WorldWideScience

Sample records for cool storage systems

  1. Efficient energy storage in liquid desiccant cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hublitz, Astrid

    2008-07-18

    Liquid Desiccant Cooling Systems (LDCS) are open loop sorption systems for air conditioning that use a liquid desiccant such as a concentrated salt solution to dehumidify the outside air and cool it by evaporative cooling. Thermochemical energy storage in the concentrated liquid desiccant can bridge power mismatches between demand and supply. Low-flow LDCS provide high energy storage capacities but are not a state-of-the-art technology yet. The key challenge remains the uniform distribution of the liquid desiccant on the heat and mass transfer surfaces. The present research analyzes the factors of influence on the energy storage capacity by simulation of the heat and mass transfer processes and specifies performance goals for the distribution of the process media. Consequently, a distribution device for the liquid desiccant is developed that reliably meets the performance goals. (orig.)

  2. A cooling concept of spent fuels in lag storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong-Hwa; Yoo, Jae-Hyung; Park, Hyun-Soo

    1991-01-01

    A cooling concept of spent fuels by natural convection of hot cell air in storage pits was developed. Each storage pit was considered to be located below the hot cell floor and to accommodate only one spent fuel assembly. The aim of this study is to apply an appropriate cooling system to the design of a hot cell where considerable heat-generating fuels are handled. In such operations as disassembling, rod consolidation and packaging of spent fuels, a number of assemblies are on stand-by in the cell before and/or after the operations. A lag storage system can be used for temporary storage of spent fuels in nuclear facilities. Since the air in contact with bare fuel assemblies is potentially contaminated, it must be exhausted through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. If the storage pit is completely isolated from the hot cell space, then it will require another separate ventilation system by forced convection of air, which will result in additional cost for the construction. In this work, however, a cooling system was proposed where natural convection of hot cell air itself is achieved by thermo-syphon. The cold air from the hot cell is supplied to the inlet provided at the bottom of each pit through the gap between the concrete pit wall and the interior thermal shield. This thermal shield is needed to form flow channels for cold and heated air, and to prevent the concrete from over-heating. The heated air exhausts from the outlet located at the top of cell wall. No additional HEPA filters are needed in this system because the heated air is routed back to the hot cell due to buoyancy-induced flow. The technical feasibility of this concept was validated by thermal analyses. As the key design constraints are the surface temperature of fuel cladding and the concrete temperature of the storage pit, the thermal analyses were focused on these parameters whether they follow within allowable limits or not. (author)

  3. Influences of additives on the gas hydrate cool storage process in a new gas hydrate cool storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Yuehong; Guo Tingwei; Zhu Tingying; Zhang Liang; Chen Lingen

    2006-01-01

    Experimental research on the crystallization process of the gas hydrate HCFC141b is performed for this paper. The influences of different proportions of calcium hypochlorite or benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt on the crystallization process are studied. The results show that the degree of subcooling of formation is obviously decreased, and the formation rate of the gas hydrate is greatly accelerated by adding reasonable proportions of the additives. The degree of subcooling of formation decreases 0.78 deg. C by adding benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt of 0.03%, and the formation rate of the gas hydrate increases 0.2 g/s by adding calcium hypochlorite of 0.08%. In the cool storage system, clathrate hydrates can be formed effectively, and thermal energy can be stored efficiently. When adding benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt of 0.03%, the cold energy stored is 4.74 MJ, and the cool storage density is 206.07 MJ/m 3 . The performance of this cool storage system can meet the needs of practical air conditioning engineering

  4. Thermal Analysis of a Solar Powered Absorption Cooling System with Fully Mixed Thermal Storage at Startup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Stanciu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple effect one stage ammonia-water absorption cooling system fueled by solar energy is analyzed. The considered system is composed by a parabolic trough collector concentrating solar energy into a tubular receiver for heating water. This is stored in a fully mixed thermal storage tank and used in the vapor generator of the absorption cooling system. Time dependent cooling load is considered for the air conditioning of a residential two-storey house. A parametric study is performed to analyze the operation stability of the cooling system with respect to solar collector and storage tank dimensions. The results emphasized that there is a specific storage tank dimension associated to a specific solar collector dimension that could ensure the longest continuous startup operation of the cooling system when constant mass flow rates inside the system are assumed.

  5. Heat pipe cooling system for underground, radioactive waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, K.C.; Prenger, F.C.

    1980-02-01

    An array of 37 heat pipes inserted through the central hole at the top of a radioactive waste storage tank will remove 100,000 Btu/h with a heat sink of 70 0 F atmospheric air. Heat transfer inside the tank to the heat pipe is by natural convection. Heat rejection to outside air utilizes a blower to force air past the heat pipe condenser. The heat pipe evaporator section is axially finned, and is constructed of stainless steel. The working fluid is ammonia. The finned pipes are individually shrouded and extend 35 ft down into the tank air space. The hot tank air enters the shroud at the top of the tank and flows downward as it is cooled, with the resulting increased density furnishing the pressure difference for circulation. The cooled air discharges at the center of the tank above the sludge surface, flows radially outward, and picks up heat from the radioactive sludge. At the tank wall the heated air rises and then flows inward to comple the cycle

  6. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic

  7. Heating and cooling system for an on-board gas adsorbent storage vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamburello, David A.; Anton, Donald L.; Hardy, Bruce J.; Corgnale, Claudio

    2017-06-20

    In one aspect, a system for controlling the temperature within a gas adsorbent storage vessel of a vehicle may include an air conditioning system forming a continuous flow loop of heat exchange fluid that is cycled between a heated flow and a cooled flow. The system may also include at least one fluid by-pass line extending at least partially within the gas adsorbent storage vessel. The fluid by-pass line(s) may be configured to receive a by-pass flow including at least a portion of the heated flow or the cooled flow of the heat exchange fluid at one or more input locations and expel the by-pass flow back into the continuous flow loop at one or more output locations, wherein the by-pass flow is directed through the gas adsorbent storage vessel via the by-pass line(s) so as to adjust an internal temperature within the gas adsorbent storage vessel.

  8. Thermal energy storage - A review of concepts and systems for heating and cooling applications in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Georgi Krasimiroy; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    The use of thermal energy storage (TES) in buildings in combination with space heating and/or space cooling has recently received much attention. A variety of TES techniques have developed over the past decades. TES systems can provide short-term storage for peak-load shaving as well as long...... period required, economic viability, and operating conditions. One of the main issues impeding the utilization of the full potential of natural and renewable energy sources, e.g., solar and geothermal, for space heating and space cooling applications is the development of economically competitive...

  9. A nonventing cooling system for space environment extravehicular activity, using radiation and regenerable thermal storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayes, Stephen A.; Trevino, Luis A.; Dinsmore, Craig E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines the selection, design, and testing of a prototype nonventing regenerable astronaut cooling system for extravehicular activity space suit applications, for mission durations of four hours or greater. The selected system consists of the following key elements: a radiator assembly which serves as the exterior shell of the portable life support subsystem backpack; a layer of phase change thermal storage material, n-hexadecane paraffin, which acts as a regenerable thermal capacitor; a thermoelectric heat pump; and an automatic temperature control system. The capability for regeneration of thermal storage capacity with and without the aid of electric power is provided.

  10. Numerical analysis of a natural convection cooling system for radioactive canisters storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsal, R.J.; Anwar, S.; Mercada, M.G. [Fluor Daniel Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes the use of numerical analysis for studying natural convection cooling systems for long term storage of heat producing radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials and nuclear waste. The paper explains the major design philosophy, and shares the experiences of numerical modeling. The strategy of storing radioactive material is to immobilize nuclear high-level waste by a vitrification process, convertion it into borosilicate glass, and cast the glass into stainless steel canisters. These canisters are seal welded, decontaminated, inspected, and temporarily stored in an underground vault until they can be sent to a geologic repository for permanent storage. These canisters generate heat by nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes. The function of the storage facility ventilation system is to ensure that the glass centerline temperature does not exceed the glass transition temperature during storage and the vault concrete temperatures remain within the specified limits. A natural convection cooling system was proposed to meet these functions. The effectiveness of a natural convection cooling system is dependent on two major factors that affect air movement through the vault for cooling the canisters: (1) thermal buoyancy forces inside the vault which create a stack effect, and (2) external wind forces, that may assist or oppose airflow through the vault. Several numerical computer models were developed to analyze the thermal and hydraulic regimes in the storage vault. The Site Model is used to simulate the airflow around the building and to analyze different air inlet/outlet devices. The Airflow Model simulates the natural convection, thermal regime, and hydraulic resistance in the vault. The Vault Model, internal vault temperature stratification; and, finally, the Hot Area Model is used for modeling concrete temperatures within the vault.

  11. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corletti, Michael M.; Lau, Louis K.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

  12. Experimental Analysis of Latent Heat Storages integrated into a Liquid Cooling System for the Cooling of Power Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra Helbing, Thomas; Schmitz, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The progressive electrification in automotive and aircraft industry results in increasing power densities and waste heat of power electronics. Due to higher power densities air cooling systems are substituted by more effective but in many cases heavier liquid cooling systems. Since the weight of cooling systems is a crucial aspect during the design process of vehicles, the dimensions of the cooling systems should be minimized. The dynamics of power electronics’ waste heat implies often shor...

  13. Behavior of ruthenium in the case of shutdown of the cooling system of HLLW storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M.; Mercier, J.P.; Gue, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The consequences of the failure of the cooling system of fission product storage tanks over a variable period were investigated as part of the safety analysis of the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the considerable heat release, induced by the fission products, a prolonged shutdown of the tank cooling system could cause the progressive evaporation of the solutions to dryness, and culminate in the formation of volatile species of ruthenium and their release in the tank venting circuit. To determine the fraction of ruthenium likely to be transferred from the storage tanks in volatile or aerosol form during the failure, evaporation tests were conducted by evaporating samples of actual nitric acid solutions of fission products, obtained on the laboratory scale after the reprocessing of several kilograms of MOX fuels irradiated to 30,000 MWday.t -1 . A distillation apparatus was designed to operate with small volume solution samples, reproducing the heating conditions existing in the reprocessing plant within a storage tank for fission products. The main conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows: - ruthenium is only volatilized in the final phase of evaporation, just before desiccation, - for a final temperature limited to 160 0 C, the total fraction of volatilized ruthenium reaches 12%, in the presence of H 2 0, HN0 3 , N0 x and 0 2 , the volatilized ruthenium recombines mainly in the form of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrates, or decomposes into ruthenium oxide on the walls of the apparatus. Assuming a heating power density of 10 W/liter of concentrate, and a perfectly adiabatic storage system, the minimum time required to reach dryness can be estimated at 90 h, allowing substantial time to take action to restore a cooling source

  14. Behavior of ruthenium in the case of shutdown of the cooling system of HLLW storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M.; Mercier, J.P.; Gue, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The consequences of the failure of the cooling system of fission product storage tanks over a variable period were investigated as part of the safety analysis of the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the considerable heat release, induced by the fission products, a prolonged shutdown of the tank cooling system could cause the progressive evaporation of the solutions to dryness, and culminate in the formation of volatile species of ruthenium and their release in the tank venting circuit. To determine the fraction of ruthenium likely to be transferred from the storage tanks in volatile or aerosol form during the failure, evaporation tests were conducted by evaporating samples of actual nitric acid solutions of fission products, obtained on the laboratory scale after the reprocessing of several kilograms of MOX fuels irradiated to 30,000 MW day·t -1 . A distillation apparatus was designed to operate with small-volume solution samples, reproducing the heating conditions existing in the reprocessing plant within a storage tank for fission products. The main conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows: ruthenium is only volatilized in the final phase of evaporation, just before desiccation; for a final temperature limited to 160 degree C, the total fraction of volatilized ruthenium reaches 12%; in the presence of H 2 O, HNO 3 , NO x and O 2 , the volatilized ruthenium recombines mainly in the form of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrates, or decomposes into ruthenium oxide (probably RuO 2 ) on the walls of the apparatus. Assuming a heating power density of 10 W/liter of concentrate, and a perfectly adiabatic storage system, the minimum time required to reach dryness can be estimated at 90 h, allowing substantial time to take action to restore a cooling source

  15. Behaviour of ruthenium in the case of shutdown of the cooling system of HLLW storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M.; Gue, J.P.; Mercier, J.P.

    1990-12-01

    The consequences of the failure of the cooling system of fission product storage tanks over a variable period were investigated as part of the safety analysis of the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the considerable heat release, induced by the fission products, a prolonged shutdown of the tank cooling system could cause the progressive evaporation of the solutions to dryness, and culminate in the formation of volatile species of ruthenium and their release in the tank venting circuit. To determine the fraction of ruthenium likely to be transferred from the storage tanks in volatile or aerosol form during the failure, evaporation tests were conducted by evaporating samples of actual nitric acid solutions of fission products, obtained on the laboratory scale after the reprocessing of several kilograms of MOX fuels irradiated to 30.000 MW day ·t -1 . A distillation apparatus was designed to operate with small-volume solution samples, reproducing the heating conditions existing in the reprocessing plant within a storage tank for fission products. The main conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows: - ruthenium is only volatilized in the final phase of evaporation, just before desiccation, - for a final temperature limited to 160 deg. C, the total fraction of volatilized ruthenium reaches 12%, - in the presence of H 2 O, HNO 3 , NO x and O 2 , the volatilized ruthenium recombines mainly in the form of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrates, or decomposes into ruthenium oxide (probably RuO 2 ) on the walls of the apparatus. Assuming a heating power density of 10 W/liter of concentrate, and a perfectly adiabatic storage system, the minimum time required to reach dryness can be estimated at 90 h, allowing substantial time to take action to restore a cooling source. It is probable that, in an industrial storage tank, the heat losses from the tank and the offgas discharge ducts will cause recondensation and internal reflux, which will commensurately delay

  16. Solar heating and cooling system with absorption chiller and low temperature latent heat storage: Energetic performance and operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, M.; Keil, C.; Hiebler, S.; Mehling, H.; Schweigler, C. [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern) (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Absorption cooling systems based on water/lithium bromide (LiBr) solution typically require an open wet cooling tower to transfer the reject heat to the ambient. Yet, water consumption, the need for water make-up and cleaning, formation of fog, and the risk of Legionella bacteria growth are hindering factors for the implementation of small solar cooling systems. The application of a latent heat storage supporting the heat rejection of the absorption chiller in conjunction with a dry cooling system allows eliminating the wet cooling tower. By that means heat rejection of the chiller is shifted to periods with lower ambient temperatures, i.e. night time or off-peak hours. The system concept and the hydraulic scheme together with an analysis of the energetic performance of the system are presented, followed by a report on the operation of a first pilot installation. (author)

  17. System for thermal energy storage, space heating and cooling and power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Fields, Paul R.

    1981-04-21

    An integrated system for storing thermal energy, for space heating and cong and for power conversion is described which utilizes the reversible thermal decomposition characteristics of two hydrides having different decomposition pressures at the same temperature for energy storage and space conditioning and the expansion of high-pressure hydrogen for power conversion. The system consists of a plurality of reaction vessels, at least one containing each of the different hydrides, three loops of circulating heat transfer fluid which can be selectively coupled to the vessels for supplying the heat of decomposition from any appropriate source of thermal energy from the outside ambient environment or from the spaces to be cooled and for removing the heat of reaction to the outside ambient environment or to the spaces to be heated, and a hydrogen loop for directing the flow of hydrogen gas between the vessels. When used for power conversion, at least two vessels contain the same hydride and the hydrogen loop contains an expansion engine. The system is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators, but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  18. Cooling of superconducting devices by liquid storage and refrigeration unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon; Urbahn, John Arthur; Steinbach, Albert Eugene

    2013-08-20

    A system is disclosed for cooling superconducting devices. The system includes a cryogen cooling system configured to be coupled to the superconducting device and to supply cryogen to the device. The system also includes a cryogen storage system configured to supply cryogen to the device. The system further includes flow control valving configured to selectively isolate the cryogen cooling system from the device, thereby directing a flow of cryogen to the device from the cryogen storage system.

  19. Latent heat storage in a solar thermal cooling system. Final report; Latentwaermespeicherung in einer solarthermisch angetriebenen Absorptionsklimakaelteanlage. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramlich, K.; Safarik, M.; Schammler, G.

    2001-07-31

    There are not latent heat storage systems in the temperature range above 90 C available at present. For solar thermal cooling the heat has to be provided at this level. The purpose of this study was to quantify the storage capacity and the performance of charging and discharging of a new developed 1 m{sup 3}-latent heat storage system and the constancy of the heat of fusion of the used paraffin. The latent heat storage system was installed and tested as part of a solar thermal cooling system. The constancy of the melting point was separately measured. After melting and solidifying 500 times the melting point of the tested paraffin was still unchanged. Once melted the paraffin in the storage remains more the 36 hours in this state. Therefore the fluctuations in solar radiation and cooling demand over the day can be compensated. Because of the small thermal conductivity of the paraffin the velocity of heat transfer is small, too. The performance is increased by adding metal carrier material to the storage. The latent heat storage system is capable to work within a solar thermal cooling system because of its composition, the used heat storage material and the integration into the whole system. (orig.) [German] Latent-Waermespeicher im Temperaturbereich ueber 90 C sind z.Z. nicht verfuegbar. Fuer die solarthermische Klimakaelteerzeugung muss die Antriebswaerme auf diesem Temperaturniveau bereitgestellt werden. Ziel der Untersuchungen waren Messungen zur Speicherkapazitaet, zur Lade- und Entladeleistung und zur Konstanz der Schmelzenthalpie von Paraffin in einem neu konstruierten 1000 l - Speicher. Der Paraffin-Latentwaermespeicher wurde in einer Solarthermieanlage zur Klimakaelteerzeugung integriert und die Speicherfunktionen im Anlagenbetrieb untersucht. Die Stabilitaet der Schmelztemperatur in Abhaengigkeit von den Phasenwechseln wurde separat gemessen. Die Schmelztemperatur bleibt nach ueber 500 Phasenwechseln konstant. Das Paraffin konnte ueber 36 Stunden im

  20. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...

  1. A novel method to design water spray cooling system to protect floating roof atmospheric storage tanks against fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon bulk storage tank fires are not very common, but their protection is essential due to severe consequences of such fires. Water spray cooling system is one of the most effective ways to reduce damages to a tank from a fire. Many codes and standards set requirements and recommendations to maximize the efficiency of water spray cooling systems, but these are widely different and still various interpretations and methods are employed to design such systems. This article provides a brief introduction to some possible design methods of cooling systems for protection of storage tanks against external non-contacting fires and introduces a new method namely “Linear Density Method” and compares the results from this method to the “Average Method” which is currently in common practice. The average Method determines the flow rate for each spray nozzle by dividing the total water demand by the number of spray nozzles while the Linear Density Method determines the nozzle flow rate based on the actual flow over the surface to be protected. The configuration of the system includes a one million barrel crude oil floating roof tank to be protected and which is placed one half tank diameter from a similar adjacent tank with a full surface fire. Thermal radiation and hydraulics are modeled using DNV PHAST Version 6.53 and Sunrise PIPENET Version 1.5.0.2722 software respectively. Spray nozzles used in design are manufactured by Angus Fire and PNR Nozzles companies. Schedule 40 carbon steel pipe is used for piping. The results show that the cooling system using the Linear Density Method consumes 3.55% more water than the design using the average method assuming a uniform application rate of 4.1 liters per minute. Despite higher water consumption the design based on Linear Density Method alleviates the problems associated with the Average Method and provides better protection.

  2. Multi-objective optimization and exergoeconomic analysis of a combined cooling, heating and power based compressed air energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Erren; Wang, Huanran; Wang, Ligang; Xi, Guang; Maréchal, François

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel tri-generation based compressed air energy storage system. • Trade-off between efficiency and cost to highlight the best compromise solution. • Components with largest irreversibility and potential improvements highlighted. - Abstract: Compressed air energy storage technologies can improve the supply capacity and stability of the electricity grid, particularly when fluctuating renewable energies are massively connected. While incorporating the combined cooling, heating and power systems into compressed air energy storage could achieve stable operation as well as efficient energy utilization. In this paper, a novel combined cooling, heating and power based compressed air energy storage system is proposed. The system combines a gas engine, supplemental heat exchangers and an ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system. The design trade-off between the thermodynamic and economic objectives, i.e., the overall exergy efficiency and the total specific cost of product, is investigated by an evolutionary multi-objective algorithm for the proposed combined system. It is found that, with an increase in the exergy efficiency, the total product unit cost is less affected in the beginning, while rises substantially afterwards. The best trade-off solution is selected with an overall exergy efficiency of 53.04% and a total product unit cost of 20.54 cent/kWh, respectively. The variation of decision variables with the exergy efficiency indicates that the compressor, turbine and heat exchanger preheating the inlet air of turbine are the key equipment to cost-effectively pursuit a higher exergy efficiency. It is also revealed by an exergoeconomic analysis that, for the best trade-off solution, the investment costs of the compressor and the two heat exchangers recovering compression heat and heating up compressed air for expansion should be reduced (particularly the latter), while the thermodynamic performance of the gas engine need to be improved

  3. Cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    Progress on the thermal effects project is reported with regard to physiology and distribution of Corbicula; power plant effects studies on burrowing mayfly populations; comparative thermal responses of largemouth bass from northern and southern populations; temperature selection by striped bass in Cherokee Reservoir; fish population studies; and predictive thermoregulation by fishes. Progress is also reported on the following; cause and ecological ramifications of threadfin shad impingement; entrainment project; aquaculture project; pathogenic amoeba project; and cooling tower drift project

  4. Load Shifting and Storage of Cooling Energy through Ice Bank or Ice Slurry Systems: modelling and experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozdek, Marino

    2009-10-15

    Ice based Cool Thermal Energy Storage (CTES) systems have attracted much attention during last few decades. The reasons are mainly of economical and environmental nature. Compared to conventional refrigeration and air-conditioning systems without cool thermal energy storage, implementation of CTES will increase environmental standards and overall efficiency of the energy systems as it contributes to the phase-out of synthetic refrigerants and reduces peak loads in electricity grids. For the application of a cool thermal energy storages in refrigeration installations and HVAC systems in industry and building sector, it is necessary to have appropriate design tools in order to sufficiently accurate predict their performance. In this thesis theoretical and experimental investigations of two ice based cool thermal energy storage systems, namely static, indirect, external melt, ice-on-coil, i.e. ice bank system and dynamic, ice slurry cool thermal energy storage system are carried out. An ice bank storage technology for cooling purposes is known for a long time. The main drawbacks which are hindering its wider use are the system complexity, high first costs, system efficiency which is highly dependant on design, control and monitoring of the system, etc. On the other hand, ice slurry technology was not well studied until recently, while in the current scientific literature there are still differences between results and conclusions reported by different investigators. The aim of the present thesis is to extend the knowledge in the field of ice based CTES systems, thereby contributing in the development and wider utilization of those systems. In the first part of the thesis a computer application, named 'BankaLeda' is presented. It enables simulation of an ice bank system performance. In order to verify developed simulation model an experimental evaluation has been performed. Field measurements have been conducted on a two module silo which was installed as a

  5. A very cool cooling system

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 Gigatracker is a jewel of technology: its sensor, which delivers the time of the crossing particles with a precision of less than 200 picoseconds (better than similar LHC detectors), has a cooling system that might become the precursor to a completely new detector technique.   The 115 metre long vacuum tank of the NA62 experiment. The NA62 Gigatracker (GTK) is composed of a set of three innovative silicon pixel detectors, whose job is to measure the arrival time and the position of the incoming beam particles. Installed in the heart of the NA62 detector, the silicon sensors are cooled down (to about -20 degrees Celsius) by a microfluidic silicon device. “The cooling system is needed to remove the heat produced by the readout chips the silicon sensor is bonded to,” explains Alessandro Mapelli, microsystems engineer working in the Physics department. “For the NA62 Gigatracker we have designed a cooling plate on top of which both the silicon sensor and the...

  6. A Techno-Economic Assessment of Hybrid Cooling Systems for Coal- and Natural-Gas-Fired Power Plants with and without Carbon Capture and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S

    2016-04-05

    Advanced cooling systems can be deployed to enhance the resilience of thermoelectric power generation systems. This study developed and applied a new power plant modeling option for a hybrid cooling system at coal- or natural-gas-fired power plants with and without amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. The results of the plant-level analyses show that the performance and cost of hybrid cooling systems are affected by a range of environmental, technical, and economic parameters. In general, when hot periods last the entire summer, the wet unit of a hybrid cooling system needs to share about 30% of the total plant cooling load in order to minimize the overall system cost. CCS deployment can lead to a significant increase in the water use of hybrid cooling systems, depending on the level of CO2 capture. Compared to wet cooling systems, widespread applications of hybrid cooling systems can substantially reduce water use in the electric power sector with only a moderate increase in the plant-level cost of electricity generation.

  7. Storage of HLW in engineered structures: air-cooled and water-cooled concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahner, S.; Dekais, J.J.; Puttke, B.; Staner, P.

    1981-01-01

    A comparative study on an air-cooled and a water-cooled intermediate storage of vitrified, highly radioactive waste (HLW) in overground installations has been performed by Nukem and Belgonucleaire respectively. In the air-cooled storage concept the decay heat from the storage area will be removed using natural convection. In the water-cooled storage concept the decay heat is carried off by a primary and secondary forced-cooling system with redundant and diverse devices. The safety study carried out by Nukem used a fault tree method. It shows that the reliability of the designed water-cooled system is very high and comparable to the inherent, safe, air-cooled system. The impact for both concepts on the environment is determined by the release route, but even during accident conditions the release is far below permissible limits. The economic analysis carried out by Belgonucleaire shows that the construction costs for both systems do not differ very much, but the operation and maintenance costs for the water-cooled facility are higher than for the air cooled facility. The result of the safety and economic analysis and the discussions with the members of the working group have shown some possible significant modifications for both systems, which are included in this report. The whole study has been carried out using certain national criteria which, in certain Member States at least, would lead to a higher standard of safety than can be justified on any social, political or economic grounds

  8. A model predictive framework of Ground Source Heat Pump coupled with Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage System in heating and cooling equipment of a building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rostampour Samarin, V.; Bloemendal, J.M.; Keviczky, T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a complete model of a building heating and cooling equipment and a ground source heat pump (GSHP) coupled with an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. This model contains detailed
    mathematical representations of building thermal dynamics, ATES system dynamics, heat

  9. Optimal Design of Cogeneration Systems in Industrial Plants Combined with District Heating/Cooling and Underground Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Dovì

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined heat and power (CHP systems in both power stations and large plants are becoming one of the most important tools for reducing energy requirements and consequently the overall carbon footprint of fundamental industrial activities. While power stations employ topping cycles where the heat rejected from the cycle is supplied to domestic and industrial consumers, the plants that produce surplus heat can utilise bottoming cycles to generate electrical power. Traditionally the waste heat available at high temperatures was used to generate electrical power, whereas energy at lower temperatures was either released to the environment or used for commercial or domestic heating. However the introduction of new engines, such as the ones using the organic Rankine cycle, capable of employing condensing temperatures very close to the ambient temperature, has made the generation of electrical power at low temperatures also convenient. On the other hand, district heating is becoming more and more significant since it has been extended to include cooling in the warm months and underground storage of thermal energy to cope with variable demand. These developments imply that electric power generation and district heating/cooling may become alternative and not complementary solutions for waste energy of industrial plants. Therefore the overall energy management requires the introduction of an optimisation algorithm to select the best strategy. In this paper we propose an algorithm for the minimisation of a suitable cost function, for any given variable heat demand from commercial and domestic users, with respect to all independent variables, i.e., temperatures and flowrates of warm fluid streams leaving the plants and volume and nature of underground storage. The results of the preliminary process integration analysis based on pinch technology are used in this algorithm to provide bounds on the values of temperatures.

  10. Process fluid cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system of heat exchangers is disclosed for cooling process fluids. The system is particularly applicable to cooling steam generator blowdown fluid in a nuclear plant prior to chemical purification of the fluid in which it minimizes the potential of boiling of the plant cooling water which cools the blowdown fluid

  11. Alternatives for metal hydride storage bed heating and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, I.A.; Ramirez, F.B.; Koonce, J.E.; Ward, D.E.; Heung, L.K.; Weimer, M.; Berkebile, W.; French, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen isotopes with the storage bed hydride material is exothermic during absorption and endothermic during desorption. Therefore, storage bed operation requires a cooling system to remove heat during absorption, and a heating system to add the heat needed for desorption. Three storage bed designs and their associated methods of heating and cooling and accountability are presented within. The first design is the current RTF (Replacement Tritium Facility) nitrogen heating and cooling system. The second design uses natural convection cooling with ambient glove box nitrogen and electrical resistance for heating. This design is referred to as the Naturally Cooled/Electrically Heated (NCEH) design. The third design uses forced convection cooling with ambient glove box nitrogen and electrical resistance for heating. The design is referred to as the Forced Convection Cooled/Electrically Heated (FCCEH) design. In this report the operation, storage bed design, and equipment required for heating, cooling, and accountability of each design are described. The advantages and disadvantages of each design are listed and discussed. Based on the information presented within, it is recommended that the NCEH design be selected for further development

  12. A simplified model to study the location impact of latent thermal energy storage in building cooling heating and power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yin; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yinping; Zhuo, Siwen

    2016-01-01

    Introducing the thermal energy storage (TES) equipment into the building cooling heating and power (BCHP) system proves to be an effective way to improve the part load performance of the whole system and save the primary energy consumption. The location of TES in BCHP has a great impact on the thermal performance of the whole system. In this paper, a simplified model of TES-BCHP system composed of a gas turbine, an absorption chiller/an absorption heat pump, and TES equipment with phase change materials (PCM) is presented. In order to minimize the primary energy consumption, the performances of BCHP systems with different PCM-TES locations (upstream and downstream) are analyzed and compared, for a typical hotel and an office building respectively. Moreover, the influence of the thermal performance of PCM-TES equipment on the energy saving effect of the whole system is investigated. The results confirm that PCM-TES can improve the energy efficiency and reduce the installed capacities of energy supply equipment, and that the optimal TES location in BCHP highly depends on the thermal performance of the TES equipment and the user load characteristics. It also indicates that: 1) the primary energy saving ratio of PCM-TES-BCHP increases with increasing NTU of TES; 2) for the studied cases, downstream TES location becomes more preferable when user loads fluctuate greatly; 3) only downstream TES can reduce the installed capacities of absorption chiller/absorption heat pump. This work can provide guidance for PCM-TES-BCHP system design. - Highlights: • A simplified model of the PCM-TES-BCHP system is established. • TES can increase energy efficiency and decrease installed capacity of equipment. • Primary energy saving ratio increases with increasing NTU of TES. • Downstream TES location is more preferable when user loads fluctuate greatly. • Optimal TES location depends on equipment performances and load characteristics.

  13. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  14. Comparative analysis of thermal storage cooling and storage battery cooling using photovoltaic generation. Part 2. Research on architectural systematization of energy conversion devices; Taiyoko hatsuden ni yoru chikunetsu reibo to chikuden reibo ni tsuite. 2. Energy henkan no kenchiku system ka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, N.; Kimura, G.; Fukao, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sunaga, N.; Tsunoda, M.; Muro, K.; Yamanaka, S. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For use in energy self-sufficient buildings, a system was studied capable of retaining for its own use the excess of power produced by a photovoltaic power generation system without releasing it to the commercial system. Summertime cooling was considered. The storage battery cooling system was provided with two solar cell systems and, in the daytime, one was used for cooling and the other for charging batteries for nighttime cooling. In the cold heat storage cooling system, cold heat accumulators (red bricks) were provided in the wall and floor, and under the floor, and the floor was a grating for proper ventilation between the room and underfloor space. With the solar cell-driven air conditioner out of operation, cold heat was fed to the room from the underfloor cold heat accumulators by a fan. In storage battery cooling, solar power covered 60% of what the air conditioner used. In the presence of sufficient power in storage, the air conditioner stayed on at night without buying commercial power, when the room temperature was 25{degree}C. In the cold heat accumulation cooling, 50% of the air conditioner power consumption was covered by solar power. It is recommended to install cold heat accumulators not in the room but in a separate space, such as the underfloor space, where they are exposed to the cooling cold air direct from an air conditioner for future retrieval of cold heat. 2 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Experimental study on the cool storage performance of super absorbent polymers for cool storage clothes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shidong; Mo, Caisong; Wang, Junze; Zheng, Jingfu; Tian, Ruhong

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a kind of cool storage clothes which can cool the human body in high temperature condition is put forward. super absorbent polymers was selected as a cold storage material, through at the normal and extreme environment simulation, the cold storage materials were prepared with different composition, and their performance was tested. Test results show that:under normal temperature conditions, the 1:50 concentration of super absorbent polymers continued to release the longest cooling time, compared with pure water, cooling time extended 43 minutes by about 30%; under the condition of 37°C, the 1:100 concentration of super absorbent polymers continued to release the longest cooling time, compared with pure water, cooling time extended 105 minutes by about 50%.

  16. Thermal energy storage for cooling of commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Mertol, A. (Science Applications International Corp., Los Altos, CA (USA))

    1988-07-01

    The storage of coolness'' has been in use in limited applications for more than a half century. Recently, because of high electricity costs during utilities' peak power periods, thermal storage for cooling has become a prime target for load management strategies. Systems with cool storage shift all or part of the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak hours to take advantage of reduced demand charges and/or off-peak rates. Thermal storage technology applies equally to industrial, commercial, and residential sectors. In the industrial sector, because of the lack of economic incentives and the custom design required for each application, the penetration of this technology has been limited to a few industries. The penetration rate in the residential sector has been also very limited due to the absence of economic incentives, sizing problems, and the lack of compact packaged systems. To date, the most promising applications of these systems, therefore, appear to be for commercial cooling. In this report, the current and potential use of thermal energy storage systems for cooling commercial buildings is investigated. In addition, a general overview of the technology is presented and the applicability and cost-effectiveness of this technology for developed and developing countries are discussed. 28 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Cooling water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  18. Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dan S.

    1976-01-01

    Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

  19. The cryogenic operation of the superconducting magnet system in the HERA proton storage ring: Cool down, steady state operation, quench recovery processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlitz, G.; Clausen, M.; Lierl, H.; Lange, R.; Herzog, H.

    1991-01-01

    The 6.4 km long superconducting proton storage ring of HERA was completed in 1990. In October the first halfring was cooled, in December the second one. Steady state operation could be established after about 200 hours. The authors report on the cryogenic operation of the system during cooldown and steady state operation and give values for thermal losses. One octant was excited up to values exceeding the design current. Some results of quench tests in this octant are presented

  20. Investigation of the thermal performance of a vertical two-phase closed thermosyphon as a passive cooling system for a nuclear reactor spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusuma, Mukhsinun Hadi; Putra, Nandy; Imawan, Ficky Augusta [Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering Universitas Indonesia, Kampus (Indonesia); Antariksawan, Anhar Riza [Centre for Nuclear Reactor Safety and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong (Indonesia)

    2017-04-15

    The decay heat that is produced by nuclear reactor spent fuel must be cooled in a spent fuel storage pool. A wickless heat pipe or a vertical two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) is used to remove this decay heat. The objective of this research is to investigate the thermal performance of a prototype model for a large-scale vertical TPCT as a passive cooling system for a nuclear research reactor spent fuel storage pool. An experimental investigation and numerical simulation using RELAP5/MOD 3.2 were used to investigate the TPCT thermal performance. The effects of the initial pressure, filling ratio, and heat load were analyzed. Demineralized water was used as the TPCT working fluid. The cooled water was circulated in the water jacket as a cooling system. The experimental results show that the best thermal performance was obtained at a thermal resistance of 0.22°C/W, the lowest initial pressure, a filling ratio of 60%, and a high evaporator heat load. The simulation model that was experimentally validated showed a pattern and trend line similar to those of the experiment and can be used to predict the heat transfer phenomena of TPCT with varying inputs.

  1. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji; Oikawa, Hirohide.

    1990-01-01

    The device according to this invention can ensure cooling water required for emerency core cooling upon emergence such as abnormally, for example, loss of coolant accident, without using dynamic equipments such as a centrifugal pump or large-scaled tank. The device comprises a pressure accumulation tank containing a high pressure nitrogen gas and cooling water inside, a condensate storage tank, a pressure suppression pool and a jet stream pump. In this device there are disposed a pipeline for guiding cooling water in the pressure accumulation tank as a jetting water to a jetting stream pump, a pipeline for guiding cooling water stored in the condensate storage tank and the pressure suppression pool as pumped water to the jetting pump and, further, a pipeline for guiding the discharged water from the jet stream pump which is a mixed stream of pumped water and jetting water into the reactor pressure vessel. In this constitution, a sufficient amount of water ranging from relatively high pressure to low pressure can be supplied into the reactor pressure vessel, without increasing the size of the pressure accumulation tank. (I.S.)

  2. A Review of Common Problems in Design and Installation of Water Spray Cooling and Low Expansion Foam System to Protect Storage Tanks Containing Hydrocarbons Against Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alimohammadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tank fires are rare but carry significant potential risk to life and property. For this reason fire protection of tanks is critical. Fixed Low expansion foam and water spray cooling systems are one of the most effective and economical ways to reduce damages to a tank from fire. Such systems are currently installed in many companies but are not effective enough and require involvement of firefighters which in turn threaten their lives. This paper studies in a systematic way the problems of foam and cooling systems currently installed in a few domestic companies which operate storage tanks with focus on floating and fixed roof atmospheric tanks containing hydrocarbons and offers possible solutions for more efficient installation, design and operation of such systems.

  3. A Review of Common Problems in Design and Installation of Water Spray Cooling and Low Expansion Foam System to Protect Storage Tanks Containing Hydrocarbons Against Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tank fires are rare but carry significant potential risk to life and property. For this reason fire protection of tanks is critical. Fixed Low expansion foam and water spray cooling systems are one of the most effective and economical ways to reduce damages to a tank from fire. Such systems are currently installed in many companies but are not effective enough and require involvement of firefighters which in turn threaten their lives. This paper studies in a systematic way the problems of foam and cooling systems currently installed in a few domestic companies which operate storage tanks with focus on floating and fixed roof atmospheric tanks containing hydrocarbons and offers possible solutions for more efficient installation, design and operation of such systems.

  4. Experimental Studies of Phase Change and Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials in a Cold Storage/Transportation System with Solar Driven Cooling Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the different properties of phase change material (PCM and Microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM employed to cold storage/transportation system with a solar-driven cooling cycle. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC tests have been performed to analyze the materials enthalpy, melting temperature range, and temperature range of solidification. KD2 Pro is used to test the thermal conductivities of phase change materials slurry and the results were used to compare the materials heat transfer performance. The slurry flow characteristics of MEPCM slurry also have been tested. Furthermore, in order to analyze the improvement effect on stability, the stability of MEPCM slurry with different surfactants have been tested. The researches of the PCM and MEPCM thermal properties revealed a more prospective application for phase change materials in energy storage/transportation systems. The study aims to find the most suitable chilling medium to further optimize the design of the cold storage/transportation systems with solar driven cooling cycles.

  5. Asymmetric Laser Radiant Cooling in Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, E V; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    Laser pulses with small spatial and temporal dimensions can interact with a fraction of the electron bunches circulating in Compton storage rings. We studied synchrotron dynamics of such bunches when laser photons scatter off from the electrons with energy higher than the synchronous energy. In this case of ‘asymmetric cooling', as shown theoretically, the stationary energy spread is much smaller than under conditions of regular scattering; the oscillations are damped faster. Coherent oscillations of large amplitude may be damped in one synchrotron period, which makes this method feasible for injection the bunches into a ring in the longitudinal phase space. The theoretical results are validated with simulations.

  6. Laser system for cooling of relativistic C{sup 3+}-ion beams in storage rings; Lasersystem zur Kuehlung relativistischer C{sup 3+}-Ionenstrahlen in Speicherringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Tobias

    2015-02-15

    Cold ion beams are essential for many precision experiments at storage rings. While spectroscopic experiments gain from the high energy resolution, collision experiments benefit from the increased luminosity. Furthermore, sympathetic cooling of exotic species is conceivable with the aid of cold ion beams. Besides the long established electron cooling, alternative cooling methods are gaining in importance, especially for high energy particles. In the past, experiments to cool ions with lasers were performed. Because of the matching wavelength and output power, frequency doubled Argon-ion lasers at 257 nm were used during these experiments. Due to the strongly limited scanning potential of these systems, it was not possible to cool the full inertia spread of the ion beams. A new laser system was developed in this thesis because of the lack of commercial alternatives. After the characterization of the system, it was tested during a beamtime at the Experimentierspeicherring (ESR) at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI). The completely solid state based system delivers up to 180 mW of output power at 257 nm and is modehop free tunable up to 16 GHz in 10 ms at this wavelength. By using efficient diode lasers, the new system consumes considerably less power than comparable Argon-ion lasers. The fundamental wavelength of 1028 nm is amplified up to 16 W with an Yb-doped fiber amplifier. Subsequently, the target wavelength of 257 nm is realized in two consecutive build-up cavities. Another diode laser, stabilized to a wavelength meter, serves as a frequency reference. This new laser system first came to operation during beamtime in August 2012, when relativistic C{sup 3+} ions with β=0.47 were cooled successfully. For the first time it was possible to access the whole inertia spread of a bunched ion beam without electron precooling. In contrast to prior experiments, only the laser frequency was scanned and not the bunching frequency of the ion beam. The results

  7. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2002-01-01

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  8. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Don E [ORNL; Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL; Becklehimer, Jeff [Cray, Inc.; Donovan, Matthew J [ORNL; Layton, Christopher C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  9. Turbine airfoil cooling system with cooling systems using high and low pressure cooling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Messmann, Stephen John; Scribner, Carmen Andrew

    2017-10-25

    A turbine airfoil cooling system including a low pressure cooling system and a high pressure cooling system for a turbine airfoil of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, the low pressure cooling system may be an ambient air cooling system, and the high pressure cooling system may be a compressor bleed air cooling system. In at least one embodiment, the compressor bleed air cooling system in communication with a high pressure subsystem that may be a snubber cooling system positioned within a snubber. A delivery system including a movable air supply tube may be used to separate the low and high pressure cooling subsystems. The delivery system may enable high pressure cooling air to be passed to the snubber cooling system separate from low pressure cooling fluid supplied by the low pressure cooling system to other portions of the turbine airfoil cooling system.

  10. Building heating and cooling applications thermal energy storage program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenberg, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal energy storage technology and development of building heating and cooling applications in the residential and commercial sectors is outlined. Three elements are identified to undergo an applications assessment, technology development, and demonstration. Emphasis is given to utility load management thermal energy system application where the stress is on the 'customer side of the meter'. Thermal storage subsystems for space conditioning and conservation means of increased thermal mass within the building envelope and by means of low-grade waste heat recovery are covered.

  11. Reactor cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Etsuji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate cleaning steps in the pipelines upon reactor shut-down by connecting a filtrating and desalting device to the cooling system to thereby always clean up the water in the pipelines. Constitution: A filtrating and desalting device is connected to the pipelines in the cooling system by way of drain valves and a check valve. Desalted water is taken out from the exit of the filtrating and desalting device and injected to one end of the cooling system pipelines by way of the drain valve and the check valve and then returned by way of another drain valve to the desalting device. Water in the pipelines is thus always desalted and the cleaning step in the pipelines is no more required in the shut-down. (Kawakami, Y.)

  12. ITER cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.; Hollies, R.E.; Sochaski, R.O.; Stubley, P.H.

    1992-06-01

    The ITER reference system uses low-temperature water for heat removal and high-temperature helium for bake-out. As these systems share common equipment, bake-out cannot be performed until the cooling system is drained and dried, and the reactor cannot be started until the helium has been purged from the cooling system. This study examines the feasibility of using a single high-temperature fluid to perform both heat removal and bake-out. The high temperature required for bake-out would also be in the range for power production. The study examines cost, operational benefits, and impact on reactor safety of two options: a high-pressure water system, and a low-pressure organic system. It was concluded that the cost savings and operational benefits are significant; there are no significant adverse safety impacts from operating either the water system or the organic system; and the capital costs of both systems are comparable

  13. Third international workshop on ice storage for cooling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorski, A.J. (comp.)

