maria R; Engström, Karin

    2017-08-01

    Comparing lifestyle of people remaining sedentary during longer periods of their life with those favourably changing their behaviour can provide cues to optimize interventions targeting sedentary behaviour. The objective of this study was to determine lifestyle predictors of sustained leisure time sedentary behaviour and assess whether these predictors were dependent on gender, age, socioeconomic position and occupational sedentary behaviour. Data from a large longitudinal population-based cohort of adults (aged 18-97years) in Stockholm responding to public health surveys in 2010 and 2014 were analysed (n=49,133). Leisure time sedentary behaviour was defined as >3h per day of leisure sitting time e.g. watching TV, reading or using tablet. Individuals classified as sedentary at baseline (n=9562) were subsequently categorized as remaining sedentary (n=6357) or reduced sedentary behaviour (n=3205) at follow-up. Lifestyle predictors were unfavourable alcohol consumption, smoking, nutrition, and physical activity. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated, adjusting for potential confounders. Unfavourable alcohol consumption (OR=1.22, CI:1.11-1.34), unfavourable candy- or cake consumption (OR=1.15, CI:1.05-1.25), and unfavourable physical activity in different contexts were found to predict sustained sedentary behaviour, with negligible differences according to gender, age, socioeconomic position and occupational sedentary behaviour. People with unfavourable lifestyle profiles regarding alcohol, sweets, or physical activity are more likely to remain sedentary compared to sedentary persons with healthier lifestyle. The impact of combining interventions to reduce leisure time sedentary behaviour with reducing alcohol drinking, sweet consumption and increasing physical activity should be tested as a promising strategy for behavioural modification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Graphite beds for coolant filtration at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heathcock, R.E.; Lacy, C.S.

    1978-01-01

    High temperature filtration will be provided for new Ontario Hydro CANDU heat transport systems. Filtration has been shown to effectively reduce the concentration of circulating corrosion products in our heat transport systems, hence, minimizing the processes of activity transport. This paper will present one option we have for this application; Deep Bed Granular Graphite Filters. The filter system is described by discussing pertinent aspects of its development programme. The compatibility of the filter and the heat transport coolant are demonstrated by results from loop tests, both out- and in-reactor, and by subsequent results from a large filter installation in the NPD NGS heat transport system. (author)

  19. Nutritional and physical activity behaviours and habits in adolescent population of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević-Nikić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Proper nutrition and regular physical activity are essential parts of a adolescent's overall health. The aim of this research was to evaluated eating and physical activity behaviours and habits, nutritional and food knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy related to diet and health of the adolescents of the city of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested in adolescent population from Italy was self-administrated. We evaluated eating habits, physical activity, meaning of healthy and unhealthy dietary habits and food, self-efficacy, barriers affecting food choices, nutritional and food safety, and body mass index (BMI of the adolescents. The sample included 707 adolescents, the mean age of 15,8 ± 2 years enrolled in the first grade at several high schools in Belgrade. Results. Only 27% of the adolescents had satisfactory eating habits; 31% have a very active lifestyle; 7% good nutritional knowledge and 6- 12% satisfactory food safety knowledge and hygiene practices. Conclusion. Significant deviations from recommendations for healthy lifestyle was noted in adolescents’ habits, knowledge and practice. It is therefore necessary to develop and organize programs for promotion of healthy behaviours adapted to the adolescents’ needs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47015

  20. Effective techniques for changing physical activity and healthy eating intentions and behaviour: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Máirtín S; Oliver, Madalyn; Iverson, Don; Sharma, Rajeev

    2016-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to review the evidence on the impact of a change in intention on behaviour and to identify (1) behaviour change techniques (BCTs) associated with changes in intention and (2) whether the same BCTs are also associated with changes in behaviour. A systematic review was conducted to identify interventions that produced a significant change in intention and assessed the impact of this change on behaviour at a subsequent time point. Each intervention was coded using a taxonomy of BCTs targeting healthy eating and physical activity. A series of meta-regression analyses were conducted to identify effective BCTs. In total, 25 reports were included. Interventions had a medium-to-large effect on intentions (d +  = 0.64) and a small-to-medium effect (d +  = 0.41) on behaviour. One BCT, 'provide information on the consequences of behaviour in general', was significantly associated with a positive change in intention. One BCT, 'relapse prevention/coping planning', was associated with a negative change in intention. No BCTs were found to have significant positive effects on behaviour. However, one BCT, 'provide feedback on performance', was found to have a significant negative effect. BCTs aligned with social cognitive theory were found to have significantly greater positive effects on intention (d +  = 0.83 vs. 0.56, p behaviour (d +  = 0.35 vs. 0.23, ns), than those aligned with the theory of planned behaviour. Although the included studies support the notion that a change in intention is associated with a change in behaviour, this review failed to produce evidence on how to facilitate behaviour change through a change in intention. Larger meta-analyses incorporating interventions targeting a broader range of behaviours may be warranted. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Prior research on the causal relationship between intention and behaviour has produced mixed findings. Further experimental research to

  1. Thermal and mechanical behaviour of the reduced-activation-ferritic-martensitic steel EUROFER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindau, R.; Moeslang, A.; Schirra, M.

    2002-01-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are being considered for structural application in potential fusion energy systems. Based on the substantial experience with RAFM developmental steels of OPTIFER type, an industrial 3.5 tons batch of a 9CrWVTa-RAFM steel, called EUROFER 97 had been specified and ordered. A characterisation programme has been launched to determine the relevant mechanical and physical-metallurgical properties in order to qualify the steel for fusion application. The hardening, tempering and transformation behaviour of EUROFER is in good agreement with that of other RAFM-steels like OPTIFER and the Japanese industrial scale heat F82H mod. Tensile tests, performed between RT and 750 deg. C, show comparable strength and ductility values that are not strongly affected by different heat treatments and ageing at 580 and 600 deg. C up to 3300 h. Impact bending tests indicate a superior ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of EUROFER in the as-received condition compared with that of F82H mod. Creep tests between 450 and 650 deg. C up to test times of 15000 h reveal a creep strength similar to other RAFM steels like OPTIFER and F82H mod. EUROFER shows a good low-cycle fatigue behaviour with longer lifetimes than F82H mod. The deformation and softening behaviour is similar

  2. Apps to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents: a review of quality, features and behaviour change techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie; Rebar, Amanda L; Hayman, Melanie; Bray, Nicola A; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Gnam, Jens-Peter; Bachert, Philip; Direito, Artur; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2017-06-24

    The number of commercial apps to improve health behaviours in children is growing rapidly. While this provides opportunities for promoting health, the content and quality of apps targeting children and adolescents is largely unexplored. This review systematically evaluated the content and quality of apps to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents, and examined relationships of app quality ratings with number of app features and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) used. Systematic literature searches were conducted in iTunes and Google Play stores between May-November 2016. Apps were included if they targeted children or adolescents, focused on improving diet, physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour, had a user rating of at least 4+ based on at least 20 ratings, and were available in English. App inclusion, downloading and user-testing for quality assessment and content analysis were conducted independently by two reviewers. Spearman correlations were used to examine relationships between app quality, and number of technical app features and BCTs included. Twenty-five apps were included targeting diet (n = 12), physical activity (n = 18) and sedentary behaviour (n = 7). On a 5-point Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS), overall app quality was moderate (total MARS score: 3.6). Functionality was the highest scoring domain (mean: 4.1, SD: 0.6), followed by aesthetics (mean: 3.8, SD: 0.8), and lower scoring for engagement (mean: 3.6, SD: 0.7) and information quality (mean: 2.8, SD: 0.8). On average, 6 BCTs were identified per app (range: 1-14); the most frequently used BCTs were providing 'instructions' (n = 19), 'general encouragement' (n = 18), 'contingent rewards' (n = 17), and 'feedback on performance' (n = 13). App quality ratings correlated positively with numbers of technical app features (rho = 0.42, p improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents had moderate

  3. Active music therapy improves cognition and behaviour in chronic vascular encephalopathy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Oliveri, Serena; Schifano, Letizia; Raglio, Alfredo

    2014-02-01

    This study describes the effects of active music therapy (AMT) on cognition and behaviour in chronic vascular encephalopathy. A single case study investigated different cognitive and psycho-behavioural changes after AMT. An adult patient with memory, attention, and verbal fluency deficits associated with Vascular Cognitive Impairment-No Dementia (VCI-ND) was treated. A four-months AMT course was based on creative and interactive music playing. Sixteen sessions were conducted simultaneously to the pharmacological therapy. Cognitive performances, mood, interpersonal interactions, and perceived abilities were assessed using standardized neuropsychological and psycho-behavioural measurements. At baseline, the patient reported a tendency to feel tense, nervous, and angry and difficulties in memory and visuospatial performances, frequently accompanied by attention drops. The social network was a habitual component of the patient's life, but not a source of sharing of personal experiences, safety or comfort. Neuropsychological tests showed deficits in object and figure naming, verbal fluency, short and long-term verbal memory, short-term spatial memory, selective attention, and visuomotor coordination. After AMT, the cognitive profile significantly improved in attention, visuomotor coordination, and verbal and spatial memory. Such positive changes were confirmed at the three-months follow-up. An increase of the interpersonal interactions and consistent reduction of anxiety were also observed. In selected patients with VCI-ND, a well-structured AMT intervention added to standard therapy may contribute in determining a stable improvement of cognitive and psycho-behavioural aspects. Controlled studies are needed to confirm these promising results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Activity in the superior colliculus reflects dynamic interactions between voluntary and involuntary influences on orienting behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Andrew H; Munoz, Douglas P

    2008-10-01

    Performance in a behavioural task can be influenced by both bottom-up and top-down processes such as stimulus modality and prior probability. Here, we exploited differences in behavioural strategy to explore the role of the intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus (dSC) in covert orienting. Two monkeys were trained on a predictive cued-saccade task in which the cue predicted the target's upcoming location with 80% validity. When the delay between cue and target onset was 250 ms, both monkeys showed faster responses to the uncued (Invalid) location. This was associated with a reduced target-aligned response in the dSC on Valid trials for both monkeys and is consistent with a bottom-up (i.e. involuntary) bias. When the delay was increased to 650 ms, one monkey continued to show faster responses to the Invalid location whereas the other monkey showed faster responses to the Valid location, consistent with a top-down (i.e. voluntary) bias. This latter behaviour was correlated with an increase in activity in dSC neurons preceding target onset that was absent in the other monkey. Thus, using the information provided by the cue shifted the emphasis towards top-down processing, while ignoring this information allowed bottom-up processing to continue to dominate. Regardless of the selected strategy, however, neurons in the dSC consistently reflected the current bias between the two processes, emphasizing its role in both the bottom-up and top-down control of orienting behaviour.

  5. Evaluation of primary coolant pH operation methods for the domestic PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, Seung Woo; Na, Jung Won; Kim, Yong Eak; Bae, Jae Heum

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive nuclides deposited on out-of-core surface after the radiation in the core by the transport of corrosion products (CRUD) through the primary coolant system in PWR which is the major plant type in Korea, are leading sources of radiation exposure to plant maintenance personnel. Thus, the optimal chemistry operation method is required for the reduction of radiation exposure by the corrosion products. This study analysed the actual water chemistry operation data of four operating domestic PWRs. And in order to evaluate the coolant chemistry operation data, a computer code which can calculate the activity buildup in the various chemistry conditions of PWR coolant was employed. Through the analysis of comparison between the activity buildup of actual water chemistry operation mode and that of assumed Elevated Li operation mode calculated by the computer code, it was found that the out-of-core radioactivity can be reduced by diminishing the deposition of corrosion products on the core in case that the Elevated Li operation mode is applied to the coolant chemistry operation of PWR. And the higher coolant pH operation was shown to have the advantage of the reduction of out-of-core activity buildup if the integrity of system structural materials and fuel cladding is guaranteed. (Author)

  6. Understanding the physical activity promotion behaviours of podiatrists: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisford, Paul; Winzenberg, Tania; Venn, Alison; Cleland, Verity

    2013-09-09

    Health professionals are encouraged to play a part in reducing the health risks of physical inactivity. Little is known of the physical activity promotion practice behaviours of podiatrists. We performed 20 semi-structured interviews with purposefully selected podiatrists to explore their physical activity promotion attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and practice. Transcribed interviews were coded using an iterative thematic approach to identify major themes and salient beliefs. Overall, the participants had a positive attitude to physical activity promotion, considering it a normal part of their role. They saw their role as giving information, encouraging activity and making recommendations, however in practice they were less inclined to follow up on recommendations, monitor activity levels or document the process. Their approach was generally opportunistic, informal and unstructured and the content of assessment and promotion dependent upon the presenting patient's condition. Advice tended to be tailored to the patient's capabilities and interests. They considered there are opportunities to promote physical activity during regular consultations, however, were more likely to do so in patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes. Main barriers to physical activity promotion included unreceptive and unmotivated patients as well as a lack of time, skills and resources. Physical activity promotion appears feasible in podiatry practice in terms of opportunity and acceptability to practitioners, but there is scope for improvement. Strategies to improve promotion need to consider the major issues, barriers and opportunities as well as provide a more structured approach to physical activity promotion by podiatrists.

  7. Leukocyte telomere length and mortality among U.S. adults: Effect modification by physical activity behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and mortality (outcome variable), with consideration by physical activity behaviour. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were employed (N = 6,611; 20-85 yrs), with follow-up mortality assessment through 31 December 2006. DNA was extracted from whole blood to assess LTL via quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Compared to those in the first LTL tertile, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality for those in the 2 nd and 3 rd LTL tertiles, respectively, was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.60-1.12; P = .22) and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.50-1.14; P = .18). However, after adjustments, LTL tertile 3 (vs. 1) was associated with all-cause mortality (HR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14-0.93; P = .03) for those who engaged in moderate-intensity exercise. Similarly, LTL was associated with CVD-specific mortality for those who engaged in moderate-intensity exercise (HR = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.04-0.73; P = .02). Longer telomeres are associated with increased survival, particularly among men and those who are active, underscoring the importance of promotion of physical activity behaviour.

  8. From risky behaviour to sexy adventures: reconceptualising young people's online sexual activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naezer, Marijke

    2018-06-01

    Western discourses about young people and sexuality centre around the concept of risk. Anxieties have been fuelled by the increasing popularity of social media and practices such as 'sexting' and watching 'sexually explicit' materials online. Research has shown however that such risk discourses mainly serve to moralise about, pathologise and police particular behaviours and children. In order to counter such paternalism, researchers advocated a reconceptualisation of youth not as passive victims, but as active agents who actively negotiate sexual experiences and discourses. In this paper, which is based on ethnographic fieldwork among young people in The Netherlands, I argue that we need a reconceptualisation not only of youth, but also of their sexual practices, especially their online sexual practices. Mobilising an interdisciplinary interaction between critical socio-cultural studies of risk, feminist theory and adventure studies, I propose to reconceptualise these practices as 'adventures' rather than 'risky behaviour'. This opens up possibilities for a more reasoned analysis that acknowledges: (1) the distinction between risks and outcomes of an activity; (2) the constructive potential of risk; and (3) the subjective, dynamic character of risk and pleasure.

  9. Analysis of automated quantification of motor activity in REM sleep behaviour disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rune; Nikolic, Miki; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and REM sleep without atonia. Atonia is evaluated on the basis of visual criteria, but there is a need for more objective, quantitative measurements. We aimed to define and optimize a method for establishing...... baseline and all other parameters in automatic quantifying submental motor activity during REM sleep. We analysed the electromyographic activity of the submental muscle in polysomnographs of 29 patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD), 29 controls and 43 Parkinson's (PD) patients. Six adjustable parameters...... were validated on PD patients. Automatic baseline estimation improved characterization of atonia during REM sleep, as it eliminates inter/intra-observer variability and can be standardized across diagnostic centres. We found an optimized method for quantifying motor activity during REM sleep...

  10. Revised Mark 22 coolant temperature coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Coolant temperature coefficients for the Mark 22 charge published previously are non-conservative because of the neglect of a significant mechanism which has a positive contribution to reactivity. Even after correcting for this effect, dynamic tests made on a Mark VIB charge in the early 60's suggest the results are still non-conservative. This memorandum takes both of these sources of information into account in making a best estimate of the prompt (coolant plus metal) temperature coefficient. Although no safety issues arise from this work (the overall temperature coefficient still strongly contributes to reactor stability), it is obviously desirable to use best estimates for prompt coefficients in limits and other calculations

  11. Freeform Deposition Method for Coolant Channel Closeout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Reynolds, David Christopher (Inventor); Walker, Bryant H. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A method is provided for fabricating a coolant channel closeout jacket on a structure having coolant channels formed in an outer surface thereof. A line of tangency relative to the outer surface is defined for each point on the outer surface. Linear rows of a metal feedstock are directed towards and deposited on the outer surface of the structure as a beam of weld energy is directed to the metal feedstock so-deposited. A first angle between the metal feedstock so-directed and the line of tangency is maintained in a range of 20-90.degree.. The beam is directed towards a portion of the linear rows such that less than 30% of the cross-sectional area of the beam impinges on a currently-deposited one of the linear rows. A second angle between the beam and the line of tangency is maintained in a range of 5-65 degrees.

  12. Recovery studies for plutonium machining oil coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Baldwin, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Lathe coolant oil, contaminated with plutonium and having a carbon tetrachloride diluent, is generated in plutonium machining areas at Rocky Flats. A research program was initiated to determine the nature of plutonium in this mixture of oil and carbon tetrachloride. Appropriate methods then could be developed to remove the plutonium and to recycle the oil and carbon tetrachloride. Studies showed that the mixtures of spent oil and carbon tetrachloride contained particulate plutonium and plutonium species that are soluble in water or in oil and carbon tetrachloride. The particulate plutonium was removed by filtration; the nonfilterable plutonium was removed by adsorption on various materials. Laboratory-scale tests indicated the lathe-coolant oil mixture could be separated by distilling the carbon tetrachloride to yield recyclable products

  13. Reactor coolant pressure boundary leakage detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.; Svansson, L.

    1980-01-01

    This study deals with a system for monitoring the leakage of reactor coolant. This system is based primarily on the detection of the 13 N content in the containment atmosphere. 13 N is produced from the oxygen of the reactor water via the recoil proton nuclear process Hl+016/yields/ 13 N+ 4 He. The generation is therefore independent of fuel element leakage and of the corrosion product content in the water. It is solely related to the neutron flux level in the reactor core. Typical figures for the equilibrium 13 N concentration in the containment atmosphere following a 4 kg/minute coolant leakage are 5 kBq m/sup -3/ and 7 kBq m/sup -3/ for BWR and PWR respectively. These levels are readily measured with a 10 liter Ge(Li) flow detector assembly operated at elevated pressure. 8 refs

  14. Reactor coolant pressure boundary leakage detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.; Svansson, L.

    1980-01-01

    This study deals with a system for monitoring the leakage of reactor coolant. This system is based primarily on the detection of the N13 content in the containment atmosphere. N13 is produced from the oxygen of the reactor water via the recoil proton nuclear process Hl+016/yields/Nl3+He4. The generation is therefore independent of fuel element leakage and of the corrosion product content in the water. It is solely related to the neutron flux level in the reactor core. Typical figures for the equilibrium N13 concentration in the containment atmosphere following a 4 kg/minute coolant leakage are 5 kBq m/sup -3/ and 7 kBq m/sup -3/ for BWR and PWR respectively. These levels are readily measured with a 10 liter Ge(Li) flow detector assembly operated at elevated pressure. 8 refs

  15. Reactor coolant pressure boundary leakage detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.; Svansson, L.

    1979-08-01

    The present paper deals with a system for monitoring the leakage of reactor coolant. This system is based primarily on the detection of the N13 content in the containment atmosphere. N13 is produced from the oxygen of the reactor water via the recoil proton nuclear process H1+016 → N13+He4. The generation is therefore independent of fuel element leakage and of the corrosion product content in the water. It is solely related to the neutron flux level in the reactor core. Typical figures for the equilibrium N13 concentration in the containment atmosphere following a 4 kg/minute coolant leakage are 5 kBq m -3 and 7 kBq m -3 for BWR and PWR respectively. These levels are readily measured with a 10 liter Ge (Li) flow detector assembly operated at elevated pressure. (Auth.)

  16. Rapid behavioural gregarization in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria entails synchronous changes in both activity and attraction to conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephen M; Cullen, Darron A; Anstey, Michael L; Burrows, Malcolm; Despland, Emma; Dodgson, Tim; Matheson, Tom; Ott, Swidbert R; Stettin, Katja; Sword, Gregory A; Simpson, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    Desert Locusts can change reversibly between solitarious and gregarious phases, which differ considerably in behaviour, morphology and physiology. The two phases show many behavioural differences including both overall levels of activity and the degree to which they are attracted or repulsed by conspecifics. Solitarious locusts perform infrequent bouts of locomotion characterised by a slow walking pace, groom infrequently and actively avoid other locusts. Gregarious locusts are highly active with a rapid walking pace, groom frequently and are attracted to conspecifics forming cohesive migratory bands as nymphs and/or flying swarms as adults. The sole factor driving the onset of gregarization is the presence of conspecifics. In several previous studies concerned with the mechanism underlying this transformation we have used an aggregate measure of behavioural phase state, Pgreg, derived from logistic regression analysis, which combines and weights several behavioural variables to characterise solitarious and gregarious behaviour. Using this approach we have analysed the time course of behavioural change, the stimuli that induce gregarization and the key role of serotonin in mediating the transformation. Following a recent critique that suggested that using Pgreg may confound changes in general activity with genuine gregarization we have performed a meta-analysis examining the time course of change in the individual behaviours that we use to generate Pgreg. We show that the forced crowding of solitarious locusts, tactile stimulation of the hind femora, and the short-term application of serotonin each induce concerted changes in not only locomotion-related variables but also grooming frequency and attraction to other locusts towards those characteristic of long-term gregarious locusts. This extensive meta-analysis supports and extends our previous conclusions that solitarious locusts undergo a rapid behavioural gregarization upon receiving appropriate stimulation for

  17. Enhancing resistance to burnout via coolant chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, J. P.; Dinh, T. N.; Theofanous, T. G. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Boiling Crisis (BC) on horizontal, upwards-facing copper and steel surfaces under the influence of various coolant chemistries relevant to reactor containment waters is considered. In addition to Boric Acid (BA) and TriSodium Phosphate (TSP), pure De-Ionized Water (DIW) and Tap Water (TW) are included in experiments carried out in the BETA facility. The results are related to a companion paper on the large scale ULPU facility.

