WorldWideScience

Sample records for cool storage systems

  1. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  2. Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, P.

    1991-10-15

    The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

  3. Exergy analysis of a gas-hydrate cool storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Yuehong; Liu, Xiao; Jiang, Minghe

    2014-01-01

    Based on exergy analysis of charging and discharging processes in a gas-hydrate cool storage system, the formulas for exergy efficiency at the sensible heat transfer stage and the phase change stage corresponding to gas-hydrate charging and discharging processes are obtained. Furthermore, the overall exergy efficiency expressions of charging, discharging processes and the thermodynamic cycle of the gas-hydrate cool storage system are obtained. By using the above expressions, the effects of number of transfer units, the inlet temperatures of the cooling medium and the heating medium on exergy efficiencies of the gas-hydrate cool storage system are emphatically analyzed. The research results can be directly used to evaluate the performance of gas-hydrate cool storage systems and design more efficient energy systems by reducing the sources of inefficiency in gas-hydrate cool storage systems. - Highlights: • Formulas for exergy efficiency at four stages are obtained. • Exergy efficiency expressions of two processes and one cycle are obtained. • Three mainly influencing factors on exergy efficiencies are analyzed. • With increasing the inlet temperature of cooling medium, exergy efficiency increases. • With decreasing the inlet temperature of heating medium, exergy efficiency increases

  4. Efficient energy storage in liquid desiccant cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hublitz, Astrid

    2008-07-18

    Liquid Desiccant Cooling Systems (LDCS) are open loop sorption systems for air conditioning that use a liquid desiccant such as a concentrated salt solution to dehumidify the outside air and cool it by evaporative cooling. Thermochemical energy storage in the concentrated liquid desiccant can bridge power mismatches between demand and supply. Low-flow LDCS provide high energy storage capacities but are not a state-of-the-art technology yet. The key challenge remains the uniform distribution of the liquid desiccant on the heat and mass transfer surfaces. The present research analyzes the factors of influence on the energy storage capacity by simulation of the heat and mass transfer processes and specifies performance goals for the distribution of the process media. Consequently, a distribution device for the liquid desiccant is developed that reliably meets the performance goals. (orig.)

  5. Dry storage systems with free convection air cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kioes, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    Several design principles to remove heat from the spent fuel by free air convection are illustrated and described. The key safety considerations were felt to be: loss of coolant is impossible as the passive system uses air as a coolant; overheating is precluded because as the temperatures of the containers rises the coolant flow rate increases; mass of the storage building provides a large heat sink and therefore a rapid temperature rise is impossible; and lack of any active external support requirements makes the cooling process less likely to equipment or operator failures. An example of this type of storage already exists. The German HTGR is operated with spherical graphite fuel elements which are stored in canister and in storage cells. The concept is a double cooling system with free convection inside the cells and heat exchange via two side walls of the cell to the ambient air in the cooling ducts. Technical description of the TN 1300 cask is also presented

  6. A cooling concept of spent fuels in lag storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong-Hwa; Yoo, Jae-Hyung; Park, Hyun-Soo

    1991-01-01

    A cooling concept of spent fuels by natural convection of hot cell air in storage pits was developed. Each storage pit was considered to be located below the hot cell floor and to accommodate only one spent fuel assembly. The aim of this study is to apply an appropriate cooling system to the design of a hot cell where considerable heat-generating fuels are handled. In such operations as disassembling, rod consolidation and packaging of spent fuels, a number of assemblies are on stand-by in the cell before and/or after the operations. A lag storage system can be used for temporary storage of spent fuels in nuclear facilities. Since the air in contact with bare fuel assemblies is potentially contaminated, it must be exhausted through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. If the storage pit is completely isolated from the hot cell space, then it will require another separate ventilation system by forced convection of air, which will result in additional cost for the construction. In this work, however, a cooling system was proposed where natural convection of hot cell air itself is achieved by thermo-syphon. The cold air from the hot cell is supplied to the inlet provided at the bottom of each pit through the gap between the concrete pit wall and the interior thermal shield. This thermal shield is needed to form flow channels for cold and heated air, and to prevent the concrete from over-heating. The heated air exhausts from the outlet located at the top of cell wall. No additional HEPA filters are needed in this system because the heated air is routed back to the hot cell due to buoyancy-induced flow. The technical feasibility of this concept was validated by thermal analyses. As the key design constraints are the surface temperature of fuel cladding and the concrete temperature of the storage pit, the thermal analyses were focused on these parameters whether they follow within allowable limits or not. (author)

  7. Heat pipe cooling system for underground, radioactive waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, K.C.; Prenger, F.C.

    1980-02-01

    An array of 37 heat pipes inserted through the central hole at the top of a radioactive waste storage tank will remove 100,000 Btu/h with a heat sink of 70 0 F atmospheric air. Heat transfer inside the tank to the heat pipe is by natural convection. Heat rejection to outside air utilizes a blower to force air past the heat pipe condenser. The heat pipe evaporator section is axially finned, and is constructed of stainless steel. The working fluid is ammonia. The finned pipes are individually shrouded and extend 35 ft down into the tank air space. The hot tank air enters the shroud at the top of the tank and flows downward as it is cooled, with the resulting increased density furnishing the pressure difference for circulation. The cooled air discharges at the center of the tank above the sludge surface, flows radially outward, and picks up heat from the radioactive sludge. At the tank wall the heated air rises and then flows inward to comple the cycle

  8. Thermal energy storage - A review of concepts and systems for heating and cooling applications in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Georgi Krasimiroy; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    period required, economic viability, and operating conditions. One of the main issues impeding the utilization of the full potential of natural and renewable energy sources, e.g., solar and geothermal, for space heating and space cooling applications is the development of economically competitive......The use of thermal energy storage (TES) in buildings in combination with space heating and/or space cooling has recently received much attention. A variety of TES techniques have developed over the past decades. TES systems can provide short-term storage for peak-load shaving as well as long......-term (seasonal) storage for the introduction of natural and renewable energy sources. TES systems for heating or cooling are utilized in applications where there is a time mismatch between the demand and the most economically favorable supply of energy. The selection of a TES system mainly depends on the storage...

  9. Subcooled compressed air energy storage system for coproduction of heat, cooling and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabkoohsar, A.; Dremark-Larsen, M.; Lorentzen, R.; Andresen, G.B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A new configuration of compressed air energy storage system is proposed and analyzed. •This system, so-called subcooled-CAES, offers cogeneration of electricity, heat and cooling. •A pseudo-dynamic energy, exergy and economic analysis of the system for an entire year is presented. •The annual power, cooling and heat efficiencies of the system are around 31%, 32% and 92%. •The overall energy and exergy performance coefficients of the system are 1.55 and 0.48, respectively. -- Abstract: Various configurations of compressed air energy storage technology have received attention over the last years due to the advantages that this technology offers relative to other power storage technologies. This work proposes a new configuration of this technology aiming at cogeneration of electricity, heat and cooling. The new system may be very advantageous for locations with high penetration of renewable energy in the electricity grid as well as high heating and cooling demands. The latter would typically be locations with district heating and cooling networks. A thorough design, sizing and thermodynamic analysis of the system for a typical wind farm with 300 MW capacity in Denmark is presented. The results show a great potential of the system to support the local district heating and cooling networks and reserve services in electricity market. The values of power-to-power, power-to-cooling and power-to-heat efficiencies of this system are 30.6%, 32.3% and 92.4%, respectively. The exergy efficiency values are 30.6%, 2.5% and 14.4% for power, cooling and heat productions. A techno-economic comparison of this system with two of the most efficient previous designs of compressed air energy storage system proves the firm superiority of the new concept.

  10. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic

  11. Comparative analysis on operation strategies of CCHP system with cool thermal storage for a data center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Xu; Liu, Liuchen; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Load characteristics of the data center make a good match with CCHP systems. • TRNSYS models was used to simulate the discussed CCHP system in a data center. • Comprehensive system performance under two operation strategies were evaluated. • Cool thermal storage was introduced to reuse the energy surplus by FEL system. • The suitable principle of equipment selection for a FEL system were proposed. - Abstract: Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CCHP) systems with cool thermal storage can provide an appropriate energy supply for data centers. In this work, we evaluate the CCHP system performance under two different operation strategies, i.e., following thermal load (FTL) and following electric load (FEL). The evaluation is performed through a case study by using TRNSYS software. In the FEL system, the amount of cool thermal energy generated by the absorption chillers is larger than the cooling load and it can be therefore stored and reused at the off-peak times. Results indicate that systems under both operation strategies have advantages in the fields of energy saving and environmental protection. The largest percentage of reduction of primary energy consumption, CO_2 emissions, and operation cost for the FEL system, are 18.5%, 37.4% and 46.5%, respectively. Besides, the system performance is closely dependent on the equipment selection. The relation between the amount of energy recovered through cool thermal storage and the primary energy consumption has also been taken into account. Moreover, the introduction of cool thermal storage can adjust the heat to power ratio on the energy supply side close to that on the consumer side and consequently promote system flexibility and energy efficiency.

  12. Heating and cooling system for an on-board gas adsorbent storage vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburello, David A.; Anton, Donald L.; Hardy, Bruce J.; Corgnale, Claudio

    2017-06-20

    In one aspect, a system for controlling the temperature within a gas adsorbent storage vessel of a vehicle may include an air conditioning system forming a continuous flow loop of heat exchange fluid that is cycled between a heated flow and a cooled flow. The system may also include at least one fluid by-pass line extending at least partially within the gas adsorbent storage vessel. The fluid by-pass line(s) may be configured to receive a by-pass flow including at least a portion of the heated flow or the cooled flow of the heat exchange fluid at one or more input locations and expel the by-pass flow back into the continuous flow loop at one or more output locations, wherein the by-pass flow is directed through the gas adsorbent storage vessel via the by-pass line(s) so as to adjust an internal temperature within the gas adsorbent storage vessel.

  13. Evaluation of thermal hydraulics characteristics of natural cooling low level radioactive waste storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Toshihiro; Iwaki, Chikako; Ikeda, Tatsumi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Koyama, Tomonori; Usui, Nobuhiko; Watanabe, Hisao; Masaki, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to design a low level radioactive waste storage system so that the decay heat of radioactive waste does not breach the structural safety limit. Currently, this waste storage system is designed as a natural cooling system, which continuously cools the radioactive waste without an active device. It consists simply of a storage pit for radioactive waste and air inlet and outlet ducts. The radioactive waste is cooled by natural convective air flow, which is generated by the buoyancy of heated air due to the decay heat of radioactive waste. It is important to clarify the flow characteristics in the systems in order to evaluate the cooling performance. The air mass flow rate through the system is determined by the balance between the natural convective flow force and pressure loss within the system. Therefore, the pressure drop and flow pattern in the waste storage pit are important flow characteristics. In this study, the pressure drop and air temperature distribution, greatly influenced by the flow pattern in the pit, were measured using a 1/5 scale model and compared with the results obtained from CFD. Flow network analysis, which is a simple model that simulates the flow by nodes and junctions, was conducted and its validity was confirmed by experimental results and CFD. (author)

  14. Evaporative cooling system for storage of fruits and vegetables - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal Basediya, Amrat; Samuel, D V K; Beera, Vimala

    2013-06-01

    Horticultural produce are stored at lower temperature because of their highly perishable nature. There are many methods to cool the environment. Hence, preserving these types of foods in their fresh form demands that the chemical, bio-chemical and physiological changes are restricted to a minimum by close control of space temperature and humidity. The high cost involved in developing cold storage or controlled atmosphere storage is a pressing problem in several developing countries. Evaporative cooling is a well-known system to be an efficient and economical means for reducing the temperature and increasing the relative humidity in an enclosure and this effect has been extensively tried for increasing the shelf life of horticultural produce in some tropical and subtropical countries. In this review paper, basic concept and principle, methods of evaporative cooling and their application for the preservation of fruits and vegetables and economy are also reported. Thus, the evaporative cooler has prospect for use for short term preservation of vegetables and fruits soon after harvest. Zero energy cooling system could be used effectively for short-duration storage of fruits and vegetables even in hilly region. It not only reduces the storage temperature but also increases the relative humidity of the storage which is essential for maintaining the freshness of the commodities.

  15. Numerical analysis of a natural convection cooling system for radioactive canisters storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsal, R.J.; Anwar, S.; Mercada, M.G. [Fluor Daniel Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes the use of numerical analysis for studying natural convection cooling systems for long term storage of heat producing radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials and nuclear waste. The paper explains the major design philosophy, and shares the experiences of numerical modeling. The strategy of storing radioactive material is to immobilize nuclear high-level waste by a vitrification process, convertion it into borosilicate glass, and cast the glass into stainless steel canisters. These canisters are seal welded, decontaminated, inspected, and temporarily stored in an underground vault until they can be sent to a geologic repository for permanent storage. These canisters generate heat by nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes. The function of the storage facility ventilation system is to ensure that the glass centerline temperature does not exceed the glass transition temperature during storage and the vault concrete temperatures remain within the specified limits. A natural convection cooling system was proposed to meet these functions. The effectiveness of a natural convection cooling system is dependent on two major factors that affect air movement through the vault for cooling the canisters: (1) thermal buoyancy forces inside the vault which create a stack effect, and (2) external wind forces, that may assist or oppose airflow through the vault. Several numerical computer models were developed to analyze the thermal and hydraulic regimes in the storage vault. The Site Model is used to simulate the airflow around the building and to analyze different air inlet/outlet devices. The Airflow Model simulates the natural convection, thermal regime, and hydraulic resistance in the vault. The Vault Model, internal vault temperature stratification; and, finally, the Hot Area Model is used for modeling concrete temperatures within the vault.

  16. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corletti, Michael M.; Lau, Louis K.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

  17. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  18. Behavior of ruthenium in the case of shutdown of the cooling system of HLLW storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M.; Mercier, J.P.; Gue, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The consequences of the failure of the cooling system of fission product storage tanks over a variable period were investigated as part of the safety analysis of the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the considerable heat release, induced by the fission products, a prolonged shutdown of the tank cooling system could cause the progressive evaporation of the solutions to dryness, and culminate in the formation of volatile species of ruthenium and their release in the tank venting circuit. To determine the fraction of ruthenium likely to be transferred from the storage tanks in volatile or aerosol form during the failure, evaporation tests were conducted by evaporating samples of actual nitric acid solutions of fission products, obtained on the laboratory scale after the reprocessing of several kilograms of MOX fuels irradiated to 30,000 MWday.t -1 . A distillation apparatus was designed to operate with small volume solution samples, reproducing the heating conditions existing in the reprocessing plant within a storage tank for fission products. The main conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows: - ruthenium is only volatilized in the final phase of evaporation, just before desiccation, - for a final temperature limited to 160 0 C, the total fraction of volatilized ruthenium reaches 12%, in the presence of H 2 0, HN0 3 , N0 x and 0 2 , the volatilized ruthenium recombines mainly in the form of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrates, or decomposes into ruthenium oxide on the walls of the apparatus. Assuming a heating power density of 10 W/liter of concentrate, and a perfectly adiabatic storage system, the minimum time required to reach dryness can be estimated at 90 h, allowing substantial time to take action to restore a cooling source

  19. Behavior of ruthenium in the case of shutdown of the cooling system of HLLW storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M.; Mercier, J.P.; Gue, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The consequences of the failure of the cooling system of fission product storage tanks over a variable period were investigated as part of the safety analysis of the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the considerable heat release, induced by the fission products, a prolonged shutdown of the tank cooling system could cause the progressive evaporation of the solutions to dryness, and culminate in the formation of volatile species of ruthenium and their release in the tank venting circuit. To determine the fraction of ruthenium likely to be transferred from the storage tanks in volatile or aerosol form during the failure, evaporation tests were conducted by evaporating samples of actual nitric acid solutions of fission products, obtained on the laboratory scale after the reprocessing of several kilograms of MOX fuels irradiated to 30,000 MW day·t -1 . A distillation apparatus was designed to operate with small-volume solution samples, reproducing the heating conditions existing in the reprocessing plant within a storage tank for fission products. The main conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows: ruthenium is only volatilized in the final phase of evaporation, just before desiccation; for a final temperature limited to 160 degree C, the total fraction of volatilized ruthenium reaches 12%; in the presence of H 2 O, HNO 3 , NO x and O 2 , the volatilized ruthenium recombines mainly in the form of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrates, or decomposes into ruthenium oxide (probably RuO 2 ) on the walls of the apparatus. Assuming a heating power density of 10 W/liter of concentrate, and a perfectly adiabatic storage system, the minimum time required to reach dryness can be estimated at 90 h, allowing substantial time to take action to restore a cooling source

  20. Evaluation of a ground thermal energy storage system for heating and cooling of an existing dwelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, W.H; Lawrence, C.J. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Tarnawski, V.R. [Saint Mary' s Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Engineering; Rosen, M.A. [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2006-07-01

    A ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system for heating and cooling a residential house in Ontario was simulated. The system uses the surface ground as a thermal energy storage for storing thermal energy in the summer for later use in the winter. In the summer, the ground receives both solar energy and the heat rejected by the system during cooling operation. The relationship between a heat pump and the ground is a ground heat exchanger (GHE). This presentation described the vertical and horizontal configurations of the GHE, which are the 2 basic configurations. It also described the modelling and analysis of the GCHP system. The modelling involved both simplified and comprehensive models. The simplified models of heating and cooling loads of a building, a heat pump unit, and heat transfer at the ground heat exchanger provided a direct link to the comprehensive model of heat and moisture transfer in the ground, based on the finite element method. This combination of models provided an accurate and practical simulation tool for GCHP systems. The energy analysis was used to evaluate the performance of the system. The use of a horizontal ground heat exchanging pipe and the impact of heat deposition and extraction through it in the ground were also studied with reference to the length of pipe, depth of pipe and layout of the pipe loop. The objective of the analysis was to find ways to optimize the thermal performance of the system and environmental sustainability of the ground. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  1. Energy efficient hybrid nanocomposite-based cool thermal storage air conditioning system for sustainable buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parameshwaran, R.; Kalaiselvam, S.

    2013-01-01

    The quest towards energy conservative building design is increasingly popular in recent years, which has triggered greater interests in developing energy efficient systems for space cooling in buildings. In this work, energy efficient silver–titania HiTES (hybrid nanocomposites-based cool thermal energy storage) system combined with building A/C (air conditioning) system was experimentally investigated for summer and winter design conditions. HiNPCM (hybrid nanocomposite particles embedded PCM) used as the heat storage material has exhibited 7.3–58.4% of improved thermal conductivity than at its purest state. The complete freezing time for HiNPCM was reduced by 15% which was attributed to its improved thermophysical characteristics. Experimental results suggest that the effective energy redistribution capability of HiTES system has contributed for reduction in the chiller nominal cooling capacity by 46.3% and 39.6% respectively, under part load and on-peak load operating conditions. The HiTES A/C system achieved 27.3% and 32.5% of on-peak energy savings potential in summer and winter respectively compared to the conventional A/C system. For the same operating conditions, this system yield 8.3%, 12.2% and 7.2% and 10.2% of per day average and yearly energy conservation respectively. This system can be applied for year-round space conditioning application without sacrificing energy efficiency in buildings. - Highlights: • Energy storage is acquired by HiTES (hybrid nanocomposites-thermal storage) system. • Thermal conductivity of HiNPCM (hybrid nanocomposites-PCM) was improved by 58.4%. • Freezing time of HiNPCM was reduced by 15% that enabled improved energy efficiency. • Chiller nominal capacity was reduced by 46.3% and 39.6% in on-peak and part load respectively. • HiTES A/C system achieved appreciable energy savings in the range of 8.3–12.2%

  2. Thermodynamic and economic assessment of off-grid portable cooling systems with energy storage for emergency areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, Hasan; Akyavuz, Umit Deniz

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar based refrigeration systems with energy storage are proposed. • Thermodynamic and economic assessments are applied. • Cost of the pumped-hydro storage quadruples the hydrogen storage option. • A case study is made for the city of Aleppo in Syria as an emergency region. - Abstract: This study aims to investigate performance and cost aspects of a solar powered portable cooling system to conserve first aid supplies for off-grid areas with energy storage. Due to the intermittent nature of solar energy availability, two energy storage options are considered for a stationary system. Additional to the standalone system without energy storage, hydrogen is selected to be the storage medium by considering electrolysis at day time, and use of a hydrogen fuel cell unit at night time. This system consists of solar photovoltaic cells, a Polymer Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolysis unit (PEME), hydrogen tank, a PEM fuel cell unit (PEMFC), and a vapor compression refrigeration (VCR) system to condition a container rated with ∼11 kW cooling load. The second system utilizes pumped – hydro storage (PHS) technology using a simple pump – turbine couple by storing water at a higher reservoir during day time and utilizing it to produce hydro power at night. Existence of higher reservoir brings a significant additional cost for the PHS system, making this configuration almost four times more costly than that of the hydrogen storage option, even though the storage efficiency of the PHS system is significantly higher than the hydrogen storage.

  3. Behaviour of ruthenium in the case of shutdown of the cooling system of HLLW storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M.; Gue, J.P.; Mercier, J.P.

    1990-12-01

    The consequences of the failure of the cooling system of fission product storage tanks over a variable period were investigated as part of the safety analysis of the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the considerable heat release, induced by the fission products, a prolonged shutdown of the tank cooling system could cause the progressive evaporation of the solutions to dryness, and culminate in the formation of volatile species of ruthenium and their release in the tank venting circuit. To determine the fraction of ruthenium likely to be transferred from the storage tanks in volatile or aerosol form during the failure, evaporation tests were conducted by evaporating samples of actual nitric acid solutions of fission products, obtained on the laboratory scale after the reprocessing of several kilograms of MOX fuels irradiated to 30.000 MW day ·t -1 . A distillation apparatus was designed to operate with small-volume solution samples, reproducing the heating conditions existing in the reprocessing plant within a storage tank for fission products. The main conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows: - ruthenium is only volatilized in the final phase of evaporation, just before desiccation, - for a final temperature limited to 160 deg. C, the total fraction of volatilized ruthenium reaches 12%, - in the presence of H 2 O, HNO 3 , NO x and O 2 , the volatilized ruthenium recombines mainly in the form of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrates, or decomposes into ruthenium oxide (probably RuO 2 ) on the walls of the apparatus. Assuming a heating power density of 10 W/liter of concentrate, and a perfectly adiabatic storage system, the minimum time required to reach dryness can be estimated at 90 h, allowing substantial time to take action to restore a cooling source. It is probable that, in an industrial storage tank, the heat losses from the tank and the offgas discharge ducts will cause recondensation and internal reflux, which will commensurately delay

  4. Dynamic Heat Storage and Cooling Capacity of a Concrete Deck with PCM and Thermally Activated Building System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a heat storage and cooling concept that utilizes a phase change material (PCM) and a thermally activated building system (TABS) implemented in a hollow core concrete deck. Numerical calculations of the dynamic heat storage capacity of the hollow core concrete deck element...... in the article highlight the potential of using TABS and PCM in a prefabricated concrete deck element....

  5. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...... cooling system that includes such considerations as thermal comfort of the occupants, which design parameters will influence the cooling capacity and how the system should be controlled. Examples of applications are presented....

  6. Solar heating and cooling system with absorption chiller and low temperature latent heat storage: Energetic performance and operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, M.; Keil, C.; Hiebler, S.; Mehling, H.; Schweigler, C. [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern) (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Absorption cooling systems based on water/lithium bromide (LiBr) solution typically require an open wet cooling tower to transfer the reject heat to the ambient. Yet, water consumption, the need for water make-up and cleaning, formation of fog, and the risk of Legionella bacteria growth are hindering factors for the implementation of small solar cooling systems. The application of a latent heat storage supporting the heat rejection of the absorption chiller in conjunction with a dry cooling system allows eliminating the wet cooling tower. By that means heat rejection of the chiller is shifted to periods with lower ambient temperatures, i.e. night time or off-peak hours. The system concept and the hydraulic scheme together with an analysis of the energetic performance of the system are presented, followed by a report on the operation of a first pilot installation. (author)

  7. Evaporative cooling system for storage of fruits and vegetables - a review

    OpenAIRE

    lal Basediya, Amrat; Samuel, D. V. K.; Beera, Vimala

    2011-01-01

    Horticultural produce are stored at lower temperature because of their highly perishable nature. There are many methods to cool the environment. Hence, preserving these types of foods in their fresh form demands that the chemical, bio-chemical and physiological changes are restricted to a minimum by close control of space temperature and humidity. The high cost involved in developing cold storage or controlled atmosphere storage is a pressing problem in several developing countries. Evaporati...

  8. Cooling of superconducting devices by liquid storage and refrigeration unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon; Urbahn, John Arthur; Steinbach, Albert Eugene

    2013-08-20

    A system is disclosed for cooling superconducting devices. The system includes a cryogen cooling system configured to be coupled to the superconducting device and to supply cryogen to the device. The system also includes a cryogen storage system configured to supply cryogen to the device. The system further includes flow control valving configured to selectively isolate the cryogen cooling system from the device, thereby directing a flow of cryogen to the device from the cryogen storage system.

  9. Design optimization and sensitivity analysis of a biomass-fired combined cooling, heating and power system with thermal energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliano, Martina; Bianco, Nicola; Graditi, Giorgio; Mongibello, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel operation strategy for biomass-fired combined cooling, heating and power system is presented. • A design optimization of the system is conducted. • The effects of variation of the incentive for the electricity generation are evaluated. • The effects of the variation of the absorption chiller size and the thermal energy storage system one are evaluated. • The inclusion of a cold storage system into the combined cooling, heating and power system is also analyzed. - Abstract: In this work, an operation strategy for a biomass-fired combined cooling, heating and power system, composed of a cogeneration unit, an absorption chiller, and a thermal energy storage system, is formulated in order to satisfy time-varying energy demands of an Italian cluster of residential multi-apartment buildings. This operation strategy is adopted for performing the economical optimization of the design of two of the devices composing the combined cooling, heating and power system, namely the absorption chiller and the storage system. A sensitivity analysis is carried out in order to evaluate the impact of the incentive for the electricity generation on the optimized results, and also to evaluate, separately, the effects of the variation of the absorption chiller size, and the effects of the variation of the thermal energy storage system size on the system performance. In addition, the inclusion into the system of a cold thermal energy storage system is analyzed, as well, assuming different possible values for the cold storage system cost. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that the most influencing factors from the economical point of view are represented by the incentive for the electricity generation and the absorption chiller power. Results also show that the combined use of a thermal energy storage and of a cold thermal energy storage during the hot season could represent a viable solution from the economical point of view.

  10. A novel method to design water spray cooling system to protect floating roof atmospheric storage tanks against fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon bulk storage tank fires are not very common, but their protection is essential due to severe consequences of such fires. Water spray cooling system is one of the most effective ways to reduce damages to a tank from a fire. Many codes and standards set requirements and recommendations to maximize the efficiency of water spray cooling systems, but these are widely different and still various interpretations and methods are employed to design such systems. This article provides a brief introduction to some possible design methods of cooling systems for protection of storage tanks against external non-contacting fires and introduces a new method namely “Linear Density Method” and compares the results from this method to the “Average Method” which is currently in common practice. The average Method determines the flow rate for each spray nozzle by dividing the total water demand by the number of spray nozzles while the Linear Density Method determines the nozzle flow rate based on the actual flow over the surface to be protected. The configuration of the system includes a one million barrel crude oil floating roof tank to be protected and which is placed one half tank diameter from a similar adjacent tank with a full surface fire. Thermal radiation and hydraulics are modeled using DNV PHAST Version 6.53 and Sunrise PIPENET Version 1.5.0.2722 software respectively. Spray nozzles used in design are manufactured by Angus Fire and PNR Nozzles companies. Schedule 40 carbon steel pipe is used for piping. The results show that the cooling system using the Linear Density Method consumes 3.55% more water than the design using the average method assuming a uniform application rate of 4.1 liters per minute. Despite higher water consumption the design based on Linear Density Method alleviates the problems associated with the Average Method and provides better protection.

  11. Multi-objective optimization and exergoeconomic analysis of a combined cooling, heating and power based compressed air energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Erren; Wang, Huanran; Wang, Ligang; Xi, Guang; Maréchal, François

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel tri-generation based compressed air energy storage system. • Trade-off between efficiency and cost to highlight the best compromise solution. • Components with largest irreversibility and potential improvements highlighted. - Abstract: Compressed air energy storage technologies can improve the supply capacity and stability of the electricity grid, particularly when fluctuating renewable energies are massively connected. While incorporating the combined cooling, heating and power systems into compressed air energy storage could achieve stable operation as well as efficient energy utilization. In this paper, a novel combined cooling, heating and power based compressed air energy storage system is proposed. The system combines a gas engine, supplemental heat exchangers and an ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system. The design trade-off between the thermodynamic and economic objectives, i.e., the overall exergy efficiency and the total specific cost of product, is investigated by an evolutionary multi-objective algorithm for the proposed combined system. It is found that, with an increase in the exergy efficiency, the total product unit cost is less affected in the beginning, while rises substantially afterwards. The best trade-off solution is selected with an overall exergy efficiency of 53.04% and a total product unit cost of 20.54 cent/kWh, respectively. The variation of decision variables with the exergy efficiency indicates that the compressor, turbine and heat exchanger preheating the inlet air of turbine are the key equipment to cost-effectively pursuit a higher exergy efficiency. It is also revealed by an exergoeconomic analysis that, for the best trade-off solution, the investment costs of the compressor and the two heat exchangers recovering compression heat and heating up compressed air for expansion should be reduced (particularly the latter), while the thermodynamic performance of the gas engine need to be improved

  12. Load Shifting and Storage of Cooling Energy through Ice Bank or Ice Slurry Systems: modelling and experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozdek, Marino

    2009-10-15

    Ice based Cool Thermal Energy Storage (CTES) systems have attracted much attention during last few decades. The reasons are mainly of economical and environmental nature. Compared to conventional refrigeration and air-conditioning systems without cool thermal energy storage, implementation of CTES will increase environmental standards and overall efficiency of the energy systems as it contributes to the phase-out of synthetic refrigerants and reduces peak loads in electricity grids. For the application of a cool thermal energy storages in refrigeration installations and HVAC systems in industry and building sector, it is necessary to have appropriate design tools in order to sufficiently accurate predict their performance. In this thesis theoretical and experimental investigations of two ice based cool thermal energy storage systems, namely static, indirect, external melt, ice-on-coil, i.e. ice bank system and dynamic, ice slurry cool thermal energy storage system are carried out. An ice bank storage technology for cooling purposes is known for a long time. The main drawbacks which are hindering its wider use are the system complexity, high first costs, system efficiency which is highly dependant on design, control and monitoring of the system, etc. On the other hand, ice slurry technology was not well studied until recently, while in the current scientific literature there are still differences between results and conclusions reported by different investigators. The aim of the present thesis is to extend the knowledge in the field of ice based CTES systems, thereby contributing in the development and wider utilization of those systems. In the first part of the thesis a computer application, named 'BankaLeda' is presented. It enables simulation of an ice bank system performance. In order to verify developed simulation model an experimental evaluation has been performed. Field measurements have been conducted on a two module silo which was installed as a

  13. Cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    Progress on the thermal effects project is reported with regard to physiology and distribution of Corbicula; power plant effects studies on burrowing mayfly populations; comparative thermal responses of largemouth bass from northern and southern populations; temperature selection by striped bass in Cherokee Reservoir; fish population studies; and predictive thermoregulation by fishes. Progress is also reported on the following; cause and ecological ramifications of threadfin shad impingement; entrainment project; aquaculture project; pathogenic amoeba project; and cooling tower drift project

  14. Thermoeconomic analysis of storage systems for solar heating and cooling systems: A comparison between variable-volume and fixed-volume tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonomano, Annamaria; Calise, Francesco; Ferruzzi, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates different control strategies for the thermal storage management in SHC (Solar Heating and Cooling) systems. The SHC system under investigation is based on a field of evacuated solar collectors coupled with a single-stage LiBr–H 2 O absorption chiller; auxiliary thermal energy is supplied by a gas-fired boiler. The SHC is also equipped with a novel thermal storage system, consisting in a variable volume storage tank. It includes three separate tanks and a number of mixers and diverters managed by novel control strategies, based on combinations of series/parallel charging and discharging approaches. The aim of this component is to vary the thermal storage capacity as a function of the combinations of solar radiation availability and user thermal/cooling energy demands. The system allows one to increase the number of active tanks when the time shift between solar energy and user demand is high. Conversely, when this time shift is low, the number of active tanks is automatically reduced. In addition, when the solar energy in excess cannot be stored in such tanks, a heat exchanger is also used in the solar loop for producing DHW (Domestic Hot Water). The analysis is carried out by means of a zero-dimensional transient simulation model, developed by using the TRNSYS software. In order to assess the operating and capital costs of the systems under analysis, an economic model is also proposed. In addition, in order to determine the set of the synthesis/design variables which maximize the system profitability, a parametric analysis was implemented. The novel variable-volume storage system, in both the proposed configurations, was also compared with a constant-volume storage system from the energy and economic points of view. The results showed that the presented storage system allows one to save up to 20% of the natural gas used by the auxiliary boiler only for very high solar fractions. In all the other cases, marginal savings are achieved by the

  15. Subcooled compressed air energy storage system for coproduction of heat, cooling and electricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arabkoohsar, A.; Dremark-Larsen, M.; Lorentzen, R.; Andresen, G. B.

    2017-01-01

    Various configurations of compressed air energy storage technology have received attention over the last years due to the advantages that this technology offers relative to other power storage technologies. This work proposes a new configuration of this technology aiming at cogeneration of

  16. A Techno-Economic Assessment of Hybrid Cooling Systems for Coal- and Natural-Gas-Fired Power Plants with and without Carbon Capture and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S

    2016-04-05

    Advanced cooling systems can be deployed to enhance the resilience of thermoelectric power generation systems. This study developed and applied a new power plant modeling option for a hybrid cooling system at coal- or natural-gas-fired power plants with and without amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. The results of the plant-level analyses show that the performance and cost of hybrid cooling systems are affected by a range of environmental, technical, and economic parameters. In general, when hot periods last the entire summer, the wet unit of a hybrid cooling system needs to share about 30% of the total plant cooling load in order to minimize the overall system cost. CCS deployment can lead to a significant increase in the water use of hybrid cooling systems, depending on the level of CO2 capture. Compared to wet cooling systems, widespread applications of hybrid cooling systems can substantially reduce water use in the electric power sector with only a moderate increase in the plant-level cost of electricity generation.

  17. A very cool cooling system

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 Gigatracker is a jewel of technology: its sensor, which delivers the time of the crossing particles with a precision of less than 200 picoseconds (better than similar LHC detectors), has a cooling system that might become the precursor to a completely new detector technique.   The 115 metre long vacuum tank of the NA62 experiment. The NA62 Gigatracker (GTK) is composed of a set of three innovative silicon pixel detectors, whose job is to measure the arrival time and the position of the incoming beam particles. Installed in the heart of the NA62 detector, the silicon sensors are cooled down (to about -20 degrees Celsius) by a microfluidic silicon device. “The cooling system is needed to remove the heat produced by the readout chips the silicon sensor is bonded to,” explains Alessandro Mapelli, microsystems engineer working in the Physics department. “For the NA62 Gigatracker we have designed a cooling plate on top of which both the silicon sensor and the...

  18. A model predictive framework of Ground Source Heat Pump coupled with Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage System in heating and cooling equipment of a building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rostampour Samarin, V.; Bloemendal, J.M.; Keviczky, T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a complete model of a building heating and cooling equipment and a ground source heat pump (GSHP) coupled with an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. This model contains detailed
    mathematical representations of building thermal dynamics, ATES system dynamics, heat

  19. Performance of a day/night water heat storage system for heating and cooling of semi-closed greenhouses in mild winter climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeza, E.J.; Pérez Parra, J.J.; López, J.C.; Gázquez, J.C.; Meca, D.E.; Stanghellini, C.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Montero, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    A novel system for heating/cooling greenhouses based on air/water heat exchangers connected to a thermally stratified water storage tank was tested in a small greenhouse compartment at the Experimental Station of the Cajamar Foundation in Almería, Spain. The system maintained a closed greenhouse (no

  20. Storage of HLW in engineered structures: air-cooled and water-cooled concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahner, S.; Dekais, J.J.; Puttke, B.; Staner, P.

    1981-01-01

    A comparative study on an air-cooled and a water-cooled intermediate storage of vitrified, highly radioactive waste (HLW) in overground installations has been performed by Nukem and Belgonucleaire respectively. In the air-cooled storage concept the decay heat from the storage area will be removed using natural convection. In the water-cooled storage concept the decay heat is carried off by a primary and secondary forced-cooling system with redundant and diverse devices. The safety study carried out by Nukem used a fault tree method. It shows that the reliability of the designed water-cooled system is very high and comparable to the inherent, safe, air-cooled system. The impact for both concepts on the environment is determined by the release route, but even during accident conditions the release is far below permissible limits. The economic analysis carried out by Belgonucleaire shows that the construction costs for both systems do not differ very much, but the operation and maintenance costs for the water-cooled facility are higher than for the air cooled facility. The result of the safety and economic analysis and the discussions with the members of the working group have shown some possible significant modifications for both systems, which are included in this report. The whole study has been carried out using certain national criteria which, in certain Member States at least, would lead to a higher standard of safety than can be justified on any social, political or economic grounds

  1. Alternatives for metal hydride storage bed heating and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, I.A.; Ramirez, F.B.; Koonce, J.E.; Ward, D.E.; Heung, L.K.; Weimer, M.; Berkebile, W.; French, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen isotopes with the storage bed hydride material is exothermic during absorption and endothermic during desorption. Therefore, storage bed operation requires a cooling system to remove heat during absorption, and a heating system to add the heat needed for desorption. Three storage bed designs and their associated methods of heating and cooling and accountability are presented within. The first design is the current RTF (Replacement Tritium Facility) nitrogen heating and cooling system. The second design uses natural convection cooling with ambient glove box nitrogen and electrical resistance for heating. This design is referred to as the Naturally Cooled/Electrically Heated (NCEH) design. The third design uses forced convection cooling with ambient glove box nitrogen and electrical resistance for heating. The design is referred to as the Forced Convection Cooled/Electrically Heated (FCCEH) design. In this report the operation, storage bed design, and equipment required for heating, cooling, and accountability of each design are described. The advantages and disadvantages of each design are listed and discussed. Based on the information presented within, it is recommended that the NCEH design be selected for further development

  2. Process fluid cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system of heat exchangers is disclosed for cooling process fluids. The system is particularly applicable to cooling steam generator blowdown fluid in a nuclear plant prior to chemical purification of the fluid in which it minimizes the potential of boiling of the plant cooling water which cools the blowdown fluid

  3. A simplified model to study the location impact of latent thermal energy storage in building cooling heating and power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yin; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yinping; Zhuo, Siwen

    2016-01-01

    Introducing the thermal energy storage (TES) equipment into the building cooling heating and power (BCHP) system proves to be an effective way to improve the part load performance of the whole system and save the primary energy consumption. The location of TES in BCHP has a great impact on the thermal performance of the whole system. In this paper, a simplified model of TES-BCHP system composed of a gas turbine, an absorption chiller/an absorption heat pump, and TES equipment with phase change materials (PCM) is presented. In order to minimize the primary energy consumption, the performances of BCHP systems with different PCM-TES locations (upstream and downstream) are analyzed and compared, for a typical hotel and an office building respectively. Moreover, the influence of the thermal performance of PCM-TES equipment on the energy saving effect of the whole system is investigated. The results confirm that PCM-TES can improve the energy efficiency and reduce the installed capacities of energy supply equipment, and that the optimal TES location in BCHP highly depends on the thermal performance of the TES equipment and the user load characteristics. It also indicates that: 1) the primary energy saving ratio of PCM-TES-BCHP increases with increasing NTU of TES; 2) for the studied cases, downstream TES location becomes more preferable when user loads fluctuate greatly; 3) only downstream TES can reduce the installed capacities of absorption chiller/absorption heat pump. This work can provide guidance for PCM-TES-BCHP system design. - Highlights: • A simplified model of the PCM-TES-BCHP system is established. • TES can increase energy efficiency and decrease installed capacity of equipment. • Primary energy saving ratio increases with increasing NTU of TES. • Downstream TES location is more preferable when user loads fluctuate greatly. • Optimal TES location depends on equipment performances and load characteristics.

  4. Cooled Water Production System,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invention refers to the field of air conditioning and regards an apparatus for obtaining cooled water . The purpose of the invention is to develop...such a system for obtaining cooled water which would permit the maximum use of the cooling effect of the water -cooling tower.

  5. Radiative cooling for storage of vegetables in the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaruddin, A; Wilujeng, T; Mahendra, M S

    2000-07-01

    Radiative cooling in combination with packed bed cooling tower may be applicable in establishing low cost and environmentally friendly pre-cooling and temporary storage facility in vegetable growing areas in Indonesia. To test the possibility of such a system, an experiment using a prototype storage system had been conducted in Candikuning village in Bali, Indonesia. From this test it was recorded that the attainable storage temperature was between 18 and 22{sup o}C. Under this environment tomatoes and potatoes, packed with stretch film could be stored respectively, for 16 days with weight loss of 1.7% and for 21 days with weight loss of 0.4%. After 4 days of storage, broccoli with 4 hours precooling, the recorded minimum weight loss was 4.9%. (author)

  6. Comparative analysis of thermal storage cooling and storage battery cooling using photovoltaic generation. Part 2. Research on architectural systematization of energy conversion devices; Taiyoko hatsuden ni yoru chikunetsu reibo to chikuden reibo ni tsuite. 2. Energy henkan no kenchiku system ka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, N; Kimura, G; Fukao, S; Shimizu, T; Sunaga, N; Tsunoda, M; Muro, K; Yamanaka, S [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For use in energy self-sufficient buildings, a system was studied capable of retaining for its own use the excess of power produced by a photovoltaic power generation system without releasing it to the commercial system. Summertime cooling was considered. The storage battery cooling system was provided with two solar cell systems and, in the daytime, one was used for cooling and the other for charging batteries for nighttime cooling. In the cold heat storage cooling system, cold heat accumulators (red bricks) were provided in the wall and floor, and under the floor, and the floor was a grating for proper ventilation between the room and underfloor space. With the solar cell-driven air conditioner out of operation, cold heat was fed to the room from the underfloor cold heat accumulators by a fan. In storage battery cooling, solar power covered 60% of what the air conditioner used. In the presence of sufficient power in storage, the air conditioner stayed on at night without buying commercial power, when the room temperature was 25{degree}C. In the cold heat accumulation cooling, 50% of the air conditioner power consumption was covered by solar power. It is recommended to install cold heat accumulators not in the room but in a separate space, such as the underfloor space, where they are exposed to the cooling cold air direct from an air conditioner for future retrieval of cold heat. 2 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Thermal energy storage for cooling of commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Mertol, A. (Science Applications International Corp., Los Altos, CA (USA))

    1988-07-01

    The storage of coolness'' has been in use in limited applications for more than a half century. Recently, because of high electricity costs during utilities' peak power periods, thermal storage for cooling has become a prime target for load management strategies. Systems with cool storage shift all or part of the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak hours to take advantage of reduced demand charges and/or off-peak rates. Thermal storage technology applies equally to industrial, commercial, and residential sectors. In the industrial sector, because of the lack of economic incentives and the custom design required for each application, the penetration of this technology has been limited to a few industries. The penetration rate in the residential sector has been also very limited due to the absence of economic incentives, sizing problems, and the lack of compact packaged systems. To date, the most promising applications of these systems, therefore, appear to be for commercial cooling. In this report, the current and potential use of thermal energy storage systems for cooling commercial buildings is investigated. In addition, a general overview of the technology is presented and the applicability and cost-effectiveness of this technology for developed and developing countries are discussed. 28 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Dry cooling with night cool storage to enhance solar power plants performance in extreme conditions areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, J.; Martínez-Val, J.M.; Abbas, R.; Abánades, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solar thermo-electric power plants with thermal storage for condenser cooling. ► Technology to mitigate the negative effect on Rankine cycles of the day-time high temperatures in deserts. ► Electricity production augmentation in demand-peak hours by the use of day-night temperature difference. -- Abstract: Solar thermal power plants are usually installed in locations with high yearly average solar radiation, often deserts. In such conditions, cooling water required for thermodynamic cycles is rarely available. Moreover, when solar radiation is high, ambient temperature is very high as well; this leads to excessive condensation temperature, especially when air-condensers are used, and decreases the plant efficiency. However, temperature variation in deserts is often very high, which drives to relatively low temperatures during the night. This fact can be exploited with the use of a closed cooling system, so that the coolant (water) is chilled during the night and store. Chilled water is then used during peak temperature hours to cool the condenser (dry cooling), thus enhancing power output and efficiency. The present work analyzes the performance improvement achieved by night thermal cool storage, compared to its equivalent air cooled power plant. Dry cooling is proved to be energy-effective for moderately high day–night temperature differences (20 °C), often found in desert locations. The storage volume requirement for different power plant efficiencies has also been studied, resulting on an asymptotic tendency.

  9. Heat-pump cool storage in a clathrate of freon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, J. J.

    Presented are the analytical description and assessment of a unique heat pump/storage system in which the conventional evaporator of the vapor compression cycle is replaced by a highly efficient direct contract crystallizer. The thermal storage technique requires the formation of a refrigerant gas hydrate (a clathrate) and exploits an enthalpy of reaction comparable to the heat of fusion of ice. Additional system operational benefits include cool storage at the favorable temperatures of 4 to 7 C (40 to 45 F), and highly efficient heat transfer ates afforded by he direct contact mechanism. In addition, the experimental approach underway at ORNL to study such a system is discussed.

  10. Experimental Studies of Phase Change and Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials in a Cold Storage/Transportation System with Solar Driven Cooling Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Zheng; Wei Zhang; Fei Liang; Shuang Lin; Xiangyu Jin

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the different properties of phase change material (PCM) and Microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM) employed to cold storage/transportation system with a solar-driven cooling cycle. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) tests have been performed to analyze the materials enthalpy, melting temperature range, and temperature range of solidification. KD2 Pro is used to test the thermal conductivities of phase change materials slurry and the results were used to compar...