    1986-04-01

    The third international workshop on ice storage for cooling applications which was informal and interactive in nature, was open to persons interested in all ice-growing technologies and in ice storage, both seasonal and diurnal. Presentations were made on some 20 topics, ranging from freezers in Alaska to ice cooling of commercial jet aircraft. Workshop tours included visits to ice-storage systems at Commonwealth Edison's facilities in Bolingbrook and Des Plaines Valley, the A.C. Neilsen builing in Northbrook, and the new State of Illinois Center in Chicago. The first workshop in the present series considered the future of ice storage and predicted applications in the agricultural sector, desalinization, and commercial ice production. Progress has been rapid in the intervening two years, and an important topic at the third workshop was the possible use of ''warm ices'' (clathrate hydrates) for energy storage. This report consists primarily of abstracts of presentations made at the workshop. Persons wishing to obtain further information about particular papers should contact the speakers directly; speakers' addresses and telephone numbers are listed in this report.

  14. Engineered intermediate storage of solidified high level wastes. A comparison of an air cooled and a water cooled concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahner, S.; Dekais, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the course of the CEC-Program sheet N 0 6, Nukem jointly with Belgonucleaire performed a comparative study on an air cooled and a water cooled intermediate storage of vitrified, highly radioactive waste (HLW) in overground installations. For this purpose, common design basis were determined. In the concept of the air cooled storage facility (Nukem design) the decay heat from the storage canisters will be removed, using natural convection. In the water cooled concept (Belgonucleaire concept) the decay heat is carried off by a primary and secondary forced cooling system with redundant and diverse devices. The safety analysis carried out by Nukem used a fault tree method. It shows that the reliability of the designed water cooling system is very high and comparable to the inherent safe air cooled system. The impact for both concepts on the environment, is determined by the release route, but even during accident conditions the release is far below permissible limits. The economic analysis carried out by Belgonucleaire shows, that the construction costs for both systems do not differ very much, but the operation and maintenance costs for the water cooled facility are 4 to 8 higher than for the air cooled facility

  15. ATLAS - Liquid Cooling Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Bonneau, P.

    1998-01-01

    Photo 1 - Cooling Unit - Side View Photo 2 - Cooling Unit - Detail Manifolds Photo 3 - Cooling Unit - Rear View Photo 4 - Cooling Unit - Detail Pump, Heater and Exchanger Photo 5 - Cooling Unit - Detail Pump and Fridge Photo 6 - Cooling Unit - Front View

  16. Electron cooling of D sup - at the ASTRID storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, J S; Andersen, L H; Balling, P; Raarup, M K

    2000-01-01

    A report of recent results on electron cooling of D sup - at an energy of 1.6 MeV in the ASTRID storage ring is given. The longitudinal velocity spread has been reduced from approx 4x10 sup - sup 4 (FWHM) to approx 7x10 sup - sup 5 (FWHM) at a current of approx 0.1 mu A. A drift in the mean velocity of the cooled beam has been reduced by application of a small RF signal on four sets of plates in the cooler. Initially, the velocity spread is found to decrease with ion current, indicating equilibrium between cooling and intra-beam scattering, whereas at later times (lower current) the velocity spread becomes constant, indicating equilibrium with the electron beam. To diagnose cooling, a simple system allowing to follow the frequency width and position of a Schottky harmonic on a sub-second time-scale, has been developed. The system uses a standard data acquisition card to digitize a down-mixed Schottky-signal and a FFT routine in Labview on a standard PC. The electron-cooled ion-beam is used for high-resolution...

  17. Development of vitrified waste storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namiki, S.; Tani, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have developed the radioactive waste vitrification technology and the vitrified waste storage technology. Regarding the vitrified waste storage system development, the authors have completed the design of two types of storage systems. One is a forced convection air cooling system, and the other is a natural convection air cooling system. They have carried out experiments and heat transfer analysis, seismic analysis, vitrified waste dropping and radiation shielding, etc. In this paper, the following three subjects, are discussed: the cooling air flow experiment, the wind effect experiment on the cooling air flow pattern, using a wind tunnel apparatus and the structural integrity evaluation on the dropping vitrified waste

  18. ITER cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-11-01

    The present specification of the ITER cooling system does not permit its operation with water above 150 C. However, the first wall needs to be heated to higher temperatures during conditioning at 250 C and bake-out at 350 C. In order to use the cooling water for these operations the cooling system would have to operate during conditioning at 37 Bar and during bake-out at 164 Bar. This is undesirable from the safety analysis point of view, and alternative heating methods are to be found. This review suggests that superheated steam or gas heating can be used for both baking and conditioning. The blanket design must consider the use of dual heat transfer media, allowing for change from one to another in both directions. Transfer from water to gas or steam is the most intricate and risky part of the entire heating process. Superheated steam conditioning appears unfavorable. The use of inert gas is recommended, although alternative heating fluids such as organic coolant should be investigated

  19. Further Study on Fast Cooling in Compton Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, Eugene; Zimmermann, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Compton sources of gamma-ray photons can produce ultimate intensity, but suffer from large recoils experienced by the circulating electrons scattering off the laser photons. We had proposed the asymmetric fast cooling which enables to mitigate the spread of energy in Compton rings. This report presents results of further study on the fast cooling: (1) A proper asymmetric setup of the scattering point results in significant reduction of the quantum losses of electrons in Compton rings with moderate energy acceptance. (2) Proposed pulsed mode of operation in synchrotron–dominated rings enhances overall performance of such gamma-ray sources. Theoretical results are in good accordance with the simulations. Performance of an existing storage ring equipped with a laser system is also evaluated.

  20. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  1. Dynamic Heat Storage and Cooling Capacity of a Concrete Deck with PCM and Thermally Activated Building System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2012-01-01

    with and without microencapsulated PCM are presented. The new concrete deck with microencapsulated PCM is the standard deck on which an additional layer of the PCM concrete was added and, at the same time, the latent heat storage was introduced to the construction. The challenge of numerically simulating...

  2. Thermoelectric cooling in combination with photovoltaics and thermal energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skovajsa Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of modern technologies that can improve the thermal comfort in buildings. The article describes the usage of thermal energy storage device based on the phase change material (PCM. The technology improves the thermal capacity of the building and it is possible to use it for active heating and cooling. It is designed as a “green technology” so it is able to use renewable energy sources, e.g., photovoltaic panels, solar thermal collectors, and heat pump. Moreover, an interesting possibility is the ability to use thermal energy storage in combination with a photovoltaic system and thermoelectric coolers. In the research, there were made measurements of the different operating modes and the results are presented in the text.

  3. Electron beam cooling at a magnetic storage ring, TARN II, and an electrostatic storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tetsumi

    2006-01-01

    At the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), a magnetic storage ring, TARN II, with an electron cooler was operated from 1989 to 1999, while an electrostatic storage ring with a small electron cooler has been operational since 2000. In this paper, the electron cooling at TARN II and the electrostatic storage ring is described. (author)

  4. Cooling of PAH cations studied with an electrostatic storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jérôme; Chen, Li; Brédy, Richard; Ji, Mingchao; Ortéga, Céline; Matsumoto, Jun; Martin, Serge

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we discuss the production of molecular PAH cations using an ECR ion source and their subsequent cooling studied with an electrostatic storage ring, the Mini-Ring on a time range up to 10 ms. We show that the ECR ion source can produce high currents of small PAH cation, here naphthalene and anthracene cations. Then, we report experimental result for the cooling of three PAH cations (anthracene, naphthalene and pyrene) stored in our compact electrostatic storage ring (the Mini-Ring). We show that the Poincaré recurrent fluorescence plays a major role in the cooling process of those PAH cations. We show that for a given internal energy, the cooling rate is much smaller for pyrene than for anthracene and naphthalene. We conclude that the Poincaré recurrent fluorescence is less efficient due to smaller oscillator strength of the D2-D0 electronic transition for pyrene.

  5. Thermal storage for solar cooling using paired ammoniated salt reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The feasibility of using various solid and liquid ammoniates in heat pump-thermal storage systems for space heating and cooling was conducted. Corrosion testing of selected metallic and non-metallic specimens in the ammoniates was investigated. Results of the corrosion testing showed that problems exist with manganese and magnesium chloride ammoniates, except with the teflon which displayed excellent resistance in all environments. Also, all liquid ammoniates are unsuitable for use with uncoated carbon steel. Cycling of the manganese chloride between the high and low ammoniates does not affect its properties. However, the density change between the high and low ammoniates could cause packing problems in a reactor which constrains the salt volume. Subscale tests with solid ammoniates indicated that the heat transfer coefficient in a fixed bed reactor is low (approx. 1 Btu/h-ft(2)-OF). Therefore solid ammoniates are not practical because of the high heat exchanger cost requirement.

  6. Radiative cooling for thermophotovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiguang; Sun, Xingshu; Bermel, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Radiative cooling has recently garnered a great deal of attention for its potential as an alternative method for photovoltaic thermal management. Here, we will consider the limits of radiative cooling for thermal management of electronics broadly, as well as a specific application to thermal power generation. We show that radiative cooling power can increase rapidly with temperature, and is particularly beneficial in systems lacking standard convective cooling. This finding indicates that systems previously operating at elevated temperatures (e.g., 80°C) can be passively cooled close to ambient under appropriate conditions with a reasonable cooling area. To examine these general principles for a previously unexplored application, we consider the problem of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion of heat to electricity via thermal radiation illuminating a photovoltaic diode. Since TPV systems generally operate in vacuum, convective cooling is sharply limited, but radiative cooling can be implemented with proper choice of materials and structures. In this work, realistic simulations of system performance are performed using the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) techniques to capture thermal emitter radiation, PV diode absorption, and radiative cooling. We subsequently optimize the structural geometry within realistic design constraints to find the best configurations to minimize operating temperature. It is found that low-iron soda-lime glass can potentially cool the PV diode by a substantial amount, even to below ambient temperatures. The cooling effect can be further improved by adding 2D-periodic photonic crystal structures. We find that the improvement of efficiency can be as much as an 18% relative increase, relative to the non-radiatively cooled baseline, as well as a potentially significant improvement in PV diode lifetime.

  7. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  8. Short-term storage of cooling energy. Optimization of power supply by large-scale chilled water storage; Kurzzeitige Kaeltespeicherung. Optimierung der Energieversorgung durch den Einsatz grosser Kaltwasserspeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbaneck, T.; Schirmer, U.; Platzer, B. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Technische Thermodynamik; Barthel, U. [Stadtwerke Chemnitz AG (Germany); Bundesverband der Deutschen Gas- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V. (BGW) (Germany). Landesgruppe Sachsen/Sachsen-Anhalt/Thueringen; Uhlig, U.; Zimmermann, D.; Goeschel, T. [Stadtwerke Chemnitz AG (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    According to a pilot project carried out at the municipal utility in Chemnitz, power supply systems can be optimized energetically and ecologically by cogeneration. Since in Germany there is no large-scale short-term storage system for cooling energy, the municipal utility in Chemnitz established the first system. The fundamental idea: The storage system is loaded at night and is therefore able to cover the peak load in the district cooling energy system by day. (orig.)

  9. Development of a single-phase thermosiphon for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dongliang; Martini, Christine Elizabeth; Jiang, Siyu; Ma, Yaoguang; Zhai, Yao; Tan, Gang; Yin, Xiaobo; Yang, Ronggui

    2017-11-01

    A single-phase thermosiphon is developed for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling. Compared to the conventional nocturnal radiative cooling systems that use an electric pump to drive the heat transfer fluid, the proposed single-phase thermosiphon uses the buoyancy force to drive heat transfer fluid. This solution does not require electricity, therefore improving the net gain of the radiative cooling system. A single-phase thermosiphon was built, which consists of a flat panel, a cold collection tank, a water return tube, and a water distribution tank. Considering that outdoor radiative cooling flux is constantly changing (i.e. uncontrollable), an indoor testing facility was developed to provide a controllable cooling flux (comparable to a radiative cooling flux of 100 W/m2) for the evaluation of thermosiphon performance. The testing apparatus is a chilled aluminum flat plate that has a controlled air gap separation relative to the flat panel surface of the thermosiphon to emulate radiative cooling. With an average of 105 W/m2 cooling flux, the 18 liters of water in the thermosiphon was cooled to an average temperature of 12.5 degrees C from an initial temperature of 22.2 degrees C in 2 h, with a cold collection efficiency of 96.8%. The results obtained have demonstrated the feasibility of using a single-phase thermosiphon for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling. Additionally, the effects of the thermosiphon operation conditions, such as tilt angle of the flat panel, initial water temperature, and cooling energy flux, on the performance have been experimentally investigated. Modular design of the single-phase thermosiphon gives flexibility for its scalability. A radiative cooling system with multiple thermosiphon modules is expected to play an important role in cooling buildings and power plant condensers.

  10. Potential of solar cooling systems for peak demand reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A A [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Neymark, J [Neymark (Joel), Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-11-01

    We investigated the technical feasibility of solar cooling for peak demand reduction using a building energy simulation program (DOE2.1D). The system studied was an absorption cooling system with a thermal coefficient of performance of 0.8 driven by a solar collector system with an efficiency of 50% with no thermal storage. The analysis for three different climates showed that, on the day with peak cooling load, about 17% of the peak load could be met satisfactorily with the solar-assisted cooling system without any thermal storage. A performance availability analysis indicated that the solar cooling system should be designed for lower amounts of available solar resources that coincide with the hours during which peak demand reduction is required. The analysis indicated that in dry climates, direct-normal concentrating collectors work well for solar cooling; however, in humid climates, collectors that absorb diffuse radiation work better.

  11. Fuel storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donakowski, T.D.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-08-01

    Storage technologies are characterized for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Emphasis is placed on storage methods applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems based on coal. Items discussed here include standard practice, materials and energy losses, environmental effects, operating requirements, maintenance and reliability, and cost considerations. All storage systems were found to be well-developed and to represent mature technologies; an exception may exist for low-Btu gas storage, which could have materials incompatability.

  12. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masaru.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable quick cooling of a core by efficiently utilizing coolant supplied in an emergency. Constitution: A feedwater nozzle and a water level detector are disposed in the gap between a partition plate for supporting the top of a fuel assembly and a lattice plate for supporting the bottom of the fuel assembly. At the time of a loss of coolant accident, coolant is injected from a sprinkling nozzle toward the reactor core, and is also injected from a feedwater nozzle. When the coolant reaches a prescribed level in the reactor core, the water level is detected by the detector, the coolant is fed by a pump to the lower plenum, and the submerging speed of the reactor core is thereby accelerated. When the water level again becomes lower than the prescribed level, the coolant is again filled from the feedwater nozzle, and similar operation is thereafter repeated. Accordingly, the coolant filled in the reactor core can be efficiently utilized to cool the reactor core. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Benchmarking Cloud Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of cloud computing, many cloud storage systems like Dropbox, Google Drive and Mega have been built to provide decentralized and reliable file storage. It is thus of prime importance to know their features, performance, and the best way to make use of them. In this context, we introduce BenchCloud, a tool designed as part of this thesis to conveniently and efficiently benchmark any cloud storage system. First, we provide a study of six commonly-used cloud storage systems to ident...

  14. Can storage reduce electricity consumption? A general equation for the grid-wide efficiency impact of using cooling thermal energy storage for load shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetjen, Thomas A.; Reimers, Andrew S.; Webber, Michael E.

    2018-02-01

    This study estimates changes in grid-wide, energy consumption caused by load shifting via cooling thermal energy storage (CTES) in the building sector. It develops a general equation for relating generator fleet fuel consumption to building cooling demand as a function of ambient temperature, relative humidity, transmission and distribution current, and baseline power plant efficiency. The results present a graphical sensitivity analysis that can be used to estimate how shifting load from cooling demand to cooling storage could affect overall, grid-wide, energy consumption. In particular, because power plants, air conditioners and transmission systems all have higher efficiencies at cooler ambient temperatures, it is possible to identify operating conditions such that CTES increases system efficiency rather than decreasing it as is typical for conventional storage approaches. A case study of the Dallas-Fort Worth metro area in Texas, USA shows that using CTES to shift daytime cooling load to nighttime cooling storage can reduce annual, system-wide, primary fuel consumption by 17.6 MWh for each MWh of installed CTES capacity. The study concludes that, under the right circumstances, cooling thermal energy storage can reduce grid-wide energy consumption, challenging the perception of energy storage as a net energy consumer.

  15. Forced draft wet cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daubert, A.; Caudron, L.; Viollet, P.L.

    1975-01-01

    The disposal of the heat released from a 1000MW power plant needs a natural draft tower of about 130m of diameter at the base, and 170m height, or a cooling system with a draft forced by about forty vans, a hundred meters in diameter, and thirty meters height. The plumes from atmospheric cooling systems form, in terms of fluid mechanics, hot jets in a cross current. They consist in complex flows that must be finely investigated with experimental and computer means. The study, currently being performed at the National Hydraulics Laboratory, shows that as far as the length and height of visible plumes are concerned, the comparison is favorable to some types of forced draft cooling system, for low and medium velocities, (below 5 or 6m/s at 10m height. Beyond these velocities, the forced draft sends the plume up to smaller heights, but the plume is generally more dilute [fr

  16. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  17. Initial Development of a Combined PCM and TABS Solution for Heat Storage and Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates heat storage and cooling concept that utilizes both phase change material (PCM) and a thermal active building system (TABS) implemented in a hollow core concrete deck element. PCMs are promising materials for improving the heat storage capacity of a building due...... to their significant thermal energy storage capabilities. The TABS has a potential for increasing the exploitation of the thermal mass of the building, which is rarely exposed for heat transfer.The main objective of this study is to optimize the location and amount of PCM in a hollow core deck in order to optimize...... heat storage capacity. A series of simulations were conducted using the COMSOL program to obtain knowledge regarding the dynamic heat storage capacity of the investigated hollow core deck element as a function of the amount and location of PCM. Furthermore, the dynamic heat storage capacity...

  18. Electron cooling of a bunched ion beam in a storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Mao, Lijun; Yang, Jiancheng; Xia, Jiawen; Yang, Xiaodong; Li, Jie; Tang, Meitang; Shen, Guodong; Ma, Xiaoming; Wu, Bo; Wang, Geng; Ruan, Shuang; Wang, Kedong; Dong, Ziqiang

    2018-02-01

    A combination of electron cooling and rf system is an effective method to compress the beam bunch length in storage rings. A simulation code based on multiparticle tracking was developed to calculate the bunched ion beam cooling process, in which the electron cooling, intrabeam scattering (IBS), ion beam space-charge field, transverse and synchrotron motion are considered. Meanwhile, bunched ion beam cooling experiments have been carried out in the main cooling storage ring (CSRm) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou, to investigate the minimum bunch length obtained by the cooling method, and study the dependence of the minimum bunch length on beam and machine parameters. The experiments show comparable results to those from simulation. Based on these simulations and experiments, we established an analytical model to describe the limitation of the bunch length of the cooled ion beam. It is observed that the IBS effect is dominant for low intensity beams, and the space-charge effect is much more important for high intensity beams. Moreover, the particles will not be bunched for much higher intensity beam. The experimental results in CSRm show a good agreement with the analytical model in the IBS dominated regime. The simulation work offers us comparable results to those from the analytical model both in IBS dominated and space-charge dominated regimes.

  19. Storing energy for cooling demand management in tropical climates: A techno-economic comparison between different energy storage technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Carducci, Francesco; Sze, Jia Yin; Balamurugan, Nagarajan; Romagnoli, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of energy storage in cooling applications. Cold energy storage technologies addressed are: Li-Ion batteries (Li-Ion EES), sensible heat thermal energy storage (SHTES); phase change material (PCM TES), compressed air energy storage (CAES) and liquid air energy storage (LAES). Batteries and CAES are electrical storage systems which run the cooling systems; SHTES and PCM TES are thermal storage systems which directly store cold energy; LAES is assessed as a hybrid storage system which provides both electricity (for cooling) and cold energy. A hybrid quantitative-qualitative comparison is presented. Quantitative comparison was investigated for different sizes of daily cooling energy demand and three different tariff scenarios. A techno-economic analysis was performed to show the suitability of the different storage systems at different scales. Three parameters were used (Pay-back period, Savings-per-energy-unit and levelized-cost-of-energy) to analyze and compare the different scenarios. The qualitative analysis was based on five comparison criteria (Complexity, Technology Readiness Level, Sustainability, Flexibility and Safety). Results showed the importance of weighing the pros and cons of each technology to select a suitable cold energy storage system. Techno-economic analysis highlighted the fundamental role of tariff scenario: a greater difference between peak and off-peak electricity tariff leads to a shorter payback period of each technology. - Highlights: • Techno-economic evaluation of energy storage solutions for cooling applications. • Comparison between five energy storage (EES, SHTES, PCM, CAES, LAES) is performed. • Qualitative and quantitative performance parameters were used for the analysis. • LAES/PCM can be valid alternatives to more established technologies EES, SHTES, CAES. • Tariffs, price arbitrage and investment cost play a key role in energy storage spread.

  20. System for cooling a cabinet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to a cooling system comprising an active magnetic regenerator having a cold side and a hot side, a hot side heat exchanger connected to the hot side of the magnetic regenerator, one or more cold side heat exchangers, and a cold store reservoir comprising a volume...

  1. Estudio sobre el almacenamiento de agua helada en los sistemas de climatización centralizados; Study about cooling water storage in centralized air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Espín Pérez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de este artículo se basa en el estudio del almacenamiento de agua helada en los sistemas de climatización. Para desplazar el consumo eléctrico fuera del horario pico, como herramienta para pretender  incrementar  la eficiencia energética y disminuir el costo de la energía eléctrica en los hoteles con clima tropical. Para ello se procede a la estimación del perfil de carga térmica del hotel Jagua mediante el software TRNSYS, diseño y comprobación del sistema de almacenamiento de agua helada incorporado a las condiciones actuales de la instalación mediante modelos matemáticos que describen su funcionamiento. El objetivo es, evaluar e ilustrar los posibles efectos cuantitativos y cualitativos del almacenamiento de agua helada en el sistema de clima centralizado de la edificación. El trabajo que se presenta se enmarca en los esfuerzos para desarrollar el uso de tecnologías sustentables y la evaluación de sistemas industriales asistidos por computadora en Cuba. The development of this paper is based on the study of cold water storage in air conditioning systems. To offset power consumption off-peak, as a tool to increase energy efficiency claim and reduce the cost of electricity in tropical hotels. To do this we proceed to estimate the thermal load profile Jagua by TRNSYS software, system design and testing of chilled water storage built into the current conditions of the system using mathematical models to describe their operation. The objective is to evaluate and illustrate the quantitative and qualitative effects of cold water storage in the building centralized climate system. The work presented is part of the efforts to develop the use of sustainable technologies and evaluation of computer-aided industrial systems in Cuba.

  2. Personal cooling systems: Possibilities and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunneley, Sarah A.

    1994-01-01

    Personal thermal control by means of gas- or liquid-conditioned garments was developed during the 1960s and has been applied in a variety of aerospace and industrial settings. Both USAF fighter pilots and astronauts are required to wear heavy protective clothing which insulates them from the environment and thus creates stress through storage of metabolic heat. The problem is particularly severe in astronauts who perform heavy physical work during extra-vehicular activity (EVA); without artificial cooling they could reach incapacitating hyperthermia in a matter of minutes. This paper reviews the factors which influence the design of personal cooling systems. An important early step is determination of acceptable heat stress level, taking into account possible interactions of heat stress with other physiological problems such as motion sickness, diminished plasma volume, decompression sickness and acceleration tolerance. Other factors which require consideration include the work schedule, the area to be covered by the cooling garment, and the practicalities of a fixed or body-mounted heat sink and its power source. Nearly every imaginable heat sink has been proposed or tried over the past 30 years, including direct gas systems, phase-change systems with open or closed loops and thermoelectric heat sinks. The latter are now the system of choice for aircraft.

  3. Upgrade of the cooling water temperature measures system for HLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Weiqun; Liu Gongfa; Bao Xun; Jiang Siyuan; Li Weimin; He Duohui

    2007-01-01

    The cooling water temperature measures system for HLS (Hefei Light Source) adopts EPICS to the developing platform and takes the intelligence temperature cruise instrument for the front control instrument. Data of temperatures are required by IOCs through Serial Port Communication, archived and searched by Channel Archiver. The system can monitor the real-time temperatures of many channels cooling water and has the function of history data storage, and data network search. (authors)

  4. Cooling the APS storage ring radio-frequency accelerating cavities: Thermal/stress/fatigue analysis and cavity cooling configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primdahl, K.; Kustom, R.

    1995-01-01

    The 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source positron storage ring requires sixteen separate 352-MHz radio-frequency (rf) accelerating cavities. Cavities are installed as groups of four, in straight sections used elsewhere for insertion devices. They occupy the first such straight section after injection, along with the last three just before injection. Cooling is provided by a subsystem of the sitewide deionized water system. Pumping equipment is located in a building directly adjacent to the accelerator enclosure. A prototype cavity was fabricated and tested where cooling was via twelve 19-mm-diameter [3/4 in] brazed-on tubes in a series-parallel flow configuration. Unfortunately, the thermal contact to some tubes was poor due to inadequate braze filler. Here, heat transfer studies, including finite-element analysis and test results, of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring 352-MHz rf accelerating cavities are described. Stress and fatigue life of the copper are discussed. Configuration of water cooling is presented

  5. Information technology equipment cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  6. Electronic chip cooling system using graphite fins

    OpenAIRE

    Xue , Dong; Wu , Long; Xun , Lian

    2017-01-01

    International audience; As electronic devices get smaller, cooling systems with higher thermal efficiency is demanding by fast growing electronic industry. Great amount of research has been performed on the cooling systems but research on the materials of the cooling systems needs more work. Graphite with high thermal conductivity and light weight is a great candidate to be used in electronic devices. The bottleneck of using graphene in the cooling systems is the thermal transport among the i...

  7. Internal target effects in ion storage rings with beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gostishchev, Vitaly

    2008-06-01

    The accurate description of internal target effects is important for the prediction of operation conditions which are required for experiments in the planned storage rings of the FAIR facility. The BETACOOL code developed by the Dubna group has been used to evaluate beam dynamics in ion storage rings, where electron cooling in combination with an internal target is applied. Systematic benchmarking experiments of this code were carried out at the ESR storage ring at GSI. A mode with vanishing dispersion in the target position was applied to evaluate the influence of the dispersion function on the parameters when the target is heating the beam. The influence of the internal target on the beam parameters is demonstrated in the present work. A comparison of experimental results with simple models describing the energy loss of the beam particles in the target as well as with more sophisticated simulations with the BETACOOL code is given. In order to study the conditions which can be achieved in the proposed experiments the simulation results were quantitatively compared with experimental results and simulations for the ESR. The results of this comparison are discussed in the present thesis. BETACOOL simulations of target effects were performed for the NESR and the HESR of the future FAIR facility in order to predict the beam parameters for the planned experiments. (orig.)

  8. Internationally monitored retrievable storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafele, W.

    1996-01-01

    The proposed internationally monitored retrievable storage system (IMRSS) is intended to provide an orderly and secure alternative to continuation of the current individualistic spent-fuel management trends in nuclear-power countries. The IMRSS concept, in its broadest terms, proposes that an international entity undertake the management responsibility for spent fuel after its discharge from power plant cooling ponds. The IMRSS envisages international management of a small number of surface (or near-surface) storage facilities distributed globally (in major nuclear countries and elsewhere) and a transportation system between nuclear plants and the storage facilities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) would maintain responsibility for adherence to safeguards criteria. The IMRSS operation would be similar to that of an international bank, with each nation maintaining title to its spent fuel and able to withdraw it for peaceful purposes. The system would provide transparency, accountability, and security. The IMRSS would be a step to establishing an inter- national regime for the prudent management of spent fuel and excess civilian plutonium. The IMRSS concept has been studied in three international workshops. Among the major issues that have been addressed are the global distribution of spent fuel if current trends continue, the need for international criteria and management to ensure public health and nonproliferation, the value of spent-fuel retrievability, the future role of a plutonium resource in the fuel cycle, the operating format of a practical IMRSS, and the integration of an IMRSS with existing geopolitical agreements and arrangements

  9. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  10. Laser cooling and ion beam diagnosis of relativistic ions in a storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, S.

    1990-08-01

    Particle accelerator and storage ring technology has reached an advanced state, so that different heavy ion storage rings are coming into operation by now, capable of storing even fully stripped ions up to U 92+ . The main purpose of these machines are the accumulation of ions and the ability of improving the beam quality, that is the phase space density of the stored beams. This beam cooling is done successfully by the well established stochastic and electron cooling techniques. A new cooling method, the laser cooling, is taken over from atomic beam and ion trap experiments, where it has yielded extremely low temperatures of atomic samples. As a canditate at storage rings 7 Li + ions are stored in the Heidelberg TSR at 13.3 MeV. The ion beam properties of the metastable fraction like momentum spread, storage time and the influence of residual gas scattering are investigated by colinear laser spectroscopy in the experimental section of the TSR. An optical pumping experiment using two dye laser systems yields information about ion kinematics and velocity mixing processes in the ring. Lifetimes in the order of 100 ms for velocity classes marked in this way show that laser cooling can be applied to the stored 7 Li + beam. In an experimental situation of two strong counterpropagating laser beams, both tuned near resonance, a dramatic reduction of the ion beam momentum spread is observed. With a special geometrical control of laser and ion beam the longitudinal beam temperature is reduced from 260 K to at least 3 K with very high collection efficiency. (orig./HSI) [de

  11. Fast cooling of bunches in compton storage rings*

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, E; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    We propose an enhancement of laser radiative cooling by utilizing laser pulses of small spatial and temporal dimensions, which interact only with a fraction of an electron bunch circulating in a storage ring. We studied the dynamics of such electron bunch when laser photons scatter off the electrons at a collision point placed in a section with nonzero dispersion. In this case of ‘asymmetric cooling’, the stationary energy spread is much smaller than under conditions of regular scattering where the laser spot size is larger than the electron beam; and the synchrotron oscillations are damped faster. Coherent oscillations of large amplitude may be damped within one synchrotron period, so that this method can support the rapid successive injection of many bunches in longitudinal phase space for stacking purposes. Results of extensive simulations are presented for the performance optimization of Compton gamma-ray sources and damping rings.

  12. Evaluation of existing cooling systems for reducing cooling power consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatamipour, M.S. [Chemical Engineering Department, Isfahan University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahiyar, H.; Taheri, M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    This work was designed to estimate the cooling load power consumption during the summer in the hot and humid areas of Iran. The actual electrical energy consumption for cooling systems of some typical buildings with various applications (3 residential home buildings, 2 industrial plant buildings, a trade center with 38 shops, 3 public sectors and a city hospital) in a hot and humid region in South of Iran was recorded during the peak load period of the year (July-August). The records were used for estimating the total power consumption of the cooling systems in this region. According to this estimation, which was confirmed by the regional electrical power distribution office, the cooling systems power consumption in this region accounted for more than 60% of the total power consumption during the peak load period of the year. A computer program was developed for simulating the effect of various parameters on cooling load of the buildings in hot and humid regions. According to the simulation results, use of double glazed windows, light colored walls and roofs, and insulated walls and roofs can reduce the cooling load of the buildings more than 40%. (author)

  13. Environmental effects of cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Since the International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1974 Thermal Discharges at Nuclear Power Stations (Technical Reports Series No.155), much progress has been made in the understanding of phenomena related to thermal discharges. Many studies have been performed in Member States and from 1973 to 1978 the IAEA sponsored a co-ordinated research programme on 'Physical and Biological Effects on the Environment of Cooling Systems and Thermal Discharges from Nuclear Power Stations'. Seven laboratories from Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, India and the United States of America were involved in this programme, and a lot of new information has been obtained during the five years' collaboration. The progress of the work was discussed at annual co-ordination meetings and the results are presented in the present report. It complements the previous report mentioned above as it deals with several questions that were not answered in 1974. With the conclusion of this co-ordinated programme, it is obvious that some problems have not yet been resolved and that more work is necessary to assess completely the impact of cooling systems on the environment. It is felt, however, that the data gathered here will bring a substantial contribution to the understanding of the subject

  14. Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, John H.

    1980-01-01

    A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

  15. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, John H.

    1987-01-01

    In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

  16. Solar-powered cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2015-07-28

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system that uses nanostructural materials such as aerogels, zeolites, and sol gels as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material while the material is at a relatively low temperature, perhaps at night. During daylight hours, when the nanostructural materials is heated by the sun, the refrigerant are thermally desorbed from the surface of the aerogel, thereby creating a pressurized gas phase in the vessel that contains the aerogel. This solar-driven pressurization forces the heated gaseous refrigerant through a condenser, followed by an expansion valve. In the condenser, heat is removed from the refrigerant, first by circulating air or water. Eventually, the cooled gaseous refrigerant expands isenthalpically through a throttle valve into an evaporator, in a fashion similar to that in more conventional vapor recompression systems.

  17. High temperature cooling system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Eric P.

    2006-12-12

    A method for cooling a heat source, a method for preventing chemical interaction between a vessel and a cooling composition therein, and a cooling system. The method for cooling employs a containment vessel with an oxidizable interior wall. The interior wall is oxidized to form an oxide barrier layer thereon, the cooling composition is monitored for excess oxidizing agent, and a reducing agent is provided to eliminate excess oxidation. The method for preventing chemical interaction between a vessel and a cooling composition involves introducing a sufficient quantity of a reactant which is reactive with the vessel in order to produce a barrier layer therein that is non-reactive with the cooling composition. The cooling system includes a containment vessel with oxidizing agent and reducing agent delivery conveyances and a monitor of oxidation and reduction states so that proper maintenance of a vessel wall oxidation layer occurs.

  18. FTA of loss of cooling to a HALW storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi

    1991-10-01

    A fault tree analysis consisting of assumption of accident scenarios, construction of fault trees, and performing of analyses is given for a loss of cooling accident in a HALW (High Activity Liquid Waste) tank of a typical reprocessing facility. A systematic method is developed to avoid 'missing scenarios', and 'confused scenarios' which are major problems in these analyses. Model plant data, basic failure frequency data and a fault tree analysis code named FTL have been introduced from NUKEM GmbH, Germany. The analyzed occurrence frequencies for the assumed scenarios of the loss of cooling accident are discussed to show a design improvement measure to attain a more reliable system. These results are compared with general requirements to be selected as DBE (design basis event) used in the safety assessment of the facility design. DBE is an event which is considered to have relatively high occurrence probabilities and considerable effects on environment. (author)

  19. A parametric study of solar operated cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagalei, Abdullatif Salin

    2006-01-01

    Because of energy for air conditioning has been the fastest-growing segment of energy of consumption market in Libya and generally in north Africa, and with the realization depleting nature of fossil fuel, solar cooling of buildings which leads to the improvement of human comfort represents a potentially significant application of solar energy where the availability of solar radiation meets with the cooling load demand. This application has been shown to be technically feasible but the equipment needs further investigative research to improve its performance and feasibility. A solar operated absorption cooling system with energy storage is selected. A latent heat storage would be a space saver for such application for solar energy. A system modeling is an essential activity in order to go for system simulation. A complete solar cooling system to be modeled through the thermodynamic analysis of each system components. Resulting a package of equations used directly to the system simulation in order to predict the system performance to obtain the optimum working conditions for the selected cooling system. A computer code which is used to simulate a series of calculations was written in Fortran language according to the constructed information flow diagram and simulation program flow char. For a typical input data a set of results are reported and discussed and shows that the selected system promises to be a good choice for air conditioning application in Libya specially for large building as storehouses, shopping centers, public administrative.(Author)

  20. Economics of dry storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.R.; Winders, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper postulates a dry storage application suitable as a regional away-from-reactor storage (AFR), develops an economical system design concept and estimates system costs. The system discussed uses the experience gained in the dry storage research activities and attempts to present a best foot forward system concept. The major element of the system is the Receiving and Packaging Building. In this building fuel assemblies are removed from transportation casks and encapsulated for storage. This facility could be equally applicable to silo, vault, or caisson storage. However the caisson storage concept has been chosen for discussion purposes

  1. A Dynamic Momentum Compaction Factor Lattice for Improvements to Stochastic Cooling in Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivieri, David Nicholas [Massachusetts U., Amherst

    1996-01-01

    A dynamic momentum compaction factor, also referred to as a dynamic $\\Delta \\gamma \\tau$, lattice for the FNAL Antiproton Source Debuncher Storage Ring is studied, both theoretically and experimentally, for the purpose of improving stochastic precooling, and hence, improving the global antiproton production and stacking performance. A dynamic $\\Delta \\gamma \\tau$ lattice is proposed due to the competing requirements inherent within the Debuncher storage ring upon $\\gamma \\tau$· Specifically, the Debuncher storage ring performs two disparate functions, $(i)$ accepting and debunching a large number of $\\overline{p}$s/pulse at the outset of the production cycle, which would perform ideally with a large value of $\\gamma\\tau$, and $(ii)$ subsequently employing stochastic cooling throughout the remainder of the $\\overline{p}$ production cycle for improved transfer and stacking efficiency into the Accumulator, for which a small value $\\gamma \\tau$ is ideal in order to reduce the diffusive heating caused by the mixing factor. In the initial design of the Debuncher optical lattice, an intermediate value of $\\gamma \\tau$ was chosen as a compromise between the two functional requirements. The goal of the thesis is to improve stochastic precooling by changing $\\gamma \\tau$ between two desired values during each p production cycle. In particular, the dynamic $\\Delta \\gamma \\tau$ lattice accomplishes a reduction in $\\gamma \\tau$, and hence the mixing factor, through an uniform increase to the dispersion throughout the arc sections of the storage ring. Experimental measurements of cooling rates and system performance parameters, with the implementation of the dynamic $\\Delta \\gamma \\tau$ lattice, are in agreement with theoretical predictions based upon a detailed integration of the stochastic cooling Fokker Planck equations. Based upon the consistency between theory and experiment, predictions of cooling rates are presented for future operational

  2. On synthesis and optimization of cooling water systems with multiple cooling towers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flow rate and low cooling water return temperature, thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  3. Analysis and sizing of thermal energy storage in combined heating, cooling and power plants for buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Lera, S.; Ballester, J.; Martínez-Lera, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel method to estimate the contribution of thermal energy storage in CHCP plants. ► Simple and accurate analysis of contributions of thermal storage. ► Application to the assessment and optimal sizing of thermal storage in CHCP plants. ► Thermal storage increases efficiency, coverage and economic benefit. ► Thermal storage allows increasing efficient operation of the plant. - Abstract: Thermal energy storage (TES) can lead to significant energy savings and economic benefits in combined heating, cooling and power plants (CHCPs) for buildings in the tertiary sector. However, their complex interactions with the rest of the CHCP system make their adequate sizing difficult without using extensive and detailed simulations. The authors have developed a new method to evaluate the thermal contribution of TES based on simple procedures. Comparisons with detailed simulations for a range of situations confirm the ability of this method to predict the effect of TES on CHCP systems with good approximation, as well as to find the optimal size in a relatively simple manner and with few required data. The case studies show a strong dependence of the TES contribution on the demands profile and the operation strategy. However, adequately sized TES are proven to bring relevant energy savings as well as economic profit to CHCP plants. In this paper, sizing procedures are provided to find the optimal volume both in terms of thermodynamic efficiency and of economic profit

  4. Dry and mixed air cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutner, Gidali.

    1975-01-01

    The various dry air cooling systems now in use or being developed are classified. The main dimensioning parameters are specified and the main systems already built are given with their characteristics. The available data allow dry air cooling to be situated against the other cooling modes and so specify the aim of the research or currently developed works. Some systems at development stages are briefly described. The interest in mixed cooling (assisted draft) and the principal available systems is analyzed. A program of research is outlined [fr

  5. TEXT Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) Enery Storage System, designed by the Center for Electromechanics (CEM), consists of four 50 MJ, 125 V homopolar generators and their auxiliaries and is designed to power the toroidal and poloidal field coils of TEXT on a two-minute duty cycle. The four 50 MJ generators connected in series were chosen because they represent the minimum cost configuration and also represent a minimal scale up from the successful 5.0 MJ homopolar generator designed, built, and operated by the CEM

  6. A combined capillary cooling system for cooling fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ana Paula; Pelizza, Pablo Rodrigo; Galante, Renan Manozzo; Bazzo, Edson [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (LabCET/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Engenharia de Sistemas Termicos], Emails: ana@labcet.ufsc.br, pablo@labcet.ufsc.br, renan@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br

    2010-07-01

    The operation temperature control has an important influence over the PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) performance. A two-phase heat transfer system is proposed as an alternative for cooling and thermal control of PEMFC. The proposed system consists of a CPL (Capillary Pumped Loop) connected to a set of constant conductance heat pipes. In this work ceramic wick and stainless mesh wicks have been used as capillary structure of the CPL and heat pipes, respectively. Acetone has been used as the working fluid for CPL and deionized water for the heat pipes. Experimental results of three 1/4 inch stainless steel outlet diameter heats pipes and one CPL have been carried out and presented in this paper. Further experiments are planned coupling the proposed cooling system to a module which simulates the fuel cell. (author)

  7. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System was installed as a part of a new construction of a college building. The building will house classrooms and laboratories, administrative offices and three lecture halls. The Solar Energy System consists of 4,096 square feet (128 panels) Owens/Illinois Evacuated Glass Tube Collector Subsystem, and a 5,000 gallon steel tank below ground storage system. Hot water is circulated between the collectors and storage tank, passing through a water/lithium bromide absorption chiller to cool the building.

  8. Conduction cooling systems for linear accelerator cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Robert

    2017-05-02

    A conduction cooling system for linear accelerator cavities. The system conducts heat from the cavities to a refrigeration unit using at least one cavity cooler interconnected with a cooling connector. The cavity cooler and cooling connector are both made from solid material having a very high thermal conductivity of approximately 1.times.10.sup.4 W m.sup.-1 K.sup.-1 at temperatures of approximately 4 degrees K. This allows for very simple and effective conduction of waste heat from the linear accelerator cavities to the cavity cooler, along the cooling connector, and thence to the refrigeration unit.

  9. Hot gas path component cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2014-02-18

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

  10. The development of air cooled condensation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodas, J.

    1990-01-01

    EGI - Contracting/Engineering has had experience with the development of air cooled condensing systems since the 1950's. There are two accepted types of dry cooling systems,the direct and the indirect ones. Due to the fact that the indirect system has several advantages over the direct one, EGI's purpose was to develop an economic, reliable and efficient type of indirect cooling system, both for industrial and power station applications. Apart from system development, the main components of dry cooling plant have been developed as well. These are: the water-to-air heat exchangers; the direct contact (DC, or jet) condenser; the cooling water circulating pumps and recovery turbines; and the peak cooling/preheating units. As a result of this broad development work which was connected with intensive market activity, EGI has supplied about 50% of the dry cooling plants employed for large power stations all over the world. This means that today the cumulated capacity of power units using Heller type dry cooling systems supplied and contracted by EGI is over 6000 MW

  11. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  12. Intensive Ion Beam In Storage Rings With Electron Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Korotaev, Yu V; Kamerdjiev, V; Maier, R; Meshkov, I; Noda, K; Prasuhn, D; Sibuya, S; Sidorin, A; Stein, H J; Stockhorst, H; Syresin, E M; Uesugi, T

    2004-01-01

    Results of experimental studies of the electron cooling of a proton beam at COSY (Juelich, Germany) and an ion beam at HIMAC (Chiba, Japan) are presented. Intensity of the ion beam is limited by two general effects: particle loss directly after the injection and development of instability in a deep cooled ion beam. Methods of the instability suppression, which allow increasing the cooled beam intensity, are described.

  13. Desiccant cooling system performance: A simple approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, M.; Grolmes, M. A.

    1982-10-01

    The wave nature of heat and mass transfer in fixed desiccant bed adsorption is explained. A simple algebraic model of wave motion under single low desiccant bed operation is developed and applied to the prediction of the performance potential of the overall desiccant cooling system. The model is used to explain the increase in cooling system performance that is realized through the use of mixed inert desiccant material adsorption beds. The response of cooling system performance to changes in external process conditions is examined and conclusions are drawn relative to optimization of system characteristics.

  14. HiPER laser cooling system elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Didier

    2011-06-01

    HiPER laser will need several large cooling systems. We will start from a thermal budget. We will consider different solutions (Liquefaction vs Refrigeration cycles). We will set some key elements such as thermodynamic optimization and economic approach As for the tritium item, the cooling budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial aspect.

  15. HYBRID COOLING SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1980-03-01

    Mar 1, 1980 ... ABSTRACT. A hybrid cooling System was constructed and tested for glass-ware and plastic-ware production. The unit utilizes water-in-air stream to cool molds in glass and plastic forming processes. The rate of heat transfer between the mold surface and the two component two-phase stream was.