  18. Analysis of loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldaschl, H.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors -Quantification of the influence of leak size, control assembly worth, boron concentration and initial power by a dynamic operations criterion. Neutronic and thermohydraulic behaviour of a pressurized water reactor during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is mainly influenced by -change of fuel temperature, -void in the primary coolant. They cause a local stabilization of power density, that means that also in the case of small leaks local void is the main stabilization effect. As a consequence the increase of fuel temperature remains very small even under extremely hypothetical assumptions: small leak, positive reactivity feedback (positive coolant temperature coefficient, negative density coefficient) at the beginning of the accident and all control assemblies getting stuck. Restrictions which have been valid up to now for permitted start-up conditions to fulfill inherent safety requirements can be lossened substantially by a dynamic operations criterion. Burnable poisons for compensation of reactivity theorefore can be omitted. (orig.)

  19. Minimizing secondary coolant blowdown in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y. C.; Woo, J. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Cho, Y. G.; Lim, N. Y.

    2000-01-01

    There is about 80m 3 /h loss of the secondary cooling water by evaporation, windage and blowdown during the operation of HANARO, 30MW research reactor. The evaporation and the windage is necessary loss to maintain the performance of cooling tower, but the blowdown is artificial lose to get rid of the foreign material and to maintain the quality of the secondary cooling water. Therefore, minimizing the blowdown loss was studied. It was confirmed, through the relation of the number of cycle and the loss rate of secondary coolant, that the number of cycle is saturated to 12 without blowdown because of the windage loss. When the secondary coolant is treated by high Ca-hardness treatment program (the number of cycle > 10) to maintain the number of cycle around 12 without blowdown, only the turbidity exceeds the limit. By adding filtering system it was confirmed, through the relation of turbidity and filtering rate of secondary cooling water, that the turbidity is reduced below the limit (5 deg.) by 2% of filtering rate without blowdown. And it was verified, through the performance test of back-flow filtering unit, that this unit gets rid of foreign material up to 95% of the back-flow and that the water can be reused as coolant. Therefore, the secondary cooling water can be treated by the high Ca-hardness program and filter system without blowdown

  20. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jago Russell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no data on physical activity and sedentary behaviours of Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents, and no study to date examined the association between these two behaviours in this population. The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behaviours among Greek-Cypriot adolescents and examine the association between physical activity and a range of sedentary behaviours. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Methods A cross-sectional study among 1,966 Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents was conducted in 2008/2009. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire across primary, middle, high and technical/vocational schools. Results Overall 52.3% and 52.4% of the participants met physical activity and television viewing guidelines respectively. Boys and younger children were more likely to meet guidelines. Boys who attended sports clubs for two or more times per week were more likely to be physically active (OR = 3.4, and those who listened to music for one or less than one hour per day were less likely to be physically active (OR = 0.6. Girls who attended sports clubs for two or more times per week and who watched television for two or less than two hours per day were more likely to be physically active, (OR = 3.0 and OR = 1.5 respectively. Girls who reported travelling by car/bus/motorbike for one or less than one hour per day were more likely to actively travel to school (OR = 1.8. Conclusions Findings from this study provide limited support for the displacement hypothesis whereby sedentary behaviours displace physically active time. About 50.0% of Greek children and adolescents in Cyprus meet existing physical activity and television viewing guidelines. Encouraging children to attend sports clubs for at least two times per week may markedly improve their physical activity levels.

  1. CANDU with supercritical water coolant: conceptual design features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, N.

    1997-01-01

    An advanced CANDU reactor, with supercritical water as coolant, has many attractive design features. The pressure exceeds 22 MPa but coolant temperatures in excess of 370 degrees C can be reached without encountering the two-phase region with its associated fuel-dry-out and flow-instability problems. Increased coolant temperature leads to increased plant thermodynamic efficiency reducing unit energy cost through reduced specific capital cost and reduced fueling cost. Increased coolant temperature leads to reduced void reactivity via reduced coolant in-core density. Light water becomes a coolant option. To preserve neutron economy, an advanced fuel channel is needed and is described below. A supercritical-water-cooled CANDU can evolve as fuel capabilities evolve to withstand increasing coolant temperatures. (author)

  2. A refined taxonomy of behaviour change techniques to help people change their physical activity and healthy eating behaviours: the CALO-RE taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Ashford, Stefanie; Sniehotta, Falko F; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Bishop, Alex; French, David P

    2011-11-01

    Current reporting of intervention content in published research articles and protocols is generally poor, with great diversity of terminology, resulting in low replicability. This study aimed to extend the scope and improve the reliability of a 26-item taxonomy of behaviour change techniques developed by Abraham and Michie [Abraham, C. and Michie, S. (2008). A taxonomy of behaviour change techniques used in interventions. Health Psychology, 27(3), 379-387.] in order to optimise the reporting and scientific study of behaviour change interventions. Three UK study centres collaborated in applying this existing taxonomy to two systematic reviews of interventions to increase physical activity and healthy eating. The taxonomy was refined in iterative steps of (1) coding intervention descriptions, and assessing inter-rater reliability, (2) identifying gaps and problems across study centres and (3) refining the labels and definitions based on consensus discussions. Labels and definitions were improved for all techniques, conceptual overlap between categories was resolved, some categories were split and 14 techniques were added, resulting in a 40-item taxonomy. Inter-rater reliability, assessed on 50 published intervention descriptions, was good (kappa = 0.79). This taxonomy can be used to improve the specification of interventions in published reports, thus improving replication, implementation and evidence syntheses. This will strengthen the scientific study of behaviour change and intervention development.

  3. Evaluation of the fuel rod integrity in PWR reactors from the spectrometric analysis of the primary coolant; Avaliacao da integridade de varetas combustiveis em reatores PWR a partir da analise espectrometrica da agua do primario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Iara Arraes

    1999-02-15

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the transport of fission products, from the fuel rod to the coolant of a PWR reactor. To achieve this purpose, several steps were followed. Firstly, it was presented a description of the fuel elements and the main mechanisms of fuel rod failure, indicating the most important nuclides and their transport mechanisms. Secondly, taking both the kinetic and diffusion models for the transport of fission products as a basis, a simple analytical and semi-empirical model was developed. This model was also based on theoretical considerations and measurements of coolant's activity, according to internationally adopted methodologies. Several factors are considered in the modelling procedures: intrinsic factors to the reactor itself, factors which depend on the reactor's operational mode, isotope characteristic factors, and factors which depend on the type of rod failure. The model was applied for different reactor's operational parameters in the presence of failed rods. The main conclusions drawn from the analysis of the model's output are relative to the variation on the coolant's water activity with the fuel burnup, the linear operation power and the primary purification rate and to the different behaviour of iodine and noble gases. The model was saturated from a certain failure size and showed to be unable to distinguish between a single big fail and many small ones. (author)

  4. The microstructure of coaching practice: behaviours and activities of an elite rugby union head coach during preparation and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward Thomas; Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John

    2016-01-01

    The activities and behaviours of a female head coach of a national rugby union team were recorded in both training and competition, across a whole rugby season, using the newly developed Rugby Coach Activities and Behaviours Instrument (RCABI). The instrument incorporates 24 categories of behaviour, embedded within three forms of activity (training form (TF), playing form (PF) and competitive match) and seven sub-activity types. In contrast to traditional drill-based coaching, 58.5% of the training time was found to have been spent in PF activities. Moreover, the proportion of PF activities increased to a peak average of 83.8% in proximity to the team's annual international championship. Uniquely, one of the coach's most prolific behaviours was conferring with associates (23.3%), highlighting the importance of interactions with assistant coaches, medical staff and others in shaping the coaching process. Additionally, the frequencies of key behaviours such as questioning and praise were found to vary between the different activity forms and types, raising questions about previous conceptions of effective coaching practice. The findings are discussed in the light of the Game Sense philosophy and the role of the head coach.

  5. Performance of thigh-mounted triaxial accelerometer algorithms in objective quantification of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen A Wullems

    Full Text Available Accurate monitoring of sedentary behaviour and physical activity is key to investigate their exact role in healthy ageing. To date, accelerometers using cut-off point models are most preferred for this, however, machine learning seems a highly promising future alternative. Hence, the current study compared between cut-off point and machine learning algorithms, for optimal quantification of sedentary behaviour and physical activity intensities in the elderly. Thus, in a heterogeneous sample of forty participants (aged ≥60 years, 50% female energy expenditure during laboratory-based activities (ranging from sedentary behaviour through to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was estimated by indirect calorimetry, whilst wearing triaxial thigh-mounted accelerometers. Three cut-off point algorithms and a Random Forest machine learning model were developed and cross-validated using the collected data. Detailed analyses were performed to check algorithm robustness, and examine and benchmark both overall and participant-specific balanced accuracies. This revealed that the four models can at least be used to confidently monitor sedentary behaviour and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Nevertheless, the machine learning algorithm outperformed the cut-off point models by being robust for all individual's physiological and non-physiological characteristics and showing more performance of an acceptable level over the whole range of physical activity intensities. Therefore, we propose that Random Forest machine learning may be optimal for objective assessment of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in older adults using thigh-mounted triaxial accelerometry.

  6. Performance of thigh-mounted triaxial accelerometer algorithms in objective quantification of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschueren, Sabine M. P.; Degens, Hans; Morse, Christopher I.; Onambélé, Gladys L.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate monitoring of sedentary behaviour and physical activity is key to investigate their exact role in healthy ageing. To date, accelerometers using cut-off point models are most preferred for this, however, machine learning seems a highly promising future alternative. Hence, the current study compared between cut-off point and machine learning algorithms, for optimal quantification of sedentary behaviour and physical activity intensities in the elderly. Thus, in a heterogeneous sample of forty participants (aged ≥60 years, 50% female) energy expenditure during laboratory-based activities (ranging from sedentary behaviour through to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) was estimated by indirect calorimetry, whilst wearing triaxial thigh-mounted accelerometers. Three cut-off point algorithms and a Random Forest machine learning model were developed and cross-validated using the collected data. Detailed analyses were performed to check algorithm robustness, and examine and benchmark both overall and participant-specific balanced accuracies. This revealed that the four models can at least be used to confidently monitor sedentary behaviour and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Nevertheless, the machine learning algorithm outperformed the cut-off point models by being robust for all individual’s physiological and non-physiological characteristics and showing more performance of an acceptable level over the whole range of physical activity intensities. Therefore, we propose that Random Forest machine learning may be optimal for objective assessment of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in older adults using thigh-mounted triaxial accelerometry. PMID:29155839

  7. Actigraph accelerometer-defined boundaries for sedentary behaviour and physical activity intensities in 7 year old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Pulsford

    Full Text Available Accurate objective assessment of sedentary and physical activity behaviours during childhood is integral to the understanding of their relation to later health outcomes, as well as to documenting the frequency and distribution of physical activity within a population.To calibrate the Actigraph GT1M accelerometer, using energy expenditure (EE as the criterion measure, to define thresholds for sedentary behaviour and physical activity categories suitable for use in a large scale epidemiological study in young children.Accelerometer-based assessments of physical activity (counts per minute were calibrated against EE measures (kcal x kg(-1 x hr(-1 obtained over a range of exercise intensities using a COSMED K4b(2 portable metabolic unit in 53 seven-year-old children. Children performed seven activities: lying down viewing television, sitting upright playing a computer game, slow walking, brisk walking, jogging, hopscotch and basketball. Threshold count values were established to identify sedentary behaviour and light, moderate and vigorous physical activity using linear discriminant analysis (LDA and evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis.EE was significantly associated with counts for all non-sedentary activities with the exception of jogging. Threshold values for accelerometer counts (counts x minute(-1 were <100 for sedentary behaviour and ≤2240, ≤3840 and ≥3841 for light, moderate and vigorous physical activity respectively. The area under the ROC curves for discrimination of sedentary behaviour and vigorous activity were 0.98. Boundaries for light and moderate physical activity were less well defined (0.61 and 0.60 respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for sedentary (99% and 97% and vigorous (95% and 91% than for light (60% and 83% and moderate (61% and 76% thresholds.The accelerometer cut points established in this study can be used to classify sedentary behaviour and to distinguish between

  8. Do children's health resources differ according to preschool physical activity programmes and parental behaviour? A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterdt, Elena; Pape, Natalie; Kramer, Silke; Liersch, Sebastian; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf; Walter, Ulla

    2014-02-26

    Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family-children's central social microsystems-can lead to differences in children's health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of "preschools with systematic physical activity programmes" versus "preschools without physical activity programmes" were conducted to assess the extent to which children's physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children's physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227) children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children's physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709). However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children's physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children's health resources in a differential manner.

  9. Health behaviour models and patient preferences regarding nutrition and physical activity after breast or prostate cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H J; Steinnagel, G; Morris, C; Laakso, E L

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to improve understanding of prostate and breast cancer survivors' physical activity and nutrition and the association of these behaviours with two models. The first model, the Commonsense Self-Regulation Model (CSM), addresses cognitive and emotional perceptions of illness whereas the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) focuses on stage of readiness to engage in a behaviour. Participants who had been diagnosed with either breast (n = 145) or prostate cancer (n = 92) completed measures of demographic and health information, illness representations, stage of change, self-efficacy and preferences regarding health behaviour interventions. Health behaviours in the past seven days were measured via the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and concordance with national dietary guidelines. As hypothesised, TTM variables (stage of change and self-efficacy) demonstrated independent associations with physical activity and nutrition in regression analyses. CSM variables were not independently associated with absolute levels of health behaviours but both TTM and CSM variables were independently associated with self-reported changes in physical activity and nutrition following prostate or breast cancer diagnosis. Many participants reported high interest in receiving lifestyle interventions, particularly soon after diagnosis. Results supported application of the TTM and CSM models for strengthening behaviour change intentions and actions in breast and prostate cancer survivors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Behavioural intervention to increase physical activity in adults with coronary heart disease in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Alsaleh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with coronary heart disease often do not follow prescribed physical activity recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a behavioural intervention to increase physical activity in patients with coronary heart disease not attending structured cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Methods Parallel randomised controlled trial comparing 6-month multi-component behavioural change intervention (n = 71 with usual care (n = 85 was conducted in two hospitals in Jordan, Middle East. Intervention included one face-to-face individualised consultation, 6 telephone support calls (for goal-setting, feedback and self-monitoring and 18 reminder text messages. Patients were randomly allocated to the two groups by opening opaque sealed sequence envelopes. The patients and the researcher who provided the intervention and assessed the outcomes were not blinded. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Primary outcome was physical activity level, secondary outcomes were blood pressure, body mass index, exercise self-efficacy for exercise and health-related quality of life. Results Intervention and control groups were comparable at baseline. Moderate physical activity significantly increased in the intervention group compared with control group (mean change (SD of frequency: 0.23 (0.87 days/week versus -.06 (0.40; duration: 15.53 (90.15 minutes/week versus −3.67 (22.60 minutes/week; intensity: 31.05 (105.98 Metabolic equivalents (METs versus 14.68 (90.40 METs. Effect size was 0.03 for moderate PA frequency, 0.02 for moderate PA duration and 0.01 for moderate PA intensity. Walking significantly increased in the intervention group compared with control group (mean change (SD of frequency: 3.15 (2.75 days/week versus 0.37 (1.83 days/week; duration: 150.90 (124.47 minutes/week versus 24.05 (195.93 minutes/week; intensity: 495.12 (413.74 METs versus14.62 (265.06 METs. Effect size was 0.36 for walking

  11. Behavioural intervention to increase physical activity in adults with coronary heart disease in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaleh, Eman; Windle, Richard; Blake, Holly

    2016-07-26

    Patients with coronary heart disease often do not follow prescribed physical activity recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a behavioural intervention to increase physical activity in patients with coronary heart disease not attending structured cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Parallel randomised controlled trial comparing 6-month multi-component behavioural change intervention (n = 71) with usual care (n = 85) was conducted in two hospitals in Jordan, Middle East. Intervention included one face-to-face individualised consultation, 6 telephone support calls (for goal-setting, feedback and self-monitoring) and 18 reminder text messages. Patients were randomly allocated to the two groups by opening opaque sealed sequence envelopes. The patients and the researcher who provided the intervention and assessed the outcomes were not blinded. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Primary outcome was physical activity level, secondary outcomes were blood pressure, body mass index, exercise self-efficacy for exercise and health-related quality of life. Intervention and control groups were comparable at baseline. Moderate physical activity significantly increased in the intervention group compared with control group (mean change (SD) of frequency: 0.23 (0.87) days/week versus -.06 (0.40); duration: 15.53 (90.15) minutes/week versus -3.67 (22.60) minutes/week; intensity: 31.05 (105.98) Metabolic equivalents (METs) versus 14.68 (90.40) METs). Effect size was 0.03 for moderate PA frequency, 0.02 for moderate PA duration and 0.01 for moderate PA intensity. Walking significantly increased in the intervention group compared with control group (mean change (SD) of frequency: 3.15 (2.75) days/week versus 0.37 (1.83) days/week; duration: 150.90 (124.47) minutes/week versus 24.05 (195.93) minutes/week; intensity: 495.12 (413.74) METs versus14.62 (265.06) METs). Effect size was 0.36 for walking frequency, 0.05 for walking duration, 0

  12. MABEL-2: a code to analyse cladding deformation in a loss-of-coolant accident: status February 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.; Haste, T.J.; Bowring, R.W.; Cooper, C.A.

    1980-02-01

    MABEL-2 calculates the deformation of a single fuel rod. This rod is surrounded by 8 other rods on a square lattice whose behaviour is specified via Input Data options. A 2-D (r,theta) conduction model is used for the fuel rod, the cladding creep is calculated from the CANSWEL-2 model and the feedback effect of clad strain on heat transfer to the coolant is obtained from subchannel analysis of the coolant passages surrounding the rod. The coding of the first version of MABEL-2 has been completed except for work to optimise the iteration convergence, minimise the running time and generally tidy up the coding. (author)

  13. Analysis of the core reflooding of a PWR reactor under a loss-of-coolant postulated accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austregesilo Filho, H.

    1978-12-01

    The main purpose of this work is to analyse the termohydraulic behaviour of emergency cooling water, during reflooding of a PWR core submitted to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident, with the scope of giving the boundary conditions needed to verify fuel element and containment integrity. The analytical model presented was applied to the simulation of Angra I core reflooding phase, after a double-ended break between pressure vessel and discharge of one of the main coolant pumps. For this accident, with a discharge coefficient of C sub(D) = 0.4, the highest peak cladding temperature is expected. (author) [pt

  14. The Predictive Effects of Protection Motivation Theory on Intention and Behaviour of Physical Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad; Abdolkarimi, Mahdi; Asadpour, Mohammad; Fathollahi, Mahmood Sheikh; Balaee, Parisa

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Theory-based education tailored to target behaviour and group can be effective in promoting physical activity. AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive power of Protection Motivation Theory on intent and behaviour of Physical Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted on 250 patients in Rafsanjan, Iran. To examine the scores of protection motivation theory structures, a researcher-made questionnaire was used. Its validity and reliability were confirmed. The level of physical activity was also measured by the International Short - form Physical Activity Inventory. Its validity and reliability were also approved. Data were analysed by statistical tests including correlation coefficient, chi-square, logistic regression and linear regression. RESULTS: The results revealed that there was a significant correlation between all the protection motivation theory constructs and the intention to do physical activity. The results showed that the Theory structures were able to predict 60% of the variance of physical activity intention. The results of logistic regression demonstrated that increase in the score of physical activity intent and self - efficacy increased the chance of higher level of physical activity by 3.4 and 1.5 times, respectively OR = (3.39, 1.54). CONCLUSION: Considering the ability of protection motivation theory structures to explain the physical activity behaviour, interventional designs are suggested based on the structures of this theory, especially to improve self -efficacy as the most powerful factor in predicting physical activity intention and behaviour. PMID:29731945

  15. The Predictive Effects of Protection Motivation Theory on Intention and Behaviour of Physical Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad; Abdolkarimi, Mahdi; Asadpour, Mohammad; Fathollahi, Mahmood Sheikh; Balaee, Parisa

    2018-04-15

    Theory-based education tailored to target behaviour and group can be effective in promoting physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive power of Protection Motivation Theory on intent and behaviour of Physical Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. This descriptive study was conducted on 250 patients in Rafsanjan, Iran. To examine the scores of protection motivation theory structures, a researcher-made questionnaire was used. Its validity and reliability were confirmed. The level of physical activity was also measured by the International Short - form Physical Activity Inventory. Its validity and reliability were also approved. Data were analysed by statistical tests including correlation coefficient, chi-square, logistic regression and linear regression. The results revealed that there was a significant correlation between all the protection motivation theory constructs and the intention to do physical activity. The results showed that the Theory structures were able to predict 60% of the variance of physical activity intention. The results of logistic regression demonstrated that increase in the score of physical activity intent and self - efficacy increased the chance of higher level of physical activity by 3.4 and 1.5 times, respectively OR = (3.39, 1.54). Considering the ability of protection motivation theory structures to explain the physical activity behaviour, interventional designs are suggested based on the structures of this theory, especially to improve self -efficacy as the most powerful factor in predicting physical activity intention and behaviour.

  16. Age and egg-sac loss determine maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of wolf spiders (Araneae, Lycosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, Fanny; Chiara, Violette; Trabalon, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Wolf spiders' (Lycosidae) maternal behaviour includes a specific phase called "egg brooding" which consists of guarding and carrying an egg-sac throughout the incubation period. The transport of an egg-sac can restrict mothers' exploratory and locomotor activity, in particular when foraging. The present study details the ontogeny of maternal behaviour and assesses the influence of age of egg-sac (or embryos' developmental stage) on vagrant wolf spider Pardosa saltans females' exploration and locomotion. We observed these spiders' maternal behaviour in the laboratory and evaluated their locomotor activity using a digital activity recording device. Our subjects were virgin females (without egg-sac) and first time mothers (with her egg-sac) who were divided into three groups. The first group of mothers were tested on the day the egg-sac was built (day 0), and the females of the other two groups were tested 10 or 15days after they had built their egg-sac. We evaluated the effects of the presence and the loss of egg-sac on mothers' activity. Pardosa saltans females' behaviour depended on mothers' physiological state and/or age of egg-sac (developmental stage of embryos). Virgin females' behaviour was not modified by the presence of an egg-sac in their environment. Mothers' reactions to the presence, the loss and the recovery of their egg-sac varied during the maternal cycle. Maternal behaviour changed with age of egg-sac, but the levels of locomotor activity of mothers with egg-sacs was similar to those of virgin females. Loss of egg-sac modified the maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of all mothers; these modifications were greater on "day 15" when embryos had emerged from eggs. All mothers were able to retrieve their egg-sacs and to re-attach them to their spinnerets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Projected near-future CO2 levels increase activity and alter defensive behaviours in the tropical squid Idiosepius pygmaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake L. Spady

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 levels projected to occur in the oceans by the end of this century cause a range of behavioural effects in fish, but whether other highly active marine organisms, such as cephalopods, are similarly affected is unknown. We tested the effects of projected future CO2 levels (626 and 956 µatm on the behaviour of male two-toned pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus. Exposure to elevated CO2 increased the number of active individuals by 19–25% and increased movement (number of line-crosses by nearly 3 times compared to squid at present-day CO2. Squid vigilance and defensive behaviours were also altered by elevated CO2 with >80% of individuals choosing jet escape responses over defensive arm postures in response to a visual startle stimulus, compared with 50% choosing jet escape responses at control CO2. In addition, more escape responses were chosen over threat behaviours in body pattern displays at elevated CO2 and individuals were more than twice as likely to use ink as a defence strategy at 956 µatm CO2, compared with controls. Increased activity could lead to adverse effects on energy budgets as well as increasing visibility to predators. A tendency to respond to a stimulus with escape behaviours could increase survival, but may also be energetically costly and could potentially lead to more chases by predators compared with individuals that use defensive postures. These results demonstrate that projected future ocean acidification affects the behaviours of a tropical squid species.