  11. Cooling water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  12. Investigation of the thermal performance of a vertical two-phase closed thermosyphon as a passive cooling system for a nuclear reactor spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusuma, Mukhsinun Hadi; Putra, Nandy; Imawan, Ficky Augusta [Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering Universitas Indonesia, Kampus (Indonesia); Antariksawan, Anhar Riza [Centre for Nuclear Reactor Safety and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong (Indonesia)

    2017-04-15

    The decay heat that is produced by nuclear reactor spent fuel must be cooled in a spent fuel storage pool. A wickless heat pipe or a vertical two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) is used to remove this decay heat. The objective of this research is to investigate the thermal performance of a prototype model for a large-scale vertical TPCT as a passive cooling system for a nuclear research reactor spent fuel storage pool. An experimental investigation and numerical simulation using RELAP5/MOD 3.2 were used to investigate the TPCT thermal performance. The effects of the initial pressure, filling ratio, and heat load were analyzed. Demineralized water was used as the TPCT working fluid. The cooled water was circulated in the water jacket as a cooling system. The experimental results show that the best thermal performance was obtained at a thermal resistance of 0.22°C/W, the lowest initial pressure, a filling ratio of 60%, and a high evaporator heat load. The simulation model that was experimentally validated showed a pattern and trend line similar to those of the experiment and can be used to predict the heat transfer phenomena of TPCT with varying inputs.

  13. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji; Oikawa, Hirohide.

    1990-01-01

    The device according to this invention can ensure cooling water required for emerency core cooling upon emergence such as abnormally, for example, loss of coolant accident, without using dynamic equipments such as a centrifugal pump or large-scaled tank. The device comprises a pressure accumulation tank containing a high pressure nitrogen gas and cooling water inside, a condensate storage tank, a pressure suppression pool and a jet stream pump. In this device there are disposed a pipeline for guiding cooling water in the pressure accumulation tank as a jetting water to a jetting stream pump, a pipeline for guiding cooling water stored in the condensate storage tank and the pressure suppression pool as pumped water to the jetting pump and, further, a pipeline for guiding the discharged water from the jet stream pump which is a mixed stream of pumped water and jetting water into the reactor pressure vessel. In this constitution, a sufficient amount of water ranging from relatively high pressure to low pressure can be supplied into the reactor pressure vessel, without increasing the size of the pressure accumulation tank. (I.S.)

  14. Experimental Studies of Phase Change and Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials in a Cold Storage/Transportation System with Solar Driven Cooling Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the different properties of phase change material (PCM and Microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM employed to cold storage/transportation system with a solar-driven cooling cycle. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC tests have been performed to analyze the materials enthalpy, melting temperature range, and temperature range of solidification. KD2 Pro is used to test the thermal conductivities of phase change materials slurry and the results were used to compare the materials heat transfer performance. The slurry flow characteristics of MEPCM slurry also have been tested. Furthermore, in order to analyze the improvement effect on stability, the stability of MEPCM slurry with different surfactants have been tested. The researches of the PCM and MEPCM thermal properties revealed a more prospective application for phase change materials in energy storage/transportation systems. The study aims to find the most suitable chilling medium to further optimize the design of the cold storage/transportation systems with solar driven cooling cycles.

  15. Central unresolved issues in thermal energy storage for building heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swet, C.J.; Baylin, F.

    1980-07-01

    This document explores the frontier of the rapidly expanding field of thermal energy storage, investigates unresolved issues, outlines research aimed at finding solutions, and suggests avenues meriting future research. Issues related to applications include value-based ranking of storage concepts, temperature constraints, consistency of assumptions, nomenclature and taxonomy, and screening criteria for materials. Issues related to technologies include assessing seasonal storage concepts, diurnal coolness storage, selection of hot-side storage concepts for cooling-only systems, phase-change storage in building materials, freeze protection for solar water heating systems, and justification of phase-change storage for active solar space heating.

  16. Laser system for cooling of relativistic C{sup 3+}-ion beams in storage rings; Lasersystem zur Kuehlung relativistischer C{sup 3+}-Ionenstrahlen in Speicherringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Tobias

    2015-02-15

    Cold ion beams are essential for many precision experiments at storage rings. While spectroscopic experiments gain from the high energy resolution, collision experiments benefit from the increased luminosity. Furthermore, sympathetic cooling of exotic species is conceivable with the aid of cold ion beams. Besides the long established electron cooling, alternative cooling methods are gaining in importance, especially for high energy particles. In the past, experiments to cool ions with lasers were performed. Because of the matching wavelength and output power, frequency doubled Argon-ion lasers at 257 nm were used during these experiments. Due to the strongly limited scanning potential of these systems, it was not possible to cool the full inertia spread of the ion beams. A new laser system was developed in this thesis because of the lack of commercial alternatives. After the characterization of the system, it was tested during a beamtime at the Experimentierspeicherring (ESR) at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI). The completely solid state based system delivers up to 180 mW of output power at 257 nm and is modehop free tunable up to 16 GHz in 10 ms at this wavelength. By using efficient diode lasers, the new system consumes considerably less power than comparable Argon-ion lasers. The fundamental wavelength of 1028 nm is amplified up to 16 W with an Yb-doped fiber amplifier. Subsequently, the target wavelength of 257 nm is realized in two consecutive build-up cavities. Another diode laser, stabilized to a wavelength meter, serves as a frequency reference. This new laser system first came to operation during beamtime in August 2012, when relativistic C{sup 3+} ions with β=0.47 were cooled successfully. For the first time it was possible to access the whole inertia spread of a bunched ion beam without electron precooling. In contrast to prior experiments, only the laser frequency was scanned and not the bunching frequency of the ion beam. The results

  17. Core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeppner, G.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor cooling system transports the heat liberated in the reactor core to the component - heat exchanger, steam generator or turbine - where the energy is removed. This basic task can be performed with a variety of coolants circulating in appropriately designed cooling systems. The choice of any one system is governed by principles of economics and natural policies, the design is determined by the laws of nuclear physics, thermal-hydraulics and by the requirement of reliability and public safety. PWR- and BWR- reactors today generate the bulk of nuclear energy. Their primary cooling systems are discussed under the following aspects: 1. General design, nuclear physics constraints, energy transfer, hydraulics, thermodynamics. 2. Design and performance under conditions of steady state and mild transients; control systems. 3. Design and performance under conditions of severe transients and loss of coolant accidents; safety systems. (orig./RW)

  18. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Don E [ORNL; Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL; Becklehimer, Jeff [Cray, Inc.; Donovan, Matthew J [ORNL; Layton, Christopher C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  19. Turbine airfoil cooling system with cooling systems using high and low pressure cooling fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Messmann, Stephen John; Scribner, Carmen Andrew

    2017-10-25

    A turbine airfoil cooling system including a low pressure cooling system and a high pressure cooling system for a turbine airfoil of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, the low pressure cooling system may be an ambient air cooling system, and the high pressure cooling system may be a compressor bleed air cooling system. In at least one embodiment, the compressor bleed air cooling system in communication with a high pressure subsystem that may be a snubber cooling system positioned within a snubber. A delivery system including a movable air supply tube may be used to separate the low and high pressure cooling subsystems. The delivery system may enable high pressure cooling air to be passed to the snubber cooling system separate from low pressure cooling fluid supplied by the low pressure cooling system to other portions of the turbine airfoil cooling system.

  20. Reactor cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Etsuji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate cleaning steps in the pipelines upon reactor shut-down by connecting a filtrating and desalting device to the cooling system to thereby always clean up the water in the pipelines. Constitution: A filtrating and desalting device is connected to the pipelines in the cooling system by way of drain valves and a check valve. Desalted water is taken out from the exit of the filtrating and desalting device and injected to one end of the cooling system pipelines by way of the drain valve and the check valve and then returned by way of another drain valve to the desalting device. Water in the pipelines is thus always desalted and the cleaning step in the pipelines is no more required in the shut-down. (Kawakami, Y.)

  1. ITER cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.; Hollies, R.E.; Sochaski, R.O.; Stubley, P.H.

    1992-06-01

    The ITER reference system uses low-temperature water for heat removal and high-temperature helium for bake-out. As these systems share common equipment, bake-out cannot be performed until the cooling system is drained and dried, and the reactor cannot be started until the helium has been purged from the cooling system. This study examines the feasibility of using a single high-temperature fluid to perform both heat removal and bake-out. The high temperature required for bake-out would also be in the range for power production. The study examines cost, operational benefits, and impact on reactor safety of two options: a high-pressure water system, and a low-pressure organic system. It was concluded that the cost savings and operational benefits are significant; there are no significant adverse safety impacts from operating either the water system or the organic system; and the capital costs of both systems are comparable

  2. Development of vitrified waste storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namiki, S.; Tani, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have developed the radioactive waste vitrification technology and the vitrified waste storage technology. Regarding the vitrified waste storage system development, the authors have completed the design of two types of storage systems. One is a forced convection air cooling system, and the other is a natural convection air cooling system. They have carried out experiments and heat transfer analysis, seismic analysis, vitrified waste dropping and radiation shielding, etc. In this paper, the following three subjects, are discussed: the cooling air flow experiment, the wind effect experiment on the cooling air flow pattern, using a wind tunnel apparatus and the structural integrity evaluation on the dropping vitrified waste

  3. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masaki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To actuate an automatic pressure down system (ADS) and a low pressure emergency core cooling system (ECCS) upon water level reduction of a nuclear reactor other than loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Constitution: ADS in a BWR type reactor is disposed for reducing the pressure in a reactor container thereby enabling coolant injection from a low pressure ECCS upon LOCA. That is, ADS has been actuated by AND signal for a reactor water level low signal and a dry well pressure high signal. In the present invention, ADS can be actuated further also by AND signal of the reactor water level low signal, the high pressure ECCS and not-operation signal of reactor isolation cooling system. In such an emergency core cooling system thus constituted, ADS operates in the same manner as usual upon LOCA and, further, ADS is operated also upon loss of feedwater accident in the reactor pressure vessel in the case where there is a necessity for actuating the low pressure ECCS, although other high pressure ECCS and reactor isolation cooling system are not operated. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the reliability upon reactor core accident and mitigate the operator burden. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. PEP cooling water systems and underground piped utilities design criteria report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, F.; Robbins, D.

    1975-10-01

    This paper discusses the cooling systems required by the PEP Storage Ring. Particular topics discussed are: Cooling tower systems, RF cavity and vacuum chamber LCW cooling systems, klystron and ring magnet LLW cooling systems, Injection magnet LCW Cooling Systems; PEP interaction area detector LCW Cooling Systems; and underground piped utilities. 1 ref., 20 figs

  5. Thermal–economic–environmental analysis and multi-objective optimization of an ice thermal energy storage system for gas turbine cycle inlet air cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Ali; Najafi, Behzad; Aminyavari, Mehdi; Rinaldi, Fabio; Taylor, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a mathematical model of an ice thermal energy storage (ITES) system for gas turbine cycle inlet air cooling is developed and thermal, economic, and environmental (emissions cost) analyses have been applied to the model. While taking into account conflicting thermodynamic and economic objective functions, a multi-objective genetic algorithm is employed to obtain the optimal design parameters of the plant. Exergetic efficiency is chosen as the thermodynamic objective while the total cost rate of the system including the capital and operational costs of the plant and the social cost of emissions, is considered as the economic objective. Performing the optimization procedure, a set of optimal solutions, called a Pareto front, is obtained. The final optimal design point is determined using TOPSIS decision-making method. This optimum solution results in the exergetic efficiency of 34.06% and the total cost of 28.7 million US$ y −1 . Furthermore, the results demonstrate that inlet air cooling using an ITES system leads to 11.63% and 3.59% improvement in the output power and exergetic efficiency of the plant, respectively. The extra cost associated with using the ITES system is paid back in 4.72 years with the income received from selling the augmented power. - Highlights: • Mathematical model of an ITES system for a GT cycle inlet air cooling is developed. • Exergetic, economic and environmental analyses were performed on the developed model. • Exergy efficiency and total cost rate were considered as the objective functions. • The total cost rate involves the capital, maintenance, operational and emissions costs. • Multi-objective optimization was applied to obtain the Pareto front

  6. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Nobuaki.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor comprises a static emergency reactor core cooling system having an automatic depressurization system and a gravitationally dropping type water injection system and a container cooling system by an isolation condenser. A depressurization pipeline of the automatic depressurization system connected to a reactor pressure vessel branches in the midway. The branched depressurizing pipelines are extended into an upper dry well and a lower dry well, in which depressurization valves are disposed at the top end portions of the pipelines respectively. If loss-of-coolant accidents should occur, the depressurization valve of the automatic depressurization system is actuated by lowering of water level in the pressure vessel. This causes nitrogen gases in the upper and the lower dry wells to transfer together with discharged steams effectively to a suppression pool passing through a bent tube. Accordingly, the gravitationally dropping type water injection system can be actuated faster. Further, subsequent cooling for the reactor vessel can be ensured sufficiently by the isolation condenser. (I.N.)

  7. ITER cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-11-01

    The present specification of the ITER cooling system does not permit its operation with water above 150 C. However, the first wall needs to be heated to higher temperatures during conditioning at 250 C and bake-out at 350 C. In order to use the cooling water for these operations the cooling system would have to operate during conditioning at 37 Bar and during bake-out at 164 Bar. This is undesirable from the safety analysis point of view, and alternative heating methods are to be found. This review suggests that superheated steam or gas heating can be used for both baking and conditioning. The blanket design must consider the use of dual heat transfer media, allowing for change from one to another in both directions. Transfer from water to gas or steam is the most intricate and risky part of the entire heating process. Superheated steam conditioning appears unfavorable. The use of inert gas is recommended, although alternative heating fluids such as organic coolant should be investigated

  8. Lamination cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Kobayashi, Daryl M.

    2005-10-11

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a lamination cooling system including a stack of laminations, each defining a plurality of apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define a plurality of cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack, and gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed to prevent a liquid cooling fluid in the passageways from escaping between the laminations. The gaps are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. The apertures of each lamination can be coincident with the same-sized apertures of adjacent laminations to form straight passageways, or they can vary in size, shape and/or position to form non-axial passageways, angled passageways, bidirectional passageways, and manifold sections of passageways that connect a plurality of different passageway sections. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  9. Thermoelectric cooling in combination with photovoltaics and thermal energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skovajsa Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of modern technologies that can improve the thermal comfort in buildings. The article describes the usage of thermal energy storage device based on the phase change material (PCM. The technology improves the thermal capacity of the building and it is possible to use it for active heating and cooling. It is designed as a “green technology” so it is able to use renewable energy sources, e.g., photovoltaic panels, solar thermal collectors, and heat pump. Moreover, an interesting possibility is the ability to use thermal energy storage in combination with a photovoltaic system and thermoelectric coolers. In the research, there were made measurements of the different operating modes and the results are presented in the text.

  10. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  11. Laser-Cooled Ions and Atoms in a Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, J.; Hannemann, S.; Eike, B.; Eisenbarth, U.; Grieser, M.; Grimm, R.; Gwinner, G.; Karpuk, S.; Saathoff, G.; Schramm, U.; Schwalm, D.; Weidemueller, M.

    2003-01-01

    We review recent experiments at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring which apply advanced laser cooling techniques to stored ion beams. Very high phase-space densities are achieved by three-dimensional laser cooling of a coasting 9 Be + beam at 7.3 MeV. Laser-cooled, trapped Cs atoms are used as an ultracold precision target for the study of ion-atom interactions with a 74 MeV beam of 12 C 6+ ions.

  12. Rotary engine cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

  13. Charging and discharging characteristics of cool thermal energy storage system with horizontal pipes using water as phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sait, H.H.; Selim, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ice is formed around horizontal tubes. • Optimum solid ice releasing is found. • Freezing and releasing of ice are controlled by ice resistance, time and tubes spacing. - Abstract: An experimental investigation of ice formation on cold vertical banks of horizontal tubes subjected to falling-film– jet mode– is conducted. In the charging process, a set of internally cooled vertical banks of horizontal tubes of brine is subjected to a falling film of water. The formed ice is periodically observed, photographed and measured in falling-film jet mode at specific internal coolant (ethylene–glycol solution) flow rates and temperatures. In the discharge process, the same solution is heated and used internally to release ice. Different thicknesses of the released ice are observed and measured. The maximum quantity of released ice is obtained and the optimum ice formation is determined. The results indicate that the ice formation and the solid ice released are controlled by the thermal resistance of the ice, time and pitch between tubes. The maximum gained ice has a thickness that is approximately equal to half of the tube spacing between the tubes utilized, which is formed in approximately 45 min and released in 12.5 min. The variation in heating solution temperature has a slight effect on the gained ice and discharging time

  14. Cooling water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, ECCS system is constituted as a so-called stand-by system which is not used during usual operation and there is a significant discontinuity in relation with the usual system. It is extremely important that ECCS operates upon occurrence of accidents just as specified. In view of the above in the present invention, the stand-by system is disposed along the same line with the usual system. That is, a driving water supply pump for supplying driving water to a jet pump is driven by a driving mechanism. The driving mechanism drives continuously the driving water supply pump in a case if an expected accident such as loss of the function of the water supply pump, as well as during normal operation. That is, all of the water supply pump, jet pump, driving water supply pump and driving mechanism therefor are caused to operate also during normal operation. The operation of them are not initiated upon accident. Thus, the cooling water injection system can perform at high reliability to remarkably improve the plant safety. (K.M.)

  15. Modelization of cooling system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copete, Monica; Ortega, Silvia; Vaquero, Jose Carlos; Cervantes, Eva [Westinghouse Electric (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    In the site evaluation study for licensing a new nuclear power facility, the criteria involved could be grouped in health and safety, environment, socio-economics, engineering and cost-related. These encompass different aspects such as geology, seismology, cooling system requirements, weather conditions, flooding, population, and so on. The selection of the cooling system is function of different parameters as the gross electrical output, energy consumption, available area for cooling system components, environmental conditions, water consumption, and others. Moreover, in recent years, extreme environmental conditions have been experienced and stringent water availability limits have affected water use permits. Therefore, modifications or alternatives of current cooling system designs and operation are required as well as analyses of the different possibilities of cooling systems to optimize energy production taking into account water consumption among other important variables. There are two basic cooling system configurations: - Once-through or Open-cycle; - Recirculating or Closed-cycle. In a once-through cooling system (or open-cycle), water from an external water sources passes through the steam cycle condenser and is then returned to the source at a higher temperature with some level of contaminants. To minimize the thermal impact to the water source, a cooling tower may be added in a once-through system to allow air cooling of the water (with associated losses on site due to evaporation) prior to returning the water to its source. This system has a high thermal efficiency, and its operating and capital costs are very low. So, from an economical point of view, the open-cycle is preferred to closed-cycle system, especially if there are no water limitations or environmental restrictions. In a recirculating system (or closed-cycle), cooling water exits the condenser, goes through a fixed heat sink, and is then returned to the condenser. This configuration

  16. Electron beam cooling at a magnetic storage ring, TARN II, and an electrostatic storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tetsumi

    2006-01-01

    At the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), a magnetic storage ring, TARN II, with an electron cooler was operated from 1989 to 1999, while an electrostatic storage ring with a small electron cooler has been operational since 2000. In this paper, the electron cooling at TARN II and the electrostatic storage ring is described. (author)

  17. Core cooling system for reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Ryoichi; Amada, Tatsuo.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the function of residual heat dissipation from the reactor core in case of emergency by providing a secondary cooling system flow channel, through which fluid having been subjected to heat exchange with the fluid flowing in a primary cooling system flow channel flows, with a core residual heat removal system in parallel with a main cooling system provided with a steam generator. Constitution: Heat generated in the core during normal reactor operation is transferred from a primary cooling system flow channel to a secondary cooling system flow channel through a main heat exchanger and then transferred through a steam generator to a water-steam system flow channel. In the event if removal of heat from the core by the main cooling system becomes impossible due to such cause as breakage of the duct line of the primary cooling system flow channel or a trouble in a primary cooling system pump, a flow control valve is opened, and steam generator inlet and outlet valves are closed, thus increasing the flow rate in the core residual heat removal system. Thereafter, a blower is started to cause dissipation of the core residual heat from the flow channel of a system for heat dissipation to atmosphere. (Seki, T.)

  18. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Akira; Kobayashi, Masahide.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To enable a stable operation of an emergency core cooling system by preventing the system from the automatic stopping at an abnormally high level of the reactor water during its operation. Constitution: A pump flow rate signal and a reactor water level signal are used and, when the reactor water level is increased to a predetermined level, the pump flow rate is controlled by the reactor water level signal instead of the flow rate signal. Specifically, when the reactor water level is gradually increased by the water injection from the pump and exceeds a setting signal for the water level, the water level deviation signal acts as a demand signal for the decrease in the flow rate of the pump and the output signal from the water level controller is also decreased depending on the control constant. At a certain point, the output signal from the water level controller becomes smaller than the output signal from the flow rate controller. Thus, the output signal from the water level controller is outputted as the output signal for the lower level preference device. In this way, the reactor water level and the pump flow rate can be controlled within a range not exceeding the predetermined pump flow rate. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. Active space cooling with night-coldness - development of a decentralized ventilation system with latent heat storage; Aktive Raumkuehlung mit Nachkaelte - Entwicklung eines dezentralen Lueftungsgeraetes mit Latentwaermespeicher. Imtech-Haus, Hamburg Referenzanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luedemann, B.; Detzer, R. [Imtech Deutschland, Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Imtech Germany a decentralized ventilation system with a latent heat-storage unit made of Phase Change Material. The equipment was used successfully in a first reference asset in the Imtech house in Hamburg. During the day active space cooling is realized by storage of night-cold. In combination with a night ventilation the attached areas could be held continuous within the comfort range under 26 C under normal summer conditions. The decentralized ventilation system including control is developed to series production readiness and will be introduced now on the market. (orig.)

  20. Laser-Cooled Ions and Atoms in a Storage Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert, J.; Hannemann, S.; Eike, B.; Eisenbarth, U.; Grieser, M.; Grimm, R.; Gwinner, G.; Karpuk, S.; Saathoff, G.; Schramm, U.; Schwalm, D.; Weidemueller, M., E-mail: m.weidemueller@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)

    2003-03-15

    We review recent experiments at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring which apply advanced laser cooling techniques to stored ion beams. Very high phase-space densities are achieved by three-dimensional laser cooling of a coasting {sup 9}Be{sup +} beam at 7.3 MeV. Laser-cooled, trapped Cs atoms are used as an ultracold precision target for the study of ion-atom interactions with a 74 MeV beam of {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ions.

  1. COOLING STAGES OF CRYOGENIC SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Троценко, А. В.

    2011-01-01

    The formalized definition for cooling stage of low temperature system is done. Based on existing information about the known cryogenic unit cycles the possible types of cooling stages are single out. From analyses of these stages their classification by various characteristics is suggested. The results of thermodynamic optimization of final throttle stage of cooling, which are used as working fluids helium, hydrogen and nitrogen, are shown.

  2. Development of a single-phase thermosiphon for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dongliang; Martini, Christine Elizabeth; Jiang, Siyu; Ma, Yaoguang; Zhai, Yao; Tan, Gang; Yin, Xiaobo; Yang, Ronggui

    2017-11-01

    A single-phase thermosiphon is developed for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling. Compared to the conventional nocturnal radiative cooling systems that use an electric pump to drive the heat transfer fluid, the proposed single-phase thermosiphon uses the buoyancy force to drive heat transfer fluid. This solution does not require electricity, therefore improving the net gain of the radiative cooling system. A single-phase thermosiphon was built, which consists of a flat panel, a cold collection tank, a water return tube, and a water distribution tank. Considering that outdoor radiative cooling flux is constantly changing (i.e. uncontrollable), an indoor testing facility was developed to provide a controllable cooling flux (comparable to a radiative cooling flux of 100 W/m2) for the evaluation of thermosiphon performance. The testing apparatus is a chilled aluminum flat plate that has a controlled air gap separation relative to the flat panel surface of the thermosiphon to emulate radiative cooling. With an average of 105 W/m2 cooling flux, the 18 liters of water in the thermosiphon was cooled to an average temperature of 12.5 degrees C from an initial temperature of 22.2 degrees C in 2 h, with a cold collection efficiency of 96.8%. The results obtained have demonstrated the feasibility of using a single-phase thermosiphon for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling. Additionally, the effects of the thermosiphon operation conditions, such as tilt angle of the flat panel, initial water temperature, and cooling energy flux, on the performance have been experimentally investigated. Modular design of the single-phase thermosiphon gives flexibility for its scalability. A radiative cooling system with multiple thermosiphon modules is expected to play an important role in cooling buildings and power plant condensers.

  3. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section 153.432 Shipping COAST... Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling systems. (a) Each cargo cooling system must have an equivalent standby... cooling system. (b) Each tankship that has a cargo tank with a required cooling system must have a manual...

  4. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  5. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Ken.

    1989-01-01

    In PWR type reactors, a cooling water spray portion of emergency core cooling pipelines incorporated into pipelines on high temperature side is protruded to the inside of an upper plenum. Upon rupture of primary pipelines, pressure in a pressure vessel is abruptly reduced to generate a great amount of steams in the reactor core, which are discharged at a high flow rate into the primary pipelines on high temperature side. However, since the inside of the upper plenum has a larger area and the steam flow is slow, as compared with that of the pipelines on the high temperature side, ECCS water can surely be supplied into the reactor core to promote the re-flooding of the reactor core and effectively cool the reactor. Since the nuclear reactor can effectively be cooled to enable the promotion of pressure reduction and effective supply of coolants during the period of pressure reduction upon LOCA, the capacity of the pressure accumulation vessel can be decreased. Further, the re-flooding time for the reactor is shortened to provide an effect contributing to the improvement of the safety and the reduction of the cost. (N.H.)

  6. Coupled cooling method and application of latent heat thermal energy storage combined with pre-cooling of envelope: Method and model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yanping; Gao, Xiangkui; Wu, Hongwei; Zhang, Zujin; Cao, Xiaoling; Sun, Liangliang; Yu, Nanyang

    2017-01-01

    The traditional cooling methods cannot meet the requirements of safety, stability, reliability and no-power at the same time under some special circumstances. In this study, a new coupled cooling method of Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage (LHTES) combined with Pre-cooling of Envelope (PE) is proposed and the numerical model of the coupled cooling method is developed. In the current study, a refuge chamber is selected as a case study. A semi-analytical method is used to analyze the cold storage performance of the Surrounding Rock (SR). Afterwards, a numerical model of the coupled cooling system, which takes the heat source, SR, Phase Change Material (PCM) and air heat transfer into consideration, is further established. The study identified that the simplified semi-analytical calculation formula with the diagram of the cold storage quantity of SR are very helpful for engineering calculation. The influence of the Fourier and Biot number on the cold storage capacity of SR can be easily analyzed. In addition, the whole-field model of the coupled cooling system is completely developed based on the PCM unit. - Highlights: • A new coupled cooling method that combines LHTES with PE is proposed. • This method can be applicable to a high-temperature and no-power circumstance. • The simplified calculation formula of the cold storage quantity of SR is given. • An efficient simulation model of the coupled cooling system is established.

  7. Benchmarking Cloud Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of cloud computing, many cloud storage systems like Dropbox, Google Drive and Mega have been built to provide decentralized and reliable file storage. It is thus of prime importance to know their features, performance, and the best way to make use of them. In this context, we introduce BenchCloud, a tool designed as part of this thesis to conveniently and efficiently benchmark any cloud storage system. First, we provide a study of six commonly-used cloud storage systems to ident...

  8. Superconducting magnet cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Arend, Peter C.; Fowler, William B.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for cooling a conductor to the superconducting state. The conductor is positioned within an inner conduit through which is flowing a supercooled liquid coolant in physical contact with the conductor. The inner conduit is positioned within an outer conduit so that an annular open space is formed therebetween. Through the annular space is flowing coolant in the boiling liquid state. Heat generated by the conductor is transferred by convection within the supercooled liquid coolant to the inner wall of the inner conduit and then is removed by the boiling liquid coolant, making the heat removal from the conductor relatively independent of conductor length.

  9. Cryogenic cooling system for HTS cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Shigeru [Taiyo Nippon Sanso, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Recently, Research and development activity of HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power application is very progressive worldwide. Especially, HTS cable system and HTSFCL (HTS Fault current limiter) system are proceeding to practical stages. In such system and equipment, cryogenic cooling system, which makes HTS equipment cooled lower than critical temperature, is one of crucial components. In this article, cryogenic cooling system for HTS application, mainly cable, is reviewed. Cryogenic cooling system can be categorized into conduction cooling system and immersion cooling system. In practical HTS power application area, immersion cooling system with sub-cooled liquid nitrogen is preferred. The immersion cooling system is besides grouped into open cycle system and closed cycle system. Turbo-Brayton refrigerator is a key component for closed cycle system. Those two cooling systems are focused in this article. And, each design and component of the cooling system is explained.

  10. Emergency core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubokoya, Takashi; Okataku, Yasukuni.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain the fuel soundness upon loss of primary coolant accidents in a pressure tube type nuclear reactor by injecting cooling heavy water at an early stage, to suppress the temperature of fuel cans at a lower level. Constitution: When a thermometer detects the temperature rise and a pressure gauge detects that the pressure for the primary coolants is reduced slightly from that in the normal operation upon loss of coolant accidents in the vicinity of the primary coolant circuit, heavy water is caused to flow in the heavy water feed pipeway by a controller. This enables to inject the heavy water into the reactor core in a short time upon loss of the primary coolant accidents to suppress the temperature rise in the fuel can thereby maintain the fuel soundness. (Moriyama, K.)

  11. Can storage reduce electricity consumption? A general equation for the grid-wide efficiency impact of using cooling thermal energy storage for load shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetjen, Thomas A.; Reimers, Andrew S.; Webber, Michael E.

    2018-02-01

    This study estimates changes in grid-wide, energy consumption caused by load shifting via cooling thermal energy storage (CTES) in the building sector. It develops a general equation for relating generator fleet fuel consumption to building cooling demand as a function of ambient temperature, relative humidity, transmission and distribution current, and baseline power plant efficiency. The results present a graphical sensitivity analysis that can be used to estimate how shifting load from cooling demand to cooling storage could affect overall, grid-wide, energy consumption. In particular, because power plants, air conditioners and transmission systems all have higher efficiencies at cooler ambient temperatures, it is possible to identify operating conditions such that CTES increases system efficiency rather than decreasing it as is typical for conventional storage approaches. A case study of the Dallas-Fort Worth metro area in Texas, USA shows that using CTES to shift daytime cooling load to nighttime cooling storage can reduce annual, system-wide, primary fuel consumption by 17.6 MWh for each MWh of installed CTES capacity. The study concludes that, under the right circumstances, cooling thermal energy storage can reduce grid-wide energy consumption, challenging the perception of energy storage as a net energy consumer.

  12. System for secure storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A system (100) comprising read means (112) for reading content data and control logic data from a storage medium (101), the control logic data being uniquely linked to the storage medium (101), processing means (113-117), for processing the content data and feeding the processed content data to an

  13. Cooling system upon reactor isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kohei; Oda, Shingo; Miura, Satoshi

    1992-01-01

    A water level indicator for detecting the upper limit value for a range of using a suppression pool and a thermometer for detecting the temperature of water at the cooling water inlet of an auxiliary device are disposed. When a detection signal is intaken and the water level in the suppression pool reach the upper limit value for the range of use, a secondary flow rate control value is opened and a primary flow rate control valve is closed. When the temperature of the water at the cooling water inlet of the auxiliary device reaches the upper limit value, the primary and the secondary flow rate control valves are opened. During a stand-by state, the first flow rate control valve is set open and the secondary flow rate control valve is set closed respectively. After reactor isolation, if a reactor water low level signal is received, an RCIC pump is actuated and cooling water is sent automatically under pressure from a condensate storage tank to the reactor and the auxiliary device requiring coolants by way of the primary flow rate control valve. Rated flow rate is ensured in the reactor and cooling water of an appropriate temperature can be supplied to the auxiliary device. (N.H.)

  14. A nitrogen triple-point thermal storage unit for cooling a SQUID magnetometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A.P.; Meenderink, D.J.; Reincke, H.A.; Venhorst, G.C.F.; Holland, H.J.; Brake, ter H.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to achieve turnkey operation, the use is planned of cryocoolers to cool a SQUID magnetometer system. To minimize the magnetical and mech. interference from the coolers, they are switched off during the actual measurements. Consequently, a thermal storage unit (TSU) is required with

  15. A nitrogen triple-point thermal storage unit for cooling a SQUID magnetometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A.P.; Meenderink, D.J.; Reincke, H.A.; Venhorst, G.C.F.; Venhorst, G.C.F.; Holland, Herman J.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to achieve turnkey operation, we plan to use cryocoolers to cool a SQUID magnetometer system. To minimize the magnetical and mechanical interference from the coolers, we intend to switch them off during the actual measurements. Consequently, a thermal storage unit (TSU) is required with

  16. Proceedings: Cooling tower and advanced cooling systems conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This Cooling Tower and Advanced Cooling Systems Conference was held August 30 through September 1, 1994, in St. Petersburg, Florida. The conference was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and hosted by Florida Power Corporation to bring together utility representatives, manufacturers, researchers, and consultants. Nineteen technical papers were presented in four sessions. These sessions were devoted to the following topics: cooling tower upgrades and retrofits, cooling tower performance, cooling tower fouling, and dry and hybrid systems. On the final day, panel discussions addressed current issues in cooling tower operation and maintenance as well as research and technology needs for power plant cooling. More than 100 people attended the conference. This report contains the technical papers presented at the conference. Of the 19 papers, five concern cooling tower upgrades and retrofits, five to cooling tower performance, four discuss cooling tower fouling, and five describe dry and hybrid cooling systems. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  17. Investigation of Stratified Thermal Storage Tank Performance for Heating and Cooling Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azharul Karim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of energy is consumed by heating and cooling systems to provide comfort conditions for commercial building occupants, which generally contribute to peak electricity demands. Thermal storage tanks in HVAC systems, which store heating/cooling energy in the off-peak period for use in the peak period, can be used to offset peak time energy demand. In this study, a theoretical investigation on stratified thermal storage systems is performed to determine the factors that significantly influence the thermal performance of these systems for both heating and cooling applications. Five fully-insulated storage tank geometries, using water as the storage medium, were simulated to determine the effects of water inlet velocity, tank aspect ratio and temperature difference between charging (inlet and the tank water on mixing and thermocline formation. Results indicate that thermal stratification enhances with increased temperature difference, lower inlet velocities and higher aspect ratios. It was also found that mixing increased by 303% when the temperature difference between the tank and inlet water was reduced from 80 °C to 10 °C, while decreasing the aspect ratio from 3.8 to 1.0 increased mixing by 143%. On the other hand, increasing the inlet water velocity significantly increased the storage mixing. A new theoretical relationship between the inlet water velocity and thermocline formation has been developed. It was also found that inlet flow rates can be increased, without increasing the mixing, after the formation of the thermocline.

  18. Storing energy for cooling demand management in tropical climates: A techno-economic comparison between different energy storage technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Carducci, Francesco; Sze, Jia Yin; Balamurugan, Nagarajan; Romagnoli, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of energy storage in cooling applications. Cold energy storage technologies addressed are: Li-Ion batteries (Li-Ion EES), sensible heat thermal energy storage (SHTES); phase change material (PCM TES), compressed air energy storage (CAES) and liquid air energy storage (LAES). Batteries and CAES are electrical storage systems which run the cooling systems; SHTES and PCM TES are thermal storage systems which directly store cold energy; LAES is assessed as a hybrid storage system which provides both electricity (for cooling) and cold energy. A hybrid quantitative-qualitative comparison is presented. Quantitative comparison was investigated for different sizes of daily cooling energy demand and three different tariff scenarios. A techno-economic analysis was performed to show the suitability of the different storage systems at different scales. Three parameters were used (Pay-back period, Savings-per-energy-unit and levelized-cost-of-energy) to analyze and compare the different scenarios. The qualitative analysis was based on five comparison criteria (Complexity, Technology Readiness Level, Sustainability, Flexibility and Safety). Results showed the importance of weighing the pros and cons of each technology to select a suitable cold energy storage system. Techno-economic analysis highlighted the fundamental role of tariff scenario: a greater difference between peak and off-peak electricity tariff leads to a shorter payback period of each technology. - Highlights: • Techno-economic evaluation of energy storage solutions for cooling applications. • Comparison between five energy storage (EES, SHTES, PCM, CAES, LAES) is performed. • Qualitative and quantitative performance parameters were used for the analysis. • LAES/PCM can be valid alternatives to more established technologies EES, SHTES, CAES. • Tariffs, price arbitrage and investment cost play a key role in energy storage spread.

  19. Forced draft wet cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daubert, A.; Caudron, L.; Viollet, P.L.

    1975-01-01

    The disposal of the heat released from a 1000MW power plant needs a natural draft tower of about 130m of diameter at the base, and 170m height, or a cooling system with a draft forced by about forty vans, a hundred meters in diameter, and thirty meters height. The plumes from atmospheric cooling systems form, in terms of fluid mechanics, hot jets in a cross current. They consist in complex flows that must be finely investigated with experimental and computer means. The study, currently being performed at the National Hydraulics Laboratory, shows that as far as the length and height of visible plumes are concerned, the comparison is favorable to some types of forced draft cooling system, for low and medium velocities, (below 5 or 6m/s at 10m height. Beyond these velocities, the forced draft sends the plume up to smaller heights, but the plume is generally more dilute [fr

  20. Electron cooling of a bunched ion beam in a storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Mao, Lijun; Yang, Jiancheng; Xia, Jiawen; Yang, Xiaodong; Li, Jie; Tang, Meitang; Shen, Guodong; Ma, Xiaoming; Wu, Bo; Wang, Geng; Ruan, Shuang; Wang, Kedong; Dong, Ziqiang

    2018-02-01

    A combination of electron cooling and rf system is an effective method to compress the beam bunch length in storage rings. A simulation code based on multiparticle tracking was developed to calculate the bunched ion beam cooling process, in which the electron cooling, intrabeam scattering (IBS), ion beam space-charge field, transverse and synchrotron motion are considered. Meanwhile, bunched ion beam cooling experiments have been carried out in the main cooling storage ring (CSRm) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou, to investigate the minimum bunch length obtained by the cooling method, and study the dependence of the minimum bunch length on beam and machine parameters. The experiments show comparable results to those from simulation. Based on these simulations and experiments, we established an analytical model to describe the limitation of the bunch length of the cooled ion beam. It is observed that the IBS effect is dominant for low intensity beams, and the space-charge effect is much more important for high intensity beams. Moreover, the particles will not be bunched for much higher intensity beam. The experimental results in CSRm show a good agreement with the analytical model in the IBS dominated regime. The simulation work offers us comparable results to those from the analytical model both in IBS dominated and space-charge dominated regimes.

  1. TPX heating and cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kungl, D.J.; Knutson, D.S.; Costello, J.; Stoenescu, S.; Yemin, L.

    1995-01-01

    TPX, while having primarily super-conducting coils that do not require water cooling, still has very significant water cooling requirements for the plasma heating systems, vacuum vessel, plasma facing components, diagnostics, and ancillary equipment. This is accentuated by the 1000-second pulse requirement. Two major design changes, which have significantly affected the TPX Heating and Cooling System, have been made since the conceptual design review in March of 1993. This paper will discuss these changes and review the current status of the conceptual design. The first change involves replacing the vacuum vessel neutron shielding configuration of lead/glass composite tile by a much simpler and more reliable borated water shield. The second change reduces the operating temperature of the vacuum vessel from 150 C to ≥50 C. With this temperature reduction, all in-vessel components and the vessel will be supplied by coolant at a common ≥50 C inlet temperature. In all, six different heating and cooling supply requirements (temperature, pressure, water quality) for the various TPX components must be met. This paper will detail these requirements and provide an overview of the Heating and Cooling System design while focusing on the ramifications of the TPX changes described above

  2. Cooling system for auxiliary reactor component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihira, Tomoko.

    1991-01-01

    A cooling system for auxiliary reactor components comprises three systems, that is, two systems of reactor component cooling water systems (RCCW systems) and a high pressure component cooling water system (HPCCW system). Connecting pipelines having partition valves are intervened each in a cooling water supply pipeline to an emmergency component of each of the RCCW systems, a cooling water return pipeline from the emmergency component of each of the RCCW systems, a cooling water supply pipeline to each of the emmergency components of one of the RCCW system and the HPCCW system and a cooling water return pipeline from each of the emmergency components of one of the RCCW system and the HPCCW system. With such constitution, cooling water can be supplied also to the emmergency components in the stand-by system upon periodical inspection or ISI, thereby enabling to improve the backup performance of the emmergency cooling system. (I.N.)

  3. System for cooling a cabinet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to a cooling system comprising an active magnetic regenerator having a cold side and a hot side, a hot side heat exchanger connected to the hot side of the magnetic regenerator, one or more cold side heat exchangers, and a cold store reservoir comprising a volume...

  4. Lamination cooling system formation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

    2009-05-12

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  5. Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David

    2017-07-01

    As renewable energy use expands there will be a need to develop ways to balance its variability. Storage is one of the options. Presently the main emphasis is for systems storing electrical power in advanced batteries (many of them derivatives of parallel developments in the electric vehicle field), as well as via liquid air storage, compressed air storage, super-capacitors and flywheels, and, the leader so far, pumped hydro reservoirs. In addition, new systems are emerging for hydrogen generation and storage, feeding fuel cell power production. Heat (and cold) is also a storage medium and some systems exploit thermal effects as part of wider energy management activity. Some of the more exotic ones even try to use gravity on a large scale. This short book looks at all the options, their potentials and their limits. There are no clear winners, with some being suited to short-term balancing and others to longer-term storage. The eventual mix adopted will be shaped by the pattern of development of other balancing measures, including smart-grid demand management and super-grid imports and exports.

  6. Method of injecting cooling water in emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto; Adachi, Michihiro; Tasaka, Kanji; Suzuki, Mitsuhiro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a cooling water injection method in an ECCS, which can perform effective cooling of the reactor core. Method: In a method of injecting cooling water in an ECCS as a countermeasure against a rupture accident of a pwr type reactor, cooling water in the first pressure storage injection system is injected into the upper plenum of the reactor pressure vessel at a set pressure of from 50 to 90 atg. and a set temperature of from 80 to 200 0 C, cooling water in the second pressure storage injection system is injected into the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel at a pressure of from 25 to 60 atg. which is lower than the set pressure and a temperature less than 60 0 C, and further in combination with these procedures, cooling water of less than 60 0 C is injected into a high-temperature side piping, in the high-pressure injection system of upstroke of 100 atg. by means of a pump and the low-pressure injection system of upstroke of 20 atg. also by means of a pump, thereby cooling the reactor core. (Aizawa, K.)

  7. Estudio sobre el almacenamiento de agua helada en los sistemas de climatización centralizados; Study about cooling water storage in centralized air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Espín Pérez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de este artículo se basa en el estudio del almacenamiento de agua helada en los sistemas de climatización. Para desplazar el consumo eléctrico fuera del horario pico, como herramienta para pretender  incrementar  la eficiencia energética y disminuir el costo de la energía eléctrica en los hoteles con clima tropical. Para ello se procede a la estimación del perfil de carga térmica del hotel Jagua mediante el software TRNSYS, diseño y comprobación del sistema de almacenamiento de agua helada incorporado a las condiciones actuales de la instalación mediante modelos matemáticos que describen su funcionamiento. El objetivo es, evaluar e ilustrar los posibles efectos cuantitativos y cualitativos del almacenamiento de agua helada en el sistema de clima centralizado de la edificación. El trabajo que se presenta se enmarca en los esfuerzos para desarrollar el uso de tecnologías sustentables y la evaluación de sistemas industriales asistidos por computadora en Cuba. The development of this paper is based on the study of cold water storage in air conditioning systems. To offset power consumption off-peak, as a tool to increase energy efficiency claim and reduce the cost of electricity in tropical hotels. To do this we proceed to estimate the thermal load profile Jagua by TRNSYS software, system design and testing of chilled water storage built into the current conditions of the system using mathematical models to describe their operation. The objective is to evaluate and illustrate the quantitative and qualitative effects of cold water storage in the building centralized climate system. The work presented is part of the efforts to develop the use of sustainable technologies and evaluation of computer-aided industrial systems in Cuba.

  8. Thermal performance of a multiple PCM thermal storage unit for free cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosaffa, A.H.; Infante Ferreira, C.A.; Talati, F.; Rosen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Numerical analysis on the performance of a thermal storages as free cooling system. ► Employing multiple PCMs to enhance heat transfer rate in thermal storages. ► Using an effective heat capacity method, the phase change parameters are determined. ► The effect of the slabs size and air channel thickness on COP is investigated. - Abstract: As demand for refrigeration and air conditioning increased during the last decade, the opportunities have expanded for using thermal energy storage (TES) systems in an economically advantageous manner in place of conventional cooling plants. Many cool storage systems use phase change materials (PCMs) and achieve peak load shifting in buildings. This work presents numerical investigations of the performance enhancement of a free cooling system using a TES unit employing multiple PCMs. The TES unit is composed of a number of rectangular channels for the flowing heat transfer fluid, separated by PCM slabs. Using the effective heat capacity method, the melting and solidification of the PCM is solved. The forced convective heat transfer inside the channels is analyzed by solving the energy equation, which is coupled with the heat conduction equation in the container wall. The effect of design parameters such as PCM slab length, thickness and fluid passage gap on the storage performance is also investigated using an energy based optimization. The results show that a system which can guarantee comfort conditions for the climate of Tabriz, Iran has an optimum COP of 7.0. This could be achieved by a combination of CaCl 2 ·6H 2 O with RT25 with the optimum air channel thickness of 3.2 mm, length of 1.3 m and PCM slab thickness of 10 mm

  9. Overnight storage of whole blood: cooling and transporting blood at room temperature under extreme temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, L; Beauséjour, A; Jacques, A; Ducas, E; Tremblay, M

    2014-02-01

    Many countries allow the overnight storage of whole blood (WB) at ambient temperature. Some countries, such as Canada, also require a rapid cooling of WB with an active cooling system. Given the significant operational constraints associated with current cooling systems, an alternative method for cooling and transporting WB at 20-24°C was evaluated. Phase 22 cooling packs (TCP Reliable Inc., USA) were used in combination with vacuum-insulated panel (VIP) boxes. Temperature profiles of simulated WB units were studied in extreme temperatures (-35 and 40°C). The quality of blood components prepared using Phase 22 packs and CompoCool-WB (Fresenius HemoCare, Germany) was studied. Phase 22 packs reduced the temperature of simulated WB bags from 37 to 24°C in 1·7 ± 0·2 h. Used in combination with VIP boxes, Phase 22 packs maintain the temperature of bags between 20 and 24°C for 15 and 24 h, compared to 2 and 11 h with CompoCool-WB, when exposed at -35 and 40°C, respectively. The quality of platelet concentrates and plasma was comparable, regardless of the cooling system used. For red blood cell units, per cent haemolysis on day 42 was slightly higher in products prepared after cooling with Phase 22 packs compared to CompoCool-WB (0·33 ± 0·15% vs. 0·21 ± 0·06%; P environmental conditions. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  10. Kinetic energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M.; Folini, P.

    1983-09-03

    A flywheel system for the purpose of energy storage in decentral solar- or wind energy plants is introduced. The system comprises a rotor made out of plastic fibre, a motor/generator serving as electro-mechanical energy converter and a frequency-voltage transformer serving as electric adapter. The storable energy quantity amounts to several kWh.