  16. Advanced Energy Storage Systems (AESS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and demonstrate advanced Energy Storage System (AESS) technologies that meet NASA's space exploration needs for safe, abundant, reliable, and lightweight...

  17. Closed Loop Cooling Systems for HTS Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, D.; Dioguardi, F.; Den Heijer, R.

    2006-04-01

    Stirling Cryogenics & Refrigeration BV has developed a complete range of closed loop cooling systems for High Temperature Superconducting applications. Several solutions are available depending on the requirements of the application to be cooled. Using liquid nitrogen as a working medium, a temperature as low as 65K can be used. The cooling power at 65K can be in the range of several hundred watts to several kilowatts. The distribution of the cooling power can be done by using the latent heat of evaporation or by using the heat capacity of sub-cooled liquid. The latter requires a fully automated pumping cryostat, containing all the components required for a controlled cool down of the application, sub cooling of the working fluid, transport of the liquid through the application and precise temperature regulation. For low temperature applications, two-stage cryocoolers provide cooling power at 20K and 80K temperature regions. Distribution of cooling capacity can eg. be done by forced flow of gaseous helium or by reliquefaction of neon.

  18. Radiative cooling for concentrating photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubo; Zhou, Zhiguang; Jin, Xin; Sun, Xingshu; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Bermel, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Radiative cooling, a unique and uncommon passive cooling method for devices operating outdoors, has recently been demonstrated to be effective for photovoltaic thermal management. In this work, we investigate the effect of radiative cooling as a complement to existing passive cooling methods like convective cooling in a related system with much higher heat loads: a high-concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) system. A feasible radiative cooler design addressing the thermal management challenges here is proposed. It consists of low-iron soda-lime glass with a porous layer on top as an antireflection coating and a diamond layer as heat spreader. It is found that the proposed structure has strong mid-IR emittance as well as high solar transmission, allowing radiative cooling under direct sunlight and low loss in the concentrated solar irradiance. A systematic simulation with realistic considerations is then performed. Compared with a conventional copper cooler, the lowest temperature reached by the proposed radiative cooler is 14 K lower. Furthermore, less area of the proposed cooler is needed to reach a standard target temperature (333.15 K) for steady-state operation under high concentrations for the crystalline silicon PV module. In order to compare the coolers quantitatively, a figure of merit - cooling power per weight - is introduced. At the target temperature, the proposed cooler is determined to have a cooling power per weight of 75 W/kg, around 3.7 times higher than that of the conventional copper cooler.

  19. Cooling and heating of ultracold neutrons at storage

    CERN Document Server

    Bondarenko, L M; Morozov, V I; Panin, Y N; Geltenbort, P

    2002-01-01

    Rare processes of weak heating and cooling of ultracold neutrons at reflection from a surface of fluoro-substitution oil were investigated. The probability of these processes was estimated as 10 sup - sup 6 for one reflection with a value of transmitted energy comparable with the primary neutron energy. It was shown that weak heating and cooling are realization of a common phenomenon of a quasi-elastic neutron reflection with probability depending on temperature

  20. Cooling Grapple System for FMEF hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmens, L.S.; Frandsen, G.B.; Tome, R.

    1983-01-01

    A Cooling Grapple System was designed and built to handle fuel assemblies within the FMEF hot cell. The variety of functions for which it is designed makes it unique from grapples presently in use. The Cooling Grapple can positively grip and transport assemblies vertically, retrieve assemblies from molten sodium where six inches of grapple tip is submerged, cool 7 kw assemblies in argon, and service an in-cell area of 372 m 2 (4000 ft 2 ). Novel and improved operating and maintenance features were incorporated in the design including a shear pin and mechanical catcher system to prevent overloading the grapple while allowing additional reaction time for crane shutdown

  1. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    Verlaat, Bartholomeus; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Atlas Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity. This paper describes the design, development, construction and commissioning of the IBL CO2 cooling system. It describes the challenges overcome and the important lessons learned for the development of future systems which are now under design for the Phase-II upgrade detectors.

  2. Parametric study on the advantages of weather-predicted control algorithm of free cooling ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medved, Sašo; Babnik, Miha; Vidrih, Boris; Arkar, Ciril

    2014-01-01

    Predicted climate changes and the increased intensity of urban heat islands, as well as population aging, will increase the energy demand for the cooling of buildings in the future. However, the energy demand for cooling can be efficiently reduced by low-exergy free-cooling systems, which use natural processes, like evaporative cooling or the environmental cold of ambient air during night-time ventilation for the cooling of buildings. Unlike mechanical cooling systems, the energy for the operation of free-cooling system is needed only for the transport of the cold from the environment into the building. Because the natural cold potential is time dependent, the efficiency of free-cooling systems could be improved by introducing a weather forecast into the algorithm for the controlling. In the article, a numerical algorithm for the optimization of the operation of free-cooling systems with night-time ventilation is presented and validated on a test cell with different thermal storage capacities and during different ambient conditions. As a case study, the advantage of weather-predicted controlling is presented for a summer week for typical office room. The results show the necessity of the weather-predicted controlling of free-cooling ventilation systems for achieving the highest overall energy efficiency of such systems in comparison to mechanical cooling, better indoor comfort conditions and a decrease in the primary energy needed for cooling of the buildings. - Highlights: • Energy demand for cooling will increase due to climate changes and urban heat island • Free cooling could significantly reduce energy demand for cooling of the buildings. • Free cooling is more effective if weather prediction is included in operation control. • Weather predicted free cooling operation algorithm was validated on test cell. • Advantages of free-cooling on mechanical cooling is shown with different indicators

  3. Dry cooling systems with plastic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roma, Carlo; Leonelli, Vincenzo

    1975-01-01

    Research and experiments made on dry cooling systems with plastic surfaces are described. The demonstration program planned in Italy for a 100Gcal/h dry cooling system is exposed, and an installation intended for a large 1300Mwe nuclear power station is described with reference to the assembly (exploitation and maintenance included). The performance and economic data relating to this installation are also exposed [fr

  4. Effectiveness-weighted control method for a cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Levi A.; Chu, Richard C.; David, Milnes P.; Ellsworth Jr., Michael J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Simons, Robert E.

    2015-12-15

    Energy efficient control of cooling system cooling of an electronic system is provided based, in part, on weighted cooling effectiveness of the components. The control includes automatically determining speed control settings for multiple adjustable cooling components of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on weighted cooling effectiveness of the components of the cooling system, and the determining operates to limit power consumption of at least the cooling system, while ensuring that a target temperature associated with at least one of the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range by provisioning, based on the weighted cooling effectiveness, a desired target temperature change among the multiple adjustable cooling components of the cooling system. The provisioning includes provisioning applied power to the multiple adjustable cooling components via, at least in part, the determined control settings.

  5. Commissioning of Fermilab's Electron Cooling System for 8-GeV Antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaitsev, Sergei; Burov, Alexey; Carlson, Kermit; Gai, Wei; Gattuso, Consolato; Hu, Martin; Kazakevich, Grigory; Kramper, Brian J; Kroc, Thomas K; Leibfritz, Jerry; Prost, Lionel; Pruss, Stanley M; Saewert, Greg W; Schmidt, Chuck; Seletsky, Sergey; Shemyakin, Alexander V; Sutherland, Mary; Tupikov, Vitali; Warner, Arden

    2005-01-01

    A 4.3-MeV electron cooling system has been installed at Fermilab in the Recycler antiproton storage ring and is being currently commissioned. The cooling system is designed to assist accumulation of 8.9-GeV/c antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. This paper will report on the progress of the electron beam commissioning effort as well as on detailed plans of demonstrating the cooling of antiprotons.

  6. Developments at an electrostatic cryogenic storage ring for electron-cooled keV energy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to final setup activities and the commissioning of an electrostatic cryogenic storage ring (CSR) at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK) in Heidelberg. The first cryogenic operation of CSR in 2015 has been documented and characterized using a set of non-destructive beam diagnostic tools developed within this work. These are (1) the current pick-up system for the determination of the current of the stored ion beam and its velocity, (2) a position pick-up system for measuring the transverse position of the ion beam center at six symmetric locations of the storage ring circumference, and (3) a Schottky pick-up system for the monitoring of coasting ion beams. Despite the requirements imposed by the cryogenic operation, the developed diagnostic system demonstrated its full functionality. First characterizations of the storage ring properties and the performance of the diagnostic system are presented. Based on previous work, an electron cooling system for CSR has been developed and largely realized. With the implementation into CSR in 2016, the electron cooler will enhance the storage ring into a unique experimental facility for electron-ion collision studies. With this CSR is on the track to become the first cryogenic storage ring featuring actively cooled ion beams.

  7. Understanding aging in containment cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A study has been performed to assess the effects of aging in nuclear power plant containment cooling systems. Failure records from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to identify aging characteristics for this system. The predominant aging mechanisms were determined, along with the most frequently failed components and their associated failure modes. This paper discusses the aging mechanisms present in the containment spray system and the containment fan cooler system, which are two systems used to provide the containment cooling function. The failure modes, along with the relative frequency of each is also discussed

  8. New Protective Measures for Cooling Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D. Anthony; Nonohue, Jonh M.

    1974-01-01

    Cooling water treatments have been updated and improved during the last few years. Particularly important are the nontoxic programs which conform plant cooling water effluents to local water quality standards without expenditures for capital equipment. The relationship between scaling and corrosion in natural waters has been recognized for many years. This relationship is the basis for the Langelier Saturation Index control method which was once widely applied to reduce corrosion in cooling water systems. It used solubility characteristics to maintain a very thin deposit on metal surfaces for preventing corrosion. This technique was rarely successful. That is, the solubility of calcium carbonate and most other inorganic salts depends on temperature. If good control exists on cold surfaces, excessive deposition results on the heat transfer tubes. Also, because water characteristic normally vary in a typical cooling system, precise control of scaling at both hot and cold surfaces is virtually impossible

  9. Improving Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning Efficiency with Wintertime Cooling using Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES). Application Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    APPLICATION MANUAL Improving Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning Efficiency with Wintertime Cooling using Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage...manual is to describe the use of the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) technology, particularly through the employment of wintertime cooling...application projects to increase energy efficiency and occupant comfort. Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) technology, energy efficiency, geothermal heat

  10. Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Michael; Anderson, Mark; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2013-01-16

    This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

  11. Rust Inhibitor And Fungicide For Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James F.; Greer, D. Clay

    1988-01-01

    Mixture of benzotriazole, benzoic acid, and fungicide prevents growth of rust and fungus. Water-based cooling mixture made from readily available materials prevents formation of metallic oxides and growth of fungi in metallic pipes. Coolant remains clear and does not develop thick sludge tending to collect in low points in cooling systems with many commercial rust inhibitors. Coolant compatible with iron, copper, aluminum, and stainless steel. Cannot be used with cadmium or cadmium-plated pipes.

  12. Tribology of magnetic storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1992-01-01

    The construction and the materials used in different magnetic storage devices are defined. The theories of friction and adhesion, interface temperatures, wear, and solid-liquid lubrication relevant to magnetic storage systems are presented. Experimental data are presented wherever possible to support the relevant theories advanced.

  13. CSR: a new tool for storage and cooling of keV ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froese, Michael; Blaum, Klaus; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, Jose; Fellenberger, Florian; Grieser, Manfred; Kaiser, Dirk; Lange, Michael; Laux, Felix; Menk, Sebastian; Orlov, Dmitry A.; Repnow, Roland; Schroeter, Claus D.; Schwalm, Dirk; Sieber, Thomas; Ullrich, Joachim; Varju, Jozef; Hahn, Robert von; Wolf, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Heber, Oded; Rappaport, Michael; Toker, Jonathan; Zajfman, Daniel [Weizman Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2009-07-01

    An electrostatic Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR) is currently being built in Heidelberg, Germany. The current status and final design of this ring, with a focus on the optimized 2 K chamber cooling, precision chamber suspension, and pumping down to extremely low pressures via cryogenic vacuum chambers will be presented. This ring will allow long storage times of highly charged ion and polyatomic molecular beams with energies in the range of keV per charge-state. Combining the long storage times with vacuum chamber temperatures approaching 2 K, infrared-active molecular ions will be radiatively cooled to their rotational ground states. Many aspects of this concept were experimentally tested with a cryogenic trap for fast ion beams (CTF), which has already demonstrated the storage of fast ion beams in a large cryogenic device. An upcoming test will investigate the effect of pre-baking the cryogenic vacuum chambers to 600 K on the cryogenic vacuum and the ion beam storage.

  14. Controlled cooling of an electronic system for reduced energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2018-01-30

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided. The control includes automatically determining at least one adjusted control setting for at least one adjustable cooling component of a cooling system cooling the electronic system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on power being consumed by the cooling system and temperature of a heat sink to which heat extracted by the cooling system is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on one or more experimentally obtained models relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the one or more adjustable cooling components of the cooling system.

  15. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  16. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  17. Review of groundwater cooling systems in London

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampofo, F.; Maidment, G.G.; Missenden, J.F. [Department of Engineering Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Science and The Built Environment, London South Bank University, 103 Borough Road, London, SE1 0AA (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    The environmental impact of the UK building stock has increased the pressure on architects, engineers and building operators to reduce the use of air conditioning in favour of more passive cooling solutions. Good progress has been made in this direction but many passive solutions are limited to new-build projects. For existing buildings, and those for which mechanical air conditioning cannot be avoided, low energy cooling capability can be incorporated to improve significantly overall efficiency. This paper focuses on one such low energy capability - cooling using groundwater, which has gained popularity in recent years in the London area. Among the reasons for this are the excellent energy efficiency and the increasing viability of water extraction systems. The paper shows that groundwater cooling technology can be incorporated into newly-build and existing buildings to help reduce the environmental impact of the UK building stock. (author)

  18. Thermal energy storage for building heating and cooling applications. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, H.W.; Kedl, R.J.

    1976-11-01

    This is the first in a series of quarterly progress reports covering activities at ORNL to develop thermal energy storage (TES) technology applicable to building heating and cooling. Studies to be carried out will emphasize latent heat storage in that sensible heat storage is held to be an essentially existing technology. Development of a time-dependent analytical model of a TES system charged with a phase-change material was started. A report on TES subsystems for application to solar energy sources is nearing completion. Studies into the physical chemistry of TES materials were initiated. Preliminary data were obtained on the melt-freeze cycle behavior and viscosities of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate and a mixture of Glauber's salt and Borax; limited melt-freeze data were obtained on two paraffin waxes. A subcontract was signed with Monsanto Research Corporation for studies on form-stable crystalline polymer pellets for TES; subcontracts are being negotiated with four other organizations (Clemson University, Dow Chemical Company, Franklin Institute, and Suntek Research Associates). Review of 10 of 13 unsolicited proposals received was completed by the end of June 1976.

  19. System for Cooling of Electronic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, L. L.; Grakovich, L. P.; Dragun, L. A.; Zhuravlev, A. S.; Olekhnovich, V. A.; Rabetskii, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Results of computational and experimental investigations of heat pipes having a predetermined thermal resistance and a system based on these pipes for air cooling of electronic components and diode assemblies of lasers are presented. An efficient compact cooling system comprising heat pipes with an evaporator having a capillary coating of a caked copper powder and a condenser having a developed outer finning, has been deviced. This system makes it possible to remove, to the ambient air, a heat flow of power more than 300 W at a temperature of 40-50°C.

  20. MULTIFUNCTIONAL SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR HEATING AND COOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic circuits of multifunctional solar systems of air drainage, heating (hot water supply and heating, cooling and air conditioning are developed on the basis of open absorption cycle with a direct absorbent regeneration. Basic decisions for new generation of gas-liquid solar collectors are developed. Heat-mass-transfer apparatus included in evaporative cooling system, are based on film interaction of flows of gas and liquid and in them, for the creation of nozzle, multi-channel structures from polymeric materials and porous ceramics are used. Preliminary analysis of multifunctional systems possibilities is implemented.

  1. Technical and economical evaluation of a district cooling system in a commercial area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holler, S. e-mail: s.holler@mvv.de

    2008-09-15

    As part of a feasibility study a theoretical comparison of technical and economical aspects for a district cooling system in a commercial area in Mannheim, Germany has been made. On the basis of a newly developed cadastre of cooling a suitable site was selected for further examination. Different technical concepts including compression and absorption chillers as well as a cool thermal storage have been analysed. Under the specific premises of the chosen commercial district a cold water system with centralised centrifugal compressors and chilled water storage is the most economic alternative

  2. Volatile liquid storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverman, R.J.; Winters, P.J.; Rinehart, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere

  3. Effects of disinfection, packaging and evaporatively cooled storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, disinfection treatment significantly (P 0.01) affected the changes in reducing, non-reducing and total sugars of mangoes during storage. Two-way interactions were significant (P 0.01) in terms of the changes in sugar content of mangoes. The benefits of the combined effect of post-harvest treatments on mangoes ...

  4. Grand Challenges facing Storage Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will discuss the future of storage systems. In particular, we will focus on several big challenges which we are facing in storage, such as being able to build, manage and backup really massive storage systems, being able to find information of interest, being able to do long-term archival of data, and so on. We also present ideas and research being done to address these challenges, and provide a perspective on how we expect these challenges to be resolved as we go forward.

  5. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part two

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    Control of the heating and cooling system needs to be able to maintain the indoor temperatures within the comfort range under the varying internal loads and external climates. To maintain a stable thermal environment, the control system needs to maintain the balance between the heat gain...

  6. Passive cooling systems in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharon, J.; Harrari, R.; Weiss, Y.; Barnea, Y.; Katz, M.; Szanto, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews several R and D activities associated with the subject of passive cooling systems, conducted by the N.R.C.Negev thermohydraulic group. A short introduction considering different types of thermosyphons and their applications is followed by a detailed description of the experimental work, its results and conclusions. An ongoing research project is focused on the evaluation of the external dry air passive containment cooling system (PCCS) in the AP-600 (Westinghouse advanced pressurized water reactor). In this context some preliminary theoretical results and planned experimental research are for the fature described

  7. Diurnal cool thermal energy storage: Research programs, technological developments, and commercial status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M A

    1992-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the major federal and private research and development efforts in diurnal cool thermal energy storage for electric load management in buildings. Included are brief technical descriptions and research histories of the technologies and applications of cool thermal storage. The goals, accomplishments, and funding levels of major thermal storage research programs also are summarized. The report concludes with the results of recent field performance evaluations of cool thermal storage installations and a discussion of the current commercial status of thermal storage equipment, including utility participation programs. This report was sponsored by the Technology and Consumer Products (TCP) Division within the Office of Conservation of the US Department of Energy. This report is part of TCP's ongoing effort to examine and evaluate technology developments and research efforts in the areas of lighting, space heating and cooling, water heating, refrigeration, and other building energy conversion equipment. Information obtained through this effort is used as an input in developing the US research agenda in these areas.

  8. Smart Cooling Controlled System Exploiting Photovoltaic Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Atieh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A smart cooling system to control the ambient temperature of a premise in Amman, Jordan, is investigated and implemented. The premise holds 650 people and has 14 air conditioners with the cooling capacity ranging from 3 to 5 ton refrigerant (TR each. The control of the cooling system includes implementing different electronics circuits that are used to sense the ambient temperature and humidity, count the number of people in the premise and then turn ON/OFF certain air conditioner(s. The data collected by different electronic circuits are fed wirelessly to a microcontroller, which decides which air conditioner will be turned ON/OFF, its location and its desired set cooling temperature. The cooling system is integrated with an on-grid solar photovoltaic energy system to minimize the operational cost of the overall cooling system.

  9. Sharp edge broad-band lasers for ``white-light`` cooling in storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atutov, S.N.; Calabrese, R.; Guidi, V.; Lenisa, P.; Petruio, S. [Ferrara Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Ferrara (Italy); Mariotti, E.; Moi, L. [INFM, Siena (Italy)]|[Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. di Siena (Italy)

    1997-04-01

    We have developed broad-band laser sources which show a sharp edge in their spectra and are particularly suitable for ``white-laser`` cooling of ions in storage rings. They allow for a very large velocity capture range by maintaining the same cooling rate allowed by the single mode lasers. A large fraction of the circulating ions are expected to be cooled both in coasting and bunched beams. The device, which does not use an active medium, can easily operate at any frequency from UV to IR spectral region. (orig.). 13 refs.

  10. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  11. Solar hydrogen hybrid system with carbon storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zini, G.; Marazzi, R.; Pedrazzi, S.; Tartarini, P.

    2009-01-01

    A complete solar hydrogen hybrid system has been developed to convert, store and use energy from renewable energy sources. The theoretical model has been implemented in a dynamic model-based software environment and applied to real data to simulate its functioning over a one-year period. Results are used to study system design and performance. A photovoltaic sub-system directly drives a residential load and, if a surplus of energy is available, an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen which is stored in a cluster of nitrogen-cooled tanks filled with AX-21 activated carbons. When the power converted from the sun is not sufficient to cover load needs, hydrogen is desorbed from activated carbon tanks and sent to the fuel-cell sub-system so to obtain electrical energy. A set of sub-systems (bus-bar, buck- and boost-converters, inverter, control circuits), handle the electrical power according to a Programmable Logic Control unit so that the load can be driven with adequate Quality of Service. Hydrogen storage is achieved through physisorption (weak van der Waals interactions) between carbon atoms and hydrogen molecules occurring at low temperature (77 K) in carbon porous solids at relatively low pressures. Storage modeling has been developed using a Langmuir-Freundlich 1st type isotherm and experimental data available in literature. Physisorption storage provides safer operations along with good gravimetric (10.8% at 6 MPa) and volumetric (32.5 g/l at 6 MPa) storage capacities at costs that can be comparable to, or smaller than, ordinary storage techniques (compression or liquefaction). Several test runs have been performed on residential user data-sets: the system is capable of providing grid independence and can be designed to yield a surplus production of hydrogen which can be used to recharge electric car batteries or fill tanks for non-stationary uses. (author)

  12. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237783; The ATLAS collaboration; Zwalinski, L.; Bortolin, C.; Vogt, S.; Godlewski, J.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Van Overbeek, M.; Blaszcyk, T.

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity.

  13. Atmospheric impacts of evaporative cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, J.E.

    1976-10-01

    The report summarizes available information on the effects of various power plant cooling systems on the atmosphere. While evaporative cooling systems sharply reduce the biological impacts of thermal discharges in water bodies, they create (at least, for heat-release rates comparable to those of two-unit nuclear generating stations) atmospheric changes. For an isolated site such as required for a nuclear power plant, these changes are rather small and local, and usually environmentally acceptable. However, one cannot say with certainty that these effects will remain small as the number of reactors on a given site increases. There must exist a critical heat load for a specific site which, if exceeded, can create its own weather patterns, and thus create inadvertent weather changes such as rain and snow, severe thunderstorms, and tornadoes. Because proven mathematical models are not available, it is not now possible to forecast precisely the extent and frequency of the atmospheric effects of a particular heat-dissipation system at a particular site. Field research on many aspects of cooling system operation is needed in order to document and quantify the actual atmospheric changes caused by a given cooling system and to provide the data needed to develop and verify mathematical and physical models. The more important topics requiring field study are plume rise, fogging and icing (from certain systems), drift emission and deposition rates, chemical interactions, cloud and precipitation formation and critical heat-release rates

  14. Storage Policies and Optimal Shape of a Storage System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaerpour, N.; De Koster, René; Yu, Yugang

    2013-01-01

    The response time of a storage system is mainly influenced by its shape (configuration), the storage assignment and retrieval policies, and the location of the input/output (I/O) points. In this paper, we show that the optimal shape of a storage system, which minimises the response time for single

  15. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldini, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  16. Method of fabricating a cooled electronic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainer, Timothy J; Gaynes, Michael A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Schultz, Mark D; Simco, Daniel P; Steinke, Mark E

    2014-02-11

    A method of fabricating a liquid-cooled electronic system is provided which includes an electronic assembly having an electronics card and a socket with a latch at one end. The latch facilitates securing of the card within the socket. The method includes providing a liquid-cooled cold rail at the one end of the socket, and a thermal spreader to couple the electronics card to the cold rail. The thermal spreader includes first and second thermal transfer plates coupled to first and second surfaces on opposite sides of the card, and thermally conductive extensions extending from end edges of the plates, which couple the respective transfer plates to the liquid-cooled cold rail. The extensions are disposed to the sides of the latch, and the card is securable within or removable from the socket using the latch without removing the cold rail or the thermal spreader.

  17. Techno-economic studies on hybrid energy based cooling system for milk preservation in isolated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwin, M.; Joseph Sekhar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance studies on biomass and biogas based milk cooling systems in remote areas. • Economic analysis of milk cooling system operated with locally available renewable energy sources. • Payback period for replacing conventional milk cooling systems with renewable energy based cooling system. • Identification of the suitable combination of locally available renewable energy sources for milk cooling. • Hybrid energy based milk cooling system for regions that have rubber and paddy cultivation, in India. - Abstract: In developing countries like India, about 70% of the population is engaged in the production of milk, fruits and vegetables. Due to the lack of proper storage and transit facilities, the agricultural produce, in remote areas loses its value. This spoilage could be prevented at the local village level, by providing cooling units for short term preservation. In this paper, the possibility of a hybrid energy based thermally operated cold storage has been considered to meet the cooling needs of the villages in the southern parts of India, where biomass, biogas and gobar gas are available in abundance. A milk cooling system that uses various combinations of locally available renewable energy sources to operate an aqua ammonia vapour absorption cooling system has been analysed using the Matlab software. The impact of various combinations of renewable energy sources on the Coefficient of Performance (COP), Net Present Value (NPV) and payback period of the total cooling system has been studied. The analysis shows that the COP and payback period of the proposed hybrid renewable energy based milk cooling system are 0.16–0.23 and 4–6 years respectively

  18. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Digby

    2010-01-01

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the

  19. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  20. Optimal Scheduling of Residential Microgrids Considering Virtual Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiliang Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly complex residential microgrids (r-microgrid consisting of renewable generation, energy storage systems, and residential buildings require a more intelligent scheduling method. Firstly, aiming at the radiant floor heating/cooling system widely utilized in residential buildings, the mathematical relationship between the operative temperature and heating/cooling demand is established based on the equivalent thermodynamic parameters (ETP model, by which the thermal storage capacity is analyzed. Secondly, the radiant floor heating/cooling system is treated as virtual energy storage system (VESS, and an optimization model based on mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP for r-microgrid scheduling is established which takes thermal comfort level and economy as the optimization objectives. Finally, the optimal scheduling results of two typical r-microgrids are analyzed. Case studies demonstrate that the proposed scheduling method can effectively employ the thermal storage capacity of radiant floor heating/cooling system, thus lowering the operating cost of the r-microgrid effectively while ensuring the thermal comfort level of users.

  1. Lengthening of the storage life of cooled chicken through radurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, H.E.; Holzapfel, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    Radurization is a particularly suitable method to lengthen the shelf life of chicken carcasses. A study was undertaken to determine the influence of four different dose rates and three storage temperatures, namely 3, 4, 5 and 7 kGy and 2, 4 and 8 degrees Celsius respectively. A total bacteria population of 10 6 per gramme was used as cut-off point for shelf life. Accordingly the untreated samples had a shelf life of 3 days at 4 degrees Celsius in comparison with 13 and 29 days for 3 and 5 kGy respectively. This study showed that low gamma radiation doses is not only an economical preservation method for chicken carcasses, but also destroys typical food pathogens such as Salmonella spp. The method also produces an organoleptic acceptable product

  2. Application of PCM energy storage in combination with night ventilation for space cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzin, Reza; Chen, John J.J.; Young, Brent R.; Farid, Mohammed M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Night ventilation were tested in combination with PCM-impregnated gypsum boards. • The Price-based method were experimentally used to perform peak load shifting. • Importance of the application of a smart control were experimentally investigated. • A cost and energy saving up to 93% and 92% per day respectively were achieved. - Abstract: In recent years, as a result of the continuous increase in energy demand, the use of energy storage has become increasingly important. To address this problem, the application of phase change materials (PCM) in buildings has received attention because of their high energy storage density and their ease of incorporation in building envelopes. Despite large experimental works conducted on the application phase change materials in buildings, there is very little work done on this application in combination with night ventilation. In this study, the application of night ventilation in combination with PCM-impregnated gypsum boards for cooling purposes was experimentally investigated. Two identical test huts equipped with “smart” control systems were used for testing the concept. One hut was constructed using impregnated gypsum boards, while the other hut was finished with ordinary gypsum board. Initially an air conditioning (AC) unit, without night ventilation, was used in both huts to charge the PCM during low peak period, showing very little savings in electricity. However, when night ventilation was used to charge the PCM instead, a weekly electricity saving of 73% was achieved.

  3. Thermo Active Building Systems – Using Building Mass To Heat and Cool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    Using the thermal storage capacity of the concrete slabs between each floor in multistory buildings to heat or cool is a trend that began in the early 1990s in Switzerland.1,2 Pipes carrying water for heating and cooling are embedded in the center of the concrete slab. In central Europe (Germany...... multistory buildings. By activating the building mass, there is a direct heating-cooling effect. Also, because of the thermal mass, the peak load will be reduced and some of the cooling load will be transferred beyond the time of occupancy. Because these systems for cooling operate at water temperatures......, Austria, Netherlands, etc.), this type of system has been installed in a significant number of new office buildings since the late 1990s. The trend is spreading to other parts of the world (the rest of Europe, North America and Asia). Thermo active building systems (TABS) are primarily used for cooling...

  4. France uses the sun to cool its wine: the Banyuls winery solar cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-12-01

    The engineering consultancy Tecsol was asked to design a cooling system for a winery that would limit the variations in temperature during the year. Tecsol proposed a solar system. The total investment cost amounted to nearly two million French Francs (300,000 euros), almost double the cost of a conventional air-conditioning system. However, because the solar system reduced the conventional energy needs of the warehouse by about 40%, the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) provided a 37% subsidy for its rational use of energy. The 'Solarclim' solar installation has three functions: it produces hot water via 693 vacuum tube collectors with a useful surface of 130 m{sup 2}. The collectors are fixed to the roof of the wine cellar, which has an angle of 15 deg. Heat from the collectors is transferred to a 1000-litre hot water storage tank; it produces chilled water using a lithium bromide absorption plant with a nominal cooling capacity of 52 kW. This is housed in the technical premises on the lowest level and is used in conjunction with a 180 kW open-circuit cooling tower on the north facade; and the third function combines air-conditioning and, when necessary, space heating. The installation has been operating for 12 years with no particular problems. The equipment is environmentally friendly. The solar heat source avoids CO{sub 2} emissions, the absorption machine does not use CFCs or HCFCs, and the system is totally silent. (UK)

  5. Gel phantom study of a cryosurgical probe with a thermosiphon effect and liquid nitrogen-cooled aluminum thermal storage blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, Haruo; Takehara, Yasuo; Fujino, Hitoshi; Sone, Kazuya; Suzuki, Takeshi; Tsuzaki, Yoshinari; Miyazaki, Kouji; Fujie, Michio; Sakahara, Harumi; Maekawa, Yasuaki

    2015-08-01

    Cryosurgery is a minimally invasive treatment for certain types of cancers. Argon-based cryosurgical devices are available at present, however a large compressed gas cylinder with the pressure of 300 atmospheres is needed. To overcome these drawbacks, we developed a new cryosurgical probe measuring about 50 cm in length with separate lumens inside for liquid and gaseous ethylene to be used as a thermosiphon and liquid nitrogen-cooled aluminum thermal storage blocks. The probe needle was 8 cm in length and 3 mm in outer diameter. To investigate the freezing capabilities of our new cryosurgical system we inserted the needle 5cm into a poly-acrylamide gel phantom warmed to 36.5 ℃. Thermal storage blocks made of aluminum, cooled at -196 ℃ in liquid nitrogen, were attached to the condenser of the probe and replaced with thermal storage blocks every 4 to 5 minutes to compensate for warming. We took digital camera images of the ice ball at the needle and measured the temperature in certain locations of the cryoprobe. Ice ball formation started at one minute after cooling. The sizes (longest diameter × minimum diameter) at 10, 20 and 30 minutes after the start of the procedure were 4.5×2.1, 4.5×3.1 and 4.6×3.7 cm, respectively. During the procedure the minimum temperature of the condenser was -85 ℃ and the needle was -65 ℃. This newly developed compact cryosurgical probe with thermosiphon effect and cooled thermal storage blocks created an ice ball that can be used for cryosurgery within 20 minutes.

  6. Cooling system having dual suction port compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guolian

    2017-08-29

    A cooling system for appliances, air conditioners, and other spaces includes a compressor, and a condenser that receives refrigerant from the compressor. The system also includes an evaporator that receives refrigerant from the condenser. Refrigerant received from the condenser flows through an upstream portion of the evaporator. A first portion of the refrigerant flows to the compressor without passing through a downstream portion of the evaporator, and a second portion of the refrigerant from the upstream portion of the condenser flows through the downstream portion of the evaporator after passing through the upstream portion of the evaporator. The second portion of the refrigerant flows to the compressor after passing through the downstream portion of the evaporator. The refrigeration system may be configured to cool an appliance such as a refrigerator and/or freezer, or it may be utilized in air conditioners for buildings, motor vehicles, or other such spaces.

  7. Safety considerations for compressed hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, D.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the safety considerations for various hydrogen storage options, including stationary, vehicle storage, and mobile refueling technologies. Indications of some of the challenges facing the industry as the demand for hydrogen fuel storage systems increases. (author)

  8. An active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, H.G.; Lee, P.S.; Hawlader, M.N.A.

    2012-01-01

    The electrical efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) cell is adversely affected by the significant increase of cell operating temperature during absorption of solar radiation. A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system was designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated in this work. To actively cool the PV cells, a parallel array of ducts with inlet/outlet manifold designed for uniform airflow distribution was attached to the back of the PV panel. Experiments were performed with and without active cooling. A linear trend between the efficiency and temperature was found. Without active cooling, the temperature of the module was high and solar cells can only achieve an efficiency of 8–9%. However, when the module was operated under active cooling condition, the temperature dropped significantly leading to an increase in efficiency of solar cells to between 12% and 14%. A heat transfer simulation model was developed to compare to the actual temperature profile of PV module and good agreement between the simulation and experimental results is obtained.

  9. Emergency cooling system for the PHENIX reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megy, J.M.; Giudicelli, A.G.; Robert, E.A.; Crette, J.P.

    Among various engineered safeguards of the reactor plant, the authors describe the protective system designed to remove the decay heat in emergency, in case of complete loss of all normal decay heat removal systems. First the normal decay heat rejection systems are presented. Incidents leading to the loss of these normal means are then analyzed. The protective system and its constructive characteristics designed for emergency cooling and based on two independent and highly reliable circuits entirely installed outside the primary containment vessel are described

  10. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  11. The Role of Soya Oil Ester in Water-Based PCM for Low Temperature Cool Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Rasta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the preparation of the water-based phase change material (PCM with very small soya oil solution for low temperature latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES. Soya oil ester is soluble very well in water and acts as nucleating agent for a novel solid-liquid PCM candidate that is suitable for low temperature cool storage in the range between −9°C and −6°C. Thermal energy storage properties of the water with very small soya oil ester solution were measured by T-history method. The experimental results show that very small amount of soya oil ester in water can lower the freezing point and trigger ice nucleation for elimination of the supercooling degree. The phase transition temperatures of the water-based PCMs with soya oil as nucleate agent were lower than those of individual water. The thermal properties make it potential PCM for LHTES systems used in low temperature cool energy storage applications.

  12. Storage monitoring system - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickelsen, B.; Nilsen, C.; Kinzel, R.; Davidson, B.; Pollock, R.

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has several ongoing projects in the area of nuclear materials management. These projects establish a core capability in monitoring stored nuclear materials. The overarching goal of these projects is to get the right sensor information to the right user to enhance the safety, security and to verify the legitimacy of use 1 of stored nuclear materials. An effort has been initiated to merge these projects into a common system. This paper provides an overview of several of these projects and the integration activities between them. (author)

  13. Storage monitoring system - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickelsen, B.; Nilsen, C.; Kinzel, R.; Davidson, B.; Pollock, R.

    1997-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has several ongoing projects in the area of nuclear materials management. These projects establish a core capability in monitoring stored nuclear materials. The overarching goal of these projects is to get the right sensor information to the right user to enhance the safety, security and to verify the legitimacy of use of stored nuclear materials. An effort has been initiated to merge these projects into a common system. This paper provides an overview of several of these projects and the integration activities between them

  14. Tribology of Magnetic Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1998-02-01

    Tribology of Magnetic Storage Systemsis dedicated to the modern developments in the macro- and microtribology and mechanics of magnetic storage systems. This collection of papers, previously published as Special Issues of the Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in the Journal of Engineering Tribology (Part J) makes recent research in this important and rapidly developing area of engineering tribology accessible to industrial and academic researchers world-wide. The need for higher and higher recording densities in the modern magnetic recording process requires that surfaces be as smooth as possible, and flying height be as small as possible, in the interaction between magnetic medium and magnetic head. This presents significant challenges to researchers and designers within the industry. New techniques in atomic force microscopy and friction force microscopy have led to the development of the science of microtribology. Studies within this field are being conducted to enhance understanding of interfacial phenomena in magnetic storage devices.

  15. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiant heating systems has several thousand years of history.1,2 The early stage of radiant system application was for heating purposes, where hot air from flue gas (cooking, fires) was circulated under floors or in walls. After the introduction of plastic piping water-based radiant...... heating and cooling with pipes embedded in room surfaces (floor, wall, and ceiling), the application increased significantly worldwide. Earlier application of radiant heating systems was mainly for residential buildings because of its comfort and free use of floor space without any obstruction from...

  16. Emergency reactor cooling systems for the experimental VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitake, Susumu; Suzuki, Katsuo; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Tamura, Kazuo; Ezaki, Masahiro.

    1983-03-01

    Performances and design of the panel cooling system which has been proposed to be equipped as an emergency reactor cooling system for the experimental multi purpose very high temperature gas-cooled reactor are explained. Effects of natural circulation flow which would develop in the core and temperature transients of the panel in starting have been precisely investigated. Conditions and procedures for settling accidents with the proposed panel cooling system have been also studied. Based on these studies, it has been shown that the panel cooling system is effective and useful for the emergency reactor cooling of the experimental VHTR. (author)

  17. Electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavietes, Anthony D.; Joseph Mauger, G.; Anderson, Eric H.

    1999-01-01

    We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of high energy resolution performance and exceptional detection efficiency. Logistical difficulties associated with providing the required liquid nitrogen (LN) for cooling is the primary reason that these systems are found mainly in laboratories. The EMC-HPGe detector system described in this paper successfully provides HPGe detector performance in a portable instrument that allows for isotopic analysis in the field. It incorporates a unique active vibration control system that allows the use of a Sunpower Stirling cycle cryocooler unit without significant spectral degradation from microphonics. All standard isotopic analysis codes, including MGA and MGA++, GAMANL, GRPANL and MGAU, typically used with HPGe detectors can be used with this system with excellent results. Several national and international Safeguards organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have expressed interest in this system. The detector was combined with custom software and demonstrated as a rapid Field Radiometric Identification System (FRIS) for the U.S. Customs Service . The European Communities' Safeguards Directorate (EURATOM) is field-testing the first Safeguards prototype in their applications. The EMC-HPGe detector system design, recent applications, and results will be highlighted

  18. Preliminary study on the adjonction of a cooling system and internal target ring to the GEPL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potaux, D.

    1983-01-01

    Various heavy particle storage rings (LEAR, Indiana, Uppsala) are planned for operation with combined electron cooling system and internal ultra-thin targets. The advantage of adding a similar device to the IPN cyclotron project is discussed [fr

  19. Cooling Tower (Evaporative Cooling System) Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boyd, Brian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lewis, Taylor [Colorado Energy Office, Denver, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M and V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with cooling tower efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M and V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  20. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  1. Development of the interactive model between Component Cooling Water System and Containment Cooling System using GOTHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Choong Sup; Song, Dong Soo; Jun, Hwang Yong

    2006-01-01

    In a design point of view, component cooling water (CCW) system is not full-interactively designed with its heat loads. Heat loads are calculated from the CCW design flow and temperature condition which is determined with conservatism. Then the CCW heat exchanger is sized by using total maximized heat loads from above calculation. This approach does not give the optimized performance results and the exact trends of CCW system and the loads during transient. Therefore a combined model for performance analysis of containment and the component cooling water(CCW) system is developed by using GOTHIC software code. The model is verified by using the design parameters of component cooling water heat exchanger and the heat loads during the recirculation mode of loss of coolant accident scenario. This model may be used for calculating the realistic containment response and CCW performance, and increasing the ultimate heat sink temperature limits

  2. Emergency cooling system for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, E.; Andrews, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    Upon the occasion of loss of coolant in a nuclear reactor as when a coolant supply or return line breaks, or both lines break, borated liquid coolant from an emergency source is supplied in an amount to absorb heat being generated in the reactor even after the control rods have been inserted. The liquid coolant flows from pressurized storage vessels outside the reactor to an internal manifold from which it is distributed to unused control rod guide thimbles in the reactor fuel assemblies. Since the guide thimbles are mounted at predetermined positions relative to heat generating fuel elements in the fuel assemblies, holes bored at selected locations in the guide thimble walls, sprays the coolant against the reactor fuel elements which continue to dissipate heat but at a reduced level. The cooling water evaporates upon contacting the fuel rods thereby removing the maximum amount of heat (970 BTU per pound of water) and after heat absorption will leave the reactor in the form of steam through the break which is the cause of the accident to help assure immediate core cooldown

  3. Online mass storage system detailed requirements document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The requirements for an online high density magnetic tape data storage system that can be implemented in a multipurpose, multihost environment is set forth. The objective of the mass storage system is to provide a facility for the compact storage of large quantities of data and to make this data accessible to computer systems with minimum operator handling. The results of a market survey and analysis of candidate vendor who presently market high density tape data storage systems are included.

  4. Cooling Performance Analysis of ThePrimary Cooling System ReactorTRIGA-2000Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianto, I. D.; Dibyo, S.; Bakhri, S.; Sunaryo, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    The conversion of reactor fuel type will affect the heat transfer process resulting from the reactor core to the cooling system. This conversion resulted in changes to the cooling system performance and parameters of operation and design of key components of the reactor coolant system, especially the primary cooling system. The calculation of the operating parameters of the primary cooling system of the reactor TRIGA 2000 Bandung is done using ChemCad Package 6.1.4. The calculation of the operating parameters of the cooling system is based on mass and energy balance in each coolant flow path and unit components. Output calculation is the temperature, pressure and flow rate of the coolant used in the cooling process. The results of a simulation of the performance of the primary cooling system indicate that if the primary cooling system operates with a single pump or coolant mass flow rate of 60 kg/s, it will obtain the reactor inlet and outlet temperature respectively 32.2 °C and 40.2 °C. But if it operates with two pumps with a capacity of 75% or coolant mass flow rate of 90 kg/s, the obtained reactor inlet, and outlet temperature respectively 32.9 °C and 38.2 °C. Both models are qualified as a primary coolant for the primary coolant temperature is still below the permitted limit is 49.0 °C.

  5. Performance characteristic of hybrid cooling system based on cooling pad and evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J. I.; Son, C. H.; Choi, K. H.; Kim, Y. B.; Sung, Y. H.; Roh, S. J.; Kim, Y. M.; Seol, S. H.