  18. Fuel-coolant interactions: preliminary experiments on the effect of gases dissolved in the 'coolant'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, R.C.; Davies, D.; Jones, P.G.

    1976-12-01

    A simple apparatus has been used to study fuel-coolant interactions under reasonably well controlled conditions. Preliminary experiments have used water as the 'coolant' and molten tin at 800 0 C as the 'fuel' and have investigated how the violence of the interaction is affected by dissolving gases (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide) in the water. It was found that saturating the water with carbon dioxide or nitrous oxide completely suppresses the violent interaction. Experiments in which the concentrations of these gases were varied showed that a certain critical concentration was needed; below this concentration the dissolved gas has no significant effect but above it the suppression is

  19. Effect of major school playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary behaviour: Camden active spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical school environment is a promising setting to increase children’s physical activity although robust evidence is sparse. We examined the effects of major playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary time in primary schools using a quasi-experimental design (comparison group pre-test/post-test design. Methods Five experimental and two control schools from deprived areas of inner city London were recruited at baseline. Main outcome was physical activity and sedentary time measured from objective monitoring (Actigraph accelerometer at one year follow up. Pupils’ impressions of the new playground were qualitatively assessed post construction. Results A total of 347 pupils (mean age = 8 years, 55% boys; 36% Caucasian were recruited into the study at baseline; 303 provided valid baseline Actigraph data. Of those, 231 (76% completed follow-up (n = 169 intervention; n = 62 control and 77.4% of the sample recorded at least 4 days of Actigraph wear. In mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, ratio activity or sedentary/wear time at baseline, wear time at follow up, and school, no differences were observed in total moderate – vigorous activity (B = −1.4, 95% CI, −7.1, 4.2 min/d, light activity (B = 4.1, 95% CI, −17.9, 26.1, or sedentary time (B = −3.8, 95% CI, −29.2, 21.6 min/d between groups. There were significant age interactions for sedentary (p = 0.002 and light intensity physical activity (p = 0.008. We observed significant reductions in total sedentary (−28.0, 95% CI, −1.9, −54.1 min/d, p = 0.037 and increases in total light intensity activity (24.6, 95% CI, 0.3, 48.9 min/d, p = 0.047 for children aged under 9 yrs. old in the intervention. Conclusion Major playground reconstruction had limited effects on physical activity, but reduced sedentary time was observed in younger children. Qualitative data suggested that the children enjoyed the new

  20. Reactor coolant purification system circulation pumps (CUW pumps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, Toshiaki

    1979-01-01

    Coolant purification equipments for BWRs have been improved, and the high pressure purifying system has become the main type. The quantity of purifying treatment also changed to 2% of the flow rate of reactor feed water. As for the circulation pumps, canned motor pumps are adopted recently, and the improvements of reliability and safety are attempted. The impurities carried in by reactor feed water and the corrosion products generated in reactors and auxiliary equipments are activated by neutron irradiation or affect heat transfer adversely, adhering to fuel claddings are core structures. Therefore, a part of reactor coolant is led to the purification equipments, and returned to reactors after the impurities are eliminated perfectly. At the time of starting and stopping reactors, excess reactor water and the contaminated water from reactors are transferred to main condenser hot wells or waste treatment systems. Thus the prescribed water quality is maintained. The operational modes of and the requirements for the CUW pumps, the construction and the features of the canned motor type CUW pumps are explained. Recently, a pump operated for 11 months without any maintenance has been disassembled and inspected, but the wear of bearings has not been observed, and the high reliability of the pump has been proved. (Kako, I.)

  1. Children's perceptions of weight, obesity, nutrition, physical activity and related health and socio-behavioural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, Christina D; Bakun, Peter J; Herzog, Julia Bloom; Dolan, Peter R; Lynskey, Vanessa M; Markow, Dana; Sharma, Shanti; Nelson, Miriam E

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one-third of children in the USA are either overweight or obese. Understanding the perceptions of children is an important factor in reversing this trend. An online survey was conducted with children to capture their perceptions of weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors. Within the USA. US children (n 1224) aged 8-18 years. Twenty-seven per cent of children reported being overweight; 47·1% of children overestimated the rate of overweight/obesity among US children. A higher percentage of self-classified overweight children (81·9%) worried about weight than did self-classified under/normal weight children (31·1%). Most children (91·1%) felt that it was important to not be overweight, for both health-related and social-related reasons. The majority of children believed that if someone their age is overweight they will likely be overweight in adulthood (93·1%); get an illness such as diabetes or heart disease in adulthood (90·2%); not be able to play sports well (84·5%); and be teased or made fun of in school (87·8%). Children focused more on food/drink than physical activity as reasons for overweight at their age. Self-classified overweight children were more likely to have spoken with someone about their weight over the last year than self-classified under/normal weight children. Children demonstrated good understanding of issues regarding weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors. Their perceptions are important and can be helpful in crafting solutions that will resonate with children.

  2. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour, diet, and cancer: an update and emerging new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Anderson, Cheryl; Lippman, Scott M

    2017-08-01

    The lifestyle factors of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and diet are increasingly being studied for their associations with cancer. Physical activity is inversely associated with and sedentary behaviour is positively (and independently) associated with an increased risk of more than ten types of cancer, including colorectal cancer (and advanced adenomas), endometrial cancers, and breast cancer. The most consistent dietary risk factor for premalignant and invasive breast cancer is alcohol, whether consumed during early or late adult life, even at low levels. Epidemiological studies show that the inclusion of wholegrain, fibre, fruits, and vegetables within diets are associated with reduced cancer risk, with diet during early life (age diet-related factors have not yet shown any conclusive associations between diet and cancer incidence. Obesity is a key contributory factor associated with cancer risk and mortality, including in dose-response associations in endometrial and post-menopausal breast cancer, and in degree and duration of fatty liver disease-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Obesity produces an inflammatory state, characterised by macrophages clustered around enlarged hypertrophied, dead, and dying adipocytes, forming crown-like structures. Increased concentrations of aromatase and interleukin 6 in inflamed breast tissue and an increased number of macrophages, compared with healthy tissue, are also observed in women with normal body mass index, suggesting a metabolic obesity state. Emerging randomised controlled trials of physical activity and dietary factors and mechanistic studies of immunity, inflammation, extracellular matrix mechanics, epigenetic or transcriptional regulation, protein translation, circadian disruption, and interactions of the multibiome with lifestyle factors will be crucial to advance this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between physical activity and self-image and problem behaviour among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Shephard, R J; Siefen, R G

    2002-11-01

    Although there are a vast array of studies which have demonstrated the psychological and physical health benefits of regular aerobic exercise for adults, few studies have focussed on children and adolescents. The current study examined associations between the extent of participation in endurance sport, and self-report data on self-image, physical and psychological health and overall lifestyle in a large representative sample of German high-school students. Almost 1000 German adolescents (aged 14-18 years) were administered a comprehensive series of questionnaires aimed at assessing anxiety-depression, trait addiction, smoking and drinking behaviour, physical ill-health reports, and self-perception of self-image, parental acceptance and educational attainment. Regular practice of endurance exercise was related to a more favourable self-image. There was a strong association between participation in sports and the type of personality that tends to be resistant to drug and alcohol addiction. Physical exercise was further significantly related to scores for physical and psychological well-being. Adolescents who engaged regularly in physical activity were characterised by lower anxiety-depression scores, and displayed much less social behavioural inhibition than their less active counterparts. It is likely that discussion of recreational or exercise involvement may provide a useful point of entry for facilitating dialogue among adolescents about concerns relating to body image and self-esteem. In terms of psychotherapeutic applications, physical activity has many additional rewards for adolescents. It is probable that by promoting physical fitness, increased physical performance, lessening body mass and promoting a more favourable body shape and structure, exercise will provide more positive social feedback and recognition from peer groups, and this will subsequently lead to improvement in an individual's self-image.

  4. An appraisal of certain larval behavioural activities as affected by gamma irradiation of Spodoptera larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.; Sehgal, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Gamma irradiation of Spodoptera litura larvae induced an abatement in their locomotor activity. The food perception range and feeding behaviour of the larvae were also impaired. Of various dosages tested, 4 Krad (the sterilizing dose for larvae) caused a decline in locomotor speed. The first instar larvae, for instance showed decline in a speed of 3.74 cm/min to 2.96 cm/min. Similarly at this dose, the third instar larvae exhibited a reduction in speed to the extent of 38 to 45 per cent, the normal speed being 8.02 cm/min. The reactive distances of the first and third instar normal larvae were 5.30 cm and 7.36, respectively. This reactive distance was reduced by about 25 per cent after irradiation at 4 Krad, thus decreasing the food perception capacity significantly. The feeding behaviour too was significantly affected whereas the dose range less than 4 Krad did not induce such a marked impact. (author). 9 refs., 2 tables

  5. International Standard Problems and Small Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aksan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Best-estimate thermal-hydraulic system codes are widely used to perform safety and licensing analyses of nuclear power plants and also used in the design of advance reactors. Evaluation of the capabilities and the performance of these codes can be accomplished by comparing the code predictions with measured experimental data obtained on different test facilities. OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI has promoted, over the last twenty-nine years, some forty-eight international standard problems (ISPs. These ISPs were performed in different fields as in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulic behaviour. 80% of these ISPs were related to the working domain of principal working group no.2 on coolant system behaviour (PWG2 and were one of the major PWG2 activities for many years. A global review and synthesis on the contribution that ISPs have made to address nuclear reactor safety issues was initiated by CSNI-PWG2 and an overview on the subject of small break LOCA ISPs is given in this paper based on a report prepared by a writing group. In addition, the relevance of small break LOCA in a PWR with relation to nuclear reactor safety and the reorientation of the reactor safety program after TMI-2 accident are shortly summarized. The experiments in four integral test facilities, LOBI, SPES, BETHSY, ROSA IV/LSTF and the recorded data during a steam generator tube rupture transient in the DOEL-2 PWR (Belgium were the basis of the five small break LOCA related ISP exercises, which deal with the phenomenon typical of small break LOCAs in Western design PWRs. Some lessons learned from these small break LOCA ISPs are identified in relation to code deficiencies and capabilities, progress in the code capabilities, possibility of scaling, and various additional aspects

  6. International Standard Problems and Small Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksan, N.

    2008-01-01

    Best-estimate thermalhydraulic system codes are widely used to perform safety and licensing analyses of nuclear power plants and also used in the design of advance reactors. Evaluation of the capabilities and the performance of these codes can be accomplished by comparing the code predictions with measured experimental data obtained on different test facilities. In this respect, parallel to other national and international programs, OECD/Nea (OECD Nuclear Energy Agency) Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has promoted, over the last twenty-nine years some forty-eight International Standard Problems (ISPs). These ISPs were performed in different fields as in-vessel thermalhydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermalhydraulic behaviour. 80% of these ISPs were related to the working domain of Principal Working Group no. 2 on Coolant System Behaviour (PWG2). The ISPs have been one of the major PWG2 activities for many years. The individual ISP comparison reports include the analysis and conclusions of the specific ISP exercises. A global review and synthesis on the contribution that ISPs have made to address nuclear reactor safety issues was initiated by CSNI-PWG2 and an overview on the subject of small break LOCA ISP's is given in this paper based on a report prepared by a CSNI-PWG2 writing group. In addition, the relevance of small break LOCA in a PWR with relation to nuclear reactor safety and the reorientation of the reactor safety program after TMI-2 accident, specifically small break LOCA, are shortly summarized. Five small break LOCA related ISP's are considered, since these were used for the assessment of the advanced best-estimate codes. The considered ISP's deal with the phenomenon typical of small break LOCAs in Western design PWRs. The experiments in four integral test facilities, LOBI, SPES, BETHSY

  7. Determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter

    2015-02-28

    College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in energy related behaviours in students. The first objective of this explorative study was to identify determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Belgian university students. Secondly, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, seven focus group discussions were conducted consisting of 17 male and 29 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.7 ± 1.6 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Students reported that both physical and sedentary activities were influenced by individual factors (e.g. perceived enjoyment, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, modelling, social support), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, travel time/distance, prices), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' physical activity and sedentary behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, university lifestyle, exams and academic pressure. Recommendations for future physical activity interventions include improving information strategies regarding on-campus sports activities, cheaper and/or more flexible sports subscriptions and formulas, including 'sports time' into the curricula, and providing university bicycles around campus. Students also believed that increasing students' physical activity might decrease their sedentary behaviour at the same time. The recommendations and ideas discussed in this study may facilitate the development of effective and tailored (multilevel) intervention programs aiming to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students.

  8. Coolant Void Reactivity Analysis of CANDU Lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Su; Lee, Hyun Suk; Tak, Tae Woo; Lee, Deok Jung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Models of CANDU-6 and ACR-700 fuel lattices were constructed for a single bundle and 2 by 2 checkerboard to understand the physics related to CVR. Also, a familiar four factor formula was used to predict the specific contributions to reactivity change in order to achieve an understanding of the physics issues related to the CVR. At the same time, because the situation of coolant voiding should bring about a change of neutron behavior, the spectral changes and neutron current were also analyzed. The models of the CANDU- 6 and ACR-700 fuel lattices were constructed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP6 using the ENDF/B-VII.0 continuous energy cross section library based on the specification from AECL. The CANDU fuel lattice was searched through sensitivity studies of each design parameter such as fuel enrichment, fuel pitch, and types of burnable absorber for obtaining better behavior in terms of CVR. Unlike the single channel coolant voiding, the ACR-700 bundle has a positive reactivity change upon 2x2 checkerboard coolant voiding. Because of the new path for neutron moderation, the neutrons from the voided channel move to the no-void channel where they lose energy and come back to the voided channel as thermal neutrons. This phenomenon causes the positive CVR when checkerboard voiding occurs. The sensitivity study revealed the effects of the moderator to fuel volume ratio, fuel enrichment, and burnable absorber on the CVR. A fuel bundle with low moderator to fuel volume ratio and high fuel enrichment can help achieve negative CVR.

  9. EDF PWRs primary coolant purification strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gressier, Frederic; Mascarenhas, Darren; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Bretelle, Jean-Luc; Ranchoux, Gilles

    2012-09-01

    In order to achieve a good physico-chemical quality of the primary coolant fluid, the primary water is continuously treated by the Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS). This system is composed of a treatment chain containing filters and ion-exchange resins. In the EDF design, an upstream filter is placed before the resin so as to prevent it from being saturated with insoluble particles. Then, the fluid passes through several resin beds (up to 3 depending on the configuration) and again through a downstream filter that prevents resin fines dissemination into the reactor coolant. Much work has been conducted in the last 5 years on the homogenisation of products and usage on French EDF NPP primary coolant treatment, while taking into account the compromise between source term reduction, liquid and solid waste, and buying and disposal costs. Two national markets have been created, and two operational documents for chemists on site have been published: a filtration guideline and an ion-exchange resin guideline. Both documents give general information about the products used, how are they characterized and selected for national market (technical requirements, standards and tests), how they should be used and what are the change-out criteria. They are also periodically updated based on feedback from sites. The positive impact on resin and filter lifetime (extension of some, limitation of others), homogenisation of products and usage will be presented. Moreover, EDF is constantly in the process of improving the current purification methods, as well as researching the use of existing and novel technologies. In this field, recent experiments on short loading of resin during reactor shutdown has been tested on site with success. In addition, work is done on silica free filters, filter consumption and filter chemical release. An overview of these optimization methods will be given. (authors)

  10. Calculation and analysis of neutron and radiation characteristics of lead coolants with isotopic tailoring for future nuclear power facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhin, A.I.; Ivanov, A.P.; Korobeinikov, V.V.; Lunev, V.P.; Manokhin, V.N.; Khorasanov, G.L. [SSC RF A. I. Leypunsky Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

    2000-03-01

    A new type of safe fast reactor with lead coolant was proposed in Russia. The use of coolants with low moderating properties is one of the ways to get a hard neutron spectrum and an increase in the burning of Np-237, Am-243 and other miner actinides(MA) fissionable preferentially in the fast reactor. The stable lead isotope, Pb-208, is proposed as the one of such coolants. The neutron inelastic scattering cross-section of Pb-208 is 3.0-3.5 times less than the one of other lead isotopes. Calculation of the MA transmutation rates in the standard BN-type fast reactor with different coolants is performed by Monte-Carlo method using Code MMKFK. Six various models are simulated for the fast reactor blanket with different kinds of fuel and coolant. The fast reactor with natural-lead coolant practically does not differ from the reactor with sodium coolant relative to MA incineration. The use of Pb-208 as a coolant in the fast reactor results in increasing incineration of MA from 18 to 26% in comparison with a usual fast reactor. Calculation of induced radioactivity was performed using the FISPACT-3 inventory code, also. The results include total induced radioactivity and dose rate for initial material composition and selected long-lived radionuclides. The calculations show that the coolant consisting of lead isotope, Pb-206, or Pb-207, can be considered as the low-activation one because it does not practically contain long-lived toxic radionuclides. (M. Suetake)

  11. Exploring the built environment, physical activity and related behaviours of young people attending school, college and those not in employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, A A; Townshend, T G

    2013-03-01

    Evidence suggests that environments impact behaviour, including physical activity (PA). The aim was to understand where young people are physically active and the environmental contexts to their activity. To explore how they perceived both barriers to, and enablers for, PA in their environment. Focus groups were conducted with five groups aged 16-20 years (n = 42; 29 male, 13 female) in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England between November 2006 and June 2007. Analysis was an iterative process of looking for broad themes and subthemes across the transcripts. Themes explored included their main environment; perceptions of their environment; PA and where they are active; activity in the past and safety concerns. Emergent themes included working and PA, transport and activity, limitations of the environment to PA and gender differences. Our results suggest PA was distributed across a range of environments, rather than focused in one locale, or setting. Obesity in young people is a major concern and prevention of obesity a high priority. Little is known about the PA behaviours of this age group and the context of these behaviours during this period of transition. Understanding lifestyle behaviours such as PA and context of activity is an important first step in development interventions to encourage greater activity in this transitory age group.

  12. Coolant degassing device for PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Kaoru; Takezawa, Kazuaki; Minemoto, Masaki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To efficiently decrease the rare gas concentration in primary coolants, as well as shorten the degassing time required for the periodical inspection in the waste gas processing system of a PWR type reactor. Constitution: Usual degassing method by supplying hydrogen or nitrogen to a volume control tank is replaced with a method of utilizing a degassing tower (method of flowing down processing liquid into the filled tower from above while uprising streams from the bottom of the tower thereby degassing the gases dissolved in the liquid into the steams). The degassing tower is combined with a hydrogen separator or hydrogen recombiner to constitute a waste gas processing system. (Ikeda, J.)

  13. Microstructural characterization of primary coolant pipe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.K.; Bentley, J.

    1986-01-01

    Atom probe field-ion microscopy, analytical electron microscopy, and optical microscopy have been used to investigate the changes that occur in the microstructure of cast CF 8 primary coolant pipe stainless steel after long term thermal aging. The cast duplex microstructure consisted of austenite with 15% delta-ferrite. Investigation of the aged material revealed that the ferrite spinodally decomposed into a fine scaled network of α and α'. A fine G-phase precipitate was also observed in the ferrite. The observed degradation in mechanical properties is probably a consequence of the spinodal decomposition in the ferrite

  14. Calorimetric and reactor coolant system flow uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, L.; McLean, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for the quantification of errors associated with the determination of a feedwater flow, secondary power, and Reactor Coolant System (RCS) flow used at the Trojan Nuclear Plant to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements. The sources of error in Plant indications and process measurement are identified and tracked, using examples, through the mathematical processes necessary to calculate the uncertainty in the RCS flow measurement. An error of approximately 1.4 percent is calculated for secondary power. This error results, along with the consideration of other errors, in an uncertainty of approximately 3 percent in the RCS flow determination

  15. Impact of social norms and social support on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, C E; Grobler, L; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood is rapidly increasing, and it is essential that risk factors for NCDs be addressed in adolescence, both for the health of individuals during adolescence and for their health in later life. These risk factors include diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. No literature has been published that comprehensively summarizes the impact of social norms and social support on these behaviours among adolescents. Therefore, a scoping review was conducted to determine the extent of recent (since 2000) literature available on this topic. A comprehensive search strategy was used to search PubMed and EMBASE for eligible reviews. Review papers (narrative reviews, systematic and non-systematic reviews) published in English in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to February 2013 were included in the overview. Two of the authors screened the titles and abstracts of the search results independently. Thirty reviews were included in the scoping review. This scoping review has shown sufficient evidence for parental influences, and especially the positive impact of an authoritative parenting style, on healthy behaviours of adolescents, although the evidence is somewhat more compelling for diet than for physical activity and sedentary behaviour. More research is needed to investigate parental and family influences on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. And the effect of peer influences on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents requires further investigation. The evidence presented affirms the consideration of social norms and social support in the development of interventions to address these behaviours in adolescents. The evidence regarding parenting style provides some concrete guidance for such interventions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Perceived family functioning and friendship quality: cross-sectional associations with physical activity and sedentary behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Andrew J; Corder, Kirsten; Goodyer, Ian; Bamber, Diane; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Dunn, Valerie; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2015-02-21

    This study examined the association of adolescent-reported family functioning and friendship quality with objectively-measured moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, and self-reported sedentary behaviours. Data are from the ROOTS study. MVPA and sedentary time were assessed using combined movement and heart rate sensing. Time spent TV viewing, using the internet, playing video games, doing homework and reading for pleasure was self-reported. Data on objectively-measured and self-reported outcomes for weekdays was available for 738 (age 14.5y, 55.7% female) and 800 (56.3% female) participants, respectively. Adolescents perceived family functioning and friendship quality (Two subscales: 'Good friendship qualities', 'Friendship difficulties') was assessed by questionnaire. Analyses were conducted using multi-level linear or logistic regression. Adolescents reporting better family functioning accumulated more MVPA on weekdays (beta; 95% confidence interval: 0.57; 0.17,0.98). Higher scores on the good friendship qualities subscale was associated with greater MVPA throughout the week (weekdays: 1.13; 0.62,1.65, weekend: 0.56; 0.09,1.02) and lower sedentary time on weekdays (-10.34; -17.03,-3.66). Boys from better functioning families were less likely to report playing video games at the weekend (OR; 95% confidence interval: 0.73; 0.57,0.93) or reading for pleasure (weekday: 0.73; 0.56,0.96 weekend: 0.75; 0.58,0.96). Boys who attained higher scores on the good friendship qualities scale were less likely to play video games at the weekend (0.61; 0.44,0.86) or report high homework on weekdays (0.54; 0.31,0.94). A higher score for good friendship qualities was associated with lower odds of girls playing video games during the week (0.76; 0.58,1.00) or reading for pleasure at the weekend (0.61; 0.42,0.88). Girls that reported fewer friendship difficulties had lower odds of high TV viewing (0.76; 0.62,0.93) or playing video games (0.71; 0.52,0.97) at

  17. The prevalence of sexual activity, and sexual dysfunction and behaviours in postmenopausal woman in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila B. Czajkowska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the aging of the population, there is limited data available about sexual life and behaviours among of postmenopausal and late postmenopausal women. Aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of sexual dysfunction, behaviours, and preferences in the Polish population in 2015. Material and methods: This observational survey study involved 538 women, of whom 220 were over 50 years old. The main focus was on the differences and changes between older age groups, mainly 50-59 years and over 60 years. Results : For 80.9% of the women above 50 years old, sex played at least a moderately important role in life. Sex was definitely important and very important for 40.45% of them. Most women over 50 years old (65.5% were sexually active. Regardless of age, the respondents were more likely to have sexual intercourse several times a month. Less than half of the women over 50 years old (42.7% realised their sexual fantasies. Women in the group of 50-59 years old statistically less often than younger women declared that the frequency of intercourse they had was too small. There was a statistical tendency showing that women up to 49 years old declared more sexual problems than older women. Women over 50 years old reported fewer problems in comparison to younger women, e.g. less often they claimed that sex is not pleasurable (p = 0.064. Conclusions : The prevalence of sexual activity declines with age, yet a substantial number of woman engage in vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and masturbation even past the seventh decade of life.