  11. Upgrade of the cooling water temperature measures system for HLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Weiqun; Liu Gongfa; Bao Xun; Jiang Siyuan; Li Weimin; He Duohui

    2007-01-01

    The cooling water temperature measures system for HLS (Hefei Light Source) adopts EPICS to the developing platform and takes the intelligence temperature cruise instrument for the front control instrument. Data of temperatures are required by IOCs through Serial Port Communication, archived and searched by Channel Archiver. The system can monitor the real-time temperatures of many channels cooling water and has the function of history data storage, and data network search. (authors)

  12. Development of a seasonal thermochemical storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, R.; Maraz, N.; Eversdijk, J.; Finck, C.J.; Henquet, E.M.P.; Oversloot, H.P.; Spijker, J.C. van 't; Geus, A.C. de

    2012-01-01

    In our laboratories, a seasonal thermochemical storage system for dwellings and offices is being designed and developed. Based on a thermochemical sorption reaction, space heating, cooling and generation of domestic hot water will be achieved with up to 100% renewable energy, by using solar energy

  13. Cooling the APS storage ring radio-frequency accelerating cavities: Thermal/stress/fatigue analysis and cavity cooling configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primdahl, K.; Kustom, R.

    1995-01-01

    The 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source positron storage ring requires sixteen separate 352-MHz radio-frequency (rf) accelerating cavities. Cavities are installed as groups of four, in straight sections used elsewhere for insertion devices. They occupy the first such straight section after injection, along with the last three just before injection. Cooling is provided by a subsystem of the sitewide deionized water system. Pumping equipment is located in a building directly adjacent to the accelerator enclosure. A prototype cavity was fabricated and tested where cooling was via twelve 19-mm-diameter [3/4 in] brazed-on tubes in a series-parallel flow configuration. Unfortunately, the thermal contact to some tubes was poor due to inadequate braze filler. Here, heat transfer studies, including finite-element analysis and test results, of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring 352-MHz rf accelerating cavities are described. Stress and fatigue life of the copper are discussed. Configuration of water cooling is presented

  14. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  15. Cooling Tower Overhaul of Secondary Cooling System in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Chul; Lee, Young Sub; Jung, Hoan Sung; Lim, In Chul [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    HANARO, an open-tank-in-pool type research reactor of 30 MWth power in Korea, has been operating normally since its initial criticality in February, 1995. For the last about ten years, A cooling tower of a secondary cooling system has been operated normally in HANARO. Last year, the cooling tower has been overhauled for preservative maintenance including fills, eliminators, wood support, water distribution system, motors, driving shafts, gear reducers, basements, blades and etc. This paper describes the results of the overhaul. As results, it is confirmed that the cooling tower maintains a good operability through a filed test. And a cooling capability will be tested when a wet bulb temperature is maintained about 28 .deg. C in summer and the reactor is operated with the full power.

  16. Internal target effects in ion storage rings with beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gostishchev, Vitaly

    2008-06-01

    The accurate description of internal target effects is important for the prediction of operation conditions which are required for experiments in the planned storage rings of the FAIR facility. The BETACOOL code developed by the Dubna group has been used to evaluate beam dynamics in ion storage rings, where electron cooling in combination with an internal target is applied. Systematic benchmarking experiments of this code were carried out at the ESR storage ring at GSI. A mode with vanishing dispersion in the target position was applied to evaluate the influence of the dispersion function on the parameters when the target is heating the beam. The influence of the internal target on the beam parameters is demonstrated in the present work. A comparison of experimental results with simple models describing the energy loss of the beam particles in the target as well as with more sophisticated simulations with the BETACOOL code is given. In order to study the conditions which can be achieved in the proposed experiments the simulation results were quantitatively compared with experimental results and simulations for the ESR. The results of this comparison are discussed in the present thesis. BETACOOL simulations of target effects were performed for the NESR and the HESR of the future FAIR facility in order to predict the beam parameters for the planned experiments. (orig.)

  17. Internal target effects in ion storage rings with beam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gostishchev, Vitaly

    2008-06-15

    The accurate description of internal target effects is important for the prediction of operation conditions which are required for experiments in the planned storage rings of the FAIR facility. The BETACOOL code developed by the Dubna group has been used to evaluate beam dynamics in ion storage rings, where electron cooling in combination with an internal target is applied. Systematic benchmarking experiments of this code were carried out at the ESR storage ring at GSI. A mode with vanishing dispersion in the target position was applied to evaluate the influence of the dispersion function on the parameters when the target is heating the beam. The influence of the internal target on the beam parameters is demonstrated in the present work. A comparison of experimental results with simple models describing the energy loss of the beam particles in the target as well as with more sophisticated simulations with the BETACOOL code is given. In order to study the conditions which can be achieved in the proposed experiments the simulation results were quantitatively compared with experimental results and simulations for the ESR. The results of this comparison are discussed in the present thesis. BETACOOL simulations of target effects were performed for the NESR and the HESR of the future FAIR facility in order to predict the beam parameters for the planned experiments. (orig.)

  18. Information technology equipment cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  19. Analysis of ice cool thermal storage for a clinic building in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebzali, M.J.; Rubini, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    In Kuwait, air conditioning (AC) systems consume 61% and 40% of the peak electrical load and total electrical energy, respectively. This is due to a very high ambient temperature for the long summer period extended from April to October and the low energy cost. This paper gives an overview of the electrical peak and energy consumption in Kuwait, and it has been found that the average increase in the annual peak electrical demand and energy consumption for the year 1998-2002 was 6.2% and 6.4%, respectively. One method of reducing the peak electrical demand of AC systems during the day period is by incorporating an ice cool thermal storage (ICTS) with the AC system. A clinic building has been selected to study the effects of using an ICTS with different operation strategies such as partial (load levelling), partial (demand limiting) and full storage operations on chiller and storage sizes, reduction of peak electrical demand and energy consumption of the chiller for selected charging and discharging hours. It has been found that the full storage operation has the largest chiller and storage capacities, energy consumption and peak electrical reduction. However, partial storage (load levelling) has the smallest chiller and storage capacities and peak electrical reduction. This paper also provides a detailed comparison of using ICTS operating strategies with AC and AC systems without ICTS

  20. Cooling system for superconducting magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed

    1998-01-01

    A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir.

  1. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E.; McInnes, Ian D.; Massey, John V.

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  2. Laser cooling and ion beam diagnosis of relativistic ions in a storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, S.

    1990-08-01

    Particle accelerator and storage ring technology has reached an advanced state, so that different heavy ion storage rings are coming into operation by now, capable of storing even fully stripped ions up to U 92+ . The main purpose of these machines are the accumulation of ions and the ability of improving the beam quality, that is the phase space density of the stored beams. This beam cooling is done successfully by the well established stochastic and electron cooling techniques. A new cooling method, the laser cooling, is taken over from atomic beam and ion trap experiments, where it has yielded extremely low temperatures of atomic samples. As a canditate at storage rings 7 Li + ions are stored in the Heidelberg TSR at 13.3 MeV. The ion beam properties of the metastable fraction like momentum spread, storage time and the influence of residual gas scattering are investigated by colinear laser spectroscopy in the experimental section of the TSR. An optical pumping experiment using two dye laser systems yields information about ion kinematics and velocity mixing processes in the ring. Lifetimes in the order of 100 ms for velocity classes marked in this way show that laser cooling can be applied to the stored 7 Li + beam. In an experimental situation of two strong counterpropagating laser beams, both tuned near resonance, a dramatic reduction of the ion beam momentum spread is observed. With a special geometrical control of laser and ion beam the longitudinal beam temperature is reduced from 260 K to at least 3 K with very high collection efficiency. (orig./HSI) [de

  3. Fast cooling of bunches in compton storage rings*

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, E; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    We propose an enhancement of laser radiative cooling by utilizing laser pulses of small spatial and temporal dimensions, which interact only with a fraction of an electron bunch circulating in a storage ring. We studied the dynamics of such electron bunch when laser photons scatter off the electrons at a collision point placed in a section with nonzero dispersion. In this case of ‘asymmetric cooling’, the stationary energy spread is much smaller than under conditions of regular scattering where the laser spot size is larger than the electron beam; and the synchrotron oscillations are damped faster. Coherent oscillations of large amplitude may be damped within one synchrotron period, so that this method can support the rapid successive injection of many bunches in longitudinal phase space for stacking purposes. Results of extensive simulations are presented for the performance optimization of Compton gamma-ray sources and damping rings.

  4. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  5. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  6. Overview of direct air free cooling and thermal energy storage potential energy savings in data centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oró, Eduard; Depoorter, Victor; Pflugradt, Noah; Salom, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the total energy demand of data centres has experienced a dramatic increase which is expected to continue. This is why data centres industry and researchers are working on implementing energy efficiency measures and integrating renewable energy to overcome energy dependence and to reduce operational costs and CO 2 emissions. The cooling system of these unique infrastructures can account for 40% of the total energy consumption. To reduce the energy consumption, free cooling strategies are used more and more, but so far there has been little research about the potential of thermal energy storage (TES) solutions to match energy demand and energy availability. Hence, this work intends to provide an overview of the potential of the integration of direct air free cooling strategy and TES systems into data centres located at different European locations. For each location, the benefit of using direct air free cooling is evaluated energetically and economically for a data centre of 1250 kW. The use of direct air free cooling is shown to be feasible. This does not apply the TES systems by itself. But when using TES in combination with an off-peak electricity tariff the operational cooling cost can be drastically reduced. - Highlights: • The total annual hours for direct air free cooling in data centres are calculated. • The potential of TES integration in data centres is evaluated. • The implementation of TES to store the ambient air cold is not recommended. • TES is feasible if combined with redundant chillers and off-peak electricity price. • The cooling electricity cost is being reduced up to 51%, depending on the location

  7. Emergency cooling system for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.K.; Burylo, P.S.

    1975-01-01

    The site of the gas-cooled reactor with direct-circuit gas turbine is preferably the sea coast. An emergency cooling system with safety valve and emergency feed-water addition is designed which affects at least a part of the reactor core coolant after leaving the core. The emergency cooling system includes a water emergency cooling circuit with heat exchanger for the core coolant. The safety valve releases water or steam from the emergency coolant circuit when a certain temperature is exceeded; this is, however, replaced by the emergency feed-water. If the gas turbine exhibits a high and low pressure turbine stage, which are flowed through by coolant one behind another, a part of the coolant can be removed in front of each part turbine by two valves and be added to the haet exchanger. (RW/LH) [de

  8. Simulations of floor cooling system capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odyjas, Andrzej; Górka, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Floor cooling system capacity depends on its physical and operative parameters. Using numerical simulations, it appears that cooling capacity of the system largely depends on the type of cooling loads occurring in the room. In the case of convective cooling loads capacity of the system is small. However, when radiation flux falls directly on the floor the system significantly increases productivity. The article describes the results of numerical simulations which allow to determine system capacity in steady thermal conditions, depending on the type of physical parameters of the system and the type of cooling load occurring in the room. Moreover, the paper sets out the limits of system capacity while maintaining a minimum temperature of the floor surface equal to 20 °C. The results are helpful for designing system capacity in different type of cooling loads and show maximum system capacity in acceptable thermal comfort condition. -- Highlights: ► We have developed numerical model for simulation of floor cooling system. ► We have described floor system capacity depending on its physical parameters. ► We have described floor system capacity depending on type of cooling loads. ► The most important in the obtained cooling capacities is the type of cooling loads. ► The paper sets out the possible maximum cooling floor system capacity

  9. Economics of dry storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.R.; Winders, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper postulates a dry storage application suitable as a regional away-from-reactor storage (AFR), develops an economical system design concept and estimates system costs. The system discussed uses the experience gained in the dry storage research activities and attempts to present a best foot forward system concept. The major element of the system is the Receiving and Packaging Building. In this building fuel assemblies are removed from transportation casks and encapsulated for storage. This facility could be equally applicable to silo, vault, or caisson storage. However the caisson storage concept has been chosen for discussion purposes

  10. Energy storage using phase-change materials for active solar heating and cooling: An evaluation of future research and development direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, R. J.; Stovall, T. K.; Kedl, R. J.; Tomlinson, J. J.

    1982-04-01

    The current state of the art and commercial potential of active solar heating and cooling systems for buildings, and the use of thermal energy storage with these systems are assessed. The need for advanced latent heat storage subsystems in these applications and priorities for their development are determined. Latent storage subsystems are advantageous in applications where their compactness may be exploited. It is suggested that subsystems could facilitate storage in retrofit applications in which storage would be physically impossible otherwise.

  11. Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  12. Performance enhancement of a subcooled cold storage air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, M.-J.; Cheng, C.-H.; Huang, M.-C.; Chen, S.-L.

    2009-01-01

    This article experimentally investigates the enhancement of thermal performance for an air conditioning system utilizing a cold storage unit as a subcooler. The cold storage unit is composed of an energy storage tank, liquid-side heat exchanger, suction-side heat exchanger and energy storage material (ESM), water. When the cooling load is lower than the nominal cooling capacity of the system, the cold storage unit can store extra cold energy of the system to subcool the condenser outlet refrigerant. Hence, both the cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of the system will be increased. This experiment tests the two operation modes: subcooled mode with energy storage and non-subcooled mode without energy storage. The results show that for fixed cooling loads at 3.05 kW, 3.5 kW and 3.95 kW, the COP of the subcooled mode are 16.0%, 15.6% and 14.1% higher than those of the non-subcooled mode, respectively. In the varied cooling load experiments, the COP of the subcooled cold storage air conditioning system is 15.3% higher than the conventional system.

  13. FTA of loss of cooling to a HALW storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi

    1991-10-01

    A fault tree analysis consisting of assumption of accident scenarios, construction of fault trees, and performing of analyses is given for a loss of cooling accident in a HALW (High Activity Liquid Waste) tank of a typical reprocessing facility. A systematic method is developed to avoid 'missing scenarios', and 'confused scenarios' which are major problems in these analyses. Model plant data, basic failure frequency data and a fault tree analysis code named FTL have been introduced from NUKEM GmbH, Germany. The analyzed occurrence frequencies for the assumed scenarios of the loss of cooling accident are discussed to show a design improvement measure to attain a more reliable system. These results are compared with general requirements to be selected as DBE (design basis event) used in the safety assessment of the facility design. DBE is an event which is considered to have relatively high occurrence probabilities and considerable effects on environment. (author)

  14. Environmental effects of cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Since the International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1974 Thermal Discharges at Nuclear Power Stations (Technical Reports Series No.155), much progress has been made in the understanding of phenomena related to thermal discharges. Many studies have been performed in Member States and from 1973 to 1978 the IAEA sponsored a co-ordinated research programme on 'Physical and Biological Effects on the Environment of Cooling Systems and Thermal Discharges from Nuclear Power Stations'. Seven laboratories from Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, India and the United States of America were involved in this programme, and a lot of new information has been obtained during the five years' collaboration. The progress of the work was discussed at annual co-ordination meetings and the results are presented in the present report. It complements the previous report mentioned above as it deals with several questions that were not answered in 1974. With the conclusion of this co-ordinated programme, it is obvious that some problems have not yet been resolved and that more work is necessary to assess completely the impact of cooling systems on the environment. It is felt, however, that the data gathered here will bring a substantial contribution to the understanding of the subject

  15. A Dynamic Momentum Compaction Factor Lattice for Improvements to Stochastic Cooling in Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivieri, David Nicholas [Massachusetts U., Amherst

    1996-01-01

    A dynamic momentum compaction factor, also referred to as a dynamic $\\Delta \\gamma \\tau$, lattice for the FNAL Antiproton Source Debuncher Storage Ring is studied, both theoretically and experimentally, for the purpose of improving stochastic precooling, and hence, improving the global antiproton production and stacking performance. A dynamic $\\Delta \\gamma \\tau$ lattice is proposed due to the competing requirements inherent within the Debuncher storage ring upon $\\gamma \\tau$· Specifically, the Debuncher storage ring performs two disparate functions, $(i)$ accepting and debunching a large number of $\\overline{p}$s/pulse at the outset of the production cycle, which would perform ideally with a large value of $\\gamma\\tau$, and $(ii)$ subsequently employing stochastic cooling throughout the remainder of the $\\overline{p}$ production cycle for improved transfer and stacking efficiency into the Accumulator, for which a small value $\\gamma \\tau$ is ideal in order to reduce the diffusive heating caused by the mixing factor. In the initial design of the Debuncher optical lattice, an intermediate value of $\\gamma \\tau$ was chosen as a compromise between the two functional requirements. The goal of the thesis is to improve stochastic precooling by changing $\\gamma \\tau$ between two desired values during each p production cycle. In particular, the dynamic $\\Delta \\gamma \\tau$ lattice accomplishes a reduction in $\\gamma \\tau$, and hence the mixing factor, through an uniform increase to the dispersion throughout the arc sections of the storage ring. Experimental measurements of cooling rates and system performance parameters, with the implementation of the dynamic $\\Delta \\gamma \\tau$ lattice, are in agreement with theoretical predictions based upon a detailed integration of the stochastic cooling Fokker Planck equations. Based upon the consistency between theory and experiment, predictions of cooling rates are presented for future operational

  16. Solar-powered cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2015-07-28

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system that uses nanostructural materials such as aerogels, zeolites, and sol gels as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material while the material is at a relatively low temperature, perhaps at night. During daylight hours, when the nanostructural materials is heated by the sun, the refrigerant are thermally desorbed from the surface of the aerogel, thereby creating a pressurized gas phase in the vessel that contains the aerogel. This solar-driven pressurization forces the heated gaseous refrigerant through a condenser, followed by an expansion valve. In the condenser, heat is removed from the refrigerant, first by circulating air or water. Eventually, the cooled gaseous refrigerant expands isenthalpically through a throttle valve into an evaporator, in a fashion similar to that in more conventional vapor recompression systems.

  17. A parametric study of solar operated cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagalei, Abdullatif Salin

    2006-01-01

    Because of energy for air conditioning has been the fastest-growing segment of energy of consumption market in Libya and generally in north Africa, and with the realization depleting nature of fossil fuel, solar cooling of buildings which leads to the improvement of human comfort represents a potentially significant application of solar energy where the availability of solar radiation meets with the cooling load demand. This application has been shown to be technically feasible but the equipment needs further investigative research to improve its performance and feasibility. A solar operated absorption cooling system with energy storage is selected. A latent heat storage would be a space saver for such application for solar energy. A system modeling is an essential activity in order to go for system simulation. A complete solar cooling system to be modeled through the thermodynamic analysis of each system components. Resulting a package of equations used directly to the system simulation in order to predict the system performance to obtain the optimum working conditions for the selected cooling system. A computer code which is used to simulate a series of calculations was written in Fortran language according to the constructed information flow diagram and simulation program flow char. For a typical input data a set of results are reported and discussed and shows that the selected system promises to be a good choice for air conditioning application in Libya specially for large building as storehouses, shopping centers, public administrative.(Author)

  18. TEXT Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) Enery Storage System, designed by the Center for Electromechanics (CEM), consists of four 50 MJ, 125 V homopolar generators and their auxiliaries and is designed to power the toroidal and poloidal field coils of TEXT on a two-minute duty cycle. The four 50 MJ generators connected in series were chosen because they represent the minimum cost configuration and also represent a minimal scale up from the successful 5.0 MJ homopolar generator designed, built, and operated by the CEM

  19. The development of a solar residential heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The MSFC solar heating and cooling facility was assembled to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of utilizing solar energy for heating and cooling buildings, to provide an engineering evaluation of the total system and the key subsystems, and to investigate areas of possible improvement in design and efficiency. The basic solar heating and cooling system utilizes a flat plate solar energy collector, a large water tank for thermal energy storage, heat exchangers for space heating, and an absorption cycle air conditioner for space cooling. A complete description of all systems is given. Development activities for this test system included assembly, checkout, operation, modification, and data analysis, all of which are discussed. Selected data analyses for the first 15 weeks of testing are included, findings associated with energy storage and the energy storage system are outlined, and conclusions resulting from test findings are provided. An evaluation of the data for summer operation indicates that the current system is capable of supplying an average of 50 percent of the thermal energy required to drive the air conditioner. Preliminary evaluation of data collected for operation in the heating mode during the winter indicates that nearly 100 percent of the thermal energy required for heating can be supplied by the system.

  20. PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Tin Tin; Naing, Thinn Thu

    2011-01-01

    Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage infrastructure, low ...

  1. Performance analysis of phase-change material storage unit for both heating and cooling of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Adeel; Ali, Majid; Ud Din, Zia

    2017-04-01

    Utilisation of solar energy and the night ambient (cool) temperatures are the passive ways of heating and cooling of buildings. Intermittent and time-dependent nature of these sources makes thermal energy storage vital for efficient and continuous operation of these heating and cooling techniques. Latent heat thermal energy storage by phase-change materials (PCMs) is preferred over other storage techniques due to its high-energy storage density and isothermal storage process. The current study was aimed to evaluate the performance of the air-based PCM storage unit utilising solar energy and cool ambient night temperatures for comfort heating and cooling of a building in dry-cold and dry-hot climates. The performance of the studied PCM storage unit was maximised when the melting point of the PCM was ∼29°C in summer and 21°C during winter season. The appropriate melting point was ∼27.5°C for all-the-year-round performance. At lower melting points than 27.5°C, declination in the cooling capacity of the storage unit was more profound as compared to the improvement in the heating capacity. Also, it was concluded that the melting point of the PCM that provided maximum cooling during summer season could be used for winter heating also but not vice versa.

  2. Dry and mixed air cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutner, Gidali.

    1975-01-01

    The various dry air cooling systems now in use or being developed are classified. The main dimensioning parameters are specified and the main systems already built are given with their characteristics. The available data allow dry air cooling to be situated against the other cooling modes and so specify the aim of the research or currently developed works. Some systems at development stages are briefly described. The interest in mixed cooling (assisted draft) and the principal available systems is analyzed. A program of research is outlined [fr

  3. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  4. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating and cooling is described which is designed to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2,200 square feet. Five 3 ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3,000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two 3,000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  5. A combined capillary cooling system for cooling fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ana Paula; Pelizza, Pablo Rodrigo; Galante, Renan Manozzo; Bazzo, Edson [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (LabCET/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Engenharia de Sistemas Termicos], Emails: ana@labcet.ufsc.br, pablo@labcet.ufsc.br, renan@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br

    2010-07-01

    The operation temperature control has an important influence over the PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) performance. A two-phase heat transfer system is proposed as an alternative for cooling and thermal control of PEMFC. The proposed system consists of a CPL (Capillary Pumped Loop) connected to a set of constant conductance heat pipes. In this work ceramic wick and stainless mesh wicks have been used as capillary structure of the CPL and heat pipes, respectively. Acetone has been used as the working fluid for CPL and deionized water for the heat pipes. Experimental results of three 1/4 inch stainless steel outlet diameter heats pipes and one CPL have been carried out and presented in this paper. Further experiments are planned coupling the proposed cooling system to a module which simulates the fuel cell. (author)

  6. Developments in power plant cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, N.K.

    1993-01-01

    A number of cooling systems are used in the power plants. The condenser cooling water system is one of the most important cooling systems in the plant. The system comprises a number of equipment. Plants using sea water for cooling are designed for the very high corrosion effects due to sea water. Developments are taking place in the design, materials of construction as well as protection philosophies for the various equipment. Power optimisation of the cycle needs to be done in order to design an economical system. Environmental (Protection) Act places certain limitations on the effluents from the plant. An attempt has been made in this paper to outline the developing trends in the various equipment in the condenser cooling water systems used at the inland as well as coastal locations. (author). 5 refs., 6 refs

  7. Fault tree analysis of loss of cooling to a HALW storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi

    1992-01-01

    Results of a scenario identification, a fault tree construction and an analysis for a loss of cooling accident in a High Activity Liquid Waste (HALW) tank of a typical model of reprocessing facility, is rendered together with considerations of the system reliability improvement by changing the model design. Model plant data, basic failure frequency data and a fault tree analysis named FTL have been introduced from NUKEM GmbH, Germany. They are throughly reviewed and reevaluated at JAERI, and improved to apply to Japanese facilities. A general systematic method for constructing fault trees is used to avoid missing scenarios, thus all of the 10 conceivable accident scenarios for 'HALW storage tank without cooling, HALW boiling' are identified, and a total failure frequency are calculated to be in the 90 % confidence interval of (1.1 ∼ 5.8) x 10 -6 /yr for the German model plant. (author)

  8. Conduction cooling systems for linear accelerator cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Robert

    2017-05-02

    A conduction cooling system for linear accelerator cavities. The system conducts heat from the cavities to a refrigeration unit using at least one cavity cooler interconnected with a cooling connector. The cavity cooler and cooling connector are both made from solid material having a very high thermal conductivity of approximately 1.times.10.sup.4 W m.sup.-1 K.sup.-1 at temperatures of approximately 4 degrees K. This allows for very simple and effective conduction of waste heat from the linear accelerator cavities to the cavity cooler, along the cooling connector, and thence to the refrigeration unit.

  9. Hot gas path component cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2014-02-18

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

  10. Site-specific investigations of aquifer thermal energy storage for space and process cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that has completed three preliminary site-specific feasibility studies that investigated aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for reducing space and process cooling costs. Chilled water stored in an ATES system could be used to meet all or part of the process and/or space cooling loads at the three facilities investigated. Seasonal or diurnal chill ATES systems could be significantly less expensive than a conventional electrically-driven, load-following chiller system at one of the three sites, depending on the cooling water loop return temperature and presumed future electricity escalation rate. For the other two sites investigated, a chill ATES system would be economically competitive with conventional chillers if onsite aquifer characteristics were improved. Well flow rates at one of the sites were adequate, but the expected thermal recovery efficiency was too low. The reverse of this situation was found at the other site, where the thermal recovery efficiency was expected to be adequate, but well flow rates were too low

  11. The development of air cooled condensation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodas, J.

    1990-01-01

    EGI - Contracting/Engineering has had experience with the development of air cooled condensing systems since the 1950's. There are two accepted types of dry cooling systems,the direct and the indirect ones. Due to the fact that the indirect system has several advantages over the direct one, EGI's purpose was to develop an economic, reliable and efficient type of indirect cooling system, both for industrial and power station applications. Apart from system development, the main components of dry cooling plant have been developed as well. These are: the water-to-air heat exchangers; the direct contact (DC, or jet) condenser; the cooling water circulating pumps and recovery turbines; and the peak cooling/preheating units. As a result of this broad development work which was connected with intensive market activity, EGI has supplied about 50% of the dry cooling plants employed for large power stations all over the world. This means that today the cumulated capacity of power units using Heller type dry cooling systems supplied and contracted by EGI is over 6000 MW

  12. Rapid cooling and cold storage in a silicic magma reservoir recorded in individual crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Allison E; Cooper, Kari M; Till, Christy B; Kent, Adam J R; Costa, Fidel; Bose, Maitrayee; Gravley, Darren; Deering, Chad; Cole, Jim

    2017-06-16

    Silicic volcanic eruptions pose considerable hazards, yet the processes leading to these eruptions remain poorly known. A missing link is knowledge of the thermal history of magma feeding such eruptions, which largely controls crystallinity and therefore eruptability. We have determined the thermal history of individual zircon crystals from an eruption of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Results show that although zircons resided in the magmatic system for 10 3 to 10 5 years, they experienced temperatures >650° to 750°C for only years to centuries. This implies near-solidus long-term crystal storage, punctuated by rapid heating and cooling. Reconciling these data with existing models of magma storage requires considering multiple small intrusions and multiple spatial scales, and our approach can help to quantify heat input to and output from magma reservoirs. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. White-light laser cooling of ions in a storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, R.; Guidi, V.; Lenisa, P.; Grimm, R.; Miesner, H.J.; Mariotti, E.; Siena Univ.; Moi, L.; Siena Univ.

    1996-01-01

    We propose the use of a white laser for laser cooling of ions in a storage ring. The use of a broad-band laser provides a radiation pressure force with wide velocity capture range and high magnitude, which is promising to improve the performance of both longitudinal and indirect transverse cooling. This wide-range force could also be suitable for direct transverse cooling of low-density beams. (orig.)

  14. Thermal energy storage with geothermal triplet for space heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemendal, Martin; Hartog, Niels

    2017-04-01

    Many governmental organizations and private companies have set high targets in avoiding CO2 emissions and reducing energy (Kamp, 2015; Ministry-of-Economic-affairs, 2016). ATES systems use groundwater wells to overcome the discrepancy in time between the availability of heat (during summer) and the demand for heat (during winter). Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage is an increasingly popular technique; currently over 2000 ATES systems are operational in the Netherlands (Graaf et al., 2016). High temperature ATES may help to improve performance of these conventional ATES systems. ATES systems use heat pumps to get the stored heat to the required temperature for heating of around 40-50°C and to produce the cold water for cooling in summer. These heat pumps need quite a lot of power to run; on average an ATES system produces 3-4 times less CO2 emission compared to conventional. Over 60% of those emission are accounted for by the heat pump (Dekker, 2016). This heat pump power consumption can be reduced by utilizing other sources of sustainable heat and cooling capacity for storage in the subsurface. At such operating temperatures the required storage temperatures do no longer match the return temperatures in the building systems. Therefore additional components and an additional well are required to increase the groundwater temperature in summer (e.g. solar collectors) and decrease it in winter (e.g. dry coolers). To prevent "pollution" of the warm and cold well return water from the building can be stored in a third well until weather conditions are suitable for producing the required storage temperature. Simulations and an economical evaluation show great potential for this type of aquifer thermal energy storage; economic performance is better than normal ATES while the emissions are reduce by a factor ten. At larger temperature differences, also the volume of groundwater required to pump around is much less, which causes an additional energy saving. Research now

  15. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  16. Irradiation control of pathogenic bacteria and their growth during storage time in cooled chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Yiming; Wang Feng; Fan Bei; Liu Shuliang; Ju Hua

    2009-01-01

    The growth of pathogenic bacteria during storage time and their D 10 values by irradiation in cooled chicken were evaluated. The total numbers of colony, E.coli 10003, Campylobacter jejuni33560 and CY04 of the D 10 values were 1.434 kGy, 0.408 kGy, 0.175 kGy, 0.2 kGy respectively in cooled chicken. The results show that total bacteria count in vacuum packaged cooled chicken sample is 5.66 lg(CFU/g) and 4.90 lg (CFU/g) after 3 kGy and 5 kGy irradiation. And in storage at 0∼4 degree C the storage shelf-life of irradiated vacuum packaged cooled chicken could extend to 21 d and 28 d. It can be deduced that pathogenic bacteria can be controlled effectively by irradiation. (authors)

  17. Elastocaloric cooling materials and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    We are actively pursuing applications of thermoelastic (elastocaloric) cooling using shape memory alloys. Latent heat associated with martensitic transformation of shape memory alloys can be used to run cooling cycles with stress-inducing mechanical drives. The coefficient of performance of thermoelastic cooling materials can be as high as 11 with the directly measured DT of around 17 °C. Depending on the stress application mode, the number of cycles to fatigue can be as large as of the order of 105. Efforts to design and develop thermoelastic alloys with long fatigue life will be discussed. The current project at the University of Maryland is focused on development of building air-conditioners, and at Maryland Energy and Sensor Technologies, smaller scale commercial applications are being pursued. This work is carried out in collaboration with Jun Cui, Yiming Wu, Suxin Qian, Yunho Hwang, Jan Muehlbauer, and Reinhard Radermacher, and it is funded by the ARPA-E BEETIT program and the State of Maryland.

  18. Tribology of magnetic storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1992-01-01

    The construction and the materials used in different magnetic storage devices are defined. The theories of friction and adhesion, interface temperatures, wear, and solid-liquid lubrication relevant to magnetic storage systems are presented. Experimental data are presented wherever possible to support the relevant theories advanced.

  19. Optimal design and application of a compound cold storage system combining seasonal ice storage and chilled water storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, C.; Shi, W.; Li, X.; Zhao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal cold storage using natural cold sources for cooling is a sustainable cooling technique. However, this technique suffers from limitations such as large storage space and poor reliability. Combining seasonal storage with short-term storage might be a promising solution while it is not

  20. Developments at an electrostatic cryogenic storage ring for electron-cooled keV energy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to final setup activities and the commissioning of an electrostatic cryogenic storage ring (CSR) at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK) in Heidelberg. The first cryogenic operation of CSR in 2015 has been documented and characterized using a set of non-destructive beam diagnostic tools developed within this work. These are (1) the current pick-up system for the determination of the current of the stored ion beam and its velocity, (2) a position pick-up system for measuring the transverse position of the ion beam center at six symmetric locations of the storage ring circumference, and (3) a Schottky pick-up system for the monitoring of coasting ion beams. Despite the requirements imposed by the cryogenic operation, the developed diagnostic system demonstrated its full functionality. First characterizations of the storage ring properties and the performance of the diagnostic system are presented. Based on previous work, an electron cooling system for CSR has been developed and largely realized. With the implementation into CSR in 2016, the electron cooler will enhance the storage ring into a unique experimental facility for electron-ion collision studies. With this CSR is on the track to become the first cryogenic storage ring featuring actively cooled ion beams.

  1. Cooling Grapple System for FMEF hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmens, L.S.; Frandsen, G.B.; Tome, R.

    1983-01-01

    A Cooling Grapple System was designed and built to handle fuel assemblies within the FMEF hot cell. The variety of functions for which it is designed makes it unique from grapples presently in use. The Cooling Grapple can positively grip and transport assemblies vertically, retrieve assemblies from molten sodium where six inches of grapple tip is submerged, cool 7 kw assemblies in argon, and service an in-cell area of 372 m 2 (4000 ft 2 ). Novel and improved operating and maintenance features were incorporated in the design including a shear pin and mechanical catcher system to prevent overloading the grapple while allowing additional reaction time for crane shutdown

  2. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    Verlaat, Bartholomeus; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Atlas Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity. This paper describes the design, development, construction and commissioning of the IBL CO2 cooling system. It describes the challenges overcome and the important lessons learned for the development of future systems which are now under design for the Phase-II upgrade detectors.

  3. Parametric study on the advantages of weather-predicted control algorithm of free cooling ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medved, Sašo; Babnik, Miha; Vidrih, Boris; Arkar, Ciril

    2014-01-01

    Predicted climate changes and the increased intensity of urban heat islands, as well as population aging, will increase the energy demand for the cooling of buildings in the future. However, the energy demand for cooling can be efficiently reduced by low-exergy free-cooling systems, which use natural processes, like evaporative cooling or the environmental cold of ambient air during night-time ventilation for the cooling of buildings. Unlike mechanical cooling systems, the energy for the operation of free-cooling system is needed only for the transport of the cold from the environment into the building. Because the natural cold potential is time dependent, the efficiency of free-cooling systems could be improved by introducing a weather forecast into the algorithm for the controlling. In the article, a numerical algorithm for the optimization of the operation of free-cooling systems with night-time ventilation is presented and validated on a test cell with different thermal storage capacities and during different ambient conditions. As a case study, the advantage of weather-predicted controlling is presented for a summer week for typical office room. The results show the necessity of the weather-predicted controlling of free-cooling ventilation systems for achieving the highest overall energy efficiency of such systems in comparison to mechanical cooling, better indoor comfort conditions and a decrease in the primary energy needed for cooling of the buildings. - Highlights: • Energy demand for cooling will increase due to climate changes and urban heat island • Free cooling could significantly reduce energy demand for cooling of the buildings. • Free cooling is more effective if weather prediction is included in operation control. • Weather predicted free cooling operation algorithm was validated on test cell. • Advantages of free-cooling on mechanical cooling is shown with different indicators

  4. Commissioning of Fermilab's Electron Cooling System for 8-GeV Antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaitsev, Sergei; Burov, Alexey; Carlson, Kermit; Gai, Wei; Gattuso, Consolato; Hu, Martin; Kazakevich, Grigory; Kramper, Brian J; Kroc, Thomas K; Leibfritz, Jerry; Prost, Lionel; Pruss, Stanley M; Saewert, Greg W; Schmidt, Chuck; Seletsky, Sergey; Shemyakin, Alexander V; Sutherland, Mary; Tupikov, Vitali; Warner, Arden

    2005-01-01

    A 4.3-MeV electron cooling system has been installed at Fermilab in the Recycler antiproton storage ring and is being currently commissioned. The cooling system is designed to assist accumulation of 8.9-GeV/c antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. This paper will report on the progress of the electron beam commissioning effort as well as on detailed plans of demonstrating the cooling of antiprotons.

  5. Dry cooling systems with plastic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roma, Carlo; Leonelli, Vincenzo

    1975-01-01

    Research and experiments made on dry cooling systems with plastic surfaces are described. The demonstration program planned in Italy for a 100Gcal/h dry cooling system is exposed, and an installation intended for a large 1300Mwe nuclear power station is described with reference to the assembly (exploitation and maintenance included). The performance and economic data relating to this installation are also exposed [fr

  6. Core test reactor shield cooling system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.M.; Elliott, R.D.

    1971-01-01

    System requirements for cooling the shield within the vacuum vessel for the core test reactor are analyzed. The total heat to be removed by the coolant system is less than 22,700 Btu/hr, with an additional 4600 Btu/hr to be removed by the 2-inch thick steel plate below the shield. The maximum temperature of the concrete in the shield can be kept below 200 0 F if the shield plug walls are kept below 160 0 F. The walls of the two ''donut'' shaped shield segments, which are cooled by the water from the shield and vessel cooling system, should operate below 95 0 F. The walls of the center plug, which are cooled with nitrogen, should operate below 100 0 F. (U.S.)

  7. Volatile liquid storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverman, R.J.; Winters, P.J.; Rinehart, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere

  8. Grand Challenges facing Storage Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will discuss the future of storage systems. In particular, we will focus on several big challenges which we are facing in storage, such as being able to build, manage and backup really massive storage systems, being able to find information of interest, being able to do long-term archival of data, and so on. We also present ideas and research being done to address these challenges, and provide a perspective on how we expect these challenges to be resolved as we go forward.

  9. CSR: a new tool for storage and cooling of keV ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froese, Michael; Blaum, Klaus; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, Jose; Fellenberger, Florian; Grieser, Manfred; Kaiser, Dirk; Lange, Michael; Laux, Felix; Menk, Sebastian; Orlov, Dmitry A.; Repnow, Roland; Schroeter, Claus D.; Schwalm, Dirk; Sieber, Thomas; Ullrich, Joachim; Varju, Jozef; Hahn, Robert von; Wolf, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Heber, Oded; Rappaport, Michael; Toker, Jonathan; Zajfman, Daniel [Weizman Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2009-07-01

    An electrostatic Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR) is currently being built in Heidelberg, Germany. The current status and final design of this ring, with a focus on the optimized 2 K chamber cooling, precision chamber suspension, and pumping down to extremely low pressures via cryogenic vacuum chambers will be presented. This ring will allow long storage times of highly charged ion and polyatomic molecular beams with energies in the range of keV per charge-state. Combining the long storage times with vacuum chamber temperatures approaching 2 K, infrared-active molecular ions will be radiatively cooled to their rotational ground states. Many aspects of this concept were experimentally tested with a cryogenic trap for fast ion beams (CTF), which has already demonstrated the storage of fast ion beams in a large cryogenic device. An upcoming test will investigate the effect of pre-baking the cryogenic vacuum chambers to 600 K on the cryogenic vacuum and the ion beam storage.

  10. Understanding aging in containment cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A study has been performed to assess the effects of aging in nuclear power plant containment cooling systems. Failure records from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to identify aging characteristics for this system. The predominant aging mechanisms were determined, along with the most frequently failed components and their associated failure modes. This paper discusses the aging mechanisms present in the containment spray system and the containment fan cooler system, which are two systems used to provide the containment cooling function. The failure modes, along with the relative frequency of each is also discussed

  11. New Protective Measures for Cooling Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D. Anthony; Nonohue, Jonh M.

    1974-01-01

    Cooling water treatments have been updated and improved during the last few years. Particularly important are the nontoxic programs which conform plant cooling water effluents to local water quality standards without expenditures for capital equipment. The relationship between scaling and corrosion in natural waters has been recognized for many years. This relationship is the basis for the Langelier Saturation Index control method which was once widely applied to reduce corrosion in cooling water systems. It used solubility characteristics to maintain a very thin deposit on metal surfaces for preventing corrosion. This technique was rarely successful. That is, the solubility of calcium carbonate and most other inorganic salts depends on temperature. If good control exists on cold surfaces, excessive deposition results on the heat transfer tubes. Also, because water characteristic normally vary in a typical cooling system, precise control of scaling at both hot and cold surfaces is virtually impossible

  12. Cooling system with automated seasonal freeze protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Levi A.; Chu, Richard C.; David, Milnes P.; Ellsworth, Jr., Michael J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Simons, Robert E.; Singh, Prabjit; Zhang, Jing

    2016-05-24

    An automated multi-fluid cooling system and method are provided for cooling an electronic component(s). The cooling system includes a coolant loop, a coolant tank, multiple valves, and a controller. The coolant loop is at least partially exposed to outdoor ambient air temperature(s) during normal operation, and the coolant tank includes first and second reservoirs containing first and second fluids, respectively. The first fluid freezes at a lower temperature than the second, the second fluid has superior cooling properties compared with the first, and the two fluids are soluble. The multiple valves are controllable to selectively couple the first or second fluid into the coolant in the coolant loop, wherein the coolant includes at least the second fluid. The controller automatically controls the valves to vary first fluid concentration level in the coolant loop based on historical, current, or anticipated outdoor air ambient temperature(s) for a time of year.

  13. Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Michael; Anderson, Mark; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2013-01-16

    This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

  14. Rust Inhibitor And Fungicide For Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James F.; Greer, D. Clay

    1988-01-01

    Mixture of benzotriazole, benzoic acid, and fungicide prevents growth of rust and fungus. Water-based cooling mixture made from readily available materials prevents formation of metallic oxides and growth of fungi in metallic pipes. Coolant remains clear and does not develop thick sludge tending to collect in low points in cooling systems with many commercial rust inhibitors. Coolant compatible with iron, copper, aluminum, and stainless steel. Cannot be used with cadmium or cadmium-plated pipes.

  15. Thermal energy storage for building heating and cooling applications. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, H.W.; Kedl, R.J.

    1976-11-01

    This is the first in a series of quarterly progress reports covering activities at ORNL to develop thermal energy storage (TES) technology applicable to building heating and cooling. Studies to be carried out will emphasize latent heat storage in that sensible heat storage is held to be an essentially existing technology. Development of a time-dependent analytical model of a TES system charged with a phase-change material was started. A report on TES subsystems for application to solar energy sources is nearing completion. Studies into the physical chemistry of TES materials were initiated. Preliminary data were obtained on the melt-freeze cycle behavior and viscosities of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate and a mixture of Glauber's salt and Borax; limited melt-freeze data were obtained on two paraffin waxes. A subcontract was signed with Monsanto Research Corporation for studies on form-stable crystalline polymer pellets for TES; subcontracts are being negotiated with four other organizations (Clemson University, Dow Chemical Company, Franklin Institute, and Suntek Research Associates). Review of 10 of 13 unsolicited proposals received was completed by the end of June 1976.

  16. Controlled cooling of an electronic system for reduced energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-08-09

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided. The control includes automatically determining at least one adjusted control setting for at least one adjustable cooling component of a cooling system cooling the electronic system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on power being consumed by the cooling system and temperature of a heat sink to which heat extracted by the cooling system is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on one or more experimentally obtained models relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the one or more adjustable cooling components of the cooling system.

  17. Controlled cooling of an electronic system for reduced energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2018-01-30

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided. The control includes automatically determining at least one adjusted control setting for at least one adjustable cooling component of a cooling system cooling the electronic system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on power being consumed by the cooling system and temperature of a heat sink to which heat extracted by the cooling system is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on one or more experimentally obtained models relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the one or more adjustable cooling components of the cooling system.

  18. Advances in electron cooling in heavy-ion storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danared, H.

    1994-01-01

    The efficiency of electron cooling can be improved by reducing the temperature of the electrons. If the magnetic field at the location of the electron gun is stronger than in the region where the electrons interact with the ions, and the field gradient is adiabatic with respect to the cyclotron motion of the electrons, the resulting expansion of the electron beam reduces its transverse temperature by a factor equal to the ratio between the two fields. A ten times expanded electron beam was introduced in the CRYRING electron cooler in the summer of 1993, and similar arrangements have since then been made at the TSR ring in Heidelberg and at ASTRID in Aarhus. The reduction of the transverse electron temperature has increased cooling rates with large factors, and improves the energy resolution and increases count rates when the cooler is used as an electron target for ion-electron recombination experiments

  19. TSR: A storage and cooling ring for HIE-ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.A. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Davinson, T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Flanagan, K.; Freeman, S.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Grieser, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Lazarus, I.H. [S.T.F.C. Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Litvinov, Yu.A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lotay, G. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Page, R.D. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Raabe, R. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Siesling, E.; Wenander, F. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Woods, P.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    It is planned to install the heavy-ion, low-energy ring TSR, currently at the Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, at the HIE-ISOLDE facility in CERN, Geneva. Such a facility will provide a capability for experiments with stored, cooled secondary beams that is rich and varied, spanning from studies of nuclear ground-state properties and reaction studies of astrophysical relevance, to investigations with highly-charged ions and pure isomeric beams. In addition to experiments performed using beams recirculating within the ring, the cooled beams can be extracted and exploited by external spectrometers for high-precision measurements. The capabilities of the ring facility as well as some physics cases will be presented, together with a brief report on the status of the project.

  20. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  1. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  2. Solar hydrogen hybrid system with carbon storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zini, G.; Marazzi, R.; Pedrazzi, S.; Tartarini, P.