    2018-01-01

    In South Korea, most of domestic animals such as pigs and chickens might die due to thermal diseases if they are exposed to the high temperature consistently. In order to save them from the heat wave, numerous efforts have been carried out: installing a shade net, adjusting time of feeding, spraying mist and setting up a circulation fan. However, these methods have not shown significant improvements. Thus, this study proposes a hybrid cooling system combining evaporative cooler and air-conditioner in order to resolve the conventional problems caused by the high temperature in the livestock industry. The problem of cooling systems using evaporative cooling pads is that they are not effective for eliminating huge heat load due to their limited capacity. And, temperature of the supplied air cannot be low enough compared to conventional air-conditioning systems. On the other hand, conventional air-conditioning systems require relatively expensive installation cost, and high operating cost compared to evaporative cooling system. The hybrid cooling system makes up for the lack of cooling capacity of the evaporative cooler by employing the conventional air-conditioner. Additionally, temperature of supplied air can be lowered enough. In the hybrid cooling system, induced air by a fan is cooled by the evaporation of water in the cooling pad, and it is cooled again by an evaporator in the air-conditioner. Therefore, the more economical operation is possible due to additionally obtained cooling capacity from the cooling pads. Major results of experimental analysis of hybrid cooling system are as follows. The compressor power consumption of the hybrid cooling system is about 23% lower, and its COP is 17% higher than that of the conventional air-conditioners. Regarding the condition of changing ambient temperature, the total power consumption decreased by about 5% as the ambient temperature changed from 28.7°C to 31.7°C. Cooling capacity and COP also presented about 3% and 1

  6. Deposit control in process cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramani, B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to achieve efficient heat transfer in cooling water systems, it is essential to control the fouling of heat exchanger surfaces. Solubilities of scale forming salts, their growth into crystals, and the nature of the surfaces play important roles in the deposition phenomenon. Condensed phosphates, organic polymers and compounds like phosphates are effective in controlling deposition of scale forming salts. The surface active agents inhibit crystal growth and modify the crystals of the scale forming salts, and thus prevent deposition of dense, uniformly structured crystalline mass on the heat transfer surface. Understanding the mechanism of biofouling is essential to control it by surface active agents. Certain measures taken in the plant, such as back flushing, to control scaling, sometimes may not be effective and can be detrimental to the system itself. (author)

  7. CoolPack – Simulation tools for refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.; Andersen, Simon Engedal

    1999-01-01

    CoolPack is a collection of programs used for energy analysis and optimisation of refrigeration systems. CoolPack is developed at the Department of Energy Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. The Danish Energy Agency finances the project. CoolPack is freeware and can be downloaded...

  8. Evaluating Storage Systems for Lustre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, H. Sarp [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Storage systems are complex, including multiple subsystems and components. Sustained operations with top performance require all these subsystems and components working as expected. Having a detailed performance profile helps establishing a baseline. This baseline can be used for easier identification of possible future problems. A systematic bottom-to-top approach, starting with a detailed performance analysis of disks and moving up across layers and subsystems, provides a quantitative breakdown of each component's capabilities and bottlenecks. Coupling these low-level tests with Lustre-level evaluations will present a better understanding of performance expectations under different I/O workloads.

  9. The Proposed Heating and Cooling System in the CH2 Building and Its Impact on Occupant Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Aye

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Melbourne's climatic conditions demand that its buildings require both heating and cooling systems. In a multi-storey office building , however, cooling requirements will dominate. How the internal space is cooled and ventilation air is delivered will significantly impact on occupant comfort. This paper discusses the heating and cooling systems proposed for the CH2building. The paper critiques the proposed systems against previous experience, both internationally and in Australia. While the heating system employs proven technologies, less established techniques are proposed for the cooling system. Air movement in the shower towers, for example, is to be naturally induced and this has not always been successful elsewhere. Phase change material for storage of "coolth" does not appear to have been demonstrated previously in a commercial building, so the effectiveness of the proposed system is uncertain. A conventional absorption chiller backs up the untried elements of the cooling system, so that ultimately occupant comfort should not be compromised .

  10. Electricity storage in island systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahiou, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    France's 'electric islands' are the overseas departments and Corsica that have small, isolated grids in zones which are not connected with the continental grid (ZNI). Renewable, intermittent forms of energy (especially photovoltaic) have grown exponentially on these islands since 2008, thanks to the backing of public policies for setting objectives, tax exemptions, and the rates for purchasing the electricity thus generated. However, the rapid and massive deployment of wind and solar energy may endanger the stability of the electric system: these productions are subject to rapid variations that are difficult to predict and that other local energy source are not able to compensate properly. As a consequence, a regulatory technical acceptability limit for intermittent energy has been defined to 30% above which it becomes difficult to balance the system. With controlled energy storage, it will be possible to maintain the stability and security of the electricity system. Owing to several experiments of storage of electricity, the ZNIs have become laboratories for anticipating the future difficulties that interconnected electricity grids will have to handle once the share of renewable, intermittent electricity will have risen significantly in the energy mix. (author)

  11. Fast multichannel analog storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, D.R.

    1982-11-01

    A Multichannel Analog Storage System based on a commercial 32-channel parallel in/serial out (PISO) analog shift register is described. The basic unit is a single width CAMAC module containing 512 analog cells and the associated logic for data storage and subsequent readout. At sampling rates of up to 30 MHz the signals are strobed directly into the PISO. At higher rates signals are strobed into a fast presampling stage and subsequently transferred in block form into an array of PISO's. Sampling rates of 300 MHz have been achieved with the present device and 1000 MHz are possible with improved signal drivers. The system is well suited for simultaneous handling of many signal channels with moderate numbers of samples in each channel. RMS noise over full scale signal has been measured as 1:3000 (approx. = 11 bit). However, nonlinearities in the response and differences in sensitivity of the analog cells require an elaborate calibration system in order to realize 11 bit accuracy for the analog information

  12. Long-time dynamics of laser-cooled ions in the TSR storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudrich, M.

    2000-01-01

    This diploma thesis studies experimentally the long-time dynamics of laser-cooled 9 Be + -beams at the TSR under different cooling conditions. The goal is to enlarge the understanding of ultra-cold, non-neutral plasma at high center-of-mass energies. By means of improved measurement capabilities one can now for the first time monitor the entire phase-space over a long time. This makes it possible to quantitatively analyse the possibilities and limitations of laser cooling at a storage ring. Under optimum cooling conditions a regime of high phase-space density is reached, close to the region where influences of Coulomb coupling are expected. Furthermore, a Monte-Carlo model is worked out that qualitatively describes the beam dynamics. The model includes the influence of transverse-longitudinal coupling due to intra beam scattering on the longitudinal phase-space distribution. At high phase-space density a sudden disappearance of intra beam collisions is observed experimentally and possible interpretations are given. (orig.)

  13. Multi-criteria decision analysis of concentrated solar power with thermal energy storage and dry cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sharon J W

    2013-12-17

    Decisions about energy backup and cooling options for parabolic trough (PT) concentrated solar power have technical, economic, and environmental implications. Although PT development has increased rapidly in recent years, energy policies do not address backup or cooling option requirements, and very few studies directly compare the diverse implications of these options. This is the first study to compare the annual capacity factor, levelized cost of energy (LCOE), water consumption, land use, and life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of PT with different backup options (minimal backup (MB), thermal energy storage (TES), and fossil fuel backup (FF)) and different cooling options (wet (WC) and dry (DC). Multicriteria decision analysis was used with five preference scenarios to identify the highest-scoring energy backup-cooling combination for each preference scenario. MB-WC had the highest score in the Economic and Climate Change-Economy scenarios, while FF-DC and FF-WC had the highest scores in the Equal and Availability scenarios, respectively. TES-DC had the highest score for the Environmental scenario. DC was ranked 1-3 in all preference scenarios. Direct comparisons between GHG emissions and LCOE and between GHG emissions and land use suggest a preference for TES if backup is require for PT plants to compete with baseload generators.

  14. Effect of Air Cooling and Vacuum Cooling Storage on the β-Carotene Content and Proximate Analysis (Water Content, pH, Total Protein and Content of Sugar) in Carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningsih, T.; Martini, T.; Rini, K. S.; Okstafiyanti, L.

    2017-04-01

    The study of air cooling and vacuum cooling storage effect on the β-carotene content and proximate analysis in carrot has been studied. The aim of the research to determine the effective storage in carrot to improve the quality and the shelf life. Parameters measured during the 12 weeks of storage process were β-carotene, pH, water, sugar and protein content. Validation analysis for β-carotene method showed a good linearity (r 2 = 0.997) in a range of 0-8 mg/L and (r 2 = 0.999) in a range of 0-1 mg/L. The precision was exemplified by %RSD of 0.88%-7.48%. Mean recovery was 100.66% during accuracy studied. UV analysis revealed the LOD values were 0.009 mg/L and LOQ values were 0.032 mg/L. The decreased content of β-carotene, water, protein, and pH from carrot during vacuum cooling storage were higher than in the air cooling storage period. The sugar content for air cooling storage increased up to eight weeks and decreased at the end of storage while the vacuum cooling storage decreased from the beginning of the storage period. All the data indicates that the air cooling storage was more effective storage techniques for extending the shelf life of carrot compared to the vacuum cooling storage.

  15. Enhanced Schottky signals from electron-cooled, coasting beams in a heavy-ion storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, C., E-mail: claude.krantz@mpi-hd.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Blaum, K.; Grieser, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Litvinov, Yu.A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Repnow, R.; Wolf, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-02-11

    Measurements at the Test Storage Ring of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg (Germany) have shown that the signal amplitude induced in a Schottky-noise pickup electrode by a coasting electron-cooled ion beam can be greatly enhanced by exposure of the latter to a perturbing radiofrequency signal which is detuned from the true beam revolution frequency. The centre frequencies obtained from harmonic analysis of the observed pickup signal closely follow those imposed on the ions by the electron cooling force. The phenomenon can be exploited to measure the true revolution frequency of ion beams of very low intensity, whose pure Schottky noise is too weak to be measurable under normal circumstances.

  16. SNS Resonance Control Cooling Systems and Quadrupole Magnet Cooling Systems DIW Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magda, Karoly [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    This report focuses on control of the water chemistry for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Resonance Control Cooling System (RCCS)/Quadrupole Magnet Cooling System (QMCS) deionized water (DIW) cooling loops. Data collected from spring 2013 through spring 2016 are discussed, and an operations regime is recommended.It was found that the RCCS operates with an average pH of 7.24 for all lines (from 7.0 to 7.5, slightly alkaline), the average low dissolved oxygen is in the area of < 36 ppb, and the main loop average resistivity of is > 14 MΩ-cm. The QMCS was found to be operating in a similar regime, with a slightly alkaline pH of 7.5 , low dissolved oxygen in the area of < 45 ppb, and main loop resistivity of 10 to 15 MΩ-cm. During data reading, operational corrections were done on the polishing loops to improve the water chemistry regime. Therefore some trends changed over time.It is recommended that the cooling loops operate in a regime in which the water has a resistivity that is as high as achievable, a dissolved oxygen concentration that is as low as achievable, and a neutral or slightly alkaline pH.

  17. Progress of the stochastic cooling system of the Collector Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulou, C; Bohm, R; Dolinskyy, O; Franzke, B; Hettrich, R; Maier, W; Menges, R; Nolden, F; Peschke, C; Petri, P; Steck, M; Thorndahl, L

    2013-01-01

    An overview of the recent achievements and ongoing developments for the stochastic cooling system of the Collector Ring is given. In focus are the hardware developments as well as the progress in predicting the system performance. The system operates in the frequency band 1-2 GHz, it has to provide fast 3D cooling of antiproton, rare isotope and stable heavy ion beams. The main challenges are (i) the cooling of antiprotons by means of cryogenic movable pick-up electrodes and (ii) the fast two-stage cooling (pre-cooling by the Palmer method, followed by the notch filter method) of the hot rare isotope beams (RIBs). Recently, a novel code for simulating the cooling process in the time domain has been developed at CERN. First results for the momentum cooling for heavy ions in the CR will be shown in comparison with results obtained in the frequency domain with the Fokker-Planck approach.

  18. Cooling systems research at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies of the thermal plumes resulting from discharges from once-through cooling systems of electric generating stations are reviewed. The collection of large amounts of water temperature data for definition of the three-dimensional structure of a thermal plume, of current data, and related ambient data for model evaluation purposes required the development of an integrated data collection system. The Argonne system employs measurements of water temperature over the water column from a moving small boat. Temperatures are measured with thermistors attached to a rigid strut for surface plumes and to a flexible, faired cable for submerged plumes. Water temperatures and boat location, determined by a microwave ranging system, are recorded on magnetic tape while the boat is underway and prove a quasi-synoptic map of plume temperatures. Automated data handling and processing procedures provide for the production of isotherm maps of the plume at several elevations and in cross section. Mathematical model evaluation for surface discharges of waste heat included the consideration of over 40 different models and detailed evaluation of 11 models. Most models were run on Argonne's computers, and all models were evaluated in terms of their limitations and capabilities as well as their predictive performance against prototype data. Measurements were made of thermal plumes at the discharges of nuclear power plants located on the shores of Lake Michigan

  19. Simulation of an adsorption solar cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.Z.; Mohamad, A.A.; Bennacer, R.

    2011-01-01

    A more realistic theoretical simulation model for a tubular solar adsorption refrigerating system using activated carbon-methanol (AC/M) pair has been introduced. The mathematical model represents the heat and mass transfer inside the adsorption bed, the condenser, and the evaporator. The simulation technique takes into account the variations of ambient temperature and solar radiation along the day. Furthermore, the local pressure, and local thermal conductivity variations in space and time inside the tubular reactor are investigated as well. A C++ computer program is written to solve the proposed numerical model using the finite difference method. The developed program covers the operations of all the system components along the cycle time. The performance of the tubular reactor, the condenser, and the evaporator has been discussed. Time allocation chart and switching operations for the solar refrigeration system processes are illustrated as well. The case studied has a 1 m 2 surface area solar flat plate collector integrated with a 20 stainless steel tubes containing the AC/M pair and each tube has a 5 cm outer diameter. In addition, the condenser pressure is set to 54.2 kpa. It has been found that, the solar coefficient of performance and the specific cooling power of the system are 0.211 and 2.326 respectively. In addition, the pressure distribution inside the adsorption bed has been found nearly uniform and varying only with time. Furthermore, the AC/M thermal conductivity is shown to be constant in both space and time.

  20. GOTHIC Simulation of Passive Containment Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Huiun; Kim, Hangon

    2013-01-01

    The performance of this system depends on the condensation of steam moving downward inside externally cooled vertical tubes. AES-2006: During a DBA, heat is removed by internally cooled vertical tubes, which are located in containment. We are currently developing the conceptual design of Innovative PWR, which is will be equipped with various passive safety features, including PCCS. We have plan to use internal heat exchanger (HX) type PCCS with concrete containment. In this case, the elevation of HXs is important to ensure the heat removal during accidents. In general, steam is lighter than air mixture in containment. So, steam may be collected at the upper side of containment. It means that higher elevation of HXs, larger heat removal efficiency of those. So, the aim of the present paper is to give preliminary study on variation of heat removal performance according to elevation of HXs. With reference to the design specification of the current reactors including APR+, we had determined conceptual design of PCCS. Using it, we developed a GOTHIC model of the APR1400 containment was adopted PCCS. This calculation model is described herein and representative results of calculation are presented. APR 1400 GOTHIC model was developed for PCCS performance calculation and sensitivity test according to installation elevation of PCCXs. Calculation results confirm that PCCS is working properly. It is found that the difference due to the installation elevation of PCCXs is insignificant at this preliminary analysis, however, further studies should be performed to confirm final performance of PCCS according to the installation elevation. These insights are important for developing the PCCS of Innovative PWR

  1. GOTHIC Simulation of Passive Containment Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Huiun; Kim, Hangon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The performance of this system depends on the condensation of steam moving downward inside externally cooled vertical tubes. AES-2006: During a DBA, heat is removed by internally cooled vertical tubes, which are located in containment. We are currently developing the conceptual design of Innovative PWR, which is will be equipped with various passive safety features, including PCCS. We have plan to use internal heat exchanger (HX) type PCCS with concrete containment. In this case, the elevation of HXs is important to ensure the heat removal during accidents. In general, steam is lighter than air mixture in containment. So, steam may be collected at the upper side of containment. It means that higher elevation of HXs, larger heat removal efficiency of those. So, the aim of the present paper is to give preliminary study on variation of heat removal performance according to elevation of HXs. With reference to the design specification of the current reactors including APR+, we had determined conceptual design of PCCS. Using it, we developed a GOTHIC model of the APR1400 containment was adopted PCCS. This calculation model is described herein and representative results of calculation are presented. APR 1400 GOTHIC model was developed for PCCS performance calculation and sensitivity test according to installation elevation of PCCXs. Calculation results confirm that PCCS is working properly. It is found that the difference due to the installation elevation of PCCXs is insignificant at this preliminary analysis, however, further studies should be performed to confirm final performance of PCCS according to the installation elevation. These insights are important for developing the PCCS of Innovative PWR.

  2. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    The progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. Included is a comparison of the proposed Solaron-Heat Pump and Solaron-Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, Installation Drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities from July 1, 1977 through November 9, 1977.

  3. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng

    2017-02-28

    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  4. Effects of cooling and freezing storage on the stability of bioactive factors in human colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Santana, C; Pérez-Cano, F J; Audí, C; Castell, M; Moretones, M G; López-Sabater, M C; Castellote, C; Franch, A

    2012-05-01

    Breast milk constitutes the best form of newborn alimentation because of its nutritional and immunological properties. Banked human milk is stored at low temperature, which may produce losses of some bioactive milk components. During lactation, colostrum provides the requirements of the newborn during the first days of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cooling storage at 4°C and freezing storage at -20°C and -80°C on bioactive factors in human colostrum. For this purpose, the content of IgA, growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and TGF-β2, and some cytokines such as IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and its type I receptor TNF-RI, were quantified. Some colostrum samples were stored for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h at 4°C and others were frozen at -20°C or -80°C for 6 and 12 mo. We quantified IgA, epidermal growth factor, TGF-β1, and TGF-β2 by indirect ELISA. Concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α cytokines, IL-8 chemokine, and TNF-RI were measured using the BD Cytometric Bead Array (BD Biosciences, Erembodegem, Belgium). Bioactive immunological factors measured in this study were retained in colostrum after cooling storage at 4°C for at least 48h, with the exception of IL-10. None of the initial bioactive factor concentrations was modified after 6 mo of freezing storage at either -20°C or -80°C. However, freezing storage of colostrum at -20°C and -80°C for 12 mo produced a decrease in the concentrations of IgA, IL-8, and TGF-β1. In summary, colostrum can be stored at 4°C for up to 48 h or at -20°C or -80°C for at least 6 mo without losing its immunological properties. Future studies are necessary to develop quality assurance guidelines for the storage of colostrum in human milk banks, and to focus not only on the microbiological safety but also on the maintenance of the immunological properties of colostrum. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association

  5. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  6. Energy consumption analysis of sheep milk cooling systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cossu, Marco

    2013-01-01

    In this study the energy consumption of milk cooling systems for sheep milk was quantified, depending on number of milkings and performance class. The aim was to produce updated data about the incidence of energy consumption for milk cooling, useful for energy auditing research in livestock. The cost in electricity bills and the weight on the current price of sheep milk were calculated. The experimental work was carried out on 22 milk cooling systems in Sardinia, equipped with open-type tank ...

  7. Solar heating and cooling system installed at RKL Controls Company, Lumberton, New Jersey. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    Solar heating and cooling of a 40,000 square foot manufacturing building, sales offices and the solar computer control center/display room are described. Information on system description, test data, major problems and resolutions, performance, operation and maintenance manual, manufacturer's literature and as-built drawings are provided also. The solar system is composed of 6000 square feet of Sunworks double glazed flat plate collectors, external above ground storage subsystem, controls, ARKLA absorption chiller, heat recovery and a cooling tower.

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of an Evaporative Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapilan N.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of chlorofluorocarbon based refrigerants in the air-conditioning system increases the global warming and causes the climate change. The climate change is expected to present a number of challenges for the built environment and an evaporative cooling system is one of the simplest and environmentally friendly cooling system. The evaporative cooling system is most widely used in summer and in rural and urban areas of India for human comfort. In evaporative cooling system, the addition of water into air reduces the temperature of the air as the energy needed to evaporate the water is taken from the air. Computational fluid dynamics is a numerical analysis and was used to analyse the evaporative cooling system. The CFD results are matches with the experimental results.

  9. Venus Surface Power and Cooling System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Mellott, Kenneth D.

    2004-01-01

    A radioisotope power and cooling system is designed to provide electrical power for the a probe operating on the surface of Venus. Most foreseeable electronics devices and sensors simply cannot operate at the 450 C ambient surface temperature of Venus. Because the mission duration is substantially long and the use of thermal mass to maintain an operable temperature range is likely impractical, some type of active refrigeration may be required to keep certain components at a temperature below ambient. The fundamental cooling requirements are comprised of the cold sink temperature, the hot sink temperature, and the amount of heat to be removed. In this instance, it is anticipated that electronics would have a nominal operating temperature of 300 C. Due to the highly thermal convective nature of the high-density atmosphere, the hot sink temperature was assumed to be 50 C, which provided a 500 C temperature of the cooler's heat rejecter to the ambient atmosphere. The majority of the heat load on the cooler is from the high temperature ambient surface environment on Venus. Assuming 5 cm radial thickness of ceramic blanket insulation, the ambient heat load was estimated at approximately 77 watts. With an estimated quantity of 10 watts of heat generation from electronics and sensors, and to accommodate some level of uncertainty, the total heat load requirement was rounded up to an even 100 watts. For the radioisotope Stirling power converter configuration designed, the Sage model predicts a thermodynamic power output capacity of 478.1 watts, which slightly exceeds the required 469.1 watts. The hot sink temperature is 1200 C, and the cold sink temperature is 500 C. The required heat input is 1740 watts. This gives a thermodynamic efficiency of 27.48 %. The maximum theoretically obtainable efficiency is 47.52 %. It is estimated that the mechanical efficiency of the power converter design is on the order of 85 %, based on experimental measurements taken from 500 watt power

  10. Experimental study on thermophysical properties of nanofluids as phase-change material (PCM) in low temperature cool storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qinbo; Wang Shuangfeng; Tong, Mingwei; Liu Yudong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The nanoparticles can reduce the supercooling degree of TiO 2 –BaCl 2 –H 2 O nanofluid PCMs. ► The TiO 2 –BaCl 2 –H 2 O nanofluids PCMs can be applied to industries low temperature energy storage. ► TiO 2 –BaCl 2 –H 2 O can be a candidate for low temperature PCM. - Abstract: In this article, a new sort of nanofluid phase change materials (PCMs) is developed by suspending a small amount of TiO 2 nanoparticles in saturated BaCl 2 aqueous solution. Its thermal conductivities, supercooling degree, latent heat, specific heat, and rheological behaviors of the nanofluids PCMs were investigated. The experimental results show that with volume fraction is 1.130%, the thermal conductivities of nanofluids PCMs is enhanced by 12.76% at −5 °C, the supercooling degree is reduced by 84.92%. The latent heat and specific heat are slightly decreased with suspending nanoparticles. The viscosity increased with the increasing volume fraction, which will have no effect on the cool storage system. The higher thermal performances of nanofluids PCMs indicate that they are suitable for the industries low temperature energy storage.

  11. Integrated application of combined cooling, heating and power poly-generation PV radiant panel system of zero energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baoquan

    2018-02-01

    A new type of combined cooling, heating and power of photovoltaic radiant panel (PV/R) module was proposed, and applied in the zero energy buildings in this paper. The energy system of this building is composed of PV/R module, low temperature difference terminal, energy storage, multi-source heat pump, energy balance control system. Radiant panel is attached on the backside of the PV module for cooling the PV, which is called PV/R module. During the daytime, the PV module was cooled down with the radiant panel, as the temperature coefficient influence, the power efficiency was increased by 8% to 14%, the radiant panel solar heat collecting efficiency was about 45%. Through the nocturnal radiant cooling, the PV/R cooling capacity could be 50 W/m2. For the multifunction energy device, the system shows the versatility during the heating, cooling and power used of building utilization all year round.

  12. Energy Optimization for Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump for Combined Heating and Cooling and Thermal Storage Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Carmo, Carolina Madeira Ramos; Blarke, Morten; Yazawa, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    and cold thermal storages know as Thermal Battery (TB) (Blarke, 2012). Smart and effective use of intermittent renewable energy resources (for example solar and wind power) is obtained supplying water heating (>70 oC) and cooling services (... hypothesis is that if electricity generated by intermittent sources is destined for thermal end-uses an efficient conversion of electricity to thermal energy and storage enables a flexible power supply. Thermal storage is more cost-effective than any electro-chemical or mechanical storage technology...

  13. Analysis of a solid desiccant cooling system with indirect evaporative cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo

    The demand for air conditioning has been consistently increasing worldwide in recent years, concomitantly to the introduction of ambitious energy and environmental targets. As a result, high efficiency air conditioners running on low polluting energy sources need to be developed. This thesis...... selection software. Different compositions of the secondary air stream are considered, including partial recirculation of the cooled primary air stream, i.e. dew point cooling, and use of air from a separate ambient. The desiccant cooling system combines the two components, including a compact air-to-air...... heat exchanger for enhancing cooling capacity and thermal performance. The system perfor-mance is investigated considering regeneration temperatures between 50 ºC and 90 ºC, which enable low temperature heat sources, such as solar energy or waste heat, to be used. The effects of several geometrical...

  14. Systems analysis of thermal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1980-08-01

    During FY80 analyses were conducted on thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications. These studies include both estimates of the obtainable costs of thermal storage concepts and their worth to a user (i.e., value). Based on obtainable costs and performance, promising thermal storage concepts are being identified. A preliminary screening was completed in FY80 and a more in-depth study was initiated. Value studies are being conducted to establish cost goals. A ranking of storage concepts based on value in solar thermal electric plants was conducted for both diurnal and long duration applications. Ground mounted thermal storage concepts for a parabolic dish/Stirling systtem are also being evaluated.

  15. Experiments on novel solar heating and cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yiping; Cui Yong; Zhu Li; Han Lijun

    2008-01-01

    Solar heating and nocturnal radiant cooling techniques are united to produce a novel solar heating and cooling system. The radiant panel with both heating and cooling functions can be used as structural materials for the building envelope, which realizes true building integrated utilization of solar energy. Based on the natural circulation principle, the operation status can be changed automatically between the heating cycle and the cooling cycle. System performances under different climate conditions using different covers on the radiant panel are studied. The results show that the novel solar heating and cooling system has good performance of heating and cooling. For the no cover system, the daily average heat collecting efficiency is 52% with the maximum efficiency of 73%, while at night, the cooling capacity is about 47 W/m 2 on a sunny day. On a cloudy day, the daily average heat collecting efficiency is 47% with the maximum of 84%, while the cooling capacity is about 33 W/m 2 . As a polycarbonate (PC) panel or polyethylene film are used as covers, the maximum heat collecting efficiencies are 75% and 72% and the daily average heat collecting efficiencies are 61% and 58%, while the cooling capacities are 50 W/m 2 and 36 W/m 2 , respectively

  16. Integrated systems for power plant cooling and wastewater management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haith, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of integrated management of energy and water resources, demonstrated in hydropower development, may be applicable to steam-generated power, also. For steam plants water is a means of disposing of a waste product, which is unutilized energy in the form of heat. One framework for the evolution of integrated systems is the consideration of possible technical linkages between power plant cooling and municipal wastewater management. Such linkages include the use of waste heat as a mechanism for enhancing wastewater treatment, the use of treated wastewater as make-up for evaporative cooling structures, and the use of a pond or reservoir for both cooling and waste stabilization. This chapter reports the results of a systematic evaluation of possible integrated systems for power plant cooling and waste water management. Alternatives were analyzed for each of three components of the system--power plant cooling (condenser heat rejection), thermally enhanced waste water treatment, and waste water disposal. Four cooling options considered were evaporative tower, open cycle, spray pond, and cooling pond. Three treatment alternatives considered were barometric condenser-activated sludge, sectionalized condenser-activated sludge, and cooling/stabilization pond. Three disposal alternatives considered were ocean discharge, land application (spray irrigation), and make-up (for evaporative cooling). To facilitate system comparisons, an 1100-MW nuclear power plant was selected. 31 references

  17. Design Studies of Magnet Systems for Muon Helical Cooling Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashikhin, V.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lamm, M.J.; Lopes, M.L.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab; Alsharo' a, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Kahn, Stephen A.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2008-06-25

    Helical cooling channels with superimposed solenoid and helical dipole and quadrupole coils, and a pressurized gas absorber in the aperture offer high efficiency of 6D muon beam cooling. In this paper, we continue design studies and comparison of two basic concepts of magnet system proposed for a helical cooling channel focusing on the high field sections. The results of magnetic analysis and Lorentz force calculations as well as the superconductor choice are presented and discussed.

  18. Cooling systems for ultra-high temperature turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T

    2001-05-01

    This paper describes an introduction of research and development activities on steam cooling in gas turbines at elevated temperature of 1500 C and 1700 C level, partially including those on water cooling. Descriptions of a new cooling system that employs heat pipes are also made. From the view point of heat transfer, its promising applicability is shown with experimental data and engine performance numerical evaluation.

  19. Categorization of hydrogen storage with reference to natural gas storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, R. D.; Selim, M. A. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    1997-05-01

    This poster session presentation proposes a categorization scheme of hydrogen storage systems based on energy content of the stored hydrogen. The presentation is based on data about various liquid and gaseous hydrogen storage installations and analogous data on storage systems for natural gas. The proposed system would serve to define and differentiate terms such as bulk storage, industrial storage and small storage systems, and would enable the comparison of existing and developing infrastructure requirements in the emerging context of hydrogen storage.

  20. Effect of roughness geometry on heat transfer and friction characteristics of PCM storage unit for night coolness storage in summer season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Shailndra Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis of thermal storage unit using phase change material (PCM as storage medium. Storage unit consists of parallel rectangular channels for the air flow which are separated by phase change storage material. The purpose of storage unit is to absorb the night coolness and to provide cooled air at comfort temperature during day time in summer season. MATLsimulation tool has been used to compute the air temperature variation with location as well as time, charging and discharging time of storage unit. Phase change material used for analysis is selected in such a way that it’s Melting point lies between comfort temperature and minimum night ambient temperatures. The air flow rate needed for charging of PCM is approximately four times greater than the flow rate required during day time to achieve comfort temperature for approximately eight hours, due to limited summer night time (only eight hours. The length of storage unit for which NTU value is greater than or equal to five will give the exit air temperature equal to PCM temperature for the case of latent heat utilization. It is found that artificial roughness on the duct surface effectively reduces the length of storage unit in the cost of some extra pressure drop across the duct.

  1. Solar heating and cooling system for an office building at Reedy Creek Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in a two story office building at a utilities company, which provides utility service to Walt Disney World, is described. The solar energy system application is 100 percent heating, 80 percent cooling, and 100 percent hot water. The storage medium is water with a capacity of 10,000 gallons hot and 10,000 gallons chilled water. Performance to date has equaled or exceeded design criteria.

  2. Simulation of Solar Assisted Absorption Cooling and Electricity Generation along with Thermal Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Faezeh Mosallat; Eric L. Bibeau; Tarek El Mekkawy

    2015-01-01

    Parabolic solar trough systems have seen limited deployments in cold northern climates as they are more suitable for electricity production in southern latitudes. A numerical dynamic model is developed to simulate troughs installed in cold climates and validated using a parabolic solar trough facility in Winnipeg. The model is developed in Simulink and will be utilized to simulate a trigeneration system for heating, cooling and electricity generation in remote northern co...

  3. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CEILING RADIANT COOLING SYSTEM IN COMPOSITE CLIMATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anuj [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Radiant cooling systems are proving to be an energy efficient solution due to higher thermal capacity of cooling fluid especially for the buildings that require individual zone controls and where the latent loads are moderate. The Conventional air conditioners work at very low temperature i.e.5-8 c (refrigerant evaporator inlet) while the radiant cooling systems, also referred as high temperature cooling system, work at high temperatures i.e. 14-18 c. The radiant cooling systems can maintain lower MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature) as ceiling panels maintain uniform temperature gradient inside room and provide higher human comfort. The radiant cooling systems are relatively new systems and their operation and energy savings potential are not quantified for a large number of buildings and operational parameters. Moreover, there are only limited numbers of whole building simulation studies have been carried out for these systems to have a full confidence in the capability of modelling tools to simulate these systems and predict the impact of various operating parameters. Theoretically, savings achieve due to higher temperature set point of chilled water, which reduces chiller-running time. However, conventional air conditioner runs continuously to maintain requisite temperature. In this paper, experimental study for performance evaluation of radiant cooling system carried out on system installed at Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur. This paper quantifies the energy savings opportunities and effective temperature by radiant cooling system at different chilled water flow rates and temperature range. The data collected/ analysed through experimental study will used for calibration and validation of system model of building prepared in building performance simulation software. This validated model used for exploring optimized combinations of key parameters for composite climate. These optimized combinations will used in formulation of radiant cooling system

  4. Technologies for gas cooled reactor decommissioning, fuel storage and waste disposal. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    Gas cooled reactors (GCRs) and other graphite moderated reactors have been important part of the world's nuclear programme for the past four decades. The wide diversity in status of this very wide spectrum of plants from initial design to decommissioning was a major consideration of the International Working group on Gas Cooled Reactors which recommended IAEA to convene a Technical Committee Meeting dealing with GCR decommissioning, including spent fuel storage and radiological waste disposal. This Proceedings includes papers 25 papers presented at the Meeting in three sessions entitled: Status of Plant Decommissioning Programmes; Fuels Storage Status and Programmes; waste Disposal and decontamination Practices. Each paper is described here by a separate abstract

  5. Thermochemical Heat Storage: from Reaction Storage Density to System Storage Density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.J. de; Vliet, L.D. van; Hoegaerts, C.L.G.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Cuypers, R.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term and compact storage of solar energy is crucial for the eventual transition to a 100% renewable energy economy. For this, thermochemical materials provide a promising solution. The compactness of a long-term storage system is determined by the thermochemical reaction, operating conditions,

  6. Closed-cycle cooling systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The long experience in the field of closed-cycle cooling systems and high technological level of turbo machines and heat exchangers concurs to believe in the industrial realizability of nuclear systems of high thermodynamic efficiency and intrinsic safety [it

  7. Target holders and cooling system for I sup(123) production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, G.L. de; Erbe, D.

    1986-01-01

    The constructions of target holder and cooling system for sup(123)I production in the IEN cyclotron (Brazilian-CNEN) is presented. The system was arranged, constructed and tested by Karlsruhe Dieter Erbe Nuclear Research Center. (author)

  8. RAMI analysis for DEMO HCPB blanket concept cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongiovanni, Danilo N., E-mail: danilo.dongiovanni@enea.it [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati (Italy); Pinna, Tonio [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati (Italy); Carloni, Dario [KIT, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) – KIT (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) preliminary assessment for HCPB blanket concept cooling system. • Reliability block diagram (RBD) modeling and analysis for HCPB primary heat transfer system (PHTS), coolant purification system (CPS), pressure control system (PCS), and secondary cooling system. • Sensitivity analysis on system availability performance. • Failure models and repair models estimated on the base of data from the ENEA fusion component failure rate database (FCFRDB). - Abstract: A preliminary RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) assessment for the HCPB (helium cooled pebble bed) blanket cooling system based on currently available design for DEMO fusion power plant is presented. The following sub-systems were considered in the analysis: blanket modules, primary cooling loop including pipework and steam generators lines, pressure control system (PCS), coolant purification system (CPS) and secondary cooling system. For PCS and CPS systems an extrapolation from ITER Test Blanket Module corresponding systems was used as reference design in the analysis. Helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) system reliability block diagrams (RBD) models were implemented taking into account: system reliability-wise configuration, operating schedule currently foreseen for DEMO, maintenance schedule and plant evolution schedule as well as failure and corrective maintenance models. A simulation of plant activity was then performed on implemented RBDs to estimate plant availability performance on a mission time of 30 calendar years. The resulting availability performance was finally compared to availability goals previously proposed for DEMO plant by a panel of experts. The study suggests that inherent availability goals proposed for DEMO PHTS system and Tokamak auxiliaries are potentially achievable for the primary loop of the HCPB concept cooling system, but not for the secondary loop. A

  9. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  10. Determination of the steam volume fraction in the event of loss of cooling of the spent fuel storage pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledkov, R. M.; Galkin, I. Yu.; Stepanov, O. E.; Strebnev, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    When one solves engineering problems related to the cooling of fuel assemblies (FAs) in a spent fuel storage pool (SFSP) and the assessment of nuclear safety of FA storage in an SFSP in the initial event of loss of SFSP cooling, it is essential to determine the coolant density and, consequently, steam volume fractions φ in bundles of fuel elements at a pressure of 0.1-0.5 MPa. Such formulas for calculating φ that remain valid in a wide range of operating parameters and geometric shapes of channels and take the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling into account are currently almost lacking. The results of systematization and analysis of the available formulas for φ are reported in the present study. The calculated values were compared with the experimental data obtained in the process of simulating the conditions of FA cooling in an SFSP in the event of loss of its cooling. Six formulas for calculating the steam volume fraction, which were used in this comparison, were chosen from a total of 11 considered relations. As a result, the formulas producing the most accurate values of φ in the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling were selected. In addition, a relation that allows one to perform more accurate calculations of steam volume fractions in the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling was derived based on the Fedorov formula in the two-group approximation.

  11. A condensed state in a system of stored and cooled ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    In heavy-ion storage rings a beam of particles with uniform mass and (positive) charge, is confined to a narrow region around an equilibrium orbit. The internal temperature in the co-moving reference frame for such beams may be lowered by stochastic or electron cooling to very low values: 1 0 K has been reported for proton beams. If such conditions are indeed realized in heavy-ion beams, new types of condensation phenomena should appear. For laser cooling techniques even lower temperatures are anticipated.Progress is reported on studies of computer simulations of such systems using the method of Molecular Dynamics. 11 figs., 8 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Thermo Active Building Systems Using Building Mass To Heat and Cool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    Using the thermal storage capacity of the concrete slabs between each floor in multistory buildings to heat or cool is a trend that began in the early 1990s in Switzerland.1,2 Pipes carrying water for heating and cooling are embedded in the center of the concrete slab. In central Europe (Germany,......, Austria, Netherlands, etc.), this type of system has been installed in a significant number of new office buildings since the late 1990s. The trend is spreading to other parts of the world (the rest of Europe, North America and Asia)....

  13. Evaluation of two cooling systems under a firefighter coverall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Wang, L.C.; Chou, S.N.; Huang, C.; Jou, G.T.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Firemen often suffer from heat strain. This study investigated two chest cooling systems for use under a firefighting suit. In nine male subjects, a vest with water soaked cooling pads and a vest with water perfused tubes were compared to a control condition. Subjects performed 30 min walking and 10

  14. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of RPV Support Cooling System for HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Qi; Wu Xinxin; Li Xiaowei; Zhang Li; He Shuyan

    2014-01-01

    Passive safety is now of great interest for future generation reactors because of its reduction of human interaction and avoidance of failures of active components. reactor pressure vessel (RPV) support cooling system (SCS) for high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is a passive safety system and is used to cool the concrete seats for the four RPV supports at its bottom. The SCS should have enough cooling capacity to ensure the temperature of the concrete seats for the supports not exceeding the limit temperature. The SCS system is composed of a natural circulation water loop and an air cooling tower. In the water loop, there is a heat exchanger embedded in the concrete seat, heat is transferred by thermal conduction and convection to the cooling water. Then the water is cooled by the air cooler mounted in the air cooling tower. The driving forces for water and air are offered by the density differences caused by the temperature differences. In this paper, the thermal hydraulic analysis for this system was presented. Methods for decoupling the natural circulation and heat transfer between the water loop and air flow were introduced. The operating parameters for different working conditions and environment temperatures were calculated. (author)

  15. Hybrid Cooling System for Industrial Application | Ezekwe | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unit utilizes water-in-air stream to cool molds in glass and plastic forming processes. The rate of heat transfer between the mold surface and the two ... The system also reduced the level of noise due to air blast at the press by limiting the use of compressed air. This cooling unit could also be used in iron and steel ...

  16. Effect of Egg Yolk and Cooling on Storage of Ram Coated Spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohammadi-Nohdehy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of egg yolk and cooling on ram coated spermatozoa. Semen was collected from three ram by artificial vagina contacted with a tube containing Tris- fructose-egg yolk 15%. Samples were pooled, centrifuged by 700 g for 10 min and removed supernatant. Then, samples were diluted by Tris-glucose and centrifuged again to remove seminal plasma and egg yolk. Aliquots split into two fractions and each one was split into 5 parts and added egg yolk 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. The half of the treatments were gradually cold and other ones were encountered with cold shock then samples were incubated at 5C for 72 h. Progressive sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability (by Hoechst 33258 fluorescent staining and acrosome reaction (by PNA-Alexa flur-488 were investigated at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The results showed that there was no difference between 15% and 20% egg yolk in the progressive sperm motility but they were higher than 0% and 5% egg yolk. There was highest difference between 0% and 20 % egg yolk in the progressive sperm motility. There was no difference among the treatments containing egg yolk in plasma membrane integrity and acrosome reaction. In both cooling rate, there was no difference among the treatments containing egg yolk in the sperm viability. It was suggested that 20% egg yolk was superior to keep the function of ram coated spermatozoa for storage at 5C.

  17. An Empirical Model for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosewater, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scott, Paul [TransPower, Poway, CA (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Improved models of energy storage systems are needed to enable the electric grid’s adaptation to increasing penetration of renewables. This paper develops a generic empirical model of energy storage system performance agnostic of type, chemistry, design or scale. Parameters for this model are calculated using test procedures adapted from the US DOE Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage. We then assess the accuracy of this model for predicting the performance of the TransPower GridSaver – a 1 MW rated lithium-ion battery system that underwent laboratory experimentation and analysis. The developed model predicts a range of energy storage system performance based on the uncertainty of estimated model parameters. Finally, this model can be used to better understand the integration and coordination of energy storage on the electric grid.

  18. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should be disregarded but that it will be needed for other purposes in the future.

  19. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper......, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution...... to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should...

  20. An Experimental Study on the Effects of the Cooling Jacket Design Parameters on the Performance of Thermoelectric Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. E.; Park, S. H.; Kim, K. J.; Kim, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    A small-scale thermoelectric cooling system was built in an effort to enhance the performance of the refrigeration system by utilizing the water-cooled jacket which attached on the hot side of the thermoelectric module. Considered design parameters for the water-cooled jacket included the geometry of the flow passage inside the jacket and the flow rate of cooling water. The higher flow rate of cooling water in the jacket resulted in a better performance of the refrigeration system. The introduction of geometrical complexity of the cooling water flow passage of the cooling jacket also showed significant improvement on the performance of the thermoelectric refrigeration system such as the cooling capacity and the COP of the refrigeration system

  1. Federal Tax Incentives for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Settle, Donald E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Investments in renewable energy are more attractive due to the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. The investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction may apply to energy storage systems such as batteries depending on who owns the battery and how the battery is used. The guidelines in this fact sheet apply to energy storage systems installed at the same time as the renewable energy system.

  2. Heat Driven Cooling in District Energy Systems; Vaermedriven Kyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydstrand, Magnus; Martin, Viktoria; Westermark, Mats [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2004-07-01

    high costs. However heat sinks are unavoidable from a system perspective and there are potential cost savings since a low-pressure steam turbines will not be required if heat driven cooling is implemented. The fuel utilization for some technologies (not necessarily the best technology) was evaluated in two different scenarios: 1) with electricity production from coal; and 2) with electricity production from natural gas. It is shown in the scenarios that the heat driven cooling technologies give lower fuel consumption as compared producing electricity as an intermediate product before cooling is produced. Further it should be noted that electricity is produced, not consumed, if heat is used directly for the production of cooling. We claim that cost effective solutions for district heat driven chillers and/or combined production of electricity and district cooling can be found in all climates with high enough density of heating and cooling demands. It was found that district heat driven chillers can be very energy efficient in warm and humid climates since desiccant systems are an effective way of handling latent cooling loads. In dry climates, with low latent loads, water distributed cooling has a large potential and absorption cooling will give high fuel utilization seen from a system perspective. In climates where water shortage is a problem it is possible that the temperature lift of the conventional absorption chiller has to be increased in order to be able to use dry cooling towers. The temperature lift can be increased by changing the chiller design or by using a different working pair. Heat driven cooling can be integrated into an energy system in different ways. In USA and Japan, district heating is not well developed. Instead small, distributed combined heat and power (CHP) plants with high exhaust temperatures are widespread. Cooling is often produced, in these regions, through absorption cooling (using heat from CHP) or compression chillers depending on

  3. Kinetic Storage as an Energy Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Tabares, L.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of storing energy is increasingly important and necessary. The reason is that storage modifies the basic equation of the energy production balance which states that the power produced should equal the power consumed. When there is a storage device in the grid, this equation is modified such that, in the new balance, the energy produced should equal the algebraic sum of the energy consumed and the energy stored (positive in storage phase and negative when released). This means that the generation profile can be uncoupled from the consumption profile, with the resulting improvement of efficiency. Even small-sized storage systems can be very effective. (Author) 10 refs

  4. Modelling of stationary bulk hydrogen storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, R.D.; Pucher, G. [Centre for Hydrogen and Electrochemical Studies (CHES), University of Toronto (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    The employment of bulk hydrogen storage systems within industry appears increasingly to be a near-term prospect given the steadily increasing levels of hydrogen production. The current study defines and outlines a cost model through which comparative and informative assessments of different stationary bulk hydrogen storage reservoir types can be made. The reservoir types investigated include: mined salt caverns, depleted natural gas reservoirs and liquid vessels. Using the model, cost of storage for these potential bulk hydrogen containment technologies is estimated and compared in qualitative terms. for similar storage applications. (Author)

  5. Energy storage for power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

  6. Control of Non-linear Marine Cooling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of designing control laws for a marine cooling system used for cooling the main engine and auxiliary components aboard several classes of container vessels. We focus on achieving simple set point control for the system and do not consider compensation of the non......-linearities, closed circuit flow dynamics or transport delays that are present in the system. Control laws are therefore designed using classical control theory and the performance of the design is illustrated through two simulation examples....