  18. Multirods burst tests under loss-of-coolant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, S.; Uetsuka, H.; Furuta, T.

    1983-01-01

    In order to know the upper limit of coolant flow area restriction in a fuel assembly under loss-of-coolant accidents in LWRs, burst tests of fuel bundles were performed. Each bundle consisted of 49 rods(7x7 rods), and bursts were conducted in flowing steam. In some cases, 4 rods were replaced by control rods with guide tubes in a bundle. After the burst, the ballooning behavior of each rod and the degree of coolant flow area restriction in the bundle were measured. Ballooning behavior of rods and degree of coolant flow channel restriction in bundles with control rods were not different from those without control rods. The upper limit of coolant flow channel restriction under loss-of-coolant conditions was estimated to be about 80%. (author)

  19. Reactor auxiliary cooling facility and coolant supplying method therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1996-06-07

    A reactor auxiliary cooling facility of the present invention comprises a coolant recycling line for recycling coolants by way of a reactor auxiliary coolant pump and a cooling load, a gravitational surge tank for supplying coolants to the coolant recycling line and a supplemental water supplying line for supplying a supply the supplemental water to the tank. Then, a pressurization-type supply water surge tank is disposed for operating the coolant recycling line upon performing an initial system performance test in parallel with the gravitational surge tank. With such a constitution, the period of time required from the start of the installation of reactor auxiliary cooling facilities to the completion of the system performance test can be shortened at a reduced cost without enlarging the scale of the facility. (T.M.)

  20. Reactor auxiliary cooling facility and coolant supplying method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro.

    1996-01-01

    A reactor auxiliary cooling facility of the present invention comprises a coolant recycling line for recycling coolants by way of a reactor auxiliary coolant pump and a cooling load, a gravitational surge tank for supplying coolants to the coolant recycling line and a supplemental water supplying line for supplying a supply the supplemental water to the tank. Then, a pressurization-type supply water surge tank is disposed for operating the coolant recycling line upon performing an initial system performance test in parallel with the gravitational surge tank. With such a constitution, the period of time required from the start of the installation of reactor auxiliary cooling facilities to the completion of the system performance test can be shortened at a reduced cost without enlarging the scale of the facility. (T.M.)

  1. The influence of enclosure design on diurnal activity and stereotypic behaviour in captive Malayan Sun bears (Helarctos malayanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, H M; Ong, S M; Langat, G; Bahaman, A R; Sharma, R S K; Sumita, S

    2013-04-01

    The effect of enclosure design on diurnal activity and stereotypic behaviour was assessed in 17 adult Malayan Sun bears (Helarctos malayanus), kept either in barren indoor enclosures or relatively enriched outdoor enclosures. Locomotion was the most frequent activity observed in the indoor bears, followed by resting. In contrast, conspecifics housed outdoors spent most of the time resting. Eleven forms of stereotypic behaviours were recorded in the bears, with pacing being the most common. The frequency and repertoire of stereotypies were significantly higher in the indoor bears irrespective of enclosure size. Novel forms of locomotor (forward-reverse pacing) and oral (allo-sucking) stereotypies were recorded. Oral stereotypies were predominant in the bears housed indoors, while patrolling was confined to the outdoor bears. Enclosure complexity significantly influences activity budget and occurrence of stereotypic behaviours, highlighting the importance of appropriate enclosure design and enrichment for the welfare of captive bears. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In-Service Inspection system for coolant channels of Indian PHWRS - evolution and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, R.K.; Singh, M.

    2006-01-01

    In-Service Inspection (ISI) is the most important of all periodic monitoring and surveillance activities for assuring the structural integrity of coolant channels in the life extension and management of pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR-CANDU). Indian PHWRs (220 MWe) are characterized by consists by 306 coolant channels in each unit. These channels have to be inspected for various parameters over the operating life of the reactor. ISI of coolant channels necessitated the indigenous development of an inspection system called BARCIS (BARC Channel Inspection System) at Bhabha Atomic Research Center. BARCIS consists of mainly three parts; drive and control unit, special sealing plug and an inspection head carrying various NDT sensors. Five such systems have been built and deployed at various power plants. The paper deals with the development of the BARCIS system for meeting the ISI requirements of coolant channels, development cycle of this system from its conception to evolution to the present state, challenges, data generated and experience gained (ISI of nearly 900 coolant channels has been completed). Prior to BARCIS, pressure tube gauging equipment for pre-service inspection of coolant tubes was developed in 1980. Moreover a tool for ISI of coolant channels in dry condition was developed in 1990. The paper also describes evolution of various contingency procedures and devices developed over the last one decade. Future plans taking into account technological advancement, changes in the scope of inspection due to design and operating experiences and plant layout will also be covered. The paper describes the efforts put in to develop drive and control mechanism to suit the different vault layouts. The drive mechanism is responsible for linear and rotary movement of the inspection head to carry out 100% volumetric inspection. Special emphasis has been laid on the safety devices required during the inspection activity. Special measures for heavy water retention in

  3. Effect of parameter variation of reactor coolant pump on loss of coolant accident consequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Gaojian; Huang Daishun; Gao Yingxian; He Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the analyses were carried out on Ling'ao nuclear power station phase II to study the consequence of the loss of coolant accident when the homologous characteristic curves and free volumes of the reactor coolant pump changed. Two different pumps used in the analysis were 100D (employed on Ling'ao nuclear power station phase II) and ANDRITZ. The thermal characteristics in the large break LOCA accident were analyzed using CATHRE GB and CONPATE4, and the reactor coolant system hydraulics load during blow-clown phase of LOCA accident was analyzed using ATHIS and FORCET. The calculated results show that the homologous characteristic curves have great effect on the thermal characteristics of reactor core during the reflood phase of the large break LOCA accident. The maximum cladding surface temperatures are quite different when the pump's homologous characteristic curves change. On the other hand, the pump's free volume changing results in the variation of the LOCA rarefaction wave propagation, and therefore, the reactor coolant system hydraulic load in LOCA accident would be different. (authors)

  4. Characterization of primary coolant purification system samples for assay of spent ion exchanger radionuclide inventor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajin Prasad, S.; Pant, Amar; Sharma, Ranjit; Pal, Sanjit

    2018-01-01

    The primary coolant system water of a research reactor contains various fission and activation products and the water is circulated continuously through ion exchange resin cartridges, to reduce the radioactive ionic impurity present in it. The coolant purification system comprises of an ion exchange cooler, two micro filters, and a battery of six ion exchanger beds, associated valves, piping and instrumentation (Heavy water System Operating manual, 2014). The spent cartridge is finally disposed off as active solid waste which contains predominantly long lived fission and activation products. The heavy water coolant is also used to cool the structural assemblies after passing through primary heat exchanger and a metallic strainer, which accumulates the fission and activation products. When there is a reduction of coolant flow through these strainers, they are removed for cleaning and decontamination. This paper describes the characterization of ion exchange resin samples and liquid effluent generated during ultra sonic decontamination of strainer. The results obtained can be used as a methodology for the assay of the spent ion exchanger cartridges radionuclide inventory, during its disposal

  5. Natural circulation in reactor coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Reactor coolant system (RCS) natural circulation in a PWR is the buoyancy-driven coolant circulation between the core and the upper-plenum region (in-vessel circulation) with or without a countercurrent flow in the hot leg piping between the vessel and steam generators (ex-vessel circulation). This kind of multidimensional bouyancy-driven flow circulation serves as a means of transferring the heat from the core to the structures in the upper plenum, hot legs, and possibly steam generators. As a result, the RCS piping and other pressure boundaries may be heated to high temperatures at which the structural integrity is challenged. RCS natural circulation is likely to occur during the core uncovery period of the TMLB' accident in a PWR when the vessel upper plenum and hot leg are already drained and filled with steam and possibly other gaseous species. RCS natural circulation is being studied for the Surry plant during the TMLB' accident in which station blackout coincides with the loss of auxiliary feedwater and no operator actions. The effects of the multidimensional RCS natural circulation during the TMLB' accident are discussed

  6. CFD analyses of coolant channel flowfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagley, Jennifer A.; Feng, Jinzhang; Merkle, Charles L.

    1993-01-01

    The flowfield characteristics in rocket engine coolant channels are analyzed by means of a numerical model. The channels are characterized by large length to diameter ratios, high Reynolds numbers, and asymmetrical heating. At representative flow conditions, the channel length is approximately twice the hydraulic entrance length so that fully developed conditions would be reached for a constant property fluid. For the supercritical hydrogen that is used as the coolant, the strong property variations create significant secondary flows in the cross-plane which have a major influence on the flow and the resulting heat transfer. Comparison of constant and variable property solutions show substantial differences. In addition, the property variations prevent fully developed flow. The density variation accelerates the fluid in the channels increasing the pressure drop without an accompanying increase in heat flux. Analyses of the inlet configuration suggest that side entry from a manifold can affect the development of the velocity profile because of vortices generated as the flow enters the channel. Current work is focused on studying the effects of channel bifurcation on the flow field and the heat transfer characteristics.

  7. Chemistry of liquid metal coolants and sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanasekaran, T.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid sodium is the coolant of choice for the current generation fast breeder reactors. When sodium contains low levels of dissolved non-metallic impurities, it is highly compatible with structural steels. When the dissolved oxygen level is high, corrosion and mass transfer in sodium-steel circuits are enhanced and this involves formation of NaxMyOz type of species (M = alloying components in steels). Experience has shown that this enhancement of corrosion in a sodium circuit with all austenitic steel structural materials would not be encountered if oxygen level in sodium is below ~ 5ppm. For understanding this observation, a complete knowledge on the phase diagrams of Na-M-O systems and the thermochemical data of all relevant NaxMyOz compounds is essential. This presentation would highlight the work carried out at IGCAR on the chemistry of liquid sodium and heavy liquid metal coolants. Work carried out on various sensors for their use in these liquid metal circuits would be described and their current status would be discussed

  8. Requirements of coolants in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abass, O. A. M.

    2014-11-01

    This study discussed the purposes and types of coolants in nuclear reactors to generate electricity. The major systems and components associated with nuclear reactors are cooling system. There are two major cooling systems utilized to convert the heat generated in the fuel into electrical power. The primary system transfers the heat from the fuel to the steam generator, where the secondary system begins. The steam formed in the steam generator is transferred by the secondary system to the main turbine generator, where it s converted into electricity after passing through the low pressure turbine. There are various coolants used in nuclear reactors-light water, heavy water and liquid metal. The two major types of water-cooled reactors are pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR) but pressurized water reactors are more in the world. Also discusses this study the reactors and impact of the major nuclear accidents, in the April 1986 disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine was the product operators, and in the March 2011 at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan was the product of earthquake of magnitude 9.0, the accidents caused the largest uncontrolled radioactive release into the environment.(Author)

  9. Upper internals of PWR with coolant flow separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevereau, G.; Heuze, A.

    1989-01-01

    The upper internals for a PWR has a collecting volume for the coolant merging from the core and an apparatus for separating the flow of coolant. This apparatus has a guide for the control rods, a lower plate perforated to allow the coolant through from the core, an upper plate also perforated to allow the coolant through to the collecting volume and a peripheral binding ring joining the two plates. Each guide comprises an envelope without holes and joined perceptibly tight to the plates [fr

  10. Coolant make-up device for BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    In a coolant make-up device, an opening of a pressure equalizing pipeline in a pressure vessel is disposed in coolants above a reactor core and below a usual fluctuation range of a reactor vessel water level. Further, a float check valve is disposed to the pressure equalizing pipeline for preventing coolants in the pressure vessel flowing into the pipeline. If the water level in the pressure vessel is lowered than the setting position for the float check valve, the float drops by its own weight to open the opening of the pressure equalizing pipeline. Then, steams in the pressure vessel are flown into the pipeline, to equalize the pressure between a coolant storage tank and the pressure vessel of the reactor. Coolants in the coolant storage tank is injected to the pressure vessel by way of the water injection pipeline due to the difference of the pressure head between the water level in the coolants storage tank and the water level in the pressure vessel. If the coolants are lowered than the setting position for the float check value, the float check valve does not close unless the water level is recovered to the setting position for the float valve and, accordingly, the coolant make-up is continued. (N.H.)

  11. Cortical ensemble activity increasingly predicts behaviour outcomes during learning of a motor task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Mark; Wessberg, Johan; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2000-06-01

    When an animal learns to make movements in response to different stimuli, changes in activity in the motor cortex seem to accompany and underlie this learning. The precise nature of modifications in cortical motor areas during the initial stages of motor learning, however, is largely unknown. Here we address this issue by chronically recording from neuronal ensembles located in the rat motor cortex, throughout the period required for rats to learn a reaction-time task. Motor learning was demonstrated by a decrease in the variance of the rats' reaction times and an increase in the time the animals were able to wait for a trigger stimulus. These behavioural changes were correlated with a significant increase in our ability to predict the correct or incorrect outcome of single trials based on three measures of neuronal ensemble activity: average firing rate, temporal patterns of firing, and correlated firing. This increase in prediction indicates that an association between sensory cues and movement emerged in the motor cortex as the task was learned. Such modifications in cortical ensemble activity may be critical for the initial learning of motor tasks.

  12. Influence of Physical Activity Participation on the Associations between Eating Behaviour Traits and Body Mass Index in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, Marie-Ève; Doucet, Éric; Provencher, Véronique; Weisnagel, S. John; Piché, Marie-Ève; Dubé, Marie-Christine; Bergeron, Jean; Lemieux, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Available data reveals inconsistent relationships between eating behaviour traits and markers of adiposity level. It is thus relevant to investigate whether other factors also need to be considered when interpreting the relationship between eating behaviour traits and adiposity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was thus to examine whether the associations between variables of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and adiposity are influenced by the level of physical activity participation. Information from the TFEQ and physical activity was obtained from 113 postmenopausal women (56.7 ± 4.2 years; 28.5 ± 5.9 kg/m2). BMI was compared between four groups formed on the basis of the physical activity participation and eating behaviour traits medians. In groups of women with higher physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women who presented higher dietary restraint when compared to women who had lower dietary restraint (25.5 ± 0.5 versus 30.3 ± 1.7 kg/m2, P < .05). In addition, among women with lower physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women presenting a lower external hunger than in those with a higher external hunger (27.5 ± 0.8 versus 32.4 ± 1.1 kg/m2, P < .001). Our results suggest that physical activity participation should also be taken into account when interpreting the relationship between adiposity and eating behaviour traits. PMID:20871862

  13. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in a flexible office-based workplace: Employee perceptions and priorities for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Heidi M; Brown, Wendy J; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy; Burton, Nicola W

    2018-04-18

    Many Australian employees now regularly work from home in some capacity. This new way of working has not been widely studied in relation to the potential implications for employees' health-related behaviour or workplace health promotion. The aim of this study was to explore office-based employees' perceptions of the impact of flexible work on physical activity and sedentary behaviour; and preferences for associated interventions. Three focus groups were conducted with office-based employees (n = 28) 6 months after the introduction of a flexible work policy. A semi-structured interview format with open-ended questions was used with summary statements to check understanding. Sessions were audiotaped, and dominant themes were identified. Findings on intervention preferences were interpreted using a social cognitive framework. An overview of results was provided to a group of managers (n = 9) for comment. Employees reported that physical activity was not impacted, but sedentary behaviour had increased, with flexible work. Intervention preferences focussed on occupational sedentary behaviour, self-regulation, prompts and social connections, and not the physical work environment. Managers agreed with employees' preferences and also wanted interventions to be sustainable. Self-directed interventions with social components and targeting occupational sedentary behaviour were more acceptable than physical activity interventions in this flexible workplace. SO WHAT?: Health promotion for workplaces with flexible work practices may benefit from prioritising strategies that promote self-regulation and social connections rather than being linked to the physical worksite. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  14. Family influences on physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Chinese junior high school students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Qing-Min; Ren, Yan-Jun; Lv, Jun; Li, Li-Ming

    2015-03-25

    Family influence plays an important role in a child's physical activity (PA). This study aimed to describe the level of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behaviours among Chinese junior high school students and examine the associations between different types of family influence and MVPA or sedentary behaviours. Participants of two independent cross-sectional surveys, conducted in 2009 and 2011, were students in Grade 7 and 9 from all junior high schools in Hangzhou, China. The daily duration and frequency of MVPA, amount of sedentary time and frequency of family support were self-reported. Multi-level mixed-effects logistic regression was used to examine the associations between different types or levels of family influence and MVPA or sedentary behaviours. A total of 7286 students were analysed finally. Overall, only 9.0% of the students participated in MVPA at least 60 minutes/day; 63.9% spent no more than 2 hours/day in sedentary behaviours. Frequent verbal encouragement and watching were associated with less leisure-time sedentary behaviours. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for verbal encouragement and watching were 1.29 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.55) and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.45) for 5-7 days per week. The involvement of family in the children's activity in most days of the week was associated with both higher level of MVPA and less leisure-time sedentary behaviours. The respective ORs among students who reported familial support 5-7 days per week, were 1.50 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.86) for engaging in seven days of MVPA per week, 1.67 (95% CI, 1.19 to 2.32) for at least 60 minutes of MVPA daily, and 1.48 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.84) for no more than 2 hours of leisure-time sedentary behaviours daily. This study found that less than 10.0% of urban Chinese adolescents engaged in MVPA at least 60 minutes/day. Family involving themselves in the children's activity exerted the most significant influence on children's behaviours

  15. An mHealth intervention: Associations between Theory of Planned Behaviour constructs for physical activity and longitudinal smoking related behavioural data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hassandra

    2015-10-01

    The results support previous literature suggesting that a possible mechanism behind the beneficial effects of exercise on decreasing smoking behaviour might be the increased perceived behavioural control over exercise that has an effect on the control to smoking behaviour. Moreover, using exercise to manage after quit smoking cravings can delay further smoking behaviour relapses.

  16. A systematic review of physical activity and sedentary behaviour research in the oil-producing countries of the Arabian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Mabry

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dramatic rise in Noncommunicable Diseases (NCD in the oil-producing countries of the Arabian Peninsula is driven in part by insufficient physical activity, one of the five main contributors to health risk in the region. The aim of this paper is to review the available evidence on physical activity and sedentary behaviour for this region. Based on the findings, we prioritize an agenda for research that could inform policy initiatives with regional relevance. Methods We reviewed regional evidence on physical activity and sedentary behaviour to identify the needs for prevention and policy-related research. A literature search of peer-reviewed publications in the English language was conducted in May 2016 using PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. 100 studies were identified and classified using the Behavioural Epidemiology Framework. Results Review findings demonstrate that research relevant to NCD prevention is underdeveloped in the region. A majority of the studies were epidemiological in approach with few being large-scale population-based studies using standardised measures. Correlates demonstrated expected associations with health outcomes, low levels of physical activity (particularly among young people, high levels of sedentary behaviour (particularly among men and young people and expected associations of known correlates (e.g. gender, age, education, time, self-motivation, social support, and access. Very few studies offered recommendations for translating research findings into practice. Conclusions Further research on the determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the Arabian Peninsula using standard assessment tools is urgently needed. Priority research includes examining these behaviours across the four domains (household, work, transport and leisure. Intervention research focusing on the sectors of education, health and sports sectors is recommended. Furthermore, adapting and testing

  17. Behaviour change techniques targeting both diet and physical activity in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradock, Kevin A; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Finucane, Francis M; Gainforth, Heather L; Quinlan, Leo R; Ginis, Kathleen A Martin

    2017-02-08

    Changing diet and physical activity behaviour is one of the cornerstones of type 2 diabetes treatment, but changing behaviour is challenging. The objective of this study was to identify behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and intervention features of dietary and physical activity interventions for patients with type 2 diabetes that are associated with changes in HbA 1c and body weight. We performed a systematic review of papers published between 1975-2015 describing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that focused exclusively on both diet and physical activity. The constituent BCTs, intervention features and methodological rigour of these interventions were evaluated. Changes in HbA 1c and body weight were meta-analysed and examined in relation to use of BCTs. Thirteen RCTs were identified. Meta-analyses revealed reductions in HbA 1c at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of -1.11 % (12 mmol/mol), -0.67 % (7 mmol/mol), -0.28 % (3 mmol/mol) and -0.26 % (2 mmol/mol) with an overall reduction of -0.53 % (6 mmol/mol [95 % CI -0.74 to -0.32, P 0.3 % reduction in HbA 1c : 'instruction on how to perform a behaviour', 'behavioural practice/rehearsal', 'demonstration of the behaviour' and 'action planning', as were intervention features 'supervised physical activity', 'group sessions', 'contact with an exercise physiologist', 'contact with an exercise physiologist and a dietitian', 'baseline HbA 1c >8 %' and interventions of greater frequency and intensity. Diet and physical activity interventions achieved clinically significant reductions in HbA 1c at three and six months, but not at 12 and 24 months. Specific BCTs and intervention features identified may inform more effective structured lifestyle intervention treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes.