    2009-01-01

    A complete solar hydrogen hybrid system has been developed to convert, store and use energy from renewable energy sources. The theoretical model has been implemented in a dynamic model-based software environment and applied to real data to simulate its functioning over a one-year period. Results are used to study system design and performance. A photovoltaic sub-system directly drives a residential load and, if a surplus of energy is available, an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen which is stored in a cluster of nitrogen-cooled tanks filled with AX-21 activated carbons. When the power converted from the sun is not sufficient to cover load needs, hydrogen is desorbed from activated carbon tanks and sent to the fuel-cell sub-system so to obtain electrical energy. A set of sub-systems (bus-bar, buck- and boost-converters, inverter, control circuits), handle the electrical power according to a Programmable Logic Control unit so that the load can be driven with adequate Quality of Service. Hydrogen storage is achieved through physisorption (weak van der Waals interactions) between carbon atoms and hydrogen molecules occurring at low temperature (77 K) in carbon porous solids at relatively low pressures. Storage modeling has been developed using a Langmuir-Freundlich 1st type isotherm and experimental data available in literature. Physisorption storage provides safer operations along with good gravimetric (10.8% at 6 MPa) and volumetric (32.5 g/l at 6 MPa) storage capacities at costs that can be comparable to, or smaller than, ordinary storage techniques (compression or liquefaction). Several test runs have been performed on residential user data-sets: the system is capable of providing grid independence and can be designed to yield a surplus production of hydrogen which can be used to recharge electric car batteries or fill tanks for non-stationary uses. (author)

  3. Storage Policies and Optimal Shape of a Storage System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaerpour, N.; De Koster, René; Yu, Yugang

    2013-01-01

    The response time of a storage system is mainly influenced by its shape (configuration), the storage assignment and retrieval policies, and the location of the input/output (I/O) points. In this paper, we show that the optimal shape of a storage system, which minimises the response time for single

  4. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldini, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  5. Experimental investigation of thermal storage integrated micro trigeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johar, Dheeraj Kishor; Sharma, Dilip; Soni, Shyam Lal; Goyal, Rahul; Gupta, Pradeep K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy Storage System is integrated with Micro trigeneration system. • Erythritol is used as Phase Change Material. • Maximum energy saved is 15.30%. • Combined systems are feasible to increase energy efficiency. - Abstract: In this study a 4.4 kW stationary compression ignition engine is coupled with a double pipe heat exchanger, vapour absorption refrigeration system and thermal energy storage system to achieve Trigeneration i.e. power, heating and cooling. A shell and tube type heat exchanger filled with erythritol is used to store thermal energy of engine exhaust. Various combinations of thermal energy storage system integrated micro-trigeneration were investigated and results related to performance and emissions are reported in this paper. The test results show that micro capacity (4.4 kW) stationary single cylinder diesel engine can be successfully modified to simultaneously produce power, heating and cooling and also store thermal energy.

  6. System for Cooling of Electronic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, L. L.; Grakovich, L. P.; Dragun, L. A.; Zhuravlev, A. S.; Olekhnovich, V. A.; Rabetskii, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Results of computational and experimental investigations of heat pipes having a predetermined thermal resistance and a system based on these pipes for air cooling of electronic components and diode assemblies of lasers are presented. An efficient compact cooling system comprising heat pipes with an evaporator having a capillary coating of a caked copper powder and a condenser having a developed outer finning, has been deviced. This system makes it possible to remove, to the ambient air, a heat flow of power more than 300 W at a temperature of 40-50°C.

  7. MULTIFUNCTIONAL SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR HEATING AND COOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic circuits of multifunctional solar systems of air drainage, heating (hot water supply and heating, cooling and air conditioning are developed on the basis of open absorption cycle with a direct absorbent regeneration. Basic decisions for new generation of gas-liquid solar collectors are developed. Heat-mass-transfer apparatus included in evaporative cooling system, are based on film interaction of flows of gas and liquid and in them, for the creation of nozzle, multi-channel structures from polymeric materials and porous ceramics are used. Preliminary analysis of multifunctional systems possibilities is implemented.

  8. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  9. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Digby

    2010-01-01

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the

  10. Simulation of solar-powered absorption cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmaca, I.; Yigit, A. [Uludag Univ., Bursa (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    With developing technology and the rapid increase in world population, the demand for energy is ever increasing. Conventional energy will not be enough to meet the continuously increasing need for energy in the future. In this case, renewable energy sources will become important. Solar energy is a very important energy source because of its advantages. Instead of a compressor system, which uses electricity, an absorption cooling system, using renewable energy and kinds of waste heat energy, may be used for cooling. In this study, a solar-powered, single stage, absorption cooling system, using a water-lithium bromide solution, is simulated. A modular computer program has been developed for the absorption system to simulate various cycle configurations and solar energy parameters for Antalya, Turkey. So, the effects of hot water inlet temperatures on the coefficient of performance (COP) and the surface area of the absorption cooling components are studied. In addition, reference temperatures which are the minimum allowable hot water inlet temperatures are determined and their effect on the fraction of the total load met by non-purchased energy (FNP) and the coefficient of performance are researched. Also, the effects of the collector type and storage tank mass are investigated in detail. (author)

  11. Robust holographic storage system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Minoru

    2011-11-21

    Demand is increasing daily for large data storage systems that are useful for applications in spacecraft, space satellites, and space robots, which are all exposed to radiation-rich space environment. As candidates for use in space embedded systems, holographic storage systems are promising because they can easily provided the demanded large-storage capability. Particularly, holographic storage systems, which have no rotation mechanism, are demanded because they are virtually maintenance-free. Although a holographic memory itself is an extremely robust device even in a space radiation environment, its associated lasers and drive circuit devices are vulnerable. Such vulnerabilities sometimes engendered severe problems that prevent reading of all contents of the holographic memory, which is a turn-off failure mode of a laser array. This paper therefore presents a proposal for a recovery method for the turn-off failure mode of a laser array on a holographic storage system, and describes results of an experimental demonstration. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  12. Slab cooling system design using computer simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lain, M.; Zmrhal, V.; Drkal, F.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    For a new technical library building in Prague computer simulations were carried out to help design of slab cooling system and optimize capacity of chillers. In the paper is presented concept of new technical library HVAC system, the model of the building, results of the energy simulations for

  13. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part two

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    Control of the heating and cooling system needs to be able to maintain the indoor temperatures within the comfort range under the varying internal loads and external climates. To maintain a stable thermal environment, the control system needs to maintain the balance between the heat gain...

  14. Smart Cooling Controlled System Exploiting Photovoltaic Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Atieh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A smart cooling system to control the ambient temperature of a premise in Amman, Jordan, is investigated and implemented. The premise holds 650 people and has 14 air conditioners with the cooling capacity ranging from 3 to 5 ton refrigerant (TR each. The control of the cooling system includes implementing different electronics circuits that are used to sense the ambient temperature and humidity, count the number of people in the premise and then turn ON/OFF certain air conditioner(s. The data collected by different electronic circuits are fed wirelessly to a microcontroller, which decides which air conditioner will be turned ON/OFF, its location and its desired set cooling temperature. The cooling system is integrated with an on-grid solar photovoltaic energy system to minimize the operational cost of the overall cooling system.

  15. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.

    1985-06-27

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  16. Passive cooling systems in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharon, J.; Harrari, R.; Weiss, Y.; Barnea, Y.; Katz, M.; Szanto, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews several R and D activities associated with the subject of passive cooling systems, conducted by the N.R.C.Negev thermohydraulic group. A short introduction considering different types of thermosyphons and their applications is followed by a detailed description of the experimental work, its results and conclusions. An ongoing research project is focused on the evaluation of the external dry air passive containment cooling system (PCCS) in the AP-600 (Westinghouse advanced pressurized water reactor). In this context some preliminary theoretical results and planned experimental research are for the fature described

  17. Power plant cooling systems: trends and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenhouse, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A novel design for an intake and discharge system at the Belle River plant is described followed by a general discussion of water intake screens and porous dikes for screening fish and zooplankton. The intake system for the San Onofre PWR plant is described and the state regulations controlling the use of water for power plants is discussed. The use of sewage effluent as a source of cooling water is mentioned with reference to the Palo Verde plant. Progress in dry cooling and a new wet/dry tower due to be installed at the San Juan plant towards the end of this year, complete the survey

  18. Stochastic cooling system in COSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittner, P.; Hacker, H.U.; Prasuhn, D.; Schug, G.; Singer, H.; Spiess, W.; Stassen, R.

    1994-01-01

    The stochastic cooler system in COSY is designed for proton kinetic energies between 0.8 and 2.5 GeV. Fabrication of the mechanical parts of the system is going on. Test results of the prototype measurements as well as data of the active RF-compontens are presented. (orig.)

  19. Stochastic cooling system in COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brittner, P [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Hacker, H U [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Prasuhn, D [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Schug, G [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Singer, H [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Spiess, W [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Stassen, R [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1994-09-01

    The stochastic cooler system in COSY is designed for proton kinetic energies between 0.8 and 2.5 GeV. Fabrication of the mechanical parts of the system is going on. Test results of the prototype measurements as well as data of the active RF-compontens are presented. (orig.)

  20. A Multi-function Cask for At-Reactor Storage of Short-Cooled Spent Fuel, Transport, and Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    2004-01-01

    The spent nuclear fuel (SNF) system in the United States was designed with the assumptions that SNF would be stored for several years in an at-reactor pool and then transported to reprocessing plants for recovery of fissile materials, that security would not be a major issue, and that the SNF burnups would be low. The system has evolved into a once-through fuel cycle with high-burnup SNF, long-term storage at the reactor sites, and major requirements for safeguards and security. An alternative system is proposed to better meet these current requirements. The SNF is placed in multi-function casks with the casks used for at-reactor storage, transport, and repository disposal. The cask is the handling package, provides radiation shielding, and protects the SNF against accidents and assault. SNF assemblies are handled only once to minimize accident risks, maximize security and safeguards by minimizing access to SNF, and reduce costs. To maximize physical protection, the cask body is constructed of a cermet (oxide particles embedded in steel, the same class of materials used in tank armor) and contains no cooling channels or other penetrations that allow access to the SNF. To minimize pool storage of SNF, the cask is designed to accept short-cooled SNF. To maximize the capability of the cask to reject decay heat and to limit SNF temperatures from short-cooled SNF, the cask uses (1) natural circulation of inert gas mixtures inside the cask to transfer heat from the SNF to the cask body and (2) an overpack with external natural-circulation, liquid-cooled fins to transfer heat from the cask body to the atmosphere. This approach utilizes the entire cask body area for heat transfer to maximize heat removal rates-without any penetrations through the cask body that would reduce the physical protection capabilities of the cask body. After the SNF has cooled, the cooling overpack is removed. At the repository, the cask is placed in a corrosion-resistant overpack before disposal

  1. Optimal Scheduling of Residential Microgrids Considering Virtual Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiliang Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly complex residential microgrids (r-microgrid consisting of renewable generation, energy storage systems, and residential buildings require a more intelligent scheduling method. Firstly, aiming at the radiant floor heating/cooling system widely utilized in residential buildings, the mathematical relationship between the operative temperature and heating/cooling demand is established based on the equivalent thermodynamic parameters (ETP model, by which the thermal storage capacity is analyzed. Secondly, the radiant floor heating/cooling system is treated as virtual energy storage system (VESS, and an optimization model based on mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP for r-microgrid scheduling is established which takes thermal comfort level and economy as the optimization objectives. Finally, the optimal scheduling results of two typical r-microgrids are analyzed. Case studies demonstrate that the proposed scheduling method can effectively employ the thermal storage capacity of radiant floor heating/cooling system, thus lowering the operating cost of the r-microgrid effectively while ensuring the thermal comfort level of users.

  2. Atmospheric impacts of evaporative cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, J.E.

    1976-10-01

    The report summarizes available information on the effects of various power plant cooling systems on the atmosphere. While evaporative cooling systems sharply reduce the biological impacts of thermal discharges in water bodies, they create (at least, for heat-release rates comparable to those of two-unit nuclear generating stations) atmospheric changes. For an isolated site such as required for a nuclear power plant, these changes are rather small and local, and usually environmentally acceptable. However, one cannot say with certainty that these effects will remain small as the number of reactors on a given site increases. There must exist a critical heat load for a specific site which, if exceeded, can create its own weather patterns, and thus create inadvertent weather changes such as rain and snow, severe thunderstorms, and tornadoes. Because proven mathematical models are not available, it is not now possible to forecast precisely the extent and frequency of the atmospheric effects of a particular heat-dissipation system at a particular site. Field research on many aspects of cooling system operation is needed in order to document and quantify the actual atmospheric changes caused by a given cooling system and to provide the data needed to develop and verify mathematical and physical models. The more important topics requiring field study are plume rise, fogging and icing (from certain systems), drift emission and deposition rates, chemical interactions, cloud and precipitation formation and critical heat-release rates

  3. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237783; The ATLAS collaboration; Zwalinski, L.; Bortolin, C.; Vogt, S.; Godlewski, J.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Van Overbeek, M.; Blaszcyk, T.

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity.

  4. Operational cost minimization in cooling water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an optimization model that considers thermal and hydraulic interactions is developed for a cooling water system. It is a closed loop consisting of a cooling tower unit, circulation pump, blower and heat exchanger-pipe network. Aside from process disturbances, climatic fluctuations are considered. Model constraints include relations concerning tower performance, air flowrate requirement, make-up flowrate, circulating pump performance, heat load in each cooler, pressure drop constraints and climatic conditions. The objective function is operating cost minimization. Optimization variables are air flowrate, forced water withdrawal upstream the tower, and valve adjustment in each branch. It is found that the most significant operating cost is related to electricity. However, for cooled water temperatures lower than a specific target, there must be a forced withdrawal of circulating water and further makeup to enhance the cooling tower capacity. Additionally, the system is optimized along the months. The results corroborate the fact that the most important variable on cooling tower performance is not the air temperature itself, but its humidity.

  5. Safety considerations for compressed hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, D.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the safety considerations for various hydrogen storage options, including stationary, vehicle storage, and mobile refueling technologies. Indications of some of the challenges facing the industry as the demand for hydrogen fuel storage systems increases. (author)

  6. Lengthening of the storage life of cooled chicken through radurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, H.E.; Holzapfel, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    Radurization is a particularly suitable method to lengthen the shelf life of chicken carcasses. A study was undertaken to determine the influence of four different dose rates and three storage temperatures, namely 3, 4, 5 and 7 kGy and 2, 4 and 8 degrees Celsius respectively. A total bacteria population of 10 6 per gramme was used as cut-off point for shelf life. Accordingly the untreated samples had a shelf life of 3 days at 4 degrees Celsius in comparison with 13 and 29 days for 3 and 5 kGy respectively. This study showed that low gamma radiation doses is not only an economical preservation method for chicken carcasses, but also destroys typical food pathogens such as Salmonella spp. The method also produces an organoleptic acceptable product

  7. Decontamination of primary cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Yoshitake.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively eliminate radioactivity accumulated in pipeways, equipments, etc in primary coolant circuits of BWR type power plants by utilizing ion displacement reactions. Method: The reactor pressure vessel is connected with a feedwater pipeway, steam pipeway and a recycling pipeway. The recycling pipeway is disposed with a recycling pump. A recycling by-pass line is branched from the recycling pipeway and disposed with a recycling system heat exchanger and chemical injection point. Water is filled in the primary coolant and heated 280 0 C. Then, while maintaining water at that temperature, non-radioactive cobalt ions are injected and circulated within the system, by which radioactivity accumulated in pipeways, equipments or the likes can effectively be removed. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Application of PCM energy storage in combination with night ventilation for space cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzin, Reza; Chen, John J.J.; Young, Brent R.; Farid, Mohammed M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Night ventilation were tested in combination with PCM-impregnated gypsum boards. • The Price-based method were experimentally used to perform peak load shifting. • Importance of the application of a smart control were experimentally investigated. • A cost and energy saving up to 93% and 92% per day respectively were achieved. - Abstract: In recent years, as a result of the continuous increase in energy demand, the use of energy storage has become increasingly important. To address this problem, the application of phase change materials (PCM) in buildings has received attention because of their high energy storage density and their ease of incorporation in building envelopes. Despite large experimental works conducted on the application phase change materials in buildings, there is very little work done on this application in combination with night ventilation. In this study, the application of night ventilation in combination with PCM-impregnated gypsum boards for cooling purposes was experimentally investigated. Two identical test huts equipped with “smart” control systems were used for testing the concept. One hut was constructed using impregnated gypsum boards, while the other hut was finished with ordinary gypsum board. Initially an air conditioning (AC) unit, without night ventilation, was used in both huts to charge the PCM during low peak period, showing very little savings in electricity. However, when night ventilation was used to charge the PCM instead, a weekly electricity saving of 73% was achieved.

  9. Techno-economic studies on hybrid energy based cooling system for milk preservation in isolated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwin, M.; Joseph Sekhar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance studies on biomass and biogas based milk cooling systems in remote areas. • Economic analysis of milk cooling system operated with locally available renewable energy sources. • Payback period for replacing conventional milk cooling systems with renewable energy based cooling system. • Identification of the suitable combination of locally available renewable energy sources for milk cooling. • Hybrid energy based milk cooling system for regions that have rubber and paddy cultivation, in India. - Abstract: In developing countries like India, about 70% of the population is engaged in the production of milk, fruits and vegetables. Due to the lack of proper storage and transit facilities, the agricultural produce, in remote areas loses its value. This spoilage could be prevented at the local village level, by providing cooling units for short term preservation. In this paper, the possibility of a hybrid energy based thermally operated cold storage has been considered to meet the cooling needs of the villages in the southern parts of India, where biomass, biogas and gobar gas are available in abundance. A milk cooling system that uses various combinations of locally available renewable energy sources to operate an aqua ammonia vapour absorption cooling system has been analysed using the Matlab software. The impact of various combinations of renewable energy sources on the Coefficient of Performance (COP), Net Present Value (NPV) and payback period of the total cooling system has been studied. The analysis shows that the COP and payback period of the proposed hybrid renewable energy based milk cooling system are 0.16–0.23 and 4–6 years respectively

  10. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  11. Development of Automotive Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainz, G.; Bartlok, G.; Bodner, P.; Casapicola, P.; Doeller, Ch.; Hofmeister, F.; Neubacher, E.; Zieger, A.

    2004-06-01

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) takes up less storage volume than gas but requires cryogenic vessels. State-of-the-art applications for passenger vehicles consist of double-wall cylindrical tanks that hold a hydrogen storage mass of up to 10 kg. The preferred shell material of the tanks is stainless steel, since it is very resistant against hydrogen brittleness and shows negligible hydrogen permeation. Therefore, the weight of the whole tank system including valves and heat exchanger is more than 100 kg. The space between the inner and outer vessel is mainly used for thermal super-insulation purposes. Several layers of insulation foils and high vacuums of 10-3 Pa reduce the heat entry. The support structures, which keep the inner tank in position to the outer tank, are made of materials with low thermal conductivity, e.g. glass or carbon fiber reinforced plastics. The remaining heat in-leak leads to a boil-off rate of 1 to 3 percent per day. Active cooling systems to increase the stand-by time before evaporation losses occur are being studied. Currently, the production of several liquid hydrogen tanks that fulfill the draft of regulations of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project (EIHP) is being prepared. New concepts of lightweight liquid hydrogen storage tanks will be investigated.

  12. Method of fabricating a cooled electronic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainer, Timothy J; Gaynes, Michael A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Schultz, Mark D; Simco, Daniel P; Steinke, Mark E

    2014-02-11

    A method of fabricating a liquid-cooled electronic system is provided which includes an electronic assembly having an electronics card and a socket with a latch at one end. The latch facilitates securing of the card within the socket. The method includes providing a liquid-cooled cold rail at the one end of the socket, and a thermal spreader to couple the electronics card to the cold rail. The thermal spreader includes first and second thermal transfer plates coupled to first and second surfaces on opposite sides of the card, and thermally conductive extensions extending from end edges of the plates, which couple the respective transfer plates to the liquid-cooled cold rail. The extensions are disposed to the sides of the latch, and the card is securable within or removable from the socket using the latch without removing the cold rail or the thermal spreader.

  13. Turbine airfoil with laterally extending snubber having internal cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Carmen Andrew; Messmann, Stephen John; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-09-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one snubber with a snubber cooling system positioned therein and in communication with an airfoil cooling system is disclosed. The snubber may extend from the outer housing of the airfoil toward an adjacent turbine airfoil positioned within a row of airfoils. The snubber cooling system may include an inner cooling channel separated from an outer cooling channel by an inner wall. The inner wall may include a plurality of impingement cooling orifices that direct impingement fluid against an outer wall defining the outer cooling channel. In one embodiment, the cooling fluids may be exhausted from the snubber, and in another embodiment, the cooling fluids may be returned to the airfoil cooling system. Flow guides may be positioned in the outer cooling channel, which may reduce cross-flow by the impingement orifices, thereby increasing effectiveness.

  14. Storage monitoring system - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickelsen, B.; Nilsen, C.; Kinzel, R.; Davidson, B.; Pollock, R.

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has several ongoing projects in the area of nuclear materials management. These projects establish a core capability in monitoring stored nuclear materials. The overarching goal of these projects is to get the right sensor information to the right user to enhance the safety, security and to verify the legitimacy of use 1 of stored nuclear materials. An effort has been initiated to merge these projects into a common system. This paper provides an overview of several of these projects and the integration activities between them. (author)

  15. Storage monitoring system - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickelsen, B.; Nilsen, C.; Kinzel, R.; Davidson, B.; Pollock, R.

    1997-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has several ongoing projects in the area of nuclear materials management. These projects establish a core capability in monitoring stored nuclear materials. The overarching goal of these projects is to get the right sensor information to the right user to enhance the safety, security and to verify the legitimacy of use of stored nuclear materials. An effort has been initiated to merge these projects into a common system. This paper provides an overview of several of these projects and the integration activities between them

  16. Electron gun design study for the IUCF beam cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesel, D.L.; Ellison, T.; Jones, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    The design of a low temperature electron beam cooling system for the Indiana University electron-cooled storage ring is in progress. The storage ring, which will accept the light ion beams from the existing k=200, multi-stage cyclotron facility, requires an electron beam variable in energy from about 7 to 275 keV. The electron beam system consists of a high perveance electron gun with Pierce geometry and a flat cathode. The gun and a 28 element accelerating column are immersed in a uniform longitudinal magnetic guide field. A computer modeling study of the system was conducted to determine electron beam density and transverse temperature variations as a function of anode region and accelerator column design parameters. Transverse electron beam temperatures (E /SUB t/ = mc 2 β 2 γ(/theta/ /SUB H/ +/theta/ /SUB v/ )) of less than a few tenths of an electron volt at a maximum current density of 0.4 A/cm 2 are desired over the full energy range. This was achieved in the calculations without the use of resonant focusing for a 2 Amp, 275 keV electron beam. Some systematics of the electron beam temperature variations with system design parameters are presented. A short discussion of the mechanical design of the proposed electron beam system is also given

  17. On synthesis and optimization of cooling water systems with multiple cooling towers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available -1 On Synthesis and Optimization of Cooling Water Systems with Multiple Cooling Towers Khunedi Vincent Gololo?? and Thokozani Majozi*? ? Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Lynnwood Road, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa ? Modelling...

  18. Emergency cooling system for a liquid metal cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Ryoichi; Fujiwara, Toshikatsu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To suitably cool liquid metal as coolant in emergency in a liquid metal cooled reactor by providing a detector for the pressure loss of the liquid metal passing through a cooling device in a loop in which the liquid metal is flowed and communicating the detector with a coolant flow regulator. Constitution: A nuclear reactor is stopped in nuclear reaction by control element or the like in emergency. If decay heat is continuously generated for a while and secondary coolant is insufficiently cooled with water or steam flowed through a steam and water loop, a cooler is started. That is, low temperature air is supplied by a blower through an inlet damper to the cooler to cool the secondary coolant flowed into the cooler through a bypass pipe so as to finally safely stop an entire plant. Since the liquid metal is altered in its physical properties by the temperature at this time, it is detected to regulate the opening of the valve of the damper according to the detected value. (Sekiya, K.)

  19. Stochastic cooling with a double rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie.

    1992-01-01

    Stochastic cooling for a bunched beam of hadrons stored in an accelerator with a double rf system of two different frequencies has been investigated. The double rf system broadens the spread in synchrotron-oscillation frequency of the particles when they mostly oscillate near the center of the rf bucket. Compared with the ease of a single rf system, the reduction rates of the bunch dimensions are significantly increased. When the rf voltage is raised, the reduction rate, instead of decreasing linearly, now is independent of the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. On the other hand, the spread in synchrotron-oscillation frequency becomes small with the double rf system, if the longitudinal oscillation amplitudes of the particles are comparable to the dimension of the rf bucket. Consequently, stochastic cooling is less effective when the bunch area is close to the bucket area

  20. France uses the sun to cool its wine: the Banyuls winery solar cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-12-01

    The engineering consultancy Tecsol was asked to design a cooling system for a winery that would limit the variations in temperature during the year. Tecsol proposed a solar system. The total investment cost amounted to nearly two million French Francs (300,000 euros), almost double the cost of a conventional air-conditioning system. However, because the solar system reduced the conventional energy needs of the warehouse by about 40%, the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) provided a 37% subsidy for its rational use of energy. The 'Solarclim' solar installation has three functions: it produces hot water via 693 vacuum tube collectors with a useful surface of 130 m{sup 2}. The collectors are fixed to the roof of the wine cellar, which has an angle of 15 deg. Heat from the collectors is transferred to a 1000-litre hot water storage tank; it produces chilled water using a lithium bromide absorption plant with a nominal cooling capacity of 52 kW. This is housed in the technical premises on the lowest level and is used in conjunction with a 180 kW open-circuit cooling tower on the north facade; and the third function combines air-conditioning and, when necessary, space heating. The installation has been operating for 12 years with no particular problems. The equipment is environmentally friendly. The solar heat source avoids CO{sub 2} emissions, the absorption machine does not use CFCs or HCFCs, and the system is totally silent. (UK)

  1. Performance of stratified thermal-storage system for Oliver Springs Elementary School. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, R.L.; Bedinger, A.F.G.

    1981-01-01

    A progress report is given on the performance of a stratified thermal storage system coupled with a heat recovery refrigeration machine designed to provide space heating, cooling and service water heating. Water storage tanks utilizing a flexible membrane to resist temperature blending will be used as the thermal storage element. The two design goals of the heat recovery and thermal energy storage system are (1) to minimize the need to purchase energy for space heating and cooling and water heating and (2) to minimize electrical demand. An automatic data acquisition system will be used for system performance and data gathering. Data collection is expected to begin in September, 1981.

  2. Development of a prototype thermoelectric space cooling system using phase change material to improve the performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongliang

    The thermoelectric cooling system has advantages over conventional vapor compression cooling devices, including compact in size, light in weight, high reliability, no mechanical moving parts, no refrigerant, being powered by direct current, and easily switching between cooling and heating modes. However, it has been long suffering from its relatively high cost and low energy efficiency, which has restricted its usage to niche applications, such as space missions, portable cooling devices, scientific and medical equipment, where coefficient of performance (COP) is not as important as reliability, energy availability, and quiet operation environment. Enhancement of thermoelectric cooling system performance generally relies on two methods: improving thermoelectric material efficiency and through thermoelectric cooling system thermal design. This research has been focused on the latter one. A prototype thermoelectric cooling system integrated with phase change material (PCM) thermal energy storage unit for space cooling has been developed. The PCM thermal storage unit used for cold storage at night, functions as the thermoelectric cooling system's heat sink during daytime's cooling period and provides relatively lower hot side temperature for the thermoelectric cooling system. The experimental test of the prototype system in a reduced-scale chamber has realized an average cooling COP of 0.87, with the maximum value of 1.22. Another comparison test for efficacy of PCM thermal storage unit shows that 35.3% electrical energy has been saved from using PCM for the thermoelectric cooling system. In general, PCM faces difficulty of poor thermal conductivity at both solid and liquid phases. This system implemented a finned inner tube to increase heat transfer during PCM charging (melting) process that directly impacts thermoelectric system's performance. A simulation tool for the entire system has been developed including mathematical models for a single thermoelectric module

  3. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  4. Optimizing cooling systems in Egyptian arid urbans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhat, Ahmed A.; Khalil, Essam E.

    2006-01-01

    Present study is devoted to climatic and site oriented investigations that were carried out in a new rural development in the Upper-Egypt. Bioclimatic classifications considered Upper Egypt region, near Sudan border, as a Hot and Dry climatic region. [1]. that is affected by solar heat intensities that can reach 900 W/m2 for a period ranged from 5-to-7 hours per day with the presence of study storms. Cooling season extends up to eight months per year having Upper-day-bulb temperature ranged from 400 degree centigrade - to - 470 degree centigrade while Lower-dry-bulb-temperature ranged from 280 degree centigrade - to - 320 degree centigrade with the relative humidity ranged from 10%-to-37% RH. [2]. Site surveys and field experimental and analyses of the commonly used cooling systems were investigated, evaluated and optimized for optimum indoor comfort conditions at efficient energy efficiency. [3]. Extensive analyses were performed based on Psychrometric formulae to evaluate the impact of energy consumptions related to different cooling systems such as direct expansion, chilled water, and evaporative systems. the present study enables the critical investigations of the influence of arid outdoor conditions and the required indoor thermal parameters on the energy efficiencies of HVAC-system. This work; focuses on the suggestion of suitable system that should be implemented by local energy codes in these arid urban.(Author)

  5. Parametrical analysis of latent heat and cold storage for heating and cooling of rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterman, E.; Hagel, K.; Rathgeber, C.; Butala, V.; Stritih, U.

    2015-01-01

    One of the problems we are facing today is the energy consumption minimization, while maintaining the indoor thermal comfort in buildings. A potential solution to this issue is use of phase change materials (PCMs) in thermal energy storage (TES), where cold gets accumulated during the summer nights in order to reduce cooling load during the day. In winter, on the other hand, heat from solar air collector is stored for evening and morning hours when solar radiation is not available. The main objective of the paper is to examine experimentally whether it is possible to use such a storage unit for heating as well as for cooling. For this purpose 30 plates filled with paraffin (melting point around 22°C) were positioned into TES and applied with the same initial and boundary conditions as they are expected in reality. Experimental work covered flow visualization, measurements of air velocity in the channels between the plates, parametric analysis in conjunction with TES thermal response and measurements of the pressure drops. The results indicate that this type of storage technology could be advantageously used in real conditions. For optimized thermal behavior, only plate thickness should be reduced. - Highlights: • Thermal properties of paraffin RT22HC were measured. • Flow visualization was carried out and velocity between plates was measured. • Thermal and pressure drop analysis were performed. • Melting times are too long however, use of storage tank for heating and cooling looks promising

  6. Design study of the cooling scheme for SMES system in ASPCS by using liquid hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makida, Yasuhiro, E-mail: yasuhiro.makida@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Shintomi, Takakazu [Nihon University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8251 (Japan); Asami, Takuya; Suzuki, Goro; Takao, Tomoaki [Sophia University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Hamajima, Takataro [Hachinohe Institutue of Technology, Hachinohe, Aomori 031-8501 (Japan); Tsuda, Makoto; Miyagi, Daisuke [Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Munakata, Kouhei; Kajiwara, Masataka [Iwatani Corp., Minato-ku, Tokyo 104-8058 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Advanced Superconducting Power Conditioning System is composed of SMES, FC–EL, H{sub 2} storage. •The ASPCS is proposed to be built beside a LH{sub 2} storage of a vehicle station to effectively use the cooling capability of liquid hydrogen. •The SMES coil, which is made from an MgB{sub 2} conductor, is indirectly cooled by LH{sub 2} through its own conduction. -- Abstract: From the point of view of environment and energy problems, the renewable energies have been attracting attention. However, fluctuating power generation by the renewable energies affects the stability of the power network. Thus, we propose a new electric power storage and stabilization system, Advanced Superconducting Power Conditioning System (ASPCS), in which a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and a hydrogen-energy-storage converge on a liquid hydrogen station for fuel cell vehicles. The ASPCS proposes that the SMES coils wound with MgB{sub 2} conductor are indirectly cooled by thermo-siphon circulation of liquid hydrogen to use its cooling capability. The conceptual design of cooling scheme of the ASPCS is presented.

  7. Design study of the cooling scheme for SMES system in ASPCS by using liquid hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makida, Yasuhiro; Shintomi, Takakazu; Asami, Takuya; Suzuki, Goro; Takao, Tomoaki; Hamajima, Takataro; Tsuda, Makoto; Miyagi, Daisuke; Munakata, Kouhei; Kajiwara, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Advanced Superconducting Power Conditioning System is composed of SMES, FC–EL, H 2 storage. •The ASPCS is proposed to be built beside a LH 2 storage of a vehicle station to effectively use the cooling capability of liquid hydrogen. •The SMES coil, which is made from an MgB 2 conductor, is indirectly cooled by LH 2 through its own conduction. -- Abstract: From the point of view of environment and energy problems, the renewable energies have been attracting attention. However, fluctuating power generation by the renewable energies affects the stability of the power network. Thus, we propose a new electric power storage and stabilization system, Advanced Superconducting Power Conditioning System (ASPCS), in which a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and a hydrogen-energy-storage converge on a liquid hydrogen station for fuel cell vehicles. The ASPCS proposes that the SMES coils wound with MgB 2 conductor are indirectly cooled by thermo-siphon circulation of liquid hydrogen to use its cooling capability. The conceptual design of cooling scheme of the ASPCS is presented

  8. An active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, H.G.; Lee, P.S.; Hawlader, M.N.A.

    2012-01-01

    The electrical efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) cell is adversely affected by the significant increase of cell operating temperature during absorption of solar radiation. A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system was designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated in this work. To actively cool the PV cells, a parallel array of ducts with inlet/outlet manifold designed for uniform airflow distribution was attached to the back of the PV panel. Experiments were performed with and without active cooling. A linear trend between the efficiency and temperature was found. Without active cooling, the temperature of the module was high and solar cells can only achieve an efficiency of 8–9%. However, when the module was operated under active cooling condition, the temperature dropped significantly leading to an increase in efficiency of solar cells to between 12% and 14%. A heat transfer simulation model was developed to compare to the actual temperature profile of PV module and good agreement between the simulation and experimental results is obtained.

  9. Emergency cooling system for the PHENIX reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megy, J.M.; Giudicelli, A.G.; Robert, E.A.; Crette, J.P.

    Among various engineered safeguards of the reactor plant, the authors describe the protective system designed to remove the decay heat in emergency, in case of complete loss of all normal decay heat removal systems. First the normal decay heat rejection systems are presented. Incidents leading to the loss of these normal means are then analyzed. The protective system and its constructive characteristics designed for emergency cooling and based on two independent and highly reliable circuits entirely installed outside the primary containment vessel are described

  10. Cooling system for auxiliary systems of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerker, W.; Mueller, K.; Roller, W.

    1981-01-01

    From the reactor auxiliary and ancillary systems of a nuclear facility heat has to be removed without the hazard arising that radioactive liquids or gases may escape from the safe area of the nuclear facility. A cooling system is described allowing at every moment to make available cooling fluid at a temperature sufficiently low for heat exchangers to be able to remove the heat from such auxiliary systems without needing fresh water supply or water reservoirs. For this purpose a dry cooling tower is connected in series with a heat exchanger that is cooled on the secondary side by means of a refrigerating machine. The cooling pipes are filled with a nonfreezable fluid. By means of a bypass a minimum temperature is guaranteed at cold weather. (orig.) [de

  11. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  12. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2015-08-18

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  13. A portable solar-powered air-cooling system based on phase-change materials for a vehicle cabin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Lingfei; Pan, Hongye; Zhu, Xin; Zhang, Xingtian; Salman, Waleed; Zhang, Zutao; Li, Li; Zhu, Miankuan; Yuan, Yanping; Xiang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This paper proposed a portable solar-powered air cooling system for a vehicle cabin based on Phase-change Materials. The cooling system contains three main parts: a solar-energy collection module, an energy-storage module and a phase-change cooling module. The operating principle can be described as follows. For energy input, the solar-energy-collection module harvests solar energy and converts it to electricity. The power-storage module stores the electrical energy in the supercapacitor to power the electrical equipment, mainly the air pump (AP) and water pump (WP) of the phase-change cooling module. Finally, the phase-change cooling module provides cold air for the vehicle cabin to create a comfortable vehicle interior in a hot summer. The proposed system is demonstrated through thermal simulations, which show the long-duration cooling effect of the system. Temperature drops of were obtained in field tests, predicting that the proposed cooling system is beneficial and practical for cooling vehicle cabins. - Highlights: • A novel portable air cooling system based on PCMs is presented. • Solar energy was adopted to power the proposed air cooling system. • This proposed system is used for cooling vehicle cabins exposed to the sun. • Experimental results show that the proposed system has a good cooling effect. - Abstract: In summer, the temperature is very high inside vehicles parked under the hot sun. This causes consuming more fossil energy to power the air conditioner and generation of harmful gases. There is currently no effective method to address this problem in an energy-saving and environmentally friendly manner. In this paper, a novel solar-powered air-cooling system for vehicle cabins is proposed based on Phase-change Materials (PCMs); the system prevents the temperature inside a vehicle cabin from rising too high when the vehicle is parked outdoor exposure to the sun. The proposed system consists of three main parts: a solar

  14. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  15. Emergency cooling method and system for gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpf, H.

    1982-01-01

    For emergency cooling of gas-cooled fast breeder reactors (GSB), which have a core consisting of a fission zone and a breeding zone, water is sprayed out of nozzles on to the core from above in the case of an incident. The water which is not treated with boron is taken out of a reservoir in the form of a storage tank in such a maximum quantity that the cooling water gathering in the space below the core rises at most up to the lower edge of the fission zone. (orig./GL) [de

  16. Hybrid heat pipe based passive cooling device for spent nuclear fuel dry storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid heat pipe was presented as a passive cooling device for dry storage cask of SNF. • A method to utilize waste heat from spent fuel was suggested using hybrid heat pipe. • CFD analysis was performed to evaluate the thermal performance of hybrid heat pipe. • Hybrid heat pipe can increase safety margin and storage capacity of the dry storage cask. - Abstract: Conventional dry storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) were designed to remove decay heat through the natural convection of air, but this method has limited cooling capacity and a possible re-criticality accident in case of flooding. To enhance the safety and capacity of dry storage cask of SNF, hybrid heat pipe-based passive cooling device was suggested. Heat pipe is an excellent passive heat transfer device using the principles of both conduction and phase change of the working fluid. The heat pipe containing neutron absorber material, the so-called hybrid heat pipe, is expected to prevent the re-criticality accidents of SNF and to increase the safety margin during interim and long term storage period. Moreover, a hybrid heat pipe with thermoelectric module, a Stirling engine and a phase change material tank can be used for utilization of the waste heat as heat-transfer medium. Located at the guide tube or instrumentation tube, hybrid heat pipe can remove decay heat from inside the sealed metal cask to outside, decreasing fuel rod temperature. In this paper, a 2-step analysis was performed using computational fluid dynamics code to evaluate the heat and fluid flow inside a cask, which consisted of a single spent fuel assembly simulation and a full-scope dry cask simulation. For a normal dry storage cask, the maximum fuel temperature is 290.0 °C. With hybrid heat pipe cooling, the temperature decreased to 261.6 °C with application of one hybrid heat pipe per assembly, and to 195.1 °C with the application of five hybrid heat pipes per assembly. Therefore, a dry

  17. Colliding beam physics at Fermilab: interaction regions, beam storage, antiproton cooling, production, and colliding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.K. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the colliding beams experment department at Fermilab was to bring about collisions of the stored beams in the energy doubler/saver and main ring, and construct experimental areas with appropriate detectors. To explore the feasibility of using the main ring as a storage device, several studies were carried out to investigate beam growth, loss, and the backgrounds in detectors at possible intersection regions. This range of developments constituted the major topics at the 1977 Summer Study reported here. Emphasis in part one is on interaction regions, beam storage, antiproton cooling, production, and colliding. 40 papers from this part are included in the data base. (GHT)

  18. Emergency reactor cooling systems for the experimental VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitake, Susumu; Suzuki, Katsuo; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Tamura, Kazuo; Ezaki, Masahiro.

    1983-03-01

    Performances and design of the panel cooling system which has been proposed to be equipped as an emergency reactor cooling system for the experimental multi purpose very high temperature gas-cooled reactor are explained. Effects of natural circulation flow which would develop in the core and temperature transients of the panel in starting have been precisely investigated. Conditions and procedures for settling accidents with the proposed panel cooling system have been also studied. Based on these studies, it has been shown that the panel cooling system is effective and useful for the emergency reactor cooling of the experimental VHTR. (author)

  19. Preliminary study on the adjonction of a cooling system and internal target ring to the GEPL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potaux, D.

    1983-01-01

    Various heavy particle storage rings (LEAR, Indiana, Uppsala) are planned for operation with combined electron cooling system and internal ultra-thin targets. The advantage of adding a similar device to the IPN cyclotron project is discussed [fr

  20. Electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavietes, Anthony D.; Joseph Mauger, G.; Anderson, Eric H.

    1999-01-01

    We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of high energy resolution performance and exceptional detection efficiency. Logistical difficulties associated with providing the required liquid nitrogen (LN) for cooling is the primary reason that these systems are found mainly in laboratories. The EMC-HPGe detector system described in this paper successfully provides HPGe detector performance in a portable instrument that allows for isotopic analysis in the field. It incorporates a unique active vibration control system that allows the use of a Sunpower Stirling cycle cryocooler unit without significant spectral degradation from microphonics. All standard isotopic analysis codes, including MGA and MGA++, GAMANL, GRPANL and MGAU, typically used with HPGe detectors can be used with this system with excellent results. Several national and international Safeguards organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have expressed interest in this system. The detector was combined with custom software and demonstrated as a rapid Field Radiometric Identification System (FRIS) for the U.S. Customs Service . The European Communities' Safeguards Directorate (EURATOM) is field-testing the first Safeguards prototype in their applications. The EMC-HPGe detector system design, recent applications, and results will be highlighted

  1. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic of dry cask storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, U.

    2000-01-01

    Interim spent fuel storage systems must provide for the safe receipt, handling, retrieval and storage of spent nuclear fuel before reprocessing or disposal. In the context of achieving these objectives, the following features of the design are to be taken into consideration: to maintain fuel subcritical, to remove spent fuel residualheat, and to provide for radiation protection. These features in the design of a dry cask storage system were analyzed for normal operating conditions by employing COBRA-SFS, SCALE4.4 (ORIGEN, XSDOSE, CSAS6) codes. For a metal-shielded type storage system, appropriate designs, in accordance with safety assurance limits of IAEA, were obtained for spent fuel burned to 33000, 45000 and 55000 MW d/t and cooled for 5 and 10 years

  2. Online mass storage system detailed requirements document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The requirements for an online high density magnetic tape data storage system that can be implemented in a multipurpose, multihost environment is set forth. The objective of the mass storage system is to provide a facility for the compact storage of large quantities of data and to make this data accessible to computer systems with minimum operator handling. The results of a market survey and analysis of candidate vendor who presently market high density tape data storage systems are included.

  3. Modelling aerosol behavior in reactor cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of some of the areas of concern in using computer codes to model fission-product aerosol behavior in the reactor cooling system (RCS) of a water-cooled nuclear reactor during a loss-of-coolant accident. The basic physical processes that require modelling include: fission product release and aerosol formation in the reactor core, aerosol transport and deposition in the reactor core and throughout the rest of the RCS, and the interaction between aerosol transport processes and the thermalhydraulics. In addition to these basic physical processes, chemical reactions can have a large influence on the nature of the aerosol and its behavior in the RCS. The focus is on the physics and the implications of numerical methods used in the computer codes to model aerosol behavior in the RCS

  4. Cooling Tower (Evaporative Cooling System) Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boyd, Brian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lewis, Taylor [Colorado Energy Office, Denver, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M and V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with cooling tower efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M and V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  5. Conceptual design of reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) spent fuel pool cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonny Lanyau; Mazleha Maskin; Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Mohmammad Suhaimi Kassim; Ahmad Nabil Abdul Rahim; Phongsakorn Prak Tom; Mohd Fairus Abdul Farid; Mohd Huzair Hussain

    2012-01-01

    After undergo about 30 years of safe operation, Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) was planned to be upgraded to ensure continuous operation at optimum safety condition. In the meantime, upgrading is essential to get higher flux to diversify the reactor utilization. Spent fuel pool is needed for temporary storage of the irradiated fuel before sending it back to original country for reprocessing, reuse after the upgrading accomplished or final disposal. The irradiated fuel elements need to be secure physically with continuous cooling to ensure the safety of the fuels itself. The decay heat probably still exist even though the fuel elements not in the reactor core. Therefore, appropriate cooling is required to remove the heat produced by decay of the fission product in the irradiated fuel element. The design of spent fuel pool cooling system (SFPCS) was come to mind in order to provide the sufficient cooling to the irradiated fuel elements and also as a shielding. The spent fuel pool cooling system generally equipped with pumps, heat exchanger, water storage tank, valve and piping. The design of the system is based on criteria of the primary cooling system. This paper provides the conceptual design of the spent fuel cooling system. (author)

  6. High Density Digital Data Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth D., II; Gray, David L.; Rowland, Wayne D.

    1991-01-01

    The High Density Digital Data Storage System was designed to provide a cost effective means for storing real-time data from the field-deployable digital acoustic measurement system. However, the high density data storage system is a standalone system that could provide a storage solution for many other real time data acquisition applications. The storage system has inputs for up to 20 channels of 16-bit digital data. The high density tape recorders presently being used in the storage system are capable of storing over 5 gigabytes of data at overall transfer rates of 500 kilobytes per second. However, through the use of data compression techniques the system storage capacity and transfer rate can be doubled. Two tape recorders have been incorporated into the storage system to produce a backup tape of data in real-time. An analog output is provided for each data channel as a means of monitoring the data as it is being recorded.

  7. Handling and storage of high-level radioactive liquid wastes requiring cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The technology of high-level liquid wastes storage and experience in this field gained over the past 25 years are reviewed in this report. It considers the design requirements for storage facilities, describes the systems currently in use, together with essential accessories such as the transfer and off-gas cleaning systems, and examines the safety and environmental factors

  8. Cooling system for the IFMIF-EVEDA radiofrequency system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Pichel, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    The IFMIF-EVEDA project consists on an accelerator prototype that will be installed at Rokkasho (Japan). Through CIEMAT, that is responsible of the development of many systems and components. Empresarios Agrupados get the responsibility of the detailed design of the cooling system for the radiofrequency system (RF system) that must feed the accelerator. the RF water cooling systems is the water primary circuit that provides the required water flow (with a certain temperature, pressure and water quality) and also dissipates the necessary thermal power of all the radiofrequency system equipment. (Author) 4 refs.