  7. Metal hydride-based thermal energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajo, John J.; Fang, Zhigang

    2017-10-03

    The invention provides a thermal energy storage system comprising a metal-containing first material with a thermal energy storage density of about 1300 kJ/kg to about 2200 kJ/kg based on hydrogenation; a metal-containing second material with a thermal energy storage density of about 200 kJ/kg to about 1000 kJ/kg based on hydrogenation; and a hydrogen conduit for reversibly transporting hydrogen between the first material and the second material. At a temperature of 20.degree. C. and in 1 hour, at least 90% of the metal is converted to the hydride. At a temperature of 0.degree. C. and in 1 hour, at least 90% of the metal hydride is converted to the metal and hydrogen. The disclosed metal hydride materials have a combination of thermodynamic energy storage densities and kinetic power capabilities that previously have not been demonstrated. This performance enables practical use of thermal energy storage systems for electric vehicle heating and cooling.

  8. CAREM 25: Suppression pool cooling and purification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Patrignani, Alberto; Vindrola, Carlos; Palmerio, Hector D.; Quiroz, Horacio; Ramilo, Lucia B.

    2000-01-01

    The suppression pool cooling and purification system has the following main functions: purify and cool water from the suppression pool, cool and send water to the residual heat extraction system, and transfer water to the fuel element transference channel. In case of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the system sends water from the suppression pool to the spray network, thus cooling and reducing pressure in the primary containment. The system has been designed in accordance with the requirements of the following standards: ANSI/ANS 52.1; ANSI/ANS 57.2; ANSI/ANS 56.2; ANSI/ANS 59.1; ANSI/ANS 58.3; ANSI/ANS 58.9; and ANSI/ANS 56.5. The design of the system fulfils all the assigned functions. (author)

  9. CAREM-25. Suppression Pool Cooling and Purification System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Palmerio, D.; Patrignani, A.; Quiroz, H.; Ramilo, L.; Vindrola, C.

    2000-01-01

    The Suppression Pool Cooling and Purification System has the following main functions: purify and cool water from the Suppression Pool, cool and send water to the Residual Heat Extraction System, and transfer water to the Fuel Element Transference Channel. In case of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the system sends water from the Suppression Pool to the spray network, thus cooling and reducing pressure in the primary containment.The system has been designed in accordance with the requirements of the following standards ANSI/ANS 52.1 [1], ANSI/ANS 57.2 [2], ANSI/ANS 56.2 [3], ANSI/ANS 59.1 [4] ANSI/ANS 58.3 [5], ANSI/ANS 58.9 [6], and ANSI/ANS 56.5 [7]. The design of the system fulfils all the assigned functions

  10. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  11. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  12. Cooling System Design Options for a Fusion Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalizio, Antonio; Collén, Jan; Vieider, Gottfried

    1997-06-01

    The objective of a fusion power reactor is to produce electricity safely and reliably. Accordingly, the design, objective of the heat transport system is to optimize power production, safety, and reliability. Such an optimization process, however, is constrained by many factors, including, among others: public safety, worker safety, steam cycle efficiency, reliability, and cost. As these factors impose conflicting requirements, there is a need to find an optimum design solution, i.e., one that satisfies all requirements, but not necessarily each requirement optimally. The SEAFP reactor study developed helium-cooled and water-cooled models for assessment purposes. Among other things, the current study demonstrates that neither model offers an optimum solution. Helium cooling offers a high steam cycle efficiency but poor reliability for the cooling of high heat flux components (divertor and first wall). Alternatively, water cooling offers a low steam cycle efficiency, but reasonable reliability for the cooling of such components. It is concluded that an optimum solution includes helium cooling of low heat flux components and water cooling of high heat flux components. Relative to the SEAFP helium model, this hybrid system enhances safety and reliability, while retaining the high steam cycle efficiency of that model.

  13. Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

    1980-07-01

    A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

  14. Advanced compressed hydrogen fuel storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeary, B.

    2000-01-01

    Dynetek was established in 1991 by a group of private investors, and since that time efforts have been focused on designing, improving, manufacturing and marketing advanced compressed fuel storage systems. The primary market for Dynetek fuel systems has been Natural Gas, however as the automotive industry investigates the possibility of using hydrogen as the fuel source solution in Alternative Energy Vehicles, there is a growing demand for hydrogen storage on -board. Dynetek is striving to meet the needs of the industry, by working towards developing a fuel storage system that will be efficient, economical, lightweight and eventually capable of storing enough hydrogen to match the driving range of the current gasoline fueled vehicles

  15. Geometric effect on cooling power and performance of an integrated thermoelectric generation-cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Chien-Chang; Hung, Chen-I

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An integrated thermoelectric generation-cooling system is analyzed numerically. • The system performance is improved through the geometric design. • The effects of contact resistance and heat convection on performance are considered. • With varied TEG length, the system performance depends on boundary conditions. • The study provides a useful insight into the design of integrated TEG–TEC systems. - Abstract: Geometric design of an integrated thermoelectric generation-cooling system is performed numerically using a finite element method. In the system, a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is powered directly by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Two different boundary conditions in association with the effects of contact resistance and heat convection on system performance are taken into account. The results suggest that the characteristics of system performance under varying TEG length are significantly different from those under altering TEC length. When the TEG length is changed, the entire behavior of system performance depends highly on the boundary conditions. On the other hand, the maximum distributions of cooling power and coefficient of performance (COP) are exhibited when the TEC length is altered, whether the hot surface of TEG is given by a fixed temperature or heat transfer rate. The system performance will be reduced once the contact resistance and heat convection are considered. When the lengths of TEG and TEC vary, the maximum reduction percentages of system performance are 12.45% and 18.67%, respectively. The numerical predictions have provided a useful insight into the design of integrated TEG–TEC systems

  16. Study of Natural Convection Passive Cooling System for Nuclear Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdillah, Habibi; Saputra, Geby; Novitrian; Permana, Sidik

    2017-07-01

    Fukushima nuclear reactor accident occurred due to the reactor cooling pumps and followed by all emergencies cooling systems could not work. Therefore, the system which has a passive safety system that rely on natural laws such as natural convection passive cooling system. In natural convection, the cooling material can flow due to the different density of the material due to the temperature difference. To analyze such investigation, a simple apparatus was set up and explains the study of natural convection in a vertical closed-loop system. It was set up that, in the closed loop, there is a heater at the bottom which is representing heat source system from the reactor core and cooler at the top which is showing the cooling system performance in room temperature to make a temperature difference for convection process. The study aims to find some loop configurations and some natural convection performances that can produce an optimum flow of cooling process. The study was done and focused on experimental approach and simulation. The obtained results are showing and analyzing in temperature profile data and the speed of coolant flow at some point on the closed-loop system.

  17. Performance modelling and simulation of an absorption solar cooling system for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assilzadeh, F.; Ali, Y.; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2006-01-01

    Solar radiation contains huge amounts of energy and is required for almost all the natural processes on earth. Solar-powered air-conditioning has many advantages when compared to normal electricity system. This paper presents a solar cooling system that has been designed for Malaysia and other tropical regions using evacuated tube solar collector and LiBr absorption system. A modelling and simulation of absorption solar cooling system is modeled in Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS) environment. The typical meteorological year file containing the weather parameters is used to simulate the system. Then a system optimization is carried out in order to select the appropriate type of collector, the optimum size of storage tank, the optimum collector slope and area and the optimum thermostat setting of the auxiliary boiler

  18. System for cooling the containment vessel of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, Didier.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a post-accidental cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. This system includes in series a turbine fed by the moist air contained in the vessel, a condenser in which the air is dried and cooled, a compressor actuated by the turbine and a cooling exchanger. The cold water flowing through the condenser and in the exchanger is taken from a tank outside the vessel and injected by a pump actuated by the turbine. The application is for nuclear reactors under pressure [fr

  19. System and method for pre-cooling of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, David A.; Rainer, Leo I.

    2011-08-09

    A method for nighttime pre-cooling of a building comprising inputting one or more user settings, lowering the indoor temperature reading of the building during nighttime by operating an outside air ventilation system followed, if necessary, by a vapor compression cooling system. The method provides for nighttime pre-cooling of a building that maintains indoor temperatures within a comfort range based on the user input settings, calculated operational settings, and predictions of indoor and outdoor temperature trends for a future period of time such as the next day.

  20. The ATLAS LARG ROD G-Links Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    Hubaut, F; Repain, P; Rossel, F; Vincent, D

    2004-01-01

    In this note is described the water cooling system that will be implemented on the ROD boards of the liquid argon calorimeter detectors in order to guarantee a proper behavior of the optical reception of the data.

  1. Augmented cooling vest system subassembly: Design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Angelo, Maurissa; D’Angelo, Joseph; Almajali, Mohammad; Lafdi, Khalid; Delort, Antoine; Elmansori, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermoelectric cooler (TEC) was employed to provide cooling air to cooling vest. • Aluminum cooling fins were used to exchange heat for hot and cold sides of TEC. • Performance of the system was determined and the experimental technique was described. • Heat sink is capable to remove additional heat and heat exchanger provides cooling air. • Future work is proposed to optimize the efficiency of the system. - Abstract: A prototype cooling engine consisting of thermoelectric coolers (TECs) was developed and designed. In this prototype, aluminum cooling fins were employed as the heat exchange method for both the hot and cold sides of the TEC. Aluminum fins were used to cool the ambient air through a heat exchanger and dissipate heat build up from the heat sink. This system was modeled and performance capabilities were determined. The experimental technique used to monitor parameters affecting the efficiency of the designed system was described. These parameters include the temperatures of the inlets and outlets of both heat exchanger and heat sink and the flow rate of the cooled air. The experiment was run under three input DC powers; 15 V, 18 V, and 21 V. As the power increased, both the flow rate and the temperature difference between the hot and cold side of thermoelectric cooler increased, demonstrating the heat sink capability to remove the additional heat. However, the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger decreases as the power increase. The findings demonstrated the effectiveness of this cooling system and future work is proposed to optimize the heat

  2. Thermo-economic Optimization of Solar Assisted Heating and Cooling (SAHC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghafoor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The energy demand for cooling is continuously increasing due to growing thermal loads, changing architectural modes of building, and especially due to occupants indoor comfort requirements resulting higher electricity demand notably during peak load hours. This increasing electricity demand is resulting higher primary energy consumption and emission of green house gases (GHG due to electricity generation from fossil fuels. An exciting alternative to reduce the peak electricity consumption is the possible utilization of solar heat to run thermally driven cooling machines instead of vapor compression machines utilizing high amount of electricity. In order to widen the use of solar collectors, they should also be used to contribute for sanitary hot water production and space heating. Pakistan lying on solar belt has a huge potential to utilize solar thermal heat for heating and cooling requirement because cooling is dominant throughout the year and the enormous amount of radiation availability provides an opportunity to use it for solar thermal driven cooling systems. The sensitivity analysis of solar assisted heating and cooling system has been carried out under climatic conditions of Faisalabad (Pakistan and its economic feasibility has been calculated using maximization of NPV. Both storage size and collector area has been optimized using different economic boundary conditions. Results show that optimum area of collector lies between 0.26m2 to 0.36m2 of collector area per m2 of conditioned area for ieff values of 4.5% to 0.5%. The optimum area of collector increases by decreasing effective interest rate resulting higher solar fraction. The NPV was found to be negative for all ieff values which shows that some incentives/subsidies are needed to be provided to make the system cost beneficial. Results also show that solar fraction space heating varies between 87 and 100% during heating season and solar fraction cooling between 55 and 100% during

  3. Research on high-performance mass storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yaodong; Wang Lu; Huang Qiulan; Zheng Wei

    2010-01-01

    With the enlargement of scientific experiments, more and more data will be produced, which brings great challenge to storage system. Large storage capacity and high data access performance are both important to Mass storage system. This paper firstly reviews some kinds of popular storage systems including network storage system, SAN-based sharing system, WAN File system, object-based parallel file system, hierarchical storage system and cloud storage systems. Then some key technologies are presented. Finally, this paper takes BES storage system as an example and introduces its requirements, architecture and operation results. (authors)

  4. Energy storage system for a pulsed DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.; Cortes, M.; Mendez, P.; Hayward, J.; Maisonnier, D.

    2007-01-01

    Several designs have been proposed for the DEMO fusion reactor. Some of them are working in a non-steady state mode. Since a power plant should be able to deliver to the grid a constant power, this challenge must be solved. Energy storage is required at a level of 250 MWh e with the capability of delivering a power of 1 GWe. A review of different technologies for energy storage is made. Thermal energy storage (TES), fuel cells and other hydrogen storage, compressed air storage, water pumping, batteries, flywheels and supercapacitors are the most promising solutions to energy storage. Each one is briefly described in the paper, showing its basis, features, advantages and disadvantages for this application. The conclusion of the review is that, based on existing technology, thermal energy storage using molten salts and a system based on hydrogen storage are the most promising candidates to meet the requirements of a pulsed DEMO. These systems are investigated in more detail together with an economic assessment of each

  5. Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugurlan, Maria; Tuffner, Francis K; Chassin, David P.

    2016-09-13

    Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage device includes a reservoir configured to hold a thermal energy storage medium, a temperature control system configured to adjust a temperature of the thermal energy storage medium, and a state observation system configured to provide information regarding an energy state of the thermal energy storage device at a plurality of different moments in time.

  6. Cooling systems for satellite remote sensing instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.; Oren, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    The current and developing state-of-the-art in cryogenic coolers for satellite sensors was studied for earth oriented satellites. Six representative sensor categories in the 77 K to 300 K range were defined. Cooling capacities were 50 to 1000 mw; both continuous and intermittent duty cycles were considered; lifetimes were one to two years. Conceptual designs were prepared for the most promising coolers in each category. These coolers are Joule-Thomson, Solid Cryogen, Vuilleumier, Thermoelectric, Shielded Radiator, Optical Solar Reflector Radiator and Unshielded Radiator. Weight, envelope, power requirements and operating characteristics of each cooler are described. Scaling data for each cooler are included.

  7. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  8. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  9. Biodigester as an energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R.; Lopes, L.C.N. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano (IFSertao-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)], Emails: rangel@cefetpet.br; Pinheiro Neto, J.S.; Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: neto@tbmtextil.com.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br; Silveira, G.C.; Moreira, A.P.; Borges, T.S.H. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara (IFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], Emails: gcsilveira@cefet-ce.br, apmoreira@ifce.edu.br, thatyanys@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Electricity supply for rural and remote areas is becoming an increasing priority to developing countries. The high initial cost of renewable energy based unities usually needs an energy storage system; due its operational and even replacement cost contributes to a higher final cost. The choice of energy storage systems depends on the sort and size of adopted power supply. This paper has a main goal to introduce a renewable energy based storage system weakly explored in Brazil: biogas from anaerobic digestion. It also brings a review of the main energy storage systems applied to electrical energy generation. As reference an experiment with an adapted Indian digester of 5 m{sup 3} that produced nearly 2m{sup 3} of biogas daily. The obtained biogas met the consumption of at least 4 typical Brazilian low income households with installed load of 500 W each and was enough to replace the use of 420 Ah lead-acid batteries. (author)

  10. Low-technology cooling box for storage of malaria RDTs and other medical supplies in remote areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyuoka Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increase in use of point-of-care diagnostic tests for malaria and other diseases comes the necessity of storing the diagnostic kits and the drugs required for subsequent management, in remote areas, where temperatures are high and electricity supply is unreliable or unavailable. Methods To address the lack of temperature-controlled storage during the introduction of community-based malaria management in Cambodia, the Cambodian National Centre for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control (CNM developed prototype evaporative cooling boxes (Cambodian Cooler Boxes - CCBs for storage of perishable medical commodities in remote clinics. The performance of these CCBs for maintaining suitable storage temperatures was evaluated over two phases in 2005 and 2006-7, comparing conditions in CCBs using water as designed, CCBs with no water for evaporation, and ambient storage room temperatures. Temperature and humidity was monitored, together with the capacity of the RDTs recommended for storage between 2 to 30 degree Celsius to detect low-density malaria parasite samples after storage under these conditions. Results Significant differences were recorded between the proportion of temperatures within the recommended RDT storage conditions in the CCBs with water and the temperatures in the storage room (p Discussion and Conclusions The CCB was an effective tool for storage of RDTs at optimal conditions, and extended the effective life-span of the tests. The concept of evaporative cooling has potential to greatly enhance access to perishable diagnostics and medicines in remote communities, as it allows prolonged storage at low cost using locally-available materials, in the absence of electricity.

  11. Optimization of energy storage in power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Chacra, F.

    2005-07-01

    For more than a century, electric transmission and distribution systems have been developed assuming that electric energy was almost impossible to store. Technical progress, new environmental requirements and electrical industry reforms now lead us to believe that storage in the future will be one of the main challenges in the development of power systems. Storage would have potential applications to deal with current technical constraints such as the system load, peak-load value, faults in parts of the system, control issues, etc. and economic ones such as upgrades deferral, renewable energy deployment, etc. In this study, energy storage is considered in two strategic locations in the French power system: HT/MT substations and wind farms. Possible applications and economic flags are formulated and appropriate optimization methods (genetic algorithms, Pareto) are used to maximize the project net present value. This optimization results in defining optimal capacities and control strategies for the energy storage system, taken from a set of storage technologies suitable for this problem, and in assessing the technical-economic impact of energy storage as a solution in power systems. (author)

  12. System Recovery in Large-Scale Distributed Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aga, Svein

    2008-01-01

    This report aims to describe and improve a system recovery process in large-scale storage systems. Inevitable, a recovery process results in the system being loaded with internal replication of data, and will extensively utilize several storage nodes. Such internal load can be categorized and generalized into a maintenance workload class. Obviously, a storage system will have external clients which also introduce load into the system. This can be users altering their data, uploading new cont...

  13. Survey and assessment of radioactive waste management facilities in the United States. Section 2.5. Air-cooled vault storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    There are two basic types of air-cooled vaults for the storage of spent nuclear fuel or vitrified HLRW. The two types, differentiated by the method of air cooling used, are the open-vault concept and the closed-vault concept. The following aspects of these air-cooled vault storage facility concepts are discussed: description and operation of facilities; strucutral design considerations and analysis; nuclear design considerations and analyses; vault environmental design considerations; unique design features; and accident analysis

  14. Adsorption Cooling System Using Metal-Impregnated Zeolite-4A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsuk Trisupakitti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption cooling systems have been developed to replace vapor compression due to their benefits of being environmentally friendly and energy saving. We prepared zeolite-4A and experimental cooling performance test of zeolite-water adsorption system. The adsorption cooling test-rig includes adsorber, evaporator, and condenser which perform in vacuum atmosphere. The maximum and minimum water adsorption capacity of different zeolites and COP were used to assess the performance of the adsorption cooling system. We found that loading zeolite-4A with higher levels of silver and copper increased COP. The Cu6%/zeolite-4A had the highest COP at 0.56 while COP of zeolite-4A alone was 0.38. Calculating the acceleration rate of zeolite-4A when adding 6% of copper would accelerate the COP at 46%.

  15. Water cooling system for sintering furnaces of nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work has as a main objective to develop a continuous cooling water system, which is necessary for the cooling of the sintering furnaces. This system is used to protect them as well as for reducing the water consumption, ejecting the heat generated into this furnaces and scattering it into the atmosphere in a fast and continuous way. The problem was defined and the reference parameters established, making the adequate research. The materials were selected as well as the length of the pipeline which will carry the secondary refrigerant fluid (water). Three possible solutions were tried,and evaluated, and from these, the thermal and economically most efficient option was selected. The layout of the solution was established and the theoretical construction of a cooling system for liquids using dichlorofluoromethane (R-22), as a refrigerant and a air cooled condenser, was accomplished. (Author)

  16. Unlimited cooling capacity of the passive-type emergency core cooling system of the MARS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandini, G.; Caira, M.; Naviglio, A.; Sorabella, L.

    1995-01-01

    The MARS nuclear plant is equipped with a 600 MWth PWR type nuclear steam supply system, with completely innovative engineered core safeguards. The most relevant innovative safety system of this plant is its Emergency Core Cooling System, which is completely passive (with only one non static component). The Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) of the MARS reactor is natural-circulation, passive-type, and its intervention follows a core flow decrease, whatever was the cause. The operation of the system is based on a cascade of three fluid systems, functionally interfacing through heat exchangers; the first fluid system is connected to the reactor vessel and the last one includes an atmospheric-pressure condenser, cooled by external air. The infinite thermal capacity of the final heat sink provides the system an unlimited autonomy. The capability and operability of the system are based on its integrity and on the integrity of the primary coolant boundary (both of them are permanently enclosed in a pressurized containment; 100% redundancy is also foreseen) and on the operation of only one non static component (a check valve), with 400% redundancy. In the paper, all main thermal hydraulic transients occurring as a consequence of postulated accidents are analysed, to verify the capability of the passive-type ECCS to intervene always in time, without causing undue conditions of reduced coolability of the core (DNB, etc.), and to verify its capability to guarantee a long-term (indefinite) coolability of the core without the need of any external intervention. (author)

  17. Performance comparison between a solar driven rotary desiccant cooling system and conventional vapor compression system (performance study of desiccant cooling)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, T.S.; Ziegler, F.; Wang, R.Z.; Wang, H.

    2010-01-01

    Solar driven rotary desiccant cooling systems have been widely recognized as alternatives to conventional vapor compression systems for their merits of energy-saving and being eco-friendly. In the previous paper, the basic performance features of desiccant wheel have been discussed. In this paper, a solar driven two-stage rotary desiccant cooling system and a vapor compression system are simulated to provide cooling for one floor in a commercial office building in two cities with different climates: Berlin and Shanghai. The model developed in the previous paper is adopted to predict the performance of the desiccant wheel. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate and compare the thermodynamic and economic performance of the two systems and to obtain useful data for practical application. Results show that the desiccant cooling system is able to meet the cooling demand and provide comfortable supply air in both of the two regions. The required regeneration temperatures are 55 deg. C in Berlin and 85 deg. C in Shanghai. As compared to the vapor compression system, the desiccant cooling system has better supply air quality and consumes less electricity. The results of the economic analysis demonstrate that the dynamic investment payback periods are 4.7 years in Berlin and 7.2 years in Shanghai.

  18. Ten questions about radiant heating and cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Kyu-Nam; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kim, Kwang Woo

    2017-01-01

    and cooling. On the other hand, the RHC system has limitations such as complicated control of Thermally Activated Building System (TABS), acoustical issues, higher capital cost and cooling load than conventional air systems, and so on. For now, the required mitigation of these limitations and the need......Radiant heating and cooling (RHC) systems are being increasingly applied not only in residential but also in non-residential buildings such as commercial buildings, education facilities, and even large scale buildings such as airport terminals. Furthermore, with the combined ventilation system used...... studies on RHC systems in terms of comfort, heat transfer analysis, energy simulation, control strategy, system configurations and so on. Many studies have demonstrated that the RHC system is a good solution to improve indoor environmental quality while reducing building energy consumption for heating...

  19. Steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ian David; Barb, Kevin Joseph; Li, Ming Cheng; Hyde, Susan Marie; Mashey, Thomas Charles; Wesorick, Ronald Richard; Glynn, Christopher Charles; Hemsworth, Martin C.

    2002-01-01

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

  20. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  1. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  2. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  3. Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design

  4. Active noise canceling system for mechanically cooled germanium radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karl Einar; Burks, Morgan T

    2014-04-22

    A microphonics noise cancellation system and method for improving the energy resolution for mechanically cooled high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector systems. A classical adaptive noise canceling digital processing system using an adaptive predictor is used in an MCA to attenuate the microphonics noise source making the system more deployable.

  5. Integrated numerical methods for hypersonic aircraft cooling systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Jones, Stuart C.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical methods have been developed for the analysis of hypersonic aircraft cooling systems. A general purpose finite difference thermal analysis code is used to determine areas which must be cooled. Complex cooling networks of series and parallel flow can be analyzed using a finite difference computer program. Both internal fluid flow and heat transfer are analyzed, because increased heat flow causes a decrease in the flow of the coolant. The steady state solution is a successive point iterative method. The transient analysis uses implicit forward-backward differencing. Several examples of the use of the program in studies of hypersonic aircraft and rockets are provided.

  6. Compact inductive energy storage pulse power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Senthil; Mitra, S; Roy, Amitava; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D P

    2012-05-01

    An inductive energy storage pulse power system is being developed in BARC, India. Simple, compact, and robust opening switches, capable of generating hundreds of kV, are key elements in the development of inductive energy storage pulsed power sources. It employs an inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to an air cored storage inductor in 5.5 μs through wire fuses. By optimizing the exploding wire parameters, a compact, robust, high voltage pulse power system, capable of generating reproducibly 240 kV, is developed. This paper presents the full details of the system along with the experimental data.

  7. Security for cloud storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Kan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud storage is an important service of cloud computing, which offers service for data owners to host their data in the cloud. This new paradigm of data hosting and data access services introduces two major security concerns. The first is the protection of data integrity. Data owners may not fully trust the cloud server and worry that data stored in the cloud could be corrupted or even removed. The second is data access control. Data owners may worry that some dishonest servers provide data access to users that are not permitted for profit gain and thus they can no longer rely on the servers

  8. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy, and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld. Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers and hydrogen storage. These technologies have diff erent technical characteristics and economic parameters that determine their usability. This paper presents two concepts of an electricity storage tank with a storage capacity of at least 50 MWh, using the BES battery energy storage and CAES compressed air energy storage technologies.

  9. Energy managemant through PCM based thermal storage system for building air-conditioning: Tidel Park, Chennai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nallusamy, N.; Sampath, S.; Velraj, R.

    2006-01-01

    Many modern building are designed for air-conditioning and the amount of electrical energy required for providing air-conditioning can be very significant especially in the tropics. Conservation of energy is major concern to improve the overall efficiency of the system. Integration is energy storage with the conventional system gives a lot of potential for energy saving and long-term economics. Thermal energy storage systems can improve energy management and help in matching supply and demand patterns. In the present work, a detailed study has been done on the existing thermal energy storage system used in the air-conditioning system in Tidel Park, Chennai. The present study focuses on the cool energy storage system. The modes of operation and advantages of such a system for energy management are highlighted. The reason for the adoption of combined storage system and the size of the storage medium in the air-conditioning plant are analyzed. The possibility of using this concept in other cooling and heating applications, such as storage type solar water heating system, has been explored

  10. Passive ventilation systems with heat recovery and night cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    of Denmark. Through building integration in high performance offices the system is optimized to incorporate multiple functions like heating, cooling and ventilation, thus saving the expenses of separate cooling and heating systems. The simulation results are derived using the state-of-the-art building......In building design the requirements for energy consumption for ventilation, heating and cooling and the requirements for increasingly better indoor climate are two opposing factors. This paper presents the schematic layout and simulation results of an innovative multifunc-tional ventilation concept...... with little energy consumption and with satisfying indoor climate. The concept is based on using passive measures like stack and wind driven ventilation, effective night cooling and low pressure loss heat recovery using two fluid coupled water-to-air heat exchangers developed at the Technical University...

  11. Preliminary study of TEC application in cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, A. C.; Amin, N. A. M.; Saidon, M. S.; Majid, M. S. A.; Rahman, M. T. A.; Kazim, M. N. F. M.

    2017-10-01

    Integration of thermoelectric cooling (TEC) within a space cooling system in the lecturer room is studied. The studied area (air conditioned surrounding) is encapsulated with wall, floor, roof, and glass window. TEC module is placed on the glass window. The prototype of the studied compartment is designed using cabin container. The type and number of TEC module are studied and the effects on the cooling performance are analyzed as it is assumed to be tested within an air conditioned lecturer room. The experimental and mathematical modeling of the cooling system developed. It is expected that the mathematical modeling derived from this study will be used to estimate the use of the number of TEC module to be integrated with air conditioner unit where possible.

  12. Optimal Storage Allocation for Wireless Cloud Caching Systems with a Limited Sum Storage Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Bi; Choi, Wan

    2016-01-01

    In wireless cloud storage systems, the recovery failure probability depends on not only wireless channel conditions but also storage size of each distributed storage node. For an efficient utilization of limited storage capacity and the performance characterization of allocation strategies, we asymptotically analyze the recovery failure probability of a wireless cloud storage system with a sum storage capacity constraint for both high SNR regime and low SNR regime. Then, we find the optimal s...

  13. The encapsulation of Magnox type fuel elements for extended storage in cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.W.C.; Burt, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    A method of encapsulating spent fuel elements in a protective plastics medium to enable them to be stored for protracted periods under water, without risk of further significant corrosion, has been developed. It is visualised that the elements after discharge from the reactor would be allowed to cool under water for a period of at least 100 days and would then be encapsulated while remaining immersed. A suitable two pack system based on a solvent free epoxy resin cured with an aromatic amine adduct has been identified. The equipment and processes which have been developed for handling, conditioning and encapsulating the fuel are described. (author)

  14. Thermal analysis of the failed equipment storage vault system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrell, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Shadday, A.

    1995-07-01

    A storage facility for failed glass melters is required for radioactive operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). It is currently proposed that the failed melters be stored in the Failed Equipment Storage Vaults (FESV's) in S area. The FESV's are underground reinforced concrete structures constructed in pairs, with adjacent vaults sharing a common wall. A failed melter is to be placed in a steel Melter Storage Box (MSB), sealed, and lowered into the vault. A concrete lid is then placed over the top of the FESV. Two melters will be placed within the FESV/MSB system, separated by the common wall. There is no forced ventilation within the vault so that the melter is passively cooled. Temperature profiles in the Failed Equipment Storage Vault Structures have been generated using the FLOW3D software to model heat conduction and convection within the FESV/MSB system. Due to complexities in modeling radiation with FLOW3D, P/THERMAL software has been used to model radiation using the conduction/convection temperature results from FLOW3D. The final conjugate model includes heat transfer by conduction, convection, and radiation to predict steady-state temperatures. Also, the FLOW3D software has been validated as required by the technical task request

  15. Supplementary report: cooling water systems for Darlington G.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    This report summarizes Ontario Hydro's existing aquatic environmental programs, presents results of these investigations, and outlines plans and activities for expanded aquatic environment studies including the evaluation of alternative cooling systems. This report outlines specific considerations regarding possible alternative cooling arrangements for the Darlington station. It concludes with a recommendation that a study be initiated to examine the potential benefits of using the heated discharge water in a warm water recreational centre. (author)

  16. Energy storage in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob; Divya, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its......Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional....... When identifying the most relevant storage solutions it is necessary to include considerations on many relevant parameters which should be evaluated against the potential drawbacks and benefits of adding storage. Here, the most relevant technologies in relation to power systems with high penetration...

  17. Automatic pre-cooling system for large infrared instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Koji; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Colley, Stephen; Cook, David; Gorman, William; Magrath, Barney; Ramos, Lucio; Kleinman, Scot; Tokoku, Chihiro; Konishi, Masahiro; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Ichi; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2008-07-01

    An infrared instrument used for observation has to keep the detector and optical components in a very cold environment during operation. However, because of maintenance, upgrades, and other routine work, there are situations that require the instrument to be warmed-up and then cooled-down again. At Subaru Observatory, our MOIRCS infrared instrument has required warm-up and cool-down several times a year for routine maintenance and filter replacement. The MOIRCS instrument has a large heat capacity and cool-down using only the closed cycle cooler is impractical due to the huge amount of time it would require. To address this problem Subaru engineers have created a mechanism to allow PRE-COOLING of the instrument via liquid nitrogen - allowing for a much faster pre-cool process. Even with liquid nitrogen, the pre-cool process requires 10 tanks and almost a week of continual monitoring in order to reach the desired target temperature. It is very difficult to work for such a long period of time at the oxygen starved summit of Mauna Kea (4205 meters),and issues of man-power and scheduling conflicts only add to the problems. To address these concerns Subaru developed an automated pre-cooling system which works continuously and remotely at the summit. The strategy was to have basic functionality for pre-cooling and user friendly interface. i.e. (1) Continuous cooling until the target temperature is reached by automated liquid nitrogen tank exchanges and precision temperature control by automated changes to the liquid nitrogen flow. (2) Remote monitoring and control of all parameter setting by Web browser as user interface (UI). The goal of the Subaru pre-cooling system was to make it both inexpensive and quick to implement by using existing technologies. The original goal (to cut down on labor and precision temperature control) has been attained through several pre-cooling and software/hardware modification cycles. We will report on the progress and status of our pre-cooling

  18. Force balanced magnetic energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawardi, O.K.; Nara, H.; Grabnic, M.

    1979-01-01

    A novel scheme of constructing coils suited for inductive storage system is described. By means of a force-compensating method, the reinforcement structure can be made considerably smaller than that needed for conventional coils. The economics of this system is shown to be capable of achieving savings of upwards of 40% when compared to a conventional system

  19. Use of a temperature-initiated passive cooling system (TIPACS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Conklin, J.; Reich, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    A new type of passive cooling system has been invented (Forsberg 1993): the Temperature-Initiated Passive Cooling System (TIPACS). The characteristics of the TIPACS potentially match requirements for an improved reactor-cavity-cooling system (RCCS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). This report is an initial evaluation of the TIPACS for the MHTGR with a Rankines (steam) power conversion cycle. Limited evaluations were made of applying the TIPACS to MHTGRs with reactor pressure vessel temperatures up to 450 C. These temperatures may occur in designs of Brayton cycle (gas turbine) and process heat MHTGRs. The report is structured as follows. Section 2 describes the containment cooling issues associated with the MHTGR and the requirements for such a cooling system. Section 3 describes TIPACS in nonmathematical terms. Section 4 describes TIPACS's heat-removal capabilities. Section 5 analyzes the operation of the temperature-control mechanism that determines under what conditions the TIPACS rejects heat to the environment. Section 6 addresses other design and operational issues. Section 7 identifies uncertainties, and Section 8 provides conclusions. The appendixes provide the detailed data and models used in the analysis

  20. Model Based Control of Single-Phase Marine Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    these systems. Traditionally, control for this type of cooling system has been limited to open-loop control of pumps combined with a couple of local PID controllers for bypass valves to keep critical temperatures within design limits. This research considers improvements in a retrofit framework to the control...... linearization, an H∞-control design is applied to the resulting linear system. Disturbance rejection capabilities and robustness of performance for this control design methodology is compared to a baseline design derived from classical control theory. This shows promising results for the nonlinear robust design......This thesis is concerned with the problem of designing model-based control for a class of single-phase marine cooling systems. While this type of cooling system has been in existence for several decades, it is only recently that energy efficiency has become a focus point in the design and operation...

  1. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  2. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems. Monthly progress reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    This report is a collection of monthly status reports from the AiResearch Manufacturing Company, who is developing eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems under NASA Contract NAS8-32091. This effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation. The systems are 3-, 25-, and 75-ton size units.

  3. OPTIMUM HEAT STORAGE DESIGN FOR SDHW SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    . The other model is especially designed for low flow SDHW systems based on a mantle tank.The tank design’s influence on the thermal performance of the SDHW systems has been investigated in a way where only one tank parameter has been changed at a time in the calculations. In this way a direct analysis...... of the tank design’s influence on the thermal performance of the systems is possible. By means of the calculations design rules for the two heat storage types are proposed.......Two simulation models have been used to analyse the heat storage design’s influence on the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. One model is especially designed for traditional SDHW systems based on a heat storage design where the solar heat exchanger is a built-in spiral...

  4. Technology for national asset storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Robert A.; Hulen, Harry; Watson, Richard

    1993-01-01

    An industry-led collaborative project, called the National Storage Laboratory, was organized to investigate technology for storage systems that will be the future repositories for our national information assets. Industry participants are IBM Federal Systems Company, Ampex Recording Systems Corporation, General Atomics DISCOS Division, IBM ADSTAR, Maximum Strategy Corporation, Network Systems Corporation, and Zitel Corporation. Industry members of the collaborative project are funding their own participation. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory through its National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) will participate in the project as the operational site and the provider of applications. The expected result is an evaluation of a high performance storage architecture assembled from commercially available hardware and software, with some software enhancements to meet the project's goals. It is anticipated that the integrated testbed system will represent a significant advance in the technology for distributed storage systems capable of handling gigabyte class files at gigabit-per-second data rates. The National Storage Laboratory was officially launched on 27 May 1992.

  5. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO 2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  6. Development of a higher power cooling system for lithium targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, B; Green, S; Scott, M C; Bennett, J R J; Edgecock, T R

    2015-12-01

    The accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy beam at the University of Birmingham is based around a solid thick lithium target cooled by heavy water. Significant upgrades to Birmingham's Dynamitron accelerator are planned prior to commencing a clinical trial. These upgrades will result in an increase in maximum achievable beam current to at least 3 mA. Various upgrades to the target cooling system to cope with this increased power have been investigated. Tests of a phase change coolant known as "binary ice" have been carried out using an induction heater to provide a comparable power input to the Dynamitron beam. The experimental data shows no improvement over chilled water in the submerged jet system, with both systems exhibiting the same heat input to target temperature relation for a given flow rate. The relationship between the cooling circuit pumping rate and the target temperature in the submerged jet system has also been tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and application of online Stelmor Controlled Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wanhua; Chen Shaohui; Kuang Yonghai; Cao Kaichao

    2009-01-01

    An online Stelmor Controlled Cooling System (SCCS) has been developed successfully for the Stelmor production line, which can communicate with the material flow management system and Program Logic Control System (PLCs) automatically through local network. This online model adopts Implicit Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method to calculate temperature evolution and phase transformation during the production process and predicts final properties. As Continuous Cooling Temperature (CCT) curves of various steels can be coupled in the model, it can predict the latent heat rise and range of phase transformation for various steels, which can provide direct guidance for new steel development and optimization of present Stelmor cooling process. This unique online system has been installed in three Stelmor production lines at present with good results.

  8. System for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics, method for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, David M.; Yu, Wenhua; Singh, Dileep; Zhao, Weihuan

    2017-11-21

    The invention provides a single radiator cooling system for use in hybrid electric vehicles, the system comprising a surface in thermal communication with electronics, and subcooled boiling fluid contacting the surface. The invention also provides a single radiator method for simultaneously cooling electronics and an internal combustion engine in a hybrid electric vehicle, the method comprising separating a coolant fluid into a first portion and a second portion; directing the first portion to the electronics and the second portion to the internal combustion engine for a time sufficient to maintain the temperature of the electronics at or below 175.degree. C.; combining the first and second portion to reestablish the coolant fluid; and treating the reestablished coolant fluid to the single radiator for a time sufficient to decrease the temperature of the reestablished coolant fluid to the temperature it had before separation.

  9. Optimal control of building storage systems using both ice storage and thermal mass – Part I: Simulation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajiah, Ali; Krarti, Moncef

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simulation environment is described to account for both passive and active thermal energy storage (TES) systems. ► Laboratory testing results have been used to validate the predictions from the simulation environment. ► Optimal control strategies for TES systems have been developed as part of the simulation environment. - Abstract: This paper presents a simulation environment that can evaluate the benefits of using simultaneously building thermal capacitance and ice storage system to reduce total operating costs including energy and demand charges while maintaining adequate occupant comfort conditions within commercial buildings. The building thermal storage is controlled through pre-cooling strategies by setting space indoor air temperatures. The ice storage system is controlled by charging the ice tank and operating the chiller during low electrical charge periods and melting the ice during on-peak periods. Optimal controls for both building thermal storage and ice storage are developed to minimize energy charges, demand charges, or combined energy and demand charges. The results obtained from the simulation environment are validated using laboratory testing for an optimal controller.

  10. Force cooled quench tanks for the ITER cryogenic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzmenko, G.; Simon, M.; Saulquin, S.; Buskop, J.; Voigt, T.; Monneret, E.; Grillot, D.; Cursan, M.; Pichot, D.; Demar, G.

    2017-12-01

    The toroidal field magnets of ITER contain over 7 tons of helium. Most of the inventory is expelled from the magnets in case of a quench and it needs to be captured in external storage vessels (Quench Tanks). Force cooled technology with external gas circulation was chosen for these vessels in order to optimize their footprint, risks, and costs. This paper outlines the input data, assumptions, and studies performed in order to choose the most appropriate technology for the Quench Tanks. Further studies to demonstrate feasibility and ensure the required performance, as well as some peculiarities of the design and manufacturing of Quench Tanks are also described.

  11. Modernizing the monitoring of Mass Storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Terrien, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of a system is essential to ensure its efficiency. On a computer system, this monitoring is partly done via the analysis of log messages. The monitoring of CASTOR, a mass-storage system responsible for the storage of 150Pb of scientific data at CERN, was being done with tools developed by the IT-ST-FDO section. Those tools recently encountered some performance limitations due to the increase in the quantity of data produced by CERN's experiments. In this paper, I will describe how I managed to modernize CASTOR's monitoring tools by leveraging services centrally managed by CERN's IT department.

  12. Modeling of Nonlinear Marine Cooling Systems with Closed Circuit Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of constructing a mathematical model for a specific type of marine cooling system. The system in question is used for cooling the main engine and main engine auxiliary components, such as diesel generators, turbo chargers and main engine air coolers for certain classes...... of container ships. The purpose of the model is to describe the important dynamics of the system, such as nonlinearities, transport delays and closed circuit flow dynamics to enable the model to be used for control design and simulation. The control challenge is related to the highly non-standard type of step...

  13. Ozonation system for treatment of cooling tower water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coakley, T.; Horton, A.; Kaplan, B.

    1994-11-10

    An improved system for treatment of cooling tower water using ozone as a biocide. A self-contained unit is supplied with compressed air which is introduced to ozone generating electrodes at a constant flowrate. The ozone is mixed with tower water and then returned to the cooling tower. A sampling probe allows for constant monitoring of the ozone content of water coming from the tower. The volume of ozone mixing with the tower water is accordingly constantly adjusted. The system also includes safety control features to monitor system operation and provide shutoff in the event of malfunction. (author).

  14. Gas storage and recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A system for recovering and recycling gases is disclosed. The system is comprised of inlet and outlet flow lines, controllers, an inflatable enclosure, and inflatable rib stiffeners which are inflatable by the gas to be stored. The system does not present gas at an undesirable back pressure to the gas source. A filtering relief valve is employed which prevents environmental airborne contamination from flowing back into the system when the relief valve is closing. The system is for storing and re-using helium.

  15. Considerations for Disposition of Dry Cask Storage System Materials at End of Storage System Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Rob; Van den Akker, Bret

    2014-01-01

    Dry cask storage systems are deployed at nuclear power plants for used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage when spent fuel pools reach their storage capacity and/or the plants are decommissioned. An important waste and materials disposition consideration arising from the increasing use of these systems is the management of the dry cask storage systems' materials after the UNF proceeds to disposition. Thermal analyses of repository design concepts currently under consideration internationally indicate that waste package sizes for the geologic media under consideration may be significantly smaller than the canisters being used for on-site dry storage by the nuclear utilities. Therefore, at some point along the UNF disposition pathway, there could be a need to repackage fuel assemblies already loaded into the dry storage canisters currently in use. In the United States, there are already over 1650 of these dry storage canisters deployed and approximately 200 canisters per year are being loaded at the current fleet of commercial nuclear power plants. There is about 10 cubic meters of material from each dry storage canister system that will need to be dispositioned. The concrete horizontal storage modules or vertical storage overpacks will need to be reused, re-purposed, recycled, or disposed of in some manner. The empty metal storage canister/cask would also have to be cleaned, and decontaminated for possible reuse or recycling or disposed of, likely as low-level radioactive waste. These material disposition options can have impacts of the overall used fuel management system costs. This paper will identify and explore some of the technical and interface considerations associated with managing the dry cask storage system materials. (authors)

  16. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, R. M.