  18. Dietary behaviour and socioeconomic position: the role of physical activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Jonas D; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lampert, Thomas; Mensink, Gert B M

    2013-01-01

    The positive association between education level and health outcomes can be partly explained by dietary behaviour. We investigated the associations between education and several indices of food intake and potential influencing factors, placing special emphasis on physical-activity patterns, using a representative sample of the German adult population. The German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) involved 7,124 participants aged between 18 and 79. Complete information on the exposure (education) and outcome (nutrition) variables was available for 6,767 persons. The associations between 'education' and indices of 'sugar-rich food', 'fat-rich food', 'fruit-and-vegetable' and 'alcohol' intake were analysed separately for men and women using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) of education level on nutrition outcomes were calculated and adjusted for age, region (former East/West Germany), occupation, income and other influencing factors such as physical activity indicators. Men and women with only a primary education had a more frequent intake of sugar-rich and fat-rich foods and a less frequent intake of fruit and vegetables and alcohol than people with a tertiary education. 'Physical work activity' partly explained the associations between education and sugar-rich food intake. The interference with physical work activity was stronger among men than women. No significant associations between education and energy-dense food intake were observed in the retirement-age group of persons aged 65+ and among persons with low energy expenditure. In Germany, adults with a low level of education report that they consume energy-dense foods more frequently - and fruit and vegetables and alcohol less frequently - than adults with a high education level. High levels of physical work activity among adults with a low education level may partly explain why they consume more energy-dense foods.

  19. With a little help from my goals: integrating intergoal facilitation with the theory of planned behaviour to predict physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presseau, Justin; Sniehotta, Falko F; Francis, Jill J; Gebhardt, Winifred A

    2010-11-01

    Integration of a multiple goal theory approach into the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to investigate how the perceived facilitating and conflicting relationships in multiple goal pursuit predict performance of a health-related behaviour. Prospective design with 8-week follow-up. At baseline, perceived intergoal facilitation and intergoal conflict were measured using personal projects analysis supplemented with standard TPB measures for physical activity (PA). Self-reported PA was measured at follow-up 8 weeks later. N=137 participants completed measures at both time points (55.4% response rate at follow-up). Hierarchical regression showed that perceived intergoal facilitation, but not intergoal conflict, directly predicted PA beyond intention and perceived behavioural control (PBC), accounting for more than 4% of additional variance in PA. Intergoal facilitation had an indirect effect on intention through attitude and PBC, and intention partially mediated the effect of intergoal facilitation on behaviour. The perceived facilitating effect of pursuing other personal goals predicts the performance of a health-related behaviour over and above single behaviour-focused social cognitions.

  20. Smartphone-Supported versus Full Behavioural Activation for Depression: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kien Hoa Ly

    Full Text Available There is need for more cost and time effective treatments for depression. This is the first randomised controlled trial in which a blended treatment--including four face-to-face sessions and a smartphone application--was compared against a full behavioural treatment. Hence, the aim of the current paper was to examine whether a blended smartphone treatment was non-inferior to a full behavioural activation treatment for depression.This was a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial (NCT01819025 comparing a blended treatment (n=46 against a full ten-session treatment (n=47 for people suffering from major depression. Primary outcome measure was the BDI-II, that was administered at pre- and post-treatment, as well as six months after the treatment.Results showed significant improvements in both groups across time on the primary outcome measure (within-group Cohen's d=1.35; CI [-0.82, 3.52] to d=1.47; CI [-0.41, 3.35]; between group d=-0.13 CI [-2.37, 2.09] and d=-0.10 CI [-2.53, 2.33]. At the same time, the blended treatment reduced the therapist time with an average of 47%.We could not establish whether the blended treatment was non-inferior to a full BA treatment. Nevertheless, this study points to that the blended treatment approach could possibly treat nearly twice as many patients suffering from depression by using a smartphone application as add-on. More studies are needed before we can suggest that the blended treatment method is a promising cost-effective alternative to regular face-to-face treatment for depression.Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treatment of Depression With Smartphone Support NCT01819025.

  1. Treating depression and depression-like behaviour with physical activity: an immune perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Anthony Eyre

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing burden of major depressive disorder makes the search for an extended understanding of aetiology, and for the development of additional treatments highly significant. Biological factors may be useful biomarkers for treatment with physical activity (PA, and neurobiological effects of PA may herald new therapeutic development in the future. This paper provides a thorough and up-to-date review of studies examining the neuroimmunomodulatory effects of PA on the brain in depression and depression-like behaviours. From a neuroimmune perspective, evidence suggests PA does enhance the beneficial and reduce the detrimental effects of the neuroimmune system. PA appears to increase the following factors: interleukin (IL-10, IL-6 (acutely, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, central nervous system-specific autoreactive CD4+ T cells, M2 microglia, quiescent astrocytes, CX3CL1 and insulin-like growth factor-1. On the other hand, PA appears to reduce detrimental neuroimmune factors such as: Th1/Th2 balance, pro-inflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein, M1 microglia and reactive astrocytes. The effect of other mechanisms is unknown, such as: CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (T regs, CD200, chemokines, miRNA, M2-type blood-derived macrophages and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α (via receptor 2 (R2. The beneficial effects of PA are likely to occur centrally and peripherally (e.g. in visceral fat reduction. The investigation of the neuroimmune effects of PA on depression and depression-like behaviour is a rapidly developing and important field.

  2. The diversity of travel behaviour: Motives and social interactions in leisure time activities

    OpenAIRE

    Stauffacher, Michael; Schlich, Robert; Axhausen, Kay W.; Scholz, Roland W.

    2005-01-01

    Influencing travel behaviour towards a more sustainable form has long been the subject of lively discussion. Whilst some claim that urban form can influence mobility patterns, others stress personal characteristics. Still, psychological factors like personal need and motives (e.g., social interaction, recreation, variety seeking and curiosity) are also relevant, especially for the highly individualistic behaviour of leisure travel, but have been largely neglected in travel behaviour studies. ...

  3. Active involvement and long-term goals influence longterm adherence to behavioural graded activity in patients with osteoarthritis: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Hasselt, T.J. van; Köke, A.J.A.; Dekker, J.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2006-01-01

    Question: Why do some patients who have received a behavioural graded activity program successfully integrate the activities into their daily lives and others do not? Design: Qualitative study. Participants: 12 patients were selected according to the model of deliberate sampling for heterogeneity,

  4. Behavioural graded activity results in better exercise adherence and more physical activity than usual care in people with osteoarthritis: a cluster-randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, M.F.; Veenhof, C.; de Bakker, D.H.; Schellevis, F.G.; Dekker, J.

    2010-01-01

    Question: Does behavioural graded activity result in better exercise adherence and more physical activity than usual care in people with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee? Design: Analysis of secondary outcomes of a cluster-randomised trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding, and

  5. Fusion Blanket Coolant Section Criteria, Methodology, and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMuth, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meier, W. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jolodosky, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frantoni, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reyes, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-02

    The focus of this LDRD was to explore potential Li alloys that would meet the tritium breeding and blanket cooling requirements but with reduced chemical reactivity, while maintaining the other attractive features of pure Li breeder/coolant. In other fusion approaches (magnetic fusion energy or MFE), 17Li- 83Pb alloy is used leveraging Pb’s ability to maintain high TBR while lowering the levels of lithium in the system. Unfortunately this alloy has a number of potential draw-backs. Due to the high Pb content, this alloy suffers from very high average density, low tritium solubility, low system energy, and produces undesirable activation products in particular polonium. The criteria considered in the selection of a tritium breeding alloy are described in the following section.

  6. Do Children’s Health Resources Differ According to Preschool Physical Activity Programmes and Parental Behaviour? A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sterdt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family—children’s central social microsystems—can lead to differences in children’s health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of “preschools with systematic physical activity programmes” versus “preschools without physical activity programmes” were conducted to assess the extent to which children’s physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children’s physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227 children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children’s physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709. However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children’s physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children’s health resources in a differential manner.

  7. Using open source accelerometer analysis to assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innerd, Paul; Harrison, Rory; Coulson, Morc

    2018-04-23

    Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are difficult to assess in overweight and obese adults. However, the use of open-source, raw accelerometer data analysis could overcome this. This study compared raw accelerometer and questionnaire-assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), walking and sedentary behaviour in normal, overweight and obese adults, and determined the effect of using different methods to categorise overweight and obesity, namely body mass index (BMI), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). One hundred twenty adults, aged 24-60 years, wore a raw, tri-axial accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+), for 3 days and completed a physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ-S). We used open-source accelerometer analyses to estimate MVPA, walking and sedentary behaviour from a single raw accelerometer signal. Accelerometer and questionnaire-assessed measures were compared in normal, overweight and obese adults categorised using BMI, BIA and WHR. Relationships between accelerometer and questionnaire-assessed MVPA (Rs = 0.30 to 0.48) and walking (Rs = 0.43 to 0.58) were stronger in normal and overweight groups whilst sedentary behaviour were modest (Rs = 0.22 to 0.38) in normal, overweight and obese groups. The use of WHR resulted in stronger agreement between the questionnaire and accelerometer than BMI and BIA. Finally, accelerometer data showed stronger associations with BMI, BIA and WHR (Rs = 0.40 to 0.77) than questionnaire data (Rs = 0.24 to 0.37). Open-source, raw accelerometer data analysis can be used to estimate MVPA, walking and sedentary behaviour from a single acceleration signal in normal, overweight and obese adults. Our data supports the use of WHR to categorise overweight and obese adults. This evidence helps researchers obtain more accurate measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in overweight and obese populations.

  8. Regulation by orexin of feeding behaviour and locomotor activity in the goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamachi, T; Matsuda, K; Maruyama, K; Miura, T; Uchiyama, M; Funahashi, H; Sakurai, T; Shioda, S

    2006-04-01

    Orexin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that is implicated in the regulation of feeding behaviour and the sleep-wakefulness cycle in mammals. However, in spite of a growing body of knowledge concerning orexin in mammals, the orexin system and its function have not been well studied in lower vertebrates. In the present study, we first examined the effect of feeding status on the orexin-like immunoreactivity (orexin-LI) and the expression of orexin mRNA in the goldfish brain. The number of cells showing orexin-LI in the hypothalamus of goldfish brain showed a significant increase in fasted fish and a significant decrease in glucose-injected fish. The expression level of orexin mRNA in the brains of fasted fish increased compared to that of fed fish. We also examined the effect of an i.c.v. injection of orexin or an anti-orexin serum on food intake and locomotor activity in the goldfish. Administration of orexin by i.c.v. injection induced a significant increase of food intake and locomotor activity, whereas i.p. injection of glucose or i.c.v. injection of anti-orexin serum decreased food consumption. These results indicate that the orexin functions as an orexigenic factor in the goldfish brain.

  9. Coolant mixing in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, T; Grunwald, G

    1998-10-01

    The behavior of PWRs during cold water or boron dilution transients is strongly influenced by the distribution of coolant temperature and boron concentration at the core inlet. This distribution is the needed input to 3-dimensional neutron kinetics to calculate the power distribution in the core. It mainly depends on how the plugs of cold or unborated water formed in a single loop are mixed in the downcomer and in the lower plenum. To simulate such mixture phenomena requires the application of 3-dimensional CFD (computational fluid dynamics) codes. The results of the simulation have to be validated against mixture experiments at scaled facilities. Therefore, in the framework of a research project funded by BMBF, the institute creates a 1:5 mixture facility representing first the geometry of a German pressurized water reactor and later the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) geometry. The calculations are based on the CFD Code CFX-4. (orig.)

  10. Slow coolant phaseout could worsen warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, April

    2018-03-01

    In the summer of 2016, temperatures in Phalodi, an old caravan town on a dry plain in northwestern India, reached a blistering 51°C—a record high during a heat wave that claimed more than 1600 lives across the country. Wider access to air conditioning (AC) could have prevented many deaths—but only 8% of India's 249 million households have AC. As the nation's economy booms, that figure could rise to 50% by 2050. And that presents a dilemma: As India expands access to a life-saving technology, it must comply with international mandates—the most recent imposed just last fall—to eliminate coolants that harm stratospheric ozone or warm the atmosphere.

  11. Automated surveillance of reactor coolant pump performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.; Humenik, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    An artificial intelligence based expert system has been developed for continuous surveillance and diagnosis of centrifugal-type reactor coolant pump (RCP) performance and operability. The expert system continuously monitors digitized signals from a variety of physical variables (speed, vibration level, motor power, discharge pressure) associated with RCP performance for annunciation of the incipience or onset of off-normal operation. The system employs an extremely sensitive pattern-recognition technique, the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) for rapid identification of pump operability degradation. The sequential statistical analysis of the signal noise has been shown to provide the theoretically shortest sampling time to detect disturbances and thus has the potential of providing incipient fault detection information to operators sufficiently early to avoid forced plant shutdowns. The sensitivity and response time of the expert system are analyzed in this paper using monte carlo simulation techniques

  12. Power module assemblies with staggered coolant channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Mann, Brooks S; Korich, Mark D

    2013-07-16

    A manifold is provided for supporting a power module assembly with a plurality of power modules. The manifold includes a first manifold section. The first face of the first manifold section is configured to receive the first power module, and the second face of the first manifold section defines a first cavity with a first baseplate thermally coupled to the first power module. The first face of the second manifold section is configured to receive the second power module, and the second face of the second manifold section defines a second cavity with a second baseplate thermally coupled to the second power module. The second face of the first manifold section and the second face of the second manifold section are coupled together such that the first cavity and the second cavity form a coolant channel. The first cavity is at least partially staggered with respect to second cavity.

  13. Reactor coolant flow measurements at Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenciaglia, G.; Gurevich, Y.; Liu, G.

    1996-01-01

    The CROSSFLOW ultrasonic flow measurement system manufactured by AMAG is fully proven as reliable and accurate when applied to large piping in defined geometries for such applications as feedwater flows measurement. Its application to direct reactor coolant flow (RCF) measurements - both individual channel flows and bulk flows such as pump suction flow - has been well established through recent work by AMAG at Point Lepreau, with application to other reactor types (eg. PWR) imminent. At Point Lepreau, Measurements have been demonstrated at full power; improvements to consistently meet ±1% accuracy are in progress. The development and recent customization of CROSSFLOW to RCF measurement at Point Lepreau are described in this paper; typical measurement results are included. (author)

  14. Reactor coolant system and containment aqueous chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgerson, D.F.

    1986-01-01

    Fission products released from fuel during reactor accidents can be subject to a variety of environments that will affect their ultimate behavior. In the reactor coolant system (RCS), for example, neutral or reducing steam conditions, radiation, and surfaces could all have an effect on fission product retention and chemistry. Furthermore, if water is encountered in the RCS, the high temperature aqueous chemistry of fission products must be assessed to determine the quantity and chemical form of fission products released to the containment building. In the containment building, aqueous chemistry will determine the longer-term release of volatile fission products to the containment atmosphere. Over the past few years, the principles of physical chemistry have been rigorously applied to the various chemical conditions described above. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge and discusses the future directions of chemistry research relating to the behavior of fission products in the RCS and containment

  15. Efficacy of interventions that use apps to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Bray, Nicola A; Williams, Susan L; Duncan, Mitch J; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-12-07

    Health and fitness applications (apps) have gained popularity in interventions to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviours but their efficacy is unclear. This systematic review examined the efficacy of interventions that use apps to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adults. Systematic literature searches were conducted in five databases to identify papers published between 2006 and 2016. Studies were included if they used a smartphone app in an intervention to improve diet, physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour for prevention. Interventions could be stand-alone interventions using an app only, or multi-component interventions including an app as one of several intervention components. Outcomes measured were changes in the health behaviours and related health outcomes (i.e., fitness, body weight, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, quality of life). Study inclusion and methodological quality were independently assessed by two reviewers. Twenty-seven studies were included, most were randomised controlled trials (n = 19; 70%). Twenty-three studies targeted adults (17 showed significant health improvements) and four studies targeted children (two demonstrated significant health improvements). Twenty-one studies targeted physical activity (14 showed significant health improvements), 13 studies targeted diet (seven showed significant health improvements) and five studies targeted sedentary behaviour (two showed significant health improvements). More studies (n = 12; 63%) of those reporting significant effects detected between-group improvements in the health behaviour or related health outcomes, whilst fewer studies (n = 8; 42%) reported significant within-group improvements. A larger proportion of multi-component interventions (8 out of 13; 62%) showed significant between-group improvements compared to stand-alone app interventions (5 out of 14; 36%). Eleven studies reported app usage statistics

  16. Simulation of small break loss of coolant accident in pressurized water reactor (PWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abass, N. M. N.

    2012-02-01

    A major safety concern in pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) design is the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA),in which a break in the primary coolant circuit leads to depressurization, boiling of the coolant, consequent reduced cooling of the reactor core, and , unless remedial measures are taken, overheating of the fuel rods. This concern has led to the development of several simulators for safety analysis. This study demonstrates how the passive and active safety systems in conventional and advanced PWR behave during the small break loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA). The consequences of SBOLOCA have been simulated using IAEA Generic pressurized Water Reactor Simulator (GPWRS) and personal Computer Transient analyzer (PCTRAN) . The results were presented and discussed. The study has confirmed the major safety advantage of passive plants versus conventional PWRs is that the passive safety systems provide long-term core cooling and decay heat removal without the need for operator actions and without reliance on active safety-related system. (Author)

  17. Longitudinal active living research to address physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour in children in transition from preadolescence to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhajarine, Nazeem; Katapally, Tarun R; Fuller, Daniel; Stanley, Kevin G; Rainham, Daniel

    2015-05-17

    Children can be highly active and highly sedentary on the same day! For instance, a child can spend a couple of hours playing sports, and then spend the rest of the day in front of a screen. A focus on examining both physical activity and sedentary behaviour throughout the day and in all seasons in a year is necessary to generate comprehensive evidence to curb childhood obesity. To achieve this, we need to understand where within a city are children active or sedentary in all seasons. This active living study based in Saskatoon, Canada, aims to understand the role played by modifiable urban built environments in mitigating, or exacerbating, seasonal effects on children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour in a population of children in transition from preadolescence to adolescence. Designed as an observational, longitudinal investigation this study will recruit 800 Canadian children 10-14 years of age. Data will be obtained from children representing all socioeconomic categories within all types of neighbourhoods built in a range of urban designs. Built environment characteristics will be measured using previously validated neighbourhood audit and observational tools. Neighbourhood level socioeconomic variables customized to Saskatoon neighbourhoods from 2011 Statistics Canada's National Household Survey will be used to control for neighbourhood social environment. The validated Smart Cities Healthy Kids questionnaire will be administered to capture children's behaviour and perception of a range of factors that influence their activity, household (including family socioeconomic factors), parental, peer and neighbourhood influence on independent mobility. The outcome measures, different intensities of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, will be collected using global positioning system equipped accelerometers in all four seasons. Each accelerometry cycle will be matched with weather data obtained from Environment Canada. Extensive weather data will be

  18. The accuracy of the 24-h activity recall method for assessing sedentary behaviour: the physical activity measurement survey (PAMS) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngwon; Welk, Gregory J

    2017-02-01

    Sedentary behaviour (SB) has emerged as a modifiable risk factor, but little is known about measurement errors of SB. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 24-h Physical Activity Recall (24PAR) relative to SenseWear Armband (SWA) for assessing SB. Each participant (n = 1485) undertook a series of data collection procedures on two randomly selected days: wearing a SWA for full 24-h, and then completing the telephone-administered 24PAR the following day to recall the past 24-h activities. Estimates of total sedentary time (TST) were computed without the inclusion of reported or recorded sleep time. Equivalence testing was used to compare estimates of TST. Analyses from equivalence testing showed no significant equivalence of 24PAR for TST (90% CI: 443.0 and 457.6 min · day -1 ) relative to SWA (equivalence zone: 580.7 and 709.8 min · day -1 ). Bland-Altman plots indicated individuals that were extremely or minimally sedentary provided relatively comparable sedentary time between 24PAR and SWA. Overweight/obese and/or older individuals were more likely to under-estimate sedentary time than normal weight and/or younger individuals. Measurement errors of 24PAR varied by the level of sedentary time and demographic indicators. This evidence informs future work to develop measurement error models to correct for errors of self-reports.

  19. The Norm Activation Model: An exploration of the functions of anticipated pride and guilt in environmental behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwezen, M.C.; Antonides, G.; Bartels, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Norm Activation Model (NAM; Schwartz, 1977) is a vested model that explains altruistic and environmentally friendly behaviour. Although research states that anticipated pride and guilt are associated with the NAM, these associations are not yet fully understood. The current study provides an

  20. The active sequence in the acth molecule responsible for inhibition of the extinction of conditioned avoidance behaviour in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, H.M.; Wied, D. de

    1967-01-01

    The effect of structural analogues of the N-terminal decapeptide of ACTH on inhibition of extinction of a conditioned avoidance response in rats has been studied. Studies involving the relation between chain length and behavioural activity revealed that the sequence 4–10 is the shortest peptide

  1. Improving physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep in COPD : Perspectives of people with COPD and experts via a Delphi approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewthwaite, Hayley; Effing, Tanja W.; Lenferink, Anke; Olds, Tim; Williams, Marie T.

    2018-01-01

    Background. Little is known about how to achieve enduring improvements in physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and sleep for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aimed to: (1) identify what people with COPD from South Australia and the Netherlands, and

  2. A systematic review of school-based interventions targeting physical activity and sedentary behaviour among older adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynynen, S-T; van Stralen, M M; Sniehotta, F F; Araújo-Soares, V; Hardeman, W; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Vasankari, T.; Hankonen, N.