  9. Development of the interactive model between Component Cooling Water System and Containment Cooling System using GOTHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Choong Sup; Song, Dong Soo; Jun, Hwang Yong

    2006-01-01

    In a design point of view, component cooling water (CCW) system is not full-interactively designed with its heat loads. Heat loads are calculated from the CCW design flow and temperature condition which is determined with conservatism. Then the CCW heat exchanger is sized by using total maximized heat loads from above calculation. This approach does not give the optimized performance results and the exact trends of CCW system and the loads during transient. Therefore a combined model for performance analysis of containment and the component cooling water(CCW) system is developed by using GOTHIC software code. The model is verified by using the design parameters of component cooling water heat exchanger and the heat loads during the recirculation mode of loss of coolant accident scenario. This model may be used for calculating the realistic containment response and CCW performance, and increasing the ultimate heat sink temperature limits

  10. Fast multichannel analog storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, D.R.

    1982-11-01

    A Multichannel Analog Storage System based on a commercial 32-channel parallel in/serial out (PISO) analog shift register is described. The basic unit is a single width CAMAC module containing 512 analog cells and the associated logic for data storage and subsequent readout. At sampling rates of up to 30 MHz the signals are strobed directly into the PISO. At higher rates signals are strobed into a fast presampling stage and subsequently transferred in block form into an array of PISO's. Sampling rates of 300 MHz have been achieved with the present device and 1000 MHz are possible with improved signal drivers. The system is well suited for simultaneous handling of many signal channels with moderate numbers of samples in each channel. RMS noise over full scale signal has been measured as 1:3000 (approx. = 11 bit). However, nonlinearities in the response and differences in sensitivity of the analog cells require an elaborate calibration system in order to realize 11 bit accuracy for the analog information

  11. Locally Minimum Storage Regenerating Codes in Distributed Cloud Storage Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wang; Wei Luo; Wei Liang; Xiangyang Liu; Xiaodai Dong

    2017-01-01

    In distributed cloud storage sys-tems, inevitably there exist multiple node fail-ures at the same time. The existing methods of regenerating codes, including minimum storage regenerating (MSR) codes and mini-mum bandwidth regenerating (MBR) codes, are mainly to repair one single or several failed nodes, unable to meet the repair need of distributed cloud storage systems. In this paper, we present locally minimum storage re-generating (LMSR) codes to recover multiple failed nodes at the same time. Specifically, the nodes in distributed cloud storage systems are divided into multiple local groups, and in each local group (4, 2) or (5, 3) MSR codes are constructed. Moreover, the grouping method of storage nodes and the repairing process of failed nodes in local groups are studied. The-oretical analysis shows that LMSR codes can achieve the same storage overhead as MSR codes. Furthermore, we verify by means of simulation that, compared with MSR codes, LMSR codes can reduce the repair bandwidth and disk I/O overhead effectively.

  12. Maximizing the energy storage performance of phase change thermal storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, N.A.M.; Bruno, F.; Belusko, M. [South Australia Univ., Mawson Lakes, South Australia (Australia). Inst. for Sustainable Systems and Technologies

    2009-07-01

    The demand for electricity in South Australia is highly influenced by the need for refrigeration and air-conditioning. An extensive literature review has been conducted on the use of phase change materials (PCMs) in thermal storage systems. PCMs use latent heat at the solid-liquid phase transition point to store thermal energy. They are considered to be useful as a thermal energy storage (TES) material because they can provide much higher energy storage densities compared to conventional sensible thermal storage materials. This paper reviewed the main disadvantages of using PCMs for energy storage, such as low heat transfer, super cooling and system design issues. Other issues with PCMs include incongruence and corrosion of heat exchanger surfaces. The authors suggested that in order to address these problems, future research should focus on maximizing heat transfer by optimizing the configuration of the encapsulation through a parametric analysis using a PCM numerical model. The effective conductivity in encapsulated PCMs in a latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) system can also be increased by using conductors in the encapsulation that have high thermal conductivity. 47 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  13. Experimental investigation on charging and discharging performance of absorption thermal energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Li, Minzhi; Shi, Wenxing; Wang, Baolong; Li, Xianting

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A prototype of ATES using LiBr/H 2 O was designed and built. • Charging and discharging performances of ATES system were investigated. • ESE and ESD for cooling, domestic hot water and heating were obtained. - Abstract: Because of high thermal storage density and little heat loss, absorption thermal energy storage (ATES) is known as a potential thermal energy storage (TES) technology. To investigate the performance of the ATES system with LiBr–H 2 O, a prototype with 10 kW h cooling storage capacity was designed and built. The experiments demonstrated that charging and discharging processes are successful in producing 7 °C chilled water, 65 °C domestic hot water, or 43 °C heating water to meet the user’s requirements. Characteristics such as temperature, concentration and power variation of the ATES system during charging and discharging processes were investigated. The performance of the ATES system for supplying cooling, heating or domestic hot water was analyzed and compared. The results indicate that the energy storage efficiencies (ESE) for cooling, domestic hot water and heating are 0.51, 0.97, 1.03, respectively, and the energy storage densities (ESD) for cooling, domestic hot water and heating reach 42, 88, 110 kW h/m 3 , respectively. The performance is better than those of previous TES systems, which proves that the ATES system using LiBr–H 2 O may be a good option for thermal energy storage

  14. Evaluation of heat exchange performance for the auxiliary component cooling water system cooling tower in HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochio, Daisuke; Kameyama, Yasuhiko; Shimizu, Atsushi; Inoi, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yasunori; Aragaki, Etsushi; Ota, Yukimaru; Fujimoto, Nozomu

    2006-09-01

    The auxiliary component cooling water system (ACCWS) is one of the cooling system in High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). The ACCWS has main two features, many facilities cooling, and heat sink of the vessel cooling system which is one of the engineering safety features. Therefore, the ACCWS is required to satisfy the design criteria of heat removal performance. In this report, heat exchange performance data of the rise-to-power-up test and the in-service operation for the ACCWS cooling tower was evaluated. Moreover, the evaluated values were compared with the design values, and it is confirmed that ACCWS cooling tower has the required heat exchange performance in the design. (author)

  15. Emergency cooling system for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, E.; Andrews, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    Upon the occasion of loss of coolant in a nuclear reactor as when a coolant supply or return line breaks, or both lines break, borated liquid coolant from an emergency source is supplied in an amount to absorb heat being generated in the reactor even after the control rods have been inserted. The liquid coolant flows from pressurized storage vessels outside the reactor to an internal manifold from which it is distributed to unused control rod guide thimbles in the reactor fuel assemblies. Since the guide thimbles are mounted at predetermined positions relative to heat generating fuel elements in the fuel assemblies, holes bored at selected locations in the guide thimble walls, sprays the coolant against the reactor fuel elements which continue to dissipate heat but at a reduced level. The cooling water evaporates upon contacting the fuel rods thereby removing the maximum amount of heat (970 BTU per pound of water) and after heat absorption will leave the reactor in the form of steam through the break which is the cause of the accident to help assure immediate core cooldown

  16. Misting-cooling systems for microclimatic control in public space

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Joao; Zoilo, Inaki; Jacinto, Nuno; Nunes, Ana; Torres-Campos, Tiago; Pacheco, Manuel; Fonseca, David

    2011-01-01

    Misting-cooling systems have been used in outdoor spaces mainly for aesthetic purposes, and punctual cooling achievement. However, they can be highly effective in outdoor spaces’ bioclimatic comfort, in terms of microclimatic control, as an evaporative cooling system. Recent concerns in increasing bioclimatic standards in public outdoor spaces, along with more sustainable practices, gave origin to reasoning where plastic principles are combined with the study of cooling efficacy, in order to ...

  17. Investigations of combined used of cooling ponds with cooling towers or spraying systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farforovsky, V.B.

    1990-01-01

    Based on a brief analysis of the methods of investigating cooling ponds, spraying systems and cooling towers, a conclusion is made that the direct modelling of the combined use of cooling systems listed cannot be realized. An approach to scale modelling of cooling ponds is proposed enabling all problems posed by the combined use of coolers to be solved. Emphasized is the importance of a proper choice of a scheme of including a cooler in a general water circulation system of thermal and nuclear power plants. A sequence of selecting a cooling tower of the type and spraying system of the size ensuring the specified temperature regime in a water circulation system is exemplified by the water system of the Ghorasal thermal power plant in Bangladesh

  18. Cooling Performance Analysis of ThePrimary Cooling System ReactorTRIGA-2000Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianto, I. D.; Dibyo, S.; Bakhri, S.; Sunaryo, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    The conversion of reactor fuel type will affect the heat transfer process resulting from the reactor core to the cooling system. This conversion resulted in changes to the cooling system performance and parameters of operation and design of key components of the reactor coolant system, especially the primary cooling system. The calculation of the operating parameters of the primary cooling system of the reactor TRIGA 2000 Bandung is done using ChemCad Package 6.1.4. The calculation of the operating parameters of the cooling system is based on mass and energy balance in each coolant flow path and unit components. Output calculation is the temperature, pressure and flow rate of the coolant used in the cooling process. The results of a simulation of the performance of the primary cooling system indicate that if the primary cooling system operates with a single pump or coolant mass flow rate of 60 kg/s, it will obtain the reactor inlet and outlet temperature respectively 32.2 °C and 40.2 °C. But if it operates with two pumps with a capacity of 75% or coolant mass flow rate of 90 kg/s, the obtained reactor inlet, and outlet temperature respectively 32.9 °C and 38.2 °C. Both models are qualified as a primary coolant for the primary coolant temperature is still below the permitted limit is 49.0 °C.

  19. Heat pipe based cold energy storage systems for datacenter energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Mashiko, Koichi; Nguyen, Thang

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, design and economics of the novel type of thermal control system for datacenter using heat pipe based cold energy storage has been proposed and discussed. Two types of cold energy storage system namely: ice storage system and cold water storage system are explained and sized for datacenter with heat output capacity of 8800 kW. Basically, the cold energy storage will help to reduce the chiller running time that will save electricity related cost and decrease greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the electricity generation from non-renewable sources. The proposed cold energy storage system can be retrofit or connected in the existing datacenter facilities without major design changes. Out of the two proposed systems, ice based cold energy storage system is mainly recommended for datacenters which are located in very cold locations and therefore can offer long term seasonal storage of cold energy within reasonable cost. One of the potential application domains for ice based cold energy storage system using heat pipes is the emergency backup system for datacenter. Water based cold energy storage system provides more compact size with short term storage (hours to days) and is potential for datacenters located in areas with yearly average temperature below the permissible cooling water temperature (∼25 o C). The aforesaid cold energy storage systems were sized on the basis of metrological conditions in Poughkeepsie, New York. As an outcome of the thermal and cost analysis, water based cold energy storage system with cooling capability to handle 60% of datacenter yearly heat load will provide an optimum system size with minimum payback period of 3.5 years. Water based cold energy storage system using heat pipes can be essentially used as precooler for chiller. Preliminary results obtained from the experimental system to test the capability of heat pipe based cold energy storage system have provided satisfactory outcomes and validated the proposed

  20. Performance characteristic of hybrid cooling system based on cooling pad and evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J. I.; Son, C. H.; Choi, K. H.; Kim, Y. B.; Sung, Y. H.; Roh, S. J.; Kim, Y. M.; Seol, S. H.

    2018-01-01

    In South Korea, most of domestic animals such as pigs and chickens might die due to thermal diseases if they are exposed to the high temperature consistently. In order to save them from the heat wave, numerous efforts have been carried out: installing a shade net, adjusting time of feeding, spraying mist and setting up a circulation fan. However, these methods have not shown significant improvements. Thus, this study proposes a hybrid cooling system combining evaporative cooler and air-conditioner in order to resolve the conventional problems caused by the high temperature in the livestock industry. The problem of cooling systems using evaporative cooling pads is that they are not effective for eliminating huge heat load due to their limited capacity. And, temperature of the supplied air cannot be low enough compared to conventional air-conditioning systems. On the other hand, conventional air-conditioning systems require relatively expensive installation cost, and high operating cost compared to evaporative cooling system. The hybrid cooling system makes up for the lack of cooling capacity of the evaporative cooler by employing the conventional air-conditioner. Additionally, temperature of supplied air can be lowered enough. In the hybrid cooling system, induced air by a fan is cooled by the evaporation of water in the cooling pad, and it is cooled again by an evaporator in the air-conditioner. Therefore, the more economical operation is possible due to additionally obtained cooling capacity from the cooling pads. Major results of experimental analysis of hybrid cooling system are as follows. The compressor power consumption of the hybrid cooling system is about 23% lower, and its COP is 17% higher than that of the conventional air-conditioners. Regarding the condition of changing ambient temperature, the total power consumption decreased by about 5% as the ambient temperature changed from 28.7°C to 31.7°C. Cooling capacity and COP also presented about 3% and 1

  1. Phasing of Debuncher Stochastic Cooling Transverse Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquinelli, Ralph

    2000-01-01

    With the higher frequency of the cooling systems in the Debuncher, a modified method of making transfer functions has been developed for transverse systems. (Measuring of the momentum systems is unchanged.) Speed in making the measurements is critical, as the beam tends to decelerate due to vacuum lifetime. In the 4-8 GHz band, the harmonics in the Debuncher are 6,700 to 13,400 times the revolution frequency. Every Hertz change in revolution frequency is multiplied by this harmonic number and becomes a frequency measurement error, which is an appreciable percent of the momentum width of the beam. It was originally thought that a momentum cooling system would be phased first so that the beam could be kept from drifting in revolution frequency. As it turned out, the momentum cooling was so effective (even with the gain turned down) that the momentum width normalized to fo became less than one Hertz on the Schottky pickup. A beam this narrow requires very precise measurement of tune and revolution frequency. It was difficult to get repeatable results. For initial measuring of the transverse arrays, relative phase and delay is all that is required, so the measurement settings outlined below will suffice. Once all input and output arrays are phased, a more precise measurement of all pickups to all kickers can be done with more points and both upper and lower side bands, as in figure 1. Settings on the network analyzer were adjusted for maximum measurement speed. Data is not analyzed until a complete set of measurements is taken. Start and stop frequencies should be chosen to be just slightly wider than the band being measured. For transverse systems, select betatron USB for the measurement type. This will make the measurement two times faster. Select 101 for the number of points, sweep time of 5 seconds, IF bandwidth 30 Hz, averages = 1. It is important during the phasing to continually measure the revolution frequency and beam width of the beam for transverse systems

  2. Deposit control in process cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramani, B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to achieve efficient heat transfer in cooling water systems, it is essential to control the fouling of heat exchanger surfaces. Solubilities of scale forming salts, their growth into crystals, and the nature of the surfaces play important roles in the deposition phenomenon. Condensed phosphates, organic polymers and compounds like phosphates are effective in controlling deposition of scale forming salts. The surface active agents inhibit crystal growth and modify the crystals of the scale forming salts, and thus prevent deposition of dense, uniformly structured crystalline mass on the heat transfer surface. Understanding the mechanism of biofouling is essential to control it by surface active agents. Certain measures taken in the plant, such as back flushing, to control scaling, sometimes may not be effective and can be detrimental to the system itself. (author)

  3. Multi-criteria decision analysis of concentrated solar power with thermal energy storage and dry cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sharon J W

    2013-12-17

    Decisions about energy backup and cooling options for parabolic trough (PT) concentrated solar power have technical, economic, and environmental implications. Although PT development has increased rapidly in recent years, energy policies do not address backup or cooling option requirements, and very few studies directly compare the diverse implications of these options. This is the first study to compare the annual capacity factor, levelized cost of energy (LCOE), water consumption, land use, and life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of PT with different backup options (minimal backup (MB), thermal energy storage (TES), and fossil fuel backup (FF)) and different cooling options (wet (WC) and dry (DC). Multicriteria decision analysis was used with five preference scenarios to identify the highest-scoring energy backup-cooling combination for each preference scenario. MB-WC had the highest score in the Economic and Climate Change-Economy scenarios, while FF-DC and FF-WC had the highest scores in the Equal and Availability scenarios, respectively. TES-DC had the highest score for the Environmental scenario. DC was ranked 1-3 in all preference scenarios. Direct comparisons between GHG emissions and LCOE and between GHG emissions and land use suggest a preference for TES if backup is require for PT plants to compete with baseload generators.

  4. Long-time dynamics of laser-cooled ions in the TSR storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudrich, M.

    2000-01-01

    This diploma thesis studies experimentally the long-time dynamics of laser-cooled 9 Be + -beams at the TSR under different cooling conditions. The goal is to enlarge the understanding of ultra-cold, non-neutral plasma at high center-of-mass energies. By means of improved measurement capabilities one can now for the first time monitor the entire phase-space over a long time. This makes it possible to quantitatively analyse the possibilities and limitations of laser cooling at a storage ring. Under optimum cooling conditions a regime of high phase-space density is reached, close to the region where influences of Coulomb coupling are expected. Furthermore, a Monte-Carlo model is worked out that qualitatively describes the beam dynamics. The model includes the influence of transverse-longitudinal coupling due to intra beam scattering on the longitudinal phase-space distribution. At high phase-space density a sudden disappearance of intra beam collisions is observed experimentally and possible interpretations are given. (orig.)

  5. Thermal Sizing of Heat Exchanger Tubes for Air Natural Convective Cooling System of Emergency Cooling Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myoung Jun; Lee, Hee Joon [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Joo Hyung; Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Youngin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    For the long operation of secondary passive cooling system, however, water level goes down by evaporation in succession at emergency cooling tank. At the end there would be no place to dissipate heat from condensation heat exchanger. Therefore, steam cooling heat exchanger is put on the top of emergency cooling tank to maintain appropriate water level by collecting evaporating steam. Steam cooling heat exchanger is installed inside an air chimney and evaporated steam is cooled down by air natural convection. In this study, thermal sizing of steam cooling heat exchanger under air natural convection was conducted by TSCON program for the design of experimental setup as shown in Fig. 2. Thermal sizing of steam cooling heat exchanger tube under air natural convection was conducted by TSCON program for the design of experimental setup. 25 - 1' tubes which has a length 1687 mm was determined as steam cooling heat exchanger at 2 kW heat load and 100 liter water pool in emergency cooling tank (experimental limit condition). The corresponding width of two tubes is 50 mm and has 5 by 5 tube array for heat exchanger.

  6. Thermal Sizing of Heat Exchanger Tubes for Air Natural Convective Cooling System of Emergency Cooling Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myoung Jun; Lee, Hee Joon; Moon, Joo Hyung; Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Youngin

    2014-01-01

    For the long operation of secondary passive cooling system, however, water level goes down by evaporation in succession at emergency cooling tank. At the end there would be no place to dissipate heat from condensation heat exchanger. Therefore, steam cooling heat exchanger is put on the top of emergency cooling tank to maintain appropriate water level by collecting evaporating steam. Steam cooling heat exchanger is installed inside an air chimney and evaporated steam is cooled down by air natural convection. In this study, thermal sizing of steam cooling heat exchanger under air natural convection was conducted by TSCON program for the design of experimental setup as shown in Fig. 2. Thermal sizing of steam cooling heat exchanger tube under air natural convection was conducted by TSCON program for the design of experimental setup. 25 - 1' tubes which has a length 1687 mm was determined as steam cooling heat exchanger at 2 kW heat load and 100 liter water pool in emergency cooling tank (experimental limit condition). The corresponding width of two tubes is 50 mm and has 5 by 5 tube array for heat exchanger

  7. CoolPack – Simulation tools for refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.; Andersen, Simon Engedal

    1999-01-01

    CoolPack is a collection of programs used for energy analysis and optimisation of refrigeration systems. CoolPack is developed at the Department of Energy Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. The Danish Energy Agency finances the project. CoolPack is freeware and can be downloaded...

  8. Enhanced Schottky signals from electron-cooled, coasting beams in a heavy-ion storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, C., E-mail: claude.krantz@mpi-hd.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Blaum, K.; Grieser, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Litvinov, Yu.A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Repnow, R.; Wolf, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-02-11

    Measurements at the Test Storage Ring of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg (Germany) have shown that the signal amplitude induced in a Schottky-noise pickup electrode by a coasting electron-cooled ion beam can be greatly enhanced by exposure of the latter to a perturbing radiofrequency signal which is detuned from the true beam revolution frequency. The centre frequencies obtained from harmonic analysis of the observed pickup signal closely follow those imposed on the ions by the electron cooling force. The phenomenon can be exploited to measure the true revolution frequency of ion beams of very low intensity, whose pure Schottky noise is too weak to be measurable under normal circumstances.

  9. Cooling equilibrium and beam loss with internal targets in high energy storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boine-Frankenheim, O.; Hasse, R.; Hinterberger, F.; Lehrach, A.; Zenkevich, P.

    2006-01-01

    The beam cooling equilibrium with internal target interaction is analyzed for parameters relevant to the proposed High Energy Storage Ring (HESR). For the proposed experiments with anti-protons high luminosities together with low momentum spreads are required. Rate equations are used to predict the rms equilibrium beam parameters. The cooling and IBS rate coefficients are obtained from simplified models. Energy loss straggling in the target and the associated beam loss are analyzed analytically assuming a thin target. A longitudinal kinetic simulation code is used to study the evolution of the momentum distribution in coasting and bunched beams. Analytic expressions for the target induced momentum tail are found in good agreement with the simulation results

  10. The Proposed Heating and Cooling System in the CH2 Building and Its Impact on Occupant Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Aye

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Melbourne's climatic conditions demand that its buildings require both heating and cooling systems. In a multi-storey office building , however, cooling requirements will dominate. How the internal space is cooled and ventilation air is delivered will significantly impact on occupant comfort. This paper discusses the heating and cooling systems proposed for the CH2building. The paper critiques the proposed systems against previous experience, both internationally and in Australia. While the heating system employs proven technologies, less established techniques are proposed for the cooling system. Air movement in the shower towers, for example, is to be naturally induced and this has not always been successful elsewhere. Phase change material for storage of "coolth" does not appear to have been demonstrated previously in a commercial building, so the effectiveness of the proposed system is uncertain. A conventional absorption chiller backs up the untried elements of the cooling system, so that ultimately occupant comfort should not be compromised .

  11. Renewal of cooling system of JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoue, Ryuji; Kawamata, Takanori; Otsuka, Kaoru; Koike, Sumio; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Fukasaku, Akitomi

    2011-06-01

    The Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) is a light water moderated and cooled tank-type reactor, and its thermal power is 50 MW. The JMTR is categorized as high flux testing reactors in the world. The JMTR has been utilized for irradiation experiments of nuclear fuels and materials, as well as for radioisotope productions since the first criticality in March 1968 until August 2006. JAEA decided to refurbish the JMTR as an important fundamental infrastructure to promote the nuclear research and development. The refurbishment work was started from 2007, and restart is planned in 2011. Renewal facilities were selected from evaluation on their damage and wear in terms of aging. Facilities whose replacement parts are no longer manufactured or not likely to be manufactured continuously in near future, are selected as renewal ones. Replacement priority was decided with special attention to safety concerns. A monitoring of aging condition by the regular maintenance activity is an important factor in selection of continuous using after the restart. In this report, renewal of the cooling system within refurbishment facilities in the JMTR is summarized. (author)

  12. Development of Wind Operated Passive Evaporative Cooling Structures for Storage of Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Sunmonu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A Wind operated passive evaporative cooler was developed. Two cooling chambers were made with clay container (cylindrical and square shapes. These two containers were separately inserted inside bigger clay pot inter- spaced with clay soil of 7 cm (to form pot-in-pot and wall-in wall with the outside structure wrapped with jute sack. The soil and the jute sacks were wetted with salt solution. Five blades were constructed inside the cooling chambers with aluminium material which were connected with a shaft to a vane located on a wooden cover outside the cooling chamber. The vanes (made of aluminium were to be powered by the wind which in turn rotates the blades inside the cooling chamber. The total volume of 40500cm3 and storage capacity of 31500cm3 were recorded for the square structures while total volume of 31792.5cm3 and storage capacity of 24727.5cm3 were recorded for the cylindrical structures. During the test period, the average temperatures of 27.07oC, 27.09oC and 33.6oC were obtained for the pot-in-pot (cylindrical, wall-in-wall (square and the ambient respectively. The average relative humidity of 92.27%, 91.99% and 69.41% were obtained for the pot-in-pot (cylindrical, wall-in-wall (square and the ambient respectively. The average minimum and maximum wind speed recorded for the month of October was 2.5m/s and 2.6m/s respectively

  13. Modelling and analysis of a desiccant cooling system using the regenerative indirect evaporative cooling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Reinholdt, Lars O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the numerical modeling and analysis of a Desiccant Cooling (DEC) system with regenerative indirect evaporative cooling, termed Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling (DDC) system. The DDC system includes a Desiccant Wheel (DW), Dew Point Coolers (DPCs), a heat recovery unit and a heat...... in different climates: temperate in Copenhagen and Mediterranean in Venice. Cheap and clean heat sources (e.g. solar energy) strongly increase the attractiveness of the DDC system. For the Mediterranean climate the DDC system represents a convenient alternative to chiller-based systems in terms of energy costs...... and CO2 emissions. The electricity consumption for auxiliaries in the DDC system is higher than in the chiller-based systems. The number of commercial-size DPC units required to cover the cooling load during the whole period is high: 8 in Copenhagen and 12 in Venice....

  14. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  15. SNS Resonance Control Cooling Systems and Quadrupole Magnet Cooling Systems DIW Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magda, Karoly [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    This report focuses on control of the water chemistry for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Resonance Control Cooling System (RCCS)/Quadrupole Magnet Cooling System (QMCS) deionized water (DIW) cooling loops. Data collected from spring 2013 through spring 2016 are discussed, and an operations regime is recommended.It was found that the RCCS operates with an average pH of 7.24 for all lines (from 7.0 to 7.5, slightly alkaline), the average low dissolved oxygen is in the area of < 36 ppb, and the main loop average resistivity of is > 14 MΩ-cm. The QMCS was found to be operating in a similar regime, with a slightly alkaline pH of 7.5 , low dissolved oxygen in the area of < 45 ppb, and main loop resistivity of 10 to 15 MΩ-cm. During data reading, operational corrections were done on the polishing loops to improve the water chemistry regime. Therefore some trends changed over time.It is recommended that the cooling loops operate in a regime in which the water has a resistivity that is as high as achievable, a dissolved oxygen concentration that is as low as achievable, and a neutral or slightly alkaline pH.

  16. Geomechanical Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification Reactor Cool Down for Subsequent CO2 Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhosis, Vasilis; Yang, Dongmin; Kempka, Thomas; Sheng, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an efficient method for the conversion of conventionally unmineable coal resources into energy and feedstock. If the UCG process is combined with the subsequent storage of process CO2 in the former UCG reactors, a near-zero carbon emission energy source can be realised. This study aims to present the development of a computational model to simulate the cooling process of UCG reactors in abandonment to decrease the initial high temperature of more than 400 °C to a level where extensive CO2 volume expansion due to temperature changes can be significantly reduced during the time of CO2 injection. Furthermore, we predict the cool down temperature conditions with and without water flushing. A state of the art coupled thermal-mechanical model was developed using the finite element software ABAQUS to predict the cavity growth and the resulting surface subsidence. In addition, the multi-physics computational software COMSOL was employed to simulate the cavity cool down process which is of uttermost relevance for CO2 storage in the former UCG reactors. For that purpose, we simulated fluid flow, thermal conduction as well as thermal convection processes between fluid (water and CO2) and solid represented by coal and surrounding rocks. Material properties for rocks and coal were obtained from extant literature sources and geomechanical testings which were carried out on samples derived from a prospective demonstration site in Bulgaria. The analysis of results showed that the numerical models developed allowed for the determination of the UCG reactor growth, roof spalling, surface subsidence and heat propagation during the UCG process and the subsequent CO2 storage. It is anticipated that the results of this study can support optimisation of the preparation procedure for CO2 storage in former UCG reactors. The proposed scheme was discussed so far, but not validated by a coupled numerical analysis and if proved to be applicable it could

  17. Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1990-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  18. Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1989-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  19. Small magnetic energy storage systems using high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on magnetic energy storage for power systems that has been considered for commercial utility power, air and ground mobile power sources, and spacecraft applications. Even at the current technology limits of energy storage (100 KJ/Kg*), superconducting magnetic energy storage inductors do not offer a strong advantage over state-of-the-art batteries. The commercial utility application does not have a weight and volume limitation, and is under intense study in several countries for diurnal cycle energy storage and high power delivery. The advent of high temperature superconductors has reduced one of the penalties of superconducting magnetic energy storage in that refrigeration and cryocontainers become greatly simplified. Still, structural and current density issues that limit the energy density and size of superconducting inductors do not change. Cold weather starting of aircraft engines is an application where these limitations are not as significant, and where current systems lack performance. The very cold environments make it difficult to achieve high power densities in state-of-the-art batteries and hydraulically activated starters. The same cold environments make it possible to cool superconducting systems for weeks using a single charge of liquid nitrogen. At the same, the ground carts can handle the size and weight of superconducting magnetic storage (SMES) devices

  20. Cooling systems research at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies of the thermal plumes resulting from discharges from once-through cooling systems of electric generating stations are reviewed. The collection of large amounts of water temperature data for definition of the three-dimensional structure of a thermal plume, of current data, and related ambient data for model evaluation purposes required the development of an integrated data collection system. The Argonne system employs measurements of water temperature over the water column from a moving small boat. Temperatures are measured with thermistors attached to a rigid strut for surface plumes and to a flexible, faired cable for submerged plumes. Water temperatures and boat location, determined by a microwave ranging system, are recorded on magnetic tape while the boat is underway and prove a quasi-synoptic map of plume temperatures. Automated data handling and processing procedures provide for the production of isotherm maps of the plume at several elevations and in cross section. Mathematical model evaluation for surface discharges of waste heat included the consideration of over 40 different models and detailed evaluation of 11 models. Most models were run on Argonne's computers, and all models were evaluated in terms of their limitations and capabilities as well as their predictive performance against prototype data. Measurements were made of thermal plumes at the discharges of nuclear power plants located on the shores of Lake Michigan

  1. Simulation of an adsorption solar cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.Z.; Mohamad, A.A.; Bennacer, R.

    2011-01-01

    A more realistic theoretical simulation model for a tubular solar adsorption refrigerating system using activated carbon-methanol (AC/M) pair has been introduced. The mathematical model represents the heat and mass transfer inside the adsorption bed, the condenser, and the evaporator. The simulation technique takes into account the variations of ambient temperature and solar radiation along the day. Furthermore, the local pressure, and local thermal conductivity variations in space and time inside the tubular reactor are investigated as well. A C++ computer program is written to solve the proposed numerical model using the finite difference method. The developed program covers the operations of all the system components along the cycle time. The performance of the tubular reactor, the condenser, and the evaporator has been discussed. Time allocation chart and switching operations for the solar refrigeration system processes are illustrated as well. The case studied has a 1 m 2 surface area solar flat plate collector integrated with a 20 stainless steel tubes containing the AC/M pair and each tube has a 5 cm outer diameter. In addition, the condenser pressure is set to 54.2 kpa. It has been found that, the solar coefficient of performance and the specific cooling power of the system are 0.211 and 2.326 respectively. In addition, the pressure distribution inside the adsorption bed has been found nearly uniform and varying only with time. Furthermore, the AC/M thermal conductivity is shown to be constant in both space and time.

  2. Onderzoeksrapportage duurzaam koelen : EOS Renewable Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Broeze, J.; Sluis, van der, S.; Wissink, E.

    2010-01-01

    For reducing energy use for cooling, alternative methods (that do not rely on electricity) are needed. Renewable cooling is based on naturally available resources such as evaporative cooling, free cooling, phase change materials, ground subcooling, solar cooling, wind cooling, night radiation & storage. The project was aimed to create innovative combinations of these renewable cooling technologies and sophisticated control systems, to design renewable climate systems for various applicati...

  3. GOTHIC Simulation of Passive Containment Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Huiun; Kim, Hangon

    2013-01-01

    The performance of this system depends on the condensation of steam moving downward inside externally cooled vertical tubes. AES-2006: During a DBA, heat is removed by internally cooled vertical tubes, which are located in containment. We are currently developing the conceptual design of Innovative PWR, which is will be equipped with various passive safety features, including PCCS. We have plan to use internal heat exchanger (HX) type PCCS with concrete containment. In this case, the elevation of HXs is important to ensure the heat removal during accidents. In general, steam is lighter than air mixture in containment. So, steam may be collected at the upper side of containment. It means that higher elevation of HXs, larger heat removal efficiency of those. So, the aim of the present paper is to give preliminary study on variation of heat removal performance according to elevation of HXs. With reference to the design specification of the current reactors including APR+, we had determined conceptual design of PCCS. Using it, we developed a GOTHIC model of the APR1400 containment was adopted PCCS. This calculation model is described herein and representative results of calculation are presented. APR 1400 GOTHIC model was developed for PCCS performance calculation and sensitivity test according to installation elevation of PCCXs. Calculation results confirm that PCCS is working properly. It is found that the difference due to the installation elevation of PCCXs is insignificant at this preliminary analysis, however, further studies should be performed to confirm final performance of PCCS according to the installation elevation. These insights are important for developing the PCCS of Innovative PWR

  4. GOTHIC Simulation of Passive Containment Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Huiun; Kim, Hangon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The performance of this system depends on the condensation of steam moving downward inside externally cooled vertical tubes. AES-2006: During a DBA, heat is removed by internally cooled vertical tubes, which are located in containment. We are currently developing the conceptual design of Innovative PWR, which is will be equipped with various passive safety features, including PCCS. We have plan to use internal heat exchanger (HX) type PCCS with concrete containment. In this case, the elevation of HXs is important to ensure the heat removal during accidents. In general, steam is lighter than air mixture in containment. So, steam may be collected at the upper side of containment. It means that higher elevation of HXs, larger heat removal efficiency of those. So, the aim of the present paper is to give preliminary study on variation of heat removal performance according to elevation of HXs. With reference to the design specification of the current reactors including APR+, we had determined conceptual design of PCCS. Using it, we developed a GOTHIC model of the APR1400 containment was adopted PCCS. This calculation model is described herein and representative results of calculation are presented. APR 1400 GOTHIC model was developed for PCCS performance calculation and sensitivity test according to installation elevation of PCCXs. Calculation results confirm that PCCS is working properly. It is found that the difference due to the installation elevation of PCCXs is insignificant at this preliminary analysis, however, further studies should be performed to confirm final performance of PCCS according to the installation elevation. These insights are important for developing the PCCS of Innovative PWR.

  5. Load calculations of radiant cooling systems for sizing the plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was, by using a building simulation software, to prove that a radiant cooling system should not be sized based on the maximum cooling load but at a lower value. For that reason six radiant cooling models were simulated with two control principles using 100%, 70% and 50......% of the maximum cooling load. It was concluded that all tested systems were able to provide an acceptable thermal environment even when the 50% of the maximum cooling load was used. From all the simulated systems the one that performed the best under both control principles was the ESCS ceiling system. Finally...... it was proved that ventilation systems should be sized based on the maximum cooling load....

  6. Integrated cooling system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.; Chang, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The MFTF components that require water cooling include the neutral beam dumps, ion dumps, plasma dumps, baffle plates, magnet liners, gas boxes, streaming guns, and the neutral beam injectors. A total heat load of nearly 500 MW for 0.5 s dissipates over 4-min intervals. A steady-flow, closed-loop system is utilized. The design of the cooling system assumes that all components require cooling simultaneously. The cooling system contains process instrumentation for loop control. Alarms and safety interlocks are incorporated for the safe operation of the system

  7. Management issues for high performance storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Burris, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Managing distributed high-performance storage systems is complex and, although sharing common ground with traditional network and systems management, presents unique storage-related issues. Integration technologies and frameworks exist to help manage distributed network and system environments. Industry-driven consortia provide open forums where vendors and users cooperate to leverage solutions. But these new approaches to open management fall short addressing the needs of scalable, distributed storage. We discuss the motivation and requirements for storage system management (SSM) capabilities and describe how SSM manages distributed servers and storage resource objects in the High Performance Storage System (HPSS), a new storage facility for data-intensive applications and large-scale computing. Modem storage systems, such as HPSS, require many SSM capabilities, including server and resource configuration control, performance monitoring, quality of service, flexible policies, file migration, file repacking, accounting, and quotas. We present results of initial HPSS SSM development including design decisions and implementation trade-offs. We conclude with plans for follow-on work and provide storage-related recommendations for vendors and standards groups seeking enterprise-wide management solutions.

  8. Modern cooling systems in thermal power plants relieve environmental pollution. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.

    1983-01-01

    Direct and indirect dry recirculation cooling, wet cooling tower, natural-draught wet cooling tower, combined cooling processes, hybrid cooling systems, cell cooling systems, auxiliary water preparation, cooling process design, afterheat removal in nuclear power plants, environmental effects, visible plumes as a function of weather conditions, environmental protection and energy supply assurance. (orig.) [de

  9. Optimizing Performance of a Thermal Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirats Soler, Monica

    In this thesis, the problem of electricity demand shifting for the cooling needs of a large institution using a thermal energy storage (TES) tank is considered. The system is formed by electric chillers, cooling towers and a TES tank that can store energy for the cooling demand of most days, but not for the hottest ones. The goal is to supply all the cooling needed while minimizing the cost. This is done by shifting the cooling demand to night and early morning hours, when electricity is cheaper and due to lower temperatures, the chillers work more efficiently. This is all done with the help of the TES tank, that acts as a buffer storing chilled water. After a series of assumptions and simplifications, the cost function becomes convex and thus a minimum solution exists. However, from previous work only the chillers were considered, omitting the negative effect that other components of the system, such as cooling towers, had on the overall cost of operation. Using data from the operation of the power plant under real conditions, a method to model the whole system is presented in this thesis. In addition, the algorithm relied on the knowledge of an accurate prediction of the cooling demand, which obviously is not known in advance. A method to predict it starting from a forecasting of the temperature is presented. Finally, the algorithm can be easily modified to allow the imposition constraints that limit the maximum power use of chillers, during specific periods, in response to the overall needs of the micro-grid.

  10. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng

    2017-02-28

    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  11. The Role of Absorption Cooling for Reaching Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindmark, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    This thesis focuses on the role and potential of absorption cooling in future energy systems. Two types of energy systems are investigated: a district energy system based on waste incineration and a distributed energy system with natural gas as fuel. In both cases, low temperature waste heat is used as driving energy for the absorption cooling. The main focus is to evaluate the absorption technology in an environmental perspective, in terms of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Economic evaluations are also performed. The reduced electricity when using absorption cooling instead of compression cooling is quantified and expressed as an increased net electrical yield. The results show that absorption cooling is an environmentally friendly way to produce cooling as it reduces the use of electrically driven cooling in the energy system and therefore also reduces global CO{sub 2} emissions. In the small-scale trigeneration system the electricity use is lowered with 84 % as compared to cooling production with compression chillers only. The CO{sub 2} emissions can be lowered to 45 CO{sub 2}/MWh{sub c} by using recoverable waste heat as driving heat for absorption chillers. However, the most cost effective cooling solution in a district energy system is a combination between absorption and compression cooling technologies according to the study. Absorption chillers have the potential to be suitable bottoming cycles for power production in distributed systems. Net electrical yields over 55 % may be reached in some cases with gas motors and absorption chillers. This small-scale system for cogeneration of power and cooling shows electrical efficiencies comparable to large-scale power plants and may contribute to reducing peak electricity demand associated with the cooling demand.

  12. Design of double containment canister cask storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Oohama, T.; Kuriyama, K.; Kawakami, K.

    2004-01-01

    Spent fuels discharged from Japanese LWR will be stored as recycled-fuel-resources in interim storage facilities. The concrete cask storage system is one of important forms for the spent fuel interim storage. In Japan, the interim storage facility will be located near the coast, therefore it is important to prevent SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) caused by sea salt particles and to assure the containment integrity of the canister which contains spent fuels. KEPCO, NFT and OCL have designed the double containment canister cask storage system that can assure the long-term containment integrity and monitor the containment performance without storage capacity decrease. Major features of the combined canister cask system are shown as follows: This system can survey containment integrity of dual canisters by monitoring the pressure of the gap between canisters. The primary canister has dual lids sealed by welding. The secondary canister has single lid tightened by bolts and sealed by metallic gaskets. The primary canister is contained in the transport cask during transportation, and the gap between the primary canister and the transport cask is filled with He gas. Under storage condition in the concrete cask, the primary canister is contained in the secondary canister, and the gap between these canisters is filled with helium gas. Hence this system can prevent the primary canister to contact sea salt particle in the air and from SCC. Decrease of cooling performance because of the double canister is compensated by fins fitted on the secondary canister surface. Then, this system can prevent the decrease of storage capacity determined by the fuel temperature limit. This system can assure that the primary canister will keep intact for long term storage. Therefore, in the case of pressure down of the gap between canisters, it can be considered that the secondary canister containment is damaged, and the primary canister will be transferred to another secondary canister at the

  13. Cryogenic system with the sub-cooled liquid nitrogen for cooling HTS power cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Y.F. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry; Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Gong, L.H.; Xu, X.D.; Li, L.F.; Zhang, L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry; Xiao, L.Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Electrical Engineering

    2005-04-01

    A 10 m long, three-phase AC high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable had been fabricated and tested in China August 2003. The sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) was used to cool the HTS cable. The sub-cooled LN{sub 2} circulation was built by means of a centrifugal pump through a heat exchanger in the sub-cooler, the three-phase HTS cable cryostats and a LN{sub 2} gas-liquid separator. The LN{sub 2} was cooled down to 65 K by means of decompressing, and the maximum cooling capacity was about 3.3 kW and the amount of consumed LN{sub 2} was about 72 L/h at 1500 A. Cryogenic system design, test and some experimental results would be presented in this paper. (author)

  14. ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BOARDS NON-UNIFORM COOLING SYSTEM MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Yevdulov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The paper considers a mathematical model of non-uniform cooling of electronic circuit boards. The block diagram of the system implementing this approach, the method of calculation of the electronic board temperature field, as well as the principle of its thermal performance optimizing are presented. In the considered scheme the main heat elimination from electronic board is produced by the radiator system, and additional cooling of the most temperature-sensitive components is produced by thermoelectric batteries. Are given the two-dimensional temperature fields of the electronic board during its uniform and non-uniform cooling, is carried out their comparison. As follows from the calculations results, when using a uniform overall cooling of electronic unit there is a waste of energy for the cooling 0f electronic board parts which temperature is within acceptable temperature range without the cooling system. This approach leads to the increase in the cooling capacity of used thermoelectric batteries in comparison with the desired values. This largely reduces the efficiency of heat elimination system. The use for electronic boards cooling of non-uniform local heat elimination removes this disadvantage. The obtained dependences show that in this case, the energy required to create a given temperature is smaller than when using a common uniform cooling. In this approach the temperature field of the electronic board is more uniform and the cooling is more efficient. 

  15. Biofouling problems in freshwater cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    In aqueous environments, microorganisms (bacteria, algae, fungi etc.,) are attracted towards surfaces, which they readily colonise resulting in the formation of biofilms. The implications of biofouling are energy losses due to increased fluid frictional resistance and increased heat transfer resistance. The temperatures prevalent inside the condenser system provide a favorable environment for the rapid growth of microorganisms. This results in thick slime deposit, which is responsible for heat transfer losses, thereby enhancing aggregation of deposits on the material surface and induces localised corrosion. There have been instances of increased capital costs due to premature replacement of equipment caused by severe under deposit corrosion due to biofouling. Moreover, fouling of service water systems of nuclear power plants is of concern, because it reduces the heat transfer capacity during an emergency or an accident. The growth of microbial films (slimes) a few tens of microns thick, in a condenser tube is sufficient to induce microbiologically influenced corrosion and cause irreparable damage to the condenser tubes and other structural materials. The down time costs to power plant due to condenser fouling and corrosion are quite large. This paper presents the author's experience in biofouling and corrosion problems in various power plants cooled by freshwater. (author)

  16. Experimental study on thermophysical properties of nanofluids as phase-change material (PCM) in low temperature cool storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qinbo; Wang Shuangfeng; Tong, Mingwei; Liu Yudong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The nanoparticles can reduce the supercooling degree of TiO 2 –BaCl 2 –H 2 O nanofluid PCMs. ► The TiO 2 –BaCl 2 –H 2 O nanofluids PCMs can be applied to industries low temperature energy storage. ► TiO 2 –BaCl 2 –H 2 O can be a candidate for low temperature PCM. - Abstract: In this article, a new sort of nanofluid phase change materials (PCMs) is developed by suspending a small amount of TiO 2 nanoparticles in saturated BaCl 2 aqueous solution. Its thermal conductivities, supercooling degree, latent heat, specific heat, and rheological behaviors of the nanofluids PCMs were investigated. The experimental results show that with volume fraction is 1.130%, the thermal conductivities of nanofluids PCMs is enhanced by 12.76% at −5 °C, the supercooling degree is reduced by 84.92%. The latent heat and specific heat are slightly decreased with suspending nanoparticles. The viscosity increased with the increasing volume fraction, which will have no effect on the cool storage system. The higher thermal performances of nanofluids PCMs indicate that they are suitable for the industries low temperature energy storage.

  17. Thermochemical Heat Storage: from Reaction Storage Density to System Storage Density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.J. de; Vliet, L.D. van; Hoegaerts, C.L.G.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Cuypers, R.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term and compact storage of solar energy is crucial for the eventual transition to a 100% renewable energy economy. For this, thermochemical materials provide a promising solution. The compactness of a long-term storage system is determined by the thermochemical reaction, operating conditions,

  18. Compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  19. Performance assesment of solar heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shesho, Igor; Armenski, Slave [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, ' Ss. Cyril and Methodius' University, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); others, and

    2014-07-01

    Thermal performance of the solar thermal systems are estimated using numerical methods and software since the solar processes are transitient in nature been driven by time dependent forcing functions and loads. The system components are defined with mathematical relationships that describe how components function. They are based on the first principles (energy balances, mass balances, rate equations and equilibrium relationships) at one extreme or empirical curve fits to operating data from specific machines such as absorption chillers. The component models are programed, i.e. they represent written subroutines which are simultaneously solved with the executive program. In this paper for executive program is chosen TRNSYS containing library with solar thermal system component models. Validation of the TRNSYS components models is performed, i.e. the simulation results are compared with experimental measurements. Analysis is performed for solar assisted cooling system in order to determine the solar fractions and efficiencies for different collector types, areas and storage tanks. Specific indicators are derived in order to facilitate the techno-economic analysis and design of solar air-conditioning systems. (Author)

  20. Solar heating and cooling system installed at RKL Controls Company, Lumberton, New Jersey. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    Solar heating and cooling of a 40,000 square foot manufacturing building, sales offices and the solar computer control center/display room are described. Information on system description, test data, major problems and resolutions, performance, operation and maintenance manual, manufacturer's literature and as-built drawings are provided also. The solar system is composed of 6000 square feet of Sunworks double glazed flat plate collectors, external above ground storage subsystem, controls, ARKLA absorption chiller, heat recovery and a cooling tower.

  1. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of an Evaporative Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapilan N.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of chlorofluorocarbon based refrigerants in the air-conditioning system increases the global warming and causes the climate change. The climate change is expected to present a number of challenges for the built environment and an evaporative cooling system is one of the simplest and environmentally friendly cooling system. The evaporative cooling system is most widely used in summer and in rural and urban areas of India for human comfort. In evaporative cooling system, the addition of water into air reduces the temperature of the air as the energy needed to evaporate the water is taken from the air. Computational fluid dynamics is a numerical analysis and was used to analyse the evaporative cooling system. The CFD results are matches with the experimental results.