    1980-06-01

    The solar heating and cooling system installed at the headquarters of Citizens Mutual Savings Association in Leavenworth, Kansas, is described in detail. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program and became operational in March, 1979. The designer was TEC, Inc. Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri and contractor was Norris Brothers, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. The solar system is expected to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2200 square feet. Five, 3-ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two, 3000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  17. Safety analysis of reactor's cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Results of the analysis of reactor's RBMK-1500 coolant system during normal operation mode, hydrodynamic testing and in the case of earthquake are presented. Analysis was performed using RELAP5 code. Calculations showed the most vulnerable place in the reactor's coolant system. It was found that in the case of earthquake the horizontal support system of drum separator could be damaged

  18. Study on disposal method of graphite blocks and storage of spent fuel for modular gas-cooled reactor. Joint research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumita, Junya; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Tsuchie, Yasuo; Urakami, Masao [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the result of study on disposal method of graphite blocks in future block-type reactor. Present study was carried out within a framework of joint research, ''Research of Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (No. 3)'', between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPCO), in 2000. In this study, activities in fuel and reflector graphite blocks were evaluated and were compared with the disposal limits defined as low-level of radioactive waste. As a result, it was found that the activity for only C-14 was higher than disposal limits for the low-level of radioactive waste and that the amount of air in the graphite is important to evaluate precisely of C-14 activity. In addition, spent fuels can be stored in air-cooled condition at least after two years cooling in the storage pool. (author)

  19. Review of Phase Change Materials Based on Energy Storage System with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamaraikannn, R.; Kanimozhi, B.; Anish, M.; Jayaprabakar, J.; Saravanan, P.; Rohan Nicholas, A.

    2017-05-01

    The use of Different types of storage system using phase change materials (PCMs) is an effective way of storing energy and also to make advantages of heating and cooling systems are installed to maintain temperatures within the well-being zone. PCMs have been extensively used in various storage systems for heat pumps, solar engineering, and thermal control applications. The use of PCM’s for heating and cooling applications have been investigated during the past decade. There are large numbers of PCM’s, which melt and solidify at a wide range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications. This paper also outline the investigation and analysis of Phase Change materials used in Different Types of storage systems with different applications.

  20. A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Martial

    2010-01-01

    An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

  1. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  2. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IV, MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE PURPOSE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, CARE MAINTENANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AND TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  3. Adiabatic cooling processes in frustrated magnetic systems with pyrochlore structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate in detail the process of adiabatic cooling in the framework of the exactly solvable antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Ising model in the presence of the external magnetic field on an approximate lattice with pyrochlore structure. The behavior of the entropy of the model is studied and exact values of the residual entropies of all ground states are found. The temperature variation of the system under adiabatic (de)magnetization is investigated and the central role of the macroscopically degenerated ground states in cooling processes is explicitly demonstrated. It is shown that the model parameter space of the studied geometrically frustrated system is divided into five disjunct regions with qualitatively different processes of the adiabatic cooling. The effectiveness of the adiabatic (de)magnetization cooling in the studied model is compared to the corresponding processes in paramagnetic salts. It is shown that the processes of the adiabatic cooling in the antiferromagnetic frustrated systems are much more effective especially in nonzero external magnetic fields. It means that the frustrated magnetic materials with pyrochlore structure can be considered as very promising refrigerants mainly in the situations with nonzero final values of the magnetic field.

  4. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiant heating systems has several thousand years of history.1,2 The early stage of radiant system application was for heating purposes, where hot air from flue gas (cooking, fires) was circulated under floors or in walls. After the introduction of plastic piping water-based radiant h...... installations. For similar reasons, as well as possible peak load reduction and energy savings, radiant systems are being widely applied in commercial and industrial buildings....

  5. Design and Control of Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jingjuan

    Improving energy efficiency in the Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) systems in buildings is critical to achieve the energy reduction in the building sector, which consumes 41% of all primary energy produced in the United States, and was responsible for nearly half of U.S. CO2 emissions. Based on a report by the New Building Institute (NBI), when HVAC systems are used, about half of the zero net energy (ZNE) buildings report using a radiant cooling/heating system, often in conjunction with ground source heat pumps. Radiant systems differ from air systems in the main heat transfer mechanism used to remove heat from a space, and in their control characteristics when responding to changes in control signals and room thermal conditions. This dissertation investigates three related design and control topics: cooling load calculations, cooling capacity estimation, and control for the heavyweight radiant systems. These three issues are fundamental to the development of accurate design/modeling tools, relevant performance testing methods, and ultimately the realization of the potential energy benefits of radiant systems. Cooling load calculations are a crucial step in designing any HVAC system. In the current standards, cooling load is defined and calculated independent of HVAC system type. In this dissertation, I present research evidence that sensible zone cooling loads for radiant systems are different from cooling loads for traditional air systems. Energy simulations, in EnergyPlus, and laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer dynamics in spaces conditioned by radiant and air systems. The results show that the magnitude of the cooling load difference between the two systems ranges from 7-85%, and radiant systems remove heat faster than air systems. For the experimental tested conditions, 75-82% of total heat gain was removed by radiant system during the period when the heater (simulating the heat gain) was on, while for air

  6. Wind turbine generators having wind assisted cooling systems and cooling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat [Niskayuna, NY; Barnes, Gary R [Delanson, NY; Gadre, Aniruddha D [Rexford, NY; Jansen, Patrick L [Scotia, NY; Bouchard, Jr., Charles G.; Jarczynski, Emil D [Scotia, NY; Garg, Jivtesh [Cambridge, MA

    2008-09-23

    A wind generator includes: a nacelle; a hub carried by the nacelle and including at least a pair of wind turbine blades; and an electricity producing generator including a stator and a rotor carried by the nacelle. The rotor is connected to the hub and rotatable in response to wind acting on the blades to rotate the rotor relative to the stator to generate electricity. A cooling system is carried by the nacelle and includes at least one ambient air inlet port opening through a surface of the nacelle downstream of the hub and blades, and a duct for flowing air from the inlet port in a generally upstream direction toward the hub and in cooling relation to the stator.

  7. A simpler, safer, higher performance cooling system arrangement for water cooled divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Kothmann, R.E.; Green, L.; Zhan, N.J.; Stefani, F.; Roidt, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    A cooling system arrangement is presented which is specifically designed for high heat flux water cooled divertors. The motivation behind the proposed open-quotes unichannelclose quotes configuration is to provide maximum safety; this design eliminates flow instabilities liable to occur in parallel channel designs, it eliminates total blockage, it promotes cross flow to counteract the effects of partial blockage and/or local hot spots, and it is much more tolerant to the effects of debonding between the beryllium armor and the copper substrate. Added degrees of freedom allow optimization of the design, including the possibility of operating at very high heat transfer coefficients associated with nucleate boiling, while at the same time providing ample margin against departure from nucleate boiling. Projected pressure drop, pumping power, and maximum operating temperatures are lower than for conventional parallel channel designs

  8. Solar cooling with concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (CPVT) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelman, Gur; Kribus, Abraham; Dayan, Abraham

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous production of electrical and high grade thermal energy is proposed with a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (CPVT) system operating at elevated temperature. CPVT collectors may operate at temperatures above 100 o C, and the thermal energy can drive processes such as refrigeration, desalination and steam production. The performance and cost of a CPVT system with single effect absorption cooling are investigated in detail. The results show that under a wide range of economic conditions, the combined solar cooling and power generation plant can be comparable to, and sometimes even significantly better than, the conventional alternative

  9. Energy Storage System for a Pulsed DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.; Cortes, M.; Mendez, P.; Maisonnier, D.; Hayward, J.

    2006-01-01

    Several designs have been proposed for DEMO, some of which will operate in pulsed mode. Since a fusion power plant will be required to deliver continuous output, this challenge must be solved. For the reference DEMO, energy storage is required at a level of 250 MWhe with a capability of delivering a power of 1 GWe. Although DEMO is scheduled to be built in about 30 years, the design of the energy storage system must be based on current technology, focusing on commercially available products and on their expected future trends. From a thorough review of the different technologies available, thermal energy storage, compressed air energy storage, water pumping, fuel cells, batteries, flywheels and ultracapacitors are the most promising solutions to energy storage for a pulsed DEMO. An outline of each of these technologies is described in the paper, showing its basis, features, advantages and disadvantages for this application. Following this review, the most suitable methods capable of storing the required energy are examined. Fuel cells are not suitable due to the power requirement. Compressed air energy storage has a lower efficiency than the required one. Thermal energy storage, based on molten salts, so more energy can be stored with a better efficiency, and water pumping are shown as the main solutions, based on existing technology. However, those are not the only solutions capable of solving our challenge. Hydrogen production, using water electrolysis, hydrogen storage and combustion in a combined cycle can achieve our energy and power requirements with an acceptable efficiency. All these solutions are studied in detail and described, evaluating their current cost and efficiency in order to compare them all. (author)

  10. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, J. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems,this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  11. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Williamson and S. Puttagunta

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems, this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  12. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    Project Sunburst is a demonstration system for solar space heating and cooling and solar hot water heating for a 14,400 square foot office building in Richland, Washington. The project is part of the US Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid--liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building to reject surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program has been provided from the beginning of the program and has resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  13. Liquid Cooling System for CPU by Electroconjugate Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Sakurai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dissipated power of CPU for personal computer has been increased because the performance of personal computer becomes higher. Therefore, a liquid cooling system has been employed in some personal computers in order to improve their cooling performance. Electroconjugate fluid (ECF is one of the functional fluids. ECF has a remarkable property that a strong jet flow is generated between electrodes when a high voltage is applied to ECF through the electrodes. By using this strong jet flow, an ECF-pump with simple structure, no sliding portion, no noise, and no vibration seems to be able to be developed. And then, by the use of the ECF-pump, a new liquid cooling system by ECF seems to be realized. In this study, to realize this system, an ECF-pump is proposed and fabricated to investigate the basic characteristics of the ECF-pump experimentally. Next, by utilizing the ECF-pump, a model of a liquid cooling system by ECF is manufactured and some experiments are carried out to investigate the performance of this system. As a result, by using this system, the temperature of heat source of 50 W is kept at 60°C or less. In general, CPU is usually used at this temperature or less.

  14. Experimental study on solar desiccant cooling system. 2nd Report; Taiyonetsu kudo desiccant cooling system no jikkenteki kento. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H.; Funato, H. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan); Kuma, T. [Seibu Giken Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Study has been made about a desiccant cleaning system using solar heated water for regenerating the dehumidifier. A dehumidifier and evaporation coolers are combined to attain a synergistic effect in dehumidifying and cooling the air in the house. The simultaneous control of humidity and temperature, however, is quite difficult. Under the circumstances, an evaporation cooler was removed from the outdoor air intake side, to leave a humidifier alone for the control of humidity only. In addition, the length of the dehumidifier was reduced into half for saving fan driving power and for downscaling the model. With only one evaporation cooler in operation that is installed at the exhaust side, the cooling effect is diminished by half. For dealing with the situation, ultrasonic atomization is performed at the exhaust side evaporation cooler for the improvement of the air cooling effect for the next sensible heat exchanger (intake side). The return air is heated by the solar heater water (approximately 60{degree}C hot), regenerates the dehumidifier, and then exhausted. The atomization process elevates the cooling effect, and the resultant cooling effect was as high as that expected from a 2-cooler setup. The dehumidification effect, however, lowers a little. Exclusion of the atomization process will enhance the dehumidification effect, but will reduce the cooling effect as well. 3 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Forced-circulation cooling system for the Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, J.M.; Bollinger, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac is a prototype heavy-ion accelerator used to increase the energy of an ion beam from a tandem electrostatic accelerator. The accelerating elements are split-ring-type resonators with hollow niobium drift tubes mounted in cylindrical housings. The housings are made of explosively bonded niobium clad copper. The resonators, along with superconducting solenoid focusing magnets are positioned axially in cryostats on support structures which also serve as helium supply and return manifolds. The resonators and magnets are cooled by a continuous forced-flow circulation of liquid helium directly from a refrigerator. The colling system consists of the refrigerator, a 1000-liter dewar with built-in heat exchanger coil, a 46-m 3 helium gas storage tank, three distribution boxes with valves, heat exchangers, and transfer line ports, connected by a 20-m-long, liquid-nitrogen-shielded, coaxial distribution line. Design and operation of the cooling system are described

  16. Development of hybrid solar-assisted cooling/heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-08-01

    A solar-assisted ejector cooling/heating system (SACH) was developed in this study. The SACH combines a pump-less ejector cooling system (ECS) with an inverter-type heat pump (R22) and is able to provide a stable capacity for space cooling. The ECS is driven by solar heat and is used to cool the condenser of the R22 heat pump to increase its COP and reduce the energy consumption of the compressor by regulating the rotational speed of the compressor through a control system. In a complete SACH system test run at outdoor temperature 35 °C, indoor temperature 25 °C and compressor speed 20-80 Hz, and the ECS operating at generator temperature 90 °C and condensing temperature 37 °C, the corresponding condensing temperature of the heat pump in the SACH is 24.5-42 °C, cooling capacity 1.02-2.44 kW, input power 0.20-0.98 kW, and cooling COPc 5.11-2.50. This indicates that the use of ECS in SACH can effectively reduce the condensing temperature of the heat pump by 12.6-7.3 °C and reduce the power consumption by 81.2-34.5%. The SACH can also supply heat from the heat pump. At ambient temperature from 5 °C to 35 °C, the heating COPh is in the range 2.0-3.3. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Proceedings of solar energy storage options. Volume I. An intensive workshop on thermal energy storage for solar heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 28 papers presented. Panel chairmen's summaries are included; the complete panel reports will be published in Volume II of the Solar Energy Storage Options Workshop proceedings. (WHK)

  18. Calcium bromide hydration for heat storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Niwa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A chemical reaction is a common and simple way to produce heat for a heat storage system. The reaction produces heat energy without the use of electricity or fuel. The goal of this study was to develop a heat storage system for use in automobiles, which is able to provide heat rapidly via a hydration reaction. A heat storage system without an evaporator stores high-density heat and has a high heat output rate since the solid–liquid product that is formed is transferred as a heat medium to the object that requires heat. The exothermic heat produced from the solid–liquid reaction was measured, and the relationship between the equivalence ratio and the reaction heat was evaluated. The heat output and heat recovered by the heat storage system, which comprised a reaction vessel and a heat exchanger, were measured. We selected solid CaBr2 because it was the best metal halide for a hydration reaction and had a high heat yield from the dissolution reaction. With this system, we were able to achieve a heat recovery rate of 582 kJ/L-H2O. We found no degradation in the chemical composition of CaBr2 after it being recycled 100 times.

  19. On the Optimum Dispersion of a Storage Ring for Electron Cooling with High Space Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Bosser, Jacques; Chanel, M; Marié, L; Möhl, D; Tranquille, G

    2000-01-01

    With the intense electron beams used for cooling, matching of the ion and electron velocity over the largest possible fraction of the beam profile becomes important. In this situation, a finite dispersion from the ring in the cooling section can lead to an appreciable gain in the transverse cooling speed. Based on a simple model of the cooling force, an expression for the "optimum" dispersion as a function of the electron beam intensity, the momentum spread and other properties of the ion beam will be derived. This simple theory will be compared to measurements made on the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) at CERN during 1997.

  20. Kinetic model for predicting the composition of chlorinated water discharged from power plant cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lietzke, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    The results of applying a kinetic model to the chlorination data supplied by Commonwealth Edison on the once-through cooling system at the Quad Cities Nuclear Station provide a validation of the model. The two examples given demonstrate that the model may be applied to either once-through cooling systems or to cooling systems involving cooling towers

  1. Solar hybrid cooling system for high-tech offices in subtropical climate - Radiant cooling by absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, K.F.; Chow, T.T.; Lee, C.K.; Lin, Z.; Chan, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A solar hybrid cooling system is proposed for high-tech offices in subtropical climate. → An integration of radiant cooling, absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification. → Year-round cooling and energy performances were evaluated through dynamic simulation. → Its annual primary energy consumption was lower than conventional system up to 36.5%. → The passive chilled beams were more energy-efficient than the active chilled beams. - Abstract: A solar hybrid cooling design is proposed for high cooling load demand in hot and humid climate. For the typical building cooling load, the system can handle the zone cooling load (mainly sensible) by radiant cooling with the chilled water from absorption refrigeration, while the ventilation load (largely latent) by desiccant dehumidification. This hybrid system utilizes solar energy for driving the absorption chiller and regenerating the desiccant wheel. Since a high chilled water temperature generated from the absorption chiller is not effective to handle the required latent load, desiccant dehumidification is therefore involved. It is an integration of radiant cooling, absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification, which are powered up by solar energy. In this study, the application potential of the solar hybrid cooling system was evaluated for the high-tech offices in the subtropical climate through dynamic simulation. The high-tech offices are featured with relatively high internal sensible heat gains due to the intensive office electric equipment. The key performance indicators included the solar fraction and the primary energy consumption. Comparative study was also carried out for the solar hybrid cooling system using two common types of chilled ceilings, the passive chilled beams and active chilled beams. It was found that the solar hybrid cooling system was technically feasible for the applications of relatively higher cooling load demand. The annual primary energy

  2. Parameter optimization for Doppler laser cooling of a low-energy heavy ion beam at the storage ring S-LSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Kazuya; Okamoto, Hiromi

    2014-05-01

    S-LSR is a compact ion storage ring constructed at Kyoto University several years ago. The ring is equipped with a Doppler laser cooling system aimed at beam crystallization. Bearing in mind hardware limitations in S-LSR, we try to find an optimum set of primary experimental parameters for the production of an ultracold heavy ion beam. Systematic molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for this purpose. It is concluded that the detuning and spot size of the cooling laser should be chosen around -42 MHz and 1.5 mm, respectively, for the most efficient cooling of 40 keV ^{24}Mg^+ beams in S-LSR. Under the optimum conditions, the use of the resonant coupling method followed by radio-frequency field ramping enables us to reach an extremely low beam temperature on the order of 0.1 K in the transverse degrees of freedom. The longitudinal degree of freedom can be cooled to close to the Doppler limit; i.e., to the mK range. We also numerically demonstrate that it is possible to establish a stable, long one-dimensionally ordered state of ions.

  3. Cool gas micropropulsion system for cubesats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukelen, E. van; Sanders, B.H.; Schuurbiers, C.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    CubeSats are becoming more mature and many capabilities previously associated with microsatellites and bigger platforms are coming to the CubeSat. Moreover, they are becoming available as commercial off the shelf systems with standardized interfaces. TNO Defence and Security of the Netherlands is in

  4. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage-system components in dry interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom and organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel in silos in Canada. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from boiling water reactors BWR's, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions

  5. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage system components in dry interim storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom and organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel in silos in Canada. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from boiling water reactors BWR's, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions.

  6. A dynamic model of an innovative high-temperature solar heating and cooling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buonomano Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new simulation model of a novel solar heating and cooling system based on innovative high temperature flat plate evacuated solar thermal collector is presented. The system configuration includes: flat-plate evacuated solar collectors, a double-stage LiBr-H2O absorption chiller, gas-fired auxiliary heater, a closed loop cooling tower, pumps, heat exchangers, storage tanks, valves, mixers and controllers. The novelty of this study lies in the utilization of flat-plate stationary solar collectors, manufactured by TVP Solar, rather than concentrating ones (typically adopted for driving double-stage absorption chillers. Such devices show ultra-high thermal efficiencies, even at very high (about 200°C operating temperatures, thanks to the high vacuum insulation. Aim of the paper is to analyse the energy and economic feasibility of such novel technology, by including it in a prototypal solar heating and cooling system. For this purpose, the solar heating and cooling system design and performance were analysed by means of a purposely developed dynamic simulation model, implemented in TRNSYS. A suitable case study is also presented. Here, the simulated plant is conceived for the space heating and cooling and the domestic hot water production of a small building, whose energy needs are fulfilled through a real installation (settled also for experimental purposes built up close to Naples (South Italy. Simulation results show that the investigated system is able to reach high thermal efficiencies and very good energy performance. Finally, the economic analysis shows results comparable to those achieved through similar renewable energy systems.

  7. Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling System Independent of External Water Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from...... the air that regenerates the desiccant dehumidifier, and using it for running the evaporative coolers in the system. A closed regeneration circuit is used for maximizing the amount of condensed water. This solution is applied to a system with a desiccant wheel dehumidifier and a dew point cooler, termed...... desiccant dew-point cooling system, for demonstrating its function and applicability. Simulations are carried out for varying outdoor conditions under constant supply conditions. The results show that the system is independent of external water supply for the majority of simulated conditions. In comparison...

  8. Redox flow cell energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    NASA-Redox systems are electrochemical storage devices that use two fully soluble Redox couples, anode and cathode fluids, as active electrode materials separated by a highly selective ion exchange membrane. The reactants are contained in large storage tanks and pumped through a stack of Redox flow cells where the electrochemical reactions (reduction and oxidation) take place at porous carbon felt electrodes. A string or stack of these power producing cells is connected in series in a bipolar manner. Redox energy storage systems promise to be inexpensive and possess many features that provide for flexible design, long life, high reliability and minimal operation and maintenance costs. These features include independent sizing of power and storage capacity requirements and inclusion within the cell stack of a cell that monitors the state of charge of the system as a whole, and a rebalance cell which permits continuous correction to be made for minor side reactions that would tend to result in the anode fluid and cathode fluids becoming electrochemically out of balance. These system features are described and discussed.

  9. Energy storage system using superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Kim, Ki Baek; Park, Hae Woong; Hong, Kye Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-03-01

    As a result of continuous efforts, high critical current density exceeding 104 A/cm{sup 2} at 77K and strong levitation capacity has been achieved in Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor which is fabricated by melting technique. Various applications using the levitation properties of high-Tc superconductor is expected to come true in near future. Especially, by utilizing the levitation force between a permanent magnet and the superconductor, a flywheel system which store electrical energy as mechanical energy can be designed. (Author) 11 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Ice thermal storage air conditioning system for electric load leveling; Denryoku heijunka to hyochikunetsu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigenaga, Y. [Daikin Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-08-15

    Thermal storage air conditioning system is the one to use energy stored into thermal storing materials by using night electric power and to operate effective air conditioning. Therefore, as load can be treated by the stored energy, volume of the apparatus can be reduced. And, by reduction of the consumed power at day time, it can contribute to leveling of electric power demand. In general, there are two types in the thermal storage method: one is a method to store as thermal energy, and the other is that to store as chemical energy. For conditions required for the storing materials, important elements on their actual uses are not only physical properties such as large thermal storage per unit and easy thermal in- and out-puts, but also safety, long-term reliability, and easy receiving and economics containing future. The ice thermal storage air conditioning system is classified at the viewpoint of type of ice, kind of thermal storing medium, melting method on using cooling and heating, kinds of thermal medium on cooling and heating. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. A multi-channel cooling system for multiple heat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Shanglong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-power electronic devices with multiple heating elements often require temperature uniformity and operating within their functional temperature range for optimal performance. A multi-channel cooling experiment apparatus is developed for studying heat removal inside an electronic device with multiple heat sources. It mainly consists of a computer-controlled pump, a multi-channel heat sink for multi-zone cooling and the apparatus for measuring the temperature and pressure drop. The experimental results show the system and the designed multi-channel heat sink structure can control temperature distribution of electronic device with multiple heat sources by altering coolant flow rate.

  12. Cooling System: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The last of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the automotive cooling system at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

  13. Heating control device for nuclear reactor cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishigawa, Osamu.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a heating control device capable of surely preventing deformations and fluctures due to thermal stresses in equipments such as tanks and pipeways upon starting of reactor operation. Constitution: A heating control device for nuclear reactor cooling systems using metal coolants comprises a plurality of heaters disposed at each of the sections in the cooling systems for heating the coolants, temperature detectors for the detection of temperature at each of the sections in the cooling systems to be heated by the heaters, a circuit for judging the range of filling process of the metal coolants in the cooling systems, a coefficient change circuit for heating control for changing and setting the coefficient for the heating control by the heaters based on the information for the range judged by the judging circuit, and a circuit for controlling the input to each of the heaters based on the output signals for the coefficient change circuit and the signals from the temperature detectors. (Seki, T.)

  14. Mathematical Model for Direct Evaporative Space Cooling Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with the development of a simple mathematical model for experimental validation of the performance of a small evaporative cooling system in a tropical climate. It also presents the coefficient of convective heat transfer of wide range of temperatures based on existing model. Extensive experiments have ...

  15. Performance test of solar-assisted ejector cooling system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2014-03-01

    A solar-assisted ejector cooling/heating system (SACH-2k) is built and test result is reported. The solar-driven ejector cooling system (ECS) is connected in series with an inverter-type air conditioner (IAC). Several advanced technologies are developed in SACH-k2, including generator liquid level control in ECS, the ECS evaporator temperature control, and optimal control of fan power in cooling tower of ECS. From the field test results, the generator liquid level control performs quite well and keeps stable performance of ejector. The ECS evaporator temperature control also performs satisfactorily to keep ejector performance normally under low or fluctuating solar radiation. The fan power control system cooling tower performs stably and reduces the power consumption dramatically without affecting the ECS performance. The test results show that the overall system COPo including power consumptions of peripheral increases from 2.94-3.3 (IAC alone) to 4.06-4.5 (SACH-k2), about 33-43%. The highest COPo is 4.5. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of cooling and cleaning systems for enhanced gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to address these tar related problems a cleaning and cooling system has been developed in house that facilitates tar removal to acceptable levels tolerated by the internal combustion (IC) engine and meets emission standards as well. The main objective of the present work is to reduce tar level and develop control ...

  17. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Design of Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This is the second of two training courses designed to develop the capability of practitioners in the home building industry to design solar heating and cooling systems. The course is organized in 23 modules to separate selected topics and to facilitate learning. Although a compact schedule of one week is shown, a variety of formats can be…

  18. BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.

    2001-01-01

    This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

  19. Flywheel energy storage for electromechanical actuation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Richard L.; Goldie, James H.; Kirtley, James L.

    The authors describe a flywheel energy storage system designed specifically to provide load-leveling for a thrust vector control (TVC) system using electromechanical actuators (EMAs). One of the major advantages of an EMA system over a hydraulic system is the significant reduction in total energy consumed during the launch profile. Realization of this energy reduction will, however, require localized energy storage capable of delivering the peak power required by the EMAs. A combined flywheel-motor/generator unit which interfaces directly to the 20-kHz power bus represents an ideal candidate for this load leveling. The overall objective is the definition of a flywheel energy storage system for this application. The authors discuss progress on four technical objectives: (1) definition of the specifications for the flywheel-motor/generator system, including system-level trade-off analysis; (2) design of the flywheel rotor; (3) design of the motor/generator; and (4) determination of the configuration for the power management system.

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisani, Angelo; Hassan, Yassin A; Ugaz, Victor M

    2010-11-02

    The design of passive heat removal systems is one of the main concerns for the modular very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTR) vessel cavity. The reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) is a key heat removal system during normal and off-normal conditions. The design and validation of the RCCS is necessary to demonstrate that VHTRs can survive to the postulated accidents. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) STAR-CCM+/V3.06.006 code was used for three-dimensional system modeling and analysis of the RCCS. A CFD model was developed to analyze heat exchange in the RCCS. The model incorporates a 180-deg section resembling the VHTR RCCS experimentally reproduced in a laboratory-scale test facility at Texas A&M University. All the key features of the experimental facility were taken into account during the numerical simulations. The objective of the present work was to benchmark CFD tools against experimental data addressing the behavior of the RCCS following accident conditions. Two cooling fluids (i.e., water and air) were considered to test the capability of maintaining the RCCS concrete walls' temperature below design limits. Different temperature profiles at the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) wall obtained from the experimental facility were used as boundary conditions in the numerical analyses to simulate VHTR transient evolution during accident scenarios. Mesh convergence was achieved with an intensive parametric study of the two different cooling configurations and selected boundary conditions. To test the effect of turbulence modeling on the RCCS heat exchange, predictions using several different turbulence models and near-wall treatments were evaluated and compared. The comparison among the different turbulence models analyzed showed satisfactory agreement for the temperature distribution inside the RCCS cavity medium and at the standpipes walls. For such a complicated geometry and flow conditions, the tested turbulence models demonstrated that the

  1. A Thermal Test System for Helmet Cooling Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Fitzgerald

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary causes of discomfort to both irregular and elite cyclists is heat entrapment by a helmet resulting in overheating and excessive sweating of the head. To accurately assess the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets, a heated plastic thermal headform has been developed. The construction consists of a 3D-printed headform of low thermal conductivity with an internal layer of high thermal mass that is heated to a constant uniform temperature by an electrical heating element. Testing is conducted in a wind tunnel where the heater power remains constant and the resulting surface temperature distribution is directly measured by 36 K-type thermocouples embedded within the surface of the head in conjunction with a thermal imaging camera. Using this new test system, four bicycle helmets were studied in order to measure their cooling abilities and to identify ‘hot spots’ where cooling performance is poor.

  2. Characterization of new sites for news NPPs: Cooling Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copete, M.; Ortega, S.; Vaquero, J. C.; Cervantes, E.

    2010-01-01

    The increase of power consumption because of the lifestyle of the current society has implied the called renaissance of nuclear power. This situation has encouraged utilities to make new investments in studies, analyses and assessments of future new nuclear power plants. As part of these studies, the characterization or process of conveying information about new sites for new nuclear power plants is strongly considered nowadays. This one encompasses diverse analyses (geology, seismology, weather conditions, flooding, population, and so on) being one of the most important, the study about cooling system requirements. This study is based on diverse tasks: studies about the existing technologies of cooling (wet towers, hybrid towers), development of a thermal model for each component involved in the cooling process, availability of site conditions data and, to perform finally operating windows.

  3. Accelerator-based cold neutron sources and their cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuhiko; Yanai, Masayoshi; Ishikawa, Yoshikazu.

    1985-01-01

    We have developed and installed two accelerator-based cold neutron sources within a electron linac at Hokkaido University and a proton synchrotoron at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Solid methane at 20K was adopted as the cold moderator. The methane condensing heat exchangers attached directly to the moderator chambers were cooled by helium gas, which was kept cooled in refrigerators and circulated by ventilation fans. Two cold neutron sources have operated smoothly and safely for the past several years. In this paper we describe some of the results obtained in the preliminary experiments by using a modest capacity refrigerator, the design philosophy of the cooling system for the pulsed cold neutron sources, and outline of two facilities. (author)

  4. Turbine airfoil with an internal cooling system having vortex forming turbulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-12-30

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels having a plurality of turbulators protruding from an inner surface and positioned generally nonorthogonal and nonparallel to a longitudinal axis of the airfoil cooling channel. The configuration of turbulators may create a higher internal convective cooling potential for the blade cooling passage, thereby generating a high rate of internal convective heat transfer and attendant improvement in overall cooling performance. This translates into a reduction in cooling fluid demand and better turbine performance.

  5. Graphene-Based Systems for Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Mackey, Paul J.; Johansen, Michael R.; Phillips, James, III; Hogue, Michael; Kaner, Richard B.; El-Kady, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Development of graphene-based energy storage devices based on the Laser Scribe system developed by the University of California Los Angeles. These devices These graphene-based devices store charge on graphene sheets and take advantage of the large accessible surface area of graphene (2,600 m2g) to increase the electrical energy that can be stored. The proposed devices should have the electrical storage capacity of thin-film-ion batteries but with much shorter charge discharge cycle times as well as longer lives The proposed devices will be carbon-based and so will not have the same issues with flammability or toxicity as the standard lithium-based storage cells.

  6. Primary cooling system for BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Eishi; Takahashi, Masanori; Aoki, Yasuko

    1993-01-01

    The present invention effectively uses information from a plurality of sensors in order to suppress corrosion circumstance of a nuclear reactor. That is, a predetermined general water quality factor at a predetermined position is determined as a standard index. A concentration of a water quality improver is controlled such that the index is within an aimed range. For this purpose, the entire sensor groups disposed in a primary coolant system of a nuclear reactor are divided into a plural systems of sensor groups each disposed on every different positions. Then, a predetermined sensor group (standard sensor group) is connected to a computing device and a data base so that it is always monitored for calculating and estimating the standard index. Only oxidative ingredient in water at the measuring point is noted, and a concentration distribution which agrees with an actually measured value of oxidative ingredients is extracted from data base and used as a correct concentration distribution. With such procedures, reactor water quality can be estimated accurately while compensating erroneous factors of individual sensors. Even when a new sensor is used, it is not necessary to greatly change control logic. (I.S.)

  7. Analysis of a combined heating and cooling system model under different operating strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierzgowski, Mieczysław; Zwierzchowski, Ryszard

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents an analysis of a combined heating and cooling system model under different operating strategies. Cooling demand for air conditioning purposes has grown steadily in Poland since the early 1990s. The main clients are large office buildings and shopping malls in downtown locations. Increased demand for heat in the summer would mitigate a number of problems regarding District Heating System (DHS) operation at minimum power, affecting the average annual price of heat (in summertime the share of costs related to transport losses is a strong cost factor). In the paper, computer simulations were performed for different supply network water temperature, assuming as input, real changes in the parameters of the DHS (heat demand, flow rates, etc.). On the basis of calculations and taking into account investment costs of the Absorption Refrigeration System (ARS) and the Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system, an optimal capacity of the TES system was proposed to ensure smooth and efficient operation of the District Heating Plant (DHP). Application of ARS with the TES system in the DHS in question increases net profit by 19.4%, reducing the cooling price for consumers by 40%.

  8. Development of Innovative Heating and Cooling Systems Using Renewable Energy Sources for Non-Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Buratti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and commercial areas are synonymous with high energy consumption, both for heating/cooling and electric power requirements, which are in general associated to a massive use of fossil fuels producing consequent greenhouse gas emissions. Two pilot systems, co-funded by the Italian Ministry for the Environment, have been created to upgrade the heating/cooling systems of two existing buildings on the largest industrial estate in Umbria, Italy. The upgrade was specifically designed to improve the system efficiency and to cover the overall energy which needs with renewable energy resources. In both cases a solar photovoltaic plant provides the required electric power. The first system features a geothermal heat pump with an innovative layout: a heat-storage water tank, buried just below ground level, allows a significant reduction of the geothermal unit size, hence requiring fewer and/or shorter boreholes (up to 60%–70%. In the other system a biomass boiler is coupled with an absorption chiller machine, controlling the indoor air temperature in both summer and winter. In this case, lower electricity consumption, if compared to an electric compression chiller, is obtained. The first results of the monitoring of summer cooling are presented and an evaluation of the performance of the two pilot systems is given.

  9. System design package for a solar heating and cooling system installed at Akron, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of a solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system is given. A conventional heat pump provides summer cooling items as the design data brochure, system performance specification, system hazard analysis, spare parts list, and detailed design drawings. A solar system is installed in a single-family dwelling at Akron, Ohio, and at Duffield, Virginia.

  10. Value of thermal storage in solar IPH systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hock, S.M.; Karpuk, M.E.

    1980-12-01

    The value of thermal storage for three solar industrial process heat systems has been determined for storage capacities of 3 to 4000 hours. The dominant source of storage value is backup fuel savings with additional value derived from increased capital equipment utilization and elimination. A computer simulation was used to model the operation of the solar IPH system and predict the amount of fuel saved by heat delivered from storage. Sensitivity of storage value to process temperature, collector cost, load profile, insolation, and storage efficiency have been calculated. Storage values ranged from near zero to as high as $42/kWh of storage capacity.

  11. Storage monitoring systems for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, C.; Pollock, R.

    1997-01-01

    In September 1993, President Clinton stated the US would ensure that its fissile material meet the highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability. Frequent human inspection of the material could be used to ensure these standards. However, it may be more effective and less expensive to replace these manual inspections with virtual inspections via remote monitoring technologies. To prepare for this future, Sandia National Laboratories has developed several monitoring systems, including the Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) and Project Straight-Line. The purpose of this paper is to describe a Sandia effort that merges remote monitoring technologies into a comprehensive storage monitoring system that will meet the near-term as well as the long-term requirements for these types of systems. Topics discussed include: motivations for storage monitoring systems to include remote monitoring; an overview of the needs and challenges of providing a storage monitoring system for the year 2000; an overview of how the MIMS and Straight-Line can be enhanced so that together they create an integrated and synergistic information system by the end of 1997; and suggested milestones for 1998 and 1999 to assure steady progress in preparing for the needs of 2000

  12. Investigation on flow stability of supercritical water cooled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.; Kuang, B.

    2006-01-01

    Research activities are ongoing worldwide to develop nuclear power plants with supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) with the purpose to achieve a high thermal efficiency and to improve their economical competitiveness. However, the strong variation of the thermal-physical properties of water in the vicinity of the pseudo-critical line results in challenging tasks in various fields, e.g. thermal-hydraulic design of a SCWR. One of the challenging tasks is to understand and to predict the dynamic behavior of supercritical water cooled systems. Although many thermal-hydraulic research activities were carried out worldwide in the past as well as in the near present, studies on dynamic behavior and flow stability of SC water cooled systems are scare. Due to the strong density variation, flow stability is expected to be one of the key items which need to be taken into account in the design of a SCWR. In the present work, the dynamic behavior and flow stability of SC water cooled systems are investigated using both numerical and theoretical approaches. For this purpose a new computer code SASC was developed, which can be applied to analysis the dynamic behavior of systems cooled by supercritical fluids. In addition, based on the assumptions of a simplified system, a theoretical model was derived for the prediction of the onset of flow instability. A comparison was made between the results obtained using the theoretical model and those from the SASC code. A good agreement was achieved. This gives the first evidence of the reliability of both the SASC code and the theoretical model

  13. Benchmark ultra-cool dwarfs in widely separated binary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones H.R.A.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-cool dwarfs as wide companions to subgiants, giants, white dwarfs and main sequence stars can be very good benchmark objects, for which we can infer physical properties with minimal reference to theoretical models, through association with the primary stars. We have searched for benchmark ultra-cool dwarfs in widely separated binary systems using SDSS, UKIDSS, and 2MASS. We then estimate spectral types using SDSS spectroscopy and multi-band colors, place constraints on distance, and perform proper motions calculations for all candidates which have sufficient epoch baseline coverage. Analysis of the proper motion and distance constraints show that eight of our ultra-cool dwarfs are members of widely separated binary systems. Another L3.5 dwarf, SDSS 0832, is shown to be a companion to the bright K3 giant η Cancri. Such primaries can provide age and metallicity constraints for any companion objects, yielding excellent benchmark objects. This is the first wide ultra-cool dwarf + giant binary system identified.

  14. The integration of cryogenic cooling systems with superconducting electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    The need for cryogenic cooling has been critical issue that has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the market place. Even though the performance of the superconducting circuit is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement for cryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a disadvantage. This report will talk about the various methods for refrigerating superconducting devices. Cryocooler types will be compared for vibration, efficiency, and cost. Some solutions to specific problems of integrating cryocoolers to superconducting devices are presented.

  15. Acoustic and Thermal Testing of an Integrated Multilayer Insulation and Broad Area Cooling Shield System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jessica J.; Foster, Lee W.

    2013-01-01

    A Multilayer Insulation (MLI) and Broad Area Cooling (BAC) shield thermal control system shows promise for long-duration storage of cryogenic propellant. The NASA Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) project is investigating the thermal and structural performance of this tank-applied integrated system. The MLI/BAC Shield Acoustic and Thermal Test was performed to evaluate the MLI/BAC shield's structural performance by subjecting it to worst-case launch acoustic loads. Identical thermal tests using Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) were performed before and after the acoustic test. The data from these tests was compared to determine if any degradation occurred in the thermal performance of the system as a result of exposure to the acoustic loads. The thermal test series consisted of two primary components: a passive boil-off test to evaluate the MLI performance and an active cooling test to evaluate the integrated MLI/BAC shield system with chilled vapor circulating through the BAC shield tubes. The acoustic test used loads closely matching the worst-case envelope of all launch vehicles currently under consideration for CPST. Acoustic test results yielded reasonable responses for the given load. The thermal test matrix was completed prior to the acoustic test and successfully repeated after the acoustic test. Data was compared and yielded near identical results, indicating that the MLI/BAC shield configuration tested in this series is an option for structurally implementing this thermal control system concept.

  16. CFD Model Development and validation for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Yassin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Corradini, Michael; Tokuhiro, Akira; Wei, Thomas Y.C.

    2014-07-14

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling Systems (RCCS) is a passive safety system that will be incorporated in the VTHR design. The system was designed to remove the heat from the reactor cavity and maintain the temperature of structures and concrete walls under desired limits during normal operation (steady-state) and accident scenarios. A small scale (1:23) water-cooled experimental facility was scaled, designed, and constructed in order to study the complex thermohydraulic phenomena taking place in the RCCS during steady-state and transient conditions. The facility represents a portion of the reactor vessel with nine stainless steel coolant risers and utilizes water as coolant. The facility was equipped with instrumentation to measure temperatures and flow rates and a general verification was completed during the shakedown. A model of the experimental facility was prepared using RELAP5-3D and simulations were performed to validate the scaling procedure. The experimental data produced during the steady-state run were compared with the simulation results obtained using RELAP5-3D. The overall behavior of the facility met the expectations. The facility capabilities were confirmed to be very promising in performing additional experimental tests, including flow visualization, and produce data for code validation.

  17. NASA Microclimate Cooling Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this outline form presentation is to present NASA's challenges in microclimate cooling as related to the spacesuit. An overview of spacesuit flight-rated personal cooling systems is presented, which includes a brief history of cooling systems from Gemini through Space Station missions. The roles of the liquid cooling garment, thermal environment extremes, the sublimator, multi-layer insulation, and helmet visor UV and solar coatings are reviewed. A second section is presented on advanced personal cooling systems studies, which include heat acquisition studies on cooling garments, heat rejection studies on water boiler & radiators, thermal storage studies, and insulation studies. Past and present research and development and challenges are summarized for the advanced studies.

  18. Energy management techniques: SRP cooling water distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edenfield, A.B.

    1979-10-01

    Cooling water for the nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Plant is supplied by a pumping and distribution system that includes about 50 miles of underground pipeline. The energy management program at SRP has thus far achieved a savings of about 5% (186 x 10 9 Btu) of the energy consumed by the electrically powered cooling water pumps; additional savings of about 14% (535 x 10 9 Btu) can be achieved by capital expenditures totaling about $3.7 million. The present cost of electricity for operation of this system is about $25 million per year. A computer model of the system was adapted and field test data were used to normalize the program to accurately represent pipeline physical characteristics. Alternate pumping schemes are analyzed to determine projected energy costs and impact on system safety and reliability

  19. Preliminary Study of Solar Chimney Assisted Cooling System for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Il; Park, Seong Jun; Lee, Young Hyeon; Park, Hyo Chan; Park, Youn Won [BEES Inc., KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, the possibility of application for a complete passive final heat removal system using a solar chimney power plant for SMART NPP was estimated. Additionally the size of the cooling system was approximately calculated under the some assumptions. In order to estimate the applicability of SCPP as a complete passive secondary cooling system for SMART, we try to calculate the size of heat exchanger and simulate SCPP performance. As a result, it was found that SCPP could be coupled with SMART and some of waste heat could be recovered into electricity without any change in SCPP size. The related all parameters satisfying the constraint of the final heat removal system for SMART were calculated. Using the constraint of the amount of heat to be removed from SMART, two kinds of SCPP performances were analyzed; one for a stand alone SCPP in Fig 8(a) and second for SCPP with SMART in Fig 8(b)

  20. What can go wrong in stochastic cooling systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108502

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses very practical aspects of stochastic cooling systems both during construction, running-in, operation and trouble shooting. Due to the high electronic gain, high sensitivity and large bandwidth of such systems, precautions have to be taken to avoid all sorts of EMI/EMC related problems as well as crosstalk and self-oscillations. Since un-intended beam heating is always much more efficient than the desired cooling the overall performance depends critically on avoiding this heating which often takes places outside the nominal frequency band of operation. Another important aspect is “cross heating”, i.e., unavoidable crosstalk from longitudinal to transverse systems and vice versa. Obviously adequate measurement procedures with beam for gain phase and optimum delay are mandatory and certain caveats and hints are given. The paper concludes with a listing of unusual and unexpected problems found during many years of operation of such systems at CERN.