    2016-01-01

    Lack of physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (SB) have been associated with health problems. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of school-based interventions to increase PA and decrease SB among 15-19-year-old adolescents, and examines whether intervention

  3. The Norm Activation Model: An exploration of the functions of anticipated pride and guilt in pro-environmental behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwezen, M.C.; Antonides, G.; Bartels, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Norm Activation Model (NAM; Schwartz, 1977) is a vested model that explains altruistic and environmentally friendly behaviour. Although research states that anticipated pride and guilt are associated with the NAM, these associations are not yet fully understood. The current study provides an

  4. The relationship between the acoustic behaviour and surface activity of killer whales (Orcinus orca) that feed on herring (Clupea harengus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, M.; McGregor, P.K.; Ugarte, F.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the acoustic behaviour of piscivorous killer whales in Norwegian and Icelandic waters. Whales were assigned to one of three activities (feeding, travelling or other), and sound recordings were made in their proximity with a single hydrophone and a digital audiotape (DAT) recorder. A q...

  5. Coolant rate distribution in horizontal steam generator under natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagovechtchenski, A.; Leontieva, V.; Mitrioukhin, A.

    1997-01-01

    In the presentation the major factors determining the conditions of NCC (Natural Coolant Circulation) in the primary circuit and in particular conditions of coolant rate distribution on the horizontal tubes of PGV-1000 in NPP with VVER-1000 under NCC are considered

  6. Channel type reactors with supercritical water coolant. Russian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Y.N.; Gabaraev, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    Transition to coolant of supercritical parameters allows for principle engineering-andeconomic characteristics of light-water nuclear power reactors to be substantially enhanced. Russian experience in development of channel-type reactors with supercritical water coolant has demonstrated advantages and practical feasibility of such reactors. (author)

  7. Automatic coolant flow control device for a nuclear reactor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Ernest

    1986-01-01

    A device which controls coolant flow through a nuclear reactor assembly comprises a baffle means at the exit end of said assembly having a plurality of orifices, and a bimetallic member in operative relation to the baffle means such that at increased temperatures said bimetallic member deforms to unblock some of said orifices and allow increased coolant flow therethrough.

  8. Coolant rate distribution in horizontal steam generator under natural circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagovechtchenski, A.; Leontieva, V.; Mitrioukhin, A. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    In the presentation the major factors determining the conditions of NCC (Natural Coolant Circulation) in the primary circuit and in particular conditions of coolant rate distribution on the horizontal tubes of PGV-1000 in NPP with VVER-1000 under NCC are considered. 5 refs.

  9. Fuel coolant interaction experiment by direct electrical heating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tsuneo; Hirano, Kenmei

    1979-01-01

    In the PCM (Power Cooling Mismatch) experiments, the FCI (Fuel Coolant Interaction) test is one of necessary tests in order to predict various phenomena that occur during PCM in the core. A direct electrical heating method is used for the FCI tests for fuel pellet temperature of over 1000 0 C. Therefore, preheating is required before initiating the direct electrical heating. The fuel pin used in the FCI tests is typical LWR fuel element, which is surrounded by coolant water. It is undersirable to heat up the coolant water during preheating of the fuel pin. Therefore, a zirconia (ZrO 2 ) pellet which is similar to a UO 2 pellet in physical and chemical properties is used. Electric property (electric conductivity) of ZrO 2 is particularly suitable for direct electrical heating as in the case of UO 2 . In this experiment, ZrO 2 pellet (melting point 2500 0 C) melting was achieved by use of both preheating and direct electrical heating. Temperature changes of coolant and fuel surface, as well as the pressure change of coolant water, were measured. The molten fuel interacted with the coolant and generated shock waves. A portion of this molten fuel fragmented into small particles during this interaction. The peak pressure of the observed shock wave was about 35 bars. The damaged fuel pin was photographed after disassembly. This report shows the measured coolant pressure changes and the coolant temperature changes, as well as photographs of damaged fuel pin and fuel fragments. (author)

  10. Coolant rate distribution in horizontal steam generator under natural circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagovechtchenski, A; Leontieva, V; Mitrioukhin, A [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    In the presentation the major factors determining the conditions of NCC (Natural Coolant Circulation) in the primary circuit and in particular conditions of coolant rate distribution on the horizontal tubes of PGV-1000 in NPP with VVER-1000 under NCC are considered. 5 refs.

  11. Molten fuel-coolant interactions resulting from power transients in aluminium plate/water moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storr, G.J.

    1989-08-01

    The behaviour of two reactors SL1 and SPERT D12, which underwent fast nuclear power transients prior to core destruction by a molten fuel-coolant interaction (MFCI) has been analysed and the results compared with measured data. The calculated spatial melt distribution and the mechanical work done during the events leads to high (∼ 250 kJ/kg) conversion efficiencies for this type of interaction when compared with molten drop experiments. A simple model for the steam explosion, using static thermodynamic properties of high temperature and pressure steam is used to calculate the dynamics of the reactors following the MFCI. 26 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Behavioural intervention to increase physical activity among patients with coronary heart disease: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaleh, Eman; Blake, Holly; Windle, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Although physical activity has significant health benefits in the treatment of patients with coronary heart disease, patients often do not follow prescribed physical activity recommendations. Behavioural strategies have been shown to be efficacious in increasing physical activity among those patients with coronary heart disease who are attending structured cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Research has also shown that tailoring consultation according to patients' needs and sending motivational reminders are successful ways of motivating patients to be physically active. However, there is a lack of evidence for the efficacy of behavioural interventions based on individualised consultation in promoting physical activity among those patients with coronary heart disease who are not attending structured physical activity programmes. This paper outlines the study protocol for a trial which is currently underway, to examine the effect of a behavioural change intervention delivered through individualised consultation calls and motivational reminder text messages on the level of physical activity among patients with coronary heart disease. Two large hospitals in Jordan. Eligible patients aged between 18 and 70 years, who are clinically stable, are able to perform physical activity and who have access to a mobile telephone have been randomly allocated to control or intervention group. Two-group randomised controlled trial. Behavioural intervention will be compared with usual care in increasing physical activity levels among patients with coronary heart disease. The control group (n=85) will receive advice from their doctors about physical activity as they would in usual practice. The intervention group (n=71) will receive the same advice, but will also receive behavioural change intervention (goal-setting, feed-back, self-monitoring) that will be delivered over a period of six months. Intervention will be delivered through individually tailored face-to-face and telephone

  13. Associations between active video gaming and other energy-balance related behaviours in adolescents: a 24-hour recall diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Monique; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jaap; de Vet, Emely

    2015-03-05

    Active video games may contribute to reducing time spent in sedentary activities, increasing physical activity and preventing excessive weight gain in adolescents. Active video gaming can, however, only be beneficial for weight management when it replaces sedentary activities and not other physical activity, and when it is not associated with a higher energy intake. The current study therefore examines the association between active video gaming and other energy-balance-related behaviours (EBRBs). Adolescents (12-16 years) with access to an active video game and who reported to spend at least one hour per week in active video gaming were invited to participate in the study. They were asked to complete electronic 24-hour recall diaries on five randomly assigned weekdays and two randomly assigned weekend-days in a one-month period, reporting on time spent playing active and non-active video games and on other EBRBs. Findings indicated that adolescents who reported playing active video games on assessed days also reported spending more time playing non-active video games (Median = 23.6, IQR = 56.8 minutes per week) compared to adolescents who did not report playing active video games on assessed days (Median = 10.0, IQR = 51.3 minutes per week, P games on assessed days, active video game time was positively yet weakly associated with TV/DVD time and snack consumption. Active video game time was not significantly associated with other activities and sugar-sweetened beverages intake. The results suggest that it is unlikely that time spent by adolescents in playing active video games replaces time spent in other physically active behaviours or sedentary activities. Spending more time playing active video games does seem to be associated with a small, but significant increase in intake of snacks. This suggests that interventions aimed at increasing time spent on active video gaming, may have unexpected side effects, thus warranting caution.

  14. Lifestyles of Adult Omani Women; Cross-sectional study on physical activity and sedentary behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Al-Habsi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyles of adult Omani women with regards to physical activity (PA levels and sedentary behaviour (SB. Methods: The study was carried out between May and June 2013 and included a total of 277 healthy women aged 18–48 years from five governorates in Oman. Total, moderate and vigorous PA levels and walking were self-reported by participants using the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. SB (total sitting time and different types of sitting time was self-reported using the Domain- Specific Sitting Time Questionnaire on both working and non-working days. PA levels and SB were also objectively measured among 86 of the participants using an accelerometer. Results: The self-reported median ± interquartile range (IQR total PA was 1,516 ± 3,392 metabolic equivalent of task minutes/week. The self-reported median ± IQR total sitting time was 433 ± 323 minutes/day and 470 ± 423 minutes/day for working and non-working days, respectively. Sitting at work on working days and sitting during leisure activities on non-working days formed the greatest proportion of total sitting time. Overall, accelerometer results indicated that participants spent 62% of their time involved in SB, 35% in light PA and only 3% in moderate to vigorous PA. Conclusion: Sedentary lifestyles were common among the adult Omani women studied. Lack of PA and increased SB is known to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. The use of accelerometers to monitor PA and SB among different groups in Oman is highly recommended in order to accurately assess the lifestyle risks of this population.

  15. Application of liquid chromatography techniques to the measurement of soluble transition metals in PWR primary coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amey, M.D.H.; Brown, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Two chromatographic techniques have been developed, and evaluated for the on-line analysis of soluble transition metals, particularly cobalt, in PWR primary coolant. Automatic operation and control, together with data processing and storage has been achieved by interfacing a Dionex ion chromatograph to a microprocessor control system. An absolute detection limit of 0.1 ng cobalt has been obtained which, with on-line sample preconcentration (100 ml), has enabled measurements to be made down to part-per-trillion levels (0.001 ppb). Application of the techniques to PWR coolant analysis was demonstrated by a programme of work on the Half Megawatt Loop at Winfrith. During this work some aspects of the behaviour of soluble metal species have been studied in both de-oxygenated and hydrogenated conditions. The effects of changes in coolant chemistry, operating temperature, and sample line flowrates on circulating impurity levels are reported, together with the dramatic effects observed when part of the circuit pipework was replaced with new stainless steel tubing. (author)

  16. Physical activity and nutrition behavioural outcomes of a home-based intervention program for seniors: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke Linda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This intervention aimed to ascertain whether a low-cost, accessible, physical activity and nutrition program could improve physical activity and nutrition behaviours of insufficiently active 60–70 year olds residing in Perth, Australia. Methods A 6-month home-based randomised controlled trial was conducted on 478 older adults (intervention, n = 248; control, n = 230 of low to medium socioeconomic status. Both intervention and control groups completed postal questionnaires at baseline and post-program, but only the intervention participants received project materials. A modified fat and fibre questionnaire measured nutritional behaviours, whereas physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Generalised estimating equation models were used to assess the repeated outcomes over both time points. Results The final sample consisted of 176 intervention participants and 199 controls (response rate 78.5% with complete data. After controlling for demographic and other confounding factors, the intervention group demonstrated increased participation in strength exercise (p Conclusions A minimal contact, low-cost and home-based physical activity program can positively influence seniors’ physical activity and nutrition behaviours. Trial registration anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12609000735257

  17. Stress Analysis of Fuel Rod under Axial Coolant Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hai Lan; Lee, Young Shin; Lee, Hyun Seung [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Num Kyu; Jeon, Kyung Rok [Kerea Nuclear Fuel., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    A pressurized water reactor(PWR) fuel assembly, is a typical bundle structure, which uses light water as a coolant in most commercial nuclear power plants. Fuel rods that have a very slender and long clad are supported by fuel assembly which consists of several spacer grids. A coolant is a fluid which flows through device to prevent its overheating, transferring the heat produced by the device to other devices that use or dissipate it. But at the same time, the coolant flow will bring out the fluid induced vibration(FIV) of fuel rods and even damaged the fuel rod. This study has been conducted to investigate the flow characteristics and nuclear reactor fuel rod stress under effect of coolant. Fluid structure interaction(FSI) analysis on nuclear reactor fuel rod was performed. Fluid analysis of the coolant which flow along the axial direction and structural analysis under effect of flow velocity were carried out under different output flow velocity conditions

  18. Method of charging instruments into liquid metal coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To alleviate the thermal shock of a reactor charging machine when charging the machine into liquid metal coolant after the machine is preheated in cover gas. Method: When a reactor fueling machine reaches at the lowermost portion the position immediately above liquid metal coolant surface level, the machine is stopped moving down. The reactor fueling machine is heated at the lowermost portion by thermal radiation from the surface of the liquid metal coolant. After the machine is thus preheated in cover gas, it is again steadily moved down by a winch and charged into the liquid metal coolant. Therefore, the thermal shock of the machine becomes low when charging the machine into the liquid metal coolant to eliminate the damage and deformation at the machine. (Yoshihara, H.)

  19. Stress Analysis of Fuel Rod under Axial Coolant Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hai Lan; Lee, Young Shin; Lee, Hyun Seung; Park, Num Kyu; Jeon, Kyung Rok

    2010-01-01

    A pressurized water reactor(PWR) fuel assembly, is a typical bundle structure, which uses light water as a coolant in most commercial nuclear power plants. Fuel rods that have a very slender and long clad are supported by fuel assembly which consists of several spacer grids. A coolant is a fluid which flows through device to prevent its overheating, transferring the heat produced by the device to other devices that use or dissipate it. But at the same time, the coolant flow will bring out the fluid induced vibration(FIV) of fuel rods and even damaged the fuel rod. This study has been conducted to investigate the flow characteristics and nuclear reactor fuel rod stress under effect of coolant. Fluid structure interaction(FSI) analysis on nuclear reactor fuel rod was performed. Fluid analysis of the coolant which flow along the axial direction and structural analysis under effect of flow velocity were carried out under different output flow velocity conditions

  20. Device for preventing coolant in a reactor from being lost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Hiromi; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To prevent all of coolant from being lost from the core at the time of failure in rupture of pipe in a recirculation system to cool the core with the coolant remained within the reactor. Structure: A valve, which will be closed when a water level of the coolant within the core is in a level less than a predetermined level, is provided on a recirculating water outlet nozzle in a pressure vessel to thereby prevent the coolant from being lost when the pipe is broken, thus cooling the core by means of reduced-pressure boiling of coolant remained within the core and boiling due to heat, and restraining core reactivity by means of void produced at that time. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Evaluation of behavioural and antioxidant activity of Cytisus scoparius Link in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harisudhan Thanukrishnan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various human diseases have oxidative stress as one of their component. Many herbs have been reported to exhibit properties that combat oxidative stress through their active constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds etc. Cytisus scoparius (CS Link, (Family: Leguminosae, also called Sarothamnus scoparius, has been shown in invitro experiments to be endowed with anti-diabetic, hypnotic and sedative and antioxidant activity. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate CS for its anxiolytic, antidepressant and anti-oxidant activity in stressed rats. Methods 60% methanolic extract of CS was quantified for phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau's method. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS was employed to induce stress in rats. CS (125 and 250 mg/kg, p.o and diazepam (DZM (2 mg/kg, p.o was administered during the 21 day stress exposure period. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of CS were assessed in open field exploratory and behavioural despair paradigms, respectively. Plasma glucose and total lipids; endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT; non-enzymic-ascorbic acid and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels were measured in brain, kidneys and adrenals using standard protocols to assess the effect of CS. Results Total phenolic content of CS was found to be 8.54 ± 0.16% w/w. CMS produced anxiogenic and depressive behaviour in experimental rats with metabolic disturbance. Significant decrease in SOD, CAT levels and increase in lipid peroxidation level was observed in stressed rats. CS administration for 21 days during stress exposure significantly increased the ambulatory behaviour and decreased the freezing time in open field behaviour. In behavioural despair test no significant alteration in the immobility period was observed. CS also improved SOD, CAT, and ascorbic acid level and controlled the lipid peroxidation in different tissues

  2. The effect of coolant quantity on local fuel–coolant interactions in a molten pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Songbai; Matsuba, Ken-ichi; Isozaki, Mikio; Kamiyama, Kenji; Suzuki, Tohru; Tobita, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate local fuel–coolant interactions in a molten pool. • As water volume increases, limited pressurization and mechanical energy observed. • Only a part of water is evaporated and responsible for the pressurization. - Abstract: Studies on local fuel–coolant interactions (FCI) in a molten pool are important for severe accident analyses of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). Motivated by providing some evidence for understanding this interaction, in this study several experimental tests, with comparatively larger difference in coolant volumes, were conducted by delivering a given quantity of water into a simulated molten fuel pool (formed with a low-melting-point alloy). Interaction characteristics including the pressure-buildup as well as mechanical energy release and its conversion efficiency are evaluated and compared. It is found that as water quantity increases, a limited pressure-buildup and the resultant mechanical energy release are observable. The performed analyses also suggest that only a part of water is probably vaporized during local FCIs and responsible for the pressurization and mechanical energy release, especially for those cases with much larger water volumes

  3. How big is the physical activity intention-behaviour gap? A meta-analysis using the action control framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2013-05-01

    The physical activity (PA) intention-behaviour gap is a topic of considerable contemporary research, given that most of our models used to understand physical activity suggest that intention is the proximal antecedent of behavioural enactment. The purpose of this study was to quantify the intention-PA gap at public health guidelines with a meta-analysis of the action control framework. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Literature searches were conducted in July 2012 among five key search engines. This search yielded a total of 2,865 potentially relevant records; of these, 10 studies fulfilled the full eligibility criteria (N = 3,899). Random-effects meta-analysis procedures with correction for sampling bias were employed in the analysis for estimates of non-intenders who subsequently did not engage in physical activity (21%), non-intenders who subsequently performed physical activity (2%), intenders who were not successful at following through with their PA (36%), and successful intenders (42%). The overall intention-PA gap was 46%. These results emphasize the weakness in early intention models for understanding PA and suggest this would be a problem during intervention. Contemporary research that is validating and exploring additional constructs (e.g., self-regulation, automaticity) that augment intention or improving the measurement of motivation seems warranted. What is already known on this subject? Intention is considered the proximal antecedent of behaviour in many popular models. Intention is also an established correlate of physical activity behaviour, yet discordance is considerable in experimental research. What does this study add? This meta-analysis of studies that have assessed concordance/discordance of physical activity intention and behaviour at public health guidelines shows the intention-behaviour gap at 48% and the discordance is from intenders who do not act. The results demonstrate that discordance is not just from extreme levels of

  4. Can we use digital life-log images to investigate active and sedentary travel behaviour? Results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodges Steve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active travel such as walking and cycling has potential to increase physical activity levels in sedentary individuals. Motorised car travel is a sedentary behaviour that contributes to carbon emissions. There have been recent calls for technology that will improve our ability to measure these travel behaviours, and in particular evaluate modes and volumes of active versus sedentary travel. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the potential efficacy of a new electronic measurement device, a wearable digital camera called SenseCam, in travel research. Methods Participants (n = 20 were required to wear the SenseCam device for one full day of travel. The device automatically records approximately 3,600 time-stamped, first-person point-of-view images per day, without any action required by the wearer. Participants also completed a self-report travel diary over the same period for comparison, and were interviewed afterwards to assess user burden and experience. Results There were a total of 105 confirmed journeys in this pilot. The new SenseCam device recorded more journeys than the travel diary (99 vs. 94. Although the two measures demonstrated an acceptable correlation for journey duration (r = 0.92, p Conclusions Direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images shows considerable potential in the field of travel research. Journey duration derived from direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images appears to suggest over-reporting of self-reported journey duration.

  5. Impact of nurse-led behavioural counselling to improve metabolic health and physical activity among adults with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah J; Brown, Wendy J; Whiteford, Harvey A; Burton, Nicola W

    2018-04-01

    The life expectancy of adults with mental illness is significantly less than that of the general population, and this is largely due to poor physical health. Behavioural counselling can improve physical health indicators among people with non-communicable disease. This repeated-measures, single-group intervention trial evaluated the effects of a 19-week behavioural counselling programme on metabolic health indicators and physical activity levels of outpatient adults with mental illness. Sixteen participants completed the intervention that comprised individual face-to-face counselling sessions with a registered nurse every 3 weeks, and progress reviews with a medical practitioner every 6 weeks. Assessment included self-report and objective measurement of physical activity, and measures of blood pressure and anthropometry. Statistically-significant changes were demonstrated between baseline and post intervention for participants' waist circumference (P = 0.035) and waist-to-height ratio (P = 0.037). Non-significant improvements were demonstrated in weight and physical activity. The findings indicated that adults with mental illness can engage in a nurse-led behavioural counselling intervention, with improvements in some metabolic health measures after 19 weeks. It is recommended that behavioural counselling programmes for adults with mental illness be sustained over time and have an 'open door' policy to allow for attendance interruptions, such as hospitalization. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  6. An interactive activation and competition model of person knowledge, suggested by proactive interference by traits spontaneously inferred from behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanbo E; Higgins, Nancy C; Uleman, James S; Michaux, Aaron; Vipond, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    People unconsciously and unintentionally make inferences about others' personality traits based on their behaviours. In this study, a classic memory phenomenon--proactive interference (PI)--is for the first time used to detect spontaneous trait inferences. PI should occur when lists of behaviour descriptions, all implying the same trait, are to be remembered. Switching to a new trait should produce 'release' from proactive interference (or RPI). Results from two experiments supported these predictions. PI and RPI effects are consistent with an interactive activation and competition model of person perception (e.g., McNeill & Burton, 2002, J. Exp. Psychol., 55A, 1141), which predicts categorical organization of social behaviours based on personality traits. Advantages of this model are discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Changes in Weight, Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity during the School Year and Summer Vacation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Tanaka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine bidirectional associations between body weight and objectively assessed sedentary behaviour (SB and physical activity (PA during the school year and summer vacation. Methods: Participants were 209 Japanese boys and girls (9.0 ± 1.8 years at baseline. SB and PA were measured using triaxial accelerometry that discriminated between ambulatory and non-ambulatory PA, screen time measured by questionnaire during the school-term was evaluated in May and the summer vacation, and relative body weight measured in May and just after the end of summer vacation. Results: There were no significant relationships between changes in SB or PA and changes in body weight. However, higher relative body weight at baseline was associated with decreased non-ambulatory moderate PA (p = 0.049, but this association was slightly diminished after adjusting for change in SB (p = 0.056. Longer screen time at baseline was also associated with increased relative body weight (p = 0.033. Conclusions: The present study revealed that body weight might be particularly influential on non-ambulatory moderate PA while SB, PA or changes in these variables did not predict changes in body weight. Moreover, screen time during the school year is a predictor of change in relative body weight during the subsequent summer vacation.