  3. Integrated application of combined cooling, heating and power poly-generation PV radiant panel system of zero energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baoquan

    2018-02-01

    A new type of combined cooling, heating and power of photovoltaic radiant panel (PV/R) module was proposed, and applied in the zero energy buildings in this paper. The energy system of this building is composed of PV/R module, low temperature difference terminal, energy storage, multi-source heat pump, energy balance control system. Radiant panel is attached on the backside of the PV module for cooling the PV, which is called PV/R module. During the daytime, the PV module was cooled down with the radiant panel, as the temperature coefficient influence, the power efficiency was increased by 8% to 14%, the radiant panel solar heat collecting efficiency was about 45%. Through the nocturnal radiant cooling, the PV/R cooling capacity could be 50 W/m2. For the multifunction energy device, the system shows the versatility during the heating, cooling and power used of building utilization all year round.

  4. An Empirical Model for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosewater, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scott, Paul [TransPower, Poway, CA (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Improved models of energy storage systems are needed to enable the electric grid’s adaptation to increasing penetration of renewables. This paper develops a generic empirical model of energy storage system performance agnostic of type, chemistry, design or scale. Parameters for this model are calculated using test procedures adapted from the US DOE Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage. We then assess the accuracy of this model for predicting the performance of the TransPower GridSaver – a 1 MW rated lithium-ion battery system that underwent laboratory experimentation and analysis. The developed model predicts a range of energy storage system performance based on the uncertainty of estimated model parameters. Finally, this model can be used to better understand the integration and coordination of energy storage on the electric grid.

  5. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper......, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution...... to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should...

  6. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should be disregarded but that it will be needed for other purposes in the future.

  7. Modeling of Nonlinear Marine Cooling Systems with Closed Circuit Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of constructing a mathematical model for a specific type of marine cooling system. The system in question is used for cooling the main engine and main engine auxiliary components, such as diesel generators, turbo chargers and main engine air coolers for certain classes...

  8. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  9. The stochastic-cooling system for COSY-Juelich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittner, P.; Danzglock, R.; Hacker, H.U.; Maier, R.; Pfister, U.; Prasuhn, D.; Singer, H.; Spiess, W.; Stockhorst, H.

    1991-01-01

    The cooling in the Cooler Synchrotron COSY will work in the ranges: Band 1: 1 to 1.8 GHz, Band 2: 1.8 to 3 GHz. The system allows cooling in the energy range of 0.8 to 2.5 GeV. The stochastic-cooling system is under development. Cooling characteristics have been calculated. The tanks are similar to those of the CERN-AC. But the COSY parameters have required changes of the tank design. Active RF components have been developed for COSY. Measured results are presented

  10. Low-technology cooling box for storage of malaria RDTs and other medical supplies in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthap, Lon; Ariey, Frédéric; Socheat, Duong; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Bell, David

    2010-01-23

    With the increase in use of point-of-care diagnostic tests for malaria and other diseases comes the necessity of storing the diagnostic kits and the drugs required for subsequent management, in remote areas, where temperatures are high and electricity supply is unreliable or unavailable. To address the lack of temperature-controlled storage during the introduction of community-based malaria management in Cambodia, the Cambodian National Centre for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control (CNM) developed prototype evaporative cooling boxes (Cambodian Cooler Boxes - CCBs) for storage of perishable medical commodities in remote clinics. The performance of these CCBs for maintaining suitable storage temperatures was evaluated over two phases in 2005 and 2006-7, comparing conditions in CCBs using water as designed, CCBs with no water for evaporation, and ambient storage room temperatures. Temperature and humidity was monitored, together with the capacity of the RDTs recommended for storage between 2 to 30 degree Celsius to detect low-density malaria parasite samples after storage under these conditions. Significant differences were recorded between the proportion of temperatures within the recommended RDT storage conditions in the CCBs with water and the temperatures in the storage room (p concept of evaporative cooling has potential to greatly enhance access to perishable diagnostics and medicines in remote communities, as it allows prolonged storage at low cost using locally-available materials, in the absence of electricity.

  11. Federal Tax Incentives for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Settle, Donald E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Investments in renewable energy are more attractive due to the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. The investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction may apply to energy storage systems such as batteries depending on who owns the battery and how the battery is used. The guidelines in this fact sheet apply to energy storage systems installed at the same time as the renewable energy system.

  12. Simulation of solar lithium bromide-water absorption cooling system with parabolic trough collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazloumi, M.; Naghashzadegan, M.; Javaherdeh, K.

    2008-01-01

    Ahwaz is one of the sweltering cities in Iran where an enormous amount of energy is being consumed to cool residential places in a year. The aim of this research is to simulate a solar single effect lithium bromide-water absorption cooling system in Ahwaz. The solar energy is absorbed by a horizontal N-S parabolic trough collector and stored in an insulated thermal storage tank. The system has been designed to supply the cooling load of a typical house where the cooling load peak is about 17.5 kW (5 tons of refrigeration), which occurs in July. A thermodynamic model has been used to simulate the absorption cycle. The working fluid is water, which is pumped directly to the collector. The results showed that the collector mass flow rate has a negligible effect on the minimum required collector area, but it has a significant effect on the optimum capacity of the storage tank. The minimum required collector area was about 57.6 m 2 , which could supply the cooling loads for the sunshine hours of the design day for July. The operation of the system has also been considered after sunset by saving solar energy

  13. Integrated systems for power plant cooling and wastewater management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haith, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of integrated management of energy and water resources, demonstrated in hydropower development, may be applicable to steam-generated power, also. For steam plants water is a means of disposing of a waste product, which is unutilized energy in the form of heat. One framework for the evolution of integrated systems is the consideration of possible technical linkages between power plant cooling and municipal wastewater management. Such linkages include the use of waste heat as a mechanism for enhancing wastewater treatment, the use of treated wastewater as make-up for evaporative cooling structures, and the use of a pond or reservoir for both cooling and waste stabilization. This chapter reports the results of a systematic evaluation of possible integrated systems for power plant cooling and waste water management. Alternatives were analyzed for each of three components of the system--power plant cooling (condenser heat rejection), thermally enhanced waste water treatment, and waste water disposal. Four cooling options considered were evaporative tower, open cycle, spray pond, and cooling pond. Three treatment alternatives considered were barometric condenser-activated sludge, sectionalized condenser-activated sludge, and cooling/stabilization pond. Three disposal alternatives considered were ocean discharge, land application (spray irrigation), and make-up (for evaporative cooling). To facilitate system comparisons, an 1100-MW nuclear power plant was selected. 31 references

  14. Experiments on novel solar heating and cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yiping; Cui Yong; Zhu Li; Han Lijun

    2008-01-01

    Solar heating and nocturnal radiant cooling techniques are united to produce a novel solar heating and cooling system. The radiant panel with both heating and cooling functions can be used as structural materials for the building envelope, which realizes true building integrated utilization of solar energy. Based on the natural circulation principle, the operation status can be changed automatically between the heating cycle and the cooling cycle. System performances under different climate conditions using different covers on the radiant panel are studied. The results show that the novel solar heating and cooling system has good performance of heating and cooling. For the no cover system, the daily average heat collecting efficiency is 52% with the maximum efficiency of 73%, while at night, the cooling capacity is about 47 W/m 2 on a sunny day. On a cloudy day, the daily average heat collecting efficiency is 47% with the maximum of 84%, while the cooling capacity is about 33 W/m 2 . As a polycarbonate (PC) panel or polyethylene film are used as covers, the maximum heat collecting efficiencies are 75% and 72% and the daily average heat collecting efficiencies are 61% and 58%, while the cooling capacities are 50 W/m 2 and 36 W/m 2 , respectively

  15. Application of fuzzy control in cooling systems save energy design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.L.; Liang, H.Y. [Chienkuo Technology Univ., Changhua, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    A fuzzy logic programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to control the cooling systems of frigorific equipment. Frigorific equipment is used to move unwanted heat outside of building in order to control indoor temperatures. The aim of the fuzzy logic PLC was to improve the energy efficiency of the cooling system. Control of the cooling pump and cooling tower in the system was based on the water temperature of the condenser during frigorific system operation. A human computer design for the cooling system control was used to set speeds and to automate and adjust the motor according to the fuzzy logic controller. It was concluded that if fuzzy logic controllers are used with all components of frigorific equipment, energy efficiency will be significantly increased. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  16. Technologies for gas cooled reactor decommissioning, fuel storage and waste disposal. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    Gas cooled reactors (GCRs) and other graphite moderated reactors have been important part of the world's nuclear programme for the past four decades. The wide diversity in status of this very wide spectrum of plants from initial design to decommissioning was a major consideration of the International Working group on Gas Cooled Reactors which recommended IAEA to convene a Technical Committee Meeting dealing with GCR decommissioning, including spent fuel storage and radiological waste disposal. This Proceedings includes papers 25 papers presented at the Meeting in three sessions entitled: Status of Plant Decommissioning Programmes; Fuels Storage Status and Programmes; waste Disposal and decontamination Practices. Each paper is described here by a separate abstract

  17. Solar heating and cooling system for an office building at Reedy Creek Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in a two story office building at a utilities company, which provides utility service to Walt Disney World, is described. The solar energy system application is 100 percent heating, 80 percent cooling, and 100 percent hot water. The storage medium is water with a capacity of 10,000 gallons hot and 10,000 gallons chilled water. Performance to date has equaled or exceeded design criteria.

  18. Kinetic Storage as an Energy Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Tabares, L.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of storing energy is increasingly important and necessary. The reason is that storage modifies the basic equation of the energy production balance which states that the power produced should equal the power consumed. When there is a storage device in the grid, this equation is modified such that, in the new balance, the energy produced should equal the algebraic sum of the energy consumed and the energy stored (positive in storage phase and negative when released). This means that the generation profile can be uncoupled from the consumption profile, with the resulting improvement of efficiency. Even small-sized storage systems can be very effective. (Author) 10 refs

  19. Energy storage for power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

  20. Fundamental research on the cooling characteristic of passive containment cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, M.; Kikura, H.; Aritomi, M.; Inaba, N.; Yamauchi, T.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to clarify the heat transfer characteristics of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) with vertical heat transfer tubes for investigating the influence of non-condensable gas on condensation. Furthermore, hence we obtained new experimental correlation formula to calculate the transients in system temperature and pressure using the simulation program of the PCCS. The research was carried out using a forced circulation experimental loop, which simulates atmosphere inside PCCS with vertical heat transfer tubes if a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) occurs. The experimental facility consists of cooling water supply systems, an orifice flowmeter, and a tank equipped with the heat transfer pipe inside. Cooling water at a constant temperature is injected to the test part of heat transfer pipe vertically installed in the tank by forced circulation. At that time, the temperature of the cooling water between inlet and outlet of the pipe was measured to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient between the cooling water and atmosphere in the tank. Thus, the heat transfer coefficient between heat transfer surface and the atmosphere in the tank considering the influence of the non-condensable gas was clarified. An important finding of this study is that the amount of condensation in the steamy atmosphere including non-condensable gas depends on the cooling water Reynolds number, especially the concentration of non-condensable gas that has great influence on the amount of condensation. (authors)

  1. Post-accident cooling capacity analysis of the AP1000 passive spent fuel pool cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Xia

    2013-01-01

    The passive design is used in AP1000 spent fuel pool cooling system. The decay heat of the spent fuel is removed by heating-boiling method, and makeup water is provided passively and continuously to ensure the safety of the spent fuel. Based on the analysis of the post-accident cooling capacity of the spent fuel cooling system, it is found that post-accident first 72-hour cooling under normal refueling condition and emergency full-core offload condition can be maintained by passive makeup from safety water source; 56 hours have to be waited under full core refueling condition to ensure the safety of the core and the spent fuel pool. Long-term cooling could be conducted through reserved safety interface. Makeup measure is available after accident and limited operation is needed. Makeup under control could maintain the spent fuel at sub-critical condition. Compared with traditional spent fuel pool cooling system design, the AP1000 design respond more effectively to LOCA accidents. (authors)

  2. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteoma using cool-tip electrodes without the cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Masaya; Miyazaki, Akiko; Nakajima, Takahito; Koyama, Yoshinori; Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Endo, Keigo; Aoki, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for osteoid osteoma (OO) using cool-tip electrodes without the cooling system. A total of 17 patients (13 males, 4 females; mean age 19.1 years; range 7-49 years) with OO (tibia, n=7; femur, n=5; acetabulum, n=2; radius, n=1; talus, n=1; lumbar spine, n=1) underwent RFA. Using a cool-tip electrode without the cooling system, the lesion was heated to 90degC for 4 or 5 min. Procedures were considered technically successful if the electrode was placed into the nidus and the target temperature was reached and maintained for at least 4 min. Clinical success of the treatment was defined as complete or partial pain relief after RFA. All procedures were considered technically successful, although two patients encountered complications (pes equinus contracture, skin burn). Altogether, 16 of the 17 patients (94.1%) achieved complete or partial pain relief after primary RFA. Two patients had pain recurrence, with one of them treated successfully with a second RFA. The overall clinical success rate was 88.2%. Histological findings confirmed the presence of OO in 13 patients (76.5%). Percutaneous RFA of OO using cool-tip electrodes without the cooling system is a safe, effective procedure. (author)

  3. Metal hydride-based thermal energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajo, John J.; Fang, Zhigang

    2017-10-03

    The invention provides a thermal energy storage system comprising a metal-containing first material with a thermal energy storage density of about 1300 kJ/kg to about 2200 kJ/kg based on hydrogenation; a metal-containing second material with a thermal energy storage density of about 200 kJ/kg to about 1000 kJ/kg based on hydrogenation; and a hydrogen conduit for reversibly transporting hydrogen between the first material and the second material. At a temperature of 20.degree. C. and in 1 hour, at least 90% of the metal is converted to the hydride. At a temperature of 0.degree. C. and in 1 hour, at least 90% of the metal hydride is converted to the metal and hydrogen. The disclosed metal hydride materials have a combination of thermodynamic energy storage densities and kinetic power capabilities that previously have not been demonstrated. This performance enables practical use of thermal energy storage systems for electric vehicle heating and cooling.

  4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CEILING RADIANT COOLING SYSTEM IN COMPOSITE CLIMATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anuj [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Radiant cooling systems are proving to be an energy efficient solution due to higher thermal capacity of cooling fluid especially for the buildings that require individual zone controls and where the latent loads are moderate. The Conventional air conditioners work at very low temperature i.e.5-8 c (refrigerant evaporator inlet) while the radiant cooling systems, also referred as high temperature cooling system, work at high temperatures i.e. 14-18 c. The radiant cooling systems can maintain lower MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature) as ceiling panels maintain uniform temperature gradient inside room and provide higher human comfort. The radiant cooling systems are relatively new systems and their operation and energy savings potential are not quantified for a large number of buildings and operational parameters. Moreover, there are only limited numbers of whole building simulation studies have been carried out for these systems to have a full confidence in the capability of modelling tools to simulate these systems and predict the impact of various operating parameters. Theoretically, savings achieve due to higher temperature set point of chilled water, which reduces chiller-running time. However, conventional air conditioner runs continuously to maintain requisite temperature. In this paper, experimental study for performance evaluation of radiant cooling system carried out on system installed at Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur. This paper quantifies the energy savings opportunities and effective temperature by radiant cooling system at different chilled water flow rates and temperature range. The data collected/ analysed through experimental study will used for calibration and validation of system model of building prepared in building performance simulation software. This validated model used for exploring optimized combinations of key parameters for composite climate. These optimized combinations will used in formulation of radiant cooling system

  5. Energy study of heat pumps and energy storage at Cisco Systems International; Energiestudie warmtepompen en energieopslag Cisco Systems International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-23

    Cisco Systems International considers the use of energy storage in combination with heat pumps for the new office building in Amsterdam South-East, Netherlands. This office building has a floor space of 35,000 m{sup 2}. In a later phase this can be enlarged to 45,000 m{sup 2} (phase 1b) or 90,000 m{sup 2} (phase 2). This study is based on phase 1b. The mounting heat capacity is 2,760 kW and the cooling capacity is 7,045 kW. The annually cooling demand is estimated to be 30,400 MWh/a. The computer cooling forms a greater part of the cooling request (28,300 MWh/a). This study is a pilot study to the applicability of subsurface energy storage where heat pumps in the new office building are involved. However, nearby the Cisco location IKEA (furniture warehouse) has also planned an energy storage system. Therefore, the interaction between the two storage systems was examined. Cost effectiveness was analysed by comparison of the storage system with an energy system using conventional cooling machines and gas boilers. 5 refs.

  6. Improvement of Cooling Performance of a Compact Thermoelectric Air Conditioner Using a Direct Evaporative Cooling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipsaenporm, W.; Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Bubphachot, B.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Soponronnarit, S.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the results of tests carried out to investigate the potential application of a direct evaporative cooling (DEC) system for improving the performance of a compact thermoelectric (TE) air conditioner. The compact TE air conditioner is composed of three TE modules. The cold and hot sides of the TE modules were fixed to rectangular fin heat sinks. The DEC system produced cooling air that was used to assist the release of heat from the heat sinks at the hot side of the TE modules. The results showed that the cooling air dry bulb temperature from the DEC system achieved drops of about 5.9°C in parallel with about a 33.4% rise in relative humidity. The cooling efficiency of the DEC system varies between 72.1% and 81.5%. It increases the cooling capacity of the compact TE air conditioner from 53.0 W to 74.5 W. The 21.5 W (40.6%) increase represents the difference between the compact air conditioner operating with ambient air flowing through the TE module's heat sinks, and the compact air conditioner operating with the cooler air from the DEC system flowing through the TE module's heat sinks. In both scenarios, electric current of 4.5 A was supplied to the TE modules. It also has been experimentally proven that the coefficient of performance (COP) of the compact TE air conditioner can be improved by up to 20.9% by incorporating the DEC system.

  7. Advanced compressed hydrogen fuel storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeary, B.

    2000-01-01

    Dynetek was established in 1991 by a group of private investors, and since that time efforts have been focused on designing, improving, manufacturing and marketing advanced compressed fuel storage systems. The primary market for Dynetek fuel systems has been Natural Gas, however as the automotive industry investigates the possibility of using hydrogen as the fuel source solution in Alternative Energy Vehicles, there is a growing demand for hydrogen storage on -board. Dynetek is striving to meet the needs of the industry, by working towards developing a fuel storage system that will be efficient, economical, lightweight and eventually capable of storing enough hydrogen to match the driving range of the current gasoline fueled vehicles

  8. Structural design of the toroidal configuration of the HTS SMES cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, H.K.; Koh, D.Y.; Ko, J.S.; Kim, H.B.; Hong, Y.J.; Kim, S.H.; Seong, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system is working on around 30 K, because the magnet is made of high temperature superconductor. To maintain the cryogenic temperature, the superconducting coil is cooled by cryogen, helium gas or liquid neon. But there are some weak points in the cryogen cooling system. For example periodic charge of the cryogen and size is big and so on. So, we have designed the conduction cooling system for toroidal configuration HTS SMES. The toroidal type HTS SMES has some merits, so it is very small magnetic field leakage, and magnetic field applied perpendicular to the tape surface can be reduced. Our system has 28 numbers of HTS double pancake coils and they are arrayed toroidal configuration. The toroidal inner radius is 162 mm, and outer radius is 599 mm, and height is about 162 mm. In this study, we have designed the cooling structure and analyzed temperature distribution of cooling path, thermal stress and deformation of the cooling structure.

  9. Cooling systems for waste heat. Cooling systems, review and selection criteria. Kuehlsysteme fuer Abwaerme. Kuehlsysteme, Ueberblick und Auswahlkriterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, W. (Jaeggi, Wallisellen (Switzerland))

    1990-05-01

    In many areas of ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration engineering, chemical and process engineering and energy production waste heat occurs. If a reduction in energy losses or heat recovery is not possible waste heat has to be drawn off through cooling systems. For this the following systems can be used: dry cooling systems, dry cooler with spray system, open-cycle wet cooler, hybrid dry cooler, and closed-cycle wet cooler. Particularly hybrid cooling systems can give acceptable solutions when the results with other systems are only unsatisfactory. (BWI).

  10. Numerical study of a novel dew point evaporative cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riangvilaikul, B.; Kumar, S. [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    Dew point evaporative cooling system is an alternative to vapor compression air conditioning system for sensible cooling of ventilation air. This paper presents the theoretical performance of a novel dew point evaporative cooling system operating under various inlet air conditions (covering dry, moderate and humid climate) and influence of major operating parameters (namely, velocity, system dimension and the ratio of working air to intake air). A model of the dew point evaporative cooling system has been developed to simulate the heat and mass transfer processes. The outlet air conditions and system effectiveness predicted by the model using numerical method for known inlet parameters have been validated with experimental findings and with recent literature. The model was used to optimize the system parameters and to investigate the system effectiveness operating under various inlet air conditions. (author)

  11. Closed-cycle cooling systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The long experience in the field of closed-cycle cooling systems and high technological level of turbo machines and heat exchangers concurs to believe in the industrial realizability of nuclear systems of high thermodynamic efficiency and intrinsic safety [it

  12. Solar heating and cooling technical data and systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The research activities described herein were concentrated on the areas of economics, heating and cooling systems, architectural design, materials characteristics, climatic conditions, educational information packages, and evaluation of solar energy systems and components.

  13. RAMI analysis for DEMO HCPB blanket concept cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongiovanni, Danilo N., E-mail: danilo.dongiovanni@enea.it [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati (Italy); Pinna, Tonio [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati (Italy); Carloni, Dario [KIT, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) – KIT (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) preliminary assessment for HCPB blanket concept cooling system. • Reliability block diagram (RBD) modeling and analysis for HCPB primary heat transfer system (PHTS), coolant purification system (CPS), pressure control system (PCS), and secondary cooling system. • Sensitivity analysis on system availability performance. • Failure models and repair models estimated on the base of data from the ENEA fusion component failure rate database (FCFRDB). - Abstract: A preliminary RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) assessment for the HCPB (helium cooled pebble bed) blanket cooling system based on currently available design for DEMO fusion power plant is presented. The following sub-systems were considered in the analysis: blanket modules, primary cooling loop including pipework and steam generators lines, pressure control system (PCS), coolant purification system (CPS) and secondary cooling system. For PCS and CPS systems an extrapolation from ITER Test Blanket Module corresponding systems was used as reference design in the analysis. Helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) system reliability block diagrams (RBD) models were implemented taking into account: system reliability-wise configuration, operating schedule currently foreseen for DEMO, maintenance schedule and plant evolution schedule as well as failure and corrective maintenance models. A simulation of plant activity was then performed on implemented RBDs to estimate plant availability performance on a mission time of 30 calendar years. The resulting availability performance was finally compared to availability goals previously proposed for DEMO plant by a panel of experts. The study suggests that inherent availability goals proposed for DEMO PHTS system and Tokamak auxiliaries are potentially achievable for the primary loop of the HCPB concept cooling system, but not for the secondary loop. A

  14. Thermo Active Building Systems Using Building Mass To Heat and Cool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    Using the thermal storage capacity of the concrete slabs between each floor in multistory buildings to heat or cool is a trend that began in the early 1990s in Switzerland.1,2 Pipes carrying water for heating and cooling are embedded in the center of the concrete slab. In central Europe (Germany,......, Austria, Netherlands, etc.), this type of system has been installed in a significant number of new office buildings since the late 1990s. The trend is spreading to other parts of the world (the rest of Europe, North America and Asia)....

  15. Design Requirements of an Advanced HANARO Reactor Core Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Chul; Ryu, Jeong Soo

    2007-12-01

    An advanced HANARO Reactor (AHR) is an open-tank-type and generates thermal power of 20 MW and is under conceptual design phase for developing it. The thermal power is including a core fission heat, a temporary stored fuel heat in the pool, a pump heat and a neutron reflecting heat in the reflector vessel of the reactor. In order to remove the heat load, the reactor core cooling system is composed of a primary cooling system, a primary cooling water purification system and a reflector cooling system. The primary cooling system must remove the heat load including the core fission heat, the temporary stored fuel heat in the pool and the pump heat. The purification system must maintain the quality of the primary cooling water. And the reflector cooling system must remove the neutron reflecting heat in the reflector vessel of the reactor and maintain the quality of the reflector. In this study, the design requirement of each system has been carried out using a design methodology of the HANARO within a permissible range of safety. And those requirements are written by english intend to use design data for exporting the research reactor

  16. Replacement of the cooling system of the TRIGA Mainz reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, H.

    1988-01-01

    The inspection of the reactor facility resulted in a recommendation to install a new heat exchanger and at the same time to separate the primary cooling circuit and the water purification system. Due to possible the deposition of lime and organic matter on the tubes, the heat transfer rate has decreased. In the meantime a rule has been introduced, according to which the pressure in the secondary cooling circuit must be permanently higher than in the primary cooling circuit which prompted the design of a new cooling system. The detail planning was completed in December 1987. In response to the regulatory requirements a motion for a replacement of the cooling system was submitted to the authorities. The start of the procedure is possible a year after the obtaining of the licenses. In the planning of the changes an upgrading of the steady state power to 300 kW is envisioned

  17. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of RPV Support Cooling System for HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Qi; Wu Xinxin; Li Xiaowei; Zhang Li; He Shuyan

    2014-01-01

    Passive safety is now of great interest for future generation reactors because of its reduction of human interaction and avoidance of failures of active components. reactor pressure vessel (RPV) support cooling system (SCS) for high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is a passive safety system and is used to cool the concrete seats for the four RPV supports at its bottom. The SCS should have enough cooling capacity to ensure the temperature of the concrete seats for the supports not exceeding the limit temperature. The SCS system is composed of a natural circulation water loop and an air cooling tower. In the water loop, there is a heat exchanger embedded in the concrete seat, heat is transferred by thermal conduction and convection to the cooling water. Then the water is cooled by the air cooler mounted in the air cooling tower. The driving forces for water and air are offered by the density differences caused by the temperature differences. In this paper, the thermal hydraulic analysis for this system was presented. Methods for decoupling the natural circulation and heat transfer between the water loop and air flow were introduced. The operating parameters for different working conditions and environment temperatures were calculated. (author)

  18. Evaluation of two cooling systems under a firefighter coverall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Wang, L.C.; Chou, S.N.; Huang, C.; Jou, G.T.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Firemen often suffer from heat strain. This study investigated two chest cooling systems for use under a firefighting suit. In nine male subjects, a vest with water soaked cooling pads and a vest with water perfused tubes were compared to a control condition. Subjects performed 30 min walking and 10

  19. Conceptual design study on simplified and safer cooling systems for sodium cooled FBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayafune, Hiroki; Shimakawa, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Kubota, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Jun; Kasai, Shigeo

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study is to create the FBR plant concepts increasing economy and safety for the Phase-I 'Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor System'. In this study, various concepts of simplified 2ry cooling system for sodium cooled FBRs are considered and evaluated from the view points of technological feasibility, economy, and safety. The concepts in the study are considered on the basis of the following points of view. 1. To simplify 2ry cooling system by moderating and localizing the sodium-water reaction in the steam generator of the FBRs. 2. To simplify 2ry cooling system by eliminating the sodium-water reaction using integrated IHX-SG unit. 3. To simplify 2ry cooling system by eliminating the sodium-water reaction using a power generating system other than the steam generator. As the result of the study, 12 concepts and 3 innovative concepts are proposed. The evaluation study for those concepts shows the following technical prospects. 1. 2 concepts of integrated IHX-SG unit can eliminate the sodium-water reaction. Separated IHX and SG tubes unit using Lead-Bismuth as the heat transfer medium. Integrated IHX-SG unit using copper as the heat transfer medium. 2. Cost reduction effect by simplified 2ry cooling system using integrated IHX-SG unit is estimated 0 to 5%. 3. All of the integrated IHX-SG unit concepts have more weight and larger size than conventional steam generator unit. The weight of the unit during transporting and lifting would limit capacity of heat transfer system. These evaluation results will be compared with the results in JFY 2000 and used for the Phase-II study. (author)

  20. Research on high-performance mass storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yaodong; Wang Lu; Huang Qiulan; Zheng Wei

    2010-01-01

    With the enlargement of scientific experiments, more and more data will be produced, which brings great challenge to storage system. Large storage capacity and high data access performance are both important to Mass storage system. This paper firstly reviews some kinds of popular storage systems including network storage system, SAN-based sharing system, WAN File system, object-based parallel file system, hierarchical storage system and cloud storage systems. Then some key technologies are presented. Finally, this paper takes BES storage system as an example and introduces its requirements, architecture and operation results. (authors)

  1. Storage system architectures and their characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarandrea, Bryan M.

    1993-01-01

    Not all users storage requirements call for 20 MBS data transfer rates, multi-tier file or data migration schemes, or even automated retrieval of data. The number of available storage solutions reflects the broad range of user requirements. It is foolish to think that any one solution can address the complete range of requirements. For users with simple off-line storage requirements, the cost and complexity of high end solutions would provide no advantage over a more simple solution. The correct answer is to match the requirements of a particular storage need to the various attributes of the available solutions. The goal of this paper is to introduce basic concepts of archiving and storage management in combination with the most common architectures and to provide some insight into how these concepts and architectures address various storage problems. The intent is to provide potential consumers of storage technology with a framework within which to begin the hunt for a solution which meets their particular needs. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive study or to address all possible solutions or new technologies, but is intended to be a more practical treatment of todays storage system alternatives. Since most commercial storage systems today are built on Open Systems concepts, the majority of these solutions are hosted on the UNIX operating system. For this reason, some of the architectural issues discussed focus around specific UNIX architectural concepts. However, most of the architectures are operating system independent and the conclusions are applicable to such architectures on any operating system.

  2. Energy storage system for a pulsed DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.; Cortes, M.; Mendez, P.; Hayward, J.; Maisonnier, D.

    2007-01-01

    Several designs have been proposed for the DEMO fusion reactor. Some of them are working in a non-steady state mode. Since a power plant should be able to deliver to the grid a constant power, this challenge must be solved. Energy storage is required at a level of 250 MWh e with the capability of delivering a power of 1 GWe. A review of different technologies for energy storage is made. Thermal energy storage (TES), fuel cells and other hydrogen storage, compressed air storage, water pumping, batteries, flywheels and supercapacitors are the most promising solutions to energy storage. Each one is briefly described in the paper, showing its basis, features, advantages and disadvantages for this application. The conclusion of the review is that, based on existing technology, thermal energy storage using molten salts and a system based on hydrogen storage are the most promising candidates to meet the requirements of a pulsed DEMO. These systems are investigated in more detail together with an economic assessment of each

  3. Development of evaluation method for heat removal design of dry storage facilities. pt. 1. Heat removal test on vault storage system of cross flow type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Kazuaki; Koga, Tomonari; Wataru, Masumi; Hattori, Yasuo

    1997-01-01

    The report describes the result of heat removal test of passive cooling vault storage system of cross flow type using 1/5 scale model. Based on a prospect of steady increase in the amount of spent fuel, it is needed to establish large capacity dry storage technologies for spent fuel. Air flow patterns, distributions of air temperature and velocity were measured, by which heat removal characteristics of the system were made clear. Air flow patterns in the storage module depended on the ratio of the buoyant force to the inertial force; the former generated by the difference of air temperatures and the height of the storage module, the latter by the difference of air densities between the outlet of the storage module and ambience and the height of the chimney of the storage facility. A simple method to estimate air flow patterns in the storage module was suggested, where Ri(Richardson) number was applied to represent the ratio. Moreover, heat transfer coefficient from a model of storage tube to cooling air was evaluated, and it was concluded that the generalized expression of heat transfer coefficient for common heat exchangers could be applied to the vault storage system of cross flow type, in which dozens of storage tubes were placed in a storage module. (author)

  4. Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugurlan, Maria; Tuffner, Francis K; Chassin, David P.

    2016-09-13

    Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage device includes a reservoir configured to hold a thermal energy storage medium, a temperature control system configured to adjust a temperature of the thermal energy storage medium, and a state observation system configured to provide information regarding an energy state of the thermal energy storage device at a plurality of different moments in time.

  5. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  6. Status of electrical energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the status of electrical storage systems in the light of the growing use of renewable energy sources and distributed generation (DG) in meeting emission targets and in the interest of the UK electricity supply industry. Examples of storage technologies, their applications and current status are examined along with technical issues and possible activities by UK industries. Details are given of development opportunities in the fields of flow cells, advanced batteries - lithium batteries, high temperature batteries, flywheels, and capacitors. Power conversion systems and system integration, the all-electric ship project, and compressed air energy storage are discussed. Opportunities for development and deployment, small scale systems, demonstration programmes, and research and development issues are considered. An outline of the US Department of Energy Storage programme is given in the Annex to the report.

  7. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  8. Biodigester as an energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R.; Lopes, L.C.N. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano (IFSertao-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)], Emails: rangel@cefetpet.br; Pinheiro Neto, J.S.; Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: neto@tbmtextil.com.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br; Silveira, G.C.; Moreira, A.P.; Borges, T.S.H. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara (IFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], Emails: gcsilveira@cefet-ce.br, apmoreira@ifce.edu.br, thatyanys@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Electricity supply for rural and remote areas is becoming an increasing priority to developing countries. The high initial cost of renewable energy based unities usually needs an energy storage system; due its operational and even replacement cost contributes to a higher final cost. The choice of energy storage systems depends on the sort and size of adopted power supply. This paper has a main goal to introduce a renewable energy based storage system weakly explored in Brazil: biogas from anaerobic digestion. It also brings a review of the main energy storage systems applied to electrical energy generation. As reference an experiment with an adapted Indian digester of 5 m{sup 3} that produced nearly 2m{sup 3} of biogas daily. The obtained biogas met the consumption of at least 4 typical Brazilian low income households with installed load of 500 W each and was enough to replace the use of 420 Ah lead-acid batteries. (author)

  9. APS storage ring vacuum system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, J.R.; Gagliano, J.; Goeppner, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring was designed to operated with 7-GeV, 100-mA positron beam with lifetimes > 20 hours. The lifetime is limited by residual gas scattering and Touschek scattering at this time. Photon-stimulated desorption and microwave power in the rf cavities are the main gas loads. Comparison of actual system gas loads and design calculations will be given. In addition, several special features of the storage ring vacuum system will be presented

  10. Analysis of a solid desiccant cooling system with indirect evaporative cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo

    investigates the performance of a solid desiccant cooling system implementing in-direct evaporative cooling processes. The aim is to quantify the system thermal and electrical performance for varying component dimensions and operating conditions, and to identify its range of applicability. This information...... evaporative cooler. Detailed steady state numerical models are developed and implemented in MATLAB. The models need to be accurate and require low computational effort, for analysing the internal heat and mass transfer processes, as well as carrying out repetitive design and optimization simulations......-to-air heat exchanger for enhancing cooling capacity and thermal performance. The system perfor-mance is investigated considering regeneration temperatures between 50 ºC and 90 ºC, which enable low temperature heat sources, such as solar energy or waste heat, to be used. The effects of several geometrical...

  11. Heat Driven Cooling in District Energy Systems; Vaermedriven Kyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydstrand, Magnus; Martin, Viktoria; Westermark, Mats [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2004-07-01

    high costs. However heat sinks are unavoidable from a system perspective and there are potential cost savings since a low-pressure steam turbines will not be required if heat driven cooling is implemented. The fuel utilization for some technologies (not necessarily the best technology) was evaluated in two different scenarios: 1) with electricity production from coal; and 2) with electricity production from natural gas. It is shown in the scenarios that the heat driven cooling technologies give lower fuel consumption as compared producing electricity as an intermediate product before cooling is produced. Further it should be noted that electricity is produced, not consumed, if heat is used directly for the production of cooling. We claim that cost effective solutions for district heat driven chillers and/or combined production of electricity and district cooling can be found in all climates with high enough density of heating and cooling demands. It was found that district heat driven chillers can be very energy efficient in warm and humid climates since desiccant systems are an effective way of handling latent cooling loads. In dry climates, with low latent loads, water distributed cooling has a large potential and absorption cooling will give high fuel utilization seen from a system perspective. In climates where water shortage is a problem it is possible that the temperature lift of the conventional absorption chiller has to be increased in order to be able to use dry cooling towers. The temperature lift can be increased by changing the chiller design or by using a different working pair. Heat driven cooling can be integrated into an energy system in different ways. In USA and Japan, district heating is not well developed. Instead small, distributed combined heat and power (CHP) plants with high exhaust temperatures are widespread. Cooling is often produced, in these regions, through absorption cooling (using heat from CHP) or compression chillers depending on

  12. Variable mass energy transformation and storage (VMETS) system using NH3-H2O as working fluid, Part 1: Modeling and simulation under full storage strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.M.; Zhang, L.; Liang, J.; Du, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new variable mass energy transformation and storage (VMETS) system using ammonia-water solution (NH 3 -H 2 O) as working fluid. The system has a wide range of working temperature. It can be used to shift load with a diurnal energy storage system for cooling in summer, heating in winter, or hot water supplying all year long. It can also be used to store refrigerating energy for various industrial and commercial applications. The key to the system is to regulate the chemical potential by controlling the refrigerant mass fraction in the working fluid with respect to time. As a result, by using a solution storage tank and an ammonia storage tank, the energy transformation and storage can be performed at the desirable time to provide low cost cooling and heating efficiently. As the first part of our study, this paper presents the principle and dynamic models of the VMETS system and performs the numerical simulation when the system works in the cooling and heating modes, respectively, under the full storage strategy. The simulation predicts the dynamic behavior of the VMETS system under various operation conditions and shows that the VMETS system for cooling in summer is also suitable for heating in winter or for hot water supplying all year long by adjusting the initial solution concentration. The energy conversion efficiency of the system is larger than that of conventional thermal energy storage (TES) systems, especially under the condition of system operation for heating or hot water supplying in the heating mode. These simulation results are very helpful for detailed design and control of the system. To investigate the system performance under the partial storage strategy, modeling and numerical simulation will be performed in a subsequent paper

  13. Effects of Cooling Rates on Hydride Reorientation and Mechanical Properties of Zirconium Alloy Claddings under Interim Dry Storage Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Su-Jeong; Kim, Myeong-Su; Won, Chu-chin; Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2013-01-01

    As-received Zr-Nb cladding tubes and 600 ppm hydrogen-charged tubes were employed to evaluate the effects of cladding cooling rates on the extent of hydride reorientation from circumferential hydrides to radial ones and mechanical property degradations with the use of cooling rates of 2, 4 and 15 °C/min from 400 °C to room temperature simulating cladding cooling under interim dry storage conditions. The as-received cladding tubes generated nearly the same ultimate tensile strengths and plastic elongations, regardless of the cooling rates, because of a negligible hydrogen content in the cladding. The 600 ppm-H cladding tubes indicate that the slower cooling rate generated the larger radial hydride fraction and the longer radial hydrides, which resulted in greater mechanical performance degradations. The cooling rate of 2 °C/min generates an ultimate tensile strength of 758 MPa and a plastic elongation of 1.0%, whereas the cooling rate of 15 °C/min generates an ultimate tensile strength of 825 MPa and a plastic elongation of 15.0%. These remarkable mechanical property degradations of the 600 ppm-H cladding tubes with the slowest cooling rate may be characterized by cleavage fracture surface appearance enhanced by longer radial hydrides and their higher fraction that have been precipitated through a relatively larger nucleation and growth rate.

  14. Thermal Feature of a Modified Solar Phase Change Material Storage Wall System

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Chenglong; Xu, Lijie; Ji, Jie; Liao, Mengyin; Sun, Dan

    2018-01-01

    This work is to study a novel solar PCM storage wall technology, that is, a dual-channel and thermal-insulation-in-the-middle type solar PCM storage wall (MSPCMW) system. The system has the following four independent functions, passive solar heating, heat preservation, heat insulation, and passive cooling, and it can agilely cope with the requirements of climatization of buildings in different seasons throughout the year and is exactly suitable for building in regions characterized by hot sum...

  15. Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design

  16. Choosing a spent fuel interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.; Hunter, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Transnucleaire Group has developed different modular solutions to address spent fuel interim storage needs of NPP. These solutions, that are present in Europe, USA and Asia are metal casks (dual purpose or storage only) of the TN 24 family and the NUHOMS canister based system. It is not always simple for an operator to sort out relevant choice criteria. After explaining the basic designs involved on the examples of the TN 120 WWER dual purpose cask and the NUHOMS 56 WWER for WWER 440 spent fuel, we shall discuss the criteria that govern the choice of a given spent fuel interim storage system from the stand point of the operator. In conclusion, choosing and implementing an interim storage system is a complex process, whose implications can be far reaching for the long-term success of a spent fuel management policy. (author)

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of cooling systems for nuclear power stations condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, A.

    1985-06-01

    This work is an attempt to concentrate on the thermodynamic theory, the engineering solution and the quantities of water needed for the operation of a wet as well as a wet/dry cooling towers coupled to a nuclear turbine condenser,. About two hundred variables are needed for the design of a condenser - cooling tower system. In order to make the solution fast and handy, a computer model was developed. The amount of water evaporation from cooling towers is a function of the climate conditions prevailing around the site. To achieve an authentic analysis, the meteorological data of the northern Negev was used. The total amount of water necessary to add to the system in a year time of operation is large and is a function of both the blow-down rate and the evaporation. First estimations show that the use of a combined system, wet/dry cooling tower, is beneficial in the northern Negev area. Such a system can reduce significantly the amount of wasted fresh water. Lack of international experience is the major problem in the acceptability of wet/dry cooling towers. The technology of a wet cooling tower using sea water is also discussed where no technical or engineering limitations were found. This work is an attempt to give some handy tools for making the choice of cooling systems for nuclear power plants easier

  18. Security for cloud storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Kan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud storage is an important service of cloud computing, which offers service for data owners to host their data in the cloud. This new paradigm of data hosting and data access services introduces two major security concerns. The first is the protection of data integrity. Data owners may not fully trust the cloud server and worry that data stored in the cloud could be corrupted or even removed. The second is data access control. Data owners may worry that some dishonest servers provide data access to users that are not permitted for profit gain and thus they can no longer rely on the servers

  19. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  20. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  1. Containment atmosphere cooling system for experimental fast reactor 'JOYO'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Mikio; Hoshi, Akio; Sato, Morihiko; Takeuchi, Kaoru

    1979-01-01

    The experimental fast reactor ''JOYO'', the first sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan, achieved the initially licensed full power operation (50 MW) in July 1978 and is now under steady operation. Toshiba has participated in the construction of this reactor as a leading manufacturer and supplied various systems. This article outlines the design philosophy, system concepts and the operating experience of the containment atmosphere cooling system which has many design interfaces throughout the whole plant and requires especially high reliability. The successful performance of this system during the reactor full-power operation owes to the spot cooling design philosophy and to the preoperational adjustment of heat load during the preheating period of reactor cooling system peculiar to FBR. (author)

  2. CAREM 25: Suppression pool cooling and purification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Patrignani, Alberto; Vindrola, Carlos; Palmerio, Hector D.; Quiroz, Horacio; Ramilo, Lucia B.

    2000-01-01

    The suppression pool cooling and purification system has the following main functions: purify and cool water from the suppression pool, cool and send water to the residual heat extraction system, and transfer water to the fuel element transference channel. In case of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the system sends water from the suppression pool to the spray network, thus cooling and reducing pressure in the primary containment. The system has been designed in accordance with the requirements of the following standards: ANSI/ANS 52.1; ANSI/ANS 57.2; ANSI/ANS 56.2; ANSI/ANS 59.1; ANSI/ANS 58.3; ANSI/ANS 58.9; and ANSI/ANS 56.5. The design of the system fulfils all the assigned functions. (author)

  3. CAREM-25. Suppression Pool Cooling and Purification System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Palmerio, D.; Patrignani, A.; Quiroz, H.; Ramilo, L.; Vindrola, C.

    2000-01-01

    The Suppression Pool Cooling and Purification System has the following main functions: purify and cool water from the Suppression Pool, cool and send water to the Residual Heat Extraction System, and transfer water to the Fuel Element Transference Channel. In case of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the system sends water from the Suppression Pool to the spray network, thus cooling and reducing pressure in the primary containment.The system has been designed in accordance with the requirements of the following standards ANSI/ANS 52.1 [1], ANSI/ANS 57.2 [2], ANSI/ANS 56.2 [3], ANSI/ANS 59.1 [4] ANSI/ANS 58.3 [5], ANSI/ANS 58.9 [6], and ANSI/ANS 56.5 [7]. The design of the system fulfils all the assigned functions

  4. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy, and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld. Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers and hydrogen storage. These technologies have diff erent technical characteristics and economic parameters that determine their usability. This paper presents two concepts of an electricity storage tank with a storage capacity of at least 50 MWh, using the BES battery energy storage and CAES compressed air energy storage technologies.

  5. Cooling System Design Options for a Fusion Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalizio, Antonio; Collén, Jan; Vieider, Gottfried

    1997-06-01

    The objective of a fusion power reactor is to produce electricity safely and reliably. Accordingly, the design, objective of the heat transport system is to optimize power production, safety, and reliability. Such an optimization process, however, is constrained by many factors, including, among others: public safety, worker safety, steam cycle efficiency, reliability, and cost. As these factors impose conflicting requirements, there is a need to find an optimum design solution, i.e., one that satisfies all requirements, but not necessarily each requirement optimally. The SEAFP reactor study developed helium-cooled and water-cooled models for assessment purposes. Among other things, the current study demonstrates that neither model offers an optimum solution. Helium cooling offers a high steam cycle efficiency but poor reliability for the cooling of high heat flux components (divertor and first wall). Alternatively, water cooling offers a low steam cycle efficiency, but reasonable reliability for the cooling of such components. It is concluded that an optimum solution includes helium cooling of low heat flux components and water cooling of high heat flux components. Relative to the SEAFP helium model, this hybrid system enhances safety and reliability, while retaining the high steam cycle efficiency of that model.