  1. Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems - Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendeman, Carl; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 degC temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 degC temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental

  2. Method and system for powering and cooling semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Steven J; Ladran, Anthony S

    2014-02-25

    A semiconductor laser system includes a diode laser tile. The diode laser tile includes a mounting fixture having a first side and a second side opposing the first side and an array of semiconductor laser pumps coupled to the first side of the mounting fixture. The semiconductor laser system also includes an electrical pulse generator thermally coupled to the diode bar and a cooling member thermally coupled to the diode bar and the electrical pulse generator.

  3. Cooling the intact loop of primary heat transport system using shut down cooling system after events such as LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icleanu, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the Shutdown Cooling System operation for CANDU 6 NPP in case of LOCA accident, using Flowmaster calculation code by delimiting models and setting calculation assumptions and input data for hydraulic analysis, and and assumptions for the calculation and input data for calculating thermal performance check heat exchangers that are part of this system. The Flowmaster V7.8 code provides system engineers with a powerful tool to investigate pressure surge, pressure drop, flow rate, temperature and system response times - removing the uncertainty from fluid flow systems. Flowmaster is a one-dimensional thermal-hydraulic calculation code for dimensioning, analyzing and verifying the pipeline systems operation. Each component of Flowmaster is a mathematical model for an equipment that is included in a facility. Selected components are connected via nodes in order to form a network, which constitutes a computerized model of the system. Analyzing the parameters of the cooling system for all cooling processes considered it was found that the values obtained for thermal-hydraulic parameters, as well as the duration up to reaching specified limits fall within the design values of the system. This document is made up of an abstract and the slides of the presentation

  4. Thermal analysis of near-isothermal compressed gas energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odukomaiya, Adewale; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R.; Abdelaziz, Omar; Jackson, Roderick K.; Daniel, Claus; Graham, Samuel; Momen, Ayyoub M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel, high-efficiency, scalable, near-isothermal, energy storage system is introduced. • A comprehensive analytical physics-based model for the system is presented. • Efficiency improvement is achieved via heat transfer enhancement and use of waste heat. • Energy storage roundtrip efficiency (RTE) of 82% and energy density of 3.59 MJ/m 3 is shown. - Abstract: Due to the increasing generation capacity of intermittent renewable electricity sources and an electrical grid ill-equipped to handle the mismatch between electricity generation and use, the need for advanced energy storage technologies will continue to grow. Currently, pumped-storage hydroelectricity and compressed air energy storage are used for grid-scale energy storage, and batteries are used at smaller scales. However, prospects for expansion of these technologies suffer from geographic limitations (pumped-storage hydroelectricity and compressed air energy storage), low roundtrip efficiency (compressed air energy storage), and high cost (batteries). Furthermore, pumped-storage hydroelectricity and compressed air energy storage are challenging to scale-down, while batteries are challenging to scale-up. In 2015, a novel compressed gas energy storage prototype system was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this paper, a near-isothermal modification to the system is proposed. In common with compressed air energy storage, the novel storage technology described in this paper is based on air compression/expansion. However, several novel features lead to near-isothermal processes, higher efficiency, greater system scalability, and the ability to site a system anywhere. The enabling features are utilization of hydraulic machines for expansion/compression, above-ground pressure vessels as the storage medium, spray cooling/heating, and waste-heat utilization. The base configuration of the novel storage system was introduced in a previous paper. This paper describes the results

  5. A chemical heat pump based on the reaction of calcium chloride and methanol for solar heating, cooling and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenhartz, P. O.

    1981-03-01

    An engineering development test prototype of the CaCl2-CheOH chemical heat pump was tested. The unit, which has storage capacity in excess of 100,000 BTU, completed over 100 full charge-discharge cycles. Cycling data show that the rate of heat pumping depends strongly on the absorber-evaporator temperature difference. These rates are more than adequate for solar heating or for solar cooling using dry ambient air heat rejection. Performance degradation after 100 cycles, expressed as a contact resistance, was less than 2 C. The heat exchangers showed some warpage due to plastic flow of the salt, producing the contact resistance. The experimental COP for cooling was 0.52, close to the theoretically predicted value.

  6. Balancing passive and active systems for evolutionary water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fil, N.S.; Allen, P.J.; Kirmse, R.E.; Kurihara, M.; Oh, S.J.; Sinha, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced concepts of the water-cooled reactors are intended to improve safety, economics and public perception of nuclear power. The potential inclusion of new passive means in addition or instead of traditional active systems is being considered by nuclear plant designers to reach these goals. With respect to plant safety, application of the passive means is mainly intended to simplify the safety systems and to improve their reliability, to mitigate the effect of human errors and equipment malfunction. However, some clear drawbacks and the limited experience and testing of passive systems may raise additional questions that have to be addressed in the design process for each advanced reactor. Therefore the plant designer should find a reasonable balance of active and passive means to effectively use their advantages and compensate their drawbacks. Some considerations that have to be taken into account when balancing active/passive means in advanced water-cooled reactors are discussed in this paper. (author)

  7. Liquid Hydrogen Recirculation System for Forced Flow Cooling Test of Superconducting Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Y.; Kainuma, T.; Shigeta, H.; Shiotsu, M.; Tatsumoto, H.; Naruo, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Nonaka, S.; Inatani, Y.; Yoshinaga, S.

    2017-12-01

    The knowledge of forced flow heat transfer characteristics of liquid hydrogen (LH2) is important and necessary for design and cooling analysis of high critical temperature superconducting devices. However, there are few test facilities available for LH2 forced flow cooling for superconductors. A test system to provide a LH2 forced flow (∼10 m/s) of a short period (less than 100 s) has been developed. The test system was composed of two LH2 tanks connected by a transfer line with a controllable valve, in which the forced flow rate and its period were limited by the storage capacity of tanks. In this paper, a liquid hydrogen recirculation system, which was designed and fabricated in order to study characteristics of superconducting cables in a stable forced flow of liquid hydrogen for longer period, was described. This LH2 loop system consists of a centrifugal pump with dynamic gas bearings, a heat exchanger which is immersed in a liquid hydrogen tank, and a buffer tank where a test section (superconducting wires or cables) is set. The buffer tank has LHe cooled superconducting magnet which can produce an external magnetic field (up to 7T) at the test section. A performance test was conducted. The maximum flow rate was 43.7 g/s. The lowest temperature was 22.5 K. It was confirmed that the liquid hydrogen can stably circulate for 7 hours.

  8. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  9. An Hybrid liquid nitrogen system to cool a large detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    l'Allemand, J. L. Lizon a.

    2017-12-01

    OmegaCAM is a wide field camera housing a mosaic of 32 CCD detectors. For the optimal trade-off between dark current, sensitivity, and cosmetics, these detectors need to be operated at a temperature of about 155 K. The detectors mosaic with a total area of 630 cm2 directly facing the Dewar entrance window, is exposed to a considerable radiation heat load. This can only be achieved with a high-performing cooling system. In addition this system has to be operated at the moving focal plane of a telescope. The paper describes the cooling system, which is build such that it makes the most efficient use of the cooling power of the liquid nitrogen. This is obtained by forcing the nitrogen through a series of well designed and strategically distributed heat exchangers. Results and performance of the system recorded during the laboratory system testing are reported as well. In addition to the cryogenic performance, the document reports also about the overall performance of the instrument including long term vacuum behavior.

  10. Development of Personalized Radiant Cooling System for an Office Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, Vaibhav [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Sharma, Anuj [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The building industry nowadays is facing two major challenges increased concern for energy reduction and growing need for thermal comfort. These challenges have led many researchers to develop Radiant Cooling Systems that show a large potential for energy savings. This study aims to develop a personalized cooling system using the principle of radiant cooling integrated with conventional all-air system to achieve better thermal environment at the workspace. Personalized conditioning aims to create a microclimatic zone around a single workspace. In this way, the energy is deployed only where it is actually needed, and the individual s needs for thermal comfort are fulfilled. To study the effect of air temperature along with air temperature distribution for workspace, air temperature near the vicinity of the occupant has been obtained as a result of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation using FLUENT. The analysis showed that personalized radiant system improves thermal environment near the workspace and allows all-air systems to work at higher thermostat temperature without compromising the thermal comfort, which in turn reduces its energy consumption.

  11. Thermal Feature of a Modified Solar Phase Change Material Storage Wall System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglong Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is to study a novel solar PCM storage wall technology, that is, a dual-channel and thermal-insulation-in-the-middle type solar PCM storage wall (MSPCMW system. The system has the following four independent functions, passive solar heating, heat preservation, heat insulation, and passive cooling, and it can agilely cope with the requirements of climatization of buildings in different seasons throughout the year and is exactly suitable for building in regions characterized by hot summer and cold winter. The present work experimentally analyzes thermal feature of the system working in summer and winter modes, respectively.

  12. Vibrational cooling and thermoelectric response of nanoelectromechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrachea, Liliana; Bode, Niels; von Oppen, Felix

    2014-09-01

    An important goal in nanoelectromechanics is to cool the vibrational motion, ideally to its quantum ground state. Cooling by an applied charge current is a particularly simple and hence attractive strategy to this effect. Here we explore this phenomenon in the context of the general theory of thermoelectrics. In linear response, this theory describes thermoelectric refrigerators in terms of their cooling efficiency η and figure of merit ZT. We show that both concepts carry over to phonon cooling in nanoelectromechanical systems. As an important consequence, this allows us to discuss the efficiency of phonon refrigerators in relation to the fundamental Carnot efficiency. We illustrate these general concepts by thoroughly investigating a simple double-quantum-dot model with the dual advantage of being quite realistic experimentally and amenable to a largely analytical analysis theoretically. Specifically, we obtain results for the efficiency, the figure of merit, and the effective temperature of the vibrational motion in two regimes. In the quantum regime in which the vibrational motion is fast compared to the electronic degrees of freedom, we can describe the electronic and phononic dynamics of the model in terms of master equations. In the complementary classical regime of slow vibrational motion, the dynamics is described in terms of an appropriate Langevin equation. Remarkably, we find that the efficiency can approach the maximal Carnot value in the quantum regime, with large associated figures of merit. In contrast, the efficiencies are typically far from the Carnot limit in the classical regime. Our theoretical results should provide guidance to implementing efficient vibrational cooling of nanoelectromechanical systems in the laboratory.

  13. Energy storage for electrical systems in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Freeman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage is becoming increasingly important as renewable generation sources such as Wind Turbine and Photo Voltaic Solar are added to the mix in electrical power generation and distribution systems. The paper discusses the basic drivers for energy storage and provides brief descriptions of the various energy storage technologies available. The information summarizes current technical tradeoffs with different storage approaches and identifies issues surrounding deployment of large scale energy storage systems.

  14. Electron-cooled accumulation of $4 × 10^9$ positrons for production and storage of antihydrogen atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzakerley, DW; Hessels, E A; Skinner, T D G; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Gabrielse, G; Hamley, C D; Jones, N; Marable, K; Tardiff, E; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Zielinski, M

    2016-01-01

    Four billion positrons (e+) are accumulated in a Penning–Ioffe trap apparatus at 1.2 K and <6 × 10−17 Torr. This is the largest number of positrons ever held in a Penning trap. The e+ are cooled by collisions with trapped electrons (e−) in this first demonstration of using e− for efficient loading of e+ into a Penning trap. The combined low temperature and vacuum pressure provide an environment suitable for antihydrogen ($\\bar{{\\rm{H}}}$) production, and long antimatter storage times, sufficient for high-precision tests of antimatter gravity and of CPT.

  15. Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1985-06-01

    A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

  16. Gas-cooled reactor power systems for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Efficiency and mass characteristics for four gas-cooled reactor power system configurations in the 2- to 20-MWe power range are modeled. The configurations use direct and indirect Brayton cycles with and without regeneration in the power conversion loop. The prismatic ceramic core of the reactor consists of several thousand pencil-shaped tubes made from a homogeneous mixture of moderator and fuel. The heat rejection system is found to be the major contributor to system mass, particularly at high power levels. A direct, regenerated Brayton cycle with helium working fluid permits high efficiency and low specific mass for a 10-MWe system

  17. Failure Analysis of Storage Data Magnetic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz–Prado A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the conclusions about the corrosion mechanics in storage data magnetic systems (hard disk. It was done from the inspection of 198 units that were in service in nine different climatic regions characteristic for Mexico. The results allow to define trends about the failure forms and the factors that affect them. In turn, this study has analyzed the causes that led to mechanical failure and those due to deterioration by atmospheric corrosion. On the basis of the results obtained from the field sampling, demonstrates that the hard disk failure is fundamentally by mechanical effects. The deterioration by environmental effects were found in read-write heads, integrated circuits, printed circuit boards and in some of the electronic components of the controller card of the device, but not in magnetic storage surfaces. There fore, you can discard corrosion on the surface of the disk as the main kind of failure due to environmental deterioration. To avoid any inconvenience in the magnetic data storage system it is necessary to ensure sealing of the system.

  18. Convective Performance of Nanofluids in Commercial Electronics Cooling Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, N.A.; Walker, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    Nanofluids are stable engineered colloidal suspensions of a small fraction of nanoparticles in a base fluid. Nanofluids have shown great promise as heat transfer fluids over typically used base fluids and fluids with micron sized particles. Suspensions with micron sized particles are known to settle rapidly and cause clogging and damage to the surfaces of pumping and flow equipment. These problems are dramatically reduced in nanofluids. In the current work we investigate the performance of different volume loadings of water-based alumina nanofluids in a commercially available electronics cooling system. The commercially available system is a water block used for liquid cooling of a computational processing unit. The size of the nanoparticles in the study is 20-30 nm. Results show an enhancement in convective heat transfer due to the addition of nanoparticles in the commercial cooling system with volume loadings of nanoparticles up to 1.5% by volume. The enhancement in the convective performance observed is similar to what has been reported in well controlled and understood systems and is commensurate with bulk models. The current nanoparticle suspensions showed visible signs of settling which varied from hours to weeks depending on the size of the particles used.

  19. Aerothermal Analysis of a Turbine Casing Impingement Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Da Soghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer and pressure drop for a representative part of a turbine active cooling system were numerically investigated by means of an in-house code. This code has been developed in the framework of an internal research program and has been validated by experiments and CFD. The analysed system represents the classical open bird cage arrangement that consists of an air supply pipe with a control valve and the present system with a collector box and pipes, which distribute cooling air in circumferential direction of the casing. The cooling air leaves the ACC system through small holes at the bottom of the tubes. These tubes extend at about 180° around the casing and may involve a huge number of impinging holes; as a consequence, the impinging jets mass flow rate may vary considerably along the feeding manifold with a direct impact on the achievable heat transfer levels. This study focuses on the performance, in terms of heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop, of several impinging tube geometries. As a result of this analysis, several design solutions have been compared and discussed.

  20. Relation between Hagberg-Perten falling number and acidity of wheat flour according to storage and agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenko Vasyl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour samples from three agricultural systems and two storage modes were evaluated and compared in dynamics of their titratable acidity and Falling number by Hagberg-Perten method during one year storage and their interaction. The obtained results indicate strong relationships between increasing acidity and lowering α-amylase activity using samples after biological, ecological agriculture systems and dry storage mode (without temperature control. On the other hand, intensive agriculture and cool storing (T +6±2ºS provided independent change in those indices and better technological properties for the end of the storage period.

  1. Oil cooling system for a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffinberry, G. A.; Kast, H. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A gas turbine engine fuel delivery and control system is provided with means to recirculate all fuel in excess of fuel control requirements back to aircraft fuel tank, thereby increasing the fuel pump heat sink and decreasing the pump temperature rise without the addition of valving other than that normally employed. A fuel/oil heat exchanger and associated circuitry is provided to maintain the hot engine oil in heat exchange relationship with the cool engine fuel. Where anti-icing of the fuel filter is required, means are provided to maintain the fuel temperature entering the filter at or above a minimum level to prevent freezing thereof. Fluid circuitry is provided to route hot engine oil through a plurality of heat exchangers disposed within the system to provide for selective cooling of the oil.

  2. Analysis and simulation of mobile air conditioning system coupled with engine cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Zhao-gang; Chen, Jiang-ping; Chen, Zhi-jiu

    2007-01-01

    Many components of the mobile air conditioning system and engine cooling system are closely interrelated and make up the vehicle climate control system. In the present paper, a vehicle climate control system model including air conditioning system and engine cooling system has been proposed under different operational conditions. All the components have been modeled on the basis of experimental data. Based on the commercial software, a computer simulation procedure of the vehicle climate control system has been developed. The performance of the vehicle climate control system is simulated, and the calculational data have good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the vehicle climate control simulation results have been compared with an individual air conditioning system and engine cooling system. The influences between the mobile air conditioning system and the engine cooling system are discussed

  3. Solar-heating and cooling system design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Package of information includes design data, performance specifications, drawings, hazard analysis, and spare parts list for commercially produced system installed in single-family dwelling in Akron, Ohio. System uses air flat-plate collectors, 12000 kg rock storage and backup heat pump. Solar portion requires 0.7 kW, and provides 35% of average total heating load including hot water. Information aids persons considering installing solar home-heating systems.

  4. Analysis of the storage system in the selected company

    OpenAIRE

    BÄUML, Vítězslav

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the thesis is an analysis the stock system and storage system of a selected company with the focus on material and information flow, storage processes, logistics costs and related logistics indexes.

  5. Optimal design of passive containment cooling system for innovative PWR

    OpenAIRE

    Huiun Ha; Sangwon Lee; Hangon Kim

    2017-01-01

    Using the Generation of Thermal-Hydraulic Information for Containments (GOTHIC) code, thermal-hydraulic phenomena that occur inside the containment have been investigated, along with the preliminary design of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of an innovative pressurized water reactor (PWR). A GOTHIC containment model was constructed with reference to the design data of the Advanced Power Reactor 1400, and report related PCCS. The effects of the design parameters were evaluated fo...

  6. Thermal dimensioning of wet natural draft cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourillot, Claudine.

    1975-01-01

    The conventional models of calculating wet natural draft cooling systems include two different parts. First, the thermal calculation of the dispersion is made either with an ''exact'' method of separating convection and evaporation phenomena and taking account for the steam in exces in the saturated air, or with a ''simplified'' method considering the heat transfer in the whole as resulting of a difference in enthalpies. (The latter is the Merkel theory). Secondly, the draft equation is solved for calculating air flow rate. Values of the mass transfer coefficients and pressure drops of the dispersion being needed for the computation, test bench measurements are made by the designers. As for counter-current cooling systems the models of the dispersion calculation are one-dimensional models not allowing the radial flow and air temperature distributions to be simulated; exchanges inside the rain zone are also neglected. As for crossed-current cooling systems the flow geometry entails a more complicated two-dimensional model to be used for the dispersion. In both cases, the dependence on meteorological factors such as wind, height gradients of temperature, or sunny features are disregarded [fr

  7. A water-cooled 13-kG magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.O.; Goncalves, J.A.N.; Barroso, J.J.; Patire Junior, H.; Spassovsky, I.P.; Castro, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The construction, performance, and reliability of a high field magnet system are reported. The magnet is designed to generate a flat top 13 kG magnetic induction required for the operation of a 35 GHz, 100 k W gyrotron under development at INPE. The system comprises three solenoids, located in the gun, cavity, and collector regions, consisting of split pair magnets with the field direction vertical. The magnets are wound from insulated copper tube whose rectangular cross section has 5.0 mm-diameter hole leading the cooling water. On account of the high power (∼ 100 k W) supplied to the cavity coils, it turned out necessary to employ a cooling system which includes hydraulic pump a heat exchanger. The collector and gun magnets operate at lower DC current (∼ 150 A), and, in this case, flowing water provided by wall pipes is far enough to cool down the coils. In addition, a 250 k V A high power AC/DC Nutek converser is used to supply power to the cavity magnet. For the collector and gun magnets, 30 V/600 A DC power supplies are used. (author)

  8. The NOAO Data Lab virtual storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew J.; Fitzpatrick, Michael J.; Norris, Patrick; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Olsen, Knut; Stobie, Elizabeth B.; Ridgway, Stephen T.; Bolton, Adam S.; Saha, Abhijit; Huang, Lijuan W.

    2016-07-01

    Collaborative research/computing environments are essential for working with the next generations of large astronomical data sets. A key component of them is a distributed storage system to enable data hosting, sharing, and publication. VOSpace1 is a lightweight interface providing network access to arbitrary backend storage solutions and endorsed by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). Although similar APIs exist, such as Amazon S3, WebDav, and Dropbox, VOSpace is designed to be protocol agnostic, focusing on data control operations, and supports asynchronous and third-party data transfers, thereby minimizing unnecessary data transfers. It also allows arbitrary computations to be triggered as a result of a transfer operation: for example, a file can be automatically ingested into a database when put into an active directory or a data reduction task, such as Sextractor, can be run on it. In this paper, we shall describe the VOSpace implementations that we have developed for the NOAO Data Lab. These offer both dedicated remote storage, accessible as a local file system via FUSE, and a local VOSpace service to easily enable data synchronization.

  9. Regenerative flywheel storage system, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    A vehicle propulsion system was simulated on a digital computer in order to determine the optimum system operating strategies and to establish a calculated range improvement over a nonregenerative, all electric vehicle. Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control are described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a dc battery electric propulsion system through a load commutated inverter. The motor/alternator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy.

  10. Parametric Analysis of Design Parameter Effects on the Performance of a Solar Desiccant Evaporative Cooling System in Brisbane, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar desiccant cooling is widely considered as an attractive replacement for conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems because of its environmental friendliness and energy efficiency advantages. The system performance of solar desiccant cooling strongly depends on the input parameters associated with the system components, such as the solar collector, storage tank and backup heater, etc. In order to understand the implications of different design parameters on the system performance, this study has conducted a parametric analysis on the solar collector area, storage tank volume, and backup heater capacity of a solid solar desiccant cooling system for an office building in Brisbane, Australia climate. In addition, a parametric analysis on the outdoor air humidity ratio control set-point which triggers the operation of the desiccant wheel has also been investigated. The simulation results have shown that either increasing the storage tank volume or increasing solar collector area would result in both increased solar fraction (SF and system coefficient of performance (COP, while at the same time reduce the backup heater energy consumption. However, the storage tank volume is more sensitive to the system performance than the collector area. From the economic aspect, a storage capacity of 30 m3/576 m2 has the lowest life cycle cost (LCC of $405,954 for the solar subsystem. In addition, 100 kW backup heater capacity is preferable for the satisfaction of the design regeneration heating coil hot water inlet temperature set-point with relatively low backup heater energy consumption. Moreover, an outdoor air humidity ratio control set-point of 0.008 kgWater/kgDryAir is more reasonable, as it could both guarantee the indoor design conditions and achieve low backup heater energy consumption.

  11. Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

  12. Thermodynamic performance analysis and optimization of a solar-assisted combined cooling, heating and power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiangjiang; Lu, Yanchao; Yang, Ying; Mao, Tianzhi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to present a thermodynamic performance analysis and to optimize the configurations of a hybrid combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system incorporating solar energy and natural gas. A basic natural gas CCHP system containing a power generation unit, a heat recovery system, an absorption cooling system and a storage tank is integrated with solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and/or a heat collector. Based on thermodynamic modeling, the thermodynamic performance, including energy and exergy efficiencies, under variable work conditions, such as electric load factor, solar irradiance and installation ratio, of the solar PV panels and heat collector is investigated and analyzed. The results of the energy supply side analysis indicate that the integration of solar PV into the CCHP system more efficiently improves the exergy efficiency, whereas the integration of a solar heat collector improves the energy efficiency. To match the building loads, the optimization method combined with the operation strategy is employed to optimize the system configurations to maximize the integrated benefits of energy and economic costs. The optimization results of demand–supply matching demonstrate that the integration of a solar heat collector achieves a better integrated performance than the solar PV integration in the specific case study. - Highlights: • Design a CCHP system integrated with solar PV and heat collector. • Present the energy and exergy analyses under variable work conditions. • Propose an optimization method of CCHP system for demand-supply matching.

  13. Sensitivity of energy and exergy performances of heating and cooling systems to auxiliary components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2017-01-01

    Heating and cooling systems in buildings consist of three main subsystems: heating/cooling plant, distribution system, and indoor terminal unit. The choice of indoor terminal unit determines the characteristics of the distribution system and the heating and cooling plants that can be used....... Different forms of energy (electricity and heat) are used in heating and cooling systems, and therefore, a holistic approach to system design and analysis is needed. In particular, distribution systems use electricity as a direct input to pumps and fans, and to other components. Therefore, exergy concept...... should be used in design and analysis of the whole heating and cooling systems, in addition to the energy analysis. In this study, water-based (floor heating and cooling, and radiator heating) and air-based (air heating and cooling) heating and cooling systems were compared in terms of their energy use...

  14. High Density Hydrogen Storage in Metal Hydride Composites with Air Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Dieterich, Mila; Bürger, Inga; Linder, Marc

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In order to combine fluctuating renewable energy sources with the actual demand of electrical energy, storages are essential. The surplus energy can be stored as hydrogen to be used either for mobile use, chemical synthesis or reconversion when needed. One possibility to store the hydrogen gas at high volumetric densities, moderate temperatures and low pressures is based on a chemical reaction with metal hydrides. Such storages must be able to absorb and desorb the hydrogen qu...

  15. Cooled storage of canine semen: in vitro effects of different concentrations of an antibiotic combination on growth of mollicutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, A C; Spergser, J; Aurich, C; Zottler, E; Aurich, J E; Schäfer-Somi, S

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine effects of an antibiotic combination at different concentrations on growth of mycoplasma and ureaplasma during cooled storage of canine semen (n = 20). Semen aliquots were diluted with Tris-citric acid-fructose-egg yolk extender containing either 1.0 g/l streptomycin and 0.6 g/l benzylpenicillin (control) or a combination of gentamycin, tylosin, lincomycin and spectinomycin (GTLS-1: 0.25, 0.05, 0.15 and 0.3; GTLS-2: 0.5, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.6; GTLS-3: 1.0, 0.2, 0.6 and 1.2 g/l). Samples were assessed for motility and membrane integrity by computer-assisted sperm analysis immediately after dilution and at 24, 48 and 72 h of cooled storage. Morphologically, normal spermatozoa were determined, and bacterial culture was performed at 24 and 72 h. Mycoplasma spp. were detected in 14 of 20 ejaculates (70%) with severe growth in 12 samples. A reduction but not total elimination of mycoplasma growth occurred in all GTLS extenders with the most pronounced reduction in group GTLS-3 (control vs GTLS-1 and GTLS-2 p < 0.05, control vs GTLS-3 p < 0.001). Ureaplasmas were detected in four ejaculates, and growth was reduced to the same extent in GTLS and control extender. Progressive motility in all groups, total motility in groups GTLS 1-3 and percentage of membrane-intact spermatozoa in groups GTLS 2 and 3 decreased slightly (p < 0.05) over time. In conclusion, dilution of canine semen with GTLS extender has no major detrimental effects on spermatozoa during cooled storage. It reduced the growth but did not totally eliminate mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas from cooled-stored dog semen. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Information storage capacity of discrete spin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Beni, E-mail: rouge@caltech.edu

    2013-11-15

    Understanding the limits imposed on information storage capacity of physical systems is a problem of fundamental and practical importance which bridges physics and information science. There is a well-known upper bound on the amount of information that can be stored reliably in a given volume of discrete spin systems which are supported by gapped local Hamiltonians. However, all the previously known systems were far below this theoretical bound, and it remained open whether there exists a gapped spin system that saturates this bound. Here, we present a construction of spin systems which saturate this theoretical limit asymptotically by borrowing an idea from fractal properties arising in the Sierpinski triangle. Our construction provides not only the best classical error-correcting code which is physically realizable as the energy ground space of gapped frustration-free Hamiltonians, but also a new research avenue for correlated spin phases with fractal spin configurations. -- Highlights: •We propose a spin model with fractal ground states and study its coding properties. •We show that the model asymptotically saturates a theoretical limit on information storage capacity. •We discuss its relations to various theoretical physics problems.

  17. Application of Hastelloy X in Gas-Cooled Reactor Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkman, C. R.; Rittenhouse, P. L.; Corwin, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    Hastelloy X, an Ni--Cr--Fe--Mo alloy, may be an important structural alloy for components of gas-cooled reactor systems. Expected applications of this alloy in the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) are discussed, and the development of interim mechanical properties and supporting data...... are reported. Properties of concern include tensile, creep, creep-rupture, fatigue, creep-fatigue interaction, subcritical crack growth, thermal stability, and the influence of helium environments with controlled amounts of impurities on these properties. In order to develop these properties in helium...... extensive amount of information has been generated on this material at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and elsewhere concerning behavior in air, which is reviewed. However, only limited data are available from tests conducted in helium. Comparisons of the fatigue and subcritical growth behavior in air between...

  18. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  19. A Solar Heating and Cooling System in a Nearly Zero-Energy Building: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The building sector accounts for more than 40% of the global energy consumption. This consumption may be lowered by reducing building energy requirements and using renewable energy in building energy supply systems. Therefore, a nearly zero-energy building, incorporating a solar heating and cooling system, was designed and built in Beijing, China. The system included a 35.17 kW cooling (10-RT absorption chiller, an evacuated tube solar collector with an aperture area of 320.6 m2, two hot-water storage tanks (with capacities of 10 m3 and 30 m3, respectively, two cold-water storage tanks (both with a capacity of 10 m3, and a 281 kW cooling tower. Heat pump systems were used as a backup. At a value of 25.2%, the obtained solar fraction associated with the cooling load was close to the design target of 30%. In addition, the daily solar collector efficiency and the chiller coefficient of performance (COP varied from 0.327 to 0.507 and 0.49 to 0.70, respectively.

  20. The Cold Mass Support System and the Helium Cooling System for the MICE Focusing Solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Stephanie Q.; Green, Michael A.; Lau, Wing W.; Senanayake, Rohan S.; Witte, Holger

    2006-01-01

    The heart of the absorber focus coil (AFC) module for the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) is the two-coil superconducting solenoid that surrounds the muon absorber. The superconducting magnet focuses the muons that are cooled using ionization cooling, in order to improve the efficiency of cooling. The coils of the magnet may either be run in the solenoid mode (both coils operate at the same polarity) or the gradient (the coils operate at opposite polarity). The AFC magnet cold mass support system is designed to carry a longitudinal force up to 700 kN. The AFC module will be cooled using three pulse tube coolers that produce 1.5 W of cooling at 4.2 K. One of the coolers will be used to cool the liquid (hydrogen or helium) absorber used for ionization cooling. The other two coolers will cool the superconducting solenoid. This report will describe the MICE AFC magnet. The cold mass supports will be discussed. The reasons for using a pulsed tube cooler to cool this superconducting magnet will also be discussed

  1. Enhancement of heat dissipation in an electronic chip cooling system using graphite fins

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Dong; Wu, Long; Xun, Lian

    2017-01-01

    As electronic devices get smaller, cooling systems with higher thermal efficiency is demanding by fast growing electronic industry. Great amount of research has been performed on the cooling systems but research on the materials of the cooling systems needs more work. Graphite with high thermal conductivity and light weight is a great candidate to be used in electronic devices. The bottleneck of using graphene in the cooling systems is the thermal transport among the interface from the substr...

  2. Performance of cold compressors in a cooling system of an R and D superconducting coil cooled with subcooled helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, S.; Imagawa, S.; Yanagi, N.; Takahata, K.; Maekawa, R.; Mito, T.

    2006-01-01

    The helical coils of large helical device (LHD) have been operated in saturated helium at 4.4 K and plasma experiments have been carried out at magnetic fields lower than 3 T for 8 years. Now, it is considered that the cooling system of helical coils will be improved to enhance magnetic fields in 2006. In the improvement, the helical coils will be cooled with subcooled helium and the operating temperature of helical coils will be lowered to achieve the designed field of 3 T and enhance cryogenic stabilities. Two cold compressors will be used in the cooling system of helical coils to generate subcooled helium. In the present study, the performance of cold compressors has been investigated, using a cooling system of R and D coil, to apply cold compressors to the cooling system of helical coils. Actual surge lines of cold compressors were observed and the stable operation area was obtained. Automatic operations were also performed within the area. In the automatic operations, the suitable pressure of a saturated helium bath, calculated from the rotation speed of the 1st cold compressor, was regulated by bypass valve. From these results, stable operations will be expected in the cooling system of helical coils

  3. Development of wind operated passive evaporative cooling structures for storage of tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wind operated passive evaporative cooler was developed. Two cooling chambers were made with clay containers (cylindrical and square shapes). These two containers were separately inserted inside bigger clay pot inter- spaced with clay soil of 7 cm (to form pot-in-pot and wall-in wall) with the outs...

  4. Annual experimental results on heat and cool storage modes for natural energy autonomous house, HARBEMAN house; Shizen energy jiritsu house (HARBEMAN house) no chikunetsu chikurei mode no jissoku kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.; Fujino, T.; Suzuki, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Outlined herein is performance of the solar system, followed for a year, installed in a solar house (HARBEMAN HOUSE) built in 1996 in City of Sendai. The house is equipped, on the roof, with a 30.42m{sup 2} wide solar collector on the south and sky radiator on the north. They are connected to a heat-insulated tank (31m{sup 3}) installed underground, storing hot or cool water which carries energy for heating/air-conditioning and hot water. The solar system operates in a long-term hot or cool water storage mode. In the hot water storage mode, the solar collector is connected to the underground main tank, where pumped-up water heated by solar heat is stored to be supplied as hot water. Heat collected is low during the December-February period, and recovered in March. In the cool water storage mode, the radiator is connected to the underground main tank, where pumped-up water is cooled by radiation and stored to be supplied to a fan coil unit in each room for air-conditioning. The recorded lowest temperature of water in the tank is 5.1degC. No air-conditioning load is observed, on account of the unseasonal weather. 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Simulation Analysis of the Four Configurations of Solar Desiccant Cooling System Using Evaporative Cooling in Tropical Weather in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. S. Dezfouli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A high demand for air conditioning systems exists in hot and humid regions because of the warm climate during the year. The high energy consumption of conventional air conditioning system is the reason for our investigation of the solar desiccant cooling system as an energy-efficient cooling system. Four model configurations were considered to determine the best configuration of a solar desiccant cooling system: one-stage ventilation, one-stage recirculation, two-stage ventilation, and two-stage recirculation. These models were stimulated for 8,760 hr of operation under hot and humid weather in Malaysia. Several parameters (i.e., coefficient of performance or COP, room temperature and humidity ratio, and the solar fraction of each system were evaluated by detecting the temperature and humidity ratio of the different points of each configuration by TRNSYS simulation. The latent and sensible loads of the test room were 0.875 kW and 2.625 kW, respectively. By investigating the simulation results of the four systems, the ventilation modes were found to be higher than the recirculation modes in the one- and two-stage solar desiccant cooling systems. The isothermal dehumidification COP of the two-stage ventilation was higher than that of the two-stage recirculation. Hence, the two-stage ventilation mode desiccant cooling system in a hot and humid area has higher efficiency than the other configurations.

  6. Laboratory and Field Test of Movable Conduction-Cooled High-Temperature SMES for Power System Stability Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jiakun; Wen, J.; Wang, S.

    2013-01-01

    ’ effectiveness on improvements of system voltage stability and on the oscillation damping. Test results indicate that the SMES system has the features of fast response and four-quadrant power operation. The accessories for the movability of the SEMS system are well designed. The system is feasible to be used...... in power systems.......This paper introduces the first movable conduction-cooled high temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system developed in China. The SMES is rated at 380 V / 35 kJ / 7 kW, consisting of the high temperature magnet confined in a dewar, the cryogenic unit, the converter...

  7. Computer Simulation Performed for Columbia Project Cooling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Jasim

    2005-01-01

    This demo shows a high-fidelity simulation of the air flow in the main computer room housing the Columbia (10,024 intel titanium processors) system. The simulation asseses the performance of the cooling system and identified deficiencies, and recommended modifications to eliminate them. It used two in house software packages on NAS supercomputers: Chimera Grid tools to generate a geometric model of the computer room, OVERFLOW-2 code for fluid and thermal simulation. This state-of-the-art technology can be easily extended to provide a general capability for air flow analyses on any modern computer room. Columbia_CFD_black.tiff

  8. 77 FR 36014 - Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear...-1277, ``Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling- Water Reactors.'' This... testing features of emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) for boiling-water reactors (BWRs). DATES...

  9. Proposed Standard for a Microclimate Cooling System for Emergency Responder Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    MICROCLIMATE COOLING SYSTEM FOR EMERGENCY RESPONDER OPERATIONS by Brad Laprise February 2012 Final Report August 2007...August 2007 - December 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PROPOSED STANDARD FOR A MICROCLIMATE COOLING SYSTEM FOR EMERGENCY RESPONDER OPERATIONS 5a...of a Microclimate Cooling System (MCS), specifically for the Emergency Responder community. MCS have been shown to significantly improve mission

  10. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cooling system fails. (c) The final exhaust-gas temperature at discharge from the cooling system, and... test in paragraph (e) of this section, the temperature of the control point shall be allowed to fall to 170 °F. At this temperature and with the water replenished in the cooling system, it shall be possible...

  11. Performance evaluation of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with chilled water storage (CIESOL building)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiek, Sabina; Batlles Garrido, Francisco Javier

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present a new solar-assisted air-conditioning system’s operation sequence. ► This mode considers the chilled water tanks action with variable-speed pump. ► It permits to save about 20% and 30% of energy and water consumption, respectively. ► It allows storing the excess cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. ► It prevents the sudden start/stop (on/off cycles) of the absorption chiller. - Abstract: This study presents the performance of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with two chilled water storage tanks installed in the Solar Energy Research Center building. The system consists mainly of solar collectors’ array, a hot-water driven absorption chiller, a cooling tower, two hot storage tanks, an auxiliary heater as well as two chilled storage tanks. The chilled water storage tank circuit was further investigated in order to find the optimum solar system’s operation sequence while providing the best energy performance. Firstly, we carried out a study about the dynamics of building’s cooling load and the necessity of the integration of chilled water storage tanks to solar system. Subsequently, the new system’s operation mode was proposed to reduce the energy consumption. The results demonstrate that we can save about 20% of the total energy consumption and about 30% of water consumption applying the new operation sequence, which takes into account the chilled water tanks action. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the integration of chilled water storage tanks allows to reduce the sudden absorption chiller on/off cycles, thereby improving the efficiency of the solar-assisted system.

  12. Seismic Design of ITER Component Cooling Water System-1 Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya P.; Jadhav, Mahesh; Sharma, Lalit K.; Gupta, Dinesh K.; Patel, Nirav; Ranjan, Rakesh; Gohil, Guman; Patel, Hiren; Dangi, Jinendra; Kumar, Mohit; Kumar, A. G. A.

    2017-04-01

    The successful performance of ITER machine very much depends upon the effective removal of heat from the in-vessel components and other auxiliary systems during Tokamak operation. This objective will be accomplished by the design of an effective Cooling Water System (CWS). The optimized piping layout design is an important element in CWS design and is one of the major design challenges owing to the factors of large thermal expansion and seismic accelerations; considering safety, accessibility and maintainability aspects. An important sub-system of ITER CWS, Component Cooling Water System-1 (CCWS-1) has very large diameter of pipes up to DN1600 with many intersections to fulfill the process flow requirements of clients for heat removal. Pipe intersection is the weakest link in the layout due to high stress intensification factor. CCWS-1 piping up to secondary confinement isolation valves as well as in-between these isolation valves need to survive a Seismic Level-2 (SL-2) earthquake during the Tokamak operation period to ensure structural stability of the system in the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) event. This paper presents the design, qualification and optimization of layout of ITER CCWS-1 loop to withstand SSE event combined with sustained and thermal loads as per the load combinations defined by ITER and allowable limits as per ASME B31.3, This paper also highlights the Modal and Response Spectrum Analyses done to find out the natural frequency and system behavior during the seismic event.

  13. A gas-cooled reactor surface power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, R.J.; Wright, S.A.; Lenard, R.X.; Harms, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  14. A gas-cooled reactor surface power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wright, Steven A.; Lenard, Roger X.; Harms, Gary A.

    1999-01-01

    A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars

  15. Ozonation system for treatment of water in cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coakley, T.G.; Horton, A.J. Jr.; Kaplan, B.E.

    1993-08-17

    An apparatus is described for controlling the condition of cooling tower system water, comprising one or more ozone generator electrodes having inner and outer concentric electrode tubes, a concentric dielectric tube there between creating an annular space between said dielectric tube and outer electrode tube for the passage of oxygen-containing air for conversion of a portion of said oxygen to ozone and first and second opposed end caps for supporting said electrode tubes and dielectric tube in a concentric orientation and for the entry of air into and exit of ozone-containing air from said annular space; means for providing dry, filtered input air at a depressed dewpoint and at constant flow rate to the first end caps of said electrodes; sensor means for determining the oxidation-reduction potential of a water sample obtained from the system; means coupled to said sensor means and to said ozone generator electrodes for maintaining the oxidation-reduction potential of said cooling tower system water at a target level in the range of about 550 to 6,750 mv by comparing the determined oxidation-reduction potential with said target value and controlling the production of ozone in response thereto to allow the generation and maintenance of containment oxidation by-product secondary biocides at an elevated level; means for combining the ozone produced by said electrodes with a portion of said cooling tower system water for return of resulting ozonated water to the system for introduction of the ozone thereto; and means for monitoring the flow of said input air and the output of said electrodes whereby an alarm condition is indicated if said flow or output depart from established parameters.

  16. A Gas-Cooled Reactor Surface Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harms, G.A.; Lenard, R.X.; Lipinski, R.J.; Wright, S.A.

    1998-11-09

    A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life- cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitide clad in Nb 1 %Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-I 00 program The fiel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fbel and stabilizing the geometty against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality cannot occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

  17. A system for quantifying the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J; Wang, E L

    2000-08-01

    This article describes the design and development of a system that is capable of quantifying the thermal comfort of bicycle helmets. The motivation for the development of the system stems from the desire both to increase helmet use and to provide the designer with a quantitative method of evaluating the thermal comfort of a helmet. The system consists of a heated mannequin head form, a heated reference sphere, a small wind tunnel, and a data acquisition system. Both the head form and the reference sphere were instrumented with thermocouples. The system is capable of simulating riding speeds ranging from 4.5-15.5 m/s. A cooling effectiveness, C1, that is independent of both ambient conditions and wind velocity is defined as a measure of how well the helmet ventilates as compared to the reference sphere. The system was validated by testing six commercially available bicycle helmets manufactured between approximately 1992 and 1998.

  18. An energy storage and regeneration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

      The present invention relates to a method and a system for storing excess energy produced by an electric power plant during periods of lower energy demand than the power plant production capacity. The excess energy is stored by hydrolysis of water and storage of hydrogen and oxygen in underground...... caverns. When the energy demand exceeds the power production capacity of the plant, the stored gases are burned and the thermal energy is converted into electricity in gas turbine generators. The regenerated electrical power is then used to supplement the output of the electric power plant to meet...... the higher level of energy demand....

  19. Impact of Storage Technologies upon Power System Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DULAU Lucian Ioan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main characteristics of storage technologies. The most important storage technologies are the batteries, hydrogen, pumped hydro, flywheels, compressed air, super-capacitors and superconducting magnetic devices. The storage technologies can be classified based on the function principle into electrochemical, mechanical and electromagnetic devices. The storage systems can also be classified based on their capacity to store power into short and long term devices. A power flow analysis is performed for the situation with and without a storage unit. The storage unit is inserted into the IEEE 14 bus test system.