  8. Deep disposal of high activity radioactive wastes: the study of engineered and geological barriers behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun; Cui; Delage, P.; Laure, E. de; Behrouz, Gatmiri; Sulem, J.; Anh Minh, Tang

    2008-09-01

    One option for the isolation of high activity and long lived radioactive wastes is the disposal of the vitrified waste containers in galleries dug inside impermeable rocks of the deep underground (granite, argillite, salt). The multi-barrier isolation concept is based on the use of successive barriers to avoid the migration of radionuclides towards the biosphere (container envelope, engineered barrier made of compacted swelling clay, and host rock). In parallel to the works carried out in underground laboratories, experiments and simulation works are performed in order to understand the behaviour of storage facilities and barriers under the effects of constraints, water fluxes and temperature changes. In this context, the UR Navier geotechnical team (CERMES), a joint research unit of Ecole des Ponts ParisTech and LCPC, has been working for more than 15 years on this topic for various contractors. These works are based on original experimental devices allowing to identify the thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena and thereafter to model them. This dossier presents a summary of these works. (J.S.)

  9. The module CCM for the simulation of the thermal-hydraulic situation within a coolant channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeld, A.

    2000-01-01

    A coolant channel module (Cc) will be presented which aim is to simulate, in a very general way, the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of single- and two-phase fluids flowing along a heated (or cooled) vertical, inclined or horizontal coolant channel. It is based on a theoretical drift-flux supported 3-equation mixture-fluid model describing the steady state and transient behaviour of characteristic thermal-hydraulic parameters of a single- and two-phase flow within such a channel. The module can be applied as an element within an overall theoretical model for large and complex plant assemblies (PWR and BWR core channels, parallel channels in 3D cores, primary and secondary sides of different steam generators types etc.). The model refers to a general (basic) coolant channel (BC) which can consists of different flow regimes. The BC has thus to be subdivided accordingly into a number of subchannels (SC-s). All of them can belong, however, to only two types of SC-s (single-phase fluid with subcooled water or superheated steam or a two-phase flow regime). For both of them the possibility of variable entrance or outlet positions has to be considered. For discretization purposes the BC (and thus also the SC-s) have to be subdivided into a number of (BC and SC) nodes, discretizing thus the conservation equations for mass, energy and momentum along these nodes by applying a very general spatial procedure, namely a 'modified finite volume method'. A special quadratic polygon approximation method (PAX procedure) helps then to establish a connection between nodal boundary and mean nodal parameters. Considering their constitutive equations (among them an adequate drift-flux correlation package) yields finally a set of non-linear algebraic and non-linear ordinary differential equations for the characteristic parameters of each of these SC nodes (mass flow, pressure drop, coolant temperature and/or void fraction). Based on this theory a code package (CCM) could be established

  10. Dissociable effects of Sry and sex chromosome complement on activity, feeding and anxiety-related behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsida, Eleni; Lynn, Phoebe M; Humby, Trevor; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Davies, William

    2013-01-01

    Whilst gonadal hormones can substantially influence sexual differentiation of the brain, recent findings have suggested that sex-linked genes may also directly influence neurodevelopment. Here we used the well-established murine 'four core genotype' (FCG) model on a gonadally-intact, outbred genetic background to characterise the contribution of Sry-dependent effects (i.e. those arising from the expression of the Y-linked Sry gene in the brain, or from hormonal sequelae of gonadal Sry expression) and direct effects of sex-linked genes other than Sry ('sex chromosome complement' effects) to sexually dimorphic mouse behavioural phenotypes. Over a 24 hour period, XX and XY gonadally female mice (lacking Sry) exhibited greater horizontal locomotor activity and reduced food consumption per unit bodyweight than XX and XY gonadally male mice (possessing Sry); in two behavioural tests (the elevated plus and zero mazes) XX and XY gonadally female mice showed evidence for increased anxiety-related behaviours relative to XX and XY gonadally male mice. Exploratory correlational analyses indicated that these Sry-dependent effects could not be simply explained by brain expression of the gene, nor by circulating testosterone levels. We also noted a sex chromosome complement effect on food (but not water) consumption whereby XY mice consumed more over a 24hr period than XX mice, and a sex chromosome complement effect in a third test of anxiety-related behaviour, the light-dark box. The present data suggest that: i) the male-specific factor Sry may influence activity and feeding behaviours in mice, and ii) dissociable feeding and anxiety-related murine phenotypes may be differentially modulated by Sry and by other sex-linked genes. Our results may have relevance for understanding the molecular underpinnings of sexually dimorphic behavioural phenotypes in healthy men and women, and in individuals with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions.

  11. Dissociable effects of Sry and sex chromosome complement on activity, feeding and anxiety-related behaviours in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Kopsida

    Full Text Available Whilst gonadal hormones can substantially influence sexual differentiation of the brain, recent findings have suggested that sex-linked genes may also directly influence neurodevelopment. Here we used the well-established murine 'four core genotype' (FCG model on a gonadally-intact, outbred genetic background to characterise the contribution of Sry-dependent effects (i.e. those arising from the expression of the Y-linked Sry gene in the brain, or from hormonal sequelae of gonadal Sry expression and direct effects of sex-linked genes other than Sry ('sex chromosome complement' effects to sexually dimorphic mouse behavioural phenotypes. Over a 24 hour period, XX and XY gonadally female mice (lacking Sry exhibited greater horizontal locomotor activity and reduced food consumption per unit bodyweight than XX and XY gonadally male mice (possessing Sry; in two behavioural tests (the elevated plus and zero mazes XX and XY gonadally female mice showed evidence for increased anxiety-related behaviours relative to XX and XY gonadally male mice. Exploratory correlational analyses indicated that these Sry-dependent effects could not be simply explained by brain expression of the gene, nor by circulating testosterone levels. We also noted a sex chromosome complement effect on food (but not water consumption whereby XY mice consumed more over a 24hr period than XX mice, and a sex chromosome complement effect in a third test of anxiety-related behaviour, the light-dark box. The present data suggest that: i the male-specific factor Sry may influence activity and feeding behaviours in mice, and ii dissociable feeding and anxiety-related murine phenotypes may be differentially modulated by Sry and by other sex-linked genes. Our results may have relevance for understanding the molecular underpinnings of sexually dimorphic behavioural phenotypes in healthy men and women, and in individuals with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions.

  12. Changing physical activity behaviour for people with multiple sclerosis: protocol of a randomised controlled feasibility trial (iStep-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennifer M; Fortune, Jennifer; Stennett, Andrea; Kilbride, Cherry; Anokye, Nana; Victor, Christina; Hendrie, Wendy; Abdul, Mohamed; DeSouza, Lorraine; Lavelle, Grace; Brewin, Debbie; David, Lee; Norris, Meriel

    2017-11-15

    Although physical activity may reduce disease burden, fatigue and disability, and improve quality of life among people with multiple sclerosis (MS), many people with MS are physically inactive and spend significant time in sedentary behaviour. Behaviour change interventions may assist people with MS to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour. However, few studies have investigated their effectiveness using objective measures of physical activity, particularly in the long term. Further, interventions that have proven effective in the short term may not be feasible in clinical practice because of the large amount of support provided. The iStep-MS trial aims to determine the safety, feasibility and acceptability of a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour among people with MS. Sixty people with MS will be randomised (1:1 ratio) to receive a 12-week intervention or usual care only. The intervention consists of four physical activity consultations with a physiotherapist supported by a handbook and pedometer. Outcomes assessed at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months are physical activity (ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer), sedentary behaviour (activPAL3µ), self-reported activity and sitting time, walking capability, fatigue, self-efficacy, participation, quality of life and health service use. The safety of the intervention will be determined by assessing change in pain and fatigue and the incidence of adverse events during the follow-up period. A parallel process evaluation will assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention through assessment of fidelity to the programme and semistructured interviews exploring participants' and therapists' experiences of the intervention. The feasibility of conducting an economic evaluation will be determined by collecting data on quality of life and resource use. Research ethics committee approval has been granted from Brunel University London. Results of

  13. Physical activity behaviour in men with inflammatory joint disease: a cross-sectional register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Nanna Maria; Midtgaard, Julie; Hetland, Merete Lund; Krogh, Niels Steen; Esbensen, Bente Appel

    2018-05-01

    Physical activity is recommended as an essential part of the non-pharmacological management of inflammatory joint disease, but previous research in this area has predominantly included women. The aim of this study was to examine physical activity behaviour in men with inflammatory joint disease. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional register-based study. Data on physical activity behaviour in men with RA, PsA and AS were matched with sociodemographic and clinical variables extracted from the DANBIO registry. Logistic regression analyses using multiple imputations were performed to investigate demographic and clinical variables associated with regular engagement in physical activity (moderate-vigorous ⩾2 h/week). Descriptive statistics were applied to explore motivation, barriers and preferences for physical activity. A total of 325 men were included of whom 129 (40%) engaged in regular physical activity. In univariate analyses, higher age, visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, VAS fatigue, VAS patient's global, CRP level, disease activity, functional disability and current smoking were negatively associated with regular engagement in physical activity. In the final multivariable regression model only a high VAS fatigue score (⩾61 mm) (OR = 0.228; CI: 0.119, 0.436) remained significantly independently associated with regular physical activity. A majority of men with inflammatory joint disease do not meet the recommendations of regular physical activity. Both sociodemographic and clinical parameters were associated with engagement in physical activity, and fatigue especially seems to play a pivotal role in explaining suboptimal physical activity behaviour in this patient group.

  14. Social-cognitive theories for predicting physical activity behaviours of employed women with and without young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Leonor S; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Loucaides, Constantinos

    2009-03-01

    Chronic disease interventions for women have been understudied in the workplace domain. Understanding the role of cognitions in individual behaviour can help motivate change and suggest directions for achieving improvements in health. The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial constructs and social-cognitive theories [e.g. Transtheoretical model (TTM), Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)] that are most salient for explaining physical activity behaviour among employed women (n = 1183). Demographic information, and social-cognitive measures related to physical activity, intention and behaviours (e.g. stage of change, energy expenditure) were assessed. A series of multiple regression analyses predicting intention, energy expenditure and stage of change were conducted separately for: (1) women with young children (n = 302), and (2) women without young children (n = 881) for each of the respective social-cognitive theories. Although taken as a whole the results were relatively similar between the two sub-groups of women for each of the socio-cognitive theories examined in this study, differences were observed in the relative contributions of the theoretical constructs between the two sub-groups. Results also indicate that self-efficacy and intention were the strongest predictors of behaviour among both women with and without young children. The explained variances (R(2)) for the theories examined in this study for different sub-groups ranged from 16 to 60%, generally reflecting what has been reported in other studies within the physical activity domain. The results of this study could be useful in guiding future research and in designing physical activity intervention programs for these specific population groups. Integrating approaches of individual lifestyle change while addressing issues related to creating supportive environments for women in various life stages is a suggested strategy

  15. Evaluation of alternate secondary (and tertiary) coolants for the molten-salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelmers, A.D.; Baes, C.F.; Bettis, E.S.; Brynestad, J.; Cantor, S.; Engel, J.R.; Grimes, W.R.; McCoy, H.E.; Meyer, A.S.

    1976-04-01

    The three most promising coolant selections for an MSBR have been identified and evaluated in detail from the many coolants considered for application either as a secondary coolant in 1000-MW(e) MSBR configurations using only one coolant, or as secondary and tertiary coolants in an MSBR dual coolant configuration employing two different coolants. These are, as single secondary coolants: (1) a ternary sodium--lithium--beryllium fluoride melt; (2) the sodium fluoroborate--sodium fluoride eutectic melt, the present reference design secondary coolant. In the case of the dual coolant configuration, the preferred system is molten lithium--beryllium fluoride (Li 2 BeF 4 ) as the secondary coolant and helium gas as the tertiary coolant

  16. Fear of movement and avoidance behaviour toward physical activity in chronic-fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia: state of the art and implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Jo; Roussel, Nathalie; Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; De Kooning, Margot; Ickmans, Kelly; Struyf, Filip; Meeus, Mira; Lundberg, Mari

    2013-08-01

    Severe exacerbation of symptoms following physical activity is characteristic for chronic-fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM). These exacerbations make it understandable for people with CFS and FM to develop fear of performing body movement or physical activity and consequently avoidance behaviour toward physical activity. The aims of this article were to review what measures are available for measuring fear of movement and avoidance behaviour, the prevalence fear of movement and avoidance behaviour toward physical activity and the therapeutic options with fear of movement and avoidance behaviour toward physical activity in patients with CFS and FM. The review revealed that fear of movement and avoidance behaviour toward physical activity is highly prevalent in both the CFS and FM population, and it is related to various clinical characteristics of CFS and FM, including symptom severity and self-reported quality of life and disability. It appears to be crucial for treatment (success) to identify CFS and FM patients displaying fear of movement and avoidance behaviour toward physical activity. Individually tailored cognitive behavioural therapy plus exercise training, depending on the patient's classification as avoiding or persisting, appears to be the most promising strategy for treating fear of movement and avoidance behaviour toward physical activity in patients with CFS and FM.

  17. Physical models and codes for prediction of activity release from defective fuel rods under operation conditions and in leakage tests during refuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhanskii, V.; Evdokimov, I.; Khoruzhii, O.; Sorokin, A.; Novikov, V.

    2003-01-01

    It is appropriate to use the dependences, based on physical models, in the design-analytical codes for improving of reliability of defective fuel rod detection and for determination of defect characteristics by activity measuring in the primary coolant. In the paper the results on development of some physical models and integral mechanistic codes, assigned for prediction of defective fuel rod behaviour are presented. The analysis of mass transfer and mass exchange between fuel rod and coolant showed that the rates of these processes depends on many factors, such as coolant turbulent flow, pressure, effective hydraulic diameter of defect, fuel rod geometric parameters. The models, which describe these dependences, have been created. The models of thermomechanical fuel behaviour, stable gaseous FP release were modified and new computer code RTOP-CA was created thereupon for description of defective fuel rod behaviour and activity release into the primary coolant. The model of fuel oxidation in in-pile conditions, which includes radiolysis and RTOP-LT after validation of physical models are planned to be used for prediction of defective fuel rods behaviour

  18. Water chemistry regimes for VVER-440 units: water chemistry influence on fuel cladding behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmitko, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture next problems of water chemistry influence on fuel cladding behaviour for VVER-440 units are presented: primary coolant technologies; water chemistry specification and control; fuel integrity considerations; zirconium alloys cladding corrosion (corrosion versus burn-up; water chemistry effect; crud deposition; hydrogen absorption; axial offset anomaly); alternatives for the primary coolant regimes

  19. Development of a deformation and failure model for Zircaloy at high temperatures for light water reactor loss-of-coolant-accident investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raff, S.

    1982-11-01

    To describe Zircaloy-4 deformation and failure behaviour at high temperatures (600 to 1400 0 C), the phenomenological model NORA was developed and verified against numerous experimental results. The model can be applied to the calculation of fuel rod cladding deformation during small and large break loss-of-coolant-accidents. (orig./RW) [de

  20. Diurnal patterns of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartini, Claudio; Wannamethee, S Goya; Iliffe, Steve; Morris, Richard W; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy; Whincup, Peter H; Jefferis, Barbara J

    2015-07-04

    Physical activity (PA) levels among older adults are generally low and sedentary behaviour (SB) very common; increasing PA and reducing SB levels could have appreciable health benefits. Quantifying PA and SB patterns through the day could help in defining strategies for change. We examined within day variations in PA and SB and whether these varied by demographic factors and health status. Men aged 71-91 years participating in an established UK population-based cohort study were invited to wear a GT3x Actigraph accelerometer over the hip for one week in 2010-12. Percentages of time spent in sedentary (SB, 1040 CPM) were derived. Multilevel models were used to estimate the associations between demographic factors and health status and SB, LIPA and MVPA. 1455 of 3137 men invited (46.4 %) participated and provided adequate data. Men spent 73 % of the day in SB, 23 % in LIPA and 4.5 % in MVPA (619, 197 and 39 min per day respectively). The percentage of time spent in MVPA was highest in the morning, peaking at 10-11 am (8.4 %), and then declining until the evening, with the exception of a small increase at 2-3 pm. LIPA followed a similar pattern. Conversely, SB levels were lowest in the morning and increased throughout the day, peaking at 9 pm (88 %). Men who were older, did not use active transport, had mobility limitations, were obese, depressed, had more chronic health conditions, and were smokers had lower levels of MVPA. The impacts of older age, obesity, mobility limitations and chronic diseases on LIPA, MVPA and SB were more marked in the morning than in the afternoon and evening. Levels of MVPA and LIPA are highest in the morning (peak at 10-11 am) and decrease during the day. SB increases through the course of the day to peak in the evening. Interventions to encourage older men to be physically active may need to take account of current PA patterns, aiming to prolong active morning bouts of PA and/or reducing SB in the afternoon and evening hours.

  1. Oestrous behaviour and ovarian activity in D'man and Sardi breeds of Moroccan sheep under normal and experimental photoperiods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahlou-Kassi, A.; Boukhliq, R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of photoperiod on sexual activity was investigated in Sardi and D'man ewes. Twenty ewes from each breed were subjected to an experimental photoperiod corresponding to latitude 56 deg. N. Control ewes (12 per breed) were maintained under natural photoperiod (32 deg. N). Behavioural oestrus and ovarian activity were monitored using penis deviated rams and plasma progesterone levels. Preliminary results from this study show that an increase in amplitude of photoperiod variations causes a decrease in the expression of oestrous behaviour in D'man ewes during the period of decreasing daylight. Ovarian activity remained unchanged. Sardi ewes were not markedly affected by change in photoperiod. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  2. Coolant mixing in pressurized water reactors. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehne, T.; Grunwald, G.; Rohde, U.

    1998-10-01

    For the analysis of boron dilution transients and main steam like break scenarios the modelling of the coolant mixing inside the reactor vessel is important. The reactivity insertion due to overcooling or deboration depends strongly on the coolant temperature and boron concentration. The three-dimensional flow distribution in the downcomer and the lower plenum of PWR's was calculated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code (CFX-4). Calculations were performed for the PWR's of SIEMENS KWU, Westinghouse and VVER-440 / V-230 type. The following important factors were identified: exact representation of the cold leg inlet region (bend radii etc.), extension of the downcomer below the inlet region at the PWR Konvoi, obstruction of the flow by the outlet nozzles penetrating the downcomer, etc. The k-ε turbulence model was used. Construction elements like perforated plates in the lower plenum have large influence on the velocity field. It is impossible to model all the orifices in the perforated plates. A porous region model was used to simulate perforated plates and the core. The porous medium is added with additional body forces to simulate the pressure drop through perforated plates in the VVER-440. For the PWR Konvoi the whole core was modelled with porous media parameters. The velocity fields of the PWR Konvoi calculated for the case of operation of all four main circulation pumps show a good agreement with experimental results. The CFD-calculation especially confirms the back flow areas below the inlet nozzles. The downcomer flow of the Russian VVER-440 has no recirculation areas under normal operation conditions. By CFD calculations for the downcomer and the lower plenum an analytical mixing model used in the reactor dynamic code DYN3D was verified. The measurements, the analytical model and the CFD-calculations provided very well agreeing results particularly for the inlet region. The difficulties of analytical solutions and the uncertainties of turbulence

  3. Physical activity attitudes, intentions and behaviour among 18-25 year olds: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poobalan, Amudha S; Aucott, Lorna S; Clarke, Amanda; Smith, W Cairns S

    2012-08-10

    Young people (18-25 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, physical activity behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore physical activity (PA) behaviour among 18-25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at university/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) were included. An initial self reported quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted. 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Results from this were incorporated into a qualitative phase also grounded in these theories. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. 'Framework Analysis' was used to analyse the focus groups. Only 28% of 18-25 year olds achieved recommended levels of PA which decreased with age. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22%, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes toward PA were strong predictors of physical activity associated with being physically active and less sedentary. However, strong intentions to do exercise, was not associated with actual behaviour. Interactive discussions through focus groups unravelled attitudes and barriers influencing PA behaviour. Doing PA to feel good and to enjoy themselves was more important for young people than the common assumptions of 'winning' and 'pleasing others'. Further this age group saw traditional health promotion messages as 'empty' and

  4. Physical activity attitudes, intentions and behaviour among 18–25 year olds: A mixed method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poobalan Amudha S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people (18–25 years during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, physical activity behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore physical activity (PA behaviour among 18–25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at university/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET were included. An initial self reported quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted. 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Results from this were incorporated into a qualitative phase also grounded in these theories. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. ‘Framework Analysis’ was used to analyse the focus groups. Results Only 28% of 18–25 year olds achieved recommended levels of PA which decreased with age. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22%, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes toward PA were strong predictors of physical activity associated with being physically active and less sedentary. However, strong intentions to do exercise, was not associated with actual behaviour. Interactive discussions through focus groups unravelled attitudes and barriers influencing PA behaviour. Doing PA to feel good and to enjoy themselves was more important for young people than the common assumptions of ‘winning’ and ‘pleasing others’. Further

  5. CLUSTERING ANALYSIS OF OFFICER'S BEHAVIOURS IN LONDON POLICE FOOT PATROL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this small paper we aim at presenting a framework of conceptual representation and clustering analysis of police officers’ patrol pattern obtained from mining their raw movement trajectory data. This have been achieved by a model developed to accounts for the spatio-temporal dynamics human movements by incorporating both the behaviour features of the travellers and the semantic meaning of the environment they are moving in. Hence, the similarity metric of traveller behaviours is jointly defined according to the stay time allocation in each Spatio-temporal region of interests (ST-ROI to support clustering analysis of patrol behaviours. The proposed framework enables the analysis of behaviour and preferences on higher level based on raw moment trajectories. The model is firstly applied to police patrol data provided by the Metropolitan Police and will be tested by other type of dataset afterwards.

  6. Predicting drunk driving: contribution of alcohol use and related problems, traffic behaviour, personality and platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eensoo, Diva; Paaver, Marika; Harro, Maarike; Harro, Jaanus

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the predictive value of socio-economic data, alcohol consumption measures, smoking, platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, traffic behaviour habits and impulsivity measures for actual drunk driving. Data were collected from 203 male drunk driving offenders and 211 control subjects using self-reported questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained from the two groups. We identified the combination of variables, which predicted correctly, approximately 80% of the subjects' belonging to the drunk driving and control groups. Significant independent discriminators in the final model were, among the health-behaviour measures, alcohol-related problems, frequency of using alcohol, the amount of alcohol consumed and smoking. Predictive traffic behaviour measures were seat belt use and paying for parking. Among the impulsivity measures, dysfunctional impulsivity was the best predictor; platelet MAO activity and age also had an independent predictive value. Our results support the notion that drunk driving is the result of a combination of various behavioural, biological and personality-related risk factors.