  6. Combined solar collector and storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, B.; Smyth, M.; Eames, P.; Lo, S.N.G.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses reasons why fossil-fuelled water heating systems are included in new houses but solar systems are not. The technology and market potential for evacuated tube systems and integral collector storage systems (ICSS) are explained. The challenge for the designers of ICSSWH has been how to reduce heat loss without compromising solar energy collection. A new concept for enhanced energy storage is described in detail and input/output data are given for two versions of ICSSWH units. A table compares the costs of ICSSWH in houses compared with other (i.e. fossil fuel) water heating systems

  7. Combined storage system for LWR spent fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, B.J.; Ganley, J.T.; Washington, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The MODREX storage system consists of four basic elements: (1) the storage canister, (2) the storage module, (3) the storage cask, and (4) the transport cask. The storage canister is the heart of the system and, when used in combination with the module or either of the casks, allows the MODREX system to respond quickly to varied storage system requirements. The MODREX system can be used to hold either spent fuel assemblies or canistered solidified HLW. The ability to combine a basic storage canister with either a concrete module or a metal cask provides flexibility to meet a wide range of storage requirements. The spent fuel is stored in a dry, inert atmosphere, which essentially eliminates corrosion or deterioration of the cladding during extended storage periods. The storage canister and concrete storage module provide additional barriers against radioactivity release, enhancing long-term safety. Heat dissipation is passive, eliminating the need for additional emergency cooling systems or special redundancy. Modular, expandable construction permits minimum initial investment and capital carrying charges; additional capacity is built and paid for only as it is needed, retaining flexibility. 6 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  8. Performance modelling and simulation of an absorption solar cooling system for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assilzadeh, F.; Ali, Y.; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2006-01-01

    Solar radiation contains huge amounts of energy and is required for almost all the natural processes on earth. Solar-powered air-conditioning has many advantages when compared to normal electricity system. This paper presents a solar cooling system that has been designed for Malaysia and other tropical regions using evacuated tube solar collector and LiBr absorption system. A modelling and simulation of absorption solar cooling system is modeled in Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS) environment. The typical meteorological year file containing the weather parameters is used to simulate the system. Then a system optimization is carried out in order to select the appropriate type of collector, the optimum size of storage tank, the optimum collector slope and area and the optimum thermostat setting of the auxiliary boiler

  9. Active cooling system for Tokamak in-vessel operation manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Jianjun, E-mail: yuanjj@sjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Tan; Li, Fashe; Zhang, Weijun; Du, Liang

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We summarized most of the challenges of fusion devices to robot systems. • Propose an active cooling system to protect all of the necessary components. • Trial design test and theoretical analysis were conducted. • Overall implementation of the active cooling system was demonstrated. - Abstract: In-vessel operation/inspection is an indispensable task for Tokamak experimental reactor, for a robot/manipulator is more capable in doing this than human being with more precise motion and less risk of damaging the ambient equipment. Considering the demanding conditions of Tokamak, the manipulator should be adaptable to rapid response in the extreme conditions such as high temperature, vacuum and so on. In this paper, we propose an active cooling system embedded into such manipulator. Cameras, motors, gearboxes, sensors, and other mechanical/electrical components could then be designed under ordinary conditions. The cooling system cannot only be a thermal shield since the components are also heat sources in dynamics. We carry out a trial test to verify our proposal, and analyze the active cooling system theoretically, which gives a direction on the optimization by varying design parameters, components and distribution. And based on thermal sensors monitoring and water flow adjusting a closed-loop feedback control of temperature is added to the system. With the preliminary results, we believe that the proposal gives a way to robust and inexpensive design in extreme environment. Further work will concentrate on overall implementation and evaluation of this cooling system with the whole inspection manipulator.

  10. Evaluation of Active Cooling Systems for Non-Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Othuman Mydin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooling systems are an essential element in many facets of modern society including cars, computers and buildings. Cooling systems are usually divided into two types: passive and active. Passive cooling transfers heat without using any additional energy while active cooling is a type of heat transfer that uses powered devices such as fans or pumps. This paper will focus on one particular type of passive cooling: air-conditioning systems. An air-conditioning system is defined as controlled air movement, temperature, humidity and cleanliness of a building area. Air conditioning consists of cooling and heating. Therefore, the air-conditioning system should be able to add and remove heat from the area. An air-conditioning system is defined as a control or treatment of air in a confined space. The process that occurs is the air-conditioning system absorbs heat and dust while, at the same time, cleaning the air breathed into a closed space. The purpose of air-conditioning is to maintain a comfortable atmosphere for human life and to meet user requirements. In this paper, air-conditioning systems for non-residential buildings will be presented and discussed.

  11. A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahook, S.D.

    1992-08-01

    A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water system to the environment via evaporation to the atmosphere and blow-down to the Savannah River. The developed model allows for delay times associated with the transport of the cooling water radioactivity through cooling water system components. Additionally, this model simulates the time-dependent behavior of radionuclides levels in various CWS components. The developed model is incorporated into the K-reactor Cooling Tower Activity (KCTA) code. KCTA allows the accident (heat exchanger leak rate) and the cooling tower blow-down and evaporation rates to be described as time-dependent functions. Thus, the postulated leak and the consequence of the assumed leak can be modelled realistically. This model is the first of three models to be ultimately assembled to form a comprehensive Liquid Pathway Activity System (LPAS). LPAS will offer integrated formation, transport, deposition, and release estimates for radionuclides formed in a SRS facility. Process water and river water modules are forthcoming as input and downstream components, respectively, for KCTA

  12. Low-technology cooling box for storage of malaria RDTs and other medical supplies in remote areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyuoka Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increase in use of point-of-care diagnostic tests for malaria and other diseases comes the necessity of storing the diagnostic kits and the drugs required for subsequent management, in remote areas, where temperatures are high and electricity supply is unreliable or unavailable. Methods To address the lack of temperature-controlled storage during the introduction of community-based malaria management in Cambodia, the Cambodian National Centre for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control (CNM developed prototype evaporative cooling boxes (Cambodian Cooler Boxes - CCBs for storage of perishable medical commodities in remote clinics. The performance of these CCBs for maintaining suitable storage temperatures was evaluated over two phases in 2005 and 2006-7, comparing conditions in CCBs using water as designed, CCBs with no water for evaporation, and ambient storage room temperatures. Temperature and humidity was monitored, together with the capacity of the RDTs recommended for storage between 2 to 30 degree Celsius to detect low-density malaria parasite samples after storage under these conditions. Results Significant differences were recorded between the proportion of temperatures within the recommended RDT storage conditions in the CCBs with water and the temperatures in the storage room (p Discussion and Conclusions The CCB was an effective tool for storage of RDTs at optimal conditions, and extended the effective life-span of the tests. The concept of evaporative cooling has potential to greatly enhance access to perishable diagnostics and medicines in remote communities, as it allows prolonged storage at low cost using locally-available materials, in the absence of electricity.

  13. Vacuum system for the NIJI-III compact storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, F.; Tsutsui, Y.; Takada, H.

    1990-01-01

    The NIJI-III is a compact storage ring measuring about 15 m in circumference with four superconducting bending magnets. It is under development as a synchrotron light source for X-ray lithography with a stored beam current of 200 mA at a stored beam current of 200 mA at a stored energy level of 615 MeV. The vacuum system is designed to attain a pressure of less than 1 x 10 -9 Torr at beam storage. The compact ring design makes it difficult to install a large number of pumps able to satisfy the required pumping speed. For the purpose of realizing a high pumping speed, a cryopump as a result of cooling the superconducting magnet duct wall to the liquid helium (LHe) temperature is adopted, as a result the total pumping speed to 2.8 x 10 4 l/s is obtained. (author)

  14. Energy managemant through PCM based thermal storage system for building air-conditioning: Tidel Park, Chennai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nallusamy, N.; Sampath, S.; Velraj, R.

    2006-01-01

    Many modern building are designed for air-conditioning and the amount of electrical energy required for providing air-conditioning can be very significant especially in the tropics. Conservation of energy is major concern to improve the overall efficiency of the system. Integration is energy storage with the conventional system gives a lot of potential for energy saving and long-term economics. Thermal energy storage systems can improve energy management and help in matching supply and demand patterns. In the present work, a detailed study has been done on the existing thermal energy storage system used in the air-conditioning system in Tidel Park, Chennai. The present study focuses on the cool energy storage system. The modes of operation and advantages of such a system for energy management are highlighted. The reason for the adoption of combined storage system and the size of the storage medium in the air-conditioning plant are analyzed. The possibility of using this concept in other cooling and heating applications, such as storage type solar water heating system, has been explored

  15. System and method for pre-cooling of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, David A.; Rainer, Leo I.

    2011-08-09

    A method for nighttime pre-cooling of a building comprising inputting one or more user settings, lowering the indoor temperature reading of the building during nighttime by operating an outside air ventilation system followed, if necessary, by a vapor compression cooling system. The method provides for nighttime pre-cooling of a building that maintains indoor temperatures within a comfort range based on the user input settings, calculated operational settings, and predictions of indoor and outdoor temperature trends for a future period of time such as the next day.

  16. System for cooling the containment vessel of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, Didier.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a post-accidental cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. This system includes in series a turbine fed by the moist air contained in the vessel, a condenser in which the air is dried and cooled, a compressor actuated by the turbine and a cooling exchanger. The cold water flowing through the condenser and in the exchanger is taken from a tank outside the vessel and injected by a pump actuated by the turbine. The application is for nuclear reactors under pressure [fr

  17. Hybrid Cooling System for Industrial Application | Ezekwe | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid Cooling System for Industrial Application. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... more than five times over that achieved by using the gas (air) phase alone. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  18. Thermal analysis of the failed equipment storage vault system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrell, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Shadday, A.

    1995-07-01

    A storage facility for failed glass melters is required for radioactive operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). It is currently proposed that the failed melters be stored in the Failed Equipment Storage Vaults (FESV's) in S area. The FESV's are underground reinforced concrete structures constructed in pairs, with adjacent vaults sharing a common wall. A failed melter is to be placed in a steel Melter Storage Box (MSB), sealed, and lowered into the vault. A concrete lid is then placed over the top of the FESV. Two melters will be placed within the FESV/MSB system, separated by the common wall. There is no forced ventilation within the vault so that the melter is passively cooled. Temperature profiles in the Failed Equipment Storage Vault Structures have been generated using the FLOW3D software to model heat conduction and convection within the FESV/MSB system. Due to complexities in modeling radiation with FLOW3D, P/THERMAL software has been used to model radiation using the conduction/convection temperature results from FLOW3D. The final conjugate model includes heat transfer by conduction, convection, and radiation to predict steady-state temperatures. Also, the FLOW3D software has been validated as required by the technical task request

  19. Survey and assessment of radioactive waste management facilities in the United States. Section 2.5. Air-cooled vault storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    There are two basic types of air-cooled vaults for the storage of spent nuclear fuel or vitrified HLRW. The two types, differentiated by the method of air cooling used, are the open-vault concept and the closed-vault concept. The following aspects of these air-cooled vault storage facility concepts are discussed: description and operation of facilities; strucutral design considerations and analysis; nuclear design considerations and analyses; vault environmental design considerations; unique design features; and accident analysis

  20. Investigation of cooling coil corrosion in storage tanks for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The high frequency of cooling coil leaks observed in high-heat waste storage tanks soon after sludge removal operations is attributed to pitting, according to laboratory corrosion studies. Experiments show that the most likely series of events leading to coil leakage is (1) excessive dilution of basic nitrite in the supernate, (2) initiation of attack in crevices due to oxygen depletion cells, and (3) acceleration of the attack by sulfate dissolved from the sludge. When sludge was slurried with water, the interstitial liquid was diluted. Nitrite, the anodic inhibitor that prevented attack on coils and tanks in normal operation when its concentration was 0.5 to 3.0M, could accelerate attack when diluted to 10 -4 to 10 -3 M. Attack was presumably initiated at oxygen depletion cells. The presence of sulfate, leached from the sludge, produced a conductive solution that could produce high current densities at the corroding steel surface. The proposed series of events leading to coil leakage agrees with the observations previously made on one leaking coil removed from Tank 2F after sludge removal in 1967. Examination revealed pitting that had originated on the outside of the coils. This pitting was attributed to oxygen depletion cells in coil crevices. To prevent recurrence of pitting attack on cooling coils during future sludge removal operations, the sludge should be slurried (1) with waste diluted less than one hundredfold with water, or (2) with a 500-ppm nitrite-H 2 O solution at pH 12. Either method should preclude pitting damage to the coils

  1. Augmented cooling vest system subassembly: Design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Angelo, Maurissa; D’Angelo, Joseph; Almajali, Mohammad; Lafdi, Khalid; Delort, Antoine; Elmansori, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermoelectric cooler (TEC) was employed to provide cooling air to cooling vest. • Aluminum cooling fins were used to exchange heat for hot and cold sides of TEC. • Performance of the system was determined and the experimental technique was described. • Heat sink is capable to remove additional heat and heat exchanger provides cooling air. • Future work is proposed to optimize the efficiency of the system. - Abstract: A prototype cooling engine consisting of thermoelectric coolers (TECs) was developed and designed. In this prototype, aluminum cooling fins were employed as the heat exchange method for both the hot and cold sides of the TEC. Aluminum fins were used to cool the ambient air through a heat exchanger and dissipate heat build up from the heat sink. This system was modeled and performance capabilities were determined. The experimental technique used to monitor parameters affecting the efficiency of the designed system was described. These parameters include the temperatures of the inlets and outlets of both heat exchanger and heat sink and the flow rate of the cooled air. The experiment was run under three input DC powers; 15 V, 18 V, and 21 V. As the power increased, both the flow rate and the temperature difference between the hot and cold side of thermoelectric cooler increased, demonstrating the heat sink capability to remove the additional heat. However, the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger decreases as the power increase. The findings demonstrated the effectiveness of this cooling system and future work is proposed to optimize the heat

  2. Force balanced magnetic energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawardi, O.K.; Nara, H.; Grabnic, M.

    1979-01-01

    A novel scheme of constructing coils suited for inductive storage system is described. By means of a force-compensating method, the reinforcement structure can be made considerably smaller than that needed for conventional coils. The economics of this system is shown to be capable of achieving savings of upwards of 40% when compared to a conventional system

  3. Thermo-economic Optimization of Solar Assisted Heating and Cooling (SAHC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghafoor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The energy demand for cooling is continuously increasing due to growing thermal loads, changing architectural modes of building, and especially due to occupants indoor comfort requirements resulting higher electricity demand notably during peak load hours. This increasing electricity demand is resulting higher primary energy consumption and emission of green house gases (GHG due to electricity generation from fossil fuels. An exciting alternative to reduce the peak electricity consumption is the possible utilization of solar heat to run thermally driven cooling machines instead of vapor compression machines utilizing high amount of electricity. In order to widen the use of solar collectors, they should also be used to contribute for sanitary hot water production and space heating. Pakistan lying on solar belt has a huge potential to utilize solar thermal heat for heating and cooling requirement because cooling is dominant throughout the year and the enormous amount of radiation availability provides an opportunity to use it for solar thermal driven cooling systems. The sensitivity analysis of solar assisted heating and cooling system has been carried out under climatic conditions of Faisalabad (Pakistan and its economic feasibility has been calculated using maximization of NPV. Both storage size and collector area has been optimized using different economic boundary conditions. Results show that optimum area of collector lies between 0.26m2 to 0.36m2 of collector area per m2 of conditioned area for ieff values of 4.5% to 0.5%. The optimum area of collector increases by decreasing effective interest rate resulting higher solar fraction. The NPV was found to be negative for all ieff values which shows that some incentives/subsidies are needed to be provided to make the system cost beneficial. Results also show that solar fraction space heating varies between 87 and 100% during heating season and solar fraction cooling between 55 and 100% during

  4. OPTIMUM HEAT STORAGE DESIGN FOR SDHW SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Two simulation models have been used to analyse the heat storage design’s influence on the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. One model is especially designed for traditional SDHW systems based on a heat storage design where the solar heat exchanger is a built-in spiral....... The other model is especially designed for low flow SDHW systems based on a mantle tank.The tank design’s influence on the thermal performance of the SDHW systems has been investigated in a way where only one tank parameter has been changed at a time in the calculations. In this way a direct analysis...

  5. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  6. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The project described is part of the U. S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid-liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program was provided from the beginning of the program, and resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  7. Cooling concept with energy storage for ICT; Koelconcept met energieopslag voor ICT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Wilt, P. [Compertius, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    Renewable energy concepts with energy storage in the soil are not only about technique. To ensure successful implementation of energy storage in the soil for various branches cooperation needs to be sought with parties who know specific branches very well. In addition to the technical aspects, it is at least as important that the needs and working methods of a market segment are thoroughly known to ensure optimal linkage of source systems to the systems and operational processes of the client. [Dutch] Bij ontwikkelde duurzame energieconcepten met inzet van energieopslag in de bodem gaat het niet alleen om techniek, Om energieopslag in de bodem voor verschillende branches met succes in te zetten, is samenwerking nodig met partijen die een specifieke branche goed kennen. Naast de techniek is het minstens zo belangrijk ook de behoeftes en werkwijzen van een marktsegment door en door te kennen, om bronsystemen zo optimaal te koppelen aan de systemen en bedrijfsprocessen van de klant.

  8. High Tc superconducting energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werfel, Frank [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Electric energy is basic to heat and light our homes, to power our businesses and to transport people and goods. Powerful storage techniques like SMES, Flywheel, Super Capacitor, and Redox - Flow batteries are needed to increase the overall efficiency, stability and quality of electrical grids. High-Tc superconductors (HTS) possess superior physical and technical properties and can contribute in reducing the dissipation and losses in electric machines as motors and generators, in electric grids and transportation. The renewable energy sources as solar, wind energy and biomass will require energy storage systems even more as a key technology. We survey the physics and the technology status of superconducting flywheel energy storage (FESS) and magnetic energy storage systems (SMES) for their potential of large-scale commercialization. We report about a 10 kWh / 250 kW flywheel with magnetic stabilization of the rotor. The progress of HTS conductor science and technological engineering are basic for larger SMES developments. The performance of superconducting storage systems is reviewed and compared. We conclude that a broad range of intensive research and development in energy storage is urgently needed to produce technological options that can allow both climate stabilization and economic development.

  9. Process integration: Cooling water systems design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Gololo2_2010.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 17891 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Gololo2_2010.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 The 13th Asia Pacific Confederation... results in a nonlinear program (NLP) formulation and the second case yields mixed integer nonlinear program (MINLP). In both cases the cooling towers operating capacity were debottlenecked without compromising the heat duties. The 13th Asia...

  10. Technology for national asset storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Robert A.; Hulen, Harry; Watson, Richard

    1993-01-01

    An industry-led collaborative project, called the National Storage Laboratory, was organized to investigate technology for storage systems that will be the future repositories for our national information assets. Industry participants are IBM Federal Systems Company, Ampex Recording Systems Corporation, General Atomics DISCOS Division, IBM ADSTAR, Maximum Strategy Corporation, Network Systems Corporation, and Zitel Corporation. Industry members of the collaborative project are funding their own participation. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory through its National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) will participate in the project as the operational site and the provider of applications. The expected result is an evaluation of a high performance storage architecture assembled from commercially available hardware and software, with some software enhancements to meet the project's goals. It is anticipated that the integrated testbed system will represent a significant advance in the technology for distributed storage systems capable of handling gigabyte class files at gigabit-per-second data rates. The National Storage Laboratory was officially launched on 27 May 1992.

  11. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  12. Water cooling system for sintering furnaces of nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work has as a main objective to develop a continuous cooling water system, which is necessary for the cooling of the sintering furnaces. This system is used to protect them as well as for reducing the water consumption, ejecting the heat generated into this furnaces and scattering it into the atmosphere in a fast and continuous way. The problem was defined and the reference parameters established, making the adequate research. The materials were selected as well as the length of the pipeline which will carry the secondary refrigerant fluid (water). Three possible solutions were tried,and evaluated, and from these, the thermal and economically most efficient option was selected. The layout of the solution was established and the theoretical construction of a cooling system for liquids using dichlorofluoromethane (R-22), as a refrigerant and a air cooled condenser, was accomplished. (Author)

  13. Adsorption Cooling System Using Metal-Impregnated Zeolite-4A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsuk Trisupakitti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption cooling systems have been developed to replace vapor compression due to their benefits of being environmentally friendly and energy saving. We prepared zeolite-4A and experimental cooling performance test of zeolite-water adsorption system. The adsorption cooling test-rig includes adsorber, evaporator, and condenser which perform in vacuum atmosphere. The maximum and minimum water adsorption capacity of different zeolites and COP were used to assess the performance of the adsorption cooling system. We found that loading zeolite-4A with higher levels of silver and copper increased COP. The Cu6%/zeolite-4A had the highest COP at 0.56 while COP of zeolite-4A alone was 0.38. Calculating the acceleration rate of zeolite-4A when adding 6% of copper would accelerate the COP at 46%.

  14. Performance comparison between a solar driven rotary desiccant cooling system and conventional vapor compression system (performance study of desiccant cooling)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, T.S.; Ziegler, F.; Wang, R.Z.; Wang, H.

    2010-01-01

    Solar driven rotary desiccant cooling systems have been widely recognized as alternatives to conventional vapor compression systems for their merits of energy-saving and being eco-friendly. In the previous paper, the basic performance features of desiccant wheel have been discussed. In this paper, a solar driven two-stage rotary desiccant cooling system and a vapor compression system are simulated to provide cooling for one floor in a commercial office building in two cities with different climates: Berlin and Shanghai. The model developed in the previous paper is adopted to predict the performance of the desiccant wheel. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate and compare the thermodynamic and economic performance of the two systems and to obtain useful data for practical application. Results show that the desiccant cooling system is able to meet the cooling demand and provide comfortable supply air in both of the two regions. The required regeneration temperatures are 55 deg. C in Berlin and 85 deg. C in Shanghai. As compared to the vapor compression system, the desiccant cooling system has better supply air quality and consumes less electricity. The results of the economic analysis demonstrate that the dynamic investment payback periods are 4.7 years in Berlin and 7.2 years in Shanghai.

  15. Unlimited cooling capacity of the passive-type emergency core cooling system of the MARS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandini, G.; Caira, M.; Naviglio, A.; Sorabella, L.

    1995-01-01

    The MARS nuclear plant is equipped with a 600 MWth PWR type nuclear steam supply system, with completely innovative engineered core safeguards. The most relevant innovative safety system of this plant is its Emergency Core Cooling System, which is completely passive (with only one non static component). The Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) of the MARS reactor is natural-circulation, passive-type, and its intervention follows a core flow decrease, whatever was the cause. The operation of the system is based on a cascade of three fluid systems, functionally interfacing through heat exchangers; the first fluid system is connected to the reactor vessel and the last one includes an atmospheric-pressure condenser, cooled by external air. The infinite thermal capacity of the final heat sink provides the system an unlimited autonomy. The capability and operability of the system are based on its integrity and on the integrity of the primary coolant boundary (both of them are permanently enclosed in a pressurized containment; 100% redundancy is also foreseen) and on the operation of only one non static component (a check valve), with 400% redundancy. In the paper, all main thermal hydraulic transients occurring as a consequence of postulated accidents are analysed, to verify the capability of the passive-type ECCS to intervene always in time, without causing undue conditions of reduced coolability of the core (DNB, etc.), and to verify its capability to guarantee a long-term (indefinite) coolability of the core without the need of any external intervention. (author)

  16. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO 2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  17. Development of adsorption cooling system. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.N.; Cho, S.H.; Chue, K.T.; You, Y.J.; Lee, K.H.; Eun, T.H. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This report describes the third year study to develop adsorption chiller using silica gel/water pair for the recovery of low level waste heat. A pilot plant was fabricated and tested. In a typical run, the cooling capacity of 1.66 USRT and COP of 0.38 was obtained under the following operating conditions; chilled water temperature of 12{yields}8.9 degree C, hot water temperature of 72.7 degree C, cooling water temperature of 23.2 degree C, and half cycle time of 600(s). The COP of the pilot plant is comparable to 0.4 of Nishiyodo pilot plant having 3.68 USRT. In order to enhance the thermal conductivity of adsorbent layer, consolidated silica gel and graphite block was prepared and its characteristics was analyzed. A slurry method using water was appropriate of silica gel and graphite in the block, in which adsorbed amount of water is not much smaller than that on silica gel, was 6:1. The thermal conductivity of this block was 6.53 W/mk which was 37 times larger than that of silica gel. (author). 12 refs., 37 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  19. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi [Széchenyi István University of Applied Sciences, Department of Mathematics, P.O.Box 701, H-9007 Győr (Hungary)

    2016-06-08

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  20. The encapsulation of Magnox type fuel elements for extended storage in cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.W.C.; Burt, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    A method of encapsulating spent fuel elements in a protective plastics medium to enable them to be stored for protracted periods under water, without risk of further significant corrosion, has been developed. It is visualised that the elements after discharge from the reactor would be allowed to cool under water for a period of at least 100 days and would then be encapsulated while remaining immersed. A suitable two pack system based on a solvent free epoxy resin cured with an aromatic amine adduct has been identified. The equipment and processes which have been developed for handling, conditioning and encapsulating the fuel are described. (author)

  1. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

  2. Active noise canceling system for mechanically cooled germanium radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karl Einar; Burks, Morgan T

    2014-04-22

    A microphonics noise cancellation system and method for improving the energy resolution for mechanically cooled high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector systems. A classical adaptive noise canceling digital processing system using an adaptive predictor is used in an MCA to attenuate the microphonics noise source making the system more deployable.

  3. System performance and economic analysis of solar-assisted cooling/heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Wu, J.H.; Yen, R.H.; Wang, J.H.; Hsu, H.Y.; Hsia, C.J.; Yen, C.W.; Chang, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The long-term system simulation and economic analysis of solar-assisted cooling/heating system (SACH-2) was carried out in order to find an economical design. The solar heat driven ejector cooling system (ECS) is used to provide part of the cooling

  4. Optimal control of building storage systems using both ice storage and thermal mass – Part I: Simulation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajiah, Ali; Krarti, Moncef

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simulation environment is described to account for both passive and active thermal energy storage (TES) systems. ► Laboratory testing results have been used to validate the predictions from the simulation environment. ► Optimal control strategies for TES systems have been developed as part of the simulation environment. - Abstract: This paper presents a simulation environment that can evaluate the benefits of using simultaneously building thermal capacitance and ice storage system to reduce total operating costs including energy and demand charges while maintaining adequate occupant comfort conditions within commercial buildings. The building thermal storage is controlled through pre-cooling strategies by setting space indoor air temperatures. The ice storage system is controlled by charging the ice tank and operating the chiller during low electrical charge periods and melting the ice during on-peak periods. Optimal controls for both building thermal storage and ice storage are developed to minimize energy charges, demand charges, or combined energy and demand charges. The results obtained from the simulation environment are validated using laboratory testing for an optimal controller.

  5. Considerations for Disposition of Dry Cask Storage System Materials at End of Storage System Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Rob; Van den Akker, Bret

    2014-01-01

    Dry cask storage systems are deployed at nuclear power plants for used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage when spent fuel pools reach their storage capacity and/or the plants are decommissioned. An important waste and materials disposition consideration arising from the increasing use of these systems is the management of the dry cask storage systems' materials after the UNF proceeds to disposition. Thermal analyses of repository design concepts currently under consideration internationally indicate that waste package sizes for the geologic media under consideration may be significantly smaller than the canisters being used for on-site dry storage by the nuclear utilities. Therefore, at some point along the UNF disposition pathway, there could be a need to repackage fuel assemblies already loaded into the dry storage canisters currently in use. In the United States, there are already over 1650 of these dry storage canisters deployed and approximately 200 canisters per year are being loaded at the current fleet of commercial nuclear power plants. There is about 10 cubic meters of material from each dry storage canister system that will need to be dispositioned. The concrete horizontal storage modules or vertical storage overpacks will need to be reused, re-purposed, recycled, or disposed of in some manner. The empty metal storage canister/cask would also have to be cleaned, and decontaminated for possible reuse or recycling or disposed of, likely as low-level radioactive waste. These material disposition options can have impacts of the overall used fuel management system costs. This paper will identify and explore some of the technical and interface considerations associated with managing the dry cask storage system materials. (authors)

  6. Economic feasibility of thermal energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeebullah, B.A. [Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigates the economic feasibility of both building an ice thermal storage and structure a time of rate tariff for the unique air conditioning (A/C) plant of the Grand Holy Mosque of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The features of the building are unique where the air-conditioned 39,300 m{sup 2} zone is open to the atmosphere and the worshippers fully occupy the building five times a day, in addition hundreds of thousands of worshippers attend the blessed weekend's prayer at noontime, which escalates the peak electricity load. For economic analysis, the objective function is the daily electricity bill that includes the operation cost and the capital investment of the ice storage system. The operation cost is function of the energy imported for operating the plant in which the tariff structure, number of operating hours and the ambient temperature are parameters. The capital recovery factor is calculated for 10% interest rate and payback period of 10 years. Full and partial load storage scenarios are considered. The results showed that with the current fixed electricity rate (0.07 $/kWh), there is no gain in introducing ice storage systems for both storage schemes. Combining energy storage and an incentive time structured rate showed reasonable daily bill savings. For base tariff of 0.07 $/kWh during daytime operation and 0.016 $/kWh for off-peak period, savings were achieved for full load storage scenario. Different tariff structure is discussed and the break-even nighttime rate was determined (varies between 0.008 and 0.03 $/kWh). Partial load storage scenario showed to be unattractive where the savings for the base structured tariff was insignificant. (author)

  7. Air-cooled recirculation cooling systems. Technical and economic comparison; Luftgekuehlte Rueckkuehlsysteme. Technisch wirtschaftlicher Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierks, G. [Fa. Jaeggi/Guentner (Schweiz) AG, Trimbach (Switzerland)

    2000-03-01

    There are several air-cooled forced-circulation cooling systems for heat removal from refrigeration systems. Optimum solutions should not be selected on the basis of the cost factor alone; an integrative approach should be used instead. An exemplary investigation is presented. [German] Fuer die Waermeabfuhr aus kaeltetechnischen Anlagen stehen verschiedene luftgekuehlte, zwangsbelueftete Rueckkuehlsysteme zur Verfuegung. Die Auswahl des Systems ist oft von kurzfristigem Kostendenken gepraegt, was in technischer und wirtschaftlicher Hinsicht aber nicht immer der optimalen Loesung entspricht. Erst die genauere Kenntnis der verschiedenen Systeme und eine ganzheitliche Betrachtungsweise ermoeglichen die optimale Wahl fuer den einzelnen Fall. Die hier praesentierte Untersuchung wird anhand eines konkreten Falls dargestellt, wobei Preise und technische Produktdaten auf realen Anfragen beruhen. Der Autor ist um objetive Bewertung bemueht, der Leser moege aber selbst urteilen. (orig./AKF)

  8. Passive ventilation systems with heat recovery and night cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    with little energy consumption and with satisfying indoor climate. The concept is based on using passive measures like stack and wind driven ventilation, effective night cooling and low pressure loss heat recovery using two fluid coupled water-to-air heat exchangers developed at the Technical University......In building design the requirements for energy consumption for ventilation, heating and cooling and the requirements for increasingly better indoor climate are two opposing factors. This paper presents the schematic layout and simulation results of an innovative multifunc-tional ventilation concept...... of Denmark. Through building integration in high performance offices the system is optimized to incorporate multiple functions like heating, cooling and ventilation, thus saving the expenses of separate cooling and heating systems. The simulation results are derived using the state-of-the-art building...

  9. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  10. Instrumentation for NBI SST-1 cooling water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Karishma; Patel, Paresh; Jana, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) System is one of the heating systems for Steady state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1). It is capable of generating a neutral hydrogen beam of power 0.5 MW at 30 kV. NBI system consists of following sub-systems: Ion source, Neutralizer, Deflection Magnet and Magnet Liner (ML), Ion Dump (ID), V-Target (VT), Pre Duct Scraper (PDS), Beam Transmission Duct (BTD) and Shine Through (ST). For better heat removal management purpose all the above sub-systems shall be equipped with Heat Transfer Elements (THE). During beam operation these sub-systems gets heated due to the received heat load which requires to be removed by efficient supplying water. The cooling water system along with the other systems (External Vacuum System, Gas Feed System, Cryogenics System, etc.) will be controlled by NBI Programmable Logic Control (PLC). In this paper instrumentation and its related design for cooling water system is discussed. The work involves flow control valves, transmitters (pressure, temperature and water flow), pH and conductivity meter signals and its interface with the NBI PLC. All the analog input, analog output, digital input and digital output signals from the cooling water system will be isolated and then fed to the NBI PLC. Graphical Users Interface (GUI) needed in the Wonderware SCADA for the cooling water system shall also be discussed. (author)

  11. Supplementary report: cooling water systems for Darlington G.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    This report summarizes Ontario Hydro's existing aquatic environmental programs, presents results of these investigations, and outlines plans and activities for expanded aquatic environment studies including the evaluation of alternative cooling systems. This report outlines specific considerations regarding possible alternative cooling arrangements for the Darlington station. It concludes with a recommendation that a study be initiated to examine the potential benefits of using the heated discharge water in a warm water recreational centre. (author)

  12. Review of Phase Change Materials Based on Energy Storage System with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamaraikannn, R.; Kanimozhi, B.; Anish, M.; Jayaprabakar, J.; Saravanan, P.; Rohan Nicholas, A.

    2017-05-01

    The use of Different types of storage system using phase change materials (PCMs) is an effective way of storing energy and also to make advantages of heating and cooling systems are installed to maintain temperatures within the well-being zone. PCMs have been extensively used in various storage systems for heat pumps, solar engineering, and thermal control applications. The use of PCM’s for heating and cooling applications have been investigated during the past decade. There are large numbers of PCM’s, which melt and solidify at a wide range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications. This paper also outline the investigation and analysis of Phase Change materials used in Different Types of storage systems with different applications.

  13. Energy Storage System for a Pulsed DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.; Cortes, M.; Mendez, P.; Maisonnier, D.; Hayward, J.

    2006-01-01

    Several designs have been proposed for DEMO, some of which will operate in pulsed mode. Since a fusion power plant will be required to deliver continuous output, this challenge must be solved. For the reference DEMO, energy storage is required at a level of 250 MWhe with a capability of delivering a power of 1 GWe. Although DEMO is scheduled to be built in about 30 years, the design of the energy storage system must be based on current technology, focusing on commercially available products and on their expected future trends. From a thorough review of the different technologies available, thermal energy storage, compressed air energy storage, water pumping, fuel cells, batteries, flywheels and ultracapacitors are the most promising solutions to energy storage for a pulsed DEMO. An outline of each of these technologies is described in the paper, showing its basis, features, advantages and disadvantages for this application. Following this review, the most suitable methods capable of storing the required energy are examined. Fuel cells are not suitable due to the power requirement. Compressed air energy storage has a lower efficiency than the required one. Thermal energy storage, based on molten salts, so more energy can be stored with a better efficiency, and water pumping are shown as the main solutions, based on existing technology. However, those are not the only solutions capable of solving our challenge. Hydrogen production, using water electrolysis, hydrogen storage and combustion in a combined cycle can achieve our energy and power requirements with an acceptable efficiency. All these solutions are studied in detail and described, evaluating their current cost and efficiency in order to compare them all. (author)

  14. Use of a temperature-initiated passive cooling system (TIPACS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Conklin, J.; Reich, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    A new type of passive cooling system has been invented (Forsberg 1993): the Temperature-Initiated Passive Cooling System (TIPACS). The characteristics of the TIPACS potentially match requirements for an improved reactor-cavity-cooling system (RCCS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). This report is an initial evaluation of the TIPACS for the MHTGR with a Rankines (steam) power conversion cycle. Limited evaluations were made of applying the TIPACS to MHTGRs with reactor pressure vessel temperatures up to 450 C. These temperatures may occur in designs of Brayton cycle (gas turbine) and process heat MHTGRs. The report is structured as follows. Section 2 describes the containment cooling issues associated with the MHTGR and the requirements for such a cooling system. Section 3 describes TIPACS in nonmathematical terms. Section 4 describes TIPACS's heat-removal capabilities. Section 5 analyzes the operation of the temperature-control mechanism that determines under what conditions the TIPACS rejects heat to the environment. Section 6 addresses other design and operational issues. Section 7 identifies uncertainties, and Section 8 provides conclusions. The appendixes provide the detailed data and models used in the analysis

  15. Use of a temperature-initiated passive cooling system (TIPACS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Conklin, J.; Reich, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    A new type of passive cooling system has been invented (Forsberg 1993): the Temperature-Initiated Passive Cooling System (TIPACS). The characteristics of the TIPACS potentially match requirements for an improved reactor-cavity-cooling system (RCCS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). This report is an initial evaluation of the TIPACS for the MHTGR with a Rankines (steam) power conversion cycle. Limited evaluations were made of applying the TIPACS to MHTGRs with reactor pressure vessel temperatures up to 450 C. These temperatures may occur in designs of Brayton cycle (gas turbine) and process heat MHTGRs. The report is structured as follows. Section 2 describes the containment cooling issues associated with the MHTGR and the requirements for such a cooling system. Section 3 describes TIPACS in nonmathematical terms. Section 4 describes TIPACS`s heat-removal capabilities. Section 5 analyzes the operation of the temperature-control mechanism that determines under what conditions the TIPACS rejects heat to the environment. Section 6 addresses other design and operational issues. Section 7 identifies uncertainties, and Section 8 provides conclusions. The appendixes provide the detailed data and models used in the analysis.

  16. Prototype thermochemical heat storage with open reactor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondag, H.A.; Kikkert, B.; Smeding, S.F.; Boer, de R.; Bakker, M.

    2013-01-01

    Thermochemical (TC) heat storage is an interesting technology for future seasonal storage of solar heat in the built environment. This technology enables high thermal energy storage densities and low energy storage losses. A small-scale laboratory prototype TC storage system has been realized at

  17. A computational study on the performance of a solar air-conditioning system with a partitioned storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.F.; Sumathy, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the performance of a modified solar powered air-conditioning system, which is integrated with a partitioned storage tank. In addition, the effect of two main parameters that influence the system performance is presented and discussed. The study shows that by partitioning the storage tank, the solar cooling effect can be realized much earlier and could attain a total solar cooling COP of 12% higher compared to the conventional whole-tank mode. Simulation results also indicate that there exists an optimum ratio of storage tank volume over collector area

  18. Mass storage system by using broadcast technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Itoh, Ryosuke; Manabe, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Akiya; Morita, Youhei; Nozaki, Tadao; Sasaki, Takashi; Watase, Yoshiyuko; Yamasaki, Tokuyuki

    1996-01-01

    There are many similarities between data recording systems for high energy physics and broadcast systems; the data flow is almost one-way, requires real-time recording; requires large-scale automated libraries for 24-hours operation, etc. In addition to these functional similarities, the required data-transfer and data-recording speeds are also close to those for near future experiments. For these reasons, we have collaborated with SONY Broadcast Company to study the usability of broadcast devices for our data storage system. Our new data storage system consists of high-speed data recorders and tape-robots which are originally based on the digital video-tape recorder and the tape-robot for broadcast systems. We are also studying the possibility to use these technologies for the online data-recording system for B-physics experiment at KEK. (author)

  19. Dry-type cooling systems in electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.W.

    1973-01-01

    This study indicates that the dry-type cooling tower could be adopted in this country as an alternative method for removing waste heat from power plants. The use of dry cooling towers would not only lead to a change of cooling system design, but also to a change of overall thermal design in a power generating system. The principal drawbacks to using dry cooling towers in a large steam-turbine plant are the generating capacity loss, increased fuel consumption and the high capital cost of the dry cooling towers. These economic penalties must be evaluated in each specific case against the benefits that may result from the use of dry cooling towers. The benefits are principally these: (1) Fewer constraints in the selection of power plant sites, (2) No thermal discharge to the natural water bodies, (3) Elimination of vapor plumes and water evaporation loss, and (4) Freedom of adding new units to an existing facility where inadequate water supply may otherwise rule out this possibility

  20. Replacement inhibitors for tank farm cooling coil systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    Sodium chromate has been an effective corrosion inhibitor for the cooling coil systems in Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks for over 40 years. Due to their age and operating history, cooling coils occasionally fail allowing chromate water to leak into the environment. When the leaks spill 10 lbs. or more of sodium chromate over a 24-hr period, the leak incidents are classified as Unusual Occurrences (UO) per CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act). The cost of reporting and cleaning up chromate spills prompted High Level Waste Engineering (HLWE) to initiate a study to investigate alternative tank cooling water inhibitor systems and the associated cost of replacement. Several inhibitor systems were investigated as potential alternatives to sodium chromate. All would have a lesser regulatory impact, if a spill occurred. However, the conversion cost is estimated to be $8.5 million over a period of 8 to 12 months to convert all 5 cooling systems. Although each of the alternative inhibitors examined is effective in preventing corrosion, there is no inhibitor identified that is as effective as chromate. Assuming 3 major leaks a year (the average over the past several years), the cost of maintaining the existing inhibitor was estimated at $0.5 million per year. Since there is no economic or regulatory incentive to replace the sodium chromate with an alternate inhibitor, HLWE recommends that sodium chromate continue to be used as the inhibitor for the waste tank cooling systems

  1. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  2. Study on disposal method of graphite blocks and storage of spent fuel for modular gas-cooled reactor. Joint research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumita, Junya; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Tsuchie, Yasuo; Urakami, Masao [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the result of study on disposal method of graphite blocks in future block-type reactor. Present study was carried out within a framework of joint research, ''Research of Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (No. 3)'', between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPCO), in 2000. In this study, activities in fuel and reflector graphite blocks were evaluated and were compared with the disposal limits defined as low-level of radioactive waste. As a result, it was found that the activity for only C-14 was higher than disposal limits for the low-level of radioactive waste and that the amount of air in the graphite is important to evaluate precisely of C-14 activity. In addition, spent fuels can be stored in air-cooled condition at least after two years cooling in the storage pool. (author)

  3. Development of a higher power cooling system for lithium targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, B; Green, S; Scott, M C; Bennett, J R J; Edgecock, T R

    2015-12-01

    The accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy beam at the University of Birmingham is based around a solid thick lithium target cooled by heavy water. Significant upgrades to Birmingham's Dynamitron accelerator are planned prior to commencing a clinical trial. These upgrades will result in an increase in maximum achievable beam current to at least 3 mA. Various upgrades to the target cooling system to cope with this increased power have been investigated. Tests of a phase change coolant known as "binary ice" have been carried out using an induction heater to provide a comparable power input to the Dynamitron beam. The experimental data shows no improvement over chilled water in the submerged jet system, with both systems exhibiting the same heat input to target temperature relation for a given flow rate. The relationship between the cooling circuit pumping rate and the target temperature in the submerged jet system has also been tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and application of online Stelmor Controlled Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wanhua; Chen Shaohui; Kuang Yonghai; Cao Kaichao

    2009-01-01

    An online Stelmor Controlled Cooling System (SCCS) has been developed successfully for the Stelmor production line, which can communicate with the material flow management system and Program Logic Control System (PLCs) automatically through local network. This online model adopts Implicit Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method to calculate temperature evolution and phase transformation during the production process and predicts final properties. As Continuous Cooling Temperature (CCT) curves of various steels can be coupled in the model, it can predict the latent heat rise and range of phase transformation for various steels, which can provide direct guidance for new steel development and optimization of present Stelmor cooling process. This unique online system has been installed in three Stelmor production lines at present with good results.

  5. Control of Non-linear Marine Cooling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of designing control laws for a marine cooling system used for cooling the main engine and auxiliary components aboard several classes of container vessels. We focus on achieving simple set point control for the system and do not consider compensation of the non-linearitie......-linearities, closed circuit flow dynamics or transport delays that are present in the system. Control laws are therefore designed using classical control theory and the performance of the design is illustrated through two simulation examples....

  6. COMMIX analysis of AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.F.C.; Chien, T.H.; Ding, J.; Sun, J.G.; Sha, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    COMMIX modeling and basic concepts that relate components, i.e., containment, water film cooling, and natural draft air flow systems. of the AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System are discussed. The critical safety issues during a postulated accident have been identified as (1) maintaining the liquid film outside the steel containment vessel, (2) ensuring the natural convection in the air annulus. and (3) quantifying both heat and mass transfer accurately for the system. The lack of appropriate heat and mass transfer models in the present analysis is addressed. and additional assessment and validation of the proposed models is proposed

  7. System for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics, method for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Yu, Wenhua; Singh, Dileep; Zhao, Weihuan

    2017-11-21

    The invention provides a single radiator cooling system for use in hybrid electric vehicles, the system comprising a surface in thermal communication with electronics, and subcooled boiling fluid contacting the surface. The invention also provides a single radiator method for simultaneously cooling electronics and an internal combustion engine in a hybrid electric vehicle, the method comprising separating a coolant fluid into a first portion and a second portion; directing the first portion to the electronics and the second portion to the internal combustion engine for a time sufficient to maintain the temperature of the electronics at or below 175.degree. C.; combining the first and second portion to reestablish the coolant fluid; and treating the reestablished coolant fluid to the single radiator for a time sufficient to decrease the temperature of the reestablished coolant fluid to the temperature it had before separation.

  8. Study on the simulation of heat pump heating and cooling systems to hospital building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Don; Han, Seong Ho; Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Du Sung; Um, Chul Jun

    2008-01-01

    In Korea, air source heat pump system is less efficient than conventional heat source facilities, because the air temperature in winter season is so low that COP of air source heat pump system drops below 3.0. Therefore, the study on the application of heat pump heating and cooling systems is crucial for the efficient popularization of heat pump. In this work, we present the dynamic analysis of energy consumption for the large hospital building by heat resistance-capacitance method. The system simulation of water storage air source heat pump is additionally performed by changing sizes and locations of the hospital building. The computed results show that energy cost of water storage air source heat pump is low, so it is more economical than absorption chiller and heater

  9. Transient Performance of Air-cooled Condensing Heat Exchanger in Long-term Passive Cooling System during Decay Heat Load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myoung Jun; Lee, Hee Joon [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Joo Hyung; Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young-In [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In the event of a 'loss of coolant accident'(LOCA) and a non-LOCA, the secondary passive cooling system would be activated to cool the steam in a condensing heat exchanger that is immersed in an emergency cooldown tank (ECT). Currently, the capacities of these ECTs are designed to be sufficient to remove the sensible and residual heat from the reactor coolant system for 72 hours after the occurrence of an accident. After the operation of a conventional passive cooling system for an extended period, however, the water level falls as a result of the evaporation from the ECT, as steam is emitted from the open top of the tank. Therefore, the tank should be refilled regularly from an auxiliary water supply system when the system is used for more than 72 hours. Otherwise, the system would fail to dissipate heat from the condensing heat exchanger due to the loss of the cooling water. Ultimately, the functionality of the passive cooling system would be seriously compromised. As a passive means of overcoming the water depletion in the tank, Kim et al. applied for a Korean patent covering the concept of a long-term passive cooling system for an ECT even after 72 hours. This study presents transient performance of ECT with installing air-cooled condensing heat exchanger under decay heat load. The cooling capacity of an air-cooled condensing heat exchanger was evaluated to determine its practicality.

  10. A Study of Storage Ring Requirements for an Explosive Detection System Using NRA Method

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tai-Sen

    2005-01-01

    The technical feasibility of an explosives detection system based on the nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma rays in nitrogen-rich materials was demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1993 by using an RFQ proton accelerator and a tomographic imaging prototype.* The study is being continued recently to examine deployment of such an active interrogation system in realistic scenarios. The approach is to use a cyclotron and electron-cooling-equipped storage rings(s) to provide the high quality and high current proton beam needed in a practical application. In this work, we investigate the storage ring requirements for a variant of the airport luggage inspection system considered in the earlier LANL experiments. Estimations are carried out based on the required inspection throughput, the gamma ray yield, the proton beam emittance growth due to scattering with the photon-production target, beam current limit in the storage ring, and the electron cooling rate. Studies using scaling and reas...