  20. System performance and economic analysis of solar-assisted cooling/heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-11-01

    The long-term system simulation and economic analysis of solar-assisted cooling/heating system (SACH-2) was carried out in order to find an economical design. The solar heat driven ejector cooling system (ECS) is used to provide part of the cooling load to reduce the energy consumption of the air conditioner installed as the base-load cooler. A standard SACH-2 system for cooling load 3.5. kW (1. RT) and daily cooling time 10 h is used for case study. The cooling performance is assumed only in summer seasons from May to October. In winter season from November to April, only heat is supplied. Two installation locations (Taipei and Tainan) were examined.It was found from the cooling performance simulation that in order to save 50% energy of the air conditioner, the required solar collector area is 40m2 in Taipei and 31m2 in Tainan, for COPj=0.2. If the solar collector area is designed as 20m2, the solar ejector cooling system will supply about 17-26% cooling load in Taipei in summer season and about 21-27% cooling load in Tainan. Simulation for long-term performance including cooling in summer (May-October) and hot water supply in winter (November-April) was carried out to determine the monthly-average energy savings. The corresponding daily hot water supply (with 40°C temperature rise of water) for 20m2 solar collector area is 616-858L/day in Tainan and 304-533L/day in Taipei.The economic analysis shows that the payback time of SACH-2 decreases with increasing cooling capacity. The payback time is 4.8. years in Tainan and 6.2. years in Taipei when the cooling capacity >10. RT. If the ECS is treated as an additional device used as a protective equipment to avoid overheating of solar collectors and to convert the excess solar heat in summer into cooling to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioner, the payback time is less than 3 years for cooling capacity larger than 3. RT. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Experimental investigation on the thermal performance of heat storage walls coupled with active solar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunyu; You, Shijun; Zhu, Chunying; Yu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the performance of a system combining a low-temperature water wall radiant heating system and phase change energy storage technology with an active solar system. This system uses a thermal storage wall that is designed with multilayer thermal storage plates. The heat storage material is expanded graphite that absorbs a mixture of capric acid and lauric acid. An experiment is performed to study the actual effect. The following are studied under winter conditions: (1) the temperature of the radiation wall surface, (2) the melting status of the thermal storage material in the internal plate, (3) the density of the heat flux, and (4) the temperature distribution of the indoor space. The results reveal that the room temperature is controlled between 16 and 20 °C, and the thermal storage wall meets the heating and temperature requirements. The following are also studied under summer conditions: (1) the internal relationship between the indoor temperature distribution and the heat transfer within the regenerative plates during the day and (2) the relationship between the outlet air temperature and inlet air temperature in the thermal storage wall in cooling mode at night. The results indicate that the indoor temperature is approximately 27 °C, which satisfies the summer air-conditioning requirements.

  2. A fast multichannel analog storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    A Multichannel Analog Storage System based on a commercial 32-channel parallel in/serial out (PISO) analog shift register is described. The basic unit is a single width CAMAC module containing 512 analog cells and the associated logic for data storage and subsequent readout. At sampling rates of up to 30 MHz the signals are strobed directly into the PISO. At higher rates signals are strobed into a fast presampling stage and subsequently transferred in block form into an array of PISO's. Sampling rates of 300 MHz have been achieved with the present device and 1000 MHz are possible with improved signal drivers. The system is well suited for simultaneous handling of many signal channels with moderate numbers of samples in each channel. RMS noise over full scale signal has been measured as 1:3000 (approx. =11 bit). However, nonlinearities in the response and differences in sensitivity of the analog cells require an elaborate calibration system in order to realize 11 bit accuracy for the analog information

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE STORAGE SYSTEM IN A CHOSEN SUBJECT

    OpenAIRE

    VANIŠ, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is an analysis of the storage system of a chosen subject with the focus on informational and tangible flow, storage processes, logistics costs and related logistic indexes.

  4. The capric and lauric acid mixture with chemical additives as latent heat storage materials for cooling application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roxas-Dimaano, M.N. [University of Santo Tomas, Manila (Philippines). Research Center for the Natural Sciences; Watanabe, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors

    2002-09-01

    The mixture of capric acid and lauric acid (C-L acid), with the respective mole composition of 65% and 35%, is a potential phase change material (PCM). Its melting point of 18.0{sup o}C, however, is considered high for cooling application of thermal energy storage. The thermophysical and heat transfer characteristics of the C-L acid with some organic additives are investigated. Compatibility of C-L acid combinations with additives in different proportions and their melting characteristics are analyzed using the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Among the chemical additives, methyl salicylate, eugenol, and cineole presented the relevant melting characteristics. The individual heat transfer behavior and thermal storage performance of 0.1 mole fraction of these additives in the C-L acid mixture are evaluated. The radial and axial temperature distribution during charging and discharging at different concentrations of selected PCM combinations are experimentally determined employing a vertical cylindrical shell and tube heat exchanger. The methyl salicylate in the C-L acid provided the most effective additive in the C-L acid. It demonstrated the least melting band width aimed at lowering the melting point of the C-L acid with the highest heat of fusion value with relatively comparable rate of heat transfer. Furthermore, the thermal performance based on the total amount of transferred energy and their rates, established the PCM's latent heat storage capability. (author)

  5. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 2, Book 2. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The appendices include: (A) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 100-MWe commercial plant design, for all-sodium storage concept; (B) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 100-MWe commercial plant design, for air-rock bed storage concept; (C) electric power generating water-steam system P and I drawing and equipment list, 100-MWe commercial plant design; (D) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 281-MWe commercial plant design; (E) steam generator system conceptual design; (F) heat losses from solar receiver surface; (G) heat transfer and pressure drop for rock bed thermal storage; (H) a comparison of alternative ways of recovering the hydraulic head from the advanced solar receiver tower; (I) central receiver tower study; (J) a comparison of mechanical and electromagnetic sodium pumps; (K) pipe routing study of sodium downcomer; and (L) sodium-cooled advanced central receiver system simulation model. (WHK)

  6. Development of a water-mist cooling system: A 12,500 Kcal/h air-cooled chiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Neng Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and energy exhaustion problems are becoming a severe problems, of which energy conservation and carbon reduction are the most critical. Between 40% and 48% of the total electricity used in a building is consumed by air conditioning systems. The development of a supersonic water-misting cooling system with a fuzzy control system is proposed to optimize existing condenser noise, space, and energy consumption, as well as to address problems with cooling capacity resulting from improper control between compressors and condensers. An experimental platform was established for conducting tests, observing cooling efficiencies, and calculating power saving statuses. Comparing the observed cooling efficiency, a temperature difference of 5.4 °C was determined before and after the application; this is significant regarding efficiency. The method produces no pollution or water accumulation. When compared with fixed frequency air-cooled water chillers, an exceptional energy saving of 25% was observed. The newly developed supersonic mist-cooled chiller is an excellent solution to increasing water and electricity fees.

  7. Development of HF-systems for electron storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.P.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Popkov, Yu.P.; Reva, S.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    1999-01-01

    Development of HF systems for electron storages is described. Its final task is construction of 100 kW HF station at 699,3 MHz frequency consisting from low-power HF system, klystron amplifier, wave line for HF power transmission and accelerating section. Functional parameters of HF station are given

  8. Passive Core Cooling Systems for Next Generation NPPs: Characteristics and State of the Art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, Andrey; Soshkina, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Among nuclear power generation plants, light water reactors are mainly used at present, and are anticipated to be predominant in the future. To improve the light water reactors the development of the LWRs for the next generation is carried out at various organizations. For example, in the USA the Westinghouse AP-1000 is based on proven technology but with an emphasis on passive safety features. The reactor passive core cooling systems include the core makeup tanks system, passive residual heat removal heat exchanger and in-containment refuelling water storage tank. In Russia has been developed the so-called NPP-2006 project of a VVER-1200 nuclear power plant with a V-392M reactor unit. To provide the safety, protection passive systems which do not depend upon human errors are widely used in this project. Among these are hydro-tanks of the second stage and passive heat removal system. In the presented paper an overview of passive core cooling systems for next generation NPPs is given. (authors)

  9. Passive Core Cooling Systems for Next Generation NPPs: Characteristics and State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Andrey; Soshkina, Alexandra [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering by A.I. Leypunsky, 1 Bondarenko sq. Obninsk, 249033 (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Among nuclear power generation plants, light water reactors are mainly used at present, and are anticipated to be predominant in the future. To improve the light water reactors the development of the LWRs for the next generation is carried out at various organizations. For example, in the USA the Westinghouse AP-1000 is based on proven technology but with an emphasis on passive safety features. The reactor passive core cooling systems include the core makeup tanks system, passive residual heat removal heat exchanger and in-containment refuelling water storage tank. In Russia has been developed the so-called NPP-2006 project of a VVER-1200 nuclear power plant with a V-392M reactor unit. To provide the safety, protection passive systems which do not depend upon human errors are widely used in this project. Among these are hydro-tanks of the second stage and passive heat removal system. In the presented paper an overview of passive core cooling systems for next generation NPPs is given. (authors)

  10. Cooling system with compressor bleed and ambient air for gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Marra, John J.

    2017-11-21

    A cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine blade cooling fluid supply and from an ambient air source to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The cooling system may include a compressor bleed conduit extending from a compressor to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply that provides cooling fluid to at least one turbine blade. The compressor bleed conduit may include an upstream section and a downstream section whereby the upstream section exhausts compressed bleed air through an outlet into the downstream section through which ambient air passes. The outlet of the upstream section may be generally aligned with a flow of ambient air flowing in the downstream section. As such, the compressed air increases the flow of ambient air to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply.

  11. Efficient Journaling for the Spider Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL; Miller, Ross G [ORNL; Drokin, Oleg [ORNL

    2003-01-01

    Journaling is a widely used technique to increase file system robustness against meta data and/or data corruptions. While the overhead of journaling can be negligible for small-scale file systems, we found that two aspects of local back-end file system journaling significantly lower the overall performance of a large-scale parallel file system such as Lustre: extra head seeks and serialization of incoming client requests. Journal transactions reside on a separate area of the disk that the file data, and each commit of the journal requires a head seek. Incoming client requests become serialized and take a latency hit by waiting for a commit to occur before the reply is sent. In this paper we present two different approaches to increase the local back-end file system journaling efficiency, thus increasing the overall aggregate parallel file system efficiency. First, we present a hardware-based solution where a solid-state device is used as an external journaling device to minimize the disk head seek. Second, we introduce a software-based optimization to allow asynchronously commit multiple journal transactions on the local back-end file system to minimize the penalty of serialization. Both our solutions are experimentally tested on Oak Ridge National Laboratory's large-scale Spider storage system and our tests show that both methods nearly double the overall parallel write performance.

  12. Shock and vibration protection of submerged jet impingement cooling systems: Theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji Hosseinloo, Ashkan; Tan, Siow Pin; Yap, Fook Fah; Toh, Kok Chuan

    2014-01-01

    In the recent years, advances in high power density electronics and computing systems have pushed towards more advanced thermal management technologies and higher-capacity cooling systems. Among different types of cooling systems, jet impingement technology has gained attention and been widely used in different industries for its adaptability, cooling uniformity, large heat capacity, and ease of its localization. However, these cooling systems may not function properly in dynamically harsh environment inherent in many applications such as land, sea and air transportation. In this research article, a novel double-chamber jet impingement cooling system is fabricated and its performance is studied in harsh environment. Using the authors' previous studies, isolators with optimum properties are selected to ruggedize the chassis containing the cooling chamber against shock and random vibration. Experiments are conducted on both hard-mounted and isolated chassis and the cooling performance of the system is assessed using the inlet, and impingement surface temperatures of the cooling chamber. The experimental results show the isolation system prevents any failure that otherwise would occur, and also does not compromise the thermal performance of the system. - Highlights: • A novel double-chamber jet impingement cooling system was designed and fabricated. • Comprehensive set of random vibration and shock tests are conducted. • The isolation system proved to protect the cooling system properly against mechanical failure. • Cooling system performance was not significantly affected by the input random vibration and shock

  13. Development of Gas Turbine Output Enhancement System Using Thermal Ice Storage (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byun Youn; Joo, Yong Jin; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Jae Bong; Kang, Myung Soo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Soon [Korea Electric Power Corp. (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this study is to develop a system which enhances gas turbine output using ice storage in summer peak days for power supply stability in domestic power system. This study represents conceptual design, system optimization, basic design and economic analysis of system. General equations which represents capacity of chiller and storage tank were drive. Pyungtaek power plant was selected as one suitable for system application due to its space availability. The system was optimized on the basis of economic analysis and power supply situation by determination of optimal inlet cooling hour. TRNSYS simulation program was used for optimal operating factor of ice harvester under partial load operating conditions. Basic design includes capacity calculation of component, cost survey, system flow diagram, plot plan, and system guide. The system has been evaluated on the basis of economic analysis which calculates NPV, payback period and levelized generation cost. (author). 34 refs., figs., tabs.

  14. The efficiency of fan-pad cooling system in greenhouse and building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A greenhouse production without the cooling systems can be sustained at the desirable level by imposing summer restrictions in the areas with warm climate, and by starting cooling in the areas with cold climate. A statement can be made regarding both utility and efficiency of fan-pad cooling systems that they tend to go up ...

  15. A Simplified Laser and Optics System for Laser-Cooled RB Fountain Frequency Standards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kunz, P. D; Heavner, T. P; Jefferts, S. R

    2007-01-01

    ...) atomic fountain frequency standard. This system uses DFB (Distributed Feedback) diode lasers and a frequency offset-locking scheme to generate the optical frequencies needed for laser-cooling, launching, post-cooling, and detection of Rb atoms...

  16. Thermal design of lithium bromide-water solution vapor absorption cooling system for indirect evaporative cooling for IT pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Digvijay Ramkrishna

    Nowadays with increase use of internet, mobile there is increase in heat which ultimately increases the efficient cooling system of server room or IT POD. Use of traditional ways of cooling system has ultimately increased CO2 emission and depletion of CFC's are serious environmental issues which led scientific people to improve cooling techniques and eliminate use of CFC's. To reduce dependency on fossil fuels and 4environmental friendly system needed to be design. For being utilizing low grade energy source such as solar collector and reducing dependency on fossil fuel vapour absorption cooling system has shown a great driving force in today's refrigeration systems. This LiBr-water aabsorption cooling consists of five heat exchanger namely: Evaporator, Absorber, Solution Heat Exchanger, Generator, Condenser. The thermal design was done for a load of 23 kW and the procedure was described in the thesis. There are 120 servers in the IT POD emitting 196 W of heat each on full load and some of the heat was generated by the computer placed inside the IT POD. A detailed procedure has been discussed. A excel spreadsheet was to prepared with varying tube sizes to see the effect on flows and ultimately overall heat transfer coefficient.

  17. Performance of a compact solar absorption cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyanef; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of a compact solar absorption system. Purpose of compact solar is collector, generator and condenser in one unit. At present, two types of absorption cooling systems are marketed: the lithium bromide-water system and the ammonia-water system. In the lithium bromide-water system, water vapor is the refrigerant and ammonia water system where ammonia is the refrigerant. In addition, the ammonia-water system requires higher generator temperature 120 o C to 150 o C than a flat-plate solar collector can provide without special techniques. The lithium bromide-water system operates satisfactorily at a generator temperature of 75 o C to 100 o C, achievable by a flat-plate collector. The lithium bromide-water system also has a higher COP than the ammonia-water system. The disadvantage of the lithium bromide-water systems is that the evaporators cannot operate at temperature below 0 o C since the refrigerant is water. The Coefficient of Performance (COP) system is 0.62 and the concentration of LiBr-H 2 O is 50%

  18. MADOCA II data acquisition and storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Akihiro; Kano, Masahiro; Sakai, Hisanobu

    2013-01-01

    In SPring-8, we are constructing MADOCA II, next generation accelerator control framework. It will be installed in the spring of 2014. We describe the part of the data acquisition and the storage system of MADOCA II. MADOCA was built on the bases of ONC-RPC for communication between processes and a relational database for data management. We designed the new framework with the long experience on MADOCA. We employ Zeromq messages packed by Messagepack for communication. NoSQL databases, Redis and Apache Cassandra, store log data. We obtained a high performance, highly reliable, well scalable and flexible data management system. In this paper, we will discuss requirements, design, implementation and the result of the long run test. (author)

  19. Advanced Cooled Shield - Integrated MLI: Passive or Active Cooled System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cryogenic propellants are important to NASA's missions. Improvements in cryogenic propellant storage and transfer are critical to future long duration NASA...

  20. Lightweight Cooling Component Development (LCCD) Program. Polymeric LVS Cooling System Design Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to discuss the design of the new polymeric cooling components and comment on the expected performance and durability of these units over the field trial and in-service use...

  1. Cooled electronic system with liquid-cooled cold plate and thermal spreader coupled to electronic component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2018-03-27

    Apparatus and method are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The apparatus includes a liquid-cooled cold plate and a thermal spreader associated with the cold plate. The cold plate includes multiple coolant-carrying channel sections extending within the cold plate, and a thermal conduction surface with a larger surface area than a surface area of the component to be cooled. The thermal spreader includes one or more heat pipes including multiple heat pipe sections. One or more heat pipe sections are partially aligned to a first region of the cold plate, that is, where aligned to the surface to be cooled, and partially aligned to a second region of the cold plate, which is outside the first region. The one or more heat pipes facilitate distribution of heat from the electronic component to coolant-carrying channel sections of the cold plate located in the second region of the cold plate.

  2. Fabricating cooled electronic system with liquid-cooled cold plate and thermal spreader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2018-03-27

    Methods are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The method includes providing a liquid-cooled cold plate and a thermal spreader associated with the cold plate. The cold plate includes multiple coolant-carrying channel sections extending within the cold plate, and a thermal conduction surface with a larger surface area than a surface area of the component to be cooled. The thermal spreader includes one or more heat pipes including multiple heat pipe sections. One or more heat pipe sections are partially aligned to a first region of the cold plate, that is, where aligned to the surface to be cooled, and partially aligned to a second region of the cold plate, which is outside the first region. The one or more heat pipes facilitate distribution of heat from the electronic component to coolant-carrying channel sections of the cold plate located in the second region of the cold plate.

  3. Fabricating cooled electronic system with liquid-cooled cold plate and thermal spreader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2018-04-03

    Methods are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The methods include providing a liquid-cooled cold plate and a thermal spreader associated with the cold plate. The cold plate includes multiple coolant-carrying channel sections extending within the cold plate, and a thermal conduction surface with a larger surface area than a surface area of the component to be cooled. The thermal spreader includes one or more heat pipes including multiple heat pipe sections. One or more heat pipe sections are partially aligned to a first region of the cold plate, that is, where aligned to the surface to be cooled, and partially aligned to a second region of the cold plate, which is outside the first region. The one or more heat pipes facilitate distribution of heat from the electronic component to coolant-carrying channel sections of the cold plate located in the second region of the cold plate.

  4. Storage Integration in Energy Systems: A New Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure-Schuyer, Aurelie

    2016-06-01

    Energy storage is partly an 'old story' and a new one. Energy storage is an essential stabilizing factor in existing electrical systems. Looking forward, energy storage is being considered as a key element of the transformation of energy systems, given the higher shares of renewable generation integrating the systems and demand-side management offered to end-customers. Today, the cost of electricity produced from battery storage is approaching parity with electricity bought from the grid. For this trend to gain strength and energy storage to be part of new business models, energy policies and regulatory frameworks need to be adapted. (author)

  5. Operation method and operation control device for emergency core cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Tadashi [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mizutani, Akira

    1996-05-07

    The present invention provides a method of reducing continuous load capacity of an emergency cooling system of a BWR type reactor and a device reducing a rated capacity of an emergency power source facility. Namely, the emergency core cooling system comprises a first cooling system having a plurality of power source systems based on a plurality of emergency power sources and a second cooling system having a remaining heat removing function. In this case, when the first cooling system is operated the manual starting under a predetermined condition that an external power source loss event should occur, a power source division different from the first cooling system shares the operation to operate the secondary cooling system simultaneously. Further, the first cooling system is constituted as a high pressure reactor core water injection system and the second cooling system is constituted as a remaining heat removing system. With such a constitution, a high pressure reactor core water injection system for manual starting and a remaining heat removing system of different power source division can be operated simultaneously before automatic operation of the emergency core cooling system upon loss of external power source of a nuclear power plant. (I.S.)

  6. Initial operation of a solar heating and cooling system in a full-scale solar building test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, R. H.; Miao, D.; Hamlet, I. L.; Jensen, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Solar Building Test Facility (SBTF) located at Hampton, Virginia became operational in early summer of 1976. This facility is a joint effort by NASA-Lewis and NASA-Langley to advance the technology for heating and cooling of office buildings with solar energy. Its purposes are to (1) test system components which include high-performing collectors, (2) test performance of complete solar heating and cooling system, (3) investigate component interactions and (4) investigate durability, maintenance and reliability of components. The SBTF consists of a 50,000 square foot office building modified to accept solar heated water for operation of an absorption air conditioner and for the baseboard heating system. A 12,666 square foot solar collector field with a 30,000 gallon storage tank provides the solar heated water. A description of the system and the collectors selected is given here, along with the objectives, test approach, expected system performance and some preliminary results.

  7. Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-10-15

    This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

  8. Solar heating and cooling system for an office building at Reedy Creek Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    This final report describes in detail the solar energy system installed in a new two-story office building at the Reedy Creek Utilities Company, which provides utility service to Walt Disney World at Lake Buena Vista, Florida. The solar components were partly funded by the Department of Energy under Contract EX-76-C-01-2401, and the technical management was by NASA/George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. The solar energy system application is 100 percent heating, 80 percent cooling, and 100 percent hot water. The collector is a modular cylindrical concentrator type with an area of 3.840 square feet. The storage medium is water with a capacity of 10,000 gallons hot and 10,000 gallons chilled. Design, construction, operation, cost, maintenance, and performance are described in depth. Detailed drawings are included.

  9. The optimal operation of cooling tower systems with variable-frequency control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yong; Huang, Liqing; Cui, Zhiguo; Liu, Jing

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the energy performance of chiller and cooling tower systems integrated with variable-frequency control for cooling tower fans and condenser water pumps. With regard to an example chiller system serving an office building, Chiller and cooling towers models were developed to assess how different variable-frequency control methods of cooling towers fans and condenser water pumps influence the trade-off between the chiller power, pump power and fan power under various operating conditions. The matching relationship between the cooling tower fans frequency and condenser water pumps frequency at optimal energy consumption of the system is introduced to achieve optimum system performance.

  10. The long term storage of advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standring, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    The approach being taken by BNFL in managing the AGR lifetime spent fuel arisings from British Energy reactors is given. Interim storage for up to 80 years is envisaged for fuel delivered beyond the life of the Thorp reprocessing plant. Adopting a policy of using existing facilities, to comply with the principles of waste minimisation, has defined the development requirements to demonstrate that this approach can be undertaken safely and business issues can be addressed. The major safety issues are the long term integrity of both the fuel being stored and structure it is being stored in. Business related issues reflect long term interactions with the rest of the Sellafield site and storage optimisation. Examples of the development programme in each of these areas is given. (author)

  11. Comment on "Rapid cooling and cold storage in a silicic magma reservoir recorded in individual crystals".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Colin J N; Morgan, Daniel J; Charlier, Bruce L A; Barker, Simon J

    2017-12-22

    Rubin et al (Reports, 16 June 2017, p. 1154) proposed that gradients in lithium abundance in zircons from a rhyolitic eruption in New Zealand reflected short-lived residence at magmatic temperatures interleaved with long-term "cold" (<650°C) storage. Important issues arise with the interpretation of these lithium gradients and consequent crystal thermal histories that raise concerns about the validity of this conclusion. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. A hybrid optimization model of biomass trigeneration system combined with pit thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominković, D.F.; Ćosić, B.; Bačelić Medić, Z.; Duić, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid optimization model of biomass trigeneration system with PTES is developed. • Influence of premium feed-in tariffs on trigeneration systems is assessed. • Influence of total system efficiency on biomass trigeneration system with PTES is assessed. • Influence of energy savings on project economy is assessed. - Abstract: This paper provides a solution for managing excess heat production in trigeneration and thus, increases the power plant yearly efficiency. An optimization model for combining biomass trigeneration energy system and pit thermal energy storage has been developed. Furthermore, double piping district heating and cooling network in the residential area without industry consumers was assumed, thus allowing simultaneous flow of the heating and cooling energy. As a consequence, the model is easy to adopt in different regions. Degree-hour method was used for calculation of hourly heating and cooling energy demand. The system covers all the yearly heating and cooling energy needs, while it is assumed that all the electricity can be transferred to the grid due to its renewable origin. The system was modeled in Matlab© on hourly basis and hybrid optimization model was used to maximize the net present value (NPV), which was the objective function of the optimization. Economic figures become favorable if the economy-of-scale of both power plant and pit thermal energy storage can be utilized. The results show that the pit thermal energy storage was an excellent option for storing energy and shaving peaks in energy demand. Finally, possible switch from feed-in tariffs to feed-in premiums was assessed and possible subsidy savings have been calculated. The savings are potentially large and can be used for supporting other renewable energy projects

  13. Detecting and mitigating aging in component cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The time-dependent effects of aging on component cooling water (CCW) systems in nuclear power plants has been studied and documented as part of a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It was found that age related degradation leads to failures in the CCW system which can result in an increase in system unavailability, if not properly detected and mitigated. To identify effective methods of managing this degradation, information on inspection, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently available was obtained from various operating plants and reviewed. The findings were correlated with the most common aging mechanisms and failure modes and a compilation of aging detection and mitigation practices was formulated. This paper discusses the results of this work

  14. Detecting and mitigating aging in component cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.J.; Aggarwal, S.

    1992-01-01

    The time-dependent effects of aging on component cooling water (CCW) systems in nuclear power plants has been studied and documented as part of a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It was found that age related degradation leads to failures in the CCW system which can result in an increase in system unavailability, if not properly detected and mitigated. To identify effective methods of managing this degradation, information on inspection, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently available was obtained from various operating plants and reviewed. The findings were correlated with the most common aging mechanisms and failure modes, and a compilation of aging detection and mitigation practices was formulated. This paper discusses the results of this work

  15. Reliability and Maintainability Data for Liquid Metal Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-05-01

    One of the coolants of interest for future fusion breeding blankets is lead-lithium. As a liquid metal it offers the advantages of high temperature operation for good station efficiency, low pressure, and moderate flow rate. This coolant is also under examination for use in test blanket modules to be used in the ITER international project. To perform reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI) assessment as well as probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of lead-lithium cooling systems, component failure rate data are needed to quantify the system models. RAMI assessment also requires repair time data and inspection time data. This paper presents a new survey of the data sets that are available at present to support RAMI and PSA quantification. Recommendations are given for the best data values to use when quantifying system models.

  16. Experimental and numerical investigation of a scalable modular geothermal heat storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbeck, Johannes; Bauer, Sebastian; Beyer, Christof

    2017-04-01

    Storage of heat will play a significant role in the transition towards a reliable and renewable power supply, as it offers a way to store energy from fluctuating and weather dependent energy sources like solar or wind power and thus better meet consumer demands. The focus of this study is the simulation-based design of a heat storage system, featuring a scalable and modular setup that can be integrated with new as well as existing buildings. For this, the system can be either installed in a cellar or directly in the ground. Heat supply is by solar collectors, and heat storage is intended at temperatures up to about 90°C, which requires a verification of the methods used for numerical simulation of such systems. One module of the heat storage system consists of a helical heat exchanger in a fully water saturated, high porosity cement matrix, which represents the heat storage medium. A lab-scale storage prototype of 1 m3 volume was set up in a thermally insulated cylinder equipped with temperature and moisture sensors as well as flux meters and temperature sensors at the inlet and outlet pipes in order to experimentally analyze the performance of the storage system. Furthermore, the experimental data was used to validate an accurate and spatially detailed high-resolution 3D numerical model of heat and fluid flow, which was developed for system design optimization with respect to storage efficiency and environmental impacts. Three experiments conducted so far are reported and analyzed in this work. The first experiment, consisting of cooling of the fully loaded heat storage by heat loss across the insulation, is designed to determine the heat loss and the insulation parameters, i.e. heat conductivity and heat capacity of the insulation, via inverse modelling of the cooling period. The average cooling rate experimentally found is 1.2 °C per day. The second experiment consisted of six days of thermal loading up to a storage temperature of 60°C followed by four days

  17. The Importance of Cooling Technology in Propulsion and Power Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Auxier, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Turbine cooling is the breakthrough technology for gas turbine engines and although the turbine engine and cooling are considered mature technologies, to date they have only achieved about 60 to 70...

  18. Joint Optimal Design and Operation of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Ghiassi-Farrokhfal (Yashar); C. Rosenberg; S. Keshav (Srinivasam); M.-B. Adjaho (Marie-Benedicte)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe wide range of performance characteristics of storage technologies motivates the use of a hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) that combines the best features of multiple technologies. However, HESS design is complex, in that it involves the choice of storage technologies, the

  19. Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    the present status of battery energy storage technology and methods of assessing their economic viability and impact on power system operation. Further, a discussion on the role of battery storage systems of electric hybrid vehicles in power system storage technologies had been made. Finally, the paper...... suggests a likely future outlook for the battery technologies and the electric hybrid vehicles in the context of power system applications....

  20. Polymeric Materials For Scale Inhibition In Cooling Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najwa S.Majeed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate deposition is generally predominant in cooling water-circulating system. For the control of calcium carbonate scale formation two types of polymeric scale inhibitors were used Polyamino polyether methylene phosphonate  (PAPEMPand polyacrylaminde(PAA.Model of cooling tower system have been built up in laboratory scale. Experiments were carried out using different inhibitor concentrations(0.5,1,1.5,2,3ppm ,at water temperature of  40oC and flow rate of 150 l/hr. It was found that Polyamino polyether methylene phosphonate    more effective than polyacryle amide'  as scale inhibitor in all used concentrations and the best inhibition efficiency (95% was at (2.5ppm of Polyamino polyether methylene phosphonate  and (85% with poly acryle amide at concentrations of (3 ppm. The performance of the polymeric scale inhibitors was compared with a method used to control heavy calcium carbonate scale forming by the deposition of sufficiently thin protective calcium carbonate scale using sulfuric acid and depending on Ryznar stability index controlling method. 

  1. The Design of Distributed Micro Grid Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ya-feng; Wang, Yan-ping

    2018-03-01

    Distributed micro-grid runs in island mode, the energy storage system is the core to maintain the micro-grid stable operation. For the problems that it is poor to adjust at work and easy to cause the volatility of micro-grid caused by the existing energy storage structure of fixed connection. In this paper, an array type energy storage structure is proposed, and the array type energy storage system structure and working principle are analyzed. Finally, the array type energy storage structure model is established based on MATLAB, the simulation results show that the array type energy storage system has great flexibility, which can maximize the utilization of energy storage system, guarantee the reliable operation of distributed micro-grid and achieve the function of peak clipping and valley filling.

  2. Cooling Curve Analysis of Micro- and Nanographite Particle-Embedded Salt-PCMs for Thermal Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheer, R.; Prabhu, K. N.

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, the focus of phase change materials (PCM) research was on the development of salt mixtures with particle additives to improve their thermal energy storage (TES) functionalities. The effect of addition of microsized (50 μm) and nanosized (400 nm) graphite particles on TES parameters of potassium nitrate was analyzed in this work. A novel technique of computer-aided cooling curve analysis was employed here to study the suitability of large inhomogeneous PCM samples. The addition of graphite micro- and nanoparticles reduced the solidification time of the PCM significantly enhancing the heat removal rates, in the first thermal cycle. The benefits of dispersing nanoparticles diminished in successive 10 thermal cycles, and its performance was comparable to the microparticle-embedded PCM thereafter. The decay of TES functionalities on thermal cycling is attributed to the agglomeration of nanoparticles which was observed in SEM images. The thermal diffusivity property of the PCM decreased with addition of graphite particles. With no considerable change in the cooling rates and a simultaneous decrease in thermal diffusivity, it is concluded that the addition of graphite particles increased the specific heat capacity of the PCM. It is also suggested that the additive concentration should not be greater than 0.1% by weight of the PCM sample.

  3. Development of CCD Imaging System Using Thermoelectric Cooling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsik Park

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed low light CCD imaging system using thermoelectric cooling method collaboration with a company to design a commercial model. It consists of Kodak KAF-0401E (768x512 pixels CCD chip,thermoelectric module manufactured by Thermotek. This TEC system can reach an operative temperature of -25deg. We employed an Uniblitz VS25S shutter and it has capability a minimum exposure time 80ms. The system components are an interface card using a Korea Astronomy Observatory (hereafter KAO ISA bus controller, image acquisition with AD9816 chip, that is 12bit video processor. The performance test with this imaging system showed good operation within the initial specification of our design. It shows a dark current less than 0.4e-/pixel/sec at a temperature of -10deg, a linearity 99.9+/-0.1%, gain 4.24e-adu, and system noise is 25.3e- (rms. For low temperature CCD operation, we designed a TEC, which uses a one-stage peltier module and forced air heat exchanger. This TEC imaging system enables accurate photometry (+/-0.01mag even though the CCD is not at 'conventional' cryogenic temperatures (140K. The system can be a useful instrument for any other imaging applications. Finally, with this system, we obtained several images of astronomical objects for system performance tests.

  4. An extremely high stability cooling system for planet hunter

    Science.gov (United States)

    l’Allemand, J. L. Lizon a.; Becerril, S.; Mirabet, E.

    2017-12-01

    The detection of exoplanets is done by measuring very tiny periodical variations of the radial velocity of the parent star. Extremely stable spectrographs are required in order to enhance the wavelength variations of the spectral lines due to Doppler effect. CARMENES is the new high-resolution, high-stability spectrograph built for the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA, Almería, Spain) by a consortium formed by German and Spanish institutions. This instrument is composed of two separated spectrographs: VIS channel (550-1050 nm) and NIR channel (950-1700 nm). The NIR-channel spectrograph’s has been built under the responsibility of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC). It has been manufactured, assembled, integrated and verified in the last two years, delivered in fall 2015 and commissioned in December 2015. Beside the various opto-mechanical challenges, the cooling system was one of the most demanding sub-systems of the NIR channel. Due to the highly demanding requirements applicable in terms of stability, this system arises as one of the core systems to provide outstanding stability to the channel at an operating temperature finally fixed at 140 K. Really at the edge of the state-of-the-art, the Cooling System is able to provide to the cold mass (∼1 Ton) better thermal stability than few hundredths of a degree over 24 hours (goal: 0.01K/day). The present paper describes the main technical approach, which has been taken in order to reach this very ambitious performance.

  5. Pulsed rf systems for large storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1979-03-01

    The possibility is considered that by using a pulsed rf system a substantial reduction can be made in the rf power requirement for the next generation of large storage rings. For a ring with a sufficiently large circumference, the time between bunch passages, T/sub b/, can exceed the cavity filling time, T/sub f/. As the ratio T/sub b//T/sub f/ increases, it is clear that at some point the average power requirement can be reduced by pulsing the rf to the cavities. In this mode of operation, the rf power is turned on a filling time or so before the arrival of a bunch and is switched off again at the time of bunch passage. There is no rf energy in the accelerating structure, and hence no power dissipation, for most of the period between bunches

  6. Electrochemical energy storage systems for solar thermal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauthamer, S.; Frank, H.

    1980-01-01

    Existing and advanced electrochemical storage and inversion/conversion systems that may be used with terrestrial solar-thermal power systems are evaluated. The status, cost and performance of existing storage systems are assessed, and the cost, performance, and availability of advanced systems are projected. A prime consideration is the cost of delivered energy from plants utilizing electrochemical storage. Results indicate that the five most attractive electrochemical storage systems are the: iron-chromium redox (NASA LeRC), zinc-bromine (Exxon), sodium-sulfur (Ford), sodium-sulfur (Dow), and zinc-chlorine (EDA).

  7. Energy Storage System Scheduling in Wind-Diesel Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael

    This thesis proposes a knowledge based expert system tool that can be used as an online controller for the charging/discharging of an energy storage system in a wind-diesel microgrid. The wind-diesel microgrid is modelled, and a typical energy storage system is implemented to test the functionality of the controller using hourly-discrete power values. The results are compared against an offline optimization that was provided 24-hour lookahead wind values, as well as a controller that was implemented using artificial neural networks. The knowledge based expert system is then used to analyze the cost of energy, by means of a parametric analysis, consisting of varying the wind penetration, energy storage system power rating and energy rating to determine for which wind penetration values a storage system implementation would be technically and economically viable. Different storage technologies are tested in a one-year time frame to determine which would be best suited for this particular application. The energy storage systems are implemented as single-layer and dual-layer, in which the knowledge based expert system is modified for the latter analysis, in order to determine whether or not there are advantages to having a dual-layer storage system. Throughout these analyses, the flexibility of the knowledge based expert system controller to various energy storage systems and microgrid models is verified. It also demonstrates that, in a context of high base generation costs, energy storage can be a viable solution to managing wind power variations.

  8. A variable water flow strategy for energy savings in large cooling systems / Gideon Edgar du Plessis

    OpenAIRE

    Du Plessis, Gideon Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Large cooling systems consume up to 25% of the total electricity used on deep level mines. These systems are integrated with the water reticulation system to provide chilled service water and cool ventilation air. Improving the energy efficiency of these large cooling systems is an important electrical demand-side management initiative. However, it is critical that the service delivery and system performance be maintained so as to not adversely affect productivity. A novel dema...

  9. Alternative to the Conventional Heating and Cooling Systems in Public Buildings:

    OpenAIRE

    Dovjak, Mateja; Košir, Mitja; Krainer, Aleš; Kristl, Živa; Perdan, Rudi

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents an alternative system for heating and cooling in public buildings. The system was designed for the retrofitted building of the Slovene Ethnographic Museum (SEM) where it was also extensively tested. The installed system includes radiant wall mounted panels for heating and cooling, localized automated tangential fans for cooling and ventilation and a centralized building management system for the regulation and supervision of the performance. The efficiency of the system was...

  10. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  11. The SNS Resonance Control Cooling System Control Valve Upgrade Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Derrick C.; Schubert, James Phillip; Tang, Johnny Y.

    2008-01-01

    The normal-conducting linac of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) uses 10 separate Resonance Control Cooling System (RCCS) water skids to control the resonance of 6 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and 4 Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) accelerating structures. The RCCS water skids use 2 control valves; one to regulate the chilled water flow and the other to bypass water to a chilled water heat exchanger. These valves have hydraulic actuators that provide position and feedback to the control system. Frequency oscillations occur using these hydraulic actuators due to their coarse movement and control of the valves. New pneumatic actuator and control positioners have been installed on the DTL3 RCCS water skid to give finer control and regulation of DTL3 cavity temperature. This paper shows a comparison of resonance control performance for the two valve configurations.

  12. Cooling System for the Merit High-Power Target Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, F; Silva, P; Pezzeti, M; Pavlov, O; Pirotte, O; Metselaar, J; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fabich, A; Lettry, J; Kirk, H G; McDonald, K T; Titus, P; Bennett, J R J

    2010-01-01

    MERIT is a proof-of-principle experiment of a target station suitable as source for future muon colliders or neutrino factories. When installed at the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) PS (Proton Synchrotron)complex fast-extracted high-intensity proton beams intercepted a free mercury jet inside a normal-conducting, pulsed 15-T capture solenoid magnet cooled with liquid nitrogen. Up to 25 MJ of Joule heat was dissipated in the magnet during a pulse. The fully automated, remotely controlled cryogenic system of novel design permitted the transfer of nitrogen by the sole means of differential pressures inside the vessels. This fast cycling system permitted several hundred tests in less than three weeks during the 2007 data taking campaign.

  13. Cooling System for the Merit High-Power Target Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, F.; Pereira, H.; Silva, P.; Pezzetti, M.; Pavlov, O.; Pirotte, O.; Metselaar, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Lettry, J.; Kirk, H. G.; McDonald, K. T.; Titus, P.; Bennett, J. R. J.

    2010-04-01

    MERIT is a proof-of-principle experiment of a target station suitable as source for future muon colliders or neutrino factories. When installed at the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) PS (Proton Synchrotron) complex fast-extracted high-intensity proton beams intercepted a free mercury jet inside a normal-conducting, pulsed 15-T capture solenoid magnet cooled with liquid nitrogen. Up to 25 MJ of Joule heat was dissipated in the magnet during a pulse. The fully automated, remotely controlled cryogenic system of novel design permitted the transfer of nitrogen by the sole means of differential pressures inside the vessels. This fast cycling system permitted several hundred tests in less than three weeks during the 2007 data taking campaign.

  14. Thermoelectric generator cooling system and method of control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Gregory P; Meisner, Gregory P; Glassford, Daniel B

    2012-10-16

    An apparatus is provided that includes a thermoelectric generator and an exhaust gas system operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to heat a portion of the thermoelectric generator with exhaust gas flow through the thermoelectric generator. A coolant system is operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to cool another portion of the thermoelectric generator with coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator. At least one valve is controllable to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in a direction that opposes a direction of the exhaust gas flow under a first set of operating conditions and to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in the direction of exhaust gas flow under a second set of operating conditions.

  15. Development of failure detection system for gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feirreira, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    This work presents several kinds of Failure Detection Systems for Fuel Elements, stressing their functional principles and major applications. A comparative study indicates that the method of electrostatic precipitation of the fission gases Kr and Xe is the most efficient for fuel failure detection in gas-cooled reactors. A detailed study of the physical phenomena involved in electrostatic precipitation led to the derivation of an equation for the measured counting rate. The emission of fission products from the fuel and the ion recombination inside the chamber are evaluated. A computer program, developed to simulate the complete operation of the system, relates the counting rate to the concentration of Kr and Xe isotopes. The project of a mock-up is then presented. Finally, the program calculations are compared to experimental data, available from the literature, yielding a close agreement. (author)

  16. A Study of Storage Ring Requirements for an Explosive Detection System Using NRA Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T. F. (Tai-Sen F.); Kwan, T. J. T. (Thomas J. T.)

    2005-01-01

    The technical feasibility of an explosives detection system based on the nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma rays in nitrogen-rich materials was demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1993 by using an RFQ proton accelerator and a tomographic imaging prototype. The study is being continued recently to examine deployment of such an active interrogation system in realistic scenarios. The approach is to use an accelerator and electron-cooling-equipped storage rings(s) to provide the high quality and high current proton beam needed in a practical application. In this work, we investigate the requirements on the storage ring(s) with external gamma-ray-production target for a variant of the airport luggage inspection system considered in the earlier LANL experiments. Estimations are carried out based on the required inspection throughput, the gamma ray yield, the proton beam emittance growth due to scatters with the photon-production target, beam current limit in the storage ring, and the electron-cooling rate. Studies using scaling and reasonable parameter values indicate that it is possible to use no more than a few storage rings per inspection station in a practical NRA luggage inspection complex having more than ten inspection stations.

  17. Investigation of a working fluid for cryogenic energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszak, P.; Poliński, J.; Chorowski, M.

    2017-12-01

    Cryogenic energy storage (CES) systems are promising alternatives to existing electrical energy storage technologies such as a pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS) or compressed air energy storage (CAES). In CES systems, excess electrical energy is used to liquefy a cryogenic fluid. The liquid can be stored in large cryogenic tanks for a long time. When a demand for the electricity is high, the liquid cryogen is pumped to high pressure and then warmed in a heat exchanger using ambient temperature or an available waste heat source. The vaporized cryogen is then used to drive a turbine and generate the electricity. Most research on cryogenic energy storage focuses on liquid air energy storage, as atmospheric air is widely available and therefore it does not limit a location of the energy storage plant. Nevertheless, CES with other gases as the working fluids can exhibit a higher efficiency. In this research a performance analysis of simple CES systems with several working fluids was performed.

  18. Increasing the Efficiency of a Thermoelectric Generator Using an Evaporative Cooling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyasri, M.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Therdyothin, A.; Soponronnarit, S.

    2017-05-01

    A system for reducing heat from the cold side of a thermoelectric (TE) power generator, based on the principle of evaporative cooling, is presented. An evaporative cooling system could increase the conversion efficiency of a TE generator. To this end, two sets of TE generators were constructed. Both TE generators were composed of five TE power modules. The cold and hot sides of the TE modules were fixed to rectangular fin heat sinks. The hot side heat sinks were inserted in a hot gas duct. The cold side of one set was cooled by the cooling air from a counter flow evaporative cooling system, whereas the other set was cooled by the parallel flow evaporative cooling system. The counter flow pattern had better performance than the parallel flow pattern. A comparison between the TE generator with and without an evaporative cooling system was made. Experimental results show that the power output increased by using the evaporative cooling system. This can significantly increase the TE conversion efficiency. The evaporative cooling system increased the power output of the TE generator from 22.9 W of ambient air flowing through the heat sinks to 28.6 W at the hot gas temperature of 350°C (an increase of about 24.8%). The present study shows the promising potential of using TE generators with evaporative cooling for waste heat recovery.

  19. Analysis of the impact of storage conditions on the thermal recovery efficiency of low-temperature ATES systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemendal, Martin; Hartog, Niels

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is a technology with worldwide potential to provide sustainable space heating and cooling using groundwater stored at different temperatures. The thermal recovery efficiency is one of the main parameters that determines the overall energy savings of ATES systems

  20. ANALYSIS OF POSSIBILITIES OF EVAPORATIVE COOLING IN AUTONOMOUS AND COMBINED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available It is described possibility of the use of the evaporative cooling as in autonomous version of execution, so in combined systems, for example, as the component of desiccant–evaporative coolers, where preliminary dehumidification of the air assures high efficiency of subsequent evaporative cooling and the depth of the cooling.