  7. Antibiotics and activity spaces: protocol of an exploratory study of behaviour, marginalisation and knowledge diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Haenssgen, MJ; Charoenboon, N; Zanello, G; Mayxay, M; Reed-Tsochas, F; Jones, COH; Kosaikanont, R; Praphattong, P; Manohan, P; Lubell, Y; Newton, PN; Keomany, S; Wertheim, HFL; Lienert, J; Xayavong, T

    2018-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health priority. Leading UK and global strategy papers to fight AMR recognise its social and behavioural dimensions, but current policy responses to improve the popular use of antimicrobials (eg, antibiotics) are limited to education and awareness-raising campaigns. In response to conceptual, methodological and empirical weaknesses of this approach, we study people’s antibiotic-related health behaviour through three research questions. ...

  8. Using a behaviour change techniques taxonomy to identify active ingredients within trials of implementation interventions for diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presseau, Justin; Ivers, Noah M; Newham, James J; Knittle, Keegan; Danko, Kristin J; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2015-04-23

    Methodological guidelines for intervention reporting emphasise describing intervention content in detail. Despite this, systematic reviews of quality improvement (QI) implementation interventions continue to be limited by a lack of clarity and detail regarding the intervention content being evaluated. We aimed to apply the recently developed Behaviour Change Techniques Taxonomy version 1 (BCTTv1) to trials of implementation interventions for managing diabetes to assess the capacity and utility of this taxonomy for characterising active ingredients. Three psychologists independently coded a random sample of 23 trials of healthcare system, provider- and/or patient-focused implementation interventions from a systematic review that included 142 such studies. Intervention content was coded using the BCTTv1, which describes 93 behaviour change techniques (BCTs) grouped within 16 categories. We supplemented the generic coding instructions within the BCTTv1 with decision rules and examples from this literature. Less than a quarter of possible BCTs within the BCTTv1 were identified. For implementation interventions targeting providers, the most commonly identified BCTs included the following: adding objects to the environment, prompts/cues, instruction on how to perform the behaviour, credible source, goal setting (outcome), feedback on outcome of behaviour, and social support (practical). For implementation interventions also targeting patients, the most commonly identified BCTs included the following: prompts/cues, instruction on how to perform the behaviour, information about health consequences, restructuring the social environment, adding objects to the environment, social support (practical), and goal setting (behaviour). The BCTTv1 mapped well onto implementation interventions directly targeting clinicians and patients and could also be used to examine the impact of system-level interventions on clinician and patient behaviour. The BCTTv1 can be used to characterise

  9. Barriers and facilitators to young children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, R.; van Sluijs, E. M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Positive activity behaviours (i.e. higher physical activity [PA]/lower sedentary behaviour [SB]) are beneficial from infancy, yet evidence suggests that young children (0‐ to 6‐year‐olds) are relatively inactive. To better understand the perceived influences on these behaviours and to aid intervention development, this paper systematically synthesizes the extensive qualitative literature regarding perceived barriers and facilitators to PA and SB in young children (0–6 years old). A search of eight electronic databases (July 2016) identified 43 papers for inclusion. Data extraction and evidence synthesis were conducted using thematic content analysis, underpinned by the socio‐ecological model (i.e. individual, interpersonal, community, organizational and policy levels). Parents, childcare providers and children perceived seven broad themes to be important for PA and SB, including the child; the home; out‐of‐home childcare; parent–childcare provider interactions; environmental factors; safety; and weather. Each theme mapped onto between one and five levels of the socio‐ecological model; barriers and facilitators at the interpersonal level (e.g. parents, care providers and family) were most frequently cited, reflecting the important (perceived) role adults/peers play in shaping young children's behaviours. We provide an overarching framework to explain PA and SB in early childhood. We also highlight where gaps in the current literature exist (e.g. from male carers; in developing countries; and barriers and facilitators in the environmental and policy domains) and where future quantitative work may focus to provide novel insights about children's activity behaviours (e.g. safety and weather). PMID:28589678

  10. Triboengineering problems of lead coolant in innovative fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznosov, A.V.; Novozhilova, O.O.; Shumilkov, A.I.; Lvov, A.V.; Bokova, T.A.; Makhov, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Models of experimental sites for research of processes tribology in heavy liquid metal coolant. -- Highlights: • The contact a pair of heavy liquid metal coolant for reactors on fast neutrons. • The hydrostatic bearings main circulation pumps. • Oxide coating and degree of wear of friction surfaces in heavy liquid metal coolant. -- Abstract: So far, there are plenty of works dedicated to studying the phenomenon of friction. However, there are none dedicated to functioning of contact pairs in heavy liquid-metal coolants for fast neutron, reactor installations (Kogaev and Drozdov, 1991; Modern Tribology, 2008; Drozdov et al., 1986). At the Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, such research is conducted in respect to friction, bearings of main circulating pumps, interaction of sheaths of neutron absorber rods with their covers, of the reactor control and safety system, refueling systems, and interaction of coolant flows with, channel borders. As a result of experimental studies, the characteristic of friction pairs in the heavy, liquid metal coolant shows the presence dependences of oxide film on structural materials of the wear. The inapplicability of existing calculation methods for assessing the performance of the bearing nodes, in the heavy liquid metal coolant is shown

  11. Device for preventing coolant outflow in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Mochizuki, Keiichi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To prevent outflow of coolant from a reactor vessel even in an occurrence of leaking trouble at a low position in a primary cooling system or the like in the reactor vessel. Structure: An inlet at the foremost end of a coolant inlet pipe inserted into a reactor vessel is arranged at a level lower than a core, and a check valve is positioned at a level higher than the core in a rising portion of the inlet. In normal condition, the check valve is pushed up by discharge pressure of a main circulating pump and remains closed, and hence, producing no flow loss of coolant, sodium. However, when a trouble such as rupture occurs at the lower position in the primary cooling system, the attractive force for allowing the coolant to back-flow outside the reactor vessel and the load force of the coolant within the reactor vessel cause the check valve to actuate, as a consequence of which a liquid level of the coolant downwardly moves to the position of the check valve to intake the cover gases into a gas intake, thereby cutting off a flow passage of the coolant to stop outflow thereof. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Development of lead-bismuth coolant technology for nuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Kin-ya; Kitano, Teruaki; Ono, Mikinori

    2004-01-01

    Liquid lead-bismuth is a promising material as a future fast reactor coolant or an intensive neutron source material for accelerator driven transmutation system (ADS). To develop nuclear plants and their installations using lead-bismuth coolant for practical use, both coolant technologies, inhabitation process of steels and quality control of coolant, and total operation system for liquid lead-bismuth plants are required. Based on the experience of liquid metal coolant, Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. (MES) has completed the liquid lead-bismuth forced circulation loop and has acquired various engineering data on main components including economizer. As a result of tis operation, MES has developed key technologies of lead-bismuth coolant such as controlling of oxygen content in lead-bismuth and a purification of lead-bismuth coolant. MES participated in the national project, ''The Development of Accelerator Driven Transmutation System'', together with JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) and started corrosion test for beam window of ADS. (author)

  13. Transient simulation of coolant peak temperature due to prolonged fan and/or water pump operation after the vehicle is keyed-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Suh Chyn; Masjuki, Haji Hassan; Kalam, Md. Abul; Hazrat, Md. Ali

    2014-01-01

    Automotive designers should design a robust engine cooling system which works well in both normal and severe driving conditions. When vehicles are keyed-off suddenly after some distance of hill-climbing driving, the coolant temperature tends to increase drastically. This is because heat soak in the engine could not be transferred away in a timely manner, as both the water pump and cooling fan stop working after the vehicle is keyed-off. In this research, we aimed to visualize the coolant temperature trend over time before and after the vehicles were keyed-off. In order to prevent coolant temperature from exceeding its boiling point and jeopardizing engine life, a numerical model was further tested with prolonged fan and/or water pump operation after keying-off. One dimensional thermal-fluid simulation was exploited to model the vehicle's cooling system. The behaviour of engine heat, air flow, and coolant flow over time were varied to observe the corresponding transient coolant temperatures. The robustness of this model was proven by validation with industry field test data. The numerical results provided sensible insights into the proposed solution. In short, prolonging fan operation for 500 s and prolonging both fan and water pump operation for 300 s could reduce coolant peak temperature efficiently. The physical implementation plan and benefits yielded from implementation of the electrical fan and electrical water pump are discussed.

  14. The effectiveness of workplace interventions to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviour in adults: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loitz, Christina C; Potter, Robert J; Walker, Jessica L; McLeod, Nicole C; Johnston, Nora J

    2015-12-12

    A physically active lifestyle plays a preventative role in the development of various chronic diseases and mental health conditions. Unfortunately, few adults achieve the minimum amount of physical activity and spend excessive time sitting. Developing targeted interventions to increase active living among adults is an important endeavour for public health. One plausible context to reach adults is the workplace. This systematic review aims to review the effectiveness of workplace interventions on increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary behaviour in the workplace. An advisory group of practitioners will work in collaboration with the research team to inform the systematic review and knowledge mobilization. Fifteen electronic databases will be searched to identify studies examining the effectiveness of workplace interventions on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. All experimental designs and observational studies (non-experimental intervention studies) meeting the study criteria will be included. Studies examining generally healthy, employed, adult participants will be included for the review. Interventions will focus on increasing physical activity and/or decreasing sedentary behaviour from the individual to policy level. The primary outcome variables will be reported or observed physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour in the workplace. Secondary outcomes will include variables ranging from return on investment to quality of life. Study quality will be assessed for risk of bias following the protocol identified in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and supplemented by the guidelines developed by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care group, using RevMan. The quality of the evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Meta-analyses, forest plots, and harvest plots will be used where appropriate to assess the direction, size, and

  15. Relationship of obesity to physical activity, domestic activities, and sedentary behaviours: cross-sectional findings from a national cohort of over 70,000 Thai adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain Chris

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of physical activity (PA, domestic activity and sedentary behaviours are changing rapidly in Asia. Little is known about their relationship with obesity in this context. This study investigates in detail the relationship between obesity, physical activity, domestic activity and sedentary behaviours in a Thai population. Methods 74,981 adult students aged 20-50 from all regions of Thailand attending the Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University in 2005-2006 completed a self-administered questionnaire, including providing appropriate self-reported data on height, weight and PA. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of the relationship between obesity, defined according to Asian criteria (Body Mass Index (BMI ≥25, and measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviours (exercise-related PA; leisure-related computer use and television watching ("screen-time"; housework and gardening; and sitting-time adjusted for age, sex, income and education and compared according to a range of personal characteristics. Results Overall, 15.6% of participants were obese, with a substantially greater prevalence in men (22.4% than women (9.9%. Inverse associations between being obese and total weekly sessions of exercise-related PA were observed in men, with a significantly weaker association seen in women (p(interaction Conclusions Domestic activities and sedentary behaviours are important in relation to obesity in Thailand, independent of exercise-related physical activity. In this setting, programs to prevent and treat obesity through increasing general physical activity need to consider overall energy expenditure and address a wide range of low-intensity high-volume activities in order to be effective.

  16. Power supplyer for reactor coolant recycling pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Hiroshi; Okinaka, Yo.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a variable voltage/variable frequency static power source (static power source) used as a power source for a coolants recycling pump motor of a nuclear power plant. That is, during lower power operation such as start up or shutdown in which stoppage of the power source gives less effect to a reactor core, power is supplied from a power system, a main power generator connected thereto or a high voltage bus in the plant or a common high voltage bus to the static power source. However, during rated power operation, power is supplied from the output of an axially power generator connected with a main power generator having an extremely great inertia moment to the static power device. With such a constitution, the static power device is not stopped by the lowering of the voltage due to a thunderbolt falling accident or the like to a power-distribution line suddenly occurred in the power system. Accordingly, reactor core flowrate is free from rapid decrease caused by the reduction of rotation speed of the recycling pump. Accordingly, disadvantgages upon operation control in the reactor core is not caused. (I.S.)

  17. Characterization of reactor coolant by XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legreid, G.; Beverskog, B. [OECD Halden Reactor Project (Norway)

    2002-07-01

    The analyzes of membrane filters is of utmost importance in characterizing the coolant chemistry in nuclear power plants. Traditional analyzes of filters includes oxidative digestion followed by instrumental analyzes. XRF (X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry) can analyze without digestion of the filters. The method is much faster and demands only a cutting step as sample preparation. By use of XRF the analytical laboratory at the Halden Reactor Project will get increased capacity, which makes it possible to analyze more samples and improve the characterization of the water. The method has shown to give more stable results than other methods in use, and has proved to have good precision. New calibration methods have been developed and tested successfully against other methods. A round robin test, attending seven laboratories from nuclear power plants, was initiated by the Halden Project to verify the instrument. The test of standard cation exchange filters showed that conventional filter digestion results in too low values. The XRF methodology shows very good agreement with the standard values. The round robin test for particle filters could not confirm that filter digestion results in too low values. This was mainly due to lack of standard particle filters and large scatter in the reported data. (author)

  18. Characterization of reactor coolant by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legreid, G.; Beverskog, B.

    2002-01-01

    The analyzes of membrane filters is of utmost importance in characterizing the coolant chemistry in nuclear power plants. Traditional analyzes of filters includes oxidative digestion followed by instrumental analyzes. XRF (X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry) can analyze without digestion of the filters. The method is much faster and demands only a cutting step as sample preparation. By use of XRF the analytical laboratory at the Halden Reactor Project will get increased capacity, which makes it possible to analyze more samples and improve the characterization of the water. The method has shown to give more stable results than other methods in use, and has proved to have good precision. New calibration methods have been developed and tested successfully against other methods. A round robin test, attending seven laboratories from nuclear power plants, was initiated by the Halden Project to verify the instrument. The test of standard cation exchange filters showed that conventional filter digestion results in too low values. The XRF methodology shows very good agreement with the standard values. The round robin test for particle filters could not confirm that filter digestion results in too low values. This was mainly due to lack of standard particle filters and large scatter in the reported data. (author)

  19. Numerical model simulation of atmospheric coolant plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, P.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of humid atmospheric coolants on the atmosphere is simulated by means of a three-dimensional numerical model. The atmosphere is defined by its natural vertical profiles of horizontal velocity, temperature, pressure and relative humidity. Effluent discharge is characterised by its vertical velocity and the temperature of air satured with water vapour. The subject of investigation is the area in the vicinity of the point of discharge, with due allowance for the wake effect of the tower and buildings and, where application, wind veer with altitude. The model equations express the conservation relationships for mometum, energy, total mass and water mass, for an incompressible fluid behaving in accordance with the Boussinesq assumptions. Condensation is represented by a simple thermodynamic model, and turbulent fluxes are simulated by introduction of turbulent viscosity and diffusivity data based on in-situ and experimental water model measurements. The three-dimensional problem expressed in terms of the primitive variables (u, v, w, p) is governed by an elliptic equation system which is solved numerically by application of an explicit time-marching algorithm in order to predict the steady-flow velocity distribution, temperature, water vapour concentration and the liquid-water concentration defining the visible plume. Windstill conditions are simulated by a program processing the elliptic equations in an axisymmetrical revolution coordinate system. The calculated visible plumes are compared with plumes observed on site with a view to validate the models [fr

  20. Speed control device for coolant recycling pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, Takao.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention intends to increase a margin relative of the oscillations of neutron fluxes when the temperature of feedwater is lowered in a compulsory recycling type BWR reactor. That is, when the operation point represented by a reactor thermal power and a reactor core inlet flow rate is in a state approximate to an oscillation limit of the reactor power, the device of the present invention controls the recycling pump speed in the increasing direction depending on the lowering range of the feedwater temperature from a stationary state. With such a constitution, even if the reactor power is in the operation region near the oscillation limit in the BWR type reactor and a feedwater heating loss is caused, the speed of the coolant recycling pump is increased by 10% at the maximum depending on the extent of the reduction of the feedwater temperature, so that the oscillation of the reactor power can be prevented from lasting for a long period of time even if a reactivity external disturbance should occur in the reactor. (I.S.)

  1. Reactor coolant pump monitoring and diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C.; Walsh, M.; Humenik, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    In order to reliably and safely operate a nuclear power plant, it is necessary to continuously monitor the performance of numerous subsystems to confirm that the plant state is within its prescribed limits. An important function of a properly designed monitoring system is the detection of incipient faults in all subsystems (with the avoidance of false alarms) coupled with an information system that provides the operators with fault diagnosis, prognosis of fault progression and recommended (either automatic or prescriptive) corrective action. In this paper, such a system is described that has been applied to reactor coolant pumps. This system includes a sensitive pattern-recognition technique based upon the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) that detects incipient faults from validated signals, an expert system embodying knowledge bases on pump and sensor performance, extensive hypertext files containing operating and emergency procedures as well as pump and sensor information and a graphical interface providing the operator with easily perceived information on the location and character of the fault as well as recommended corrective action. This system is in the prototype stage and is currently being validated utilizing data from a liquid-metal cooled fast reactor (EBR-II). 3 refs., 4 figs

  2. Reactor Coolant Temperature Measurement using Ultrasonic Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, JaeCheon [KEPCO International Nuclear graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, YongSun; Bechue, Nicholas [Krohne Messtechnik GmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    In NPP, the primary piping temperature is detected by four redundant RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detectors) installed 90 degrees apart on the RCS (Reactor Coolant System) piping circumferentially. Such outputs however, if applied to I and C systems would not give balanced results. The discrepancy can be explained by either thermal stratification or improper arrangement of thermo-wells and RTDs. This phenomenon has become more pronounced in the hot-leg piping than in the cold-leg. Normally, the temperature difference among channels is in the range of 1°F in Korean nuclear power Plants. Consequently, a more accurate pipe average temperate measurement technique is required. Ultrasonic methods can be used to measure average temperatures with relatively higher accuracy than RTDs because the sound wave propagation in the RCS pipe is proportional to the average temperature around pipe area. The inaccuracy of RCS temperature measurement worsens the safety margin for both DNBR and LPD. The possibility of this discrepancy has been reported with thermal stratification effect. Proposed RCS temperature measurement system based on ultrasonic technology offers a countermeasure to cope with thermal stratification effect on hot-leg piping that has been an unresolved issue in NPPs. By introducing ultrasonic technology, the average internal piping temperature can be measured with high accuracy. The inaccuracy can be decreased less than ±1℉ by this method.

  3. Alternative protections for loss of coolant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    One way to mitigate a small loss of coolant accident (LOCA) is by depressurizing the primary system, in order to turn the accident into a sequence where water is fed to a low pressure system. It can be achieved by two different ways: by incorporating a valve system (ADS - Automatic Depressurization System) to the design, which helps to diminish the pressure, obtaining a bigger LOCA, or by extracting heat from the system. Our analysis is centered in integrated reactors. The first characterization performed was on CAREM reactor. The idea was then to observe its behavior with LOCAs for different thermal power relations, water volume and rupture area. A simple depressurization model is presented, which enables us to find the parameter relationships which characterize this process, from which some particular cases will arise. ADS implementation is then analyzed, giving the criteria for the triggering time. A study on its reliability and the probability of a spurious opening is made, taking into account independent and dependent failures. An analysis on heat extraction as alternative for depressurizing is also made. Finally, the different reasons to choose between ADS or heat extraction as alternative are given, and the meaning of the parameters found are discussed. An alternative to classify LOCAs, instead of the traditional classification, by fracture size, is suggested. (author)

  4. Method of decontaminating primary coolant circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Masaru; Sumi, Masao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate hard contaminated layers as well as soft contaminated layers without injuring substrate materials, upon decontamination of radiation contaminated portions in equipments and pipeways constituting primary coolant circuits. Constitution: High pressure water from a high pressure pump is jetted out from the nozzle of a spray gun to the radiation contaminated portions in equipments, for example, to the surface of water chamber in a vapor evaporator. High pressure pure water or aqueous boric acid is jetted out from the periphery and boric oxide particles (of about 1 - 100 μ particle size) are jetted out from the center of the nozzle of the spray gun. The particles (blasting material) jetted out together with the high pressure water impinge on the contaminated surfaces to remove the contaminated layers. Upon impingement, the high pressure water acts as the shock absorber for the blasting material and, after the impingement, it flows down to the bottom of the water chamber, and the blasting material is dissolved in the high pressure water. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Knowledge and awareness of Canadian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines: a synthesis of existing evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Allana G; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norm; Rhodes, Ryan E; Spence, John C; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to consolidate and synthesize existing evidence regarding current knowledge and awareness of the Canadian Physical Activity (PA) and Sedentary Behaviour (SB) Guidelines. MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched for peer-reviewed publications pertaining to the guidelines. Content experts, key organizations (i.e., ParticipACTION and the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute), journal Web sites, and service organizations (i.e., the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) and the Public Health Agency of Canada) were consulted for additional evidence. Scientific publications (n = 6) and research from ParticipACTION and the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute reported that awareness of the guidelines is low, especially with respect to the SB guidelines. Less than 10% of survey respondents from the Canadian population were aware of the PA guidelines, and less than 5% were aware of the SB guidelines. Information on the guidelines was available on 51% of public health unit and CSEP partner Web sites. Online metrics (e.g., downloads, site accessions) from CSEP, the Public Health Agency of Canada, and journal Web sites showed that online accession of the guidelines was high (e.g., all "highly accessed" on journal Web sites). This review showed that awareness of the Canadian PA and SB Guidelines is low among the general population but higher among the scientific and stakeholder communities. Governmental, nongovernmental, and stakeholder organizations should collaborate in creating sustained, long-term, and well-resourced communication plans to reach the Canadian population to raise awareness of PA and SB guidelines and should implement programs to facilitate their uptake.

  6. Disposal of household pharmaceuticals in insular communities: social attitude, behaviour evaluation and prevention activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Dimitriou, Maria; Voukkali, Irene

    2017-06-25

    The increase in medicine and drug consumption have resulted in identifying these emerging pollutants in all aquatic compartments, ranging from surface water and groundwater resources to the marine environment. Pharmaceuticals are an indispensable part of life today. A large number of pharmaceuticals are used in a daily basis in the treatment, prevention, cure or diagnosis of diseases or to otherwise enhance people's physical or mental well-being. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the attitude of citizens in Cyprus regarding the disposal of pharmaceuticals as well as to identify the main reasons why pharmaceutical wastes are produced. The result indicted that in Cyprus, there is lack of data regarding the amount of pharmaceutical wastes that are discarded into household waste and sinks. The survey audit showed that 86.6% of men's and 83.3% of women's used pharmacy with or without doctor's recipe. Social behaviour is considered to be the most significant reason that pharmaceutical are produced. The results indicated that, citizens mainly keep unused medicines and drugs at home in case they are needed again as well as patients use to cut-off or to reduce their treatment in case that on the first 3-6 days they feel better. The survey indicated that the main disposal method of unused or expired medicines and drugs is in household waste followed from the sink and the toilet. Furthermore, the main disposal solution of unused or expired medicines and drugs remain the household bin as well as the sewage system (sink or toilet), while a percen