  11. Thermal Storage Systems Assessment for Energy Sustainability in Housing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania I. Lagunes Vega

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve greater enhancements in energy sustainability for housing, the function and efficiency of two different passive cooling systems were studied: encapsulated water in recycled bottles of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET and polystyrene plates, in comparison with standard concrete slab systems, which are customarily used in housing. Experiments were placed over a tile surface, in which temperature changes were monitored for a period of 20 days from 08:00 to 20:00. The efficiency of passive thermal storage systems was endorsed through statistical analysis using the “SPSS” software. This resulted in a 17% energy saving, thus promoting energy sustainability in housing units, which reduces the use of electrical appliances required to stabilize conditions to achieve optimum thermal comfort for the human body inside a house, therefore, reducing electrical power consumption, CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and generating savings. Due to the complexity of a system with temperature changes, a fractal analysis was performed for each experimental system, using the “Benoit” software (V.1.3 with self-compatible tools of rescaled range (R/S and a wavelets method, showing that the thermal fluctuations on the tiles with the thermal storage system adapt to the rescaled range analysis and the regular tiles adapt to the wavelets method.

  12. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, R. M.

    1980-06-01

    The solar heating and cooling system installed at the headquarters of Citizens Mutual Savings Association in Leavenworth, Kansas, is described in detail. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program and became operational in March, 1979. The designer was TEC, Inc. Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri and contractor was Norris Brothers, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. The solar system is expected to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2200 square feet. Five, 3-ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two, 3000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  13. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage system components in dry interim storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom and organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel in silos in Canada. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from boiling water reactors BWR's, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions.

  14. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage-system components in dry interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom and organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel in silos in Canada. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from boiling water reactors BWR's, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions

  15. Safety analysis of reactor's cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Results of the analysis of reactor's RBMK-1500 coolant system during normal operation mode, hydrodynamic testing and in the case of earthquake are presented. Analysis was performed using RELAP5 code. Calculations showed the most vulnerable place in the reactor's coolant system. It was found that in the case of earthquake the horizontal support system of drum separator could be damaged

  16. Variable mass energy transformation and storage (VMETS) system using NH3-H2O as working fluid. Part 2: Modeling and simulation under partial storage strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.M.; Zhang, L.; Liang, J.; Du, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the second part of our study on a new variable mass energy transformation and storage (VMETS) system using NH 3 -H 2 O as working fluid. In the previous study, the working principle and flow of the new system have been introduced, whilst the dynamic models of the new system have been developed and the simulation under the full storage strategy has been done. Therefore, in this paper, the working process and dynamic models of the system operating under the partial storage strategy are briefly re-described first, and then, the dynamic processes of energy transformation and storage for cooling are numerically simulated under this strategy. The simulation and analysis results reveal the relationship between the working parameters and the system operation time and predict the system behavior under various loading conditions. It is found that when the system stores energy for cooling under the partial storage strategy, the average COP c1 and COP c2 can reach 3.90 and 3.64, respectively. In order to achieve better system performance, an improved VMETS system is proposed in this paper for partial storage operation. Finally, a conclusion is drawn for these series of research on the new VMETS system

  17. Enhanced Thermal Management System for Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Canister with Hybrid Heat Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Dry storage uses the gas or air as coolant within sealed canister with neutron shielding materials. Dry storage system for spent fuel is regarded as relatively safe and emits little radioactive waste for the storage, but it showed that the storage capacity and overall safety of dry cask needs to be enhanced for the dry storage cask for LWR in Korea. For safety enhancement of dry cask, previous studies of our group firstly suggested the passive cooling system with heat pipes for LWR spent fuel dry storage metal cask. As an extension, enhanced thermal management systems for the spent fuel dry storage cask for LWR was suggested with hybrid heat pipe concept, and their performances were analyzed in thermal-hydraulic viewpoint in this paper. In this paper, hybrid heat pipe concept for dry storage cask is suggested for thermal management to enhance safety margin. Although current design of dry cask satisfies the design criteria, it cannot be assured to have long term storage period and designed lifetime. Introducing hybrid heat pipe concept to dry storage cask designed without disrupting structural integrity, it can enhance the overall safety characteristics with adequate thermal management to reduce overall temperature as well as criticality control. To evaluate thermal performance of hybrid heat pipe according to its design, CFD simulation was conducted and previous and revised design of hybrid heat pipe was compared in terms of temperature inside canister

  18. Graphene-Based Systems for Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Mackey, Paul J.; Johansen, Michael R.; Phillips, James, III; Hogue, Michael; Kaner, Richard B.; El-Kady, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Development of graphene-based energy storage devices based on the Laser Scribe system developed by the University of California Los Angeles. These devices These graphene-based devices store charge on graphene sheets and take advantage of the large accessible surface area of graphene (2,600 m2g) to increase the electrical energy that can be stored. The proposed devices should have the electrical storage capacity of thin-film-ion batteries but with much shorter charge discharge cycle times as well as longer lives The proposed devices will be carbon-based and so will not have the same issues with flammability or toxicity as the standard lithium-based storage cells.

  19. Energy storage in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob; Divya, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional conventi......Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional...... conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its...

  20. Materials used in refrigerated storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abakians, H

    1970-09-01

    Applications of cryogenic technology have increased at a phenomenal rate during the past decade. With the installation of a number of refrigerated storage tanks in Iran, e.g., LPG storage at Bandar Mah Shahr and Kharg Is., and ammonia storage at Bandar Shahpour, it is appropriate to review the materials used in constructing low temperature storage systems. In order to have an economical fully refrigerated storage installation without assuming the risk of brittle fracture, appropriate notch-tough material should be selected for the important and highly stressed components. In general, the lower the operating temperature, the more expensive is the material to be used. Hence, care should be taken to select the required material in such a manner that it will be suitable for the operating temperature and not lower. The most economical materials for low temperatures are steels. Ordinary carbon steel can be used down to -20$F and the Killed carbon steel down to -50$F. Nickel steels (2 1/4%) can be used down to -75$ to 100$F, Nickel steels (3 1/2%) down to -150$F, and 9% nickel steels down to 1,320$F. Stainless and aluminum alloys can be used down to -423$F. Tabular data give some commonly used materials in low temperature and cryogenic services with their lowest allowable temperature, tensile strength, and relative cost.

  1. Emergency core cooling systems in CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This report contains the responses by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety to three questions posed by the Atomic Energy Control Board concerning the need for Emergency Core Cooling Systems (ECCS) in CANDU nuclear power plants, the effectiveness requirement for such systems, and the extent to which experimental evidence should be available to demonstrate compliance with effectiveness standards

  2. A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Martial

    2010-01-01

    An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

  3. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IV, MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE PURPOSE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, CARE MAINTENANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AND TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  4. Proceedings of solar energy storage options. Volume I. An intensive workshop on thermal energy storage for solar heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 28 papers presented. Panel chairmen's summaries are included; the complete panel reports will be published in Volume II of the Solar Energy Storage Options Workshop proceedings. (WHK)

  5. Ice thermal storage air conditioning system for electric load leveling; Denryoku heijunka to hyochikunetsu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigenaga, Y. [Daikin Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-08-15

    Thermal storage air conditioning system is the one to use energy stored into thermal storing materials by using night electric power and to operate effective air conditioning. Therefore, as load can be treated by the stored energy, volume of the apparatus can be reduced. And, by reduction of the consumed power at day time, it can contribute to leveling of electric power demand. In general, there are two types in the thermal storage method: one is a method to store as thermal energy, and the other is that to store as chemical energy. For conditions required for the storing materials, important elements on their actual uses are not only physical properties such as large thermal storage per unit and easy thermal in- and out-puts, but also safety, long-term reliability, and easy receiving and economics containing future. The ice thermal storage air conditioning system is classified at the viewpoint of type of ice, kind of thermal storing medium, melting method on using cooling and heating, kinds of thermal medium on cooling and heating. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Ice Storage Air-Conditioning System Simulation with Dynamic Electricity Pricing: A Demand Response Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chun Lo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal dispatch model of an ice storage air-conditioning system for participants to quickly and accurately perform energy saving and demand response, and to avoid the over contact with electricity price peak. The schedule planning for an ice storage air-conditioning system of demand response is mainly to transfer energy consumption from the peak load to the partial-peak or off-peak load. Least Squares Regression (LSR is used to obtain the polynomial function for the cooling capacity and the cost of power consumption with a real ice storage air-conditioning system. Based on the dynamic electricity pricing, the requirements of cooling loads, and all technical constraints, the dispatch model of the ice-storage air-conditioning system is formulated to minimize the operation cost. The Improved Ripple Bee Swarm Optimization (IRBSO algorithm is proposed to solve the dispatch model of the ice storage air-conditioning system in a daily schedule on summer. Simulation results indicate that reasonable solutions provide a practical and flexible framework allowing the demand response of ice storage air-conditioning systems to demonstrate the optimization of its energy savings and operational efficiency and offering greater energy efficiency.

  7. Exascale Storage Systems the SIRIUS Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasky, S. A.; Abbasi, H.; Ainsworth, M.; Choi, J.; Curry, M.; Kurc, T.; Liu, Q.; Lofstead, J.; Maltzahn, C.; Parashar, M.; Podhorszki, N.; Suchyta, E.; Wang, F.; Wolf, M.; Chang, C. S.; Churchill, M.; Ethier, S.

    2016-10-01

    As the exascale computing age emerges, data related issues are becoming critical factors that determine how and where we do computing. Popular approaches used by traditional I/O solution and storage libraries become increasingly bottlenecked due to their assumptions about data movement, re-organization, and storage. While, new technologies, such as “burst buffers”, can help address some of the short-term performance issues, it is essential that we reexamine the underlying storage and I/O infrastructure to effectively support requirements and challenges at exascale and beyond. In this paper we present a new approach to the exascale Storage System and I/O (SSIO), which is based on allowing users to inject application knowledge into the system and leverage this knowledge to better manage, store, and access large data volumes so as to minimize the time to scientific insights. Central to our approach is the distinction between the data, metadata, and the knowledge contained therein, transferred from the user to the system by describing “utility” of data as it ages.

  8. Storage monitoring systems for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, C.; Pollock, R.

    1997-01-01

    In September 1993, President Clinton stated the US would ensure that its fissile material meet the highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability. Frequent human inspection of the material could be used to ensure these standards. However, it may be more effective and less expensive to replace these manual inspections with virtual inspections via remote monitoring technologies. To prepare for this future, Sandia National Laboratories has developed several monitoring systems, including the Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) and Project Straight-Line. The purpose of this paper is to describe a Sandia effort that merges remote monitoring technologies into a comprehensive storage monitoring system that will meet the near-term as well as the long-term requirements for these types of systems. Topics discussed include: motivations for storage monitoring systems to include remote monitoring; an overview of the needs and challenges of providing a storage monitoring system for the year 2000; an overview of how the MIMS and Straight-Line can be enhanced so that together they create an integrated and synergistic information system by the end of 1997; and suggested milestones for 1998 and 1999 to assure steady progress in preparing for the needs of 2000

  9. Adiabatic cooling processes in frustrated magnetic systems with pyrochlore structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate in detail the process of adiabatic cooling in the framework of the exactly solvable antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Ising model in the presence of the external magnetic field on an approximate lattice with pyrochlore structure. The behavior of the entropy of the model is studied and exact values of the residual entropies of all ground states are found. The temperature variation of the system under adiabatic (de)magnetization is investigated and the central role of the macroscopically degenerated ground states in cooling processes is explicitly demonstrated. It is shown that the model parameter space of the studied geometrically frustrated system is divided into five disjunct regions with qualitatively different processes of the adiabatic cooling. The effectiveness of the adiabatic (de)magnetization cooling in the studied model is compared to the corresponding processes in paramagnetic salts. It is shown that the processes of the adiabatic cooling in the antiferromagnetic frustrated systems are much more effective especially in nonzero external magnetic fields. It means that the frustrated magnetic materials with pyrochlore structure can be considered as very promising refrigerants mainly in the situations with nonzero final values of the magnetic field.

  10. A systemic approach for optimal cooling tower operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortinovis, Giorgia F.; Paiva, Jose L.; Song, Tah W.; Pinto, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal performance of a cooling tower and its cooling water system is critical for industrial plants, and small deviations from the design conditions may cause severe instability in the operation and economics of the process. External disturbances such as variation in the thermal demand of the process or oscillations in atmospheric conditions may be suppressed in multiple ways. Nevertheless, such alternatives are hardly ever implemented in the industrial operation due to the poor coordination between the utility and process sectors. The complexity of the operation increases because of the strong interaction among the process variables. In the present work, an integrated model for the minimization of the operating costs of a cooling water system is developed. The system is composed of a cooling tower as well as a network of heat exchangers. After the model is verified, several cases are studied with the objective of determining the optimal operation. It is observed that the most important operational resources to mitigate disturbances in the thermal demand of the process are, in this order: the increase in recycle water flow rate, the increase in air flow rate and finally the forced removal of a portion of the water flow rate that enters the cooling tower with the corresponding make-up flow rate.

  11. Long-term cryogenic space storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. A.; Chronic, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the design, fabrication and testing of a 225-cu ft spherical cryogenic storage system for long-term subcritical applications under zero-g conditions in storing subcritical cryogens for space vehicle propulsion systems. The insulation system design, the analytical methods used, and the correlation between the performance test results and analytical predictions are described. The best available multilayer insulation materials and state-of-the-art thermal protection concepts were applied in the design, providing a boiloff rate of 0.152 lb/hr, or 0.032% per day, and an overall heat flux of 0.066 Btu/sq ft hr based on a 200 sq ft surface area. A six to eighteen month cryogenic storage is provided by this system for space applications.

  12. Energy saving potential of an indirect evaporative cooler as a pre-cooling unit for mechanical cooling systems in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfani, Shahram; Esmaeelian, Jafar; Karami, Maryam [Department of Installation, Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC), PO Box 13145-1696, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pasdarshahri, Hadi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, PO Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    The performance of indirect evaporative cooling system (IEC) to pre-cool air for a conventional mechanical cooling system has been investigated for four cities of Iran. For this purpose, a combined experimental setup consisting of an IEC unit followed by a packaged unit air conditioner (PUA) was designed, constructed and tested. Two air simulators were designed and used to simulate indoor heating load and outdoor design conditions. Using of experimental data and an appropriate analytical method, the performance and energy reduction capability of combined system has been evaluated through the cooling season. The results indicate IEC can reduce cooling load up to 75% during cooling seasons. Also, 55% reduction in electrical energy consumption of PUA can be obtained. (author)

  13. Radiation detector system having heat pipe based cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Saveliev, Valeri D.; Barkan, Shaul

    2006-10-31

    A radiation detector system having a heat pipe based cooling. The radiation detector system includes a radiation detector thermally coupled to a thermo electric cooler (TEC). The TEC cools down the radiation detector, whereby heat is generated by the TEC. A heat removal device dissipates the heat generated by the TEC to surrounding environment. A heat pipe has a first end thermally coupled to the TEC to receive the heat generated by the TEC, and a second end thermally coupled to the heat removal device. The heat pipe transfers the heat generated by the TEC from the first end to the second end to be removed by the heat removal device.

  14. Environmental aspects of the district cooling system application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitrakovski, Dragan

    2006-01-01

    The use of air-conditioning equipment based on CFC and HCFC fluids has a direct influence on the occurrence of the greenhouse effect and damage of the ozone layer. Besides the obligatory shift og HCF cooling fluids, the reduction of such negative influences may also be achieved by the application of the district cooling system to the air-conditioning plants in the area. The paper includes example of the application of the district system, with positive effect regarding the ozone layer protection and greenhouse effect prevention. (Author)

  15. Data backup security in cloud storage system

    OpenAIRE

    Атаян, Борис Геннадьевич; Национальный политехнический университет Армении; Багдасарян, Татевик Араевна; Национальный политехнический университет Армении

    2016-01-01

    Cloud backup system is proposed, which provides means for effective creation, secure storage and restore of backups inCloud. For data archiving new efficient SGBP file format is being used in the system, which is based on DEFLATE compressionalgorithm. Proposed format provides means for fast archive creation, which can contain significant amounts of data. Modernapproaches of backup archive protection are described in the paper. Also the SGBP format is compared to heavily used ZIP format(both Z...

  16. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiant heating systems has several thousand years of history.1,2 The early stage of radiant system application was for heating purposes, where hot air from flue gas (cooking, fires) was circulated under floors or in walls. After the introduction of plastic piping water-based radiant...

  17. A simpler, safer, higher performance cooling system arrangement for water cooled divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Kothmann, R.E.; Green, L.; Zhan, N.J.; Stefani, F.; Roidt, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    A cooling system arrangement is presented which is specifically designed for high heat flux water cooled divertors. The motivation behind the proposed open-quotes unichannelclose quotes configuration is to provide maximum safety; this design eliminates flow instabilities liable to occur in parallel channel designs, it eliminates total blockage, it promotes cross flow to counteract the effects of partial blockage and/or local hot spots, and it is much more tolerant to the effects of debonding between the beryllium armor and the copper substrate. Added degrees of freedom allow optimization of the design, including the possibility of operating at very high heat transfer coefficients associated with nucleate boiling, while at the same time providing ample margin against departure from nucleate boiling. Projected pressure drop, pumping power, and maximum operating temperatures are lower than for conventional parallel channel designs

  18. Wind turbine generators having wind assisted cooling systems and cooling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat [Niskayuna, NY; Barnes, Gary R [Delanson, NY; Gadre, Aniruddha D [Rexford, NY; Jansen, Patrick L [Scotia, NY; Bouchard, Jr., Charles G.; Jarczynski, Emil D [Scotia, NY; Garg, Jivtesh [Cambridge, MA

    2008-09-23

    A wind generator includes: a nacelle; a hub carried by the nacelle and including at least a pair of wind turbine blades; and an electricity producing generator including a stator and a rotor carried by the nacelle. The rotor is connected to the hub and rotatable in response to wind acting on the blades to rotate the rotor relative to the stator to generate electricity. A cooling system is carried by the nacelle and includes at least one ambient air inlet port opening through a surface of the nacelle downstream of the hub and blades, and a duct for flowing air from the inlet port in a generally upstream direction toward the hub and in cooling relation to the stator.

  19. On the Optimum Dispersion of a Storage Ring for Electron Cooling with High Space Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Bosser, Jacques; Chanel, M; Marié, L; Möhl, D; Tranquille, G

    2000-01-01

    With the intense electron beams used for cooling, matching of the ion and electron velocity over the largest possible fraction of the beam profile becomes important. In this situation, a finite dispersion from the ring in the cooling section can lead to an appreciable gain in the transverse cooling speed. Based on a simple model of the cooling force, an expression for the "optimum" dispersion as a function of the electron beam intensity, the momentum spread and other properties of the ion beam will be derived. This simple theory will be compared to measurements made on the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) at CERN during 1997.

  20. Simulation of interim spent fuel storage system with discrete event model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki; Song, Ki Chan; Lee, Jae Sol; Park, Hyun Soo

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes dynamic simulation of the spent fuel storage system which is described by statistical discrete event models. It visualizes flow and queue of system over time, assesses the operational performance of the system activities and establishes the system components and streams. It gives information on system organization and operation policy with reference to the design. System was tested and analyzed over a number of critical parameters to establish the optimal system. Workforce schedule and resources with long processing time dominate process. A combination of two workforce shifts a day and two cooling pits gives the optimal solution of storage system. Discrete system simulation is an useful tool to get information on optimal design and operation of the storage system. (Author)

  1. Improved thermal storage material for portable life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The availability of thermal storage materials that have heat absorption capabilities substantially greater than water-ice in the same temperature range would permit significant improvements in performance of projected portable thermal storage cooling systems. A method for providing increased heat absorption by the combined use of the heat of solution of certain salts and the heat of fusion of water-ice was investigated. This work has indicated that a 30 percent solution of potassium bifluoride (KHF2) in water can absorb approximately 52 percent more heat than an equal weight of water-ice, and approximately 79 percent more heat than an equal volume of water-ice. The thermal storage material can be regenerated easily by freezing, however, a lower temperature must be used, 261 K as compared to 273 K for water-ice. This work was conducted by the United Aircraft Research Laboratories as part of a program at Hamilton Standard Division of United Aircraft Corporation under contract to NASA Ames Research Center.

  2. Development of salt hydrate eutectics as latent heat storage for air conditioning and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, Anastasia; Pinnau, Sebastian; Mischke, Matthias; Breitkopf, Cornelia; Ruck, Michael; Schmidt, Peer

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Inorganic salt hydrates. • Latent heat thermal energy storage. • Thermal behavior of melting and crystallization. • Cycling stability. • Nucleation. - Abstract: Sustainable air conditioning systems require heat reservoirs that operate between 4 and 20 °C. A systematic search for binary and ternary eutectics of inorganic salts and salt hydrates with melting temperatures in this temperature regime and with high enthalpies of fusion has been performed by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Promising results were obtained for the pseudo-ternary system Zn(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O, Mn(NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O, and KNO 3 with the melting temperature range 18–21 °C and the enthalpy of fusion of about 110 kJ kg −1 . Suitable nucleating and thickening agents have been found and tested to prevent the mixture from supercooling and phase separation

  3. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, J. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems,this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  4. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Williamson and S. Puttagunta

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems, this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  5. Passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with backup coolant flow path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsbedt, A.; Boardman, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    A dual passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactors is described, comprising the combination of: a reactor vessel for containing a pool of liquid metal coolant with a core of heat generating fissionable fuel substantially submerged therein, a side wall of the reactor vessel forming an innermost first partition; a containment vessel substantially surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation having a side wall forming a second partition; a first baffle cylinder substantially encircling the containment vessel in spaced apart relation having an encircling wall forming a third partition; a guard vessel substantially surrounding the containment vessel and first baffle cylinder in spaced apart relation having a side wall forming a forth partition; a sliding seal at the top of the guard vessel edge to isolate the dual cooling system air streams; a second baffle cylinder substantially encircling the guard vessel in spaced part relationship having an encircling wan forming a fifth partition; a concrete silo substantially surrounding the guard vessel and the second baffle cylinder in spaced apart relation providing a sixth partition; a first fluid coolant circulating flow course open to the ambient atmosphere for circulating air coolant comprising at lent one down comer duct having an opening to the atmosphere in an upper area thereof and making fluid communication with the space between the guard vessel and the first baffle cylinder and at least one riser duct having an opening to the atmosphere in the upper area thereof and making fluid communication with the space between the first baffle cylinder and the containment vessel whereby cooling fluid air can flow from the atmosphere down through the down comer duct and space between the forth and third partitions and up through the space between the third and second partition and the riser duct then out into the atmosphere; and a second fluid coolant circulating flow

  6. Liquid Cooling System for CPU by Electroconjugate Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Sakurai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dissipated power of CPU for personal computer has been increased because the performance of personal computer becomes higher. Therefore, a liquid cooling system has been employed in some personal computers in order to improve their cooling performance. Electroconjugate fluid (ECF is one of the functional fluids. ECF has a remarkable property that a strong jet flow is generated between electrodes when a high voltage is applied to ECF through the electrodes. By using this strong jet flow, an ECF-pump with simple structure, no sliding portion, no noise, and no vibration seems to be able to be developed. And then, by the use of the ECF-pump, a new liquid cooling system by ECF seems to be realized. In this study, to realize this system, an ECF-pump is proposed and fabricated to investigate the basic characteristics of the ECF-pump experimentally. Next, by utilizing the ECF-pump, a model of a liquid cooling system by ECF is manufactured and some experiments are carried out to investigate the performance of this system. As a result, by using this system, the temperature of heat source of 50 W is kept at 60°C or less. In general, CPU is usually used at this temperature or less.

  7. Status of helium-cooled nuclear power systems. [Development potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melese-d' Hospital, G.; Simnad, M

    1977-09-01

    Helium-cooled nuclear power systems offer a great potential for electricity generation when their long-term economic, environmental, conservation and energy self-sufficiency features are examined. The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) has the unique capability of providing high-temperature steam for electric power and process heat uses and/or high-temperature heat for endothermic chemical reactions. A variation of the standard steam cycle HTGR is one in which the helium coolant flows directly from the core to one or more closed cycle gas turbines. The effective use of nuclear fuel resources for electric power and nuclear process heat will be greatly enhanced by the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) currently being developed. A GCFR using thorium in the radial blanket could generate sufficient U-233 to supply the fuel for three HTGRs, or enough plutonium from a depleted uranium blanket to fuel a breeder economy expanding at about 10% per year. The feasibility of utilizing helium to cool a fusion reactor is also discussed. The status of helium-cooled nuclear energy systems is summarized as a basis for assessing their prospects. 50 references.

  8. Experimental study on solar desiccant cooling system. 2nd Report; Taiyonetsu kudo desiccant cooling system no jikkenteki kento. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H; Funato, H [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan); Kuma, T [Seibu Giken Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Study has been made about a desiccant cleaning system using solar heated water for regenerating the dehumidifier. A dehumidifier and evaporation coolers are combined to attain a synergistic effect in dehumidifying and cooling the air in the house. The simultaneous control of humidity and temperature, however, is quite difficult. Under the circumstances, an evaporation cooler was removed from the outdoor air intake side, to leave a humidifier alone for the control of humidity only. In addition, the length of the dehumidifier was reduced into half for saving fan driving power and for downscaling the model. With only one evaporation cooler in operation that is installed at the exhaust side, the cooling effect is diminished by half. For dealing with the situation, ultrasonic atomization is performed at the exhaust side evaporation cooler for the improvement of the air cooling effect for the next sensible heat exchanger (intake side). The return air is heated by the solar heater water (approximately 60{degree}C hot), regenerates the dehumidifier, and then exhausted. The atomization process elevates the cooling effect, and the resultant cooling effect was as high as that expected from a 2-cooler setup. The dehumidification effect, however, lowers a little. Exclusion of the atomization process will enhance the dehumidification effect, but will reduce the cooling effect as well. 3 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Order Picking Optimization in Carousels Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong-zhi Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the order picking problem in a material handling system consisting of multiple carousels and one picker. Carousels are rotatable closed-loop storage systems for small items, where items are stored in bins along the loop. An order at carousels consists of n different items stored there. The objective is to find an optimal picking sequence to minimizing the total order picking time. After proving the problem to be strongly NP-hard and deriving two characteristics, we develop a dynamic programming algorithm (DPA for a special case (two-carousel storage system and an improved nearest items heuristics (INIH for the general problem. Experimental results verify that the solutions are quickly and steadily achieved and show their better performance.

  10. Development of hybrid solar-assisted cooling/heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Wu, J.H.; Hsu, H.Y.; Wang, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    A solar-assisted ejector cooling/heating system (SACH) was developed in this study. The SACH combines a pump-less ejector cooling system (ECS) with an inverter-type heat pump (R22) and is able to provide a stable capacity for space cooling. The ECS is driven by solar heat and is used to cool the condenser of the R22 heat pump to increase its COP and reduce the energy consumption of the compressor by regulating the rotational speed of the compressor through a control system. In a complete SACH system test run at outdoor temperature 35 °C, indoor temperature 25 °C and compressor speed 20-80 Hz, and the ECS operating at generator temperature 90 °C and condensing temperature 37 °C, the corresponding condensing temperature of the heat pump in the SACH is 24.5-42 °C, cooling capacity 1.02-2.44 kW, input power 0.20-0.98 kW, and cooling COPc 5.11-2.50. This indicates that the use of ECS in SACH can effectively reduce the condensing temperature of the heat pump by 12.6-7.3 °C and reduce the power consumption by 81.2-34.5%. The SACH can also supply heat from the heat pump. At ambient temperature from 5 °C to 35 °C, the heating COPh is in the range 2.0-3.3. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of hybrid solar-assisted cooling/heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-08-01

    A solar-assisted ejector cooling/heating system (SACH) was developed in this study. The SACH combines a pump-less ejector cooling system (ECS) with an inverter-type heat pump (R22) and is able to provide a stable capacity for space cooling. The ECS is driven by solar heat and is used to cool the condenser of the R22 heat pump to increase its COP and reduce the energy consumption of the compressor by regulating the rotational speed of the compressor through a control system. In a complete SACH system test run at outdoor temperature 35 °C, indoor temperature 25 °C and compressor speed 20-80 Hz, and the ECS operating at generator temperature 90 °C and condensing temperature 37 °C, the corresponding condensing temperature of the heat pump in the SACH is 24.5-42 °C, cooling capacity 1.02-2.44 kW, input power 0.20-0.98 kW, and cooling COPc 5.11-2.50. This indicates that the use of ECS in SACH can effectively reduce the condensing temperature of the heat pump by 12.6-7.3 °C and reduce the power consumption by 81.2-34.5%. The SACH can also supply heat from the heat pump. At ambient temperature from 5 °C to 35 °C, the heating COPh is in the range 2.0-3.3. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Monitored Retrievable Storage conceptual system study: metal storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterzuber, R.; Cross, T.E.; Krasicki, B.R.

    1983-08-01

    A description of the metal cask storage facility concept is presented with the operations required to handle the spent fuel or high-level wastes and transuranic wastes. A generic Receiving and Handling Facility, provided by PNL, has been used for this study. Modifications to the storage delivery side of the handling facility, necessary to couple the Receiving and Handling Facility with the storage facility, are described. The equipment and support facilities needed for the storage facility are also described. Two separate storage facilities are presented herein: one for all spent fuel storage, and one for storage of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic waste (TRU). Each facility is described for the capacities and rates defined by PNL in the Concept Technical Performance Criteria and Base Assumptions (see Table 1.3-1). Estimates of costs and time-distributions of expenditures have been developed to construct, operate, and decommission the conceptual MRS facilities in mid-1983 dollars, for the base cases given using the cost categories and percentages provided by PNL. Cost estimates and time-distributions of expenditures have also been developed to expand the facility throughput rate from 1800 MTU to 3000 MTU, and to expand the facility storage capacity from 15,000 MTU to 72,00 MTU. The life cycle cost of the facility for the bounding cases of all spent fuel and all HLW and TRU, using the time-distributions of costs developed above and assuming a two percent per year discount rate, are also presented. 3 references, 16 figures, 18 tables

  13. Kinetic model for predicting the composition of chlorinated water discharged from power plant cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lietzke, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    The results of applying a kinetic model to the chlorination data supplied by Commonwealth Edison on the once-through cooling system at the Quad Cities Nuclear Station provide a validation of the model. The two examples given demonstrate that the model may be applied to either once-through cooling systems or to cooling systems involving cooling towers

  14. A dynamic model of an innovative high-temperature solar heating and cooling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buonomano Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new simulation model of a novel solar heating and cooling system based on innovative high temperature flat plate evacuated solar thermal collector is presented. The system configuration includes: flat-plate evacuated solar collectors, a double-stage LiBr-H2O absorption chiller, gas-fired auxiliary heater, a closed loop cooling tower, pumps, heat exchangers, storage tanks, valves, mixers and controllers. The novelty of this study lies in the utilization of flat-plate stationary solar collectors, manufactured by TVP Solar, rather than concentrating ones (typically adopted for driving double-stage absorption chillers. Such devices show ultra-high thermal efficiencies, even at very high (about 200°C operating temperatures, thanks to the high vacuum insulation. Aim of the paper is to analyse the energy and economic feasibility of such novel technology, by including it in a prototypal solar heating and cooling system. For this purpose, the solar heating and cooling system design and performance were analysed by means of a purposely developed dynamic simulation model, implemented in TRNSYS. A suitable case study is also presented. Here, the simulated plant is conceived for the space heating and cooling and the domestic hot water production of a small building, whose energy needs are fulfilled through a real installation (settled also for experimental purposes built up close to Naples (South Italy. Simulation results show that the investigated system is able to reach high thermal efficiencies and very good energy performance. Finally, the economic analysis shows results comparable to those achieved through similar renewable energy systems.

  15. Cool gas micropropulsion system for cubesats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukelen, E. van; Sanders, B.H.; Schuurbiers, C.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    CubeSats are becoming more mature and many capabilities previously associated with microsatellites and bigger platforms are coming to the CubeSat. Moreover, they are becoming available as commercial off the shelf systems with standardized interfaces. TNO Defence and Security of the Netherlands is in

  16. Solar hybrid cooling system for high-tech offices in subtropical climate - Radiant cooling by absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, K.F.; Chow, T.T.; Lee, C.K.; Lin, Z.; Chan, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A solar hybrid cooling system is proposed for high-tech offices in subtropical climate. → An integration of radiant cooling, absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification. → Year-round cooling and energy performances were evaluated through dynamic simulation. → Its annual primary energy consumption was lower than conventional system up to 36.5%. → The passive chilled beams were more energy-efficient than the active chilled beams. - Abstract: A solar hybrid cooling design is proposed for high cooling load demand in hot and humid climate. For the typical building cooling load, the system can handle the zone cooling load (mainly sensible) by radiant cooling with the chilled water from absorption refrigeration, while the ventilation load (largely latent) by desiccant dehumidification. This hybrid system utilizes solar energy for driving the absorption chiller and regenerating the desiccant wheel. Since a high chilled water temperature generated from the absorption chiller is not effective to handle the required latent load, desiccant dehumidification is therefore involved. It is an integration of radiant cooling, absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification, which are powered up by solar energy. In this study, the application potential of the solar hybrid cooling system was evaluated for the high-tech offices in the subtropical climate through dynamic simulation. The high-tech offices are featured with relatively high internal sensible heat gains due to the intensive office electric equipment. The key performance indicators included the solar fraction and the primary energy consumption. Comparative study was also carried out for the solar hybrid cooling system using two common types of chilled ceilings, the passive chilled beams and active chilled beams. It was found that the solar hybrid cooling system was technically feasible for the applications of relatively higher cooling load demand. The annual primary energy

  17. A state-of-the-art review on hybrid heat pipe latent heat storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghavi, M.S.; Ong, K.S.; Mehrali, M.; Badruddin, I.A.; Metselaar, H.S.C.

    2015-01-01

    The main advantage of latent heat thermal energy storage systems is the capability to store a large quantity of thermal energy in an isothermal process by changing phase from solid to liquid, while the most important weakness of these systems is low thermal conductivity that leads to unsuitable charging/discharging rates. Heat pipes are used in many applications – as one of the most efficient heat exchanger devices – to amplify the charging/discharging processes rate and are used to transfer heat from a source to the storage or from the storage to a sink. This review presents and critically discusses previous investigations and analysis on the incorporation of heat pipe devices into latent heat thermal energy storage with heat pipe devices. This paper categorizes different applications and configurations such as low/high temperature solar, heat exchanger and cooling systems, analytical approaches and effective parameters on the performance of hybrid HP–LHTES systems.

  18. Thermal analysis of near-isothermal compressed gas energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odukomaiya, Adewale; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R.; Abdelaziz, Omar; Jackson, Roderick K.; Daniel, Claus; Graham, Samuel; Momen, Ayyoub M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel, high-efficiency, scalable, near-isothermal, energy storage system is introduced. • A comprehensive analytical physics-based model for the system is presented. • Efficiency improvement is achieved via heat transfer enhancement and use of waste heat. • Energy storage roundtrip efficiency (RTE) of 82% and energy density of 3.59 MJ/m"3 is shown. - Abstract: Due to the increasing generation capacity of intermittent renewable electricity sources and an electrical grid ill-equipped to handle the mismatch between electricity generation and use, the need for advanced energy storage technologies will continue to grow. Currently, pumped-storage hydroelectricity and compressed air energy storage are used for grid-scale energy storage, and batteries are used at smaller scales. However, prospects for expansion of these technologies suffer from geographic limitations (pumped-storage hydroelectricity and compressed air energy storage), low roundtrip efficiency (compressed air energy storage), and high cost (batteries). Furthermore, pumped-storage hydroelectricity and compressed air energy storage are challenging to scale-down, while batteries are challenging to scale-up. In 2015, a novel compressed gas energy storage prototype system was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this paper, a near-isothermal modification to the system is proposed. In common with compressed air energy storage, the novel storage technology described in this paper is based on air compression/expansion. However, several novel features lead to near-isothermal processes, higher efficiency, greater system scalability, and the ability to site a system anywhere. The enabling features are utilization of hydraulic machines for expansion/compression, above-ground pressure vessels as the storage medium, spray cooling/heating, and waste-heat utilization. The base configuration of the novel storage system was introduced in a previous paper. This paper describes the results

  19. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  20. BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.

    2001-01-01

    This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

  1. Mathematical Model for Direct Evaporative Space Cooling Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with the development of a simple mathematical model for experimental validation of the performance of a small evaporative cooling system in a tropical climate. It also presents the coefficient of convective heat transfer of wide range of temperatures based on existing model. Extensive experiments have ...

  2. Combined system of solar heating and cooling using heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhidov, R.A.; Anarbaev, A.I.

    2014-01-01

    The heating and cooling systems of apartment buildings based on combined solar heat-pump equipment has been considered and the procedure of calculating its parameters has been worked out. A technical-economic analysis has been performed and compared with the boiler-setting version. (author)

  3. Alternativini zpusoby chlazeni budov (Alternative cooling systems for buildings)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lain, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    in the Czech Republic, low energy in buildings and systems usually refers to low energy consumption for heating. However in modern office buildings cooling is becoming more and more important, therefore the associated energy consumption should also be considered. This paper introduces low energy

  4. Cooling System: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The last of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the automotive cooling system at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

  5. Cooling Water System Monitoring by Means of Mossbauer Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, A.A.; Pargamotnikas, S.A.; Taseva, V.; Dobbrevsky, I.; Nenov, V.; Bonev, B.

    1998-01-01

    Mossbauer spectroscopy have been applied to the analysis of corrosion sediments formed on mild steel coupons, which were placed in the different points of the Bourgas Petrochemical Plant Recilculating Cooling Water System. It was shown that the created corrosion products can successfully reflect the ambient water medium pollution to which the coupons were exposed

  6. Development of cooling and cleaning systems for enhanced gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to address these tar related problems a cleaning and cooling system has been developed in house that facilitates tar removal to acceptable levels tolerated by the internal combustion (IC) engine and meets emission standards as well. The main objective of the present work is to reduce tar level and develop control ...

  7. Performance test of solar-assisted ejector cooling system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2014-03-01

    A solar-assisted ejector cooling/heating system (SACH-2k) is built and test result is reported. The solar-driven ejector cooling system (ECS) is connected in series with an inverter-type air conditioner (IAC). Several advanced technologies are developed in SACH-k2, including generator liquid level control in ECS, the ECS evaporator temperature control, and optimal control of fan power in cooling tower of ECS. From the field test results, the generator liquid level control performs quite well and keeps stable performance of ejector. The ECS evaporator temperature control also performs satisfactorily to keep ejector performance normally under low or fluctuating solar radiation. The fan power control system cooling tower performs stably and reduces the power consumption dramatically without affecting the ECS performance. The test results show that the overall system COPo including power consumptions of peripheral increases from 2.94-3.3 (IAC alone) to 4.06-4.5 (SACH-k2), about 33-43%. The highest COPo is 4.5. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Innovative Heating and Cooling Systems Using Renewable Energy Sources for Non-Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Buratti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and commercial areas are synonymous with high energy consumption, both for heating/cooling and electric power requirements, which are in general associated to a massive use of fossil fuels producing consequent greenhouse gas emissions. Two pilot systems, co-funded by the Italian Ministry for the Environment, have been created to upgrade the heating/cooling systems of two existing buildings on the largest industrial estate in Umbria, Italy. The upgrade was specifically designed to improve the system efficiency and to cover the overall energy which needs with renewable energy resources. In both cases a solar photovoltaic plant provides the required electric power. The first system features a geothermal heat pump with an innovative layout: a heat-storage water tank, buried just below ground level, allows a significant reduction of the geothermal unit size, hence requiring fewer and/or shorter boreholes (up to 60%–70%. In the other system a biomass boiler is coupled with an absorption chiller machine, controlling the indoor air temperature in both summer and winter. In this case, lower electricity consumption, if compared to an electric compression chiller, is obtained. The first results of the monitoring of summer cooling are presented and an evaluation of the performance of the two pilot systems is given.

  9. Analysis of a combined heating and cooling system model under different operating strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierzgowski, Mieczysław; Zwierzchowski, Ryszard

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents an analysis of a combined heating and cooling system model under different operating strategies. Cooling demand for air conditioning purposes has grown steadily in Poland since the early 1990s. The main clients are large office buildings and shopping malls in downtown locations. Increased demand for heat in the summer would mitigate a number of problems regarding District Heating System (DHS) operation at minimum power, affecting the average annual price of heat (in summertime the share of costs related to transport losses is a strong cost factor). In the paper, computer simulations were performed for different supply network water temperature, assuming as input, real changes in the parameters of the DHS (heat demand, flow rates, etc.). On the basis of calculations and taking into account investment costs of the Absorption Refrigeration System (ARS) and the Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system, an optimal capacity of the TES system was proposed to ensure smooth and efficient operation of the District Heating Plant (DHP). Application of ARS with the TES system in the DHS in question increases net profit by 19.4%, reducing the cooling price for consumers by 40%.

  10. A Thermal Test System for Helmet Cooling Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Fitzgerald

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary causes of discomfort to both irregular and elite cyclists is heat entrapment by a helmet resulting in overheating and excessive sweating of the head. To accurately assess the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets, a heated plastic thermal headform has been developed. The construction consists of a 3D-printed headform of low thermal conductivity with an internal layer of high thermal mass that is heated to a constant uniform temperature by an electrical heating element. Testing is conducted in a wind tunnel where the heater power remains constant and the resulting surface temperature distribution is directly measured by 36 K-type thermocouples embedded within the surface of the head in conjunction with a thermal imaging camera. Using this new test system, four bicycle helmets were studied in order to measure their cooling abilities and to identify ‘hot spots’ where cooling performance is poor.

  11. Reactor-core isolation cooling system with dedicated generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazareno, E.V.; Dillmann, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor complex. It comprises a dual-phase nuclear reactor; a main turbine for converting phase-conversion energy stored by vapor into mechanical energy for driving a generator; a main generator for converting the mechanical energy into electricity; a fluid reservoir external to the reactor; a reactor core isolation cooling system with several components at least some of which require electrical power. It also comprises an auxiliary pump for pumping fluid from the reservoir into the reactor pressure vessel; an auxiliary turbine for driving the pump; control means for regulating the rotation rate of the auxiliary turbine; cooling means for cooling the control means; and an auxiliary generator coupled to the auxiliary turbine for providing at least a portion of the electrical power required by the components during a blackout condition

  12. Accelerator-based cold neutron sources and their cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuhiko; Yanai, Masayoshi; Ishikawa, Yoshikazu.

    1985-01-01

    We have developed and installed two accelerator-based cold neutron sources within a electron linac at Hokkaido University and a proton synchrotoron at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Solid methane at 20K was adopted as the cold moderator. The methane condensing heat exchangers attached directly to the moderator chambers were cooled by helium gas, which was kept cooled in refrigerators and circulated by ventilation fans. Two cold neutron sources have operated smoothly and safely for the past several years. In this paper we describe some of the results obtained in the preliminary experiments by using a modest capacity refrigerator, the design philosophy of the cooling system for the pulsed cold neutron sources, and outline of two facilities. (author)

  13. Turbine airfoil with an internal cooling system having vortex forming turbulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-12-30

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels having a plurality of turbulators protruding from an inner surface and positioned generally nonorthogonal and nonparallel to a longitudinal axis of the airfoil cooling channel. The configuration of turbulators may create a higher internal convective cooling potential for the blade cooling passage, thereby generating a high rate of internal convective heat transfer and attendant improvement in overall cooling performance. This translates into a reduction in cooling fluid demand and better turbine performance.

  14. Energy storage for electrical systems in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Freeman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage is becoming increasingly important as renewable generation sources such as Wind Turbine and Photo Voltaic Solar are added to the mix in electrical power generation and distribution systems. The paper discusses the basic drivers for energy storage and provides brief descriptions of the various energy storage technologies available. The information summarizes current technical tradeoffs with different storage approaches and identifies issues surrounding deployment of large scale energy storage systems.

  15. Primary cooling system for BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Eishi; Takahashi, Masanori; Aoki, Yasuko

    1993-01-01

    The present invention effectively uses information from a plurality of sensors in order to suppress corrosion circumstance of a nuclear reactor. That is, a predetermined general water quality factor at a predetermined position is determined as a standard index. A concentration of a water quality improver is controlled such that the index is within an aimed range. For this purpose, the entire sensor groups disposed in a primary coolant system of a nuclear reactor are divided into a plural systems of sensor groups each disposed on every different positions. Then, a predetermined sensor group (standard sensor group) is connected to a computing device and a data base so that it is always monitored for calculating and estimating the standard index. Only oxidative ingredient in water at the measuring point is noted, and a concentration distribution which agrees with an actually measured value of oxidative ingredients is extracted from data base and used as a correct concentration distribution. With such procedures, reactor water quality can be estimated accurately while compensating erroneous factors of individual sensors. Even when a new sensor is used, it is not necessary to greatly change control logic. (I.S.)

  16. Preparatory study of energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stortelder, B.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Based on a literature survey, information from other institutes and interviews with KEMA-experts a state of the art is given of small-scale, medium-scale and large-scale energy storage systems. The results of the survey can be used to optimize the electric power supply. Attention is paid to the criteria capacity, efficiency, dynamic performance, economic aspects and the environmental impacts

  17. 36 CFR 910.18 - Vehicular circulation and storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... storage systems. 910.18 Section 910.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT... storage systems. (a) Improvement of the existing vehicular storage and circulation system is necessary in order to create the balanced transportation system called for in the Plan, which recognizes the need to...

  18. Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1985-06-01

    A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

  19. Thermal Feature of a Modified Solar Phase Change Material Storage Wall System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglong Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is to study a novel solar PCM storage wall technology, that is, a dual-channel and thermal-insulation-in-the-middle type solar PCM storage wall (MSPCMW system. The system has the following four independent functions, passive solar heating, heat preservation, heat insulation, and passive cooling, and it can agilely cope with the requirements of climatization of buildings in different seasons throughout the year and is exactly suitable for building in regions characterized by hot summer and cold winter. The present work experimentally analyzes thermal feature of the system working in summer and winter modes, respectively.

  20. Failure Analysis of Storage Data Magnetic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz–Prado A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the conclusions about the corrosion mechanics in storage data magnetic systems (hard disk. It was done from the inspection of 198 units that were in service in nine different climatic regions characteristic for Mexico. The results allow to define trends about the failure forms and the factors that affect them. In turn, this study has analyzed the causes that led to mechanical failure and those due to deterioration by atmospheric corrosion. On the basis of the results obtained from the field sampling, demonstrates that the hard disk failure is fundamentally by mechanical effects. The deterioration by environmental effects were found in read-write heads, integrated circuits, printed circuit boards and in some of the electronic components of the controller card of the device, but not in magnetic storage surfaces. There fore, you can discard corrosion on the surface of the disk as the main kind of failure due to environmental deterioration. To avoid any inconvenience in the magnetic data storage system it is necessary to ensure sealing of the